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Sample records for energy proton colliding

  1. Comprehensive description of J/ψ production in proton-proton collisions at collider energies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ma, Yan -Qing; Venugopalan, Raju

    2014-11-04

    We employ a small x Color Glass Condensate + Non-Relativistic QCD (NRQCD) formalism to compute J/ψ production at low p⊥ in proton-proton collisions at collider energies. Very good agreement is obtained for total cross-sections, rapidity distributions and low momentum p⊥ distributions. Similar agreement is obtained for ψ' production. We observe an overlap region in p⊥ where our results match smoothly to those obtained in a next-to-leading order (NLO) collinearly factorized NRQCD formalism. The relative contribution of color singlet and color octet contributions can be quantified in the CGC+NRQCD framework, with the former contributing approximately 10% of the total cross-section.

  2. Comprehensive description of J/ψ production in proton-proton collisions at collider energies.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan-Qing; Venugopalan, Raju

    2014-11-01

    We employ a small x color glass condensate (CGC)+ nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) formalism to compute J/ψ production at low p(⊥) in proton-proton collisions at collider energies. Very good agreement is obtained for total cross sections, rapidity distributions, and low momentum p(⊥) distributions. Similar agreement is obtained for ψ' production. We observe an overlap region in p(⊥) where our results match smoothly to those obtained in a next-to-leading order collinearly factorized NRQCD formalism. The relative contribution of color singlet and color octet contributions can be quantified in the CGC+NRQCD framework, with the former contributing approximately 10% of the total cross section. PMID:25415899

  3. Possibilities of polarized protons in Sp anti p S and other high energy hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Courant, E.D.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements for collisions with polarized protons in hadron colliders above 200 GeV are listed and briefly discussed. Particular attention is given to the use of the ''Siberan snake'' to eliminate depolarizing resonances, which occur when the spin precession frequency equals a frequency contained in the spectrum of the field seen by the beam. The Siberian snake is a device which makes the spin precession frequency essentially constant by using spin rotators, which precess the spin by 180/sup 0/ about either the longitudinal or transverse horizontal axis. It is concluded that operation with polarized protons should be possible at all the high energy hadron colliders. (LEW)

  4. Ion Desorption Stability in Superconducting High Energy Physics Proton Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, W.C.

    1995-05-29

    In this paper we extend our previous analysis of cold beam tube vacuum in a superconducting proton collider to include ion desorption in addition to thermal desorption and synchrotron radiation induced photodesorption. The new ion desorption terms introduce the possibility of vacuum instability. This is similar to the classical room temperature case but now modified by the inclusion of ion desorption coefficients for cryosorbed (physisorbed) molecules which can greatly exceed the coefficients for tightly bound molecules. The sojourn time concept for physisorbed H{sub 2} is generalized to include photodesorption and ion desorption as well as the usually considered thermal desorption. The ion desorption rate is density dependent and divergent so at the onset of instability the sojourn time goes to zero. Experimental data are used to evaluate the H{sub 2} sojourn time for the conditions of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the situation is found to be stable. The sojourn time is dominated by photodesorption for surface density s(H{sub 2}) less than a monolayer and by thermal deposition for s(H{sub 2}) greater than a monolayer. For a few percent of a monolayer, characteristic of a beam screen, the photodesorption rate exceeds ion desorption rate by more than two orders of magnitude. The photodesorption rate corresponds to a sojourn time of approximately 100 sec. The paper next turns to the evaluation of stability margins and inclusion of gases heavier than H{sub 2} (CO, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}), where ion desorption introduces coupling between molecular species. Stability conditions are worked out for a simple cold beam tube, a cold beam tube pumped from the ends and a cold beam tube with a co-axial perforated beam screen. In each case a simple inequality for stability of a single component is replaced by a determinant that must be greater than zero for a gas mixture. The connection with the general theory of feedback stability is made and it is shown that the gains

  5. High energy proton-proton elastic scattering at the Large Hadron Collider and nucleon structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luddy, Richard Joseph

    To gain insight into the structure of the nucleon, we pursue the development of the phenomenological model of Islam et al. (IIFS model) for high energy elastic pp and p¯p scattering. We determine the energy dependence of the parameters of the IIFS model using the available elastic differential cross section data from SPS Collider and Tevatron and the known asymptotic behavior of sigmatot (s) and rho(s) from dispersion relation calculations and more recent analyses of Cudell et al. (COMPETE Collaboration). Next, we incorporate a high energy elastic valence quark-quark scattering amplitude into the model based on BFKL pomeron to describe small impact parameter (large | t|) pp collisions. Finally, we predict the pp elastic differential cross section at the unprecedented c.m. energy of s = 14.0 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This prediction assumes crucial significance---because of an approved experiment at LHC: TOTal and Elastic Measurement (TOTEM). The TOTEM group plans to measure pp elastic dsigma/dt at 14.0 TeV all the way from momentum transfer |t| = 0 to |t| ≃ 10 GeV 2. Their measurement will stringently test not only the diffraction and o-exchange descriptions of the original IIFS model, but also the additional valence quark-quark scattering contribution that we find to be dominant for large |t|. Successful quantitative verification of the predicted dsigma/dt will mean that our picture of the nucleon with an outer cloud of qq¯ condensed ground state, an inner core of topological baryonic charge, and a still smaller core of massless valence quarks provides a realistic description of nucleon structure.

  6. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, N. A.; Sancho, J. Blanco; Shutov, A.; Schmidt, R.; Piriz, A. R.

    2012-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding thermodynamic and the hydrodynamic response of the target that leads to a reduction in the density. The modified density distribution is used in FLUKA to calculate new energy loss distribution and the two codes are thus run iteratively. A suitable iteration step is considered to be the time interval during which the target density along the axis decreases by 15%-20%. Our simulations suggest that the full LHC proton beam penetrates up to 25 m in solid carbon whereas the range of the shower from a single proton in solid carbon is just about 3 m (hydrodynamic tunneling effect). It is planned to perform experiments at the experimental facility HiRadMat (High Radiation Materials) at CERN using the proton beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), to compare experimental results with the theoretical predictions. Therefore simulations of the response of a solid copper cylindrical target hit by the SPS beam were performed. The particle energy in the SPS beam is 440

  7. Proton-proton colliding beam facility ISABELLE

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H

    1980-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the status of the ISABELLE construction project, which has the objective of building a 400 + 400 GeV proton colliding beam facility. The major technical features of the superconducting accelerators with their projected performance are described. Progress made so far, difficulties encountered, and the program until completion in 1986 is briefly reviewed.

  8. Comprehensive description of J/ψ production in proton-proton collisions at collider energies

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Yan -Qing; Venugopalan, Raju

    2014-11-04

    We employ a small x Color Glass Condensate + Non-Relativistic QCD (NRQCD) formalism to compute J/ψ production at low p⊥ in proton-proton collisions at collider energies. Very good agreement is obtained for total cross-sections, rapidity distributions and low momentum p⊥ distributions. Similar agreement is obtained for ψ' production. We observe an overlap region in p⊥ where our results match smoothly to those obtained in a next-to-leading order (NLO) collinearly factorized NRQCD formalism. The relative contribution of color singlet and color octet contributions can be quantified in the CGC+NRQCD framework, with the former contributing approximately 10% of the total cross-section.

  9. PROTON BEAM REQUIREMENTS FOR A NEUTRINO FACTORY AND MUON COLLIDER

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2009-12-11

    Both a Neutrino Factory and a Muon Collider place stringent demands on the proton beam used to generate the desired beam of muons. Here we discuss the advantages and challenges of muon accelerators and the rationale behind the requirements on proton beam energy, intensity, bunch length, and repetition rate. Example proton driver configurations that have been considered in recent years are also briefly indicated.

  10. High Energy Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, R. B.; Gallardo, J. C.

    INTRODUCTION PHYSICS CONSIDERATIONS GENERAL REQUIRED LUMINOSITY FOR LEPTON COLLIDERS THE EFFECTIVE PHYSICS ENERGIES OF HADRON COLLIDERS HADRON-HADRON MACHINES LUMINOSITY SIZE AND COST CIRCULAR e^{+}e^- MACHINES LUMINOSITY SIZE AND COST e^{+}e^- LINEAR COLLIDERS LUMINOSITY CONVENTIONAL RF SUPERCONDUCTING RF AT HIGHER ENERGIES γ - γ COLLIDERS μ ^{+} μ^- COLLIDERS ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES DESIGN STUDIES STATUS AND REQUIRED R AND D COMPARISION OF MACHINES CONCLUSIONS DISCUSSION

  11. Implications of HARP Results for the Energy of the Proton Driver for a Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Strait, J.; Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2010-06-09

    Cross-section data from the HARP experiment for pion production by protons from a tantalum target have been convoluted with the acceptance of the front-end channel for the proposed neutrino factory or muon collider and integrated over the full phase space measured by HARP, to determine the beam-energy dependence of the muon yield. This permits a determination of the optimal beam energy for the proton driver for these projects. The cross-section data are corrected for the beam-energy dependent 'amplification' due to the development of hadronic showers in a thick target. The conclusion is that, for constant beam power, the yield is maximum for a beam energy of about 7 GeV, but it is within 10% of this maximum for 4 < T{sub beam} < 11 GeV, and within 20% of the maximum for T{sub beam} as low as 2 GeV. This result is insensitive to which of the two HARP groups results are used, and to which pion generator is used to compute the thick target effects.

  12. Measurement of very forward neutron energy spectra for 7 TeV proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, O.; Berti, E.; Bonechi, L.; Bongi, M.; Castellini, G.; D'Alessandro, R.; Del Prete, M.; Haguenauer, M.; Itow, Y.; Kasahara, K.; Kawade, K.; Makino, Y.; Masuda, K.; Matsubayashi, E.; Menjo, H.; Mitsuka, G.; Muraki, Y.; Okuno, Y.; Papini, P.; Perrot, A.-L.; Ricciarini, S.; Sako, T.; Sakurai, N.; Sugiura, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Tamura, T.; Tiberio, A.; Torii, S.; Tricomi, A.; Turner, W. C.; Zhou, Q. D.

    2015-11-01

    The Large Hadron Collider forward (LHCf) experiment is designed to use the LHC to verify the hadronic-interaction models used in cosmic-ray physics. Forward baryon production is one of the crucial points to understand the development of cosmic-ray showers. We report the neutron-energy spectra for LHC √{ s} = 7 TeV proton-proton collisions with the pseudo-rapidity η ranging from 8.81 to 8.99, from 8.99 to 9.22, and from 10.76 to infinity. The measured energy spectra obtained from the two independent calorimeters of Arm1 and Arm2 show the same characteristic feature before unfolding the detector responses. We unfolded the measured spectra by using the multidimensional unfolding method based on Bayesian theory, and the unfolded spectra were compared with current hadronic-interaction models. The QGSJET II-03 model predicts a high neutron production rate at the highest pseudo-rapidity range similar to our results, and the DPMJET 3.04 model describes our results well at the lower pseudo-rapidity ranges. However, no model perfectly explains the experimental results over the entire pseudo-rapidity range. The experimental data indicate a more abundant neutron production rate relative to the photon production than any model predictions studied here.

  13. Luminosity determination at proton colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafström, P.; Kozanecki, W.

    2015-03-01

    Luminosity is a key parameter in any particle collider, and its precise determination has proven particularly challenging at hadron colliders. After introducing the concept of luminosity in its multiple incarnations and offering a brief survey of the pp and p p bar colliders built to date, this article outlines the various methods that have been developed for relative-luminosity monitoring, as well as the complementary approaches considered for establishing an absolute luminosity scale. This is followed by a survey, from both a historical and a technical perspective, of luminosity determination at the ISR, the S p p ¯ S, the Tevatron, RHIC and the LHC. For each of these, we first delineate the interplay between the experimental context, the specificities of the accelerator, and the precision targets suggested by the physics program. We then detail how the different methods were applied to specific experimental environments and how successfully they meet the precision goals.

  14. Proton-antiproton collider physics

    SciTech Connect

    Shochet, M.J.

    1995-07-01

    The 9th {anti p}p Workshop was held in Tsukuba, Japan in October, 1993. A number of important issues remained after that meeting: Does QCD adequately describe the large cross section observed by CDF for {gamma} production below 30 GeV? Do the CDF and D0 b-production cross sections agree? Will the Tevatron live up to its billing as a world-class b-physics facility? How small will the uncertainty in the W mass be? Is there anything beyond the Minimal Standard Model? And finally, where is the top quark? Presentations at this workshop addressed all of these issues. Most of them are now resolved, but new questions have arisen. This summary focuses on the experimental results presented at the meeting by CDF and D0 physicists. Reviews of LEP and HERA results, future plans for hadron colliders and their experiments, as well as important theoretical presentations are summarized elsewhere in this volume. Section 1 reviews physics beyond the Minimal Standard Model. Issues in b and c physics are addressed in section 3. Section 4 focuses on the top quark. Electroweak physics is reviewed in section 5, followed by QCD studies in section 6. Conclusions are drawn in section 7.

  15. Charge transfer and association of protons colliding with potassium from very low to intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C. H.; Qu, Y. Z.; Wang, J. G.; Li, Y.; Buenker, R. J.

    2010-01-15

    The nonradiative charge-transfer process for H{sup +}+K(4s) collision is investigated using the quantum-mechanical molecular-orbital close-coupling method for collision energies from 1 eV to 10 keV. The radiative-decay and radiative charge transfer cross sections are calculated using the optical potential approach and the fully quantal method, respectively, for the energy range of 10{sup -5}-10 eV. The radiative-association cross sections are obtained by subtracting the radiative charge-transfer part from total radiative-decay cross sections. The relevant molecular data are calculated from the multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction approach. The nonradiative charge transfer is the dominant mechanism at energies above 2 eV, whereas the radiative charge transfer becomes primary in the low-energy region of E<1.5 eV. The present radiative-decay cross sections disagree with the calculations of Watanabe et al. [Phys. Rev. A 66, 044701 (2002)]. The total charge-transfer rate coefficient is obtained in the temperature range of 1-20000 K.

  16. Proton-Λ correlation functions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider taking into account residual correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapoval, V. M.; Sinyukov, Yu. M.; Naboka, V. Yu.

    2015-10-01

    The theoretical analysis of the p ¯-Λ ⊕p -Λ ¯ correlation function in 10% most central Au+Au collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energy √{sNN}=200 GeV shows that the contribution of residual correlations is a necessary factor for obtaining a satisfactory description of the experimental data. Neglecting the residual correlation effect leads to an unrealistically low source radius, about 2 times smaller than the corresponding value for p -Λ ⊕p ¯-Λ ¯ case, when one fits the experimental correlation function within Lednický-Lyuboshitz analytical model. Recently an approach that accounts effectively for residual correlations for the baryon-antibaryon correlation function was proposed, and a good RHIC data description was reached with the source radius extracted from the hydrokinetic model (HKM). The p ¯-Λ scattering length, as well as the parameters characterizing the residual correlation effect—annihilation dip amplitude and its inverse width—were extracted from the corresponding fit. In this paper we use these extracted values and simulated in HKM source functions for Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC energy √{sNN}=2.76 TeV to predict the corresponding p Λ and p Λ ¯ correlation functions.

  17. The Large Hadron Collider: Redefining High Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Demers, Sarah

    2007-06-19

    Particle physicists have a description of the forces of nature known as the Standard Model that has successfully withstood decades of testing at laboratories around the world. Though the Standard Model is powerful, it is not complete. Important details like the masses of particles are not explained well, and realities as fundamental as gravity, dark matter, and dark energy are left out altogether. I will discuss gaps in the model and why there is hope that some puzzles will be solved by probing high energies with the Large Hadron Collider. Beginning next year, this machine will accelerate protons to record energies, hurling them around a 27 kilometer ring before colliding them 40 million times per second. Detectors the size of five-story buildings will record the debris of these collisions. The new energy frontier made accessible by the Large Hadron Collider will allow thousands of physicists to explore nature's fundamental forces and particles from a fantastic vantage point.

  18. Calorimetry At Very High Energy Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Mickey

    2011-06-01

    The capability of hadron colliders has increased to where it will soon be possible to collide protons at center of mass energies of 14 TeV with the advent of the LHC. With increasing collision energy, calorimeters become ever more essential components of a detector, and collaborations often choose very different technologies to meet their goals. From the perspective of a high energy particle and nuclear physicist, a survey is presented of the differences in design considerations and actual performance of the wide variety of calorimeters used in modern hadron colliders such as the Tevatron, RHIC, and LHC. The lessons learned and some ideas for future development of calorimetry will also be discussed.

  19. Future proton and electron colliders: Dreams for the 1990's

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, B.

    1988-10-01

    In this paper I have reviewed the possibilities for new colliders that might be available in the 1990's. One or more new proton should be available in the late-90s based on plans of Europe, the US and the USSR. The two very high energy machines, LHC and SSC, are quite expensive, and their construction will be more decided by the politicians' view on the availability of resources than by the physicists' view of the need for new machines. Certainly something will be built, but the question is when. New electron colliders beyond LEP II could be available in the late 1990's as well. Most of the people who have looked at this problem believe that at a minimum three years of RandD are required before a proposal can be made, two years will be required to convince the authorities to go ahead, and five years will be required to build such a machine. Thus the earliest time a new electron collider at high energy could be available is around 1988. A strong international RandD program will be required to meet that schedule. In the field of B factories, PSI's proposal is the first serious step beyond the capabilities of CESR. There are other promising techniques but these need more RandD. The least RandD would be required for the asymmetric storage ring systems, while the most would be required for high luminosity linear colliders. For the next decade, high energy physics will be doing its work at the high energy frontier with Tevatron I and II, UNK, SLC, LEP I and II, and HERA. The opportunities for science presented by experiments at these facilities are very great, and it is to be hoped that the pressure for funding to construct the next generation facilities will not badly affect the operating budgets of the ones we now have or which will soon be turning on. 9 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Method study of parameter choice for a circular proton-proton collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Feng; Gao, Jie; Xiao, Ming; Wang, Dou; Wang, Yi-Wei; Bai, Sha; Bian, Tian-Jian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we show a systematic method of appropriate parameter choice for a circular proton-proton collider by using an analytical expression for the beam-beam tune shift limit, starting from a given design goal and technical limitations. A suitable parameter space has been explored. Based on the parameter scan, sets of appropriate parameters designed for a 50 km and 100 km circular proton-proton collider are proposed. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175192)

  1. Photon and dilepton production at the Facility for Proton and Anti-Proton Research and beam-energy scan at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider using coarse-grained microscopic transport simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endres, Stephan; van Hees, Hendrik; Bleicher, Marcus

    2016-05-01

    We present calculations of dilepton and photon spectra for the energy range Elab=2 A to35 A GeV which will be available for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future Facility for Proton and Anti-Proton Research (FAIR). The same energy regime will also be covered by phase II of the beam-energy scan at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC-BES). Coarse-grained dynamics from microscopic transport calculations of the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model is used to determine temperature and chemical potentials, which allows for the use of dilepton and photon-emission rates from equilibrium quantum-field-theory calculations. The results indicate that nonequilibrium effects, the presence of baryonic matter, and the creation of a deconfined phase might show up in specific manners in the measurable dilepton invariant-mass spectra and in the photon transverse-momentum spectra. However, as the many influences are difficult to disentangle, we argue that the challenge for future measurements of electromagnetic probes will be to provide a high precision with uncertainties much lower than in previous experiments. Furthermore, a systematic study of the whole energy range covered by CBM at FAIR and RHIC-BES is necessary to discriminate between different effects, which influence the spectra, and to identify possible signatures of a phase transition.

  2. The Very Large Hadron Collider: The farthest energy frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Barletta, William A.

    2001-06-21

    The Very Large Hadron Collider (or Eloisatron) represents what may well be the final step on the energy frontier of accelerator-based high energy physics. While an extremely high luminosity proton collider at 100-200 TeV center of mass energy can probably be built in one step with LHC technology, that machine would cost more than what is presently politically acceptable. This talk summarizes the strategies of collider design including staged deployment, comparison with electron-positron colliders, opportunities for major innovation, and the technical challenges of reducing costs to manageable proportions. It also presents the priorities for relevant R and D for the next few years.

  3. Potential Remedies for the High Synchrotron-Radiation-Induced Heat Load for Future Highest-Energy-Proton Circular Colliders.

    PubMed

    Cimino, R; Baglin, V; Schäfers, F

    2015-12-31

    We propose a new method for handling the high synchrotron radiation (SR) induced heat load of future circular hadron colliders (like FCC-hh). FCC-hh are dominated by the production of SR, which causes a significant heat load on the accelerator walls. Removal of such a heat load in the cold part of the machine, as done in the Large Hadron Collider, will require more than 100 MW of electrical power and a major cooling system. We studied a totally different approach, identifying an accelerator beam screen whose illuminated surface is able to forward reflect most of the photons impinging onto it. Such a reflecting beam screen will transport a significant part of this heat load outside the cold dipoles. Then, in room temperature sections, it could be more efficiently dissipated. Here we will analyze the proposed solution and address its full compatibility with all other aspects an accelerator beam screen must fulfill to keep under control beam instabilities as caused by electron cloud formation, impedance, dynamic vacuum issues, etc. If experimentally fully validated, a highly reflecting beam screen surface will provide a viable and solid solution to be eligible as a baseline design in FCC-hh projects to come, rendering them more cost effective and sustainable. PMID:26764998

  4. Potential Remedies for the High Synchrotron-Radiation-Induced Heat Load for Future Highest-Energy-Proton Circular Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimino, R.; Baglin, V.; Schäfers, F.

    2015-12-01

    We propose a new method for handling the high synchrotron radiation (SR) induced heat load of future circular hadron colliders (like FCC-hh). FCC-hh are dominated by the production of SR, which causes a significant heat load on the accelerator walls. Removal of such a heat load in the cold part of the machine, as done in the Large Hadron Collider, will require more than 100 MW of electrical power and a major cooling system. We studied a totally different approach, identifying an accelerator beam screen whose illuminated surface is able to forward reflect most of the photons impinging onto it. Such a reflecting beam screen will transport a significant part of this heat load outside the cold dipoles. Then, in room temperature sections, it could be more efficiently dissipated. Here we will analyze the proposed solution and address its full compatibility with all other aspects an accelerator beam screen must fulfill to keep under control beam instabilities as caused by electron cloud formation, impedance, dynamic vacuum issues, etc. If experimentally fully validated, a highly reflecting beam screen surface will provide a viable and solid solution to be eligible as a baseline design in FCC-hh projects to come, rendering them more cost effective and sustainable.

  5. QCD Results from the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Warburton, Andreas; CDF, for the; Collaborations, D0

    2010-01-01

    Selected recent quantum chromodynamics (QCD) measurements are reviewed for Fermilab Run II Tevatron proton-antiproton collisions studied by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and D0 Collaborations at a centre-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Tantamount to Rutherford scattering studies at the TeV scale, inclusive jet and dijet production cross-section measurements are used to seek and constrain new particle physics phenomena, test perturbative QCD calculations, inform parton distribution function (PDF) determinations, and extract a precise value of the strong coupling constant, a{sub s}(m{sub Z}) = 0.1161{sub -0.0048}{sup +0.0041}. Inclusive photon production cross-section measurements reveal an inability of next-to-leading-order (NLO) perturbative QCD (pQCD) calculations to describe low-energy photons arising directly in the hard scatter. Events with {gamma} + 3-jet configurations are used to measure the increasingly important double parton scattering (DPS) phenomenon, with an obtained effective interaction cross section of {sigma}{sub eff} = 16.4 {+-} 2.3 mb. Observations of central exclusive particle production demonstrate the viability of observing the Standard Model Higgs boson using similar techniques at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Three areas of inquiry into lower energy QCD, crucial to understanding high-energy collider phenomena, are discussed: the examination of intra-jet track kinematics to infer that jet formation is dominated by pQCD, and not hadronization, effects; detailed studies of the underlying event and its universality; and inclusive minimum-bias charged-particle momentum and multiplicity measurements, which are shown to challenge the Monte Carlo generators.

  6. Measurement of Hadronic Event Shapes and Jet Substructure in Proton-Proton Collisions at 7.0 TeV Center-of-Mass Energy with the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David Wilkins

    2012-03-20

    This thesis presents the first measurement of 6 hadronic event shapes in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Results are presented at the particle-level, permitting comparisons to multiple Monte Carlo event generator tools. Numerous tools and techniques that enable detailed analysis of the hadronic final state at high luminosity are described. The approaches presented utilize the dual strengths of the ATLAS calorimeter and tracking systems to provide high resolution and robust measurements of the hadronic jets that constitute both a background and a signal throughout ATLAS physics analyses. The study of the hadronic final state is then extended to jet substructure, where the energy flow and topology within individual jets is studied at the detector level and techniques for estimating systematic uncertainties for such measurements are commissioned in the first data. These first substructure measurements in ATLAS include the jet mass and sub-jet multiplicity as well as those concerned with multi-body hadronic decays and color flow within jets. Finally, the first boosted hadronic object observed at the LHC - the decay of the top quark to a single jet - is presented.

  7. Proton Polarimetry at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Makdisi, Y.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bazilevsky, A.; Bunce, G.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Morozov, B.; Rescia, S.; Sivertz, M.; Yip, K.; Zelenski, A.; Lee, S.K.; Li, X.; Alekseev, I.; Svirida, D.

    2009-09-07

    The RHIC polarized proton collider employs polarimeters in each of the Blue and Yellow rings that utilize the analyzing power in p-Carbon elastic scattering in the Coulomb Nuclear Interference region to measure the absolute beam polarization. These are calibrated by the polarized Hydrogen Jet Target that measures the absolute beam polarization in pp elastic scattering in the CNI region. This paper describes the status and performance of these polarimeters in the FY09 run which included both a 250 GeV/c and 100 GeV/c physics data taking periods. We will describe some of the difficulties encountered and the efforts underway to improve the performance in better energy resolution, rate handling capability, and reduced systematic uncertainties.

  8. Measurement of proton and anti-proton intensities in the Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Pordes et al.

    2003-06-04

    This paper describes the techniques used to measure the intensities of the proton (p) and anti-proton ({bar p}) beams in the Tevatron collider. The systems provide simultaneous measurements of the intensity of the 36 proton and 36 antiproton bunches and their longitudinal profiles.

  9. Configuration Manual Polarized Proton Collider at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, I.; Allgower, C.; Bai, M.; Batygin, Y.; Bozano, L.; Brown, K.; Bunce, G.; Cameron, P.; Courant, E.; Erin, S.; Escallier, J.; Fischer, W.; Gupta, R.; Hatanka, K.; Huang, H.; Imai, K.; Ishihara, M.; Jain, A.; Kanavets, V.; Katayama, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Kelly, E.; Kurita, K.; Lee, S. Y.; Luccio, A.; MacKay, W. W.; Mahler, G.; Makdisi, Y.; Mariam, F.; McGahern, W.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Okamura, M.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsin, V.; Ratner, L.; Roser, T.; Saito, N.; Satoh, H.; Shatunov, Y.; Spinka, H.; Svirida, D.; Syphers, M.; Tepikian, S.; Tominaka, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Underwood, D.; Vasiliev, A.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Wu, H.; Yokosawa, A.; Zelenski, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this report we present our design to accelerate and store polarized protons in RHIC, with the level of polarization, luminosity, and control of systematic errors required by the approved RHIC spin physics program. We provide an overview of the physics to be studied using RHIC with polarized proton beams, and a brief description of the accelerator systems required for the project.

  10. CONFIGURATION MANUAL POLARIZED PROTON COLLIDER AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    ROSER,T.; MACKAY,W.W.; ALEKSEEV,I.; BAI,M.; BROWN,K.; BUNCE,G.; CAMERON,P.; COURANT,E.; ET AL.

    2001-03-01

    In this report, the authors present their design to accelerate and store polarized protons in RHIC, with the level of polarization, luminosity, and control of systematic errors required by the approved RHIC spin physics program. They provide an overview of the physics to be studied using RHIC with polarized proton beams, and a brief description of the accelerator systems required for the project.

  11. The CERN SPS proton-antiproton collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Rudiger

    One of CERN's most ambitious and successful projects was the search for the intermediate bosons, W and Z [1]. The accelerator part of the project relied on a number of innovations in accelerator physics and technology. The invention of the method of stochastic cooling and the extension by many orders of magnitude beyond the initial proof of principle demonstration allowed the construction of the Antiproton Accumulator. Major modifications to the 26 GeV PS complex and the conversion of the 300 GeV SPS, which had just started up as an accelerator, to a pbar p collider were required. The SPS collider had to master the beam-beam effect far beyond limits reached before and had to function in a tight symbiosis with the UA1 and UA2 experiments.

  12. Theoretical study of the effect of the size of a high-energy proton beam of the Large Hadron Collider on the formation and propagation of shock waves in copper irradiated by 450-GeV proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryazanov, A. I.; Stepakov, A. V.; Vasilyev, Ya. S.; Ferrari, A.

    2014-02-01

    The interaction of 450-GeV protons with copper, which is the material of the collimators of the Large Hadron Collider, has been theoretically studied. A theoretical model for the formation and propagation of shock waves has been proposed on the basis of the analysis of the energy released by a proton beam in the electronic subsystem of the material owing to the deceleration of secondary particles appearing in nuclear reactions induced by this beam on the electronic subsystem of the material. The subsequent transfer of the energy from the excited electronic subsystem to the crystal lattice through the electron-phonon interaction has been described within the thermal spike model [I.M. Lifshitz, M.I. Kaganov, and L.V. Tanatarov, Sov. Phys. JETP 4, 173 (1957); I.M. Lifshitz, M.I. Kaganov, and L.V. Tanatarov, At. Energ. 6, 391 (1959); K. Yasui, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 90, 409 (1994)]. The model of the formation of shock waves involves energy exchange processes between excited electronic and ionic subsystems of the irradiated material and is based on the hydrodynamic approximation proposed by Zel'dovich [Ya.B. Zel'dovich and Yu.P. Raizer, Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Nauka, Moscow, 1966; Dover, New York, 2002)]. This model makes it possible to obtain the space-time distributions of the main physical characteristics (temperatures of the ionic and electronic subsystems, density, pressure, etc.) in materials irradiated by high-energy proton beams and to analyze the formation and propagation of shock waves in them. The nonlinear differential equations describing the conservation laws of mass, energy, and momentum of electrons and ions in the Euler variables in the case of the propagation of shock waves has been solved with the Godunov scheme [S. K. Godunov, A.V. Zabrodin, M.Ya. Ivanov, A.N. Kraiko, and G.P. Prokopov, Numerical Solution of Multidimensional Problems in Gas Dynamics (Nauka, Moscow, 1976) [in Russian

  13. PERFORMANCE LIMITATIONS IN HIGH-ENERGY ION COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER, W.

    2005-05-16

    High-energy ion colliders (hadron colliders operating with ions other than protons) are premier research tools for nuclear physics. The collision energy and high luminosity are important design and operations considerations. The experiments also expect flexibility with frequent changes in the collision energy, detector fields, and ion species, including asymmetric collisions. For the creation, acceleration, and storage of bright intense ion beams limits are set by space charge, charge exchange, and intrabeam scattering effects. The latter leads to luminosity lifetimes of only a few hours for intense heavy ions beams. Currently, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL is the only operating high-energy ion collider. Later this decade the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), under construction at CERN, will also run with heavy ions.

  14. Very high energy colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, B.

    1985-05-01

    The required emittance in very high energy machines are small. It will be a real challenge to produce these small emittances and to maintain them during acceleration. The small emittances probably make acceleration by laser techniques easier, if such techniques will be practical at all. The beam spot sizes are very small indeed. It will be a challenge to design beam transport systems with the necessary freedom from aberration required for these small spot sizes. It would of course help if the beta functions at the collision points could be reduced. Beam power will be large - to paraphrase the old saying, power is money - and efficient acceleration systems will be required.

  15. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS POTENTIAL AT MUON COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2000-04-07

    In this paper, high energy physics possibilities and future colliders are discussed. The {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup {minus}} collider and experiments with high intensity muon beams as the stepping phase towards building Higher Energy Muon Colliders (HEMC) are briefly reviewed and encouraged.

  16. Physics at high energy photon photon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1994-06-01

    I review the physic prospects for high energy photon photon colliders, emphasizing results presented at the LBL Gamma Gamma Collider Workshop. Advantages and difficulties are reported for studies of QCD, the electroweak gauge sector, supersymmetry, and electroweak symmetry breaking.

  17. An AGS experiment to test bunching for the proton driver of the muon collider.

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J.

    1998-04-27

    The proton driver for the muon collider must produce short pulses of protons in order to facilitate muon cooling and operation with polarized beams. In order to test methods of producing these bunches they have operated the AGS near transition and studied procedures which involved moving the transition energy {gamma} to the beam energy. They were able to produce stable bunches with RMS widths of {sigma} = 2.2-2.7 ns for longitudinal bunch areas of {minus}1.5 V-s, in addition to making measurements of the lowest two orders of the momentum compaction factor.

  18. An energy recovery electron linac-on-ring collider

    SciTech Connect

    Merminga, L.; Krafft, G.A.; Lebedev, V.A.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    2000-09-14

    We present the design of high-luminosity electron-proton/ion colliders in which the electrons are produced by an Energy Recovering Linac (ERL). Electron-proton/ion colliders with center of mass energies between 14 GeV and 100 GeV (protons) or 63 GeV/A (ions) and luminosities at the 10{sup 33}(per nucleon) level have been proposed recently as a means for studying hadronic structure. The linac-on-ring option presents significant advantages with respect to: (1) spin manipulations (2) reduction of the synchrotron radiation load in the detectors (3) a wide range of continuous energy variability. Rf power and beam dump considerations require that the electron linac recover the beam energy. Based on extrapolations from actual measurements and calculations, energy recovery is expected to be feasible at currents of a few hundred mA and multi-GeV energies. Luminosity projections for the linac-ring scenario based on fundamental limitations are presented. The feasibility of an energy recovery electron linac-on-proton ring collider is investigated and four conceptual point designs are shown corresponding to electron to proton energies of: 3 GeV on 15 GeV, 5 GeV on 50 GeV and 10 GeV on 250 GeV, and for gold ions with 100 GeV/A. The last two designs assume that the protons or ions are stored in the existing RHIC accelerator. Accelerator physics issues relevant to proton rings and energy recovery linacs are discussed and a list of required R and D for the realization of such a design is presented.

  19. Accelerator physics and technology challenges of very high energy hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir D.

    2015-08-01

    High energy hadron colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics for more than three decades. At present, international particle physics community considers several options for a 100 TeV proton-proton collider as a possible post-LHC energy frontier facility. The method of colliding beams has not fully exhausted its potential but has slowed down considerably in its progress. This paper briefly reviews the accelerator physics and technology challenges of the future very high energy colliders and outlines the areas of required research and development towards their technical and financial feasibility.

  20. Boosting stop searches with a 100 TeV proton collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Timothy; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Hance, Mike; Lou, Hou Keong; Wacker, Jay G.

    2014-11-01

    A proton-proton collider with center of mass energy around 100 TeV is the energy frontier machine that is likely to succeed the LHC. One of the primary physics goals will be the continued exploration of weak scale naturalness. Here we focus on the pair-production of stops that decay to a top and a neutralino. Most of the heavy stop parameter space results in highly boosted tops, populating kinematic regimes inaccessible at the LHC. New strategies for boosted top-tagging are needed and a simple, detector-independent tagger can be constructed by requiring a muon inside a jet. Assuming 20% systematic uncertainties, this future collider can discover (exclude) stops with masses up to 5.5 (8) TeV with 3000 fb-1 of integrated luminosity. Studying how the exclusion limits scale with luminosity motivates going beyond this benchmark in order to saturate the discovery potential of the machine.

  1. Central Exclusive Particle Production at High Energy Hadron Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Albrow, M.G.; Coughlin, T.D.; Forshaw, J.R.; /Manchester U.

    2010-06-01

    We review the subject of central exclusive particle production at high energy hadron colliders. In particular we consider reactions of the type A + B {yields} A + X + B, where X is a fully specified system of particles that is well separated in rapidity from the outgoing beam particles. We focus on the case where the colliding particles are strongly interacting and mainly they will be protons (or antiprotons) as at the ISR, Sp{bar p}S, Tevatron and LHC. The data are surveyed and placed within the context of theoretical developments.

  2. ACCELERATION FOR A HIGH ENERGY MUON COLLIDER

    SciTech Connect

    BERG,J.S

    2000-04-07

    The authors describe a method for designing the acceleration systems for a muon collider, with particular application and examples for a high energy muon collider. This paper primarily concentrates on design considerations coming from longitudinal motion, but some transverse issues are briefly discussed.

  3. Charm quark energy loss in proton-proton collisions at LHC energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Sascha; Gossiaux, Pol Bernard; Werner, Klaus; Aichelin, Jörg

    2013-03-01

    Heavy quarks, i.e. charm and bottom quarks are one of the crucial probes in the high energy nuclear collision program at current day accelerators. It has been shown at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) that heavy quarks show a remarkable medium suppression despite their high mass. In these proceedings we report on a study of heavy quark energy loss in high multiplicity proton-proton collisions at energies accessible to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Recent experimental results from the LHC collaborations have shown that the notion of creating an interacting system is not completely off limits. The higher energies in LHC proton-proton collisions lead to multiplicities comparable to Cu+Cu collisions at RHIC. Within this environment high-momentum heavy quarks experience a non-negligible energy loss.

  4. A 10-GeV, 5-MW proton source for a muon-muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.; Chae, Y.; Crosbie, E.; Friedsam, H.; Harkay, K.; Horan, D.; Kustom, R.; Lessner, E.; McDowell, W.; McGhee, D.; Moe, H.; Nielsen, R.; Norek, G.; Peterson, K.; Qian, Y.; Thompson, K.; White, M.

    1996-05-01

    The performance parameters of a proton source which produces the required flux of muons for a 2-TeV on 2-TeV muon collider are: a beam energy of 10 GeV, a repetition rate of 30 Hz, two bunches per pulse with 5{times}10{sup 13} protons per bunch, and an rms bunch length of 3 nsec (1). Aside from the bunch length requirement, these parameters are identical to those of a 5-MW proton source for a spallation neutron source based on a 10-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) (2). The 10-GeV synchrotron uses a 2-GeV accelerator system as its injector, and the 2-GeV RCS is an extension of a feasibility study for a 1-MW spallation source described elsewhere (3{endash}9). A study for the 5-MW spallation source was performed for ANL site-specific geometrical requirements. Details are presented for a site-independent proton source suitable for the muon collider utilizing the results of the 5-MW spallation source study. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Accelerator physics and technology challenges of very high energy hadron colliders

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shiltsev, Vladimir D.

    2015-08-20

    High energy hadron colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics for more than three decades. At present, international particle physics community considers several options for a 100 TeV proton–proton collider as a possible post-LHC energy frontier facility. The method of colliding beams has not fully exhausted its potential but has slowed down considerably in its progress. This article briefly reviews the accelerator physics and technology challenges of the future very high energy colliders and outlines the areas of required research and development towards their technical and financial feasibility.

  6. Thermomechanical response of Large Hadron Collider collimators to proton and ion beam impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauchi, Marija; Assmann, R. W.; Bertarelli, A.; Carra, F.; Cerutti, F.; Lari, L.; Redaelli, S.; Mollicone, P.; Sammut, N.

    2015-04-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to accelerate and bring into collision high-energy protons as well as heavy ions. Accidents involving direct beam impacts on collimators can happen in both cases. The LHC collimation system is designed to handle the demanding requirements of high-intensity proton beams. Although proton beams have 100 times higher beam power than the nominal LHC lead ion beams, specific problems might arise in case of ion losses due to different particle-collimator interaction mechanisms when compared to protons. This paper investigates and compares direct ion and proton beam impacts on collimators, in particular tertiary collimators (TCTs), made of the tungsten heavy alloy INERMET® 180. Recent measurements of the mechanical behavior of this alloy under static and dynamic loading conditions at different temperatures have been done and used for realistic estimates of the collimator response to beam impact. Using these new measurements, a numerical finite element method (FEM) approach is presented in this paper. Sequential fast-transient thermostructural analyses are performed in the elastic-plastic domain in order to evaluate and compare the thermomechanical response of TCTs in case of critical beam load cases involving proton and heavy ion beam impacts.

  7. New technologies for a future superconducting proton collider

    SciTech Connect

    Malamud, E.; Foster, G.W.

    1996-06-01

    New more economic approaches are required to continue the dramatic exponential rise in particle accelerator energies as represented by the well- known Livingston plot. The old idea of low-cost, low-field iron dominated magnets in a small diameter pipe may become feasible in the next decade with dramatic recent advances in technology: (1) high T{sub c} superconductors operating at liquid N{sub 2} or H{sub 2} temperatures, (2) advanced tunneling technologies for small diameter, non human accessible tunnels, (3) accurate remote guidance systems for boring machine steering, (4) industrial applications of remote manipulation and robotics, and (5) digitally multiplexed electronics to minimize cables There is an opportunity for mutually beneficial partnerships between the High Energy Physics community and the commercial sector to develop the necessary technology. This will gain public support, a necessary part of the challenge of building a new, very high energy collider.

  8. MIGHTY MURINES: NEUTRINO PHYSICS AT VERY HIGH ENERGY MUON COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    KING,B.J.

    2000-05-05

    An overview is given of the potential for neutrino physics studies through parasitic use of the intense high energy neutrino beams that would be produced at future many-TeV muon colliders. Neutrino experiments clearly cannot compete with the collider physics. Except at the very highest energy muon colliders, the main thrust of the neutrino physics program would be to improve on the measurements from preceding neutrino experiments at lower energy muon colliders, particularly in the fields of B physics, quark mixing and CP violation. Muon colliders at the 10 TeV energy scale might already produce of order 10{sup 8} B hadrons per year in a favorable and unique enough experimental environment to have some analytical capabilities beyond any of the currently operating or proposed B factories. The most important of the quark mixing measurements at these energies might well be the improved measurements of the important CKM matrix elements {vert_bar}V{sub ub}{vert_bar} and {vert_bar}V{sub cb}{vert_bar} and, possibly, the first measurements of {vert_bar}V{sub td}{vert_bar} in the process of flavor changing neutral current interactions involving a top quark loop. Muon colliders at the highest center-of-mass energies that have been conjectured, 100--1,000 TeV, would produce neutrino beams for neutrino-nucleon interaction experiments with maximum center-of-mass energies from 300--1,000 GeV. Such energies are close to, or beyond, the discovery reach of all colliders before the turn-on of the LHC. In particular, they are comparable to the 314 GeV center-of-mass energy for electron-proton scattering at the currently operating HERA collider and so HERA provides a convenient benchmark for the physics potential. It is shown that these ultimate terrestrial neutrino experiments, should they eventually come to pass, would have several orders of magnitude more luminosity than HERA. This would potentially open up the possibility for high statistics studies of any exotic particles, such as

  9. Search for Gluino-Mediated Supersymmetry in Events With Bottom-Quark Jets and Missing Transverse Energy With the Compact Muon Solenoid Detector at the Large Hadron Collider With Proton-Proton Collisions at 8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Harold

    A search is presented for physics beyond the standard model based on events with significant missing transverse energy, at least three jets, and at least one identified bottom-quark jet. The study is based on a sample of 19 fb-1 collected at 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2012. The background from standard model processes is evaluated using data control samples, and a global likelihood fit is performed. The data are found to be consistent with standard model processes, and the results are interpreted in the context of simplified models (SMS). Upper limits on the production cross sections of the T1bbbb and T1tttt SMS new physics scenarios are determined. Gluino masses up to 1170 GeV are excluded for the T1bbbb scenario and up to 1020 GeV for the T1tttt scenario, at 95% confidence level.

  10. Beam tube vacuum in future superconducting proton colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, W.

    1994-10-01

    The beam tube vacuum requirements in future superconducting proton colliders that have been proposed or discussed in the literature -- SSC, LHC, and ELN -- are reviewed. The main beam tube vacuum problem encountered in these machines is how to deal with the magnitude of gas desorption and power deposition by synchrotron radiation while satisfying resistivity, impedance, and space constraints in the cryogenic environment of superconducting magnets. A beam tube vacuum model is developed that treats photodesorption of tightly bound H, C, and 0, photodesorption of physisorbed molecules, and the isotherm vapor pressure of H{sub 2}. Experimental data on cold tube photodesorption experiments are reviewed and applied to model calculations of beam tube vacuum performance for simple cold beam tube and liner configurations. Particular emphasis is placed on the modeling and interpretation of beam tube photodesorpiion experiments at electron synchrotron light sources. The paper also includes discussion of the constraints imposed by beam image current heating, the growth rate of the resistive wall instability, and single-bunch instability impedance limits.

  11. Beam tube vacuum in future superconducting proton colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, William C.

    1995-02-01

    The beam tube vacuum requirements in future superconducting proton colliders that have been proposed or discussed in the literature—SSC, LHC, and ELN—are reviewed. The main beam tube vacuum problem encountered in these machines is how to deal with the magnitude of gas desorption and power deposition by synchrotron radiation while satisfying resistivity, impedance, and space constraints in the cryogenic environment of superconducting magnets. A beam tube vacuum model is developed that treats photodesorption of tightly bound H, C, and O, photodesorption of physisorbed molecules, and the isotherm vapor pressure of H2. Experimental data on cold tube photodesorption experiments are reviewed and applied to model calculations of beam tube vacuum performance for simple cold beam tube and liner configurations. Particular emphasis is placed on the modeling and interpretation of beam tube photodesorption experiments at electron synchrotron light sources. The paper also includes discussion of the constraints imposed by beam image current heating, the growth rate of the resistive wall instability, and single-bunch instability impedance limits.

  12. An Energy Recovery Electron Linac On Ring Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolitsa Merminga; Geoffrey Krafft; Valeri Lebedev; Ilan Ben-Zvi

    2001-09-01

    Electron-proton/ion colliders with center of mass energies between 14 GeV and 100 GeV (protons) or 63 GeV/A (ions) and luminosities at the 10{sup 33} (per nucleon) level have been proposed recently as a means for studying hadronic structure. Electron beam polarization appears to be crucial for many of the experiments. Two accelerator design scenarios have been examined in detail: colliding rings and recirculating linac-on-ring. Although the linac-on-ring scenario is not as well developed as the ring-ring scenario, comparable luminosities appear feasible. The linac-on-ring option presents significant advantages with respect to: (1) spin manipulations; (2) reduction of the synchrotron radiation load in the detectors; (3) a wide range of continuous energy variability. Rf power and beam dump considerations require that the electron linac recover the beam energy. This technology has been demonstrated at Jefferson Lab's IR FEL with cw current up to 5 mA and beam energy up to 50 MeV. Based on extrapolations from actual measurements and calculations, energy recovery is expected to be feasible at higher currents (a few hundred mA) and higher energies (a few GeV) as well. The report begins with a brief overview of Jefferson Lab's experience with energy recovery and summarize its benefits. Luminosity projections for the linac-ring scenario based on fundamental limitations are presented next. The feasibility of an energy recovery electron linac-on-proton ring collider is investigated and four conceptual point designs are shown corresponding to electron to proton energies of: 3 GeV on 15 GeV, 5 GeV on 50 GeV and 10 GeV on 250 GeV, and for gold ions with 100 GeV/A. The last two designs assume that the protons or ions are stored in the existing RHIC accelerator. Accelerator physics issues relevant to proton rings and energy recovery linacs are discussed next and a list of required R and D for the realization of such a design is presented.

  13. Heavy quark energy loss in high multiplicity proton-proton collisions at the LHC.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Sascha; Gossiaux, Pol Bernard; Werner, Klaus; Aichelin, Jörg

    2011-07-15

    One of the most promising probes to study deconfined matter created in high energy nuclear collisions is the energy loss of (heavy) quarks. It has been shown in experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider that even charm and bottom quarks, despite their high mass, experience a remarkable medium suppression in the quark gluon plasma. In this exploratory investigation we study the energy loss of heavy quarks in high multiplicity proton-proton collisions at LHC energies. Although the colliding systems are smaller than compared to those at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (p+p vs Au+Au), the higher energy might lead to multiplicities comparable to Cu+Cu collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The interaction of charm quarks with this environment gives rise to a non-negligible suppression of high momentum heavy quarks in elementary collisions. PMID:21838351

  14. Particle production at collider energies

    SciTech Connect

    Geich-Gimbel, C. )

    1989-01-01

    High energy particle physics, which has been trying to understand and to devise new laws governing nature at per particle energies far beyond everyday energies, has entered a new episode. Having surpassed the low energy regime, where (s channel) resonance production dominantly projects onto the final state, very interesting features of the strong interaction arose at c.m. energies in the tens of GEV range, as found at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR). One recalls the onset of hard scattering processes, which was understood as a scattering between constituents of the nucleon, hence supporting the Quark Parton Model (QPM). Surprisingly enough the total cross section started to rise again, when it was initially believed to have reached a constant value, suggesting an asymptotia. Furthermore correlations among the final state particles produced were observed, and especially long range correlations, which must reflect dynamical laws.

  15. Detailed parametrization of neutrino and gamma-ray energy spectra from high energy proton-proton interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supanitsky, A. D.

    2016-02-01

    Gamma rays and neutrinos are produced as a result of proton-proton interactions that occur in different astrophysical contexts. The detection of these two types of messengers is of great importance for the study of different physical phenomena, related to nonthermal processes, taking place in different astrophysical scenarios. Therefore, the knowledge of the energy spectrum of these two types of particles, as a function of the incident proton energy, is essential for the interpretation of the observational data. In this paper, parametrizations of the energy spectra of gamma rays and neutrinos, originated in proton-proton collisions, are presented. The energy range of the incident protons considered extends from 102 to 108 GeV . The parametrizations are based on Monte Carlo simulations of proton-proton interactions performed with the hadronic interaction models QGSJET-II-04 and EPOS-LHC, which have recently been updated with the data taken by the Large Hadron Collider.

  16. Future high energy colliders symposium. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z. |

    1996-12-31

    A `Future High Energy Colliders` Symposium was held October 21-25, 1996 at the Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITP) in Santa Barbara. This was one of the 3 symposia hosted by the ITP and supported by its sponsor, the National Science Foundation, as part of a 5 month program on `New Ideas for Particle Accelerators`. The long term program and symposia were organized and coordinated by Dr. Zohreh Parsa of Brookhaven National Laboratory/ITP. The purpose of the symposium was to discuss the future direction of high energy physics by bringing together leaders from the theoretical, experimental and accelerator physics communities. Their talks provided personal perspectives on the physics objectives and the technology demands of future high energy colliders. Collectively, they formed a vision for where the field should be heading and how it might best reach its objectives.

  17. Study of the heavy flavour fractions in z+jets events from proton-antiproton collisions at energy = 1.96 TeV with the CDF II detector at the Tevatron collider

    SciTech Connect

    Mastrandrea, Paolo; /Siena U.

    2008-06-01

    The Standard Model of field and particles is the theory that provides the best description of the known phenomenology of the particle physics up to now. Data collected in the last years, mainly by the experiments at the big particle accelerators (SPS, LEP, TEVATRON, HERA, SLAC), allowed to test the agreement between measurements and theoretical calculations with a precision of 10{sup -3} {divided_by} 10{sup -4}. The Standard Model is a Quantum Field Theory based on the gauge symmetry group SU(3){sub C} x SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} , with spontaneous symmetry breaking. This gauge group includes the color symmetry group of the strong interaction, SU(3){sub C}, and the symmetry group of the electroweak interactions, SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y}. The formulation of the Standard Model as a gauge theory guarantees its renormalizability, but forbids explicit mass terms for fermions and gauge bosons. The masses of the particles are generated in a gauge-invariant way by the Higgs Mechanism via a spontaneous breaking of the electroweak symmetry. This mechanism also implies the presence of a massive scalar particle in the mass spectrum of the theory, the Higgs boson. This particle is the only one, among the basic elements for the minimal formulation of the Standard Model, to have not been confirmed by the experiments yet. For this reason in the last years the scientific community has been focusing an increasing fraction of its efforts on the search of the Higgs boson. The mass of the Higgs boson is a free parameter of the Standard Model, but the unitarity of the theory requires values not higher than 1 TeV and the LEP experiments excluded values smaller than 115 GeV. To explore this range of masses is under construction at CERN the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a proton-proton collider with a center of mass energy of 14 TeV and a 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} peak luminosity. According to the present schedule, this machine will start to provide collisions for the experiments

  18. ψψ production at collider energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpert, B.; Méry, P.

    1983-03-01

    We estimate ψψ production at collider energies in the framework of perturbative QCD. The O(α{/s 2})-(α{/s 4}) parton cross-sections, with the non-relativistic approximation for the heavy quark bound states, are used. This first insight into the characteristics of the kinematical distributions allows predictions on the predominance of the quark, gluon or B meson production mechanisms in particular kinematical regions.

  19. Measurement of the inclusive Z boson going to electron-electron production cross section in proton-proton collisions at center of mass energy = 7 TeV and Z boson going to electron-electron decays as standard candles for luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Jeremy Scott

    This thesis comprises a precision measurement of the inclusive Z→ee production cross section in proton-proton collisions provided by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a center-of-mass energy of s = 7 TeV and the absolute luminosity based on Z→ ee decays. The data was collected by the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector near Geneva, Switzerland during the year of 2010 and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of Ldt = 35.9 +/- 1.4 pb-1. Electronic decays of Z bosons allow one of the first electroweak measurements at the LHC, making the cross section measurement a benchmark of physics performance after the first year of CMS detector and LHC machine operations. It is the first systematic uncertainty limited Z→ee cross section measurement performed at s = 7 TeV. The measured cross section pertaining to the invariant mass window Mee ∈ (60, 120) GeV is reported as sigma( pp → Z + X) x B (Z → ee) = 997 +/- 11(stat) +/- 19(syst) +/- 40(lumi) pb, which agrees with the theoretical prediction calculated to NNLO in QCD. Leveraging Z→ee decays as "standard candles" for measuring the absolute luminosity at the LHC is examined; they are produced copiously, are well understood, and have clean detector signatures. Thus the consistency of the inclusive Z→ ee production cross section measurement with the theoretical prediction motivates inverting the measurement to instead use the Z→ ee signal yield to measure the luminosity. The result, which agrees with the primary relative CMS luminosity measurement calibrated using Van der Meer separation scans, is one of the most precise absolute luminosity measurements performed to date at a hadron collider and the first based on a physics signal at the LHC.

  20. Orbital parameters of proton and deuteron beams in the NICA collider with solenoid Siberian snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalenko, A. D.; Butenko, A. V.; Kekelidze, V. D.; Mikhaylov, V. A.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Kondratenko, A. M.; Filatov, Yu N.

    2016-02-01

    Two solenoid Siberian snakes are required to obtain ion polarization in the “spin transparency” mode of the NICA collider. The field integrals of the solenoid snakes for protons and deuterons at maximum momentum of 13.5 GeV/c are equal to 2×50 T·m and 2×160 T·m respectively. The snakes introduce strong betatron oscillation coupling. The calculations of orbital parameters of proton and deuteron beams in NICA collider with solenoid snakes are presented.

  1. Department of Energy assessment of the Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This report summarizes the conclusions of the committee that assessed the cost estimate for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This proton-proton collider will be built at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics near Geneva, Switzerland. The committee found the accelerator-project cost estimate of 2.3 billion in 1995 Swiss francs, or about $2 billion US, to be adequate and reasonable. The planned project completion date of 2005 also appears achievable, assuming the resources are available when needed. The cost estimate was made using established European accounting procedures. In particular, the cost estimate does not include R and D, prototyping and testing, spare parts, and most of the engineering labor. Also excluded are costs for decommissioning the Large Electron-Positron collider (LEP) that now occupies the tunnel, modifications to the injector system, the experimental areas, preoperations costs, and CERN manpower. All these items are assumed by CERN to be included in the normal annual operations budget rather than the construction budget. Finally, contingency is built into the base estimate, in contrast to Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that explicitly identify contingency. The committee`s charge, given by Dr. James F. Decker, Deputy Directory of the DOE Office of Energy Research, was to understand the basis for the LHC cost estimate, identify uncertainties, and judge the overall validity of the estimate, proposed schedule, and related issues. The committee met at CERN April 22--26, 1996. The assessment was based on the October 1995 LHC Conceptual Design Report or ``Yellow Book,`` cost estimates and formal presentations made by the CERN staff, site inspection, detailed discussions with LHC technical experts, and the committee members` considerable experience.

  2. The frontier of high energy physics and the large hadron collider

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Kalanand

    2013-09-09

    High Energy Physics explores the most fundamental questions about the nature of the universe, e.g., basic building blocks of matter and energy, existence of the smallest sub-atomic particles, dark matter, dark energy etc. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the most powerful accelerator on earth located near Geneva, Switzerland. It recreates the conditions just after the Big Bang by colliding two proton beams head-on at very high energy every 25-50 nanosecond. With the recent discovery of Higgs boson, the LHC is firmly marching on to explore the TeV energy scale.

  3. Impact of 7-TeV/c large hadron collider proton beam on a copper target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, N. A.; Goddard, B.; Kain, V.; Schmidt, R.; Shutov, A.; Lomonosov, I. V.; Piriz, A. R.; Temporal, M.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Fortov, V. E.

    2005-04-01

    The large hadron collider (LHC) will allow for collision between two 7TeV/c proton beams, each comprising 2808 bunches with 1.1×1011 protons per bunch, traveling in opposite direction. The bunch length is 0.5ns and two neighboring bunches are separated by 25ns so that the duration of the entire beam is about 89μs. The beam power profile in the transverse direction is a Gaussian with a standard deviation of 0.2mm. The energy stored in each beam is about 350MJ that is sufficient to melt 500kg of copper. In case of a failure in the machine protection systems, the entire beam could impact directly onto an accelerator equipment. A first estimate of the scale of damage resulting from such a failure has been assessed for a solid copper target hit by the beam by carrying out three-dimensional energy deposition calculations and two-dimensional numerical simulations of the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic response of the target. This work has shown that the penetration depth of the LHC protons will be between 10 and 40m in solid copper. These calculations show that material conditions obtained in the target are similar to those planned for beam impact at dedicated accelerators designed to study the physics of high-energy-density states of matter, for example, the Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt [W. F. Henning, Nucl. Instrum Methods Phys. Res. B 214, 211 (2004)].

  4. Preservation and control of the proton and deuteron polarizations in the proposed electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Kondratenko, Anatoliy; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Filatov, Yury; Lin, Fanglei; Morozov, Vasiliy; Kondratenko, M. A.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-01-01

    We propose a scheme of preserving the proton and deuteron beam polarizations during acceleration and storage in the proposed electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab. This scheme allows one to provide both the longitudinal and transverse polarization orientations of the proton and deuteron beams at the interaction points of the figure-8 ion collider ring. We discuss questions of matching the polarization direction at all stages of the beam transport including the pre-booster, large booster and ion collider ring.

  5. High-energy high-luminosity µ+ µ- collider design

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Robert B.; Fernow, Richard; Gallardo, Juan C.; Lee, Y. Y.; Torun, Yagmur; Neuffer, David; Winn, David

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the design of a high luminosity (1035 cm-2 s-1), high energy (2 + 2 TeV) µ+µ- collider, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate the muon beams and proceeding through the muon storage ring.

  6. Drell-Yan production at collider energies

    SciTech Connect

    Neerven, W.L. Van

    1995-07-01

    We present some results of the Drell-Yan cross sections d{sigma}/dm and {sigma}{sub tot} which includes the O ({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}) contribution to the coefficient function. In particular we study the total cross section {sigma}{sub tot} for vector boson production and d{sigma}/dm for low invariant masses m of the lepton pairs at large hadron collider energies. This study includes a detailed discussion of the dependence of the cross sections on the chosen scheme ({bar M}S versus DIS) and the factorization scale.

  7. PROSPECTS FOR COLLIDERS AND COLLIDER PHYSICS TO THE 1 PEV ENERGY SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    KING,B.J.

    2000-05-05

    A review is given of the prospects for future colliders and collider physics at the energy frontier. A proof-of-plausibility scenario is presented for maximizing the authors progress in elementary particle physics by extending the energy reach of hadron and lepton colliders as quickly and economically as might be technically and financially feasible. The scenario comprises 5 colliders beyond the LHC--one each of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and hadron colliders and three {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} colliders--and is able to hold to the historical rate of progress in the log-energy reach of hadron and lepton colliders, reaching the 1 PeV constituent mass scale by the early 2040's. The technical and fiscal requirements for the feasibility of the scenario are assessed and relevant long-term R and D projects are identified. Considerations of both cost and logistics seem to strongly favor housing most or all of the colliders in the scenario in a new world high energy physics laboratory.

  8. Ion colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.

    2011-12-01

    Ion colliders are research tools for high-energy nuclear physics, and are used to test the theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). The collisions of fully stripped high-energy ions create matter of a temperature and density that existed only microseconds after the Big Bang. Ion colliders can reach higher densities and temperatures than fixed target experiments although at a much lower luminosity. The first ion collider was the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR), which collided light ions [77Asb1, 81Bou1]. The BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is in operation since 2000 and has collided a number of species at numerous energies. The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started the heavy ion program in 2010. Table 1 shows all previous and the currently planned running modes for ISR, RHIC, and LHC. All three machines also collide protons, which are spin-polarized in RHIC. Ion colliders differ from proton or antiproton colliders in a number of ways: the preparation of the ions in the source and the pre-injector chain is limited by other effects than for protons; frequent changes in the collision energy and particle species, including asymmetric species, are typical; and the interaction of ions with each other and accelerator components is different from protons, which has implications for collision products, collimation, the beam dump, and intercepting instrumentation devices such a profile monitors. In the preparation for the collider use the charge state Z of the ions is successively increased to minimize the effects of space charge, intrabeam scattering (IBS), charge change effects (electron capture and stripping), and ion-impact desorption after beam loss. Low charge states reduce space charge, intrabeam scattering, and electron capture effects. High charge states reduce electron stripping, and make bending and acceleration more effective. Electron stripping at higher energies is generally more efficient. Table 2 shows the charge states and energies in the

  9. LEIC - A Polarized Low Energy Electron-ion Collider at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Hutton, Andrew M.; Krafft, Geoffrey A.; Li, Rui; Lin, Fanglei; Morozov, Vasiliy; Nissen, Edward W.; Yunn, Byung C.; Zhang, He; Sullivan, Michael K.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2013-06-01

    A polarized electron-ion collider is envisioned as the future nuclear science program at JLab beyond the 12 GeV CEBAF. Presently, a medium energy collider (MEIC) is set as an immediate goal with options for a future energy upgrade. A comprehensive design report for MEIC has been released recently. The MEIC facility could also accommodate electron and proton/ion collisions in a low CM energy range, covering proton energies from 10 to 25 GeV and ion energies with a similar magnetic rigidity, for additional science reach. In this paper, we present a conceptual design of this low energy collider, LEIC, showing its luminosity can reach above 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The design specifies that the large booster of the MEIC is converted to a low energy ion collider ring with an interaction region and an electron cooler integrated into it. The design provides options for either sharing the detector with the MEIC or a dedicated low energy detector in a third collision point, with advantages of either a minimum cost or extra detection parallel to the MEIC operation, respectively. The LEIC could be positioned as the first and low cost phase of a multi-stage approach to realize the full MEIC.

  10. 132 ns Bunch Spacing in the Tevatron Proton-Antiproton Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, S.D.; Holt, J.; Johnstone, J.A.; Marriner, J.; Martens, M.; McGinnis, D.

    1994-12-01

    Following completion of the Fermilab Main Injector it is expected that the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider will be operating at a luminosity in excess of 5{times}10{sup 3l} cm{sup {minus}2} with 36 proton and antiproton bunches spaced at 396 nsec. At this luminosity, each of the experimental detectors will see approximately 1.3 interactions per crossing. Potential improvements to the collider low beta and rf systems could push the luminosity beyond 10{times}10{sup 3l} cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1}, resulting in more than three interactions per crossing if the bunch separation is left unchanged. This paper discusses issues related to moving to {approx}100 bunch operation, with bunch spacings of 132 nsec, in the Tevatron. Specific scenarios and associated hardware requirements are described.

  11. RHIC Performance as a 100 GeV Polarized Proton Collider in Run-9

    SciTech Connect

    Montag, C.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; DOttavio, T.; Drees, A.; Fedotov, A.V.; Fischer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.; Hahn, H.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Ingrassia, P.; Jamilkowski, J.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Lee, R.C.; Luccio, A.U.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Malitsky, N.; Marr, G.; Marusic, A.; Menga, P.M.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Morris, J.; Oerter, B.; Pilat, F.; Pile, P.; Pozdeyev, E.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Russo, T.; Satogata, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Sivertz, M.; Smith, K.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2010-05-23

    During the second half of Run-9, the Relativisitc Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provided polarized proton collisions at two interaction points. The spin orientation of both beams at these collision points was controlled by helical spin rotators, and physics data were taken with different orientations of the beam polarization. Recent developments and improvements will be presented, as well as luminosity and polarization performance achieved during Run-9.

  12. Medium effects on charmonium production at ultrarelativistic energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Kai; Xu, Nu; Xu, Zhe; Zhuang, Pengfei

    2014-05-01

    We investigate with a transport approach the cold and hot nuclear matter effects on the charmonium transverse momentum distributions in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The newly defined nuclear modification factor rAA=AA/pp and elliptic flow v2 for J /ψ are sensitive to the nature of the hot medium and the thermalization of heavy quarks. From Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) through Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to Large Hadron Collider (LHC) colliding energies, we observe dramatic changes in the centrality dependence of rAA. We find that, at LHC energy, the finally observed charmonia are dominated by the regeneration from thermalized heavy quarks.

  13. Precision measurements of the SLC (Stanford Linear Collider) beam energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, J.; King, M.; Von Zanthier, C.; Watson, S.; Levi, M.; Rouse, F.; Bambade, P.; Erickson, R.; Jung, C.K.; Nash, J.

    1989-03-01

    A method of precisely determining the beam energy in high energy linear colliders has been developed using dipole spectrometers and synchrotron radiation detectors. Beam lines implementing this method have been installed on the Stanford Linear Collider. An absolute energy measurement with an accuracy of better than deltaE/E = 5 /times/ 10/sup /minus/4/ can be achieved on a pulse-to-pulse basis. The operation of this system will be described. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. A high-energy high-luminosity {mu}{sup +} {minus} {mu}{sup {minus}} collider

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, D.V.; Palmer, R.

    1994-06-01

    We present a candidate design for a high-energy high luminosity {mu}{sup +}-{mu} collider, with E{sub cm} = 4 TeV, L = 10{sup 34} cm{sup {minus}2}S{sup {minus}1}, using only existing technology. The design uses a rapid-cycling medium-energy proton synchrotron, which produces proton beam pulses which are focused onto two {pi}- producing targets, with two {pi}-decay transport lines producing {mu}{sup +}{prime}s and {mu}{sup {minus}}{prime}. The {mu}{prime}s are collected, rf-rotated, cooled and compressed into a recirculating linac for acceleration, and then transferred into a storage ring collider. The keys to high luminosity are maximal {mu} collection and cooling; innovations with these goals are included.

  15. The Design of a Large Booster Ring for the Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jlab

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Nissen, Todd Satogata, Yuhong Zhang

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we present the current design of the large booster ring for the Medium energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jefferson Lab. The booster ring takes 3 GeV protons or ions of equivalent rigidity from a pre-booster ring, and accelerates them to 20 GeV for protons or equivalent energy for light to heavy ions before sending them to the ion collider ring. The present design calls for a figure-8 shape of the ring for superior preservation of ion polarization. The ring is made of warm magnets and shares a tunnel with the two collider rings. Acceleration is achieved by warm RF systems. The linear optics has been designed with the transition energy above the highest beam energy in the ring so crossing of transition energy will be avoided. Preliminary beam dynamics studies including chromaticity compensation are presented in this paper.

  16. Neutrino alternatives for missing energy events at colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Spencer; Gouvea, Andre de

    2009-07-01

    If the dark matter consists of a weakly interacting massive particle, it can be produced and studied at future collider experiments like those at the LHC. The production of collider-stable weakly interacting massive particles is characterized by hard scattering events with large missing transverse energy. Here we emphasize and discuss the fact that the discovery of events inconsistent with the standard model with large missing transverse energy need not point to the existence of new, collider-stable particles. We explore an alternative explanation where the only sources of missing transverse energy are standard model neutrinos. We present concrete examples of such scenarios, focusing on supersymmetric models with R-parity violation. We also discuss means of differentiating neutrino missing energy signals from the production of new collider-stable particles. These include both model-dependent signals, such as particle tags and flavor counts, as well as model-independent tests that attempt to measure the missing particle mass.

  17. Low-Energy Proton Testing Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Heidel, David F.; Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Xapsos, M.A.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Berg, Melanie; Kim, Hak S.; Phan, Anthony; Friendlich, M.R.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Hakey, Mark C.; Dodd, Paul E.; Reed, Robert A.; Weller, Robert A.; Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Sierawski, B.D.

    2009-01-01

    Use of low-energy protons and high-energy light ions is becoming necessary to investigate current-generation SEU thresholds. Systematic errors can dominate measurements made with low-energy protons. Range and energy straggling contribute to systematic error. Low-energy proton testing is not a step-and-repeat process. Low-energy protons and high-energy light ions can be used to measure SEU cross section of single sensitive features; important for simulation.

  18. Muon Bunching and Phase-Energy Rotation for a Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuffer, David; Yoshikawa, Cary

    2008-04-01

    We have developed scenarios for capture, bunching and phase-energy rotation of muons from a proton source, using high-frequency rf systems. The method captures a maximal number of muons into a string of rf bunches with initial application in the neutrino factory design studies. For a muon collider, these bunches must be recombined for maximal luminosity, and our initial design produced a relatively long bunch train. In this paper we present more compact scenarios that obtain a smaller number of bunches, and, after some optimization, obtain cases that are better for both neutrino-factory and collider scenarios. We also consider further modification by incorporating hydrogen gas-filled rf cavities for bunching and cooling. We describe these examples and consider variations toward an optimal factory + collider scenario.

  19. Probing gauge-phobic heavy Higgs bosons at high energy hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Yu-Ping; Xia, Ling-Hao

    2015-07-01

    We study the probe of the gauge-phobic (or nearly gauge-phobic) heavy Higgs bosons (GPHB) at high energy hadron colliders including the 14 TeV LHC and the 50 TeV Super Proton-Proton Collider (SppC). We take the process pp → t t bar t t bar , and study it at the hadron level including simulating the jet formation and top quark tagging (with jet substructure). We show that, for a GPHB with MH < 800 GeV, MH can be determined by adjusting the value of MH in the theoretical pT (b1) distribution to fit the observed pT (b1) distribution, and the resonance peak can be seen at the SppC for MH = 800 GeV and 1 TeV.

  20. Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.

    2009-10-19

    Parameters are given of muon colliders with center of mass energies of 1.5 and 3 TeV. Pion production is from protons on a mercury target. Capture, decay, and phase rotation yields bunch trains of both muon signs. Six dimensional cooling reduces the emittances until the trains are merged into single bunches, one of each sign. Further cooling in 6 dimensions is then applied, followed by final transverse cooling in 50 T solenoids. After acceleration the muons enter the collider ring. Ongoing R&D is discussed.

  1. Crystal Ball: On the Future High Energy Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, Vladimir

    2015-09-20

    High energy particle colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics for more than three decades. At present the near term US, European and international strategies of the particle physics community are centered on full exploitation of the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). A number of next generation collider facilities have been proposed and are currently under consideration for the medium- and far-future of the accelerator-based high energy physics. In this paper we offer a uniform approach to evaluation of various accelerators based on the feasibility of their energy reach, performance reach and cost range. We briefly review such post-LHC options as linear e+e- colliders in Japan (ILC) or at CERN (CLIC), muon collider, and circular lepton or hadron colliders in China (CepC/SppC) and Europe (FCC). We conclude with a look into ultimate energy reach accelerators based on plasmas and crystals, and some perspectives for the far future of accelerator-based particle physics.

  2. Muon colliders: New prospects for precision physics and the high energy frontier

    SciTech Connect

    King, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    An overview is given of muon collider technology and of the current status of the muon collider research program. The exciting potential of muon colliders for both neutrino physics and collider physics studies is then described and illustrated using self-consistent collider parameter sets at 0.1 TeV to 100 TeV center-of-mass energies.

  3. INTERACTION OF A 24 GEV PROTON BEAM IWHT A MUON COLLIDER MERCURY JET TARGET EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND THERMODYNAMIC ASSESSMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    SIMOS,N.; KIRK,H.; FINFROCK,C.; GREENE,G.; LUDEWIG,H.; MCDONALD,K.; MOKHOV,N.

    2001-11-11

    A muon collider or a neutrino factory based on a muon storage ring require intense beams of muons that can be generated by a 1-4 MW proton beam incident on a moving target inside a 20-T solenoid magnet, with a mercury jet as a preferred example. This paper addresses the thermodynamic interaction of the intense proton beam with the proposed mercury jet target, and the consequences of the generated pressure waves on the target integrity. Specifically, a 24 GeV proton beam with approximately 16 TP (1 TP = 10{sup 12} protons) per pulse and a pulse length of 2 ns will interact with a 1 cm diameter mercury jet within the 20-Tesla magnetic field. In one option, a train of six such proton pulses is to be delivered on target within 2 {micro}s, in which case the state of the mercury jet following the interaction with each pulse is critical. Using the equation of state for mercury from the SESAME library, in combination with the energy deposition rates calculated the by the hadron interaction code MARS, the induced 3-D pressure field in the target is estimated. The consequent pressure wave propagation and attenuation in the mercury jet is calculated using a transient analysis based on finite element modeling, and the state of the mercury jet at the time of arrival of the subsequent pulse is assessed. Issues associated with the use of a liquid metal jet as a target candidate are addressed. Lastly, some experimental results from the BNL E951 experiment are presented and discussed.

  4. Heavy Meson Production at a Low-Energy Photon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Asztalos, S

    2004-04-15

    A low-energy {gamma}{gamma} collider has been discussed in the context of a testbed for a {gamma}{gamma} interaction region at the Next Linear Collider(NLC). We consider the production of heavy mesons at such a testbed using Compton-backscattered photons and demonstrate that their production rivals or exceeds those by BELLE, BABAR or LEP where they are produced indirectly via virtual {gamma}{gamma} luminosities.

  5. Muon collider progress

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, Robert J. FNAL

    1998-08-01

    Recent progress in the study of muon colliders is presented. An international collaboration consisting of over 100 individuals is involved in calculations and experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of this new type of lepton collider. Theoretical efforts are now concentrated on low-energy colliders in the 100 to 500 GeV center-of-mass energy range. Credible machine designs are emerging for much of a hypothetical complex from proton source to the final collider. Ionization cooling has been the most difficult part of the concept, and more powerful simulation tools are now in place to develop workable schemes. A collaboration proposal for a muon cooling experiment has been presented to the Fermilab Physics Advisory Committee, and a proposal for a targetry and pion collection channel experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory is in preparation. Initial proton bunching and space-charge compensation experiments at existing hadron facilities have occurred to demonstrate proton driver feasibility.

  6. Design of the Proposed Low Energy Ion Collider Ring at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Nissen, Edward W.; Lin, Fanglei; Morozov, Vasiliy; Zhang, Yuhong

    2013-06-01

    The polarized Medium energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) envisioned at Jefferson Lab will cover a range of center-of-mass energies up to 65 GeV. The present MEIC design could also allow the accommodation of low energy electron-ion collisions (LEIC) for additional science reach. This paper presents the first design of the low energy ion collider ring which is converted from the large ion booster of MEIC. It can reach up to 25 GeV energy for protons and equivalent ion energies of the same magnetic rigidity. An interaction region and an electron cooler designed for MEIC are integrated into the low energy collider ring, in addition to other required new elements including crab cavities and ion spin rotators, for later reuse in MEIC itself. A pair of vertical chicanes which brings the low energy ion beams to the plane of the electron ring and back to the low energy ion ring are also part of the design.

  7. Muon-muon and other high energy colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.; Gallardo, J.C.

    1997-02-01

    The first section looks at the high energy physics advantages, disadvantages and luminosity requirements of hadron, of lepton and photon-photon colliders for comparison. The second section discusses the physics considerations for the muon collider. The third section covers muon collider components. The fourth section is about the intersection region and detectors. In the fifth section, the authors discuss modifications to enhance the muon polarization`s operating parameters with very small momentum spreads, operations at energies other than the maximum for which the machine is designed, and designs of machines for different maximum energies. The final section discusses a Research and Development plan aimed at the operation of a 0.5 TeV demonstration machine by the year 2010, and of the 4 TeV machine by the year 2020.

  8. Strange quark suppression and strange hadron production in pp collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Long Haiyan; Feng Shengqin; Zhou Daimei; Yan Yuliang; Ma Hailiang; Sa Benhao

    2011-09-15

    The parton and hadron cascade model PACIAE based on PYTHIA is utilized to systematically investigate strange particle production in pp collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Globally speaking, the PACIAE results of the strange particle rapidity density at midrapidity and the transverse momentum distribution are better than those of PYTHIA (default) in comparison with STAR and ALICE experimental data. This may represent the importance of the parton and hadron rescatterings, as well as the reduction mechanism of strange quark suppression, added in the PACIAE model. The K/{pi} ratios as a function of reaction energy in pp collisions from CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) to LHC energies are also analyzed in this paper.

  9. Measurement of top anti-top cross section in proton - anti-proton collider at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Mal, Prolay Kumar

    2005-04-01

    Discovery of the top quark in 1995 at the Fermilab Tevatron collider concluded a long search following the 1977 discovery of bottom (b) quark [1] and represents another triumph of the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particles. Top quark is one of the fundamental fermions in the Standard Model of electroweak interactions and is the weak-isospin partner of the bottom quark. A precise measurement of top pair production cross-section would be a test of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) prediction. Presently, Tevatron is the world's highest energy collider where protons (p) and anti-protons ({anti p}) collide at a centre of mass energy (ps) of 1.96 TeV. At Tevatron top (t) and anti-top ({anti t}) quarks are predominantly pair produced through strong interactions--quark annihilation ({approx_equal} 85%) and gluon fusion ({approx_equal} 15%). Due to the large mass of top quark, t or {anti t} decays ({approx} 10{sup -25} sec) before hadronization and in SM framework, it decays to a W boson and a b quark with {approx} 100% branching ratio (BR). The subsequent decay of W boson determines the major signatures of t{anti t} decay. If both W bosons (coming from t and {anti t} decays) decay into leptons (viz., ev{sub e}, {mu}{nu}{sub {mu}} or {tau}{nu}{sub {tau}}) the corresponding t{bar t} decay is called dileptonic decay. Of all dileptonic decay modes of t{bar t}, the t{bar t} {yields} WWb{anti b} {yields} ev{sub e}{mu}{nu}{sub {mu}}b{anti b} (e{mu} channel) decay mode has the smallest background contamination from Z{sup 0} production or Drell-Yan process; simultaneously, it has the highest BR ({approx} 3.16%) [2] amongst all dileptonic decay modes of t{bar t}. During Run I (1992-1996) of Tevatron, three e{mu} candidate events were detected by D0 experiment, out of 80 candidate events (inclusive of all decay modes of t{bar t}). Due to the rarity of the t{bar t} events, the measured cross-section has large uncertainty in its value (viz., 5.69 {+-} 1.21(stat) {+-} 1.04(sys) pb {at

  10. CONCLUSIONS OF THE WORKSHOP [Hadron Colliders at the highest energy and luminosity

    SciTech Connect

    RUGGIERO,A.G.

    1996-11-04

    During this Workshop, it was concluded that a Proton-Proton Collider with an energy of 100 TeV per beam and a luminosity of about 10{sup 35} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} is feasible. The most important technical requirement for the realization of such a project is a large bending field. For instance, a field of 13 Tesla would be desirable. This is twice the field of the SSC superconducting magnets, which very likely may be achieved in a non-too-far future by extrapolation of the present technology. The design of this Collider would follow very closely the methods used for the design of the SSC and of the LHC, with the major noticeable difference that, because of the larger bending field and the larger beam energy, the performance is determined by the effects of the Synchrotron Radiation in the similar manner they affect the performance of an electron-positron collider. This fact has considerable beneficial consequences since it allows the attainment of large luminosity by reducing the beam dimensions at collision and by requiring, to some degree, less number of particles per beam. On the other end. the losses to synchrotron radiation are to be absorbed by the cryogenic system, and the vacuum system should be capable to cope with them. A more significant rf system may also be required.

  11. Neutral Higgs production at proton colliders in the CP-conserving NMSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebler, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    We discuss neutral Higgs boson production through gluon fusion and bottom-quark annihilation in the CP-conserving -invariant Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model at proton colliders. For gluon fusion we adapt well-known asymptotic expansions in supersymmetric particles for the inclusion of next-to-leading order contributions of squarks and gluinos from the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and include electroweak corrections involving light quarks. Together with the resummation of higher-order sbottom contributions in the bottom-quark Yukawa coupling for both production processes we thus present accurate cross section predictions implemented in a new release of the code SusHi. We elaborate on the new features of an additional SU singlet in the production of CP-even and -odd Higgs bosons with respect to the MSSM and include a short discussion of theoretical uncertainties.

  12. Color fluctuations in pA collisions at collider energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strikman, Mark

    2015-04-01

    In pA collisions at collider energies a projectile stays in a frozen configuration over the distances which by far exceed the nuclear diameter. As a result proton coherently interacts with nucleons along its impact parameter. In QCD nucleon is build of configurations of different transverse size which are expected to interact with different strength leading to the fluctuations of the global strength of the projectile interaction. Also, configurations of smaller size are expected to have a reduced gluon field leading to a correlation of soft and hard interactions. The shape of the distribution over the strength of interaction is strongly constrained by the diffractive pp data, behavior of the distribution for σ --> 0 expected in pQCD, etc. We developed a Monte Carlo procedure for taking into account these effects in soft collisions and collisions with a hard trigger taking into account difference of the transverse scales of hard and soft interactions. We predicted that distribution over the number of wounded nucleons should be broader than in the Glauber model in agreement with the recent LHC data. We argue that a strong violation of the Glauber approximation in the dependence of the rate of forward jet production on centrality observed in pA collisions at the LHC provides the first experimental evidence that parton configurations in the projectile proton containing a parton with large xp interact with a nuclei with a significantly smaller than average cross section and have smaller than average size. Implementing effects of the interaction strength fluctuations and using the ATLAS analysis of the dependence of the hadron production at backward rapidities on the number of wounded nucleons, we make quantitative predictions for the centrality dependence of the jet production rate as a function of the interaction strength σ(xp) . We find σ(xp = 0.6) ~σtot(pp)/2 which sheds light on the origin of the EMC effect. Future pA dijet studies along these lines would allow

  13. Unveiling the proton spin decomposition at a future electron-ion collider

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aschenauer, Elke C.; Sassot, Rodolfo; Stratmann, Marco

    2015-11-24

    We present a detailed assessment of how well a future electron-ion collider could constrain helicity parton distributions in the nucleon and, therefore, unveil the role of the intrinsic spin of quarks and gluons in the proton’s spin budget. Any remaining deficit in this decomposition will provide the best indirect constraint on the contribution due to the total orbital angular momenta of quarks and gluons. Specifically, all our studies are performed in the context of global QCD analyses based on realistic pseudodata and in the light of the most recent data obtained from polarized proton-proton collisions at BNL-RHIC that have providedmore » evidence for a significant gluon polarization in the accessible, albeit limited range of momentum fractions. We also present projections on what can be achieved on the gluon’s helicity distribution by the end of BNL-RHIC operations. As a result, all estimates of current and projected uncertainties are performed with the robust Lagrange multiplier technique.« less

  14. Unveiling the proton spin decomposition at a future electron-ion collider

    SciTech Connect

    Aschenauer, Elke C.; Sassot, Rodolfo; Stratmann, Marco

    2015-11-24

    We present a detailed assessment of how well a future electron-ion collider could constrain helicity parton distributions in the nucleon and, therefore, unveil the role of the intrinsic spin of quarks and gluons in the proton’s spin budget. Any remaining deficit in this decomposition will provide the best indirect constraint on the contribution due to the total orbital angular momenta of quarks and gluons. Specifically, all our studies are performed in the context of global QCD analyses based on realistic pseudodata and in the light of the most recent data obtained from polarized proton-proton collisions at BNL-RHIC that have provided evidence for a significant gluon polarization in the accessible, albeit limited range of momentum fractions. We also present projections on what can be achieved on the gluon’s helicity distribution by the end of BNL-RHIC operations. As a result, all estimates of current and projected uncertainties are performed with the robust Lagrange multiplier technique.

  15. High Energy Colliders as Tools to Understand the Early Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Tait, Tim

    2008-08-16

    Cosmological observations have reached a new era of precision, and reveal many interesting and puzzling features of the Universe. I will briefly review two of the most exciting mysteries: the nature of the dark components of the Universe, and the origin of the asymmetry between matter and anti-matter. I will argue that our best hope of unraveling these questions will need to combine information from the heavens with measurements in the lab at high energy particle accelerators. The end of run II of the Tevatron, the up-coming Large Hadron Collider and proposed International Linear Collider all have great potential to help us answer these questions in the near future.

  16. Searches for supersymmetry at high-energy colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Nachtman, Jane

    2010-01-15

    This review summarizes the state of the art in searches for supersymmetry at colliders on the eve of the Large Hadron Collider era. Supersymmetry is unique among extensions of the standard model in being motivated by naturalness, dark matter, and force unification, both with and without gravity. At the same time, weak-scale supersymmetry encompasses a wide range of experimental signals that are also found in many other frameworks. Motivations for supersymmetry are recalled and the various models and their distinctive features are reviewed. Searches for neutral and charged Higgs bosons and standard-model superpartners at the high energy frontier are summarized comprehensively, considering both canonical and noncanonical supersymmetric models, and including results from the LEP collider at CERN, HERA at DESY, and the Fermilab Tevatron.

  17. 100 TeV Proton-Antiproton Collider in the SSC Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, Peter

    2008-10-01

    Two developments over the past decade have made it possible to design a high-luminosity 100 TeV hadron collider in the SSC tunnel in Texas. First, superconducting magnet technology has matured so that it is now feasible to build 16 Tesla Nb3Sn dipoles and 450 T/m quadrupoles for a collider lattice. Second, Fermilab has advanced the state of art of antiproton sources so that it is possible to accumulate the antiprotons needed to sustain a luminosity of ˜10^35cm-2s-1 and techniques to sustain the luminosity during a store. Synchrotron damping of the beams has a time constant of ˜15 minutes, providing stability against mechanisms of slow emittance growth. The proposed single-ring collider would open a new era for high energy physics, after the LHC era that is about to begin, in which weak boson fusion would dominate as a pathway to new particle production. It would extend the reach for discovery beyond LHC by the same factor that LHC will extend beyond Tevatron.

  18. Multiplicity distributions in the forward rapidity region in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Premomoy; Muhuri, Sanjib

    2013-05-01

    Measured multiplicity distributions of primary charged particles produced in the forward rapidity region of the proton-proton (pp) collisions at the center-of-mass energy, s=7TeV, at the LHC have been analyzed in terms of the negative binomial distribution function. Like the multiplicity distributions in the midrapidity region for the pp collisions at s=7TeV, the distributions for the minimum bias events in the forward region are also better described with the superposition of two negative binomail distributions, as proposed by a two-component model of particle production from two processes, the soft and the hard. However, the multiplicity distribution for the “hard-QCD” events in a large pseudorapidity window does not oblige the two-component model.

  19. Gaugino physics of split supersymmetry spectra at the LHC and future proton colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sunghoon; Wells, James D.

    2014-04-01

    Discovery of the Higgs boson and lack of discovery of superpartners in the first run at the LHC are both predictions of split supersymmetry with thermal dark matter. We discuss what it would take to find gluinos at hadron supercolliders, including the LHC at 14 TeV center-of-mass energy, and future pp colliders at 100 TeV and 200 TeV. We generalize the discussion by reexpressing the search capacity in terms of the gluino to lightest superpartner mass ratio and apply results to other scenarios, such as gauge mediation and mirage mediation.

  20. High energy collider physics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ruchti, R.C.; Biswas, N.N.; Wayne, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    With the demise of the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) Project, there was great concern that the technological developments for that accelerator and its associated detectors might well be lost in the aftermath. In the case of scintillating fiber tracking, such as not been the case. During the period 1990--1993, several tracking technologies were under development for SDC, including Scintillating Fiber Tracking, Straw-tubes, and Microstrip Gas Chambers. In summer 1990, several members of the Fiber Tracking Group (FTG) proposed the use of Scintillating Fiber Tracking to the D0 experiment at Fermilab. This proposal was accepted, and D0 now is building a 75,000 fiber channel tracking detector with readout via Visible Light Photon Counters (VLPC) which were devices pioneered by the SDC Fiber Tracking Group. In addition, all the preshower detectors for D0 also make use of fiber readout (in this case waveshifting fibers) and VLPC for photosensing. In February 1993, a full 7 months prior to cancellation of the SSC project by Congress, the SDC experiment rejected scintillating fiber tracking for further development. Fortunately for all concerned, the D0 experiment had already embraced this technology, so this important detector concept could be further developed, refined, and utilized for physics experimentation. In early 2000, data will be taken with the D0 fiber tracker to study Top Quarks, Beauty Particles, Electroweak Physics, QCD phenomena, and to search for new phenomena. The University of Notre Dame has played a fundamental and seminal role in the development and implementation of this detector technology. R. Ruchti has served as cospokesman of the Fiber Tracking Group since its inception in 1989, and has been a pioneer of fiber tracking technology since 1980. In addition, at least one other experiment at Fermilab, E835, has utilized scintillating fibers with VLPC readout to study Charmonium in proton-antiproton collisions using a gas-jet target in the Tevatron

  1. Expectations for old and new physics at high energy colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Cahn, R.N.

    1982-12-01

    During the past year, the first data from the SPS collider at CERN have become available. The initial results are only a glimpse at a new energy regime and we can reasonably expect an increase in the extent of the data by a factor of 10/sup 4/ to 10/sup 5/. Moreover, within a few years, the Fermilab Tevatron Collider will be in operation with a center of mass energy nearly four times as great as that at CERN. Beyond these machines are other possibilities: a high luminosity pp machine at Brookhaven with a center of mass energy of 0.8 TeV; a p anti p or pp machine in the LEP tunnel at CERN; a desetron in the southwestern United States with many TeV in the center of mass. The purpose of these lectures is to provide an orientation for the wealth of data that these machines will provide.

  2. Stochastic cooling of a high energy collider

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Lee, R.C.; Mernick, K.

    2011-09-04

    Gold beams in RHIC revolve more than a billion times over the course of a data acquisition session or store. During operations with these heavy ions the event rates in the detectors decay as the beams diffuse. A primary cause for this beam diffusion is small angle Coloumb scattering of the particles within the bunches. This intra-beam scattering (IBS) is particularly problematic at high energy because the negative mass effect removes the possibility of even approximate thermal equilibrium. Stochastic cooling can combat IBS. A theory of bunched beam cooling was developed in the early eighties and stochastic cooling systems for the SPS and the Tevatron were explored. Cooling for heavy ions in RHIC was also considered.

  3. PHANTOM: A Monte Carlo event generator for six parton final states at high energy colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballestrero, Alessandro; Belhouari, Aissa; Bevilacqua, Giuseppe; Kashkan, Vladimir; Maina, Ezio

    2009-03-01

    PHANTOM is a tree level Monte Carlo for six parton final states at proton-proton, proton-antiproton and electron-positron colliders at O(αEM6) and O(αEM4αS2) including possible interferences between the two sets of diagrams. This comprehends all purely electroweak contributions as well as all contributions with one virtual or two external gluons. It can generate unweighted events for any set of processes and it is interfaced to parton shower and hadronization packages via the latest Les Houches Accord protocol. It can be used to analyze the physics of boson-boson scattering, Higgs boson production in boson-boson fusion, tt¯ and three boson production. Program summaryProgram title:PHANTOM (V. 1.0) Catalogue identifier: AECE_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECE_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 175 787 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 965 898 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer: Any with a UNIX, LINUX compatible Fortran compiler Operating system: UNIX, LINUX RAM: 500 MB Classification: 11.1 External routines: LHAPDF (Les Houches Accord PDF Interface, http://projects.hepforge.org/lhapdf/), CIRCE (beamstrahlung for ee ILC collider). Nature of problem: Six fermion final state processes have become important with the increase of collider energies and are essential for the study of top, Higgs and electroweak symmetry breaking physics at high energy colliders. Since thousands of Feynman diagrams contribute in a single process and events corresponding to hundreds of different final states need to be generated, a fast and stable calculation is needed. Solution method:PHANTOM is a tree level Monte Carlo for six parton final states at proton-proton, proton-antiproton and

  4. Universal scaling behavior of molecular electronic stopping cross section for protons colliding with small molecules and nucleobases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo-López, L. N.; Martínez-Flores, C.; Cabrera-Trujillo, R.

    2013-10-01

    The electronic stopping cross section and mean excitation energy for molecules and 5 nucleobases have been calculated within the first Born approximation in terms of an orbital decomposition to take into account the molecular structure. The harmonic oscillator (HO) description of the stopping cross section together with a Floating Spherical Gaussian Orbital (FSGO) model is implemented to account for the chemical composition of the target. This approach allows us to use bonds, cores, and lone pairs as HO basis to describe the ground state molecular structure. In the HO model, the orbital angular frequency is the only parameter that connects naturally with the mean excitation energy. As a result, we obtain a simple expression for the equivalent mean excitation energy in terms of the orbital radius parameter, as well as an analytical expression of the stopping cross section. For gas phase molecular targets, we provide HO based orbital mean excitation energies to describe any molecule containing C, N, O, H, and P atoms. We present results for protons colliding with H2, N2, O2, H2O, CO2, propylene (C3H6), methane (CH4), ethylene (C2H4) and the nucleobases - guanine (C5H5N5O), cytosine (C4H5N2O2), thymine (C5H6N2O2), adenine (C5H5N5) and uracil (C4H4N2O2). The results for the stopping cross section are compared with available experimental and theoretical data showing good to excellent agreement in the region of validity of the model. The HO approach allows us to obtain a universal stopping cross section formula to describe a universal scaling behavior for the energy loss process. The universal scaled curve is confirmed by the experimental data.

  5. Science Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Polarized Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jlab

    SciTech Connect

    Abeyratne, S; Ahmed, S; Barber, D; Bisognano, J; Bogacz, A; Castilla, A; Chevtsov, P; Corneliussen, S; Deconinck, W; Degtiarenko, P; Delayen, J; Derbenev, Ya; DeSilva, S; Douglas, D; Dudnikov, V; Ent, R; Erdelyi, B; Evtushenko, P; Fujii, Yu; Filatov, Yury; Gaskell, D; Geng, R; Guzey, V; Horn, T; Hutton, A; Hyde, C; Johnson, R; Kim, Y; Klein, F; Kondratenko, A; Kondratenko, M; Krafft, G; Li, R; Lin, F; Manikonda, S; Marhauser, F; McKeown, R; Morozov, V; Dadel-Turonski, P; Nissen, E; Ostroumov, P; Pivi, M; Pilat, F; Poelker, M; Prokudin, A; Rimmer, R; Satogata, T; Sayed, H; Spata, M; Sullivan, M; Tennant, C; Terzic, B; Tiefenback, M; Wang, M; Wang, S; Weiss, C; Yunn, B; Zhang, Y

    2012-08-01

    beginning, the design studies at Jefferson Lab have focused on achieving high collider performance, particularly ultrahigh luminosities up to 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} per detector with large acceptance, while maintaining high polarization for both the electron and light-ion beams. These are the two key performance requirements of a future electron-ion collider facility as articulated by the NSAC Long Range Plan. In MEIC, a new ion complex is designed specifically to deliver ion beams that match the high bunch repetition and highly polarized electron beam from CEBAF. During the last two years, both development of the science case and optimization of the machine design point toward a medium-energy electron-ion collider as the topmost goal for Jefferson Lab. The MEIC, with relatively compact collider rings, can deliver a luminosity above 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} at a center-of-mass energy up to 65 GeV. It offers an electron energy up to 11 GeV, a proton energy up to 100 GeV, and corresponding energies per nucleon for heavy ions with the same magnetic rigidity. This design choice balances the scope of the science program, collider capabilities, accelerator technology innovation, and total project cost. An energy upgrade could be implemented in the future by adding two large collider rings housed in another large tunnel to push the center-of-mass energy up to or exceeding 140 GeV. After careful consideration of an alternative electron energy recovery linac on ion storage ring approach, a ring-ring collider scenario at high bunch repetition frequency was found to offer fully competitive performance while eliminating the uncertainties of challenging R&D on ampere-class polarized electron sources and many-pass energy-recovery linacs (ERLs). The essential new elements of an MEIC facility at Jefferson Lab are an electron storage ring and an entirely new, modern ion acceleration and storage complex. For the high-current electron collider ring, the upgraded 12 GeV CEBAF SRF

  6. Energy loss of charged particles colliding with an oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, D. N.

    2015-04-01

    Energy loss of fast charged particles colliding with an oscillator is considered in the dipole approximation. In this approximation, the problem is solved exactly and the energy loss of the oscillator from the initial state | m> = |0> is found in the form of the sum of single integrals. It is shown that passing to the limit, the Bethe theory for an atom with small perturbations can be obtained, and in the case of strong fields, the correction to the Bethe theory, analogous to the Bloch correction, can be calculated; in addition, a classical limit coinciding with the Bohr formula is possible.

  7. Free Electron Laser for Gamma-Gamma Collider at a Low-Energy Option of International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Saldin, Evgeny; Schneidmiller, Evgeny; Yurkov, Mikhail; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2009-10-30

    Different scenarios of a start-up with International Linear Collider (ILC) are under discussion at the moment in the framework of the Global Design Effort (GDE). One of them assumes construction of the ILC in stages from some minimum CM energy up to final target of 500 GeV CM energy. Gamma-gamma collider with CM energy of 180GeV is considered as a candidate for the first stage of the facility. In this report we present conceptual design of a free electron laser as a source of primary photons for the first stage of ILC.

  8. Conceptual Design Report. Antiproton - Proton Collider Upgrade 20 GeV Rings. Technical Components and Civil Construction May, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    1988-05-01

    This report contains a description of the design and cost estimate of two new 20 GeV rings which will be required to support the upgrade of the Fermilab Collider with a luminosity goal of 5x10 31 cm-2s-1. The new rings include an antiproton post-accumulator, denoted the Antiproton Super Booster (ASB), and a proton post-booster, denoted the Proton Super Booster (PSB). The siting of the rings is shown in Figure I-1. Both rings are capable of operation at 20 GeV, eliminating the need for ever again injecting beam into the Main Ring below transition, and significantly enhancing Main Ring performance. The Antiproton Super Booster is designed to accept and accumulate up to 4x1012 antiprotons from the existing Antiproton Accumulator, and deliver them to the Main Ring at 20 GeV for acceleration and injection into the Collider. It is also designed to accept diluted antiprotons from the Main Ring at 20 GeV for recooling. The PSB accepts 8.9 GeV protons from the existing Booster and accelerates them to 20 GeV for injection into the Main Ring. The PSB is designed to operate at 5 Hz. The siting shown in Figure I-1 has the attractive feature that it removes all Main Ring injection hardware from the AO straight section, opening the possibility of installing a third proton-antiproton interaction region in the Tevatron Collider.

  9. FEL-based coherent electron cooling for high-energy hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko,V.N.; Derbenev, Y.S.

    2008-06-23

    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams is a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation is too feeble and two common methods--stochastic and electron cooling--are not efficient in providing significant cooling for high energy, high intensity proton colliders. In this paper they discuss a practical scheme of Coherent Electron Cooling (CeC), which promises short cooling times (below one hour) for intense proton beams in RHIC at 250 GeV or in LHC at 7 TeV. A possibility of CeC using various microwave instabilities was discussed since 1980s. In this paper, they present first evaluation of specific CeC scheme based on capabilities of present-day accelerator technology, ERLs, and high-gain Free-Electron lasers (FELs). They discuss the principles, the main limitations of this scheme and present some predictions for Coherent Electron Cooling in RHIC and the LHC operating with ions or protons, summarized in Table 1.

  10. Heavy flavor production at fixed target and collider energies

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.

    1988-10-13

    A review is presented of heavy quark production in /bar p/p, p, and pp interactions at fixed target and collider energies. Calculations of total cross sections are described including contributions through next-to-leading order in QCD perturbation theory. Comparisons with available data on charm and bottom quark production show good agreement for reasonable values of charm and bottom quark masses and other parameters. Open issues in the interpretation of results are summarized. A discussion is presented of signatures, backgrounds, and expected event rates for top quark production. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Single electron capture cross sections for protons colliding with neon and methane targets: effects of the initial vibrational state of CH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera-Trujillo, R.; Hernández, L.; Hernández, E. M.; Hinojosa, G.

    2016-02-01

    The process of neutralization of ions induced by collisions is crucial to understanding the chemical evolution of interstellar gas. However, the role of the initial vibrational state of the target molecule is not completely understood. In this work, we carry out a combined experimental and theoretical study of the vibrational target effects on the single electron charge exchange cross sections for protons colliding with CH4 in the keV energy region. We complement our study by analyzing the single electron capture from the iso-electronic neon atom to discern similarities and differences. For our experimental study, we use the growth-rate method for the determination of the single electron capture cross section on both systems. For the theoretical study, we use an electron-nuclear dynamics approach for the time evolution of the system wave function to find out the final projectile charge state. We report charge exchange probabilities and cross sections for H+ projectiles when colliding on both targets. We find that these ten-electron systems would have an asymptotically similar charge exchange cross section at high collision energies and would differentiate in the intermediate to low collision energies due to the energetics of the valence electrons and initial vibrational state. In the case of the protons colliding with CH4, we find that it is easier to capture an electron from a CH4 target than from the Ne. Furthermore, we find that low vibrational states have a higher contribution to the electron capture cross section as the collision energy is reduced. We stress the importance of taking into account the initial bending and stretching vibrational modes in the study of the electron capture process. For the neon target, the high ionization potential of the valence electrons produces a smaller charge exchange cross section for low proton collision energies when compared to the CH4 target. We report good comparison to available experimental data. We expect our findings

  12. Centrality dependence of high energy jets in p +Pb collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bzdak, Adam; Skokov, Vladimir; Bathe, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The recently measured centrality dependence of high energy jets in proton-lead collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is investigated. We hypothesize that events with jets of very high energy (a few hundred GeV) are characterized by a suppressed number of soft particles, thus shifting these events into more peripheral bins. This naturally results in the suppression (enhancement) of the nuclear modification factor, Rp A, in central (peripheral) collisions. Our calculations suggest that a moderate suppression of the order of 20 % , for 103 GeV jets, can quantitatively reproduce the experimental data. We further extract the suppression factor as a function of jet energy and test our conjecture using available Rp A data for various centralities.

  13. Muon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B. |; Sessler, A.; Skrinsky, A.

    1996-01-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should thus be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV high luminosity {micro}{sup +}{micro}{sup {minus}}colliders, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate the muons and proceeding through muon cooling, acceleration and storage in a collider ring. Problems of detector background are also discussed.

  14. A robust jet reconstruction algorithm for high-energy lepton colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boronat, M.; Fuster, J.; García, I.; Ros, E.; Vos, M.

    2015-11-01

    We propose a new sequential jet reconstruction algorithm for future lepton colliders at the energy frontier. The Valencia algorithm combines the natural distance criterion for lepton colliders with the greater robustness against backgrounds of algorithms adapted to hadron colliders. Results on a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of t t bar and ZZ production at future linear e+e- colliders (ILC and CLIC) with a realistic level of background overlaid, show that it achieves better performance in the presence of background than the classical algorithms used at previous e+e- colliders.

  15. An intense low energy muon source for the muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    Taqqu, D.

    1996-05-01

    A scheme for obtaining an intense source of low energy muons is described. It is based on the production of pions in a high field magnetic bottle trap. By ensuring efficient slowing down and extraction of the decay muons an intense intermediate energy muon beam is obtained. For the specific case of negative muons a novel technique called frictional accumulation provides efficient conversion into a 10 keV{mu}{sup {minus}} beam whose emittance is then reduced in a configuration providing extended frictional cooling. The result is a beam of very small transverse and longitudinal emittance that can be used together with an equivalent {mu}{sup +} beam as compact intense muon source for the {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} collider. A final luminosity around 10{sup 34} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} is expected to be obtained at 2 TeV. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering Excitation Functions at Intermediate Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Bisplinghoff, J.; Daniel, R.; Diehl, O.; Engelhardt, H.; Ernst, J.; Eversheim, P.; Gro-Hardt, R.; Heider, S.; Heine, A.; Hinterberger, F.; Jahn, R.; Jeske, M.; Lahr, U.; Maschuw, R.; Mayer-Kuckuk, T.; Mosel, F.; Rohdje, H.; Rosendaal, D.; Ro, U.; Scheid, H.; Schulz-Rojahn, M.; Schwandt, F.; Schwarz, V.; Trelle, H.; Wiedmann, W.; Ziegler, R.; Albers, D.; Bollmann, R.; Bueer, K.; Dohrmann, F.; Gasthuber, M.; Greiff, J.; Gro, A.; Igelbrink, M.; Langkau, R.; Lindlein, J.; Mueller, M.; Muenstermann, M.; Schirm, N.; Scobel, W.; Wellinghausen, A.; Woller, K.; Cloth, P.; Gebel, R.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.; von Rossen, P.; Sterzenbach, G.

    1997-03-01

    Excitation functions of proton-proton elastic scattering cross sections have been measured in narrow steps for projectile momenta p{sub p} (energies T{sub p}) from 1100 to 3300MeV/c (500 to 2500MeV) in the angular range 35{degree}{le}{Theta}{sub c.m.}{le}90{degree} with a detector providing {Delta}{Theta}{sub c.m.}{approx}1.4{degree} resolution. Measurements have been performed continuously during projectile acceleration in the cooler synchrotron COSY with an internal CH{sub 2} fiber target, taking particular care to monitor luminosity as a function of T{sub p}. The advantages of this experimental technique are demonstrated, and the excitation functions obtained are compared to existing cross section data. No evidence for narrow structures was found. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Radiative return capabilities of a high-energy, high-luminositye+e-collider

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Karliner, Marek; Low, Matthew; Rosner, Jonathan L.; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2015-08-14

    An electron-positron collider operating at a center-of-mass energy ECM can collect events at all lower energies through initial-state radiation (ISR or radiative return). We explore the capabilities for radiative return studies by a proposed high-luminosity collider at ECM = 250 or 90 GeV, to fill in gaps left by lower-energy colliders such as PEP, PETRA, TRISTAN, and LEP. These capabilities are compared with those of the lower-energy e+e- colliders as well as hadron colliders such as the Tevatron and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Some examples of accessible questions in dark photon searches and heavy flavor spectroscopy are given.

  18. Photon desorption measurements of copper and copper plated beam tubes for the SSCL 20 TeV proton collider

    SciTech Connect

    Foerster, C.L.; Lanni, C. ); Maslennikov, I.; Turner, W. )

    1994-07-01

    Relativistic protons circulating in the SSCL 20 TeV collider emit synchrotron radiation (10[sup 16] photons/m/s, [ital E][sub crit]=284 eV). This radiation will photodesorb gases from the walls of the beam tube. The 4.2 K superconducting magnet bore tubes will act as very long distributed pumps. Build up of cryosorbed gases could severely limit collider operation and may require a bore tube liner to hide cryosorbed molecules from the photon flux and to increase the H[sub 2] pumping capacity. To predict collider vacuum performance, photon stimulated desorption experiments have been running at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at BNL and on the VEPP2M storage ring at BINP, Novosibirsk, Russia. At the U10B beamline of the VUV ring at NSLS, beam tube samples were exposed to over 10[sup 23] photons/m with [ital E][sub crit]=486 eV and incident angle=12 mrad. Unbaked copper and copper plated stainless steel have been tested. In addition, results have been obtained with a 1100 G dipole magnetic field and with a 350 [degree]C vacuum bake. Results are presented and compared with other measurements at the NSLS and at other laboratories.

  19. Energy Production Demonstrator for Megawatt Proton Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Pronskikh, Vitaly S.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Novitski, Igor; Tyutyunnikov, Sergey I.

    2014-07-16

    A preliminary study of the Energy Production Demonstrator (EPD) concept - a solid heavy metal target irradiated by GeV-range intense proton beams and producing more energy than consuming - is carried out. Neutron production, fission, energy deposition, energy gain, testing volume and helium production are simulated with the MARS15 code for tungsten, thorium, and natural uranium targets in the proton energy range 0.5 to 120 GeV. This study shows that the proton energy range of 2 to 4 GeV is optimal for both a natU EPD and the tungsten-based testing station that would be the most suitable for proton accelerator facilities. Conservative estimates, not including breeding and fission of plutonium, based on the simulations suggest that the proton beam current of 1 mA will be sufficient to produce 1 GW of thermal output power with the natU EPD while supplying < 8% of that power to operate the accelerator. The thermal analysis shows that the concept considered has a problem due to a possible core meltdown; however, a number of approaches (a beam rastering, in first place) are suggested to mitigate the issue. The efficiency of the considered EPD as a Materials Test Station (MTS) is also evaluated in this study.

  20. Determination of Dark Matter Properties at High-Energy Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Baltz, Edward A.; Battaglia, Marco; Peskin, Michael E.; Wizansky, Tommer

    2006-11-05

    If the cosmic dark matter consists of weakly-interacting massive particles, these particles should be produced in reactions at the nextgeneration of high-energy accelerators. Measurements at these accelerators can then be used to determine the microscopic properties of the dark matter. From this, we can predict the cosmic density, the annihilation cross sections, and the cross sections relevant to direct detection. In this paper, we present studies in supersymmetry models with neutralino dark matter that give quantitative estimates of the accuracy that can be expected. We show that these are well matched to the requirements of anticipated astrophysical observations of dark matter. The capabilities of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) are expected to play a particularly important role in this study.

  1. Heavy quarkonium production at collider energies: Factorization and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Ma, Yan-Qing; Qiu, Jian-Wei; Sterman, George

    2014-08-01

    We present a perturbative QCD factorization formalism for inclusive production of heavy quarkonia of large transverse momentum, pT at collider energies, including both leading power (LP) and next-to-leading power (NLP) behavior in pT. We demonstrate that both LP and NLP contributions can be factorized in terms of perturbatively calculable short-distance partonic coefficient functions and universal nonperturbative fragmentation functions, and derive the evolution equations that are implied by the factorization. We identify projection operators for all channels of the factorized LP and NLP infrared safe short-distance partonic hard parts, and corresponding operator definitions of fragmentation functions. For the NLP, we focus on the contributions involving the production of a heavy quark pair, a necessary condition for producing a heavy quarkonium. We evaluate the first nontrivial order of evolution kernels for all relevant fragmentation functions, and discuss the role of NLP contributions.

  2. Klystron switching power supplies for the Internation Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Fraioli, Andrea; /Cassino U. /INFN, Pisa

    2009-12-01

    The International Linear Collider is a majestic High Energy Physics particle accelerator that will give physicists a new cosmic doorway to explore energy regimes beyond the reach of today's accelerators. ILC will complement the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a proton-proton collider at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, by producing electron-positron collisions at center of mass energy of about 500 GeV. In particular, the subject of this dissertation is the R&D for a solid state Marx Modulator and relative switching power supply for the International Linear Collider Main LINAC Radio Frequency stations.

  3. A high energy e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider in a ``really large`` tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J.; Keil, E.

    1996-12-31

    Recent developments in tunneling technology imply that it is possible to consider much larger tunnels for high energy circular colliders in the future. Tunnels with diameters of 200 km are being considered for a low field hadron collider called the Really Large Hadron Collider (RLHC). This tunnel might be produced for a cost of about 1000 $/m. An e{sup +}e{sup -} collider in this tunnel could perhaps study {ital t{anti t}} production at threshold with good resolution, Higgs production and e/p collisions at high energy. This note considers some of the parameters and issues of such a machine.

  4. 9-D polarized proton transport in the MEIC figure-8 collider ring: first steps

    SciTech Connect

    Meot, F.; Morozov, V. S.

    2014-10-24

    Spin tracking studies in the MEIC figure-8 collider ion ring are presented, based on a very preliminary design of the lattice. They provide numerical illustrations of some of the aspects of the figure-8 concept, including spin-rotator based spin control, and lay out the path towards a complete spin tracking simulation of a figure-8 ring.

  5. 9-D polarized proton transport in the MEIC figure 8 collider ring - first steps

    SciTech Connect

    Meot, F.; Morozov, V. S.

    2015-05-03

    Spin tracking studies in the MEIC figure-8 collider ion ring are presented, based on a very preliminary design of the lattice. They provide numerical illustrations of some of the aspects of the figure-8 concept, including spin-rotator based spin control, and lay out the path towards a complete spin tracking simulation of a figure-8 ring.

  6. HIGH-ENERGY PARTICLE COLLIDERS: PAST 20 YEARS, NEXT 20 YEARS, AND BEYOND

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, V.

    2013-09-25

    Particle colliders for high-energy physics have been in the forefront of scientific discoveries for more than half a century. The accelerator technology of the colliders has progressed immensely, while the beam energy, luminosity, facility size, and cost have grown by several orders of magnitude. The method of colliding beams has not fully exhausted its potential but has slowed down considerably in its progress. This paper briefly reviews the colliding beam method and the history of colliders, discusses the development of the method over the last two decades in detail, and examines near-term collider projects that are currently under development. The paper concludes with an attempt to look beyond the current horizon and to find what paradigm changes are necessary

  7. STUDIES FOR MUON COLLIDERS AT CENTER-OF-MASS ENERGIES OF 10 TEV AND 100 TEV.

    SciTech Connect

    KING,B.J.

    1999-03-29

    Parameter lists are presented for speculative muon colliders at center-of-mass energies of 10 TeV and 100 TeV. The technological advances required to achieve the given parameters are itemized and discussed. and a discussion is given of the design goals and constraints. An important constraint for multi-TeV muon colliders is the need to minimize neutrino radiation from the collider ring.

  8. Energies of backstreaming protons in the foreshock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstadt, E. W.

    1976-01-01

    A predicted pattern of energy vs detector location in the cislunar region is displayed for protons of zero pitch angle traveling upstream away from the quasi-parallel bow shock. The pattern is implied by upstream wave boundary properties. In the solar ecliptic, protons are estimated to have a minimum of 1.1 times the solar wind bulk energy E sub SW when the wave boundary is in the early morning sector and a maximum of 8.2 E sub SW when the boundary is near the predawn flank.

  9. Role of projectile charge state in convoy electron emission by fast protons colliding with LiF(0 0 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldazabal, I.; Gravielle, M. S.; Miraglia, J. E.; Arnau, A.; Ponce, V. H.

    2005-05-01

    Target ionization and projectile ionization differential cross sections are used to calculate the electron emission spectra by fast proton impact on ionic crystal surfaces under grazing incidence conditions. Both bare protons and neutral hydrogen species are considered. We use a planar potential approach to determine the projectile trajectory that later on allows us to calculate the charge state fractions. We show that, although the fraction of protons is significantly higher, the contribution from neutral hydrogen ionization has to be considered. The energy and angular dependence of the spectra is analyzed.

  10. High energy accelerator and colliding beam user group. Progress report, March 1, 1983-February 29, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Topics covered in this research summary include: status of the OPAL collaboration at LEP, CERN; two-photon physics at PLUTO; search for new particles at JADE; neutrinoless double beta decay at DESY; Fermilab jet experiment; neutrino deuterium experiment in the 15 foot bubble chamber at Fermilab; deep inelastic muon experiment at Fermilab; new experiments at the proton-antiproton collider; neutrino-electron scattering at Los Alamos; parity violation in proton-proton scattering; an upgrade of laboratory and computer facilities; and a study of bismuth germanate as a durable scintillation crystal. (GHT)

  11. Three-hadron angular correlations in high-energy proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions from perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, Alejandro; Ortiz, Antonio; Paic, Guy; Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Magnin, J.; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena

    2011-08-15

    We study three-hadron azimuthal angular correlations in high-energy proton-proton and central nucleus-nucleus collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the CERN Large Hadron Collider at midrapidity. We use the leading-order parton matrix elements for 2{yields}3 processes and include the effect of parton energy loss in the quark-gluon plasma using the modified fragmentation function approach. For the case when the produced hadrons have either the same or not too different momenta, we observe two away-side peaks at 2{pi}/3 and 4{pi}/3. We consider the dependence of the angular correlations on energy loss parameters that have been used in studies of single inclusive hadron production at RHIC. Our results on the angular dependence of the cross section agree well with preliminary data by the PHENIX Collaboration. We comment on the possible contribution of 2{yields}3 processes to dihadron angular correlations and how a comparison of the two processes may help characterize the plasma further.

  12. Sensitivity of isolated photon production at TeV hadron colliders to the gluon distribution in the proton

    SciTech Connect

    Ichou, Raphaeelle; D'Enterria, David

    2010-07-01

    We compare the single inclusive spectra of isolated photons measured at high transverse energy in proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}(s)=1.96 TeV with next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD predictions with various parametrizations of the parton distribution functions (PDFs). Within the experimental and theoretical uncertainties, the Tevatron data can be reproduced equally well by the recent CTEQ6.6, MSTW08, and NNPDF1.2 PDF sets. We also present the predictions for isolated {gamma} spectra in proton-proton collisions at {radical}(s)=14 TeV for central (y=0) and forward (y=4) rapidities relevant for LHC experiments. Different proton PDFs result in maximum variations of order {+-}30% in the expected E{sub T}{sup {gamma}-}differential isolated {gamma} cross sections. The inclusion of the isolated photon data in global PDF fits will place extra independent constraints on the gluon density.

  13. Results on damage induced by high-energy protons in LYSO calorimeter crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dissertori, G.; Luckey, D.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pauss, F.; Quittnat, M.; Wallny, R.; Glaser, M.

    2014-05-01

    Lutetium-Yttrium Orthosilicate doped with Cerium (LYSO), as a bright scintillating crystal, is a candidate for calorimetry applications in strong ionising-radiation fields and large high-energy hadron fluences are expected at the CERN Large Hadron Collider after the planned High-Luminosity upgrade. There, proton-proton collisions will produce fast hadron fluences up to ~ 5 ×1014cm-2 in the large-rapidity regions of the calorimeters. The performance of LYSO has been investigated, after exposure to different fluences of 24 GeV c-1 protons. Measured changes in optical transmission as a function of proton fluence are presented, and the evolution over time due to spontaneous recovery at room temperature is studied. The activation of materials will also be an issue in the described environment. Studies of the ambient dose induced by LYSO and its evolution with time, in comparison with other scintillating crystals, have also been performed through measurements and FLUKA simulations.

  14. Calibration of a proton beam energy monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Moyers, M. F.; Coutrakon, G. B.; Ghebremedhin, A.; Shahnazi, K.; Koss, P.; Sanders, E.

    2007-06-15

    Delivery of therapeutic proton beams requires an absolute energy accuracy of {+-}0.64 to 0.27 MeV for patch fields and a relative energy accuracy of {+-}0.10 to 0.25 MeV for tailoring the depth dose distribution using the energy stacking technique. Achromatic switchyard tunes, which lead to better stability of the beam incident onto the patient, unfortunately limit the ability of switchyard magnet tesla meters to verify the correct beam energy within the tolerances listed above. A new monitor to measure the proton energy before each pulse is transported through the switchyard has been installed into a proton synchrotron. The purpose of this monitor is to correct and/or inhibit beam delivery when the measured beam energy is outside of the tolerances for treatment. The monitor calculates the beam energy using data from two frequency and eight beam position monitors that measure the revolution frequency of the proton bunches and the effective offset of the orbit from the nominal radius of the synchrotron. The new energy monitor has been calibrated by measuring the range of the beam through water and comparing with published range-energy tables for various energies. A relationship between depth dose curves and range-energy tables was first determined using Monte Carlo simulations of particle transport and energy deposition. To reduce the uncertainties associated with typical scanning water phantoms, a new technique was devised in which the beam energy was scanned while fixed thickness water tanks were sandwiched between two fixed parallel plate ionization chambers. Using a multitude of tank sizes, several energies were tested to determine the nominal accelerator orbit radius. After calibration, the energy reported by the control system matched the energy derived by range measurements to better than 0.72 MeV for all nine energies tested between 40 and 255 MeV with an average difference of -0.33 MeV. A study of different combinations of revolution frequency and radial

  15. Calibration of a proton beam energy monitor.

    PubMed

    Moyers, M F; Coutrakon, G B; Ghebremedhin, A; Shahnazi, K; Koss, P; Sanders, E

    2007-06-01

    Delivery of therapeutic proton beams requires an absolute energy accuracy of +/-0.64 to 0.27 MeV for patch fields and a relative energy accuracy of +/-0.10 to 0.25 MeV for tailoring the depth dose distribution using the energy stacking technique. Achromatic switchyard tunes, which lead to better stability of the beam incident onto the patient, unfortunately limit the ability of switchyard magnet tesla meters to verify the correct beam energy within the tolerances listed above. A new monitor to measure the proton energy before each pulse is transported through the switchyard has been installed into a proton synchrotron. The purpose of this monitor is to correct and/or inhibit beam delivery when the measured beam energy is outside of the tolerances for treatment. The monitor calculates the beam energy using data from two frequency and eight beam position monitors that measure the revolution frequency of the proton bunches and the effective offset of the orbit from the nominal radius of the synchrotron. The new energy monitor has been calibrated by measuring the range of the beam through water and comparing with published range-energy tables for various energies. A relationship between depth dose curves and range-energy tables was first determined using Monte Carlo simulations of particle transport and energy deposition. To reduce the uncertainties associated with typical scanning water phantoms, a new technique was devised in which the beam energy was scanned while fixed thickness water tanks were sandwiched between two fixed parallel plate ionization chambers. Using a multitude of tank sizes, several energies were tested to determine the nominal accelerator orbit radius. After calibration, the energy reported by the control system matched the energy derived by range measurements to better than 0.72 MeV for all nine energies tested between 40 and 255 MeV with an average difference of -0.33 MeV. A study of different combinations of revolution frequency and radial

  16. High Energy Accelerator and Colliding Beam User Group

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, G.A.; Skuja, A.

    1992-05-01

    This report discusses research in the following areas: the study of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions; Hadron collider physics at Fermilab; fixed target physics and particle physics of general interest; and, the solenoidal detector collaboration at SSCL.

  17. Search for the Flavor-Changing Neutral Current in Top Pair Events in √s = 8 TeV Proton-Proton Collisions at the Large Hadron Collider Using the ATLAS Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brost, Elizabeth Caitlin

    In this dissertation, a search for the flavor-changing neutral current in top-antitop events is presented. The flavor-changing neutral current is forbidden at tree level in the Standard Model and suppressed at higher order due to the GIM mechanism. In the Standard Model, the top quark is expected to decay to a W boson and a bottom quark nearly 100 percent of the time. While the Standard Model branching fractions for flavor-changing neutral currents in top decays are well beyond current experimental reach, there exist theoretical models which predict large enhancements to those branching fractions. Observation of the flavor-changing neutral current in top decays would be an unambiguous confirmation of new physics. This search was conducted in data from proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider, running at a center-of-mass energy of √s = 8 TeV, which were collected with the ATLAS detector in 2012. These data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb. -1. Candidate events include a lepton (electron or muon), a photon, at least two jets (one of which is b-tagged), and missing transverse energy. As no signal is observed, an observed (expected) upper limit on the branching ratio BR(t → qgamma) of 0.063% (0.062%) is presented.

  18. High energy particle colliders: past 20 years, next 20 years and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, Vladimir D.; /Fermilab

    2012-04-01

    Particle colliders for high energy physics have been in the forefront of scientific discoveries for more than half a century. The accelerator technology of the collider has progressed immensely, while the beam energy, luminosity, facility size and the cost have grown by several orders of magnitude. The method of colliding beams has not fully exhausted its potential but its pace of progress has greatly slowed down. In this paper we very briefly review the method and the history of colliders, discuss in detail the developments over the past two decades and the directions of the R and D toward near future colliders which are currently being explored. Finally, we make an attempt to look beyond the current horizon and outline the changes in the paradigm required for the next breakthroughs.

  19. Measurement of the Inclusive $Z \\to ee$ Production Cross Section in Proton-Proton Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7TeV and $Z \\to ee$ Decays as Standard Candles for Luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    This thesis comprises a precision measurement of the inclusive \\Zee production cross section in proton-proton collisions provided by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=7$~TeV and the absolute luminosity based on \\Zee decays. The data was collected by the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector near Geneva, Switzerland during the year of 2010 and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of $\\int\\mathcal{L}dt = 35.9\\pm 1.4$~pb$^{-1}$. Electronic decays of $Z$ bosons allow one of the first electroweak measurements at the LHC, making the cross section measurement a benchmark of physics performance after the first year of CMS detector and LHC machine operations. It is the first systematic uncertainty limited \\Zee cross section measurement performed at $\\sqrt{s}=7$~TeV. The measured cross section pertaining to the invariant mass window $M_{ee}\\in (60,120)$~GeV is reported as: $\\sigma(pp\\to Z+X) \\times \\mathcal{B}( Z\\to ee ) = 997 \\pm 11 \\mathrm{(sta t)} \\pm 19 \\mathrm{(syst)} \\pm 40 \\mathrm{(lumi)} \\textrm{ pb}$, which agrees with the theoretical prediction calculated to NNLO in QCD. Leveraging \\Zee decays as ``standard candles'' for measuring the absolute luminosity at the LHC is examined; they are produced copiously, are well understood, and have clean detector signatures. Thus the consistency of the inclusive \\Zee production cross section measurement with the theoretical prediction motivates inverting the measurement to instead use the \\Zee signal yield to measure the luminosity. The result, which agrees with the primary relative CMS luminosity measurement calibrated using Van der Meer separation scans, is not only the most precise absolute luminosity measurement performed to date at a hadron collider, but also the first one based on a physics signal at the LHC.

  20. Energy spectrum control for modulated proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hsi, Wen C.; Moyers, Michael F.; Nichiporov, Dmitri; Anferov, Vladimir; Wolanski, Mark; Allgower, Chris E.; Farr, Jonathan B.; Mascia, Anthony E.; Schreuder, Andries N.

    2009-06-15

    In proton therapy delivered with range modulated beams, the energy spectrum of protons entering the delivery nozzle can affect the dose uniformity within the target region and the dose gradient around its periphery. For a cyclotron with a fixed extraction energy, a rangeshifter is used to change the energy but this produces increasing energy spreads for decreasing energies. This study investigated the magnitude of the effects of different energy spreads on dose uniformity and distal edge dose gradient and determined the limits for controlling the incident spectrum. A multilayer Faraday cup (MLFC) was calibrated against depth dose curves measured in water for nonmodulated beams with various incident spectra. Depth dose curves were measured in a water phantom and in a multilayer ionization chamber detector for modulated beams using different incident energy spreads. Some nozzle entrance energy spectra can produce unacceptable dose nonuniformities of up to {+-}21% over the modulated region. For modulated beams and small beam ranges, the width of the distal penumbra can vary by a factor of 2.5. When the energy spread was controlled within the defined limits, the dose nonuniformity was less than {+-}3%. To facilitate understanding of the results, the data were compared to the measured and Monte Carlo calculated data from a variable extraction energy synchrotron which has a narrow spectrum for all energies. Dose uniformity is only maintained within prescription limits when the energy spread is controlled. At low energies, a large spread can be beneficial for extending the energy range at which a single range modulator device can be used. An MLFC can be used as part of a feedback to provide specified energy spreads for different energies.

  1. Energy spectrum control for modulated proton beams.

    PubMed

    Hsi, Wen C; Moyers, Michael F; Nichiporov, Dmitri; Anferov, Vladimir; Wolanski, Mark; Allgower, Chris E; Farr, Jonathan B; Mascia, Anthony E; Schreuder, Andries N

    2009-06-01

    In proton therapy delivered with range modulated beams, the energy spectrum of protons entering the delivery nozzle can affect the dose uniformity within the target region and the dose gradient around its periphery. For a cyclotron with a fixed extraction energy, a rangeshifter is used to change the energy but this produces increasing energy spreads for decreasing energies. This study investigated the magnitude of the effects of different energy spreads on dose uniformity and distal edge dose gradient and determined the limits for controlling the incident spectrum. A multilayer Faraday cup (MLFC) was calibrated against depth dose curves measured in water for nonmodulated beams with various incident spectra. Depth dose curves were measured in a water phantom and in a multilayer ionization chamber detector for modulated beams using different incident energy spreads. Some nozzle entrance energy spectra can produce unacceptable dose nonuniformities of up to +/-21% over the modulated region. For modulated beams and small beam ranges, the width of the distal penumbra can vary by a factor of 2.5. When the energy spread was controlled within the defined limits, the dose nonuniformity was less than +/-3%. To facilitate understanding of the results, the data were compared to the measured and Monte Carlo calculated data from a variable extraction energy synchrotron which has a narrow spectrum for all energies. Dose uniformity is only maintained within prescription limits when the energy spread is controlled. At low energies, a large spread can be beneficial for extending the energy range at which a single range modulator device can be used. An MLFC can be used as part of a feedback to provide specified energy spreads for different energies. PMID:19610318

  2. Proton-proton and proton-antiproton elastic scattering at high energies: Theory, phenomenology, and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tai Tsun.

    1990-01-01

    This is a brief review of the progress in the understanding, during the past twenty years, of hadronic elastic scattering near the forward direction at high energies. On the basis of quantum gauge field theories, the Pomeron is found to be a branch cut above 1. Using the physical picture that this result implies, phenomenology for proton-proton and antiproton-proton elastic scattering is constructed. Two noteworthy features are that, at high energies, both the total cross section and the ratio of the integrated elastic cross section to the total cross section to the total cross section are increasing functions of the center-of-mass energy. Detailed predictions are given for the elastic differential cross sections, Coulomb interference and the ratios of the real to imaginary parts of the forward amplitudes. These predictions have been extensively and accurately confirmed by experiments, and have also been given both for future experiments on existing accelerators and for experiments on future accelerators. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Proton-proton and proton-antiproton elastic scattering at high energies: Theory, phenomenology, and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tai Tsun

    1990-12-31

    This is a brief review of the progress in the understanding, during the past twenty years, of hadronic elastic scattering near the forward direction at high energies. On the basis of quantum gauge field theories, the Pomeron is found to be a branch cut above 1. Using the physical picture that this result implies, phenomenology for proton-proton and antiproton-proton elastic scattering is constructed. Two noteworthy features are that, at high energies, both the total cross section and the ratio of the integrated elastic cross section to the total cross section to the total cross section are increasing functions of the center-of-mass energy. Detailed predictions are given for the elastic differential cross sections, Coulomb interference and the ratios of the real to imaginary parts of the forward amplitudes. These predictions have been extensively and accurately confirmed by experiments, and have also been given both for future experiments on existing accelerators and for experiments on future accelerators. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Search for diphoton events with large missing transverse energy in 7 TeV proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

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Spurlock, B; St Denis, R D; Stahl, T; Stahlman, J; Stamen, R; Stanecka, E; Stanek, R W; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, S; Starchenko, E A; Stark, J; Staroba, P; Starovoitov, P; Staude, A; Stavina, P; Stavropoulos, G; Steele, G; Steinbach, P; Steinberg, P; Stekl, I; Stelzer, B; Stelzer, H J; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stenzel, H; Stevenson, K; Stewart, G A; Stockmanns, T; Stockton, M C; Stoerig, K; Stoicea, G; Stonjek, S; Strachota, P; Stradling, A R; Straessner, A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strandlie, A; Strang, M; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Strizenec, P; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D M; Strong, J A; Stroynowski, R; Strube, J; Stugu, B; Stumer, I; Stupak, J; Sturm, P; Soh, D A; Su, D; Subramania, S; Sugaya, Y; Sugimoto, T; Suhr, C; Suita, K; Suk, M; Sulin, V V; Sultansoy, S; Sumida, T; Sun, X; Sundermann, J E; Suruliz, K; Sushkov, S; Susinno, G; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, Y; Sviridov, Yu M; Swedish, S; Sykora, I; Sykora, T; Szeless, B; Sánchez, J; Ta, D; Tackmann, K; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Taga, A; Taiblum, N; Takahashi, Y; Takai, H; Takashima, R; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Talby, M; Talyshev, A; Tamsett, M C; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, R; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, Y; Tani, K; Tannoury, N; Tappern, G P; Tapprogge, S; Tardif, D; Tarem, S; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, G F; Tas, P; Tasevsky, M; Tassi, E; Tatarkhanov, M; Taylor, C; Taylor, F E; Taylor, G; Taylor, G N; Taylor, W; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M; Teixeira-Dias, P; Temming, K K; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P K; Tennenbaum-Katan, Y D; Terada, S; Terashi, K; Terron, J; Terwort, M; Testa, M; Teuscher, R J; Tevlin, C M; Thadome, J; Therhaag, J; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T; Thioye, M; Thoma, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, E N; Thompson, P D; Thompson, P D; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Thomson, M; Thun, R P; Tic, T; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Y A; Timmermans, C J W P; Tipton, P; Tique Aires Viegas, F J; Tisserant, S; Tobias, J; Toczek, B; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Toggerson, B; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokunaga, K; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Tonazzo, A; Tong, G; Tonoyan, A; Topfel, C; Topilin, N D; Torchiani, I; Torrence, E; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Traynor, D; Trefzger, T; Treis, J; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Trinh, T N; Tripiana, M F; Triplett, N; Trischuk, W; Trivedi, A; Trocmé, B; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trzupek, A; Tsarouchas, C; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiakiris, M; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsionou, D; Tsipolitis, G; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsung, J-W; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tua, A; Tuggle, J M; Turala, M; Turecek, D; Turk Cakir, I; Turlay, E; Tuts, P M; Tykhonov, A; Tylmad, M; Tyndel, M; Typaldos, D; Tyrvainen, H; Tzanakos, G; Uchida, K; Ueda, I; Ueno, R; Ugland, M; Uhlenbrock, M; Uhrmacher, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Underwood, D G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Unno, Y; Urbaniec, D; Urkovsky, E; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Uslenghi, M; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Vahsen, S; Valderanis, C; Valenta, J; Valente, P; Valentinetti, S; Valkar, S; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S; Valls Ferrer, J A; van der Graaf, H; van der Kraaij, E; van der Poel, E; van der Ster, D; Van Eijk, B; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; van Kesteren, Z; van Vulpen, I; Vandelli, W; Vandoni, G; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vannucci, F; Varela Rodriguez, F; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vassilakopoulos, V I; Vazeille, F; Vegni, G; Veillet, J J; Vellidis, C; Veloso, F; Veness, R; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Ventura, D; Ventura, S; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Villa, M; Villaplana Perez, M; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinek, E; Vinogradov, V B; Virchaux, M; Viret, S; Virzi, J; Vitale, A; Vitells, O; Vivarelli, I; Vives Vaque, F; Vlachos, S; Vlasak, M; Vlasov, N; Vogel, A; Vokac, P; Volpi, M; Volpini, G; von der Schmitt, H; von Loeben, J; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorobiev, A P; Vorwerk, V; Vos, M; Voss, R; Voss, T T; Vossebeld, J H; Vovenko, A S; Vranjes, N; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Wagner, W; Wagner, P; Wahlen, H; Wakabayashi, J; Walbersloh, J; Walch, S; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wall, R; Waller, P; Wang, C; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J C; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Warsinsky, M; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, A T; Waugh, B M; Weber, J; Weber, M; Weber, M S; Weber, P; Weidberg, A R; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Wellenstein, H; Wells, P S; Wen, M; Wenaus, T; Wendler, S; Weng, Z; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Werth, M; Wessels, M; Whalen, K; Wheeler-Ellis, S J; Whitaker, S P; White, A; White, M J; White, S; Whitehead, S R; Whiteson, D; Whittington, D; Wicek, F; Wicke, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik, L A M; Wildauer, A; Wildt, M A; Wilhelm, I; Wilkens, H G; Will, J Z; Williams, E; Williams, H H; Willis, W; Willocq, S; Wilson, J A; Wilson, M G; Wilson, A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winkelmann, S; Winklmeier, F; Wittgen, M; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wooden, G; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wraight, K; Wright, C; Wrona, B; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wulf, E; Wunstorf, R; Wynne, B M; Xaplanteris, L; Xella, S; Xie, S; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Xu, D; Xu, G; Yabsley, B; Yamada, M; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, S; Yamamura, T; Yamaoka, J; Yamazaki, T; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, U K; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Yanush, S; Yao, W-M; Yao, Y; Yasu, Y; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yilmaz, M; Yoosoofmiya, R; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Young, C; Youssef, S; Yu, D; Yu, J; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zaets, V G; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zajacova, Z; Zalite, Yo K; Zanello, L; Zarzhitsky, P; Zaytsev, A; Zdrazil, M; Zeitnitz, C; Zeller, M; Zema, P F; Zemla, A; Zendler, C; Zenin, A V; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zenonos, Z; Zenz, S; Zerwas, D; Zevi della Porta, G; Zhan, Z; Zhang, D; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, L; Zhao, T; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, S; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, N; Zhou, Y; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhuravlov, V; Zieminska, D; Zilka, B; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Ziolkowski, M; Zitoun, R; Živković, L; Zmouchko, V V; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zolnierowski, Y; Zsenei, A; zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V; Zwalinski, L

    2011-03-25

    A search for diphoton events with large missing transverse energy is presented. The data were collected with the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at √s=7 TeV at the CERN Large Hadron Collider and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 3.1 pb⁻¹. No excess of such events is observed above the standard model background prediction. In the context of a specific model with one universal extra dimension with compactification radius R and gravity-induced decays, values of 1/R<729 GeV are excluded at 95% C. L., providing the most sensitive limit on this model to date. PMID:21517301

  5. Vector meson production in coherent hadronic interactions: Update on predictions for energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Goncalves, V. P.; Machado, M. V. T.

    2011-07-15

    In this Rapid Communication we update our predictions for the photoproduction of vector mesons in coherent pp and AA collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies using the color dipole approach and the Color Glass Condensate formalism. In particular, we present our predictions for the first run of the LHC at half energy and for the rapidity dependence of the ratio between the J/{Psi} and {rho} cross sections at RHIC energies.

  6. ABSOLUTE MEASUREMENT OF THE POLARIZATION OF HIGH ENERGY PROTON BEAMS AT RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    MAKDISI,Y.; BRAVAR, A. BUNCE, G. GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; ET AL.

    2007-06-25

    The spin physics program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) requires knowledge of the beam polarization to better than 5%. Such a goal is made the more difficult by the lack of knowledge of the analyzing power of high energy nuclear physics processes. To overcome this, a polarized hydrogen jet target was constructed and installed at one intersection region in RHIC where it intersects both beams and utilizes the precise knowledge of the jet atomic hydrogen beam polarization to measure the analyzing power in proton-proton elastic scattering in the Nuclear Coulomb Interference (CNI) region at the prescribed RHIC proton beam energy. The reverse reaction is used to assess the absolute beam polarization. Simultaneous measurements taken with fast high statistics polarimeters that measure the p-Carbon elastic scattering process also in the CNI region use the jet results to calibrate the latter.

  7. Determination of the jet energy scale at the collider detector at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatti, A.; Canelli, Florencia; Heinemann, B.; Adelman, J.; Ambrose, D.; Arguin, J.-F.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Budd, H.; Chung, Y.S.; Chung, K.; Cooper, B.; Currat, C.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, T.; Erbacher, R.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Gibson, A.; Hatakeyama, K.; Happacher, F.; Hoffman, D.; /Argonne /UCLA /Carnegie Mellon U. /Chicago U., EFI /Fermilab /Florida U. /Frascati /Geneva U. /LBL, Berkeley /Liverpool U. /University Coll. London /Michigan State U. /Toronto U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore

    2005-10-01

    A precise determination of the energy scale of jets at the Collider Detector at Fermilab at the Tevatron p{bar p} collider is described. Jets are used in many analyses to estimate the energies of partons resulting from the underlying physics process. Several correction factors are developed to estimate the original parton energy from the observed jet energy in the calorimeter. The jet energy response is compared between data and Monte Carlo simulation for various physics processes, and systematic uncertainties on the jet energy scale are determined. For jets with transverse momenta above 50 GeV the jet energy scale is determined with a 3% systematic uncertainty.

  8. The Quest for Spinning Glue in High-Energy Polarized Proton-Proton Collisions at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Surrow, Bernd

    2007-10-26

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is carrying out a spin physics program colliding transverse or longitudinal polarized proton beams at {radical}(s) = 200-500 GeV to gain a deeper insight into the spin structure and dynamics of the proton. These studies provide fundamental tests of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD).One of the main objectives of the STAR spin physics program is the determination of the polarized gluon distribution function through a measurement of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry, A{sub LL}, for various processes. Recent results will be shown on the measurement of A{sub LL} for inclusive jet production, neutral pion production and charged pion production at {radical}(s) = 200 GeV.

  9. Simulating three-dimensional nonthermal high-energy photon emission in colliding-wind binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Reitberger, K.; Kissmann, R.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.

    2014-07-01

    Massive stars in binary systems have long been regarded as potential sources of high-energy γ rays. The emission is principally thought to arise in the region where the stellar winds collide and accelerate relativistic particles which subsequently emit γ rays. On the basis of a three-dimensional distribution function of high-energy particles in the wind collision region—as obtained by a numerical hydrodynamics and particle transport model—we present the computation of the three-dimensional nonthermal photon emission for a given line of sight. Anisotropic inverse Compton emission is modeled using the target radiation field of both stars. Photons from relativistic bremsstrahlung and neutral pion decay are computed on the basis of local wind plasma densities. We also consider photon-photon opacity effects due to the dense radiation fields of the stars. Results are shown for different stellar separations of a given binary system comprising of a B star and a Wolf-Rayet star. The influence of orbital orientation with respect to the line of sight is also studied by using different orbital viewing angles. For the chosen electron-proton injection ratio of 10{sup –2}, we present the ensuing photon emission in terms of two-dimensional projections maps, spectral energy distributions, and integrated photon flux values in various energy bands. Here, we find a transition from hadron-dominated to lepton-dominated high-energy emission with increasing stellar separations. In addition, we confirm findings from previous analytic modeling that the spectral energy distribution varies significantly with orbital orientation.

  10. Physics at Future Circular Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotwal, Ashutosh

    2016-03-01

    The Large Hadron Collider has been a grand success with the discovery of the Higgs boson, with bright prospects for additional discoveries since the recent increase in collider energy and the anticipated large datasets. Big open questions such as the nature of dark matter, the origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe, and the theoretical puzzle of the finely-tuned parameters in the Higgs sector, demand new physics principles that extend the established Standard Model paradigm. Future circular colliders in a substantially larger tunnel can house both a high luminosity electron-positron collider for precision measurements of Higgs and electroweak parameters, as well as a very high energy proton-proton collider which can directly manifest particles associated with these new physics principles. We discuss the physics goals of these future circular colliders, and the prospects for elucidating fundamental new laws of nature that will significantly extend our understanding of the Universe. Detailed studies of the discovery potential in specific benchmark models will be presented, with implications for detector design.

  11. Probing Higgs boson self-interactions in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 100 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuks, Benjamin; Kim, Jeong Han; Lee, Seung J.

    2016-02-01

    We present a phenomenological study of triple-Higgs production in which we estimate the prospects for measuring the form of the Higgs potential at future circular collider projects. We analyze proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 100 TeV and focus on two different signatures in which the final state is made of four b jets and either a pair of photons or a pair of tau leptons. We study the resulting sensitivity on the Higgs cubic and quartic self-interactions and investigate how it depends on the b -tagging, tau-tagging and photon-resolution performances of detectors that could be designed for these future machines. We then discuss possible luminosity goals for future 100 TeV collider projects that would allow for a measurement of the Higgs potential and its possible departures from the Standard Model expectation.

  12. Electron-ion collider eRHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, Vladimir N.

    In this article, we describe our planned future electron-ion collider (EIC), based on the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) hadron facility, with two intersecting superconducting rings, each 3.8 km in circumference [1]. We plan to add a polarized electron beam with energy tunable within the 5-30-GeV range to collide with variety of species in the existing RHIC accelerator complex, from polarized protons with a maximum energy of 250 GeV, to heavy, fully striped ions with energies up to 100 GeV/u.

  13. Small Business Innovation Research Award Success Story: Proton Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-01

    This success story describes Proton Energy Systems, a small business that designs and manufactures proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis sytems to produce hydrogen from water. The U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program has supported much of Proton's technology development through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Awards and other non-SBIR funding.

  14. Proton energy optimization and reduction for intensity-modulated proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenhua; Lim, Gino; Liao, Li; Li, Yupeng; Jiang, Shengpeng; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Heng; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Zhu, X Ronald; Gomez, Daniel; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is commonly delivered via the spot-scanning technique. To 'scan' the target volume, the proton beam is controlled by varying its energy to penetrate the patient's body at different depths. Although scanning the proton beamlets or spots with the same energy can be as fast as 10-20 m s(-1), changing from one proton energy to another requires approximately two additional seconds. The total IMPT delivery time thus depends mainly on the number of proton energies used in a treatment. Current treatment planning systems typically use all proton energies that are required for the proton beam to penetrate in a range from the distal edge to the proximal edge of the target. The optimal selection of proton energies has not been well studied. In this study, we sought to determine the feasibility of optimizing and reducing the number of proton energies in IMPT planning. We proposed an iterative mixed-integer programming optimization method to select a subset of all available proton energies while satisfying dosimetric criteria. We applied our proposed method to six patient datasets: four cases of prostate cancer, one case of lung cancer, and one case of mesothelioma. The numbers of energies were reduced by 14.3%-18.9% for the prostate cancer cases, 11.0% for the lung cancer cases and 26.5% for the mesothelioma case. The results indicate that the number of proton energies used in conventionally designed IMPT plans can be reduced without degrading dosimetric performance. The IMPT delivery efficiency could be improved by energy layer optimization leading to increased throughput for a busy proton center in which a delivery system with slow energy switch is employed. PMID:25295881

  15. Proton energy optimization and reduction for intensity-modulated proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wenhua; Lim, Gino; Liao, Li; Li, Yupeng; Jiang, Shengpeng; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Heng; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Zhu, X. Ronald; Gomez, Daniel; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is commonly delivered via the spot-scanning technique. To “scan” the target volume, the proton beam is controlled by varying its energy to penetrate the patient’s body at different depths. Although scanning the proton beamlets or spots with the same energy can be as fast as 10–20 m/s, changing from one proton energy to another requires approximately two additional seconds. The total IMPT delivery time thus depends mainly on the number of proton energies used in a treatment. Current treatment planning systems typically use all proton energies that are required for the proton beam to penetrate in a range from the distal edge to the proximal edge of the target. The optimal selection of proton energies has not been well studied. In this study, we sought to determine the feasibility of optimizing and reducing the number of proton energies in IMPT planning. We proposed an iterative mixed-integer programming optimization method to select a subset of all available proton energies while satisfying dosimetric criteria. We applied our proposed method to six patient datasets: four cases of prostate cancer, one case of lung cancer, and one case of mesothelioma. The numbers of energies were reduced by 14.3%–18.9% for the prostate cancer cases, 11.0% for the lung cancer cases, and 26.5% for the mesothelioma case. The results indicate that the number of proton energies used in conventionally designed IMPT plans can be reduced without degrading dosimetric performance. The IMPT delivery efficiency could be improved by energy layer optimization leading to increased throughput for a busy proton center in which a delivery system with slow energy switch is employed. PMID:25295881

  16. Proton energy optimization and reduction for intensity-modulated proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenhua; Lim, Gino; Liao, Li; Li, Yupeng; Jiang, Shengpeng; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Heng; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Zhu, X. Ronald; Gomez, Daniel; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2014-10-01

    Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is commonly delivered via the spot-scanning technique. To ‘scan’ the target volume, the proton beam is controlled by varying its energy to penetrate the patient’s body at different depths. Although scanning the proton beamlets or spots with the same energy can be as fast as 10-20 m s-1, changing from one proton energy to another requires approximately two additional seconds. The total IMPT delivery time thus depends mainly on the number of proton energies used in a treatment. Current treatment planning systems typically use all proton energies that are required for the proton beam to penetrate in a range from the distal edge to the proximal edge of the target. The optimal selection of proton energies has not been well studied. In this study, we sought to determine the feasibility of optimizing and reducing the number of proton energies in IMPT planning. We proposed an iterative mixed-integer programming optimization method to select a subset of all available proton energies while satisfying dosimetric criteria. We applied our proposed method to six patient datasets: four cases of prostate cancer, one case of lung cancer, and one case of mesothelioma. The numbers of energies were reduced by 14.3%-18.9% for the prostate cancer cases, 11.0% for the lung cancer cases and 26.5% for the mesothelioma case. The results indicate that the number of proton energies used in conventionally designed IMPT plans can be reduced without degrading dosimetric performance. The IMPT delivery efficiency could be improved by energy layer optimization leading to increased throughput for a busy proton center in which a delivery system with slow energy switch is employed.

  17. On the anisotropies of interplanetary low-energy proton intensities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesses, M. E.; Sarris, E. T.

    1975-01-01

    Explorer 35 proton anisotropic flux data (proton energies between 0.3 and 6.3 MeV) and simultaneous magnetic field measurements were used to supply more information on the propagation characteristics of low-energy protons in the interplanetary medium. During the rising portions of the proton events, large field-aligned anisotropies were observed. During the decaying part of the proton events, either radial anisotropy or near-isotropy was noticed. In addition, certain observations made during the decaying part of the proton events revealed anisotropies deviating significantly from the radial direction.

  18. Single-energy intensity modulated proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farace, Paolo; Righetto, Roberto; Cianchetti, Marco

    2015-09-01

    In this note, an intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) technique, based on the use of high single-energy (SE-IMPT) pencil beams, is described. The method uses only the highest system energy (226 MeV) and only lateral penumbra to produce dose gradient, as in photon therapy. In the study, after a preliminary analysis of the width of proton pencil beam penumbras at different depths, SE-IMPT was compared with conventional IMPT in a phantom containing titanium inserts and in a patient, affected by a spinal chordoma with fixation rods. It was shown that SE-IMPT has the potential to produce a sharp dose gradient and that it is not affected by the uncertainties produced by metal implants crossed by the proton beams. Moreover, in the chordoma patient, target coverage and organ at risk sparing of the SE-IMPT plan resulted comparable to that of the less reliable conventional IMPT technique. Robustness analysis confirmed that SE-IMPT was not affected by range errors, which can drastically affect the IMPT plan. When accepting a low-dose spread as in modern photon techniques, SE-IMPT could be an option for the treatment of lesions (e.g. cervical bone tumours) where steep dose gradient could improve curability, and where range uncertainty, due for example to the presence of metal implants, hampers conventional IMPT.

  19. Single-energy intensity modulated proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Farace, Paolo; Righetto, Roberto; Cianchetti, Marco

    2015-10-01

    In this note, an intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) technique, based on the use of high single-energy (SE-IMPT) pencil beams, is described.The method uses only the highest system energy (226 MeV) and only lateral penumbra to produce dose gradient, as in photon therapy. In the study, after a preliminary analysis of the width of proton pencil beam penumbras at different depths, SE-IMPT was compared with conventional IMPT in a phantom containing titanium inserts and in a patient, affected by a spinal chordoma with fixation rods.It was shown that SE-IMPT has the potential to produce a sharp dose gradient and that it is not affected by the uncertainties produced by metal implants crossed by the proton beams. Moreover, in the chordoma patient, target coverage and organ at risk sparing of the SE-IMPT plan resulted comparable to that of the less reliable conventional IMPT technique. Robustness analysis confirmed that SE-IMPT was not affected by range errors, which can drastically affect the IMPT plan.When accepting a low-dose spread as in modern photon techniques, SE-IMPT could be an option for the treatment of lesions (e.g. cervical bone tumours) where steep dose gradient could improve curability, and where range uncertainty, due for example to the presence of metal implants, hampers conventional IMPT. PMID:26352616

  20. Lattice of the NICA Collider Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorin, Anatoly; Kozlov, Oleg; Meshkov, Igor; Mikhaylov, Vladimir; Trubnikov, Grigoriy; Lebedev, Valeri Nagaitsev, Sergei; Senichev, Yurij; /Julich, Forschungszentrum

    2010-05-01

    The Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) is a new accelerator complex being constructed at JINR. It is designed for collider experiments with ions and protons and has to provide ion-ion (Au{sup 79+}) and ion-proton collisions in the energy range 1 {divided_by} 4.5 GeV/n and collisions of polarized proton-proton and deuteron-deuteron beams. Collider conceptions with constant {gamma}{sub tr} and with possibility of its variation are considered. The ring has the racetrack shape with two arcs and two long straight sections. Its circumference is about 450m. The straight sections are optimized to have {beta}* {approx} 35cm in two IPs and a possibility of final betatron tune adjustment.

  1. Systematics of proton and diproton separation energies for light nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, B.J.

    1997-10-01

    A simple method to estimate proton and two-proton separation energies of proton-rich nuclei is presented that is sufficiently accurate to allow the prediction of suitable candidates for observable diproton decay. The method is based on the systematics of measured particle separation energies. Predictions for proton-rich nuclei with Z=18{minus}24 are compared with the results of previous calculations. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. THE NEAR-INTEGER WORKING POINT FOR POLARIZED PROTONS IN THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER

    SciTech Connect

    MONTAG,C.; BAI, M.; BEEBE-WANG, J.; CALAGA, R.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; ET AL.

    2007-06-25

    To achieve the RHIC polarized proton enhanced luminosity goal of 150.10{sup 30} cm{sup -2}sec{sup -} on average in stores at 250 GeV, the luminosity needs to be increased by a factor of 3 compared to what was achieved in 2006. Since the number of bunches is already at its maximum of 1 1 1, limited by the injection kickers and the experiments' time resolution, the luminosity can only be increased by either increasing the bunch intensity and/or reducing the beam emittance. This leads to a larger beam-beam tuneshift parameter. Operations during 2006 has shown that the beam-beam interaction is already dominating the luminosity lifetime. To overcome this limitation, a near-integer working point is under study. We will present recent results of these studies.

  3. High energy accelerator and colliding beam user group

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This report discusses the following topics: OPAL experiment at LEP; D{phi} experiment at Fermilab; deep inelastic muon interactions at TEV II; CYGNUS experiment; final results from {nu}{sub e}{sup {minus}e} elastic scattering; physics with CLEO detector at CESR; results from JADE at PETRA; rare kaon-decay experiment at BNL; search for top quark; and super conducting super collider activities.

  4. Experimental Validation of a Novel Compact Focusing Scheme for Future Energy-Frontier Linear Lepton Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, G. R.; Ainsworth, R.; Akagi, T.; Alabau-Gonzalvo, J.; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Araki, S.; Aryshev, A.; Bai, S.; Bambade, P.; Bett, D. R.; Blair, G.; Blanch, C.; Blanco, O.; Blaskovic-Kraljevic, N.; Bolzon, B.; Boogert, S.; Burrows, P. N.; Christian, G.; Corner, L.; Davis, M. R.; Faus-Golfe, A.; Fukuda, M.; Gao, J.; García-Morales, H.; Geffroy, N.; Hayano, H.; Heo, A. Y.; Hildreth, M.; Honda, Y.; Huang, J. Y.; Hwang, W. H.; Iwashita, Y.; Jang, S.; Jeremie, A.; Kamiya, Y.; Karataev, P.; Kim, E. S.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. I.; Komamiya, S.; Kubo, K.; Kume, T.; Kuroda, S.; Lam, B.; Lekomtsev, K.; Liu, S.; Lyapin, A.; Marin, E.; Masuzawa, M.; McCormick, D.; Naito, T.; Nelson, J.; Nevay, L. J.; Okugi, T.; Omori, T.; Oroku, M.; Park, H.; Park, Y. J.; Perry, C.; Pfingstner, J.; Phinney, N.; Rawankar, A.; Renier, Y.; Resta-López, J.; Ross, M.; Sanuki, T.; Schulte, D.; Seryi, A.; Shevelev, M.; Shimizu, H.; Snuverink, J.; Spencer, C.; Suehara, T.; Sugahara, R.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, R.; Tauchi, T.; Terunuma, N.; Tomás, R.; Urakawa, J.; Wang, D.; Warden, M.; Wendt, M.; Wolski, A.; Woodley, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamanaka, T.; Yan, J.; Yokoya, K.; Zimmermann, F.; ATF2 Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    A novel scheme for the focusing of high-energy leptons in future linear colliders was proposed in 2001 [P. Raimondi and A. Seryi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3779 (2001)]. This scheme has many advantageous properties over previously studied focusing schemes, including being significantly shorter for a given energy and having a significantly better energy bandwidth. Experimental results from the ATF2 accelerator at KEK are presented that validate the operating principle of such a scheme by demonstrating the demagnification of a 1.3 GeV electron beam down to below 65 nm in height using an energy-scaled version of the compact focusing optics designed for the ILC collider.

  5. PRaVDA: High Energy Physics towards proton Computed Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, T.

    2016-07-01

    Proton radiotherapy is an increasingly popular modality for treating cancers of the head and neck, and in paediatrics. To maximise the potential of proton radiotherapy it is essential to know the distribution, and more importantly the proton stopping powers, of the body tissues between the proton beam and the tumour. A stopping power map could be measured directly, and uncertainties in the treatment vastly reduce, if the patient was imaged with protons instead of conventional x-rays. Here we outline the application of technologies developed for High Energy Physics to provide clinical-quality proton Computed Tomography, in so reducing range uncertainties and enhancing the treatment of cancer.

  6. Energy spectra and LET spectra of protons behind shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Sari; Barak, Joseph

    2014-08-01

    With the advent of devices sensitive to SEU due to direct ionization by protons, it became important to know the flux and energies of protons behind aluminum shielding or within satellites. We present new analytically derived expressions for the energy distribution of incident protons, after passing the shielding, and of secondary protons emitted within the shielding. The results are compared with those of the MULASSIS code. In some cases, like a satellite in a GCR orbit, the contribution of the secondary protons to SEU might be the dominant one. Proton energy-distributions behind shielding are proportional, at low energy values, to inverse proton-LET in aluminum. Their calculated LET-spectra in silicon can be used for evaluating SEU-rate in space. The analytic expressions presented here can be useful in calculating the influence of shielding on other incident ions and secondary ions.

  7. Shadowing effects on J /ψ and Υ production at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, R.

    2015-09-01

    Background: Proton-nucleus collisions have been used as a intermediate baseline for the determination of cold-medium effects. They lie between proton-proton collisions in vacuum and nucleus-nucleus collisions which are expected to be dominated by hot-matter effects. Modifications of the quark densities in nuclei relative to those of the proton are well established, although those of the gluons in the nucleus are not well understood. The effect of these modifications on quarkonium production are studied in proton-lead collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV. Purpose: The possibility of whether the LHC proton-lead data can be described by nuclear modifications of the parton densities, referred to as shadowing, alone is examined. The results are compared to the nuclear modification factor and to the forward-backward ratio, as a function of both transverse momentum, pT, and rapidity, y . Methods: The color evaporation model of quarkonium production is employed at next-to-leading order (NLO) in the total cross section and leading order in the transverse momentum dependence. The EPS09 NLO modifications are used as a standard of comparison. The effect of the proton parton density and the choice of shadowing parametrization on the pT and rapidity dependence of the result is studied. The consistency of the shadowing calculations at LO and NLO are checked. The size of the mass and scale uncertainties relative to the uncertainty on the shadowing parametrization is also investigated. Finally, whether the expected cold-matter effect in nucleus-nucleus collisions can be modeled as the product of proton-nucleus results at forward and backward rapidity is studied. Results: The rapidity and pT dependence of the nuclear modification factor is found to be generally consistent with the NLO calculations in the color evaporation model. The forward-backward ratio is more difficult to describe with shadowing alone. The LO and NLO

  8. Ion polarization in the MEIC figure-8 ion collider ring

    SciTech Connect

    V.S. Morozov, Ya.S. Derbenev, Y. Zhang, P. Chevtsov, A.M. Kondratenko, M.A. Kondratenko, Yu.N. Filatov

    2012-07-01

    The nuclear physics program envisaged at the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) currently being developed at the Jefferson Lab calls for collisions of 3-11 GeV/c longitudinally polarized electrons and 20-100 GeV/c, in equivalent proton momentum, longitudinally/ transversely polarized protons/ deuterons/ light ions. We present a scheme that provides the required ion polarization arrangement in the MEIC's ion collider ring.

  9. Baseline measures for net-proton distributions in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netrakanti, P. K.; Luo, X. F.; Mishra, D. K.; Mohanty, B.; Mohanty, A.; Xu, N.

    2016-03-01

    We report a systematic comparison of the recently measured cumulants of the net-proton distributions for 0-5% central Au + Au collisions in the first phase of the Beam Energy Scan (BES) Program at the Relativistic Heavy Collider facility to various kinds of possible baseline measures. These baseline measures correspond to an assumption that the proton and anti-proton distributions follow Poisson statistics, Binomial statistics, obtained from a transport model calculation and from a hadron resonance gas model. The higher order cumulant net-proton data for the center of mass energies (√{sNN}) of 19.6 and 27 GeV are observed to deviate from most of the baseline measures studied. The deviations are predominantly due to the difference in shape of the proton distributions between data and those obtained in the baseline measures. We also present a detailed study on the relevance of the independent production approach as a baseline for comparison with the measurements at various beam energies. Our studies point to the need of either more detailed baseline models for the experimental measurements or a description via QCD calculations in order to extract the exact physics process that leads to deviation of the data from the baselines presented.

  10. RF System Requirements for a Medium-Energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) at JLab

    SciTech Connect

    Rimmer, Robert A; Hannon, Fay E; Guo, Jiquan; Huang, Shichun; Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Wang, S

    2015-09-01

    JLab is studying options for a medium energy electron-ion collider that could fit on the JLab site and use CEBAF as a full-energy electron injector. A new ion source, linac and booster would be required, together with collider storage rings for the ions and electrons. In order to achieve the maximum luminosity these will be high-current storage rings with many bunches. We present the high-level RF system requirements for the storage rings, ion booster ring and high-energy ion beam cooling system, and describe the technology options under consideration to meet them. We also present options for staging that might reduce the initial capital cost while providing a smooth upgrade path to a higher final energy. The technologies under consideration may also be useful for other proposed storage ring colliders or ultimate light sources.

  11. Hydration energies of protonated and sodiated thiouracils.

    PubMed

    Wincel, Henryk

    2014-12-01

    Hydration reactions of protonated and sodiated thiouracils (2-thiouracil, 6-methyl-2-thiouracil, and 4-thiouracil) generated by electrospray ionization have been studied in a gas phase at 10 mbar using a pulsed ion-beam high-pressure mass spectrometer. The thermochemical data, ΔH(o)n, ΔS(o)n, and ΔG(o)n, for the hydrated systems were obtained by equilibrium measurements. The water binding energies of protonated thiouracils, [2SU]H(+) and [6Me2SU]H(+), were found to be of the order of 51 kJ/mol for the first, and 46 kJ/mol for the second water molecule. For [4SU]H(+), these values are 3-4 kJ/mol lower. For sodiated complexes, these energies are similar for all studied systems, and varied between 62 and 68 kJ/mol for the first and between 48 and 51 kJ/mol for the second water molecule. The structural aspects of the precursors for hydrated complexes are discussed in conjunction with available literature data. PMID:25270881

  12. Hydration Energies of Protonated and Sodiated Thiouracils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wincel, Henryk

    2014-12-01

    Hydration reactions of protonated and sodiated thiouracils (2-thiouracil, 6-methyl-2-thiouracil, and 4-thiouracil) generated by electrospray ionization have been studied in a gas phase at 10 mbar using a pulsed ion-beam high-pressure mass spectrometer. The thermochemical data, ΔH o n, ΔS o n, and ΔG o n, for the hydrated systems were obtained by equilibrium measurements. The water binding energies of protonated thiouracils, [2SU]H+ and [6Me2SU]H+, were found to be of the order of 51 kJ/mol for the first, and 46 kJ/mol for the second water molecule. For [4SU]H+, these values are 3-4 kJ/mol lower. For sodiated complexes, these energies are similar for all studied systems, and varied between 62 and 68 kJ/mol for the first and between 48 and 51 kJ/mol for the second water molecule. The structural aspects of the precursors for hydrated complexes are discussed in conjunction with available literature data.

  13. Tevatron collider operations and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Peter H. Garbincius

    2004-06-17

    Fermilab's Tevatron is a proton-antiproton collider with center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The antiprotons are produced by 125 GeV protons from the Main Injector striking a stainless steel target. The 8 GeV antiprotons are collected and cooled in the Debuncher and Accumulator rings of the Antiproton Source and, just recently, in the Recycler ring before acceleration by the Main Injector and the Tevatron. In addition to energy, a vital parameter for generating physics data is the Luminosity delivered to the experiments given by a formula that is listed in detail in the paper.

  14. Absolute polarimeter for the proton-beam energy of 200 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenski, A. N.; Atoian, G.; Bogdanov, A. A.; Nurushev, S. B.; Pylaev, F. S.; Raparia, D.; Runtso, M. F.; Stephenson, E.

    2013-12-15

    A polarimeter is upgraded and tested in a 200-MeV polarized-proton beam at the accelerator-collider facility of the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The polarimeter is based on the elastic polarizedproton scattering on a carbon target at an angle of 16.2°, in which case the analyzing power is close to unity and was measured to a very high degree of precision. It is shown that, in the energy range of 190–205 MeV, the absolute polarization can be measured to a precision better than ±0.5%.

  15. Simulation of proton-induced energy deposition in integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernald, Kenneth W.; Kerns, Sherra E.

    1988-01-01

    A time-efficient simulation technique was developed for modeling the energy deposition by incident protons in modern integrated circuits. To avoid the excessive computer time required by many proton-effects simulators, a stochastic method was chosen to model the various physical effects responsible for energy deposition by incident protons. Using probability density functions to describe the nuclear reactions responsible for most proton-induced memory upsets, the simulator determines the probability of a proton hit depositing the energy necessary for circuit destabilization. This factor is combined with various circuit parameters to determine the expected error-rate in a given proton environment. An analysis of transient or dose-rate effects is also performed. A comparison to experimental energy-disposition data proves the simulator to be quite accurate for predicting the expected number of events in certain integrated circuits.

  16. Interaction region design for a RHIC-based medium-energy electron-ion collider

    SciTech Connect

    Montag,C.; Beebe-Wang, J.

    2009-05-04

    As a first step in a staged approach towards a RHIC-based electron-ion collider, installation of a 4 GeV energy-recovery linac (ERL) in one of the RHIC interaction regions is currently under investigation. To minimize costs, the interaction region of this collider has to use the present RHIC magnets for focusing of the high-energy ion beam. Meanwhile, electron low-beta focusing needs to be added in the limited space available between the existing separator dipoles. We discuss the challenges and present the current design status of this e-A interaction region.

  17. Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Reactions with Photometric Bases Reveal Free Energy Relationships for Proton Transfer.

    PubMed

    Eisenhart, Thomas T; Howland, William C; Dempsey, Jillian L

    2016-08-18

    The proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) oxidation of p-aminophenol in acetonitrile was initiated via stopped-flow rapid-mixing and spectroscopically monitored. For oxidation by ferrocenium in the presence of 7-(dimethylamino)quinoline proton acceptors, both the electron transfer and proton transfer components could be optically monitored in the visible region; the decay of the ferrocenium absorbance is readily monitored (λmax = 620 nm), and the absorbance of the 2,4-substituted 7-(dimethylamino)quinoline derivatives (λmax = 370-392 nm) red-shifts substantially (ca. 70 nm) upon protonation. Spectral analysis revealed the reaction proceeds via a stepwise electron transfer-proton transfer process, and modeling of the kinetics traces monitoring the ferrocenium and quinolinium signals provided rate constants for elementary proton and electron transfer steps. As the pKa values of the conjugate acids of the 2,4-R-7-(dimethylamino)quinoline derivatives employed were readily tuned by varying the substituents at the 2- and 4-positions of the quinoline backbone, the driving force for proton transfer was systematically varied. Proton transfer rate constants (kPT,2 = (1.5-7.5) × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1), kPT,4 = (0.55-3.0) × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1)) were found to correlate with the pKa of the conjugate acid of the proton acceptor, in agreement with anticipated free energy relationships for proton transfer processes in PCET reactions. PMID:27500804

  18. Experimental demonstration of colliding beam lifetime improvement by electron lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, Vladimir; Alexahin, Yuri; Kamerdzhiev, Vsevolod; Kuznetsov, Gennady; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Bishofberger, Kip; /Los Alamos

    2007-10-01

    We report successful application of space-charge forces of a low-energy electron beam for improvement of particle lifetime determined by beam-beam interaction in high-energy collider. In our experiments, an electron lens, a novel instrument developed for the beam-beam compensation, was set on a 980-GeV proton bunch in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. The proton bunch losses due to its interaction with antiproton beam were reduced by a factor of 2 when the electron lens was operating. We describe the principle of electron lens operation and present experimental results.

  19. The super collider revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, M.S.; Pato, M.P. )

    1992-05-20

    In this paper, the authors suggest a revised version of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) that employs the planned SSC first stage machine as an injector of 0.5 TeV protons into a power laser accelerator. The recently developed Non-linear Amplification of Inverse Bremsstrahlung Acceleration (NAIBA) concept dictates the scenario of the next stage of acceleration. Post Star Wars lasers, available at several laboratories, can be used for the purpose. The 40 TeV CM energy, a target of the SSC, can be obtained with a new machine which can be 20 times smaller than the planned SSC.

  20. [Calorimeter based detectors for high energy hadron colliders]. [Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-04

    This document provides a progress report on research that has been conducted under DOE Grant DEFG0292ER40697 for the past year, and describes proposed work for the second year of this 8 year grant starting November 15, 1992. Personnel supported by the contract include 4 faculty, 1 research faculty, 4 postdocs, and 9 graduate students. The work under this grant has in the past been directed in two complementary directions -- DO at Fermilab, and the second SSC detector GEM. A major effort has been towards the construction and commissioning of the new Fermilab Collider detector DO, including design, construction, testing, the commissioning of the central tracking and the central calorimeters. The first DO run is now underway, with data taking and analysis of the first events. Trigger algorithms, data acquisition, calibration of tracking and calorimetry, data scanning and analysis, and planning for future upgrades of the DO detector with the advent of the FNAL Main Injector are all involved. The other effort supported by this grant has been towards the design of GEM, a large and general-purpose SSC detector with special emphasis on accurate muon measurement over a large solid angle. This effort will culminate this year in the presentation to the SSC laboratory of the GEM Technical Design Report. Contributions are being made to the detector design, coordination, and physics simulation studies with special emphasis on muon final states. Collaboration with the RD5 group at CERN to study muon punch through and to test cathode strip chamber prototypes was begun.

  1. High-energy high-luminosity electron-ion collider eRHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Hammons, L.; Hao, Y.; Webb, S.; et al

    2011-08-09

    In this paper, we describe a future electron-ion collider (EIC), based on the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) hadron facility, with two intersecting superconducting rings, each 3.8 km in circumference. The replacement cost of the RHIC facility is about two billion US dollars, and the eRHIC will fully take advantage and utilize this investment. We plan adding a polarized 5-30 GeV electron beam to collide with variety of species in the existing RHIC accelerator complex, from polarized protons with a top energy of 325 GeV, to heavy fully-striped ions with energies up to 130 GeV/u. Brookhaven's innovative design, is based on one of the RHIC's hadron rings and a multi-pass energy-recovery linac (ERL). Using the ERL as the electron accelerator assures high luminosity in the 10{sup 33}-10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} range, and for the natural staging of eRHIC, with the ERL located inside the RHIC tunnel. The eRHIC will provide electron-hadron collisions in up to three interaction regions. We detail the eRHIC's performance in Section 2. Since first paper on eRHIC paper in 2000, its design underwent several iterations. Initially, the main eRHIC option (the so-called ring-ring, RR, design) was based on an electron ring, with the linac-ring (LR) option as a backup. In 2004, we published the detailed 'eRHIC 0th Order Design Report' including a cost-estimate for the RR design. After detailed studies, we found that an LR eRHIC has about a 10-fold higher luminosity than the RR. Since 2007, the LR, with its natural staging strategy and full transparency for polarized electrons, became the main choice for eRHIC. In 2009, we completed technical studies of the design and dynamics for MeRHIC with 3-pass 4 GeV ERL. We learned much from this evaluation, completed a bottom-up cost estimate for this $350M machine, but then shelved the design. In the same year, we turned again to considering the cost-effective, all-in-tunnel six-pass ERL for our design of the high

  2. High Energy Accelerator and Colliding Beam User Group: Progress report, March 1, 1988--February 28, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This report discusses work carried out by the High Energy Accelerator and Colliding Beam User Group at the University of Maryland. Particular topics discussed are: OPAL experiment at LEP; deep inelastic muon interactions; B physics with the CLEO detector at CESR; further results from JADE; and search for ''small'' violation of the Pauli principle. (LSP)

  3. Physics of (very) high energy e/sup +/-e/sup -/ colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, M.E.

    1984-10-01

    I review the physics capabilities of e/sup +/e/sup -/ colliders of hundred GeV to TeV center-of-mass energies, emphasizing issues relevant to the physics of symmetry breaking in the weak interactions. 24 references.

  4. Development of an abort gap monitor for high-energy proton rings

    SciTech Connect

    Beche, Jean-Francois; Byrd, John; De Santis, Stefano; Denes, Peter; Placidi, Massimo; Turner, William; Zolotorev, Max

    2004-05-03

    The fill pattern in proton synchrotrons usually features an empty gap, longer than the abort kicker raise time, for machine protection. This gap is referred to as the ''abort gap'' and any particles, which may accumulate in it due to injection errors and diffusion between RF buckets, would be lost inside the ring, rather than in the beam dump, during the kicker firing. In large proton rings, due to the high energies involved, it is vital to monitor the build up of charges in the abort gap with a high sensitivity. We present a study of an abort gap monitor based on a photomultiplier with a gated microchannel plate, which would allow for detecting low charge densities by monitoring the synchrotron radiation emitted. We show results of beam test experiments at the Advanced Light Source using a Hamamatsu 5916U MCP-PMT and compare them to the specifications for the Large Hadron Collider

  5. Measurement of inclusive jet and dijet cross sections in proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV centre-of-mass energy with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Ackers, M.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Aleppo, M.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, J.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arms, K. E.; Armstrong, S. R.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Dos Santos Pedrosa, F. 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B.; Quinonez, F.; Raas, M.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radics, B.; Rador, T.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rahimi, A. M.; Rahm, D.; Raine, C.; Raith, B.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rajek, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rammes, M.; Ramstedt, M.; Ratoff, P. N.; Rauscher, F.; Rauter, E.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Reichold, A.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reinsch, A.; Reisinger, I.; Reljic, D.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z. L.; Renkel, P.; Rensch, B.; Rescia, S.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richards, A.; Richards, R. A.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rieke, S.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Rios, R. R.; Riu, I.; Rivoltella, G.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Roa Romero, D. A.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robinson, M.; Robson, A.; Rocha de Lima, J. G.; Roda, C.; Dos Santos, D. Roda; Rodier, S.; Rodriguez, D.; Garcia, Y. Rodriguez; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rojo, V.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romanov, V. M.; Romeo, G.; Romero Maltrana, D.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosenbaum, G. A.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rosendahl, P. L.; Rosselet, L.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, L. P.; Rossi, L.; Rotaru, M.; Rothberg, J.; Rottländer, I.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, G.; Rühr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E.; Rumiantsev, V.; Rumyantsev, L.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Rust, D. R.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryadovikov, V.; Ryan, P.; Rybkin, G.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sadeh, I.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sakamoto, H.; Sala, P.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B. M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B. H.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandhu, P.; Sandoval, T.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sanny, B.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sartisohn, G.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Savard, P.; Savine, A. Y.; Savinov, V.; Savva, P.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D. H.; Says, L. P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scallon, O.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schäfer, U.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schaller, M.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schamov, A. G.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J. L.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitz, M.; Scholte, R. C.; Schöning, A.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schreiner, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schroers, M.; Schroff, D.; Schuh, S.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schumacher, J. W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schweiger, D.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W. G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellden, B.; Sellers, G.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M. E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shank, J. T.; Shao, Q. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, C.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shield, P.; Shimizu, S.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinnari, L. A.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloan, T. J.; Sloper, J.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B. C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snow, S. W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Soluk, R.; Sondericker, J.; Soni, N.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sorbi, M.; Sosebee, M.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Spencer, E.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiriti, E.; Spiwoks, R.; Spogli, L.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; Denis, R. D. St.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S. N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stastny, J.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steele, G.; Stefanidis, E.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G. A.; Stiller, W.; Stockmanns, T.; Stockton, M. C.; Stodulski, M.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strang, M.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Strong, J. A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Stupak, J.; Sturm, P.; Soh, D. A.; Su, D.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suita, K.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X. H.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Sviridov, Yu. M.; Swedish, S.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szczygiel, R. R.; Szeless, B.; Szymocha, T.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Taboada Gameiro, S.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tani, K.; Tappern, G. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, R. P.; Taylor, W.; Castanheira, M. Teixeira Dias; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Tennenbaum-Katan, Y. D.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Tevlin, C. M.; Thadome, J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F. J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, D.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tonazzo, A.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Traynor, D.; Trefzger, T.; Treis, J.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T. N.; Tripiana, M. F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuggle, J. M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P. M.; Twomey, M. S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Typaldos, D.; Tyrvainen, H.; Tzamarioudaki, E.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valderanis, C.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Berg, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; Van Eijk, B.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vedrine, P.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Ventura, S.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vertogardov, L.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villani, E. G.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vovenko, A. S.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Anh, T. Vu; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Webel, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Xu, N.; Yabsley, B.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, S.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, W.-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S. P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V. G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo. K.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zdrazil, M.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P. F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, A. V.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; della Porta, G. Zevi; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zilka, B.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.

    2011-02-01

    Jet cross sections have been measured for the first time in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector. The measurement uses an integrated luminosity of 17 nb-1 recorded at the Large Hadron Collider. The anti- k t algorithm is used to identify jets, with two jet resolution parameters, R=0.4 and 0.6. The dominant uncertainty comes from the jet energy scale, which is determined to within 7% for central jets above 60 GeV transverse momentum. Inclusive single-jet differential cross sections are presented as functions of jet transverse momentum and rapidity. Dijet cross sections are presented as functions of dijet mass and the angular variable χ. The results are compared to expectations based on next-to-leading-order QCD, which agree with the data, providing a validation of the theory in a new kinematic regime.

  6. Ballistic protons in incoherent exclusive vector meson production as a measure of rare parton fluctuations at an electron-ion collider

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lappi, T.; Venugopalan, R.; Mantysaari, H.

    2015-02-25

    We argue that the proton multiplicities measured in Roman pot detectors at an electron ion collider can be used to determine centrality classes in incoherent diffractive scattering. Incoherent diffraction probes the fluctuations in the interaction strengths of multi-parton Fock states in the nuclear wavefunctions. In particular, the saturation scale that characterizes this multi-parton dynamics is significantly larger in central events relative to minimum bias events. As an application, we examine the centrality dependence of incoherent diffractive vector meson production. We identify an observable which is simultaneously very sensitive to centrality triggered parton fluctuations and insensitive to details of the model.

  7. Ballistic protons in incoherent exclusive vector meson production as a measure of rare parton fluctuations at an electron-ion collider.

    PubMed

    Lappi, T; Mäntysaari, H; Venugopalan, R

    2015-02-27

    We argue that the proton multiplicities measured in Roman pot detectors at an electron ion collider can be used to determine centrality classes in incoherent diffractive scattering. Incoherent diffraction probes the fluctuations in the interaction strengths of multiparton Fock states in the nuclear wave functions. In particular, the saturation scale that characterizes this multiparton dynamics is significantly larger in central events relative to minimum bias events. As an application, we study the centrality dependence of incoherent diffractive vector meson production. We identify an observable which is simultaneously very sensitive to centrality triggered parton fluctuations and insensitive to details of the model. PMID:25768758

  8. Optimizing integrated luminosity of future hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedikt, Michael; Schulte, Daniel; Zimmermann, Frank

    2015-10-01

    The integrated luminosity, a key figure of merit for any particle-physics collider, is closely linked to the peak luminosity and to the beam lifetime. The instantaneous peak luminosity of a collider is constrained by a number of boundary conditions, such as the available beam current, the maximum beam-beam tune shift with acceptable beam stability and reasonable luminosity lifetime (i.e., the empirical "beam-beam limit"), or the event pileup in the physics detectors. The beam lifetime at high-luminosity hadron colliders is largely determined by particle burn off in the collisions. In future highest-energy circular colliders synchrotron radiation provides a natural damping mechanism, which can be exploited for maximizing the integrated luminosity. In this article, we derive analytical expressions describing the optimized integrated luminosity, the corresponding optimum store length, and the time evolution of relevant beam parameters, without or with radiation damping, while respecting a fixed maximum value for the total beam-beam tune shift or for the event pileup in the detector. Our results are illustrated by examples for the proton-proton luminosity of the existing Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at its design parameters, of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), and of the Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh).

  9. Analysis of colliding nuclear matter in terms of symmetry energy and cross-section using computational method

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Arun Bharti, Arun; Gautam, Sakshi

    2015-08-28

    Here we perform a systematic study to extract the information for colliding nuclear matter via symmetry energy and nucleon-nucleon cross section in the fragmentation of some asymmetric colliding nuclei (O{sup 16}+Br{sup 80,} {sup 84,} {sup 92}) in the energy range between 50-200 MeV/nucleon. The simulations are carried out using isospin-dependent quantum-molecular dynamics (IQMD) computational approach for central collisions. Our study reveals that fragmentation pattern of neutron-rich colliding nuclei is sensitive to symmetry energy at lower incident energies, whereas isospin dependence of nucleon-nucleon cross section becomes dominant for reactions at higher incident energies.

  10. A detection system for very low-energy protons from {beta}-delayed proton decay

    SciTech Connect

    Spiridon, A.; Pollacco, E.; Trache, L.; Simmons, E.; McCleskey, M.; Roeder, B. T.; Tribble, R. E.; Pascovici, G.; Riallot, M.; Mols, J. P.; Kebbiri, M.

    2012-11-20

    We have recently developed a gas based detection system called AstroBox, motivated by nuclear astrophysics studies. The goal was to detect very low-energy protons from {beta}-delayed p-decay with reduced beta background and improved energy resolution. The detector was tested using the {beta}-delayed proton-emitter 23Al previously studied with a set-up based on thin double-sided Si strip detectors. The proton spectrum obtained with AstroBox showed no beta background down to {approx}80 keV. The low energy (206 keV, 267 keV) proton peaks were positively identified, well separated, and the resolution was improved.

  11. New approach to calculating the potential energy of colliding nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kurmanov, R. S.; Kosenko, G. I.

    2014-12-15

    The differential method proposed by the present authors earlier for the reduction of volume integrals in calculating the potential energy of a compound nucleus is generalized to the case of two interacting nuclei. The Coulomb interaction energy is obtained for the cases of a sharp and a diffuse boundary of nuclei, while the nuclear interaction energy is found only for nuclei with a sharp boundary, the finiteness of the nuclear-force range being taken into account. The present method of calculations permits reducing the time it takes to compute the potential energy at least by two orders of magnitude.

  12. MEIC Proton Beam Formation with a Low Energy Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuhong

    2015-09-01

    The MEIC proton and ion beams are generated, accumulated, accelerated and cooled in a new green-field ion injector complex designed specifically to support its high luminosity goal. This injector consists of sources, a linac and a small booster ring. In this paper we explore feasibility of a short ion linac that injects low-energy protons and ions into the booster ring.

  13. Fission foil detector calibrations with high energy protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    Fission foil detectors (FFD's) are passive devices composed of heavy metal foils in contact with muscovite mica films. The heavy metal nuclei have significant cross sections for fission when irradiated with neutrons and protons. Each isotope is characterized by threshold energies for the fission reactions and particular energy-dependent cross sections. In the FFD's, fission fragments produced by the reactions are emitted from the foils and create latent particle tracks in the adjacent mica films. When the films are processed surface tracks are formed which can be optically counted. The track densities are indications of the fluences and spectra of neutrons and/or protons. In the past, detection efficiencies have been calculated using the low energy neutron calibrated dosimeters and published fission cross sections for neutrons and protons. The problem is that the addition of a large kinetic energy to the (n,nucleus) or (p,nucleus) reaction could increase the energies and ranges of emitted fission fragments and increase the detector sensitivity as compared with lower energy neutron calibrations. High energy calibrations are the only method of resolving the uncertainties in detector efficiencies. At high energies, either proton or neutron calibrations are sufficient since the cross section data show that the proton and neutron fission cross sections are approximately equal. High energy proton beams have been utilized (1.8 and 4.9 GeV, 80 and 140 MeV) for measuring the tracks of fission fragments emitted backward and forward.

  14. Ab Initio Investigation of Cation Proton Affinity and Proton Transfer Energy for Energetic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Caleb M; Gordon, Mark S

    2016-08-01

    Protonation of the anion in an ionic liquid plays a key role in the hypergolic reaction between ionic liquids and oxidizers such as white fuming nitric acid. To investigate the influence of the cation on the protonation reaction, the deprotonation energy of a set of cations has been calculated at the MP2 level of theory. Specifically, guanidinium, dimethyltriazanium, triethylamine, N-ethyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium, N-ethyl-pyridinium, 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium, 1-ethyl-4-methyl-1,2,4-triazolium, and 1-butyl-4-methyl-1,2,4-triazolium were studied. In addition, the net proton transfer energies from the cations to a set of previously studied anions was calculated, demonstrating an inverse correlation between the net proton transfer energy and the likelihood that the cation/anion combination will react hypergolically with white fuming nitric acid. It is suggested that this correlation occurs due to a balance between the energy released by the proton transfer and the rate of proton transfer as determined by the ionicity of the ionic liquid. PMID:27397644

  15. Hardness assurance for proton direct ionization-induced SEEs using a high-energy proton beam

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dodds, Nathaniel Anson; Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Dodd, Paul E.; Doyle, Barney Lee; Trinczek, M.; Blackmore, E. W.; Rodbell, K. P.; Reed, R. A.; Pellish, J. A.; et al

    2014-11-06

    The low-energy proton energy spectra of all shielded space environments have the same shape. This shape is easily reproduced in the laboratory by degrading a high-energy proton beam, producing a high-fidelity test environment. We use this test environment to dramatically simplify rate prediction for proton direct ionization effects, allowing the work to be done at high-energy proton facilities, on encapsulated parts, without knowledge of the IC design, and with little or no computer simulations required. Proton direct ionization (PDI) is predicted to significantly contribute to the total error rate under the conditions investigated. Scaling effects are discussed using data frommore » 65-nm, 45-nm, and 32-nm SOI SRAMs. These data also show that grazing-angle protons will dominate the PDI-induced error rate due to their higher effective LET, so PDI hardness assurance methods must account for angular effects to be conservative. As a result, we show that this angular dependence can be exploited to quickly assess whether an IC is susceptible to PDI.« less

  16. Hardness assurance for proton direct ionization-induced SEEs using a high-energy proton beam

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, Nathaniel Anson; Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Dodd, Paul E.; Doyle, Barney Lee; Trinczek, M.; Blackmore, E. W.; Rodbell, K. P.; Reed, R. A.; Pellish, J. A.; LaBel, K. A.; Marshall, P. W.; Swanson, Scot E.; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Van Deusen, Stuart B.; Sexton, Frederick W.; Martinez, Marino J.; Gordon, M. S.

    2014-11-06

    The low-energy proton energy spectra of all shielded space environments have the same shape. This shape is easily reproduced in the laboratory by degrading a high-energy proton beam, producing a high-fidelity test environment. We use this test environment to dramatically simplify rate prediction for proton direct ionization effects, allowing the work to be done at high-energy proton facilities, on encapsulated parts, without knowledge of the IC design, and with little or no computer simulations required. Proton direct ionization (PDI) is predicted to significantly contribute to the total error rate under the conditions investigated. Scaling effects are discussed using data from 65-nm, 45-nm, and 32-nm SOI SRAMs. These data also show that grazing-angle protons will dominate the PDI-induced error rate due to their higher effective LET, so PDI hardness assurance methods must account for angular effects to be conservative. As a result, we show that this angular dependence can be exploited to quickly assess whether an IC is susceptible to PDI.

  17. The dijet cross section measurement in proton-proton collisions at a center of mass energy of 500 GeV at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Grant

    Polarized deep inelastic scattering experiments play a vital role in the exploration of the spin structure of the proton. The polarized proton-proton collider at RHIC provides direct access to the gluon spin distribution through longitudinal double spin asymmetry measurements of inclusive jets, pions, and dijets. This thesis presents the measurement of the dijet double differential cross-section in proton-proton collisions at center of mass energies of [sq rt]s = 500 GeV. The data represent an integrated luminosity of 8.7 pb--1 recorded by the STAR detector during the 2009 RHIC run. A comprehensive jet analysis was performed to determine the ideal jet algorithm and jet parameters used in [sq rt]s = 500 GeV collisions at the STAR detector. The cross-section is measured as a function of the dijet invariant mass (30 ≤ Mij ≤ 152 GeV) in the mid rapidity region with a maximum rapidity range of | ymax| ≤ 0.8. This result shows agreement with theoretical next-to-leading order pQCD calculations, motivating the use of dijet asymmetries at STAR to further constrain the shape of Deltag( x). KEYWORDS: Dijet Cross Section, Gluon Spin, STAR Detector, Jetography, Embedding.

  18. Novel collective phenomena in high-energy proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusling, Kevin; Li, Wei; Schenke, Björn

    2016-01-01

    The observation of long-range rapidity correlations among particles in high-multiplicity p-p and p-Pb collisions has created new opportunities for investigating novel high-density QCD phenomena in small colliding systems. We review experimental results related to the study of collective phenomena in small systems at RHIC and the LHC along with the related developments in theory and phenomenology. Perspectives on possible future directions for research are discussed with the aim of exploring emergent QCD phenomena.

  19. THERMAL SHOCK INDUCED BY A 24 GEV PROTON BEAM IN THE TEST WINDOWS OF THE MUON COLLIDER EXPERIMENT E951 - TEST RESULTS AND THEORETICAL PREDICTIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    SIMOS,N.; KIRK,H.; FINFROCK,C.; PRIGL,R.; BROWN,K.; KAHN,S.; LUDEWIG,H.; MCDONALDK.; CATES,M.; TSAI,J.; BESHEARS,D.; RIEMER,B.

    2001-11-11

    The need for intense muon beams for muon colliders and neutrino factories has lead to a concept of a high performance target station in which a 1-4 MW proton beam of 6-24 GeV impinges on a target inside a high field solenoid channel. While novel technical issues exist regarding the survivability of the target itself, the need to pass the tightly focused proton beam through beam windows poses additional concerns. In this paper, issues associated with the interaction of a proton beam with window structures designed for the muon targetry experiment E951 at BNL are explored. Specifically, a 24 GeV proton beam up to 16 x 10{sup 12} per pulse and a pulse length of approximately 100 ns is expected to be tightly focused (to 0.5 mm rms one sigma radius) on an experimental target. Such beam will induce very high thermal, quasi-static and shock stresses in the window structure that exceed the strength of most common materials. In this effort, a detailed assessment of the thermal/shock response of beam windows is attempted with a goal of identifying the best window material candidate. Further, experimental strain results and comparison with the predicted values are presented and discussed.

  20. Concept of proton radiography using energy resolved dose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentefour, El H.; Schnuerer, Roland; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Energy resolved dosimetry offers a potential path to single detector based proton imaging using scanned proton beams. This is because energy resolved dose functions encrypt the radiological depth at which the measurements are made. When a set of predetermined proton beams ‘proton imaging field’ are used to deliver a well determined dose distribution in a specific volume, then, at any given depth x of this volume, the behavior of the dose against the energies of the proton imaging field is unique and characterizes the depth x. This concept applies directly to proton therapy scanning delivery methods (pencil beam scanning and uniform scanning) and it can be extended to the proton therapy passive delivery methods (single and double scattering) if the delivery of the irradiation is time-controlled with a known time-energy relationship. To derive the water equivalent path length (WEPL) from the energy resolved dose measurement, one may proceed in two different ways. A first method is by matching the measured energy resolved dose function to a pre-established calibration database of the behavior of the energy resolved dose in water, measured over the entire range of radiological depths with at least 1 mm spatial resolution. This calibration database can also be made specific to the patient if computed using the patient x-CT data. A second method to determine the WEPL is by using the empirical relationships between the WEPL and the integral dose or the depth at 80% of the proximal fall off of the energy resolved dose functions in water. In this note, we establish the evidence of the fundamental relationship between the energy resolved dose and the WEPL at the depth of the measurement. Then, we illustrate this relationship with experimental data and discuss its imaging dynamic range for 230 MeV protons.

  1. Concept of proton radiography using energy resolved dose measurement.

    PubMed

    Bentefour, El H; Schnuerer, Roland; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2016-08-21

    Energy resolved dosimetry offers a potential path to single detector based proton imaging using scanned proton beams. This is because energy resolved dose functions encrypt the radiological depth at which the measurements are made. When a set of predetermined proton beams 'proton imaging field' are used to deliver a well determined dose distribution in a specific volume, then, at any given depth x of this volume, the behavior of the dose against the energies of the proton imaging field is unique and characterizes the depth x. This concept applies directly to proton therapy scanning delivery methods (pencil beam scanning and uniform scanning) and it can be extended to the proton therapy passive delivery methods (single and double scattering) if the delivery of the irradiation is time-controlled with a known time-energy relationship. To derive the water equivalent path length (WEPL) from the energy resolved dose measurement, one may proceed in two different ways. A first method is by matching the measured energy resolved dose function to a pre-established calibration database of the behavior of the energy resolved dose in water, measured over the entire range of radiological depths with at least 1 mm spatial resolution. This calibration database can also be made specific to the patient if computed using the patient x-CT data. A second method to determine the WEPL is by using the empirical relationships between the WEPL and the integral dose or the depth at 80% of the proximal fall off of the energy resolved dose functions in water. In this note, we establish the evidence of the fundamental relationship between the energy resolved dose and the WEPL at the depth of the measurement. Then, we illustrate this relationship with experimental data and discuss its imaging dynamic range for 230 MeV protons. PMID:27435446

  2. Strain energy minimization in SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) magnet winding

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.M.

    1990-09-24

    Differential geometry provides a natural family of coordinate systems, the Frenet frame, in which to specify the geometric properties of magnet winding. By a modification of the Euler-Bernoulli thin rod model, the strain energy is defined with respect to this frame. Then it is minimized by a direct method from the calculus of variations. The mathematics, its implementation in a computer program, and some analysis of an SSC dipole by the program will be described. 16 refs.

  3. Muon Collider Progress: Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2011-09-10

    A muon collider would be a powerful tool for exploring the energy-frontier with leptons, and would complement the studies now under way at the LHC. Such a device would offer several important benefits. Muons, like electrons, are point particles so the full center-of-mass energy is available for particle production. Moreover, on account of their higher mass, muons give rise to very little synchrotron radiation and produce very little beamstrahlung. The first feature permits the use of a circular collider that can make efficient use of the expensive rf system and whose footprint is compatible with an existing laboratory site. The second feature leads to a relatively narrow energy spread at the collision point. Designing an accelerator complex for a muon collider is a challenging task. Firstly, the muons are produced as a tertiary beam, so a high-power proton beam and a target that can withstand it are needed to provide the required luminosity of ~1 × 10{sup 34} cm{sup –2}s{sup –1}. Secondly, the beam is initially produced with a large 6D phase space, which necessitates a scheme for reducing the muon beam emittance (“cooling”). Finally, the muon has a short lifetime so all beam manipulations must be done very rapidly. The Muon Accelerator Program, led by Fermilab and including a number of U.S. national laboratories and universities, has undertaken design and R&D activities aimed toward the eventual construction of a muon collider. Design features of such a facility and the supporting R&D program are described.

  4. Chiral electric field in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yang; Yang, Chun-Bin; Cai, Xu; Feng, Sheng-Qin

    2016-08-01

    It has been proposed that electric fields may lead to chiral separation in quark-gluon plasma (QGP). This is called the chiral electric separation effect. The strong electromagnetic field and the QCD vacuum can both be completely produced in off-central nuclear-nuclear collision. We use the Woods-Saxon nucleon distribution to calculate the electric field distributions of off-central collisions. The chiral electric field spatial distribution at Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energy regions are systematically studied in this paper. The dependence of the electric field produced by the thermal quark in the central position with different impact parameters on the proper time with different collision energies in the RHIC and LHC energy regions are studied in this paper. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375069, 11435054, 11075061, 11221504) and Key Laboratory Foundation of Quark and Lepton Physics (Hua-Zhong Normal University)(QLPL2014P01)

  5. Nucleon Decay and Neutrino Experiments, Experiments at High Energy Hadron Colliders, and String Theor

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Chang Kee; Douglas, Michaek; Hobbs, John; McGrew, Clark; Rijssenbeek, Michael

    2013-07-29

    This is the final report of the DOE grant DEFG0292ER40697 that supported the research activities of the Stony Brook High Energy Physics Group from November 15, 1991 to April 30, 2013. During the grant period, the grant supported the research of three Stony Brook particle physics research groups: The Nucleon Decay and Neutrino group, the Hadron Collider Group, and the Theory Group.

  6. Study of open charm production in proton+proton collisions at center of mass energies = 200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butsyk, Sergey

    2005-11-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) with its unique electron identification system enables us to perform high precision measurements of electron yields. By measuring electron production at high transverse momentum, we can disentangle the contribution of electrons originating from semi-leptonic decays of heavy quarks (charm or bottom) from the less interesting "photonic" decay modes of light mesons. D/B mesons carry single heavy valence quarks and are usually referred to as "Open Charm" and "Open Bottom" particles, differentiating them from Closed Flavor particles such as J/psi, and Y mesons. Due to the large mass of the heavy quarks, their production mechanisms can be adequately explained by perturbative QCD (pQCD) theory. This dissertation presents the measurement of electrons from heavy flavor decays in proton + proton collisions at RHIC at collision energy s = 200 GeV over a wide range of transverse moment (0.4 < pT < 5 GeV/c). Two independent analysis techniques of signal extraction were performed. The "Cocktail" subtraction is based on the calculation and subtraction of the expected "photon-related" electron background based upon measured yields of light mesons. The "Converter" subtraction is based upon a direct measurement of photon yields achieved introducing additional material in the PHENIX acceptance and deducing the photon abundance by measuring the increase in electron yield. This is the first measurement of the Open Charm crossection at this collision energy and it is an important baseline measurement for comparison with nucleus + nucleus collisions. The modification of Open Charm production in heavy ion collisions compared to the presented p + p result can be used to study the final state interaction of the heavy quarks with hot dense matter inside the collisions. The results of the Open Charm measurements are compared to current pQCD predictions both in Leading Order (LO) O a2s and Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) O a3s

  7. Nuclear physics with a medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    A. Accardi, V. Guzey, A. Prokudin, C. Weiss

    2012-06-01

    A polarized ep/eA collider (Electron-Ion Collider, or EIC) with variable center-of-mass energy {radical}s {approx} 20-70 GeV and a luminosity {approx}10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} would be uniquely suited to address several outstanding questions of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and the microscopic structure of hadrons and nuclei: (i) the three-dimensional structure of the nucleon in QCD (sea quark and gluon spatial distributions, orbital motion, polarization, correlations); (ii) the fundamental color fields in nuclei (nuclear parton densities, shadowing, coherence effects, color transparency); (iii) the conversion of color charge to hadrons (fragmentation, parton propagation through matter, in-medium jets). We briefly review the conceptual aspects of these questions and the measurements that would address them, emphasizing the qualitatively new information that could be obtained with the collider. Such a medium-energy EIC could be realized at Jefferson Lab after the 12 GeV Upgrade (MEIC), or at Brookhaven National Lab as the low-energy stage of eRHIC.

  8. High energy protons generation by two sequential laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Shen, Baifei E-mail: zhxm@siom.ac.cn; Zhang, Xiaomei E-mail: zhxm@siom.ac.cn; Wang, Wenpeng; Xu, Jiancai; Yi, Longqing; Shi, Yin

    2015-04-15

    The sequential proton acceleration by two laser pulses of relativistic intensity is proposed to produce high energy protons. In the scheme, a relativistic super-Gaussian (SG) laser pulse followed by a Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) pulse irradiates dense plasma attached by underdense plasma. A proton beam is produced from the target and accelerated in the radiation pressure regime by the short SG pulse and then trapped and re-accelerated in a special bubble driven by the LG pulse in the underdense plasma. The advantages of radiation pressure acceleration and LG transverse structure are combined to achieve the effective trapping and acceleration of protons. In a two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation, protons of 6.7 GeV are obtained from a 2 × 10{sup 22 }W/cm{sup 2} SG laser pulse and a LG pulse at a lower peak intensity.

  9. Online beam energy measurement of Beijing electron positron collider II linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Iqbal, M; Liu, R; Chi, Y

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes online beam energy measurement of Beijing Electron Positron Collider upgraded version II linear accelerator (linac) adequately. It presents the calculation formula, gives the error analysis in detail, discusses the realization in practice, and makes some verification. The method mentioned here measures the beam energy by acquiring the horizontal beam position with three beam position monitors (BPMs), which eliminates the effect of orbit fluctuation, and is much better than the one using the single BPM. The error analysis indicates that this online measurement has further potential usage such as a part of beam energy feedback system. The reliability of this method is also discussed and demonstrated in this paper. PMID:26931839

  10. Online beam energy measurement of Beijing electron positron collider II linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Iqbal, M.; Liu, R.; Chi, Y.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes online beam energy measurement of Beijing Electron Positron Collider upgraded version II linear accelerator (linac) adequately. It presents the calculation formula, gives the error analysis in detail, discusses the realization in practice, and makes some verification. The method mentioned here measures the beam energy by acquiring the horizontal beam position with three beam position monitors (BPMs), which eliminates the effect of orbit fluctuation, and is much better than the one using the single BPM. The error analysis indicates that this online measurement has further potential usage such as a part of beam energy feedback system. The reliability of this method is also discussed and demonstrated in this paper.

  11. Proton-Proton On Shell Optical Potential at High Energies and the Hollowness Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arriola, Enrique Ruiz; Broniowski, Wojciech

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the usefulness of the optical potential as suggested by the double spectral Mandelstam representation at very high energies, such as in the proton-proton scattering at ISR and the LHC. Its particular meaning regarding the interpretation of the scattering data up to the maximum available measured energies is discussed. Our analysis reconstructs 3D dynamics from the effective transverse 2D impact parameter representation and suggests that besides the onset of gray nucleons at the LHC there appears an inelasticity depletion (hollowness) which precludes convolution models at the attometer scale.

  12. Proton-Proton On Shell Optical Potential at High Energies and the Hollowness Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arriola, Enrique Ruiz; Broniowski, Wojciech

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the usefulness of the optical potential as suggested by the double spectral Mandelstam representation at very high energies, such as in the proton-proton scattering at ISR and the LHC. Its particular meaning regarding the interpretation of the scattering data up to the maximum available measured energies is discussed. Our analysis reconstructs 3D dynamics from the effective transverse 2D impact parameter representation and suggests that besides the onset of gray nucleons at the LHC there appears an inelasticity depletion (hollowness) which precludes convolution models at the attometer scale.

  13. Response of BC418 Plastic Scintillator to Low Energy Protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daub, B. H.; Henzl, V.; Kovash, M. A.; Matthews, J. L.; Miller, Z. W.; Shoniyozov, K.; Yang, H.

    2012-10-01

    The response of fast plastic scintillators is unknown for proton energies below approximately 300 keV. The response of BC418 plastic scintillator to protons from 100 keV to 3.6 MeV was measured using elastic scattering of neutrons at the University of Kentucky and at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. At Kentucky, protons of precise energies from a Van de Graaff accelerator impinged on a thin LiF target to produce neutrons in narrow energy bands. At Los Alamos, neutrons were produced from a tungsten spallation source and their energies determined by time of flight. In both experiments a coincidence was detected between the recoiling proton in the plastic scintillator and the elastically scattered neutron in a liquid scintillator. The energy of the recoil proton is determined by the elastic scattering kinematics, with the scattered neutron energy precisely determined by time of flight. The results are compared with previous measurements of the response of similar plastic scintillators in the energy region where they overlap.

  14. TOP AND HIGGS PHYSICS AT THE HADRON COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jabeen, Shabnam

    2013-10-20

    This review summarizes the recent results for top quark and Higgs boson measurements from experiments at Tevatron, a proton–antiproton collider at a center-of-mass energy of √ s =1 . 96 TeV, and the Large Hadron Collider, a proton–proton collider at a center- of-mass energy of √ s = 7 TeV. These results include the discovery of a Higgs-like boson and measurement of its various properties, and measurements in the top quark sector, e.g. top quark mass, spin, charge asymmetry and production of single top quark.

  15. Neutron dosimetry at a high-energy electron-positron collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedogni, Roberto

    Electron-positron colliders with energy of hundreds of MeV per beam have been employed for studies in the domain of nuclear and sub-nuclear physics. The typical structure of such a collider includes an LINAC, able to produce both types of particles, an accumulator ring and a main ring, whose diameter ranges from several tens to hundred meters and allows circulating particle currents of several amperes per beam. As a consequence of the interaction of the primary particles with targets, shutters, structures and barriers, a complex radiation environment is produced. This paper addresses the neutron dosimetry issues associated with the operation of such accelerators, referring in particular to the DAΦ NE complex, operative since 1997 at INFN-Frascati National Laboratory (Italy). Special attention is given to the active and passive techniques used for the spectrometric and dosimetric characterization of the workplace neutron fields, for radiation protection dosimetry purposes.

  16. Recent Results on High-Energy Spin Phenomena of Gluons and Sea-Quarks in Polarized Proton-Proton Collisions at Rhic at Bnl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surrow, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory is carrying out a spin physics program in high-energy polarized proton collisions at √ {s} = 200 GeV and √ {s} = 500 GeV to gain a deeper insight into the spin structure and dynamics of the proton. One of the main objectives of the spin physics program at RHIC is the precise determination of the polarized gluon distribution function. The STAR detector is well suited for the reconstruction of various final states involving jets, π0, π±, e± and γ, which allows to measure several different processes. Recent results suggest a gluon spin contribution to the proton spin at the same level as the quark spin contribution itself. The production of W bosons in polarized p+p collisions at √ {s} = 500 GeV opens a new era in the study of the spin-flavor structure of the proton. W-(+) bosons are produced in \\bar {u} + d (\\bar {d} + u) collisions and can be detected through their leptonic decays, e- + \\bar {ν }e (e++ν e), where only the respective charged lepton is measured. Results of W-(+) production suggest a large asymmetry between the polarization of anti-u and anti-d quarks.

  17. 3D imaging of sea quarks and gluons at an electron-ion collider

    SciTech Connect

    Vadim Guzey

    2011-11-01

    We outline key objectives and capabilities of an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) — a high-energy and high-luminosity electron-proton/nucleus collider with polarized electron and proton beams. One of goals of a future EIC is to map the 3D (in configuration and momentum spaces) structure of sea quarks and gluons in the nucleon and nuclei. We briefly present and discuss key observables and measurements pertaining to the program of 3D imaging at an EIC.

  18. Maximum kinetic energy considerations in proton stereotactic radiosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Sengbusch, Evan R.; Mackie, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum proton kinetic energy required to treat a given percentage of patients eligible for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with coplanar arc-based proton therapy, contingent upon the number and location of gantry angles used. Treatment plans from 100 consecutive patients treated with SRS at the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center between June of 2007 and March of 2010 were analyzed. For each target volume within each patient, in-house software was used to place proton pencil beam spots over the distal surface of the target volume from 51 equally-spaced gantry angles of up to 360°. For each beam spot, the radiological path length from the surface of the patient to the distal boundary of the target was then calculated along a ray from the gantry location to the location of the beam spot. This data was used to generate a maximum proton energy requirement for each patient as a function of the arc length that would be spanned by the gantry angles used in a given treatment. If only a single treatment angle is required, 100% of the patients included in the study could be treated by a proton beam with a maximum kinetic energy of 118 MeV. As the length of the treatment arc is increased to 90°, 180°, 270°, and 360°, the maximum energy requirement increases to 127, 145, 156, and 179 MeV, respectively. A very high percentage of SRS patients could be treated at relatively low proton energies if the gantry angles used in the treatment plan do not span a large treatment arc. Maximum proton kinetic energy requirements increase linearly with size of the treatment arc. PMID:21844866

  19. Tests of the radiation hardness of VLSI Integrated Circuits and Silicon Strip Detectors for the SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) under neutron, proton, and gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, H.J.; Milner, C.; Sommer, W.F. ); Carteglia, N.; DeWitt, J.; Dorfan, D.; Hubbard, B.; Leslie, J.; O'Shaughnessy, K.F.; Pitzl, D.; Rowe, W.A.; Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E. . Inst. for Particle Physics); Ellison, J.A. ); Ferguson, P. ); Giubellino

    1990-01-01

    As part of a program to develop a silicon strip central tracking detector system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) we are studying the effects of radiation damage in silicon detectors and their associated front-end readout electronics. We report on the results of neutron and proton irradiations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and {gamma}-ray irradiations at UC Santa Cruz (UCSC). Individual components on single-sided AC-coupled silicon strip detectors and on test structures were tested. Circuits fabricated in a radiation hard CMOS process and individual transistors fabricated using dielectric isolation bipolar technology were also studied. Results indicate that a silicon strip tracking detector system should have a lifetime of at least one decade at the SSC. 17 refs., 17 figs.

  20. Maximum proton kinetic energy and patient-generated neutron fluence considerations in proton beam arc delivery radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sengbusch, E.; Pérez-Andújar, A.; DeLuca, P. M.; Mackie, T. R.

    2009-01-01

    Several compact proton accelerator systems for use in proton therapy have recently been proposed. Of paramount importance to the development of such an accelerator system is the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, that must be reached by the treatment system. The commonly used value for the maximum kinetic energy required for a medical proton accelerator is 250 MeV, but it has not been demonstrated that this energy is indeed necessary to treat all or most patients eligible for proton therapy. This article quantifies the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, necessary to treat a given percentage of patients with rotational proton therapy, and examines the impact of this energy threshold on the cost and feasibility of a compact, gantry-mounted proton accelerator treatment system. One hundred randomized treatment plans from patients treated with IMRT were analyzed. The maximum radiological pathlength from the surface of the patient to the distal edge of the treatment volume was obtained for 180° continuous arc proton therapy and for 180° split arc proton therapy (two 90° arcs) using CT# profiles from the Pinnacle™ (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI) treatment planning system. In each case, the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, that would be necessary to treat the patient was calculated using proton range tables for various media. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to quantify neutron production in a water phantom representing a patient as a function of the maximum proton kinetic energy achievable by a proton treatment system. Protons with a kinetic energy of 240 MeV, immediately prior to entry into the patient, were needed to treat 100% of patients in this study. However, it was shown that 90% of patients could be treated at 198 MeV, and 95% of patients could be treated at 207 MeV. Decreasing the proton kinetic

  1. Maximum proton kinetic energy and patient-generated neutron fluence considerations in proton beam arc delivery radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Sengbusch, E; Pérez-Andújar, A; DeLuca, P M; Mackie, T R

    2009-02-01

    Several compact proton accelerator systems for use in proton therapy have recently been proposed. Of paramount importance to the development of such an accelerator system is the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, that must be reached by the treatment system. The commonly used value for the maximum kinetic energy required for a medical proton accelerator is 250 MeV, but it has not been demonstrated that this energy is indeed necessary to treat all or most patients eligible for proton therapy. This article quantifies the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, necessary to treat a given percentage of patients with rotational proton therapy, and examines the impact of this energy threshold on the cost and feasibility of a compact, gantry-mounted proton accelerator treatment system. One hundred randomized treatment plans from patients treated with IMRT were analyzed. The maximum radiological pathlength from the surface of the patient to the distal edge of the treatment volume was obtained for 180 degrees continuous arc proton therapy and for 180 degrees split arc proton therapy (two 90 degrees arcs) using CT# profiles from the Pinnacle (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI) treatment planning system. In each case, the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, that would be necessary to treat the patient was calculated using proton range tables for various media. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to quantify neutron production in a water phantom representing a patient as a function of the maximum proton kinetic energy achievable by a proton treatment system. Protons with a kinetic energy of 240 MeV, immediately prior to entry into the patient, were needed to treat 100% of patients in this study. However, it was shown that 90% of patients could be treated at 198 MeV, and 95% of patients could be treated at 207 MeV. Decreasing the

  2. Magnetic-field-induced squeezing effect at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Long-Gang; Endrődi, Gergely; Petersen, Hannah

    2016-04-01

    In off-central heavy-ion collisions, quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is exposed to the strongest magnetic fields ever created in the universe. Because of the paramagnetic nature of the QGP at high temperatures, the spatially inhomogeneous magnetic field configuration exerts an anisotropic force density that competes with the pressure gradients resulting from purely geometric effects. In this paper, we simulate (3+1)-dimensional ideal hydrodynamics with external magnetic fields to estimate the effect of this force density on the anisotropic expansion of the QGP in collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). While negligible for quickly decaying magnetic fields, we find that long-lived fields generate a substantial force density that suppresses the momentum anisotropy of the plasma by up to 20 % at the LHC energy and also leaves its imprint on the elliptic flow v2 of charged pions.

  3. Progress with high-field superconducting magnets for high-energy colliders

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Apollinari, Giorgio; Prestemon, Soren; Zlobin, Alexander V.

    2015-10-01

    One of the possible next steps for high-energy physics research relies on a high-energy hadron or muon collider. The energy of a circular collider is limited by the strength of bending dipoles, and its maximum luminosity is determined by the strength of final focus quadrupoles. For this reason, the high-energy physics and accelerator communities have shown much interest in higher-field and higher-gradient superconducting accelerator magnets. The maximum field of NbTi magnets used in all present high-energy machines, including the LHC, is limited to ~10 T at 1.9 K. Fields above 10 T became possible with the use of Nb$_3$Sn superconductors.more » Nb$_3$Sn accelerator magnets can provide operating fields up to ~15 T and can significantly increase the coil temperature margin. Accelerator magnets with operating fields above 15 T require high-temperature superconductors. Furthermore, this review discusses the status and main results of Nb$_3$Sn accelerator magnet research and development and work toward 20-T magnets.« less

  4. Progress with High-Field Superconducting Magnets for High-Energy Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollinari, Giorgio; Prestemon, Soren; Zlobin, Alexander V.

    2015-10-01

    One of the possible next steps for high-energy physics research relies on a high-energy hadron or muon collider. The energy of a circular collider is limited by the strength of bending dipoles, and its maximum luminosity is determined by the strength of final focus quadrupoles. For this reason, the high-energy physics and accelerator communities have shown much interest in higher-field and higher-gradient superconducting accelerator magnets. The maximum field of NbTi magnets used in all present high-energy machines, including the LHC, is limited to ˜10 T at 1.9 K. Fields above 10 T became possible with the use of Nb3Sn superconductors. Nb3Sn accelerator magnets can provide operating fields up to ˜15 T and can significantly increase the coil temperature margin. Accelerator magnets with operating fields above 15 T require high-temperature superconductors. This review discusses the status and main results of Nb3Sn accelerator magnet research and development and work toward 20-T magnets.

  5. Progress with high-field superconducting magnets for high-energy colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Apollinari, Giorgio; Prestemon, Soren; Zlobin, Alexander V.

    2015-10-01

    One of the possible next steps for high-energy physics research relies on a high-energy hadron or muon collider. The energy of a circular collider is limited by the strength of bending dipoles, and its maximum luminosity is determined by the strength of final focus quadrupoles. For this reason, the high-energy physics and accelerator communities have shown much interest in higher-field and higher-gradient superconducting accelerator magnets. The maximum field of NbTi magnets used in all present high-energy machines, including the LHC, is limited to ~10 T at 1.9 K. Fields above 10 T became possible with the use of Nb$_3$Sn superconductors. Nb$_3$Sn accelerator magnets can provide operating fields up to ~15 T and can significantly increase the coil temperature margin. Accelerator magnets with operating fields above 15 T require high-temperature superconductors. Furthermore, this review discusses the status and main results of Nb$_3$Sn accelerator magnet research and development and work toward 20-T magnets.

  6. Relative Proton Affinities from Kinetic Energy Release Distributions for Dissociation of Proton-Bound Dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Hache, John J.; Laskin, Julia ); Futrell, Jean H.)

    2002-12-19

    Kinetic energy release distributions (KERDs) upon dissociation of proton-bound dimers are utilized along with Finite Heat Bath theory analysis to obtain relative proton affinities of monomeric species composing the dimer. The proposed approach allows accurate measurement of relative proton affinities based on KERD measurements for the compound with unknown thermochemical properties versus a single reference base. It also allows distinguishing the cases when dissociation of proton-bound dimers is associated with reverse activation barrier, for which both our approach and the kinetic method become inapplicable. Results are reported for the n-butanol-n-propanol dimer, for which there is no significant difference in entropy effects for two reactions and for the pyrrolidine-1,2-ethylenediamine dimer, which is characterized by a significant difference in entropy effects for the two competing reactions. Relative protonation affinities of -1.0?0.3 kcal/mol for the n-butanol-n-propanol pair and 0.27?0.10 kcal/mol for the pyrrolidine-1,2-ethylenediamine pair are in good agreement with literature values. Relative reaction entropies were extracted from the branching ratio and KERD measurements. Good correspondence was found between the relative reaction entropies for the n-butanol-n-propanol dimer (D(DS?)=-0.3?1.5 cal/mol K) and the relative protonation entropy for the two monomers (D(DSp)=0). However, the relative reaction entropy for the pyrrolidine-1,2-ethylenediamine dimer is higher than the difference in protonation entropies (D(DS?)=8.2?0.5 cal/mol K vs. D(DSp)=5 cal/mol K).

  7. Results from a Prototype Chicane-Based Energy Spectrometer for a Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Lyapin, A.; Schreiber, H.J.; Viti, M.; Adolphsen, C.; Arnold, R.; Boogert, S.; Boorman, G.; Chistiakova, M.V.; Gournaris, F.; Duginov, V.; Hast, C.; Hildreth, M.; Hlaing, C.; Jackson, F.; Khainovsky, O.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Kostromin, S.; Kumar, K.; Maiheu, B.; McCormick, D.; Miller, D.J.; /University Coll. London /Dubna, JINR /UC, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley /Caltech /UC, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley /Cambridge U. /SLAC /Cambridge U. /Fermilab /University Coll. London /SLAC

    2011-02-28

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) and other proposed high energy e{sup +}e{sup -} machines aim to measure with unprecedented precision Standard Model quantities and new, not yet discovered phenomena. One of the main requirements for achieving this goal is a measurement of the incident beam energy with an uncertainty close to 10{sup -4}. This article presents the analysis of data from a prototype energy spectrometer commissioned in 2006-2007 in SLAC's End Station A beamline. The prototype was a 4-magnet chicane equipped with beam position monitors measuring small changes of the beam orbit through the chicane at different beam energies. A single bunch energy resolution close to 5 {center_dot} 10{sup -4} was measured, which is satisfactory for most scenarios. We also report on the operational experience with the chicane-based spectrometer and suggest ways of improving its performance.

  8. Proton irradiation energy dependence of defect formation in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sanggeun; Seo, Jungmok; Hong, Juree; Park, Seul Hyun; Lee, Joo-Hee; Min, Byung-Wook; Lee, Taeyoon

    2015-07-01

    Graphene transistors on SiO2/Si were irradiated with 5, 10, and 15 MeV protons at a dose rate of 2 × 1014 cm-2. The effect of proton irradiation on the structural defects and electrical characteristics of graphene was measured using Raman spectroscopy and electrical measurements. Raman spectra exhibited high intensity peaks induced by defects after 5 and 10 MeV proton irradiation, whereas no significant defect-induced peaks were observed after 15 MeV proton irradiation. The drain current of graphene transistors decreased and the Dirac point shifted after proton irradiation; however, a flattening in the Dirac point occurred after 15 MeV proton irradiation. The variations in characteristics were attributed to different types of graphene defects, which were closely related to the irradiation energy dependency of the transferred energy. Our observation results were in good agreement with the Bethe formula as well as the stopping and range of ions in matter simulation results.

  9. Measurements of proton energy spectra using a radiochromic film stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filkins, T. M.; Steidle, Jessica; Ellison, D. M.; Steidle, Jeffrey; Freeman, C. G.; Padalino, S. J.; Fiksel, G.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-10-01

    The energy spectrum of protons accelerated from the rear-side of a thin foil illuminated with ultra-intense laser light from the OMEGA EP laser system at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) was measured using a stack of radiochromic film (RCF). The film stack consisted of four layers of Gafchromic HD-V2 film and four layers of Gafchromic MD-V2-55 film. Aluminum foils of various thicknesses were placed between each piece of RCF in the stack. This arrangement allowed protons with energies of 30 MeV to reach the back layer of RCF in the stack. The stack was placed in the detector plane of a Thomson parabola ion energy (TPIE) spectrometer. Each piece of film in the stack was scanned using a commercially available flat-bed scanner (Epson 10000XL). The resulting optical density was converted into proton fluence using an absolute calibration of the RCF obtained at the SUNY Geneseo 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerator laboratory. In these calibration measurements, the sensitivity of the radiochromic film was measured using monoenergetic protons produced by the accelerator. Details of the analysis procedure and the resulting proton energy spectra will be presented. Funded in part by a grant from the DOE through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  10. Investigation of high-energy-proton effects in aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Czajkowski, C.J.; Snead, C.L. Jr.; Todosow, M.

    1997-12-01

    Specimens of 1100 aluminum were exposed to several fluences of 23.5-GeV protons at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron. Although this energy is above those currently being proposed for spallation-neutron applications, the results can be viewed as indicative of trends and other microstructural evolution with fluence that take place with high-energy proton exposures such as those associated with an increasing ratio of gas generation to dpa. TEM investigation showed significantly larger bubble size and lower density of bubbles compared with lower-energy proton results. Additional testing showed that the tensile strength increased with fluence as expected, but the microhardness decreased, a result for which an intepretation is still under investigation.

  11. Progress on the design of the polarized Medium-energy Electron Ion Collider at JLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, F.; Bogacz, A.; Brindza, P.; Camsonne, A.; Daly, E.; Derbenev, Ya. S.; Douglas, D.; Ent, R.; Gaskell, D.; Geng, R.; Grames, J.; Guo, J.; Harwood, L.; Hutton, A.; Jordan, K.; Kimber, A.; Krafft, G.; Li, R.; Michalski, T.; Morozov, V. S.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; /Jefferson Lab /Argonne /DESY /Moscow , Inst. Phys. Tech., Dolgoprydny /Dubna, JINR /Northern Illinois U. /Old Doominion U. /Novosibirsk, GOO Zaryad /SLAC /Texas A-M

    2015-07-14

    The Medium-energy Electron Ion Collider (MEIC) at JLab is designed to provide high luminosity and high polarization needed to reach new frontiers in the exploration of nuclear structure. The luminosity, exceeding 1033 cm-2s-1 in a broad range of the center-of-mass (CM) energy and maximum luminosity above 1034 cm-2s-1, is achieved by high-rate collisions of short small-emittance low-charge bunches made possible by high-energy electron cooling of the ion beam and synchrotron radiation damping of the electron beam. The polarization of light ion species (p, d, 3He) can be easily preserved and manipulated due to the unique figure-8 shape of the collider rings. A fully consistent set of parameters have been developed considering the balance of machine performance, required technical development and cost. This paper reports recent progress on the MEIC accelerator design including electron and ion complexes, integrated interaction region design, figure-8-ring-based electron and ion polarization schemes, RF/SRF systems and ERL-based high-energy electron cooling. Luminosity performance is also presented for the MEIC baseline design.

  12. Monte Carlo approach for hadron azimuthal correlations in high energy proton and nuclear collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Alejandro; Dominguez, Isabel; Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Magnin, J.; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena

    2012-09-01

    We use a Monte Carlo approach to study hadron azimuthal angular correlations in high-energy proton-proton and central nucleus-nucleus collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider energies at midrapidity. We build a hadron event generator that incorporates the production of 2→2 and 2→3 parton processes and their evolution into hadron states. For nucleus-nucleus collisions we include the effect of parton energy loss in the quark-gluon plasma using a modified fragmentation function approach. In the presence of the medium, for the case when three partons are produced in the hard scattering, we analyze the Monte Carlo sample in parton and hadron momentum bins to reconstruct the angular correlations. We characterize this sample by the number of partons that are able to hadronize by fragmentation within the selected bins. In the nuclear environment the model allows hadronization by fragmentation only for partons with momentum above a threshold pTthresh=2.4 GeV. We argue that one should treat properly the effect of those partons with momentum below the threshold, because their interaction with the medium may lead to showers of low-momentum hadrons along the direction of motion of the original partons as the medium becomes diluted.

  13. Low energy inner zone protons{emdash}revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Vampola, A.L.

    1996-07-01

    Flux data from a two-element proton telescope flown on the S3-3 satellite in the 1976{endash}1979 time period were averaged to provide a low energy (80 keV to 3.2 MeV) proton model in the inner zone which is more realistic than the AP8 extrapolations. At {ital L}=1.35 and 1.85, S3-3 proton fluxes at 1.5 MeV and alpha particles at 4 MeV agree with published data. In the range {ital L}=1.35 to 1.85, the 1.5 to 3.2 MeV proton channel fluxes on S3-3 also agree with the AP8 model. But in this {ital L} range at 80 keV to 1.5 MeV, the S3-3 proton telescope measured higher fluxes than are present in the AP8 model. The discrepancy is maximum in the {ital L}=1.35 to 1.45 range and increases at lower energies, with the maximum discrepancy being three orders of magnitude in the 80 to 150 keV range at {ital L}=1.4. A model to supplement AP8 has been developed covering the energy range 80 keV to 3.2 MeV over the {ital L} range of 1.2 to 2.4. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Overview of the Tevatron Collider Complex: Goals, Operations and Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Stephen; Moore, Ronald S.; Shiltsev, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    For more than two decades the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider was the centerpiece of the world's high energy physics program. The collider was arguably one of the most complex research instruments ever to reach the operation stage and is widely recognized for numerous physics discoveries and for many technological breakthroughs. In this article we outline the historical background that led to the construction of the Tevatron Collider, the strategy applied to evolution of performance goals over the Tevatron's operational history, and briefly describe operations of each accelerator in the chain and achieved performance.

  15. Characterizing invisible electroweak particles through single-photon processes at high energy e+e- colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seong Youl; Han, Tao; Kalinowski, Jan; Rolbiecki, Krzysztof; Wang, Xing

    2015-11-01

    We explore the scenarios where the only accessible new states at the electroweak scale consist of a pair of color-singlet electroweak particles, the masses of which are degenerate at the tree level and split only by electroweak symmetry breaking at the loop level. For the sake of illustration, we consider a supersymmetric model and study the following three representative cases with the lower-lying states as (a) two spin-1 /2 Higgsino SU(2 ) L doublets, (b) a spin-1 /2 wino SU(2 ) L triplet and (c) a spin-0 left-handed slepton SU(2 ) L doublet. Due to the mass degeneracy, those lower-lying electroweak states are difficult to observe at the LHC and rather challenging to detect at the e+e- collider as well. We exploit the pair production in association with a hard photon radiation in high energy e+e- collisions. If kinematically accessible, such single-photon processes at e+e- colliders with polarized beams enable us to characterize each scenario by measuring the energy of the associated hard photon and to determine the spin of the nearly invisible particles unambiguously through the threshold behavior in the photon energy distribution.

  16. High-energy particle transport in three-dimensional hydrodynamic models of colliding-wind binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Reitberger, K.; Kissmann, R.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Dubus, G.

    2014-02-20

    Massive stars in binary systems (such as WR 140, WR 147, or η Carinae) have long been regarded as potential sources of high-energy γ-rays. The emission is thought to arise in the region where the stellar winds collide and produce relativistic particles that subsequently might be able to emit γ-rays. Detailed numerical hydrodynamic simulations have already offered insight into the complex dynamics of the wind collision region (WCR), while independent analytical studies, albeit with simplified descriptions of the WCR, have shed light on the spectra of charged particles. In this paper, we describe a combination of these two approaches. We present a three-dimensional hydrodynamical model for colliding stellar winds and compute spectral energy distributions of relativistic particles for the resulting structure of the WCR. The hydrodynamic part of our model incorporates the line-driven acceleration of the winds, gravity, orbital motion, and the radiative cooling of the shocked plasma. In our treatment of charged particles, we consider diffusive shock acceleration in the WCR and the subsequent cooling via inverse Compton losses (including Klein-Nishina effects), bremsstrahlung, collisions, and other energy loss mechanisms.

  17. High-energy Particle Transport in Three-dimensional Hydrodynamic Models of Colliding-wind Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitberger, K.; Kissmann, R.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Dubus, G.

    2014-02-01

    Massive stars in binary systems (such as WR 140, WR 147, or η Carinae) have long been regarded as potential sources of high-energy γ-rays. The emission is thought to arise in the region where the stellar winds collide and produce relativistic particles that subsequently might be able to emit γ-rays. Detailed numerical hydrodynamic simulations have already offered insight into the complex dynamics of the wind collision region (WCR), while independent analytical studies, albeit with simplified descriptions of the WCR, have shed light on the spectra of charged particles. In this paper, we describe a combination of these two approaches. We present a three-dimensional hydrodynamical model for colliding stellar winds and compute spectral energy distributions of relativistic particles for the resulting structure of the WCR. The hydrodynamic part of our model incorporates the line-driven acceleration of the winds, gravity, orbital motion, and the radiative cooling of the shocked plasma. In our treatment of charged particles, we consider diffusive shock acceleration in the WCR and the subsequent cooling via inverse Compton losses (including Klein-Nishina effects), bremsstrahlung, collisions, and other energy loss mechanisms.

  18. Intermediate energy proton-deuteron elastic scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    A fully symmetrized multiple scattering series is considered for the description of proton-deuteron elastic scattering. An off-shell continuation of the experimentally known twobody amplitudes that retains the exchange symmeteries required for the calculation is presented. The one boson exchange terms of the two body amplitudes are evaluated exactly in this off-shell prescription. The first two terms of the multiple scattering series are calculated explicitly whereas multiple scattering effects are obtained as minimum variance estimates from the 146-MeV data of Postma and Wilson. The multiple scattering corrections indeed consist of low order partial waves as suggested by Sloan based on model studies with separable interactions. The Hamada-Johnston wave function is shown consistent with the data for internucleon distances greater than about 0.84 fm.

  19. Towards the next QCD Frontier with the Electron Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Abhay; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Qiu, Jian-Wei

    2016-03-01

    In this talk, we argue that the proposed Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) with its unique capability to collide polarized electrons with polarized protons and light ions at unprecedented luminosity, and with heavy nuclei at high energy, will be the most powerful tomographic scanner able to precisely image gluons and quarks inside the proton and nuclei. This precision microscope will allow us to "see" and explore the dynamics binding gluons and quarks together to form hadrons. The EIC will address the most compelling unanswered questions in QCD and hadron physics.

  20. Energy distribution of proton microbeam transmitted through two flat plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, G. U. L.; Rajta, I.; Bereczky, R. J.; Tőkési, K.

    2015-07-01

    The transmission of 1 MeV proton microbeam passing between two parallel flat plates was investigated. Three different materials were used in our experiments. As insulators we used Polytetrafluoroethylene and borosilicate glass plates and glass with gold layer on the surface as conductor. The surface of the plates was parallel to the beam axis and one of the plates was moved towards the beam. The energy distribution and the deflection of the transmitted beam were measured as the function of the sample distance relative to the beam. We found systematic differences between the behaviour of the metallic and insulator samples. The proton microbeam suffered significant deflection towards the sample surface due to the image acceleration when using conductor material. In case of the glass and Polytetrafluoroethylene plates the beam was deflected into the opposite direction, and the incident protons did not suffer significant energy loss, which is the consequence of the guiding effect.

  1. Shadowing effects on J/ψ and Υ production at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vogt, R.

    2015-09-17

    Proton-nucleus collisions have been used as a intermediate baseline for the determination of cold medium effects. They lie between proton-proton collisions in vacuum and nucleus-nucleus collisions which are expected to be dominated by hot matter effects. Modifications of the quark densities in nuclei relative to those of the proton are well established although those of the gluons in the nucleus are not well understood. We focus on the effect of these on quarkonium production in proton-lead collisions at the LHC at a center of mass energy of 5.02 TeV.

  2. Antiproton - Ion Collider for FAIR Project

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, P.; Franzke, B.; Kienle, P.; Kruecken, R.; Koop, I.; Parkhomchuk, V.; Shatunov, Y.; Skrinsky, A.; Vostrikov, V.; Widmann, E.

    2006-03-20

    An antiproton-ion collider (AIC), with extensive using of electron cooling, is proposed to determine rms radii for protons and neutrons in unstable and short lived nuclei by means of antiproton absorption at medium energies. The experiment makes use of the electron-ion collider complex with appropriate modifications of the electron ring to store, cool and collide antiprotons of 30 MeV energy with 740 MeV/unit ions in the NESR. Antiprotons are collected, cooled, decelerated up to 30 MeV and transferred to the electron storage ring. The radioactive nuclei beams are transferred to the CR and cooled at 740A MeV and transported via the RESR to NESR, in which especially short lived nuclei are accumulated continuously to increase the luminosity. Luminosities of about 1023 cm-2s-1 may be reached with 106 ions accumulated in the NESR in coasting mode of operation, used for Schottky spectroscopy of the fragments.

  3. Energy dependence of moments of net-proton multiplicity distributions at RHIC.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Banerjee, A; Barnovska, Z; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Corliss, R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Grosnick, D; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hajkova, O; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Hays-Wehle, J P; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Korsch, W; Kotchenda, L; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Leight, W; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lima, L M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Madagodagettige Don, D M M D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Oliveira, R A N; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Plyku, D; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandacz, A; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; deSouza, U G; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Walker, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-01-24

    We report the beam energy (sqrt[sNN]=7.7-200  GeV) and collision centrality dependence of the mean (M), standard deviation (σ), skewness (S), and kurtosis (κ) of the net-proton multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions. The measurements are carried out by the STAR experiment at midrapidity (|y|<0.5) and within the transverse momentum range 0.4Energy Scan program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. These measurements are important for understanding the quantum chromodynamic phase diagram. The products of the moments, Sσ and κσ2, are sensitive to the correlation length of the hot and dense medium created in the collisions and are related to the ratios of baryon number susceptibilities of corresponding orders. The products of moments are found to have values significantly below the Skellam expectation and close to expectations based on independent proton and antiproton production. The measurements are compared to a transport model calculation to understand the effect of acceptance and baryon number conservation and also to a hadron resonance gas model. PMID:24484135

  4. Future Electron-Hadron Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, V.

    2010-05-23

    Outstanding research potential of electron-hadron colliders (EHC) was clearly demonstrated by first - and the only - electron-proton collider HERA (DESY, Germany). Physics data from HERA revealed new previously unknown facets of Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD). EHC is an ultimate microscope probing QCD in its natural environment, i.e. inside the hadrons. In contrast with hadrons, electrons are elementary particles with known initial state. Hence, scattering electrons from hadrons provides a clearest pass to their secrets. It turns EHC into an ultimate machine for high precision QCD studies and opens access to rich physics with a great discovery potential: solving proton spin puzzle, observing gluon saturation or physics beyond standard model. Access to this physics requires high-energy high-luminosity EHCs and a wide reach in the center-of-mass (CM) energies. This paper gives a brief overview of four proposed electron-hadron colliders: ENC at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany), ELIC/MEIC at TJNAF (Newport News, VA, USA), eRHIC at BNL (Upton, NY, USA) and LHeC at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland). Future electron-hadron colliders promise to deliver very rich physics not only in the quantity but also in the precision. They are aiming at very high luminosity two-to-four orders of magnitude beyond the luminosity demonstrated by the very successful HERA. While ENC and LHeC are on opposite side of the energy spectrum, eRHIC and ELIC are competing for becoming an electron-ion collider (EIC) in the U.S. Administrations of BNL and Jlab, in concert with US DoE office of Nuclear Physics, work on the strategy for down-selecting between eRHIC and ELIC. The ENC, EIC and LHeC QCD physics programs to a large degree are complimentary to each other and to the LHC physics. In last decade, an Electron Ion Collider (EIC) collaboration held about 25 collaboration meetings to develop physics program for EIC with CM energy {approx}100 GeV. One of these meetings was held at GSI, where ENC topic was in the

  5. Initial operation of the Tevatron collider

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.

    1987-03-01

    The Tevatron is now the highest energy proton synchrotron and the only accelerator made with superconducting magnets. Operating since 1983 as a fixed-target machine at energies up to 800 GeV, it has now been modified to operate as a 900 GeV antiproton-proton collider. This paper describes the initial operation of the machine in this mode. The new features of the Fermilab complex, including the antiproton source and the Main Ring injector with its two overpasses and new rf requirements, are discussed. Beam characteristics in the Tevatron (including lifetimes, emittances, luminosity, beam-beam tune shifts, backgrounds, and low beta complications), the coordination of the steps in the accelerator chain, and the commissioning history are also discussed. Finally, some plans for the improvement of the collider are presented.

  6. CGC/saturation approach for high energy soft interactions: v2 in proton-proton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotsman, E.; Levin, E.; Maor, U.; Tapia, S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we continue our program to construct a model for high energy soft interactions, based on the CGC/saturation approach. We demonstrate that in our model, which describes diffractive physics as well as multiparticle production at high energy, the density variation mechanism leads to the value of v2 , which is about 60%-70% of the measured v2 . Bearing in mind that in the CGC/saturation approach there are two other mechanisms present, Bose enhancement in the wave function and local anisotropy, we believe that the azimuthal long range rapidity correlations in proton-proton collisions stem from the CGC/saturation physics, and not from quark-gluon plasma production.

  7. Energy dependence of the ridge in high multiplicity proton-proton collisions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dusling, Kevin; Tribedy, Prithwish; Venugopalan, Raju

    2016-01-27

    In this study, we demonstrate that the recent measurement of azimuthally collimated, long-range rapidity (“ridge”) correlations in √s=13 TeV proton-proton (p+p) collisions by the ATLAS Collaboration at the LHC are in agreement with expectations from the color glass condensate effective theory of high-energy QCD. The observation that the integrated near-side yield as a function of multiplicity is independent of collision energy is a natural consequence of the fact that multiparticle production is driven by a single semihard saturation scale in the color glass condensate framework. We argue further that the azimuthal structure of these recent ATLAS ridge measurements strongly constrainsmore » hydrodynamic interpretations of such correlations in high-multiplicity p+p collisions.« less

  8. Opportunities and requirements for experimentation at high energy e/sup +/e/sup /minus// collider

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, C.; Baltay, C.; Barklow, T.L.; Burchat, P.R.; Burke, D.L.; Cooper, A.R.; Dib, C.; Feldman, G.J.; Gunion, J.F.; Haber, H.E.

    1988-05-01

    Over the past fifteen years of high-energy physics, electron-positron annihilation has been the most productive of all reactions probing the fundamental interactions. The e/sup +/e/sup /minus// annihilation process is unique in offering at the same time copious production of novel particles, low backgrounds from more conventional physics, and the most efficient use of the energy which an accelerator provides. These features have allowed the detailed characterization of the charm and bottom quark-antiquark systems and the unambiguous discovery of gluon jets---the crucial ingredients in the establishment of Quantum Chromodynamics as the correct theory of the strong interactions---as well as the discovery of the tau lepton and confirmation of the weak and electromagnetic properties of all the quarks and leptons at high energy. Over the past few years, experiments will begin at SLC and LEP, and we anticipate new discoveries from the detailed study of the Z/sup 0/ resonance. It is time, then to begin to think out how one might continue this mode experimentation to still higher energies. This document is the report of a committee convened by the Director of SLAC, Burton Richter, to set out the major physics goals of an e/sup +/e/sup /minus// collider in the energy range 600 GeV-1 TeV, corresponding to the next feasible step in accelerator technology. The committee was charged with the task of outlining the main experiments that such a collider might carry out and the requirements which those experiments place on the accelerator design. 106 refs., 105 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. Paths and ionization losses of proton energy in different substances

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilovskiy, I.M.; Karpov, I.I.; Petrukhin, V.I.; Prokoshkin, Yu.D.

    1986-02-14

    Ionization energy losses of charged particles in a substance are described by the well-known Bethe-Bloch formula. However, the magnitudes of the ionization potentials in region of low proton energies (E < 100 MeV) for heavy elements prove to be considerably larger than those at high energies. Thus, studies of ionization losses in the region of high energies are the main source of the experimental information necessary for the correction of the Bethe-Bloch formula and determination of magnitudes of ionization potentials I. The purpose of this work was to measure the magnitudes of ionization losses dE/ds, paths R and ionization potentials I at a proton energy of E 670 MeV. The measurements were taken by the relative method for different substances of x, and the magnitudes of q sub x=(dE/ds) sub x/(dE/ds) sub Al and px=R sub x/R sub Al were found. Quantities qx and px weakly depend on the energy E where at E=200-600 MeV, a=(2-4).10-2 for different substances. The proton energy was determined with an accuracy of 2 MeV.

  10. Final Cooling for a High-Energy High-Luminosity Lepton Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, David; Sayed, H.; Hart, T.; Summers, D.

    2015-12-03

    A high-energy muon collider scenario require a “final cooling” system that reduces transverse emittance by a factor of ~10 while allowing longitudinal emittance increase. The baseline approach has low-energy transverse cooling within high-field solenoids, with strong longitudinal heating. This approach and its recent simulation are discussed. Alternative approaches which more explicitly include emittance exchange are also presented. Round-to-flat beam transform, transverse slicing, and longitudinal bunch coalescence are possible components of an alternative approach. Wedge-based emittance exchange could provide much of the required transverse cooling with longitudinal heating. Li-lens and quadrupole focusing systems could also provide much of the required final cooling.

  11. Beam-induced energy deposition issues in the Very Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolai V. Mokhov; Alexandr I. Drozhdin; G. William Foster

    2001-06-26

    Energy deposition issues are extremely important in the Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) with huge energy stored in its 20 TeV (Stage-1) and 87.5 TeV (Stage-2) beams. The status of the VLHC design on these topics, and possible solutions of the problems are discussed. Protective measures are determined based on the operational and accidental beam loss limits for the prompt radiation dose at the surface, residual radiation dose, ground water activation, accelerator components radiation damage and quench stability. The beam abort and beam collimation systems are designed to protect accelerator from accidental and operational beam losses, IP region quadrupoles from irradiation by the products of beam-beam collisions, and to reduce the accelerator-induced backgrounds in the detectors.

  12. The LEP e+e- ring at the energy frontier of circular lepton colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Albert; Wenninger, Jörg

    The Large Electron Positron ring (LEP) was a circular lepton collider at CERN. It operated at beam energies around 47GeV to produce the neutral Z0 particle and above 80 GeV to create pairs of the charged W± bosons. At these high energies the emission of synchrotron radiation was important and demanded a very high voltage of the RF-system. It also influenced the choice of many other machine parameters. This presentation tries to show how the basic accelerator physics was used to optimize the machine and to find innovative solutions for some problems: magnets with concrete between the laminations, modulated cavities, Nb-Cu superconducting cavities, non-evaporable getter pumps, optics analysis from multi-turn data and many more.

  13. Final Cooling For a High-luminosity High-Energy Lepton Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, D.; Sayed, H.; Hart, T.; Summers, D.

    2015-05-01

    The final cooling system for a high-energy high-luminosity heavy lepton collider requires reduction of the transverse emittance εt by an order of magnitude to ~0.00003 m (rms, N), while allowing longitudinal emittance εL to increase to ~0.1m. In the present baseline approach, this is obtained by transverse cooling of low-energy muons within a sequence of high-field solenoids with low-frequency rf systems. Recent studies of such systems are presented. Since the final cooling steps are mostly emittance exchange, a variant form of that final system can be obtained by a round to flat transform in x-y, with transverse slicing of the enlarged flat transverse dimension followed by longitudinal recombination of the sliced bunchlets. Other variants are discussed. More explicit emittance exchange can greatly reduce the cost of a final cooling system.

  14. Cross sections for production of closed superstrings at high energy colliders in brane world models

    SciTech Connect

    Chialva, Diego; Iengo, Roberto; Russo, Jorge G.

    2005-05-15

    In brane world string models with large extra dimensions, there are processes where fermion and antifermion (or two gluons) can annihilate producing a light particle (e.g. gluon) carrying transverse momentum and a Kaluza-Klein graviton or an excited closed string that propagates in the extra dimensions. In high energy colliders, this process gives a missing-momentum signature. We compute the total cross section for this process within the context of type II superstring theory in the presence of a D-brane. This includes all missing-energy sources for this string-theory model up to s=8M{sub s}{sup 2}, and it can be used to put new limits on the string scale M{sub s}.

  15. 2 x 2 TeV mu(superscript +) mu (superscript) collider

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Noble, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    The scenarios for high-luminosity 2 x 2 TeV and 250 x 250 GeV {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} colliders are presented. Having a high physics potential, such a machine has specific physics and technical advantages and disadvantages when compared with an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. Parameters for the candidate designs and the basic components - proton source, pion production and decay channel, cooling, acceleration and collider storage ring - are considered. Attention is paid to the areas mostly affecting the collider performance: targetry, energy spread, superconducting magnet survival, detector backgrounds, polarization, environmental issues. 13 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Proton polarimetry by undulator radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Luccio, A.U.; Conte, M.

    1998-12-31

    The authors show how spin light from an undulator can be used to measure the spin polarization of a proton beam in a high energy circular collider. They propose to perform left-right asymmetry measurements, employing lock-in amplification techniques.

  17. PROTON POLARIMETRY BY UNDULATOR RADIATION.

    SciTech Connect

    LUCCIO,A.U.

    1998-10-20

    We show how spin light from an undulator can be used to measure the spin polarization of a proton beam in a high energy circular collider. We propose to perform left-right asymmetry measurements, employing lock-in amplification techniques.

  18. About multiple scattering of high energy protons in crystal deflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taratin, A. M.; Scandale, W.

    2015-07-01

    The process of multiple scattering of high energy protons in a silicon crystal at its amorphous orientation was studied by simulation of proton trajectories in the model of binary collisions and by a straight simulation of the sequences of proton collisions with atoms when their impact parameters are randomly and uniformly distributed on the symmetry cell for a given crystallography direction. The value of the RMS deflection of multiple scattering obtained by the simulation is in a good agreement with the experiment and more than 15% larger than it follows from the Moliere theory. The obtained RMS deflection used in the Gaussian approach of multiple scattering well describes dechanneling of protons in the frame of the planar potential model. Different number of proton collisions with atoms occurs along the same crystal length for different crystal orientations. However, the change of the collision number is compensated by the corresponding change of the mean square deflection in a single collision. Therefore, multiple scattering is the same for different crystal orientations. The generator of multiple scattering for amorphous crystal orientations was proposed.

  19. International linear collider reference design report

    SciTech Connect

    Aarons, G.

    2007-06-22

    The International Linear Collider will give physicists a new cosmic doorway to explore energy regimes beyond the reach of today's accelerators. A proposed electron-positron collider, the ILC will complement the Large Hadron Collider, a proton-proton collider at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, together unlocking some of the deepest mysteries in the universe. With LHC discoveries pointing the way, the ILC -- a true precision machine -- will provide the missing pieces of the puzzle. Consisting of two linear accelerators that face each other, the ILC will hurl some 10 billion electrons and their anti-particles, positrons, toward each other at nearly the speed of light. Superconducting accelerator cavities operating at temperatures near absolute zero give the particles more and more energy until they smash in a blazing crossfire at the centre of the machine. Stretching approximately 35 kilometres in length, the beams collide 14,000 times every second at extremely high energies -- 500 billion-electron-volts (GeV). Each spectacular collision creates an array of new particles that could answer some of the most fundamental questions of all time. The current baseline design allows for an upgrade to a 50-kilometre, 1 trillion-electron-volt (TeV) machine during the second stage of the project. This reference design provides the first detailed technical snapshot of the proposed future electron-positron collider, defining in detail the technical parameters and components that make up each section of the 31-kilometer long accelerator. The report will guide the development of the worldwide R&D program, motivate international industrial studies and serve as the basis for the final engineering design needed to make an official project proposal later this decade.

  20. Probing Dark Forces and Light Hidden Sectors at Low-Energy e+e- Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Essig, Rouven; Schuster, Philip; Toro, Natalia; /Stanford U., ITP

    2009-06-19

    A dark sector - a new non-Abelian gauge group Higgsed or confined near the GeV scale - can be spectacularly probed in low-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions. A low-mass dark sector can explain the annual modulation signal reported by DAMA/LIBRA and the PAMELA, ATIC, and INTEGRAL observations by generating small mass splittings and new interactions for weak-scale dark matter. Some of these observations may be the first signs of a low-mass dark sector that collider searches can definitively confirm. Production and decay of {Omicron}(GeV)-mass dark states is mediated by a Higgsed Abelian gauge boson that mixes kinetically with hypercharge. Existing data from BaBar, BELLE, CLEO-c, and KLOE may contain thousands of striking dark-sector events with a high multiplicity of leptons that reconstruct mass resonances and possibly displaced vertices. We discuss the production and decay phenomenology of Higgsed and confined dark sectors and propose e{sup +}e{sup -} collider search strategies. We also use the DAMA/LIBRA signal to estimate the production cross-sections and decay lifetimes for dark-sector states.

  1. Proton-proton, pion-proton and pion-pion diffractive collisions at ultrahigh energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisovich, V. V.; Nikonov, K. V.; Nikonov, V. A.; Nyiri, J.

    2014-05-01

    The LHC energies are those at which the asymptotic regime in hadron-hadron diffractive collisions (pp, πp, ππ) might be switched on. Based on results of the Dakhno-Nikonov eikonal model which is a generalization of the Good-Walker eikonal approach for a continuous set of channels, we present a picture for transformation of the constituent quark mode to the black disk one. In the black disk mode (√ {s} >= 10 TeV), we have a growth of the logarithm squared type for total and elastic cross-sections, σtot ln2 s and σel ln2 s and (τ = q⊥2&sigma_; tot)-scaling for diffractive scattering and diffractive dissociation of hadrons. The diffractive dissociation cross-section grows as σD ln s, σDD ln s, and their relative contribution tends to zero: σD/σtot → 0, σDD/σtot → 0. Asymptotic characteristics of diffractive and total cross-sections are universal, and this results in the asymptotical equality of cross-sections for all types of hadrons (the Gribov universality). The energy scale for switching on the asymptotic mode is estimated for different processes.

  2. Search strategies for Higgs Bosons at high energy e/sup +/e/sup /minus// colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J.; Burke, D.L.; Jung, C.K.; Komamiya, S.; Burchat, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    We have used detailed Monte Carlo simulations to study search strategies for Higgs bosons at high energy e/sup +/e/sup /minus// colliders. We extend an earlier study of the minimal single-Higgs-doublet model at a center-of-mass energy of 1 TeV to examine the effects of b-quark tagging and jet counting. It is found that these techniques can increase the signal-to-noise ratio substantially in the mass range around the W mass. In addition, we have studied this model at a center-of-mass energy of 400 GeV and found that an e/sup +/e/sup /minus// collider in this region would be sensitive to a Higgs boson with mass up to twice the Z/degree/ mass. We have also considered a nonminimal two-doublet model for the Higgs sector by extending a study of charged Higgs boson searches to include a mass very close to the mass of the W/sup +-/. We demonstrate that techniques which include b-quark tagging can be utilized to extract a significant signal. In addition, we have examined the prospects for detecting nonminimal neutral Higgs bosons at 1 TeV. We conclude that it would be possible to detect the CP-even and CP-odd neutral Higgs bosons when they are pair-produced in e/sup +/e/sup /minus// annihilation over a limited mass range. However, in some scenarios of supersymmetry, the charged Higgs boson constitutes a significant background to the CP-odd and the more massive CP-even neutral Higgs boson. 16 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.

    1989-01-01

    The conceptual design of a collider capable of accelerating and colliding heavy ions and to be constructed in the existing 3.8 km tunnel at Brookhaven has been developed. The collider has been designed to provide collisions of gold ions at six intersection points with a luminosity of about 2 /times/ 10/sup 26/ cm/sup /minus/2/sec/sup /minus/1/ at an energy per nucleon of 100 GeV in each beam. Collisions with different ion species, including protons, will be possible. The salient design features and the reasons for major design choices of the proposed machine are discussed in this paper. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Time average neutralized migma: A colliding beam/plasma hybrid physical state as aneutronic energy source — A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maglich, Bogdan C.

    1988-08-01

    A D + beam of kinetic energy Ti = 0.7 MeV was stored in a "simple mirror" magnetic field as self-colliding orbits or migma and neutralized by ambient, oscillating electrons whose bounce frequencies were externally controlled. Space charge density was exceeded by an order of magnitude without instabilities. Three nondestructive diagnostic methods allowed measurements of ion orbit distribution, ion storage times, ion energy distribution, nuclear reaction rate, and reaction product spectrum. Migma formed a disc 20 cm in diameter and 0.5 cm thick. Its ion density was sharply peaked in the center; the ion-to-electron temperature ratio was TiTe ˜ 10 3; ion-electron temperature equilibrium was never reached. The volume average and central D + density were n = 3.2 × 10 9 cm -3 and nc = 3 × 10 10 cm -3 respectively, compared to the space charge limit density nsc = 4 × 10 8 cm -3. The energy confinement time was τc = 20-30 s, limited by the change exchange reactions with the residual gas in the vacuum (5 × 10 -9 Torr). The ion energy loss rate was 1.4 keV/s. None of the instabilities that were observed in mirrors at several orders of magnitude lower density occurred. The proton energy spectrum for dd + d → T + p + 4 MeV shows that dd collided at an average crossing angle of 160°. Evidence for exponential density buildup has also been observed. Relative to Migma III results and measured in terms of the product of ion energy E, density n, and confinement time τ, device performance was improved by a factor of 500. Using the central fast ion density, we obtained the triple product: Tnτ ≅ 4 × 10 14 keV s cm -3, which is greater than that of the best fusion devices. The luminosity (collision rate per unit cross section) was ˜ 10 29 cm -2s -1, with o.7 A ion current through the migma center. The stabilizing features of migma are: (1) large Larmor radius; (2) small canonical angular momentum; (3) short axial length z (disc shape); (4) nonadiabatic motions in r and z

  5. Proton Linear Energy Transfer measurement using Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jae-ik; Park, Seyjoon; Kim, Haksoo; Kim, Meyoung; Jeong, Chiyoung; Cho, Sungkoo; Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Sato, Osamu; Kwak, Jungwon; Kim, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jung Sook; Ahn, Jung Keun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Chun Sil; Incerti, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to determine the correlation between the Volume Pulse Height (VPH) measured by nuclear emulsion and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) calculated by Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. The nuclear emulsion was irradiated at the National Cancer Center (NCC) with a therapeutic proton beam and was installed at 5.2 m distance from the beam nozzle structure with various thicknesses of water-equivalent material (PMMA) blocks to position with specific positions along the Bragg curve. After the beam exposure and development of the emulsion films, the films were scanned by S-UTS developed in Nagoya University. The proton tracks in the scanned films were reconstructed using the 'NETSCAN' method. Through this procedure, the VPH can be derived from each reconstructed proton track at each position along the Bragg curve. The VPH value indicates the magnitude of energy loss in proton track. By comparison with the simulation results obtained using Geant4, we found the correlation between the LET calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and the VPH measured by the nuclear emulsion.

  6. The Photon Collider at Tesla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badelek, B.; Blöchinger, C.; Blümlein, J.; Boos, E.; Brinkmann, R.; Burkhardt, H.; Bussey, P.; Carimalo, C.; Chyla, J.; Çiftçi, A. K.; Decking, W.; de Roeck, A.; Fadin, V.; Ferrario, M.; Finch, A.; Fraas, H.; Franke, F.; Galynskii, M.; Gamp, A.; Ginzburg, I.; Godbole, R.; Gorbunov, D. S.; Gounaris, G.; Hagiwara, K.; Han, L.; Heuer, R.-D.; Heusch, C.; Illana, J.; Ilyin, V.; Jankowski, P.; Jiang, Y.; Jikia, G.; Jönsson, L.; Kalachnikow, M.; Kapusta, F.; Klanner, R.; Klassen, M.; Kobayashi, K.; Kon, T.; Kotkin, G.; Krämer, M.; Krawczyk, M.; Kuang, Y. P.; Kuraev, E.; Kwiecinski, J.; Leenen, M.; Levchuk, M.; Ma, W. F.; Martyn, H.; Mayer, T.; Melles, M.; Miller, D. J.; Mtingwa, S.; Mühlleitner, M.; Muryn, B.; Nickles, P. V.; Orava, R.; Pancheri, G.; Penin, A.; Potylitsyn, A.; Poulose, P.; Quast, T.; Raimondi, P.; Redlin, H.; Richard, F.; Rindani, S. D.; Rizzo, T.; Saldin, E.; Sandner, W.; Schönnagel, H.; Schneidmiller, E.; Schreiber, H. J.; Schreiber, S.; Schüler, K. P.; Serbo, V.; Seryi, A.; Shanidze, R.; da Silva, W.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Spira, M.; Stasto, A. M.; Sultansoy, S.; Takahashi, T.; Telnov, V.; Tkabladze, A.; Trines, D.; Undrus, A.; Wagner, A.; Walker, N.; Watanabe, I.; Wengler, T.; Will, I.; Wipf, S.; Yavaş, Ö.; Yokoya, K.; Yurkov, M.; Zarnecki, A. F.; Zerwas, P.; Zomer, F.

    High energy photon colliders (γγ,γe) are based on e-e- linear colliders where high energy photons are produced using Compton scattering of laser light on high energy electrons just before the interaction point. This paper is a part of the Technical Design Report of the linear collider TESLA.1 Physics program, possible parameters and some technical aspects of the photon collider at TESLA are discussed.

  7. Analytical calculation of proton linear energy transfer in voxelized geometries including secondary protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Parcerisa, D.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Dolney, D.; Kondrla, M.; Fager, M.; Carabe, A.

    2016-02-01

    In order to integrate radiobiological modelling with clinical treatment planning for proton radiotherapy, we extended our in-house treatment planning system FoCa with a 3D analytical algorithm to calculate linear energy transfer (LET) in voxelized patient geometries. Both active scanning and passive scattering delivery modalities are supported. The analytical calculation is much faster than the Monte-Carlo (MC) method and it can be implemented in the inverse treatment planning optimization suite, allowing us to create LET-based objectives in inverse planning. The LET was calculated by combining a 1D analytical approach including a novel correction for secondary protons with pencil-beam type LET-kernels. Then, these LET kernels were inserted into the proton-convolution-superposition algorithm in FoCa. The analytical LET distributions were benchmarked against MC simulations carried out in Geant4. A cohort of simple phantom and patient plans representing a wide variety of sites (prostate, lung, brain, head and neck) was selected. The calculation algorithm was able to reproduce the MC LET to within 6% (1 standard deviation) for low-LET areas (under 1.7 keV μm-1) and within 22% for the high-LET areas above that threshold. The dose and LET distributions can be further extended, using radiobiological models, to include radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) calculations in the treatment planning system. This implementation also allows for radiobiological optimization of treatments by including RBE-weighted dose constraints in the inverse treatment planning process.

  8. Status of the MEIC ion collider ring design

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-07-14

    We present an update on the design of the ion collider ring of the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) proposed by Jefferson Lab. The design is based on the use of super-ferric magnets. It provides the necessary momentum range of 8 to 100 GeV/c for protons and ions, matches the electron collider ring design using PEP-II components, fits readily on the JLab site, offers a straightforward path for a future full-energy upgrade by replacing the magnets with higher-field ones in the same tunnel, and is more cost effective than using presently available current-dominated super-conducting magnets. We describe complete ion collider optics including an independently-designed modular detector region.

  9. Status of the MEIC ion collider ring design

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, Vasiliy; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Harwood, Leigh; Hutton, Andrew; Lin, Fanglei; Pilat, Fulvia; Zhang, Yuhong; Cai, Yunhai; Nosochkov, Y. M.; Sullivan, Michael; Wang, M.-H.; Wienands, Uli; Gerity, James; Mann, Thomas; McIntyre, Peter; Pogue, Nathaniel; Sattarov, Akhdiyor

    2015-09-01

    We present an update on the design of the ion collider ring of the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) proposed by Jefferson Lab. The design is based on the use of super-ferric magnets. It provides the necessary momentum range of 8 to 100 GeV/c for protons and ions, matches the electron collider ring design using PEP-II components, fits readily on the JLab site, offers a straightforward path for a future full-energy upgrade by replacing the magnets with higher-field ones in the same tunnel, and is more cost effective than using presently available current-dominated super-conducting magnets. We describe complete ion collider optics including an independently-designed modular detector region.

  10. Linac-ring type ep machines and γp colliders based on them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Z. Z.; Çiftçi, A. K.; Sultansoy, S.

    1994-12-01

    Main parameters of new type of ep colliders and TeV energy γ p colliders on their bases are investigated. High energy γ beams are produced by the Compton backscattering of laser photons off electron beams from linear accelerators. We consider a number of possible proposals and show that sufficiently high ep and γp luminosities will be achievable due to reasonable improvements of proton beam parameters.

  11. Smashing Protons to Smithereens

    ScienceCinema

    Marc-André Pleier

    2010-09-01

    Pleier discusses the extraordinary research taking place at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ? the world?s newest, biggest, and highest energy particle accelerator located at CERN. Pleier is one of hundreds of researchers from around the world working on ATLAS, a seven-story particle detector positioned at a point where the LHC?s oppositely circulating beams of protons slam into one another head-on.

  12. Smashing Protons to Smithereens

    SciTech Connect

    Marc-André Pleier

    2010-05-05

    Pleier discusses the extraordinary research taking place at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) — the world’s newest, biggest, and highest energy particle accelerator located at CERN. Pleier is one of hundreds of researchers from around the world working on ATLAS, a seven-story particle detector positioned at a point where the LHC’s oppositely circulating beams of protons slam into one another head-on.

  13. Neutrino diagnostics of ultrahigh energy cosmic ray protons

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlers, Markus; Sarkar, Subir; Anchordoqui, Luis A.

    2009-04-15

    The energy at which cosmic rays from extra-galactic sources begin to dominate over those from galactic sources is an important open question in astroparticle physics. A natural candidate is the energy at the 'ankle' in the approximately power-law energy spectrum which is indicative of a crossover from a falling galactic component to a flatter extra-galactic component. The transition can occur without such flattening but this requires some degree of conspiracy of the spectral shapes and normalizations of the two components. Nevertheless, it has been argued that extra-galactic sources of cosmic ray protons that undergo interactions on the CMB can reproduce the energy spectrum below the ankle if the crossover energy is as low as the 'second knee' in the spectrum. This low crossover model is constrained by direct measurements by the Pierre Auger Observatory, which indicate a heavier composition at these energies. We demonstrate that upper limits on the cosmic diffuse neutrino flux provide a complementary constraint on the proton fraction in ultra-high energy extra-galactic cosmic rays and forthcoming data from IceCube will provide a definitive test of this model.

  14. POLARIZED PROTON ACCELERATION IN AGS AND RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    ROSER,T.

    2007-09-10

    As the first hadron accelerator and collider consisting of two independent superconducting rings RHIC has operated with a wide range of beam energies and particle species including polarized proton beams. The acceleration of polarized beams in both the injector and the collider rings is complicated by numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Partial and full Siberian snakes have made it possible to overcome the depolarization and beam polarizations of up to 65% have been reached at 100 GeV in RHIC.

  15. Introductory Lectures on Collider Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, Tim M. P.; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2013-12-01

    These are elementary lectures about collider physics. They are aimed at graduate students who have some background in computing Feynman diagrams and the Standard Model, but assume no particular sophistication with the physics of high energy colliders.

  16. Advanced proton-exchange materials for energy efficient fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Hickner, Michael A.; Cornelius, Christopher James; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2005-12-01

    The ''Advanced Proton-Exchange Materials for Energy Efficient Fuel Cells'' Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project began in October 2002 and ended in September 2005. This LDRD was funded by the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy strategic business unit. The purpose of this LDRD was to initiate the fundamental research necessary for the development of a novel proton-exchange membranes (PEM) to overcome the material and performance limitations of the ''state of the art'' Nafion that is used in both hydrogen and methanol fuel cells. An atomistic modeling effort was added to this LDRD in order to establish a frame work between predicted morphology and observed PEM morphology in order to relate it to fuel cell performance. Significant progress was made in the area of PEM material design, development, and demonstration during this LDRD. A fundamental understanding involving the role of the structure of the PEM material as a function of sulfonic acid content, polymer topology, chemical composition, molecular weight, and electrode electrolyte ink development was demonstrated during this LDRD. PEM materials based upon random and block polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes were created and evaluated for improvements in proton conductivity, reduced swelling, reduced O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} permeability, and increased thermal stability. Results from this work reveal that the family of polyphenylenes potentially solves several technical challenges associated with obtaining a high temperature PEM membrane. Fuel cell relevant properties such as high proton conductivity (>120 mS/cm), good thermal stability, and mechanical robustness were demonstrated during this LDRD. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and results of this LDRD.

  17. Muon Muon Collider: Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, J.C.; Palmer, R.B.; Tollestrup, A.V.; Sessler, A.M.; Skrinsky, A.N.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Geer, S.; Griffin, J.; Johnstone, C.; Lebrun, P.; McInturff, A.; Mills, Frederick E.; Mokhov, N.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Ng, K.Y.; Noble, R.; Novitski, I.; Popovic, M.; Qian, C.; Van Ginneken, A. /Fermilab /Brookhaven /Wisconsin U., Madison /Tel Aviv U. /Indiana U. /UCLA /LBL, Berkeley /SLAC /Argonne /Sobolev IM, Novosibirsk /UC, Davis /Munich, Tech. U. /Virginia U. /KEK, Tsukuba /DESY /Novosibirsk, IYF /Jefferson Lab /Mississippi U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /MIT /Columbia U. /Fairfield U. /UC, Berkeley

    2012-04-05

    reactions which are open to a muon collider and the physics of such reactions - what one learns and the necessary luminosity to see interesting events - are described in detail. Most of the physics accesible to an e{sup +} - e{sup -} collider could be studied in a muon collider. In addition the production of Higgs bosons in the s-channel will allow the measurement of Higgs masses and total widths to high precision; likewise, t{bar t} and W{sup +}W{sup -} threshold studies would yield m{sub t} and m{sub w} to great accuracy. These reactions are at low center of mass energy (if the MSSM is correct) and the luminosity and {Delta}p/p of the beams required for these measurements is detailed in the Physics Chapter. On the other hand, at 2 + 2 TeV, a luminosity of L {approx} 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} is desirable for studies such as, the scattering of longitudinal W bosons or the production of heavy scalar particles. Not explored in this work, but worth noting, are the opportunities for muon-proton and muon-heavy ion collisions as well as the enormous richness of such a facility for fixed target physics provided by the intense beams of neutrinos, muons, pions, kaons, antiprotons and spallation neutrons. To see all the interesting physics described herein requires a careful study of the operation of a detector in the very large background. Three sources of background have been identified. The first is from any halo accompanying the muon beams in the collider ring. Very carefully prepared beams will have to be injected and maintained. The second is due to the fact that on average 35% of the muon energy appears in its decay electron. The energy of the electron subsequently is converted into EM showers either from the synchrotron radiation they emit in the collider magnetic field or from direct collision with the surrounding material. The decays that occur as the beams traverse the low beta insert are of particular concern for detector backgrounds. A third source of background is

  18. Status of the Future Circular Collider Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedikt, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Following the 2013 update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the international Future Circular Collider (FCC) Study has been launched by CERN as host institute, to design an energy frontier hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new 80-100 km tunnel with a centre-of-mass energy of about 100 TeV, an order of magnitude beyond the LHC's, as a long-term goal. The FCC study also includes the design of a 90-350 GeV high-luminosity lepton collider (FCC-ee) installed in the same tunnel, serving as Higgs, top and Z factory, as a potential intermediate step, as well as an electron-proton collider option (FCC-he). The physics cases for such machines will be assessed and concepts for experiments will be developed in time for the next update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics by the end of 2018. The presentation will summarize the status of machine designs and parameters and discuss the essential technical components to be developed in the frame of the FCC study. Key elements are superconducting accelerator-dipole magnets with a field of 16 T for the hadron collider and high-power, high-efficiency RF systems for the lepton collider. In addition the unprecedented beam power presents special challenges for the hadron collider for all aspects of beam handling and machine protection. First conclusions of geological investigations and implementation studies will be presented. The status of the FCC collaboration and the further planning for the study will be outlined.

  19. Properties of jets measured from tracks in proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energy √s=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; et al

    2011-09-20

    Jets are identified and their properties studied in center-of-mass energy √s=7 TeV proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider using charged particles measured by the ATLAS inner detector. Events are selected using a minimum bias trigger, allowing jets at very low transverse momentum to be observed and their characteristics in the transition to high-momentum fully perturbative jets to be studied. Jets are reconstructed using the anti-kt algorithm applied to charged particles with two radius parameter choices, 0.4 and 0.6. An inclusive charged jet transverse momentum cross section measurement from 4 GeV to 100 GeV is shown for four ranges inmore » rapidity extending to 1.9 and corrected to charged particle-level truth jets. The transverse momenta and longitudinal momentum fractions of charged particles within jets are measured, along with the charged particle multiplicity and the particle density as a function of radial distance from the jet axis. Comparison of the data with the theoretical models implemented in existing tunings of Monte Carlo event generators indicates reasonable overall agreement between data and Monte Carlo. These comparisons are sensitive to Monte Carlo parton showering, hadronization, and soft physics models.« less

  20. Properties of jets measured from tracks in proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energy root s=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdelalim, AA; Abdesselam, A; Abdinov, O; Abi, B; Abolins, M; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Acerbi, E; Acharya, BS; Adams, DL; Addy, TN; Adelman, J; Aderholz, M; Adomeit, S; Adragna, P; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Aguilar-Saavedra, JA

    2011-09-20

    Jets are identified and their properties studied in center-of-mass energy {radical}s = 7 TeV proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider using charged particles measured by the ATLAS inner detector. Events are selected using a minimum bias trigger, allowing jets at very low transverse momentum to be observed and their characteristics in the transition to high-momentum fully perturbative jets to be studied. Jets are reconstructed using the anti-k{sub t} algorithm applied to charged particles with two radius parameter choices, 0.4 and 0.6. An inclusive charged jet transverse momentum cross section measurement from 4 GeV to 100 GeV is shown for four ranges in rapidity extending to 1.9 and corrected to charged particle-level truth jets. The transverse momenta and longitudinal momentum fractions of charged particles within jets are measured, along with the charged particle multiplicity and the particle density as a function of radial distance from the jet axis. Comparison of the data with the theoretical models implemented in existing tunings of Monte Carlo event generators indicates reasonable overall agreement between data and Monte Carlo. These comparisons are sensitive to Monte Carlo parton showering, hadronization, and soft physics models.

  1. Measurement of pion, kaon and proton production in proton-proton collisions at TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Rinella, G. Aglieri; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Molina, R. Alfaro; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Prado, C. Alves Garcia; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Ball, M.; Pedrosa, F. Baltasar Dos Santos; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Camejo, A. Batista; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Martinez, H. Bello; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Buxton, J. T.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Diaz, L. Calero; Caliva, A.; Villar, E. Calvo; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castellanos, J. Castillo; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Cavicchioli, C.; Sanchez, C. Ceballos; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Barroso, V. Chibante; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Balbastre, G. Conesa; Valle, Z. Conesa del; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Morales, Y. Corrales; Maldonado, I. Cortés; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Albino, R. Cruz; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; Caro, A. De; Cataldo, G. de; Cuveland, J. de; Falco, A. De; Gruttola, D. De; Marco, N. De; Pasquale, S. De; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; Bari, D. Di; Mauro, A. Di; Nezza, P. Di; Corchero, M. A. Diaz; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Gimenez, D. Domenicis; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erhardt, F.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Téllez, A. Fernández; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Fleck, M. G.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Girard, M. Fusco; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Dziadus, E. Gladysz; Glässel, P.; Ramirez, A. Gomez; Zamora, P. González; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.

    2015-05-01

    The measurement of primary , , and production at mid-rapidity ( 0.5) in proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV performed with a large ion collider experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC) is reported. Particle identification is performed using the specific ionisation energy-loss and time-of-flight information, the ring-imaging Cherenkov technique and the kink-topology identification of weak decays of charged kaons. Transverse momentum spectra are measured from 0.1 up to 3 GeV/ for pions, from 0.2 up to 6 GeV/ for kaons and from 0.3 up to 6 GeV/ for protons. The measured spectra and particle ratios are compared with quantum chromodynamics-inspired models, tuned to reproduce also the earlier measurements performed at the LHC. Furthermore, the integrated particle yields and ratios as well as the average transverse momenta are compared with results at lower collision energies.

  2. Dose equivalent near the bone-soft tissue interface from nuclear fragments produced by high-energy protons.

    PubMed

    Shavers, M R; Poston, J W; Cucinotta, F A; Wilson, J W

    1996-04-01

    During manned space missions, high-energy nucleons of cosmic and solar origin collide with atomic nuclei of the human body and produce a broad linear energy transfer spectrum of secondary particles, called target fragments. These nuclear fragments are often more biologically harmful than the direct ionization of the incident nucleon. That these secondary particles increase tissue absorbed dose in regions adjacent to the bone-soft tissue interface was demonstrated in a previous publication. To assess radiological risks to tissue near the bone-soft tissue interface, a computer transport model for nuclear fragments produced by high energy nucleons was used in this study to calculate integral linear energy transfer spectra and dose equivalents resulting from nuclear collisions of 1-GeV protons transversing bone and red bone marrow. In terms of dose equivalent averaged over trabecular bone marrow, target fragments emitted from interactions in both tissues are predicted to be at least as important as the direct ionization of the primary protons-twice as important, if recently recommended radiation weighting factors and "worst-case" geometry are used. The use of conventional dosimetry (absorbed dose weighted by aa linear energy transfer-dependent quality factor) as an appropriate framework for predicting risk from low fluences of high-linear energy transfer target fragments is discussed. PMID:8617586

  3. Dose equivalent near the bone-soft tissue interface from nuclear fragments produced by high-energy protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shavers, M. R.; Poston, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    During manned space missions, high-energy nucleons of cosmic and solar origin collide with atomic nuclei of the human body and produce a broad linear energy transfer spectrum of secondary particles, called target fragments. These nuclear fragments are often more biologically harmful than the direct ionization of the incident nucleon. That these secondary particles increase tissue absorbed dose in regions adjacent to the bone-soft tissue interface was demonstrated in a previous publication. To assess radiological risks to tissue near the bone-soft tissue interface, a computer transport model for nuclear fragments produced by high energy nucleons was used in this study to calculate integral linear energy transfer spectra and dose equivalents resulting from nuclear collisions of 1-GeV protons transversing bone and red bone marrow. In terms of dose equivalent averaged over trabecular bone marrow, target fragments emitted from interactions in both tissues are predicted to be at least as important as the direct ionization of the primary protons-twice as important, if recently recommended radiation weighting factors and "worst-case" geometry are used. The use of conventional dosimetry (absorbed dose weighted by aa linear energy transfer-dependent quality factor) as an appropriate framework for predicting risk from low fluences of high-linear energy transfer target fragments is discussed.

  4. Exotic colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, S.

    1994-11-01

    The motivation, feasibility and potential for two unconventional collider concepts - the Gamma-Gamma Collider and the Muon Collider - are described. The importance of the development of associated technologies such as high average power, high repetition rate lasers and ultrafast phase-space techniques are outlined.

  5. Photon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Gronberg, J

    2002-10-07

    A photon collider interaction region has the possibility of expanding the physics reach of a future TeV scale electron-positron collider. A survey of ongoing efforts to design the required lasers and optics to create a photon collider is presented in this paper.

  6. Analytical calculation of proton linear energy transfer in voxelized geometries including secondary protons.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Parcerisa, D; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Dolney, D; Kondrla, M; Fager, M; Carabe, A

    2016-02-21

    In order to integrate radiobiological modelling with clinical treatment planning for proton radiotherapy, we extended our in-house treatment planning system FoCa with a 3D analytical algorithm to calculate linear energy transfer (LET) in voxelized patient geometries. Both active scanning and passive scattering delivery modalities are supported. The analytical calculation is much faster than the Monte-Carlo (MC) method and it can be implemented in the inverse treatment planning optimization suite, allowing us to create LET-based objectives in inverse planning. The LET was calculated by combining a 1D analytical approach including a novel correction for secondary protons with pencil-beam type LET-kernels. Then, these LET kernels were inserted into the proton-convolution-superposition algorithm in FoCa. The analytical LET distributions were benchmarked against MC simulations carried out in Geant4. A cohort of simple phantom and patient plans representing a wide variety of sites (prostate, lung, brain, head and neck) was selected. The calculation algorithm was able to reproduce the MC LET to within 6% (1 standard deviation) for low-LET areas (under 1.7 keV μm(-1)) and within 22% for the high-LET areas above that threshold. The dose and LET distributions can be further extended, using radiobiological models, to include radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) calculations in the treatment planning system. This implementation also allows for radiobiological optimization of treatments by including RBE-weighted dose constraints in the inverse treatment planning process. PMID:26840945

  7. eRHIC, the BNL design for a future Electron-Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roser, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    With the addition of a 20 GeV polarized electron accelerator to the existing Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), the world's only high energy heavy ion and polarized proton collider, a future eRHIC facility will be able to produce polarized electron-nucleon collisions at center-of-mass energies of up to 145 GeV and cover the whole science case as outlined in the Electron-Ion Collider White Paper and endorsed by the 2015 Nuclear Physics Long Range Plan with high luminosity. The presentation will describe the eRHIC design concepts and recent efforts to reduce the technical risks of the project.

  8. Energy enhancement of proton acceleration in combinational radiation pressure and bubble by optimizing plasma density

    SciTech Connect

    Bake, Muhammad Ali; Xie Baisong; Shan Zhang; Hong Xueren; Wang Hongyu

    2012-08-15

    The combinational laser radiation pressure and plasma bubble fields to accelerate protons are researched through theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. The dephasing length of the accelerated protons bunch in the front of the bubble and the density gradient effect of background plasma on the accelerating phase are analyzed in detail theoretically. The radiation damping effect on the accelerated protons energy is also considered. And it is demonstrated by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations that the protons bunch energy can be increased by using the background plasma with negative density gradient. However, radiation damping makes the maximal energy of the accelerated protons a little reduction.

  9. Muon collider design

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R. |; Sessler, A.; Skrinsky, A.

    1996-03-01

    The possibility of muon colliders was introduced by Skrinsky et al., Neuffer, and others. More recently, several workshops and collaboration meetings have greatly increased the level of discussion. In this paper we present scenarios for 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV colliders based on an optimally designed proton source, and for a lower luminosity 0.5 TeV demonstration based on an upgraded version of the AGS. It is assumed that a demonstration version based on upgrades of the FERMILAB machines would also be possible. 53 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. A vision unfulfilled: The hopeful birth and painful death of the Superconducting Super Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riordan, Michael

    As Europe began to approach parity with the United States in high energy physics around 1980, US physicists were becoming increasingly concerned about the future of their national program. While Europeans were pushing ahead with ambitious plans for two advanced particle colliders, LEP at CERN and HERA at DESY, the United States found itself faced by knotty problems in manufacturing the 4-T superconducting magnets required for the new Isabelle proton-proton collider at Brookhaven [1]. Its ballooning costs, which had swelled from an initial 275 million to an estimated 600 million (and counting), threatened to drain funds from the rest of the high energy physics program, including at Fermilab and SLAC. And by mid-1982, it seemed likely that physicists doing research at CERN's new proton-antiproton collider would soon discover the massive W and Z particles predicted by the Standard Model, among Isabelle's primary targets...

  11. High Energy Accelerator and Colliding Beam User Group. Progress report, March 1, 1992--October 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, G.A.; Skuja, A.

    1992-05-01

    This report discusses research in the following areas: the study of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions; Hadron collider physics at Fermilab; fixed target physics and particle physics of general interest; and, the solenoidal detector collaboration at SSCL.

  12. Top-quark initiated processes at high-energy hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tao; Sayre, Josh; Westhoff, Susanne

    2015-04-01

    In hadronic collisions at high energies, the top-quark may be treated as a parton inside a hadron. Top-quark initiated processes become increasingly important since the top-quark luminosity can reach a few percent of the bottom-quark luminosity. In the production of a heavy particle H with mass m H > m t , treating the top-quark as a parton allows us to resum large logarithms log( m {/H 2}/ m {/t 2}) arising from collinear splitting in the initial state. We quantify the effect of collinear resummation at the 14-TeV LHC and a future 100-TeV hadron collider, focusing on the top-quark open-flavor process in comparison with and tg → tH at the leading order (LO) in QCD. We employ top-quark parton distribution functions with appropriate collinear subtraction and power counting. We find that (1) collinear resummation enhances the inclusive production of a heavy particle with m H ≈ 5 TeV (0 .5 TeV) by more than a factor of two compared to the open-flavor process at a 100-TeV (14-TeV) collider; (2) top-quark mass effects are important for scales m H near the top-quark threshold, where the cross section is largest. We advocate a modification of the ACOT factorization scheme, dubbed m-ACOT, that consistently treats heavy-quark masses in hadronic collisions with two initial heavy quarks; (3) the scale uncertainty of the total cross section in m-ACOT is of about 20% at the LO. While a higher-order calculation is indispensable for a precise prediction, the LO cross section is well described by the process using an effective factorization scale significantly lower than m H . We illustrate our results by the example of a heavy spin-0 particle. Our main results also apply to the production of particles with spin-1 and 2.

  13. Low-energy proton increases associated with interplanetary shock waves.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmeira, R. A. R.; Allum, F. R.; Rao, U. R.

    1971-01-01

    Impulsive increases in the low energy proton flux observed by the Explorer 34 satellite, in very close time association with geomagnetic storm sudden commencements are described. It is shown that these events are of short duration (20-30 min) and occur only during the decay phase of a solar cosmic-ray flare event. The differential energy spectrum and the angular distribution of the direction of arrival of the particles are discussed. Two similar increases observed far away from the earth by the Pioneer 7 and 8 deep-space probes are also presented. These impulsive increases are compared with Energetic Storm Particle events and their similarities and differences are discussed. A model is suggested to explain these increases, based on the sweeping and trapping of low energy cosmic rays of solar origin by the advancing shock front responsible for the sudden commencement detected on the earth.

  14. A parallel particle-in-cell model for beam-beam interaction in high energy ring colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Ji; Furman, Miguel A.; Ryne, Robert D.

    2004-07-01

    In this paper we present a self-consistent simulation model of colliding beams in high energy ring colliders. The model, which is based on a particle-in-cell method, uses a new developed shifted effective Green function algorithm for the efficient calculation of the beam-beam interaction with arbitrary separation and large aspect ratio. The model uses transfer maps to treat the external focusing elements and a stochastic map to treat radiation damping and quantum excitation of the beams. In the parallel implementation we studied various strategies to deal with the particular nature of the colliding beam system - a system in which there can be significant particle movement between beam-beam collisions. We chose a particle-field decomposition approach instead of the conventional domain decomposition or particle decomposition approach. The particle-field approach leads to good load balance, reduced communication cost, and shows the best scalability on an IBM SP3 among the three parallel implementations we studied. A performance test of the beam-beam model on a Cray T3E, IBM SP3, and a PC cluster is presented. As an application, we studied the flip-flop instability in an electron-positron collider.

  15. Introduction to colliding beams at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.

    1994-10-01

    The Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is currently the site of the world`s highest center-of-mass energy proton-antiproton colliding beam accelerator, the Tevatron. The CDF and D{O} detectors each envelop one of two luminous regions in the collider, and are thus wholly dependent on the accelerator for their success. The Tevatron`s high operating energy, reliability, and record setting integrated luminosity have allowed both experiments to make world-class measurements and defined the region of physics that each can explore. The following sections are an overview of the highlights of the accelerator operation and are compiled from many sources. The major sources for each section are listed at the beginning of that section.

  16. Collider Detector (CDF) at FERMILAB: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Theriot, D.

    1984-07-01

    CDF, the Collider Detector at Fermilab, is a collaboration of almost 150 physicists from ten US universities (University of Chicago, Brandeis University, Harvard University, University of Illinois, University of Pennsylvania, Purdue University, Rockefeller University, Rutgers University, Texas A and M University, and University of Wisconsin), three US DOE supported national laboratories (Fermilab, Argonne National Laboratory, and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory), Italy (Frascati Laboratory and University of Pisa), and Japan (KEK National Laboratory and Unversity of Tsukuba). The primary physics goal for CDF is to study the general features of proton-antiproton collisions at 2 TeV center-of-mass energy. On general grounds, we expect that parton subenergies in the range 50 to 500 GeV will provide the most interesting physics at this energy. Work at the present CERN Collider has already demonstrated the richness of the 100 GeV scale in parton subenergies.

  17. Vacuum technology issues for the SSC (Superconducting Super Collider)

    SciTech Connect

    Joestlein, H.

    1989-10-23

    The Superconducting Super Collider, to be built in Texas, will provide an energy of 40 TeV from colliding proton beams. This energy is twenty times higher than currently available from the only other cryogenic collider, the Fermilab Tevatron, and will allow experiments that can lead to a better understanding of the fundamental properties of matter. The energy scale and the size of the new machine pose intriguing challenges and opportunities for the its vacuum systems. The discussion will include the effects of synchrotron radiation on cryogenic beam tubes, cold adsorption pumps for hydrogen, methods of leak checking large cryogenic systems, the development of cold beam valves, and radiation damage to components, especially electronics. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. An online, energy-resolving beam profile detector for laser-driven proton beams.

    PubMed

    Metzkes, J; Zeil, K; Kraft, S D; Karsch, L; Sobiella, M; Rehwald, M; Obst, L; Schlenvoigt, H-P; Schramm, U

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a scintillator-based online beam profile detector for the characterization of laser-driven proton beams is presented. Using a pixelated matrix with varying absorber thicknesses, the proton beam is spatially resolved in two dimensions and simultaneously energy-resolved. A thin plastic scintillator placed behind the absorber and read out by a CCD camera is used as the active detector material. The spatial detector resolution reaches down to ∼4 mm and the detector can resolve proton beam profiles for up to 9 proton threshold energies. With these detector design parameters, the spatial characteristics of the proton distribution and its cut-off energy can be analyzed online and on-shot under vacuum conditions. The paper discusses the detector design, its characterization and calibration at a conventional proton source, as well as the first detector application at a laser-driven proton source. PMID:27587116

  19. Polarized protons at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Makdisi, Y.

    1992-10-01

    The approval for construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provides a potential opportunity to collide polarized proton beams at energies up to 500 GeV in the center of mass and high luminosities approaching 2 {times} 10{sup 32}/cm{sup 2}/sec. This capability is enhanced by the fact that the AGS has already accelerated polarized protons and relies on the newly completed Accumulator/Booster for providing the required polarized proton intensity and a system of spin rotators (Siberian snakes) to retain the polarization. The RHIC Spin Collaboration was formed and submitted a Letter of Intent to construct this polarized collider capability and utilize its physics opportunities. In this presentation, I will discuss the plans to upgrade the AGS, the proposed layout of the RHIC siberian snakes, and timetables. The physics focus is the measurement of the spin dependent parton distributions with such accessible probes including high p(t) jets, direct photons, and Drell Yan. The attainable sensitivities and the progress that has been reached in defining the detector requirements will be outlined.

  20. Polarized protons at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Makdisi, Y.

    1992-01-01

    The approval for construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provides a potential opportunity to collide polarized proton beams at energies up to 500 GeV in the center of mass and high luminosities approaching 2 {times} 10{sup 32}/cm{sup 2}/sec. This capability is enhanced by the fact that the AGS has already accelerated polarized protons and relies on the newly completed Accumulator/Booster for providing the required polarized proton intensity and a system of spin rotators (Siberian snakes) to retain the polarization. The RHIC Spin Collaboration was formed and submitted a Letter of Intent to construct this polarized collider capability and utilize its physics opportunities. In this presentation, I will discuss the plans to upgrade the AGS, the proposed layout of the RHIC siberian snakes, and timetables. The physics focus is the measurement of the spin dependent parton distributions with such accessible probes including high p(t) jets, direct photons, and Drell Yan. The attainable sensitivities and the progress that has been reached in defining the detector requirements will be outlined.

  1. Collider searches for nonperturbative low-scale gravity states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingrich, Douglas M.

    2015-12-01

    The possibility of producing nonperturbative low-scale gravity states in collider experiments was first discussed in about 1998. The ATLAS and CMS experiments have searched for nonperturbative low-scale gravity states using the Large Hadron Collider with a proton-proton center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. These experiments have now seriously confronted the possibility of producing nonperturbative low-scale gravity states which were proposed over 17 years ago. I will summarize the results of the searches, give a personal view of what they mean, and make some predictions for 13 TeV center-of-mass energy. I will also discuss early ATLAS 13 TeV center-of-mass energy results.

  2. Elastic proton-deuteron scattering at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Ramazani-Moghaddam-Arani, A.; Amir-Ahmadi, H. R.; Biegun, A.; Eslami-Kalantari, M.; Joulaeizadeh, L.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Mardanpour, H.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Moeini, H.; Shende, S. V.; Bacher, A. D.; Bailey, C. D.; Stephenson, E. J.; Gasparic, I.; Kistryn, St.; Sworst, R.; Kozela, A.; Micherdzinska, A. M.; Stephan, E.

    2008-07-15

    Observables in elastic proton-deuteron scattering are sensitive probes of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and three-nucleon force effects. The present experimental database for this reaction is large, but contains a large discrepancy between data sets for the differential cross section taken at 135 MeV/nucleon by two experimental research groups. This article reviews the background of this problem and presents new data taken at Kernfysisch Versneller Instituute (KVI). Differential cross sections and analyzing powers for the {sup 2}H(p-vector,d)p and {sup 1}H(d-vector,d)p reactions at 135 MeV/nucleon and 65 MeV/nucleon, respectively, have been measured. The differential cross-section data differ significantly from previous measurements and consistently follow the energy dependence as expected from an interpolation of published data taken over a large range at intermediate energies.

  3. Si film separation obtained by high energy proton implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Braley, C.; Mazen, F.; Papon, A.-M.; Rieutord, F.; Charvet, A.-M.; Ntsoenzok, E.

    2012-11-06

    High energy protons implantation in the 1-1.5 MeV range can be used to detach free-standing thin silicon films with thickness between 15 and 30 {mu}m. Recently, we showed that Si orientation has a strong effect on the layer separation threshold fluence and efficiency. While complete delamination of (111)Si films is achieved, (100)Si films separation is more challenging due to blistering phenomena or partial separation of the implanted layer. In this work, we study the fracture mechanism in (100) and (111)Si after high energy implantation in order to understand the origin of such a behavior. We notably point out that fracture precursor defects, i.e. the platelets, preferentially form on (111) planes, as a consequence of the low strain level in the damaged region in our implantation conditions. Fracture therefore propagates easily in (111)Si, while it requires higher fluence to overcome unfavorable precursors orientation and propagate in (100)Si.

  4. Constraining Dark Matter Interactions with Pseudoscalar and Scalar Mediators Using Collider Searches for Multijets plus Missing Transverse Energy.

    PubMed

    Buchmueller, Oliver; Malik, Sarah A; McCabe, Christopher; Penning, Bjoern

    2015-10-30

    The monojet search, looking for events involving missing transverse energy (E_{T}) plus one or two jets, is the most prominent collider dark matter search. We show that multijet searches, which look for E_{T} plus two or more jets, are significantly more sensitive than the monojet search for pseudoscalar- and scalar-mediated interactions. We demonstrate this in the context of a simplified model with a pseudoscalar interaction that explains the excess in GeV energy gamma rays observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We show that multijet searches already constrain a pseudoscalar interpretation of the excess in much of the parameter space where the mass of the mediator M_{A} is more than twice the dark matter mass m_{DM}. With the forthcoming run of the Large Hadron Collider at higher energies, the remaining regions of the parameter space where M_{A}>2m_{DM} will be fully explored. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of complementing the monojet final state with multijet final states to maximize the sensitivity of the search for the production of dark matter at colliders. PMID:26565458

  5. Note: Proton microbeam formation with continuously variable kinetic energy using a compact system for three-dimensional proton beam writing

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, T. Ishii, Y.

    2015-03-15

    A compact focused gaseous ion beam system has been developed to form proton microbeams of a few hundreds of keV with a penetration depth of micrometer range in 3-dimensional proton beam writing. Proton microbeams with kinetic energies of 100-140 keV were experimentally formed on the same point at a constant ratio of the kinetic energy of the object side to that of the image side. The experimental results indicate that the beam diameters were measured to be almost constant at approximately 6 μm at the same point with the kinetic energy range. These characteristics of the system were experimentally and numerically demonstrated to be maintained as long as the ratio was constant.

  6. Scaling behavior of circular colliders dominated by synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talman, Richard

    2015-08-01

    RF cavities that restore the lost energy. To the contrary, until now, the large proton to electron mass ratio has caused synchrotron radiation to be negligible in proton accelerators. The LHC beam energy has still been low enough that synchrotron radiation has little effect on beam dynamics; but the thermodynamic penalty in cooling the superconducting magnets has still made it essential for the radiated power not to be dissipated at liquid helium temperatures. Achieving this has been a significant challenge. For the next generation p, p collider this will be even more true. Furthermore, the radiation will effect beam distributions on time scales measured in minutes, for example causing the beams to be flattened, wider than they are high. In this regime scaling relations previously valid only for electrons will be applicable also to protons.

  7. Centrality dependence of high energy jets in p+Pb collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bzdak, Adam; Skokov, Vladimir; Bathe, Stefan

    2016-04-08

    We investigate the recently measured centrality dependence of high energy jets in proton-lead collisions at the LHC. Here, we hypothesize that events with jets of very high energy (a few hundred GeV) are characterized by a suppressed number of soft particles, thus shifting these events into more peripheral bins. This naturally results in the suppression (enhancement) of the nuclear modification factor, RpA, in central (peripheral) collisions. Our calculations suggest that a moderate suppression of the order of 20%, for 103 GeV jets, can quantitatively reproduce the experimental data. Finally, we further extract the suppression factor as a function of jetmore » energy and test our conjecture using available RpA data for various centralities.« less

  8. Enhancement of the maximum proton energy by funnel-geometry target in laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Peng; Fan, Dapeng; Li, Yuxiao

    2016-09-01

    Enhancement of the maximum proton energy using a funnel-geometry target is demonstrated through particle simulations of laser-plasma interactions. When an intense short-pulse laser illuminate a thin foil target, the foil electrons are pushed by the laser ponderomotive force, and then form an electron cloud at the target rear surface. The electron cloud generates a strong electrostatic field, which accelerates the protons to high energies. If there is a hole in the rear of target, the shape of the electron cloud and the distribution of the protons will be affected by the protuberant part of the hole. In this paper, a funnel-geometry target is proposed to improve the maximum proton energy. Using particle-in-cell 2-dimensional simulations, the transverse electric field generated by the side wall of four different holes are calculated, and protons inside holes are restricted to specific shapes by these field. In the funnel-geometry target, more protons are restricted near the center of the longitudinal accelerating electric field, thus protons experiencing longer accelerating time and distance in the sheath field compared with that in a traditional cylinder hole target. Accordingly, more and higher energy protons are produced from the funnel-geometry target. The maximum proton energy is improved by about 4 MeV compared with a traditional cylinder-shaped hole target. The funnel-geometry target serves as a new method to improve the maximum proton energy in laser-plasma interactions.

  9. Linear collider: a preview

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  10. Space-charge compensation in proton boosters

    SciTech Connect

    Alexey Burov; William Foster; Vladimir Shiltsev

    2001-06-26

    Recently, it was proposed to use negatively charged electron beams for compensation of beam-beam effects due to protons in the Tevatron collider. We show that a similar compensation is possible in space-charge dominated low energy proton beams. The idea has a potential of several-fold increase of the FNAL Booster beam brightness. Best results will be obtained using three electron lenses around the machine circumference, using co-moving electron beam with time structure and profile approximately to the proton beam. This technique, if feasible, will be more cost effective than the straightforward alternative increasing the energy of the injection linac.

  11. Simulation of backgrounds in detectors and energy deposition in superconducting magnets at {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I. |

    1996-01-01

    A calculational approach is described to study beam induced radiation effects in detector and storage ring components at high-energy high-luminosity {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup {minus}} colliders. The details of the corresponding physics process simulations used in the MARS code are given. Contributions of electromagnetic showers, synchrotron radiation, hadrons and daughter muons to the background rates in a generic detector for a 2 x 2 TeV {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup {minus}} collider are investigated. Four configurations of the inner triplet and a detector are examined for two sources: muon decays and beam halo interactions in the lattice elements. The beam induced power density in superconducting magnets is calculated and ways to reduce it are proposed.

  12. SLAC linear collider

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, B.; Bell, R.A.; Brown, K.L.

    1980-06-01

    The SLAC LINEAR COLLIDER is designed to achieve an energy of 100 GeV in the electron-positron center-of-mass system by accelerating intense bunches of particles in the SLAC linac and transporting the electron and positron bunches in a special magnet system to a point where they are focused to a radius of about 2 microns and made to collide head on. The rationale for this new type of colliding beam system is discussed, the project is described, some of the novel accelerator physics issues involved are discussed, and some of the critical technical components are described.

  13. Particle physics after the Higgs boson discovery: opportunities for the Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2016-04-01

    The first run of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN brought the discovery of the Higgs boson, an apparently elementary scalar particle with a mass of 125 GeV, the avatar of the mechanism that hides the electroweak symmetry. A new round of experimentation is beginning, with the energy of the proton--proton colliding beams raised to 6.5 TeV per beam, from 4 TeV at the end of the first run. This article summarizes what we have learned about the Higgs boson, and calls attention to some issues that will be among our central concerns in the near future.

  14. Higgs bosons, electroweak symmetry breaking, and the physics of the Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /CERN

    2007-02-01

    The Large Hadron Collider, a 7 {circle_plus} 7 TeV proton-proton collider under construction at CERN (the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva), will take experiments squarely into a new energy domain where mysteries of the electroweak interaction will be unveiled. What marks the 1-TeV scale as an important target? Why is understanding how the electroweak symmetry is hidden important to our conception of the world around us? What expectations do we have for the agent that hides the electroweak symmetry? Why do particle physicists anticipate a great harvest of discoveries within reach of the LHC?

  15. Low-energy cosmic ray protons from nuclear interactions of cosmic rays with the interstellar medium.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, H. T.

    1973-01-01

    The intensity of low-energy (less than 100 MeV) protons from nuclear interactions of higher-energy (above 100 MeV) cosmic rays with the interstellar medium is calculated. The resultant intensity in the 10- to 100-MeV range is larger by a factor of 3-5 than the observed proton intensity near earth. The calculated intensity from nuclear interactions constitutes a lower limit on the actual proton intensity in interstellar space.

  16. Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Willen, E.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is a proposed research facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory to study the collision of beams of heavy ions, up to gold in mass and at beam energies up to 100 GeV/nucleon. The physics to be explored by this collider is an overlap between the traditional disciplines of nuclear physics and high energy physics and is a continuation of the planned program of light and heavy ion physics at BNL. The machine is to be constructed in the now-empty tunnel built for the former CBA project. Various other facilities to support the collider are either in place or under construction at BNL. The collider itself, including the magnets, is in an advanced state of design, and a construction start is anticipated in the next several years.

  17. New DIS and collider results on PDFs

    SciTech Connect

    Rizvi, E.

    2015-05-15

    The HERA ep collider experiments have measured the proton structure functions over a wide kinematic range. New data from the H1 experiment now extend the range to higher 4-momentum transfer (√(Q{sup 2})) over which a precision of ∼ 2% is achieved in the neutral current channel. A factor of two reduction in the systematic uncertainties over previous measurement is attained. The charged current structure function measurements are also significantly improved in precision. These data, when used in QCD analyses of the parton density functions (PDFs) reduce the PDF uncertainties particularly at high momentum fractions x which is relevant to low energy neutrino scattering cross sections. New data from the LHC pp collider experiments may also offer significant high x PDF improvements as the experimental uncertainties improve.

  18. Quantifying Low Energy Proton Damage in Multijunction Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, Scott R.; Burke, Edward A.; Walters, Robert J.; Warner, Jeffrey H.; Summers, Geoffrey P.; Lorentzen, Justin R.; Morton, Thomas L.; Taylor, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of the effects of low energy proton irradiation on the electrical performance of triple junction (3J) InGaP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells is presented. The Monte Carlo ion transport code (SRIM) is used to simulate the damage profile induced in a 3J solar cell under the conditions of typical ground testing and that of the space environment. The results are used to present a quantitative analysis of the defect, and hence damage, distribution induced in the cell active region by the different radiation conditions. The modelling results show that, in the space environment, the solar cell will experience a uniform damage distribution through the active region of the cell. Through an application of the displacement damage dose analysis methodology, the implications of this result on mission performance predictions are investigated.

  19. Response of BC-418 plastic scintillator to low-energy protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daub, B. H.; Henzl, V.; Kovash, M. A.; Matthews, J. L.; Miller, Z. W.; Shoniyozov, K.; Yang, H.

    2013-02-01

    The response of fast plastic scintillators to protons is unknown for energies below approximately 300 keV. The response of BC-418 plastic scintillator to protons from 100 keV to 1 MeV was measured using elastic scattering of neutrons at the University of Kentucky. Protons of precise energies from a Van de Graaff accelerator impinged on a thin LiF target to produce neutrons in narrow energy bands. A coincidence was detected between the recoiling proton in the plastic scintillator and the elastically scattered neutron in a liquid scintillator. The energy of the recoil proton was determined by the elastic scattering kinematics, with the scattered neutron energy precisely determined by time of flight. The results are compared with previous measurements of the response of similar plastic scintillators in the energy region where they overlap.

  20. The spectrum of flare protons in the low-energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daibog, E. I.; Kurt, V. G.; Stolpovskii, V. G.

    1981-09-01

    An analysis is presented of the spectra of flare protons in the 0.08-150 MeV energy range, measured at about 1 AE on the Prognoz-6 satellite. The spectral data are compared with the energy dependence of the observation time of the maximum flux of flare protons. It is shown that changes in the slope in the spectrum and in the energy dependence of maximum times occur at approximately the same energy. Energy losses of protons in the interplanetary medium due to adiabatic cooling are determined. This effect is significant for protons with energies less than 1 MeV, and, in the case of flares of low importance, plays a decisive role in the formation of the spectrum of the observed flare protons.

  1. Synchrotron radiation from protons

    SciTech Connect

    Dutt, S.K.

    1992-12-01

    Synchrotron radiation from protons, though described by the same equations as the radiation from electrons, exhibits a number of interesting features on account of the parameters reached in praxis. In this presentation, we shall point out some of the features relating to (i) normal synchrotron radiation from dipoles in proton machines such as the High Energy Booster and the Superconducting Super Collider; (ii) synchrotron radiation from short dipoles, and its application to light monitors for proton machines, and (iii) synchrotron radiation from undulators in the limit when, the deflection parameter is much smaller than unity. The material for this presentation is taken largely from the work of Hofmann, Coisson, Bossart, and their collaborators, and from a paper by Kim. We shall emphasize the qualitative aspects of synchrotron radiation in the cases mentioned above, making, when possible, simple arguments for estimating the spectral and angular properties of the radiation. Detailed analyses can be found in the literature.

  2. Testing QCD at high energy e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders: 0.5 {le} Q {le} 2 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, P.N.

    1996-01-01

    A review is presented of the possibilities for making precise tests of Quantum Chromodynamics at high energy e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders operating at center-of-mass energies in the range 0.5 {le} Q {le} 2 TeV. Throughout, the acronym HLC, representing High energy Linear e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} Collider, will be used to denote the set of colliders comprising NLC, JLC, CLIC, TESLA and VLEPP that have been proposed by the respective geo-political consortia to confront the supra-national physics. It is assumed that the collider will be designed to deliver an integrated luminosity of 50 fb{sup {minus}1} per year of running at 500 GeV, and 100 fb{sup {minus}1} per year of running at 1 TeV.

  3. Recent Results on Muon Capture for a Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, David; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    Scenarios for capture, bunching and phase-energy rotation of {mu}'s from a proton source have been developed. The goal is capture of a maximal number of muons in a string of rf bunches with applications in neutrino factories and {mu}{sup +}-{mu}{sup -} colliders. In this note we begin with the bunching, phase rotation and cooling scenario used in neutrino factory study 2B and adapted by R. Palmer as the initial stage of a {mu}{sup +}-{mu}{sup -} collider scenario. However the scenario produces a relatively large number of bunches that must be recombined for maximal collider luminosity. In this paper we modify the scenario to obtain a smaller number of bunches, and, after some optimization, obtain cases that are better for both n-factory and collider scenarios. We describe these examples and consider some variations toward an optimal {nu}-factory + collider scenario.

  4. High-energy proton imaging for biomedical applications

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Prall, Matthias; Durante, Marco; Berger, Thomas; Przybyla, B.; Graeff, C.; Lang, Phillipp M.; LaTessa, Ciara; Shestov, Less; Simoniello, P.; Danly, Christopher R.; et al

    2016-06-10

    The charged particle community is looking for techniques exploiting proton interactions instead of X-ray absorption for creating images of human tissue. Due to multiple Coulomb scattering inside the measured object it has shown to be highly non-trivial to achieve sufficient spatial resolution. We present imaging of biological tissue with a proton microscope. This device relies on magnetic optics, distinguishing it from most published proton imaging methods. For these methods reducing the data acquisition time to a clinically acceptable level has turned out to be challenging. In a proton microscope, data acquisition and processing are much simpler. This device even allowsmore » imaging in real time. The primary medical application will be image guidance in proton radiosurgery. Proton images demonstrating the potential for this application are presented. As a result, tomographic reconstructions are included to raise awareness of the possibility of high-resolution proton tomography using magneto-optics.« less

  5. High-energy proton imaging for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prall, M.; Durante, M.; Berger, T.; Przybyla, B.; Graeff, C.; Lang, P. M.; Latessa, C.; Shestov, L.; Simoniello, P.; Danly, C.; Mariam, F.; Merrill, F.; Nedrow, P.; Wilde, C.; Varentsov, D.

    2016-06-01

    The charged particle community is looking for techniques exploiting proton interactions instead of X-ray absorption for creating images of human tissue. Due to multiple Coulomb scattering inside the measured object it has shown to be highly non-trivial to achieve sufficient spatial resolution. We present imaging of biological tissue with a proton microscope. This device relies on magnetic optics, distinguishing it from most published proton imaging methods. For these methods reducing the data acquisition time to a clinically acceptable level has turned out to be challenging. In a proton microscope, data acquisition and processing are much simpler. This device even allows imaging in real time. The primary medical application will be image guidance in proton radiosurgery. Proton images demonstrating the potential for this application are presented. Tomographic reconstructions are included to raise awareness of the possibility of high-resolution proton tomography using magneto-optics.

  6. Note: A new angle-resolved proton energy spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Y.; Su, L. N.; Liu, M.; Liu, B. C.; Shen, Z. W.; Fan, H. T.; Li, Y. T.; Chen, L. M.; Lu, X.; Ma, J. L.; Wang, W. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Wei, Z. Y.; Zhang, J.

    2013-09-15

    In typical laser-driven proton acceleration experiments Thomson parabola proton spectrometers are used to measure the proton spectra with very small acceptance angle in specific directions. Stacks composed of CR-39 nuclear track detectors, imaging plates, or radiochromic films are used to measure the angular distributions of the proton beams, respectively. In this paper, a new proton spectrometer, which can measure the spectra and angular distributions simultaneously, has been designed. Proton acceleration experiments performed on the Xtreme light III laser system demonstrates that the spectrometer can give angle-resolved spectra with a large acceptance angle. This will be conductive to revealing the acceleration mechanisms, optimization, and applications of laser-driven proton beams.

  7. High-energy proton imaging for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Prall, M.; Durante, M.; Berger, T.; Przybyla, B.; Graeff, C.; Lang, P. M.; LaTessa, C.; Shestov, L.; Simoniello, P.; Danly, C.; Mariam, F.; Merrill, F.; Nedrow, P.; Wilde, C.; Varentsov, D.

    2016-01-01

    The charged particle community is looking for techniques exploiting proton interactions instead of X-ray absorption for creating images of human tissue. Due to multiple Coulomb scattering inside the measured object it has shown to be highly non-trivial to achieve sufficient spatial resolution. We present imaging of biological tissue with a proton microscope. This device relies on magnetic optics, distinguishing it from most published proton imaging methods. For these methods reducing the data acquisition time to a clinically acceptable level has turned out to be challenging. In a proton microscope, data acquisition and processing are much simpler. This device even allows imaging in real time. The primary medical application will be image guidance in proton radiosurgery. Proton images demonstrating the potential for this application are presented. Tomographic reconstructions are included to raise awareness of the possibility of high-resolution proton tomography using magneto-optics. PMID:27282667

  8. High-energy proton imaging for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Prall, M; Durante, M; Berger, T; Przybyla, B; Graeff, C; Lang, P M; LaTessa, C; Shestov, L; Simoniello, P; Danly, C; Mariam, F; Merrill, F; Nedrow, P; Wilde, C; Varentsov, D

    2016-01-01

    The charged particle community is looking for techniques exploiting proton interactions instead of X-ray absorption for creating images of human tissue. Due to multiple Coulomb scattering inside the measured object it has shown to be highly non-trivial to achieve sufficient spatial resolution. We present imaging of biological tissue with a proton microscope. This device relies on magnetic optics, distinguishing it from most published proton imaging methods. For these methods reducing the data acquisition time to a clinically acceptable level has turned out to be challenging. In a proton microscope, data acquisition and processing are much simpler. This device even allows imaging in real time. The primary medical application will be image guidance in proton radiosurgery. Proton images demonstrating the potential for this application are presented. Tomographic reconstructions are included to raise awareness of the possibility of high-resolution proton tomography using magneto-optics. PMID:27282667

  9. Taking Energy to the Physics Classroom from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cid, Xabier; Cid, Ramon

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, the greatest experiment in history began. When in full operation, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will generate the greatest amount of information that has ever been produced in an experiment before. It will also reveal some of the most fundamental secrets of nature. Despite the enormous amount of information available on this…

  10. Dosimetry of low energy proton beams for use in spacecraft parts testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.

    1975-01-01

    Thermoluminescent Dosimeters tes (TLD) were used to measure proton fluences consisting of 5MeV or lower energies. The results were at variance with the corresponding gamma measurements. The results of experiments on low energy proton dosimetry using LiF-in-teflon microrods (TLD-700 or LiF-7), are presented.

  11. Beam Induced Hydrodynamic Tunneling in the Future Circular Collider Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, N. A.; Burkart, F.; Schmidt, R.; Shutov, A.; Wollmann, D.; Piriz, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    A future circular collider (FCC) has been proposed as a post-Large Hadron Collider accelerator, to explore particle physics in unprecedented energy ranges. The FCC is a circular collider in a tunnel with a circumference of 80-100 km. The FCC study puts an emphasis on proton-proton high-energy and electron-positron high-intensity frontier machines. A proton-electron interaction scenario is also examined. According to the nominal FCC parameters, each of the 50 TeV proton beams will carry an amount of 8.5 GJ energy that is equivalent to the kinetic energy of an Airbus A380 (560 t) at a typical speed of 850 km /h . Safety of operation with such extremely energetic beams is an important issue, as off-nominal beam loss can cause serious damage to the accelerator and detector components with a severe impact on the accelerator environment. In order to estimate the consequences of an accident with the full beam accidently deflected into equipment, we have carried out numerical simulations of interaction of a FCC beam with a solid copper target using an energy-deposition code (fluka) and a 2D hydrodynamic code (big2) iteratively. These simulations show that, although the penetration length of a single FCC proton and its shower in solid copper is about 1.5 m, the full FCC beam will penetrate up to about 350 m into the target because of the "hydrodynamic tunneling." These simulations also show that a significant part of the target is converted into high-energy-density matter. We also discuss this interesting aspect of this study.

  12. Theoretical aspects of energy range relations, stopping power and energy straggling of protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmer, W.

    2007-07-01

    The Bragg-Kleeman rule RCSDA=AE0p provides a connection between the initial energy E0 of a proton and the range RCSDA in a medium, if the continuous-slowing-down approximation (CSDA) is assumed. The rule results from a generalized (nonrelativistic) Langevin equation; its integration also yields information on the residual energy E(z) or dE(z)/dz of a proton at position z. A relativistic extension of the generalized Langevin equation leads to the formula RCSDA=A(E0+E02/2Mc2)p. Since the initial energy E0 of therapeutic protons satisfies E0≪2Mc2, relativistic contributions can be treated as correction terms. Besides this phenomenological aspect, a complete integration of Bethe-Bloch equation (BBE) is presented, which provides the determination of RCSDA, E(z), dE(z)/dz and works without any empirical parameters. The results of these different methods are compared with Monte Carlo calculations (GEANT4). Since the energy transfer from proton to the environmental atomic electrons regarded in the CSDA-framework has to account for local fluctuations, an analysis of the Gaussian convolution and the Landau-Vavilov distribution function is performed on the basis of quantum-statistical mechanics. The Landau tail can be described as a Hermite polynomial correction of a Gaussian convolution.

  13. Proton synchrotron radiation at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman-Keup, Randy; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    While protons are not generally associated with synchrotron radiation, they do emit visible light at high enough energies. This paper presents an overview of the use of synchrotron radiation in the Tevatron to measure transverse emittances and to monitor the amount of beam in the abort gap. The latter is necessary to ensure a clean abort and prevent quenches of the superconducting magnets and damage to the silicon detectors of the collider experiments.

  14. Determination of solar proton fluxes and energies at high solar latitudes by UV radiation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, N.; Blum, P. W.; Ajello, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The latitudinal variation of the solar proton flux and energy causes a density increase at high solar latitudes of the neutral gas penetrating the heliosphere. Measurements of the neutral density by UV resonance radiation observations from interplanetary spacecraft thus permit deductions on the dependence of the solar proton flux on heliographic latitude. Using both the results of Mariner 10 measurements and of other off-ecliptic solar wind observations, the values of the solar proton fluxes and energies at polar heliographic latitudes are determined for several cases of interest. The Mariner 10 analysis, together with IPS results, indicate a significant decrease of the solar proton flux at polar latitudes.

  15. Energy loss of protons and deuterons at low energies in Pd polycrystalline thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celedón, C.; Sánchez, E. A.; Moreno, M. S.; Arista, N. R.; Uribe, J. D.; Mery, M.; Valdés, J. E.; Vargas, P.

    2013-07-01

    We have investigated experimentally and by computer simulations the energy-loss distributions of low-energy (E<10 keV) protons and deuterons transmitted through polycrystalline palladium thin films. In contrast to previous experiments on various transition metals we find that the stopping power of Pd is proportional to the ion velocity. Data of protons and deuterons are coincident within the experimental uncertainties, showing the absence of an isotopic effect on the stopping power of Pd in this energy range. The experimental results were analyzed and compared with Monte Carlo computer simulations and previous theoretical models. The difference in the velocity dependence of the energy loss of hydrogen ions in Pd with respect to other transition metals (Cu, Ag, and Au) is explained by a theoretical analysis based on the properties of the d-electron bands of those elements.

  16. Beam-energy dependence of the directed flow of protons, antiprotons, and pions in Au+Au collisions.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Banerjee, A; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Contin, G; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Kotchenda, L; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Levine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Madagodagettige Don, D M M D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olvitt, D L; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szelezniak, M A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J L; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-04-25

    Rapidity-odd directed flow (v1) measurements for charged pions, protons, and antiprotons near midrapidity (y=0) are reported in sNN=7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV Au+Au collisions as recorded by the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. At intermediate impact parameters, the proton and net-proton slope parameter dv1/dy|y=0 shows a minimum between 11.5 and 19.6 GeV. In addition, the net-proton dv1/dy|y=0 changes sign twice between 7.7 and 39 GeV. The proton and net-proton results qualitatively resemble predictions of a hydrodynamic model with a first-order phase transition from hadronic matter to deconfined matter, and differ from hadronic transport calculations. PMID:24815640

  17. Very large hadron collider (VLHC)

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    A VLHC informal study group started to come together at Fermilab in the fall of 1995 and at the 1996 Snowmass Study the parameters of this machine took form. The VLHC as now conceived would be a 100 TeV hadron collider. It would use the Fermilab Main Injector (now nearing completion) to inject protons at 150 GeV into a new 3 TeV Booster and then into a superconducting pp collider ring producing 100 TeV c.m. interactions. A luminosity of {approximately}10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} is planned. Our plans were presented to the Subpanel on the Planning for the Future of US High- Energy Physics (the successor to the Drell committee) and in February 1998 their report stated ``The Subpanel recommends an expanded program of R&D on cost reduction strategies, enabling technologies, and accelerator physics issues for a VLHC. These efforts should be coordinated across laboratory and university groups with the aim of identifying design concepts for an economically and technically viable facility`` The coordination has been started with the inclusion of physicists from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and Cornell University. Clearly, this collaboration must expanded internationally as well as nationally. The phrase ``economically and technically viable facility`` presents the real challenge.

  18. Photon collider at TESLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telnov, Valery

    2001-10-01

    High energy photon colliders ( γγ, γe) based on backward Compton scattering of laser light is a very natural addition to e +e - linear colliders. In this report, we consider this option for the TESLA project. Recent study has shown that the horizontal emittance in the TESLA damping ring can be further decreased by a factor of four. In this case, the γγ luminosity in the high energy part of spectrum can reach about (1/3) Le +e -. Typical cross-sections of interesting processes in γγ collisions are higher than those in e +e - collisions by about one order of magnitude, so the number of events in γγ collisions will be more than that in e +e - collisions. Photon colliders can, certainly, give additional information and they are the best for the study of many phenomena. The main question is now the technical feasibility. The key new element in photon colliders is a very powerful laser system. An external optical cavity is a promising approach for the TESLA project. A free electron laser is another option. However, a more straightforward solution is "an optical storage ring (optical trap)" with a diode pumped solid state laser injector which is today technically feasible. This paper briefly reviews the status of a photon collider based on the linear collider TESLA, its possible parameters and existing problems.

  19. Hole-boring radiation pressure acceleration as a basis for producing high-energy proton bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A. P. L.; Trines, R. M. G. M.; Dover, N. P.; Najmudin, Z.

    2012-11-01

    The production of high-energy protons by the ‘hole-boring’ radiation pressure acceleration (HB-RPA) mechanism of laser-driven ion acceleration is examined in the case where the plasma has a density less than a0nc in 2D. Previously this was examined in 1D (Robinson 2011 Phys. Plasmas 18 056701) and was motivated by previous predictions of the non-linear criterion for an ultra-intense laser pulse to penetrate a dense plasma. By reducing the density well below a0nc the proton energies achieved increases considerably, thus leading to proton energies >100 MeV at laser intensities close to current capabilities. The results show that good quality proton beams with proton energies >100 MeV can be obtained via HB-RPA using targets with densities in the range 12-20nc and laser intensities in the range 5 × 1021-3 × 1022 W cm-2.

  20. Internal spin structure of the proton from high energy polarized e-p scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, V.W.; Baum, G.; Bergstroem, M.R.

    1981-02-01

    A review is given of experimental knowledge of the spin dependent structure functions of the proton, which is based on inclusive high energy scattering of longitudinal polarized electrons by longitudinally polarized protons in both the deep inelastic and resonance regions, and includes preliminary results from our most recent SLAC experiment. Implications for scaling, sum rules, models of proton structure, and the hyperfine structure interval in hydrogen are given. Possible future directions of research are indicated.

  1. Energy transfer dynamics in isolated and colliding highly vibrationally excited molecules. Technical report, November 1991-October 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Crim, F.F.; Randunsky, M.B.; Booze, J.A.; Govoni, D.B.; Fritz, M.D.

    1995-03-15

    The flow of energy in molecules, either isolated or colliding, is fundamental to complex phenomena occurring in atmospheric chemistry, combustion, molecular lasers, plasmas, and a host of other environments containing energetic species. The authors have developed, proven, and applied a technique that combines vibrational overtone excitation, to prepare highly vibrationally excited initial states, and time-resolved spectroscopic detection, to probe the evolution of the prepared state, for studying energy transfer in vibrationally energized molecules. Their experiments on acetylene have demonstrated the power of this approach for learning about otherwise inaccessible vibrations in electronically excited molecules, for determining the pathways of intramolecular energy transfer in isolated molecules, and for measuring fully state-resolved rotational and vibrational energy transfer rates in collisions.

  2. Neutrons in proton pencil beam scanning: parameterization of energy, quality factors and RBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Uwe; Hälg, Roger A.; Baiocco, Giorgio; Lomax, Tony

    2016-08-01

    The biological effectiveness of neutrons produced during proton therapy in inducing cancer is unknown, but potentially large. In particular, since neutron biological effectiveness is energy dependent, it is necessary to estimate, besides the dose, also the energy spectra, in order to obtain quantities which could be a measure of the biological effectiveness and test current models and new approaches against epidemiological studies on cancer induction after proton therapy. For patients treated with proton pencil beam scanning, this work aims to predict the spatially localized neutron energies, the effective quality factor, the weighting factor according to ICRP, and two RBE values, the first obtained from the saturation corrected dose mean lineal energy and the second from DSB cluster induction. A proton pencil beam was Monte Carlo simulated using GEANT. Based on the simulated neutron spectra for three different proton beam energies a parameterization of energy, quality factors and RBE was calculated. The pencil beam algorithm used for treatment planning at PSI has been extended using the developed parameterizations in order to calculate the spatially localized neutron energy, quality factors and RBE for each treated patient. The parameterization represents the simple quantification of neutron energy in two energy bins and the quality factors and RBE with a satisfying precision up to 85 cm away from the proton pencil beam when compared to the results based on 3D Monte Carlo simulations. The root mean square error of the energy estimate between Monte Carlo simulation based results and the parameterization is 3.9%. For the quality factors and RBE estimates it is smaller than 0.9%. The model was successfully integrated into the PSI treatment planning system. It was found that the parameterizations for neutron energy, quality factors and RBE were independent of proton energy in the investigated energy range of interest for proton therapy. The pencil beam algorithm has

  3. Neutrons in proton pencil beam scanning: parameterization of energy, quality factors and RBE.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Uwe; Hälg, Roger A; Baiocco, Giorgio; Lomax, Tony

    2016-08-21

    The biological effectiveness of neutrons produced during proton therapy in inducing cancer is unknown, but potentially large. In particular, since neutron biological effectiveness is energy dependent, it is necessary to estimate, besides the dose, also the energy spectra, in order to obtain quantities which could be a measure of the biological effectiveness and test current models and new approaches against epidemiological studies on cancer induction after proton therapy. For patients treated with proton pencil beam scanning, this work aims to predict the spatially localized neutron energies, the effective quality factor, the weighting factor according to ICRP, and two RBE values, the first obtained from the saturation corrected dose mean lineal energy and the second from DSB cluster induction. A proton pencil beam was Monte Carlo simulated using GEANT. Based on the simulated neutron spectra for three different proton beam energies a parameterization of energy, quality factors and RBE was calculated. The pencil beam algorithm used for treatment planning at PSI has been extended using the developed parameterizations in order to calculate the spatially localized neutron energy, quality factors and RBE for each treated patient. The parameterization represents the simple quantification of neutron energy in two energy bins and the quality factors and RBE with a satisfying precision up to 85 cm away from the proton pencil beam when compared to the results based on 3D Monte Carlo simulations. The root mean square error of the energy estimate between Monte Carlo simulation based results and the parameterization is 3.9%. For the quality factors and RBE estimates it is smaller than 0.9%. The model was successfully integrated into the PSI treatment planning system. It was found that the parameterizations for neutron energy, quality factors and RBE were independent of proton energy in the investigated energy range of interest for proton therapy. The pencil beam algorithm has

  4. Accelerator considerations of large circular colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Alex

    2016-07-01

    As we consider the tremendous physics reaches of the big future circular electron-positron and proton-proton colliders, it might be advisable to keep a close track of what accelerator challenges they face. Good progresses are being made, and yet it is reported here that substantial investments in funding, manpower, as well as a long sustained time to the R&D efforts will be required in preparation to realize these dream colliders.

  5. Effects of Collisional Dissipation on the "Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor "

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampe, Martin; Manheimer, Wallace M.

    1998-11-01

    Rostoker, Binderbauer and Monkhorst have recently proposed a "colliding beam fusion reactor" (CBFR) for use with the p-B11 reaction. We have examined the various dissipative processes resulting from Coulomb collisions, and have concluded that the CBFR equilibrium cannot be sustained for long enough to permit net fusion gain. There are many collisional processes which occur considerably faster than fusion, and result in particle loss, energy loss, or detuning of the resonant energy for the p-B reaction. Pitch-angle scattering of protons off the boron beam, which occurs 100 times faster than fusion, isotropizes the proton beam and results in proton loss. Energy exchange between protons and boron, which is 20 times faster than fusion, detunes the resonance. Proton-proton scattering, which is faster than fusion for all CBFR scenarios, Maxwellianizes the protons and thus detunes the resonance. Ion-electron collisions lead indirectly to a friction between the two ion beams, which is typically fast compared to the fusion process. Results of Fokker-Planck analyses of each process will be shown.

  6. Proton-proton elastic scattering at the LHC energy of \\chem{\\sqrt{s} = 7\\,TeV}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TOTEM Collaboration; Antchev, G.; Aspell, P.; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Baechler, J.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bozzo, M.; Brücken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F. S.; Calicchio, M.; Catanesi, M. G.; Covault, C.; Csanád, M.; Csörgö, T.; Deile, M.; Dimovasili, E.; Doubek, M.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferro, F.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Giani, S.; Greco, V.; Grzanka, L.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Janda, M.; Kašpar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrát, V.; Kurvinen, K.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leszko, T.; Lippmaa, E.; Lokajíček, M.; Lo Vetere, M.; Rodríguez, F. Lucas; Macrí, M.; Magaletti, L.; Magazzù, G.; Mercadante, A.; Minutoli, S.; Nemes, F.; Niewiadomski, H.; Noschis, E.; Novák, T.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Österberg, K.; Perrot, A.-L.; Palazzi, P.; Pedreschi, E.; Petäjäjärvi, J.; Procházka, J.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Robutti, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Santroni, A.; Scribano, A.; Sette, G.; Snoeys, W.; Spinella, F.; Sziklai, J.; Taylor, C.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Vitek, M.; Welti, J.; Whitmore, J.

    2011-08-01

    Proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured by the TOTEM experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider at \\sqrt{s} = 7\\,TeV in dedicated runs with the Roman Pot detectors placed as close as seven times the transverse beam size (σbeam) from the outgoing beams. After careful study of the accelerator optics and the detector alignment, |t|, the square of four-momentum transferred in the elastic scattering process, has been determined with an uncertainty of \\delta t = 0.1\\,\\rm{GeV} \\sqrt{\\vert t\\vert } . In this letter, first results of the differential cross-section are presented covering a |t|-range from 0.36 to 2.5 GeV2. The differential cross-section in the range 0.36 < |t| < 0.47 GeV2 is described by an exponential with a slope parameter B = (23.6 ± 0.5stat ± 0.4syst) GeV-2, followed by a significant diffractive minimum at |t| = (0.53 ± 0.01stat ± 0.01syst) GeV2. For |t|-values larger than ~1.5 GeV2, the cross-section exhibits a power law behaviour with an exponent of -7.8 ± 0.3stat ± 0.1syst. When compared to predictions based on the different available models, the data show a strong discriminative power despite the small t-range covered.

  7. Measurements of the proton-air cross section with high energy cosmic ray experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Rasha

    2016-07-01

    Detecting Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) enables us to measure the proton-air inelastic cross section σinel p-air at energies that we are unable to access with particle accelerators. The proton-proton cross section σp-p is subsequently inferred from the proton-air cross section at these energies. UHECR experiments have been reportingon the proton-air inelastic cross section starting with the Fly's Eye in 1984 at √s =30 TeV and ending with the most recent result of the Telescope Array experiment at √s = 95 TeV in 2015. In this proceeding, I will summarize the most recent experimental results on the σinel p-air measurements from the UHECR experiments.

  8. Optimization of the {sup 7}Li(p,n) proton beam energy for BNCT applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bleuel, D.L.; Donahue, R.J.

    1996-02-01

    The reaction {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7} Be has been proposed as an accelerator-based source of neutrons for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). This reaction has a large steep resonance for proton energies of about 2.3 MeV which ends at about 2.5 MeV. It has generally been accepted that one should use 2.5 MeV protons to get the highest yield of neutrons for BNCT. This paper suggests that for BNCT the optimum proton energy may be about 2.3 MeV and that a proton energy of about 2.2 MeV will provide the same useful neutron fluence outside a thinner moderator as the neutron fluence from a 2.5 MeV proton beam with a thicker moderator.

  9. Enhancement of proton energy by polarization switch in laser acceleration of multi-ion foils

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tung-Chang; Shao, Xi; Liu, Chuan-Sheng; Eliasson, Bengt; Wang, Jyhpyng; Chen, Shih-Hung

    2013-10-15

    We present a scheme to significantly increase the energy of quasi-monoenergetic protons accelerated by a laser beam without increasing the input power. This improvement is accomplished by first irradiating the foil several wave periods with circular polarization and then switching the laser to linear polarization. The polarization switch increases the electron temperature and thereby moves more electrons ahead of the proton layer, resulting in a space charge electric field pushing the protons forwards. The scaling of the proton energy evolution with respect to the switching time is studied, and an optimal switching time is obtained. The proton energy for the case with optimal switching time can reach about 80 MeV with an input laser power of 70 TW, an improvement of more than 30% compared to the case without polarization switch.

  10. Unusual energy dispersion at the proton isotropy boundary: a statistical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyaeva, Sonya; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Sergeev, Viktor; Chernyaev, Ivan

    The regular appearance of equatorward boundary of the isotropic proton precipitation (isotropy boundary, IB) is interpreted as a manifestation of the boundary between adiabatic and non-adiabatic particle motion regimes. Accordingly, the energy dependence of IB latitude (energy dispersion, with lower latitude IB observed for higher energy protons in case of normal dispersion) carries the information about the real magnetic field gradients (or, sporadic appearance of other scattering mechanism, in case of anomalous dispersion). In this study we investigate statistically the IB energy dispersion of the >30 and >80 keV energetic protons using data from low-altitude polar satellites NOAA-19 and -18 in September 2009, when two spacecraft follow each other along the same orbit. We found that the events with normal dispersion at proton energies of 30 to 80 keV protons constitute less than 20% of the total number of events (regardless of geomagnetic activity). In other cases (80%) we see either the coincidence of the proton IB at different energies (within 0.2(°) ), or the precipitation pattern is complicated by the presence of isolated precipitation structures equatorward of the IB. In small amount of cases the anomalous (inverse) energy dispersion was also observed, suggesting the presence of different precipitation mechanisms. To help discriminate between current sheet scattering and other mechanisms we also obtained the average relationship between empirical ratios of trapped and precipitated proton fluxes at different energies near the IB for cases of normal dispersion. The near coincidence of the proton IBs can be observed in the case of sharp magnetic field Bz gradients (Bz jumps), whose amplitude should be about 60% of the Bz background value. Their existence is tested by considering magnetic field observations at radial passes of THEMIS spacecraft near the IB observation meridian in the near magnetosphere, supported by adaptive modeling and other relevant

  11. A search for the higgs boson and a search for dark-matter particle with jets and missing transverse energy at collider detector at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qiuguang

    2013-05-01

    Finding the standard model Higgs boson and discovering beyond-standard model physics phenomena have been the most important goals for the high-energy physics in the last decades. In this thesis, we present two such searches. First is the search for the low mass standard model Higgs boson produced in association with a vector boson; second is the rst search for a dark-matter candidate (D) produced in association with a top quark (t) in particle colliders. We search in events with energetic jets and large missing transverse energy { a signature characterized by complicated backgrounds { in data collected by the CDF detector with proton-antiproton collisions at p s = 1:96 TeV. We discuss the techniques that have been developed for background modeling, for discriminating signal from background, and for reducing background resulting from detector e ects. In the Higgs search, we report the 95% con dence level upper limits on the pro- duction cross section across masses of 90 to 150 GeV/c2. The expected limits are improved by an average of 14% relative to the previous analysis. The Large Hadron Collider experiments reported a Higgs-like particle with mass of 125 GeV/c2 by study- ing the data collected in year 2011/12. At a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV/c2, our observed (expected) limit is 3.06 (3.33) times the standard model prediction, corre- sponding to one of the most sensitive searches to date in this nal state. In the dark matter search, we nd the data are consistent with the standard model prediction, thus set 95% con dence level upper limits on the cross section of the process p p ! t + D as a function of the mass of the dark-matter candidate. The xviii upper limits are approximately 0.5 pb for a dark-matter particle with masses in the range of 0 􀀀 150 GeV/c2.

  12. Proton Structure in High-Energy High-Multiplicity p-p Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Głazek, Stanisław D.; Kubiczek, Patryk

    2016-06-01

    A few-body proton image, expected to be derivable from QCD in the renormalization group procedure for effective particles, is used within the Monte Carlo Glauber model to calculate the anisotropy coefficients in the initial collision-state of matter in high-energy high-multiplicity proton-proton interaction events. We estimate the ridge-like correlations in the final hadronic state by assuming their proportionality to the initial collision-state anisotropy. In our estimates, some distinct few-body proton structures appear capable of accounting for the magnitude of p-p ridge effect, with potentially discernible differences in dependence on multiplicity.

  13. Proton calibration of low energy neutron detectors containing (6)LiF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the present calibrations is to measure the proton response of the detectors with accelerated beams having energies within the region of maximum intensities in the trapped proton spectrum encountered in near-Earth orbit. This response is compared with the responses of the spaceflight detectors when related to proton exposures. All of the spaceflight neutron measurements have been accompanied by TLD absorbed doses measurements in close proximity within the spacecraft. For purposes of comparison, the spaceflight TLD doses are assumed to be proton doses.

  14. Proton scattering on carbon nuclei in bichromatic laser field at moderate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barna, I. F.; Varró, S.

    2016-02-01

    We present the general theory for proton nuclei scattering in a bichromatic laser field. As a physical example we consider proton collision on 12C at 49 MeV/amu moderate energies in the field of a titan sapphire laser with its second harmonic.

  15. Pion- and proton-nucleus interactions at intermediate energy

    SciTech Connect

    Dehnhard, D.

    1992-02-01

    {pi}-meson and proton beams from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) and the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) were used in scattering and reaction experiments on atomic nuclei. The experimental data allow tests of models of the reaction mechanism and of nuclear structure. For example, the asymmetries observed in a pion scattering experiment on polarized {sup 13}C nuclei were found to contain unique information on the isoscalar spin density. However, further experiments on polarized nuclei of simpler structure are needed to provide the data for a thorough analysis of the reaction mechanism. For this reason a pion scattering experiment on a polarized {sup 3}He target is planned and a high-resolution study on {sup 6}Li({pi},{pi}{prime}) will be done. An analysis of {pi}-triton coincidence events from the {sup 4}He({pi},{pi}{prime}t)p reaction yielded evidence for direct triton knock-out from {sup 4}He. This work will be continued at higher incident pion energies. Additional work on the {sup 4}He(p,n) reaction at IUCF is planned to determine the isovector strength in mass-4 nuclei and the level parameters of {sup 4}Li.

  16. The optics of the low energy FFAG cell of the eRHIC collider, using realistic field maps

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas, N.; Brooks, S.; Jain, A.; Meot, F.; Mahler, G.; Ptitsyn, V.; Trbojevic, D.; Severance, M.

    2015-07-02

    The proposed electron accelerator of the eRHIC complex [1] will use a 1.32 GeV Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) to accelerate the e-bunches to a top energy of 21.2 GeV before they collide with the hadron bunches. The e-bunches attain the 21.2 GeV energy after passing through the ERL 16 times as they recirculate in two rings which are placed alongside the RHIC hadron accelerator. The two rings [1] are made of periodic cells and each cell is made of one focusing and one defocusing permanent magnet qudrupole. In this paper we present the electromagnetic calculations of the 2D and 3D models of a cell which is comprised of two modified Halbach quadrupoles [4], and the optical properties of the cell.

  17. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    Over the past decade, there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons per year. These developments have paved the way for a new type of neutrino source (neutrino factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (muon collider). This article reviews the motivation, design, and research and development for future neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  18. Muon colliders and neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source (Neutrino Factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (Muon Collider). This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders.

  19. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories *

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geer, Steve

    2009-11-01

    Over the past decade, there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, and accelerate O(1021) muons per year. These developments have paved the way for a new type of neutrino source (neutrino factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (muon collider). This article reviews the motivation, design, and research and development for future neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  20. Muon capture for the front end of a muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, D.; Yoshikawa, C.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2011-03-01

    We discuss the design of the muon capture front end for a {mu}{sup +}-{mu}{sup -} Collider. In the front end, a proton bunch on a target creates secondary pions that drift into a capture transport channel, decaying into muons. A sequence of rf cavities forms the resulting muon beams into strings of bunches of differing energies, aligns the bunches to (nearly) equal central energies, and initiates ionization cooling. The muons are then cooled and accelerated to high energy into a storage ring for high-energy high luminosity collisions. Our initial design is based on the somewhat similar front end of the International Design Study (IDS) neutrino factory.

  1. Validating the Predicted Lateral Straggling of MeV-Energy Proton Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Bench, G; Felter, T; Antolak, A

    2003-11-20

    Proton imaging is a potential nondestructive method for characterizing NIF (National Ignition Facility) targets in two- and three-dimensions with micron-scale spatial resolution. The main limitation for high resolution imaging with proton beams, especially for thick samples, is the positional blurring of the proton beam, known as ''lateral straggling''. Accurate prediction of the amount of lateral straggling and, consequently, the achievable spatial resolution in pertinent NIF target material combinations and geometries requires validated proton transport models. We present results of Monte Carlo simulations of MeV-energy proton transport through thin ({approx}1 micron thick) metal foils. The calculated residual proton distributions are compared to recent lateral straggling measurements obtained at the LLNL 4-MV Pelletron accelerator.

  2. Validating the predicted lateral straggling of MeV-energy proton beams.

    SciTech Connect

    Felter, Thomas E.; Antolak, Arlyn J.; Bench, Graham

    2004-02-01

    Proton imaging is a potential nondestructive method for characterizing NIF (National Ignition Facility) targets in two- and three-dimensions with micron-scale spatial resolution. The main limitation for high resolution imaging with proton beams, especially for thick samples, is the positional blurring of the proton beam, known as 'lateral straggling'. Accurate prediction of the amount of lateral straggling and, consequently, the achievable spatial resolution in pertinent NIF target material combinations and geometries requires validated proton transport models. We present results of Monte Carlo simulations of MeV-energy proton transport through thin ({approx}1 micron thick) metal foils. The calculated residual proton distributions are compared to recent lateral straggling measurements obtained at the LLNL 4-MV Pelletron accelerator.

  3. High luminosity {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup {minus}} collider: Report of a feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.; Gallardo, J.C.; Tollestrup, A.; Sessler, A.

    1996-12-01

    Parameters are given of 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV (c-of-m) high luminosity {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} colliders, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate the muons and proceeding through muon cooling, acceleration and storage in a collider ring. Detector background, polarization, and nonstandard operating conditions are analyzed. Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should thus be regarded as complementary. We briefly mention the luminosity requirements of hadrons and lepton machines and their high-energy-physics advantages and disadvantages in reference to their effective center of mass energy. Finally, we present an R & D plan to determine whether such machines are practical.

  4. Single event upset and charge collection measurements using high energy protons and neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Normand, E.; Oberg, D.L.; Wert, J.L.; Ness, J.D.; Majewski, P.P. ); Wender, S.; Gavron, A. )

    1994-12-01

    RAMs, microcontrollers and surface barrier detectors were exposed to beams of high energy protons and neutrons to measure the induced number of upsets as well as energy deposition. The WNR facility at Los Alamos provided a neutron spectrum similar to that of the atmospheric neutrons. Its effect on devices was compared to that of protons with energies of 200, 400, 500, and 800 MeV. Measurements indicate that SEU cross sections for 400 MeV protons are similar to those induced by the atmospheric neutron spectrum.

  5. Pion- and proton-nucleus interactions at intermediate energy

    SciTech Connect

    Dehnhard, D.

    1992-12-01

    We report on scattering and reaction experiments on light nuclei using the [pi]-meson and proton beams from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) and the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF). Differential cross sections, cross section asymmetries, and angular correlation functions have been measured in order to test models of the reaction mechanism and of nuclear structure. At LAMPF we have measured asymmetries for pion scattering from polarized [sup 13]C which are uniquely sensitive to the isoscalar spin density. In order to determine details of the reaction mechanism, we have obtained approval for a scattering experiment on polarized [sup 3]He for which the nuclear structure is very well known. We have completed data taking for two studies of elastic scattering of [pi][sup +] from [sup 6]Li and [sup l3]C. The detailed differential cross sections from these experiments will be used to constrain theoretical analyses of previous polarization experiments done at the Pierre-Scherrer-Institute (PSI) and at LAMPF. We have analyzed [pi]-triton coincidence events from the [sup 4]He([pi],[pi][prime] t)p reaction and have found evidence for direct triton knockout from [sup 4]He. We have extended these angular correlation measurements to higher energies and to [sup 2]H and [sup 3]He targets. At IUCF we have performed the first [sup 4]He(p,n) experiment at intermediate energies, T[sub p] = 100, 147, and 200 MeV, in a search for previously reported narrow states in [sup 4]Li of widths of [approx] 1 MeV. Within the statistics of the data we have found no evidence for such narrow structures.

  6. CMOS Active Pixel Sensors as energy-range detectors for proton Computed Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, M.; Anaxagoras, T.; Evans, P. M.; Green, S.; Manolopoulos, S.; Nieto-Camero, J.; Parker, D. J.; Poludniowski, G.; Price, T.; Waltham, C.; Allinson, N. M.

    2015-06-01

    Since the first proof of concept in the early 70s, a number of technologies has been proposed to perform proton CT (pCT), as a means of mapping tissue stopping power for accurate treatment planning in proton therapy. Previous prototypes of energy-range detectors for pCT have been mainly based on the use of scintillator-based calorimeters, to measure proton residual energy after passing through the patient. However, such an approach is limited by the need for only a single proton passing through the energy-range detector in a read-out cycle. A novel approach to this problem could be the use of pixelated detectors, where the independent read-out of each pixel allows to measure simultaneously the residual energy of a number of protons in the same read-out cycle, facilitating a faster and more efficient pCT scan. This paper investigates the suitability of CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) to track individual protons as they go through a number of CMOS layers, forming an energy-range telescope. Measurements performed at the iThemba Laboratories will be presented and analysed in terms of correlation, to confirm capability of proton tracking for CMOS APSs.

  7. Japanese lab spells out collider needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Japan's High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) last month issued a plan for the International Linear Collider (ILC) that calls on Japan to ramp up its expertise as it prepares to host the world's next-generation particle collider.

  8. Drag of heavy quarks in quark gluon plasma at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Santosh K.; Alam, Jan-e; Mohanty, Payal

    2010-07-15

    The drag and diffusion coefficients of charm and bottom quarks propagating through quark gluon plasma (QGP) have been evaluated for conditions relevant to nuclear collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The dead cone and Landau-Pomeronchuk-Migdal (LPM) effects on radiative energy loss of heavy quarks have been considered. Both radiative and collisional processes of energy loss are included in the effective drag and diffusion coefficients. With these effective transport coefficients, we solve the Fokker-Plank (FP) equation for the heavy quarks executing Brownian motion in the QGP. The solution of the FP equation has been used to evaluate the nuclear suppression factor, R{sub AA}, for the nonphotonic single-electron spectra resulting from the semileptonic decays of hadrons containing charm and bottom quarks. The effects of mass on R{sub AA} have also been highlighted.

  9. The dependence of single event upset on proton energy /15-590 MeV/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Price, W. E.; Andrews, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Low earth orbit satellite and Jupiter orbiter probe semiconductor devices may incur soft errors or single event upsets, manifested as bit flips, during exposure to such nuclear particles or heavy ions as trapped protons with energies ranging up to 1000 MeV. Experimental data is given on the average proton fluence needed to cause a bit flip as a function of proton energy for isoplanar bipolar TTL RAMs. Error dependence data shape and threshold energy can be related to the existing body of theoretical data on energy deposition following proton nuclear reactions. Experimental data also show that the relative cross sectional amplitude for functionally identical devices can be related to the device's power consumption.

  10. Experimental search for W/Z pairs and Higgs bosons at very high energy hadron-hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Alverson, G.; Bengtsson, H.U.; Hauptman, J.; Hedin, D.; Herrero, M.J.; Wang, E.; Linn, S.; Young, C.; Milliken, B.; Paige, F.

    1987-03-01

    We study, from an experimental point of view, the main ways to detect standard high mass Higgs bosons (from 300 GeV up to about 1 TeV) when they decay into W- and Z-pairs at the SSC. We also consider the corresponding W- and Z/sup 0/-pair continuum which may itself provide interesting physics, and we pay some attention to the case of an intermediate mass charged Higgs decaying into tau..nu../sub tau/ (m/sub H+-/ = 300 GeV). We first explain why and how high energy pp colliders may search for Higgs' and we compare their possible performances to those of the e/sup +/e/sup -/ and ep colliders at all possible mass scale (from few tens of GeV's up to 1 TeV). We then estimate the rates of the signals and the main backgrounds. We define the main characteristics of these events as reproduced by M.C. generators (especially implemented with these processes) and simulated through an idealized 4..pi.. fine-grained calorimeter. A trigger strategy for W- and Z-pairs is derived from this study. 26 refs., 28 figs.

  11. Comparison of the energy response of an ionization spectrometer for pions and protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. V.; Verma, S. D.

    1971-01-01

    An ionization spectrometer consisting of a sandwich of iron absorbers and plastic scintillation counters was used to measure the energy of pions and protons in the interval 10 to 1000 GeV. For the limited energy interval of 10 to 40 GeV, pions and protons were identified by an air cerenkov counter. Interactions in carbon were studied in a multiplate cloud chamber placed between the cerenkov counter and the spectrometer. Knowledge of these interactions were used in conjunction with a Monte Carlo simulation of the cascade process to study differences in the response of the spectrometer to pions and protons.

  12. New insights gained on mechanisms of low-energy proton-induced SEUs by minimizing energy straggle

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dodds, Nathaniel Anson; Dodd, Paul E.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Sexton, Frederick W.; Martinez, Marino J.; Black, Jeffrey D.; Marshall, P. W.; Reed, R. A.; McCurdy, M. W.; Weller, R. A.; et al

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present low-energy proton single-event upset (SEU) data on a 65 nm SOI SRAM whose substrate has been completely removed. Since the protons only had to penetrate a very thin buried oxide layer, these measurements were affected by far less energy loss, energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering than previous datasets. The minimization of these common sources of experimental interference allows more direct interpretation of the data and deeper insight into SEU mechanisms. The results show a strong angular dependence, demonstrate that energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering affect the measured SEU cross sections, andmore » prove that proton direct ionization is the dominant mechanism for low-energy proton-induced SEUs in these circuits.« less

  13. New insights gained on mechanisms of low-energy proton-induced SEUs by minimizing energy straggle

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, Nathaniel Anson; Dodd, Paul E.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Sexton, Frederick W.; Martinez, Marino J.; Black, Jeffrey D.; Marshall, P. W.; Reed, R. A.; McCurdy, M. W.; Weller, R. A.; Pellish, J. A.; Rodbell, K. P.; Gordon, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present low-energy proton single-event upset (SEU) data on a 65 nm SOI SRAM whose substrate has been completely removed. Since the protons only had to penetrate a very thin buried oxide layer, these measurements were affected by far less energy loss, energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering than previous datasets. The minimization of these common sources of experimental interference allows more direct interpretation of the data and deeper insight into SEU mechanisms. The results show a strong angular dependence, demonstrate that energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering affect the measured SEU cross sections, and prove that proton direct ionization is the dominant mechanism for low-energy proton-induced SEUs in these circuits.

  14. Modeling of exclusive parton distributions and long-range rapidity correlations in proton-proton collisions at the LHC energies

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalenko, V. N.

    2013-10-15

    The soft part of proton-proton interaction is considered within a phenomenological model that involves the formation of color strings. Under the assumption that an elementary collision is associated with the interaction of two color dipoles, the total inelastic cross section and the multiplicity of charged particles are estimated in order to fix model parameters. Particular attention is given to modeling of exclusive parton distributions with allowance for the energy-conservation law and for fixing the center of mass, which are necessary for describing correlations. An algorithm that describes the fusion of strings in the transverse plane and which takes into account their finite rapidity width is developed. The influence of string-fusion effects on long-range correlations is found within this mechanism.

  15. A pp Collider in a 100 km Ring at Fermilab [VLHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, M. Karl

    2013-10-01

    Recent discovery of a Higgs-like boson at CERN has reignited interest in a future high energy collider to study physics beyond the Standard Model of elementary particle physics. We propose a proton-proton (pp) Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) with collision energies of ~ 100 TeV. A Java-based tool for studying the parameters of such a collider has been developed. The dynamics of the protons in this high energy range is dominated by the effects of synchrotron radiation. We model the effects of radiation damping and intra-beam scattering on quantities such as the emittance and luminosity. Our model shows that integrated luminosities near 1 fb-1 can be obtained over a 10 hour luminosity store. Here we present details of the program and some key results from our study of the proposed collider. This work is supported by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. Beam collimation and energy spectrum compression of laser-accelerated proton beams using solenoid field and RF cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, J.; Gu, Y. Q.; Zhu, B.; Hong, W.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Zhou, W. M.; Cao, L. F.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a new method of laser produced proton beam collimation and spectrum compression using a combination of a solenoid field and a RF cavity. The solenoid collects laser-driven protons efficiently within an angle that is smaller than 12 degrees because it is mounted few millimeters from the target, and collimates protons with energies around 2.3 MeV. The collimated proton beam then passes through a RF cavity to allow compression of the spectrum. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations demonstrate the proton beam transport in the solenoid and RF electric fields. Excellent energy compression and collection efficiency of protons are presented. This method for proton beam optimization is suitable for high repetition-rate laser acceleration proton beams, which could be used as an injector for a conventional proton accelerator.

  17. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.

    1988-01-01

    The conceptual design of a Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RACK) to be constructed in the existing 3.8 km tunnel at Brookhaven has been developed. The collider has been designed to provide collisions of gold ions at six intersection points with a luminosity of about 5 /times/ 10/sup 26/cm/sup /minus/2/sec/sup /minus/1/ at an energy of 100 GeV/u in each beam. Collisions with different ion species, including protons, will be possible. The collider consists of two interlaced, but otherwise separate, superconducting magnet rings. The 9.7 m long dipoles will operate at 3.5 T. Their 8 cm aperture was determined by the dimensions of gold ion beams taking into account diffusion due to intrabeam scattering. Heavy ion beams will be available from the Tandem Van de Graaff/Booster/AGS complex. The salient design features and the reasons for major design choices of the proposed machine are discussed in this paper. 24 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Spin-spin correlations in proton-proton collisions at high energy and threshold enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    de Teramond, G.F.

    1988-05-01

    The striking effects in the spin structure observed in elastic proton collisions and the Nuclear Transparency phenomenon recently discovered at BNL are described in terms of heavy quark threshold enhancements. The deviations from scaling laws and the broadening of the angular distributions at resonance are also consistent with the introduction of new degrees of freedom in the pp system. This implies new s-channel physics. Predictions are given for the spin effects in pp collisions near 18.5 GeV/c at large p/sub T//sup 2/ where new measurements are planned. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Proton-proton femtoscopy and access to dynamical sources at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, E. V.; Verde, G.; Minniti, T.; Danielewicz, P.; Barker, B.

    2014-03-01

    Accessing dynamics in heavy-ion collisions represents a priority in nuclear physics, due to its links to the isospin dependence of the nuclear Equation of State and the space-time properties of systems under extreme conditions produced during the reaction. By means of particle-particle correlations it is possible to probe such space-time properties, allowing one to learn about the space-time properties of the source of particle emission. In this poster presentation we show an application of imaging techniques to study the two-proton source function at the dynamical stage of the reaction.

  20. Correlations in Intermediate Energy Two-Proton Removal Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer, K.; Bazin, D.; Gade, A.; Tostevin, J. A.; Baugher, T.; Chajecki, Z.; Coupland, D.; Famiano, M. A.; Ghosh, T. K.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hodges, R.; Howard, M. E.; Kilburn, M.; Lynch, W. G.; Manning, B.; Meierbachtol, K.; Quarterman, P.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Sanetullaev, A.; Simpson, E. C.; Stroberg, S. R.; Tsang, M. B.; Weisshaar, D.; Winkelbauer, J.; Winkler, R.; Youngs, M.

    2012-11-01

    We report final-state-exclusive measurements of the light charged fragments in coincidence with Ne26 residual nuclei following the direct two-proton removal from a neutron-rich Mg28 secondary beam. A Dalitz-plot analysis and comparisons with simulations show that a majority of the triple-coincidence events with two protons display phase-space correlations consistent with the (two-body) kinematics of a spatially correlated pair-removal mechanism. The fraction of such correlated events, 56(12)%, is consistent with the fraction of the calculated cross section, 64%, arising from spin S=0 two-proton configurations in the entrance-channel (shell-model) Mg28 ground state wave function. This result promises access to an additional and more specific probe of the spin and spatial correlations of valence nucleon pairs in exotic nuclei produced as fast secondary beams.

  1. High-energy protons from submicron-sized targets

    SciTech Connect

    Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Govras, E. A.; Brantov, A. V.; Popov, K. I.

    2012-07-11

    Improving of intensity contrast ratio of intense short laser pulses is making it possible to use submicron-sized targets, both spherical and plane, in the interest of proton acceleration for different applications. The way of improving of the ion beam quality is utilization of targets with two ion species - heavy ions (majority) and light ions, e.g. protons, (minority). Two different approaches, analytical theory and particle-in-cell simulations (PIC) are presented for studying the characteristics of laser-triggered ions due to the Coulomb-like mechanism of particle acceleration from submicron-sized targets. The comparative analysis of explosions of heterogeneous (layered) and homogeneously mixed targets for production of best quality ion bunches has been performed. We also found the regime of anisotropic proton acceleration from spherical targets with light and heavy ions relevant to the experiments with submicron-diameter droplets from water spray target irradiated by an ultrashort intense laser pulse.

  2. The Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2011-01-05

    We describe the scientific motivation for a new type of accelerator, the muon collider. This accelerator would permit an energy-frontier scientific program and yet would fit on the site of an existing laboratory. Such a device is quite challenging, and requires a substantial R&D program. After describing the ingredients of the facility, the ongoing R&D activities of the Muon Accelerator Program are discussed. A possible U.S. scenario that could lead to a muon collider at Fermilab is briefly mentioned.

  3. Relations Between Microwave Bursts and Near-Earth High-Energy Proton Enhancements and Their Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grechnev, V. V.; Kiselev, V. I.; Meshalkina, N. S.; Chertok, I. M.

    2015-10-01

    We further study the relations between parameters of bursts at 35 GHz recorded with the Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters during 25 years and solar proton events (Grechnev et al. in Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 65, S4, 2013a). Here we address the relations between the microwave fluences at 35 GHz and near-Earth proton fluences above 100 MeV to find information on their sources and evaluate their diagnostic potential. The correlation between the microwave and proton fluences is pronouncedly higher than between their peak fluxes. This probably reflects a dependence of the total number of protons on the duration of the acceleration process. In events with strong flares, the correlation coefficients of high-energy proton fluences with microwave and soft X-ray fluences are higher than those with the speeds of coronal mass ejections. The results indicate a statistically larger contribution of flare processes to high-energy proton fluxes. Acceleration by shock waves seems to be less important at high energies in events associated with strong flares, although its contribution is probable and possibly prevails in weaker events. The probability of a detectable proton enhancement was found to directly depend on the peak flux, duration, and fluence of the 35 GHz burst, while the role of the Big Flare Syndrome might have been overestimated previously. Empirical diagnostic relations are proposed.

  4. Flexible, durable proton energy degraders for the GE PETtrace

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, J. W.; Gagnon, K.; Severin, G. W.; Valdovinos, H. F.; Nickles, R. J.; Barnhart, T. E.

    2012-12-19

    In order to limit the formation of radioisotopic impurities during proton bombardments of solid targets, two methods of introducing degrader foils into the beam upstream of the target were tested. The first design uses a 445 {mu}m thick fixed degrader machined from a single piece of aluminum. The second design permits introduction of foils made of any material and was tested with foils as thick as 635 {mu}m (also aluminium). In both cases, the foils are cooled with by water flowing through an annular channel outside the radius of the beam. Both designs proved durable and tolerated proton beam currents in excess of 80 {mu}A.

  5. Energy-latitude dispersion patterns near the isotropy boundaries of energetic protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, V. A.; Chernyaeva, S. A.; Apatenkov, S. V.; Ganushkina, N. Y.; Dubyagin, S. V.

    2015-08-01

    Non-adiabatic motion of plasma sheet protons causes pitch-angle scattering and isotropic precipitation to the ionosphere, which forms the proton auroral oval. This mechanism related to current sheet scattering (CSS) provides a specific energy-latitude dispersion pattern near the equatorward boundary of proton isotropic precipitation (isotropy boundary, IB), with precipitation sharply decreasing at higher (lower) latitude for protons with lower (higher) energy. However, this boundary maps to the inner magnetosphere, where wave-induced scattering may provide different dispersion patterns as recently demonstrated by Liang et al. (2014). Motivated by the potential usage of the IBs for the magnetotail monitoring as well as by the need to better understand the mechanisms forming the proton IB, we investigate statistically the details of particle flux patterns near the proton IB using NOAA-POES polar spacecraft observations made during September 2009. By comparing precipitated-to-trapped flux ratio (J0/J90) at >30 and >80 keV proton energies, we found a relatively small number of simple CSS-type dispersion events (only 31 %). The clear reversed (wave-induced) dispersion patterns were very rare (5 %). The most frequent pattern had nearly coinciding IBs at two energies (63 %). The structured precipitation with multiple IBs was very frequent (60 %), that is, with two or more significant J0/J90 dropouts. The average latitudinal width of multiple IB structures was about 1°. Investigation of dozens of paired auroral zone crossings of POES satellites showed that the IB pattern is stable on a timescale of less than 2 min (a few proton bounce periods) but can evolve on a longer (several minutes) scale, suggesting temporal changes in some mesoscale structures in the equatorial magnetosphere. We discuss the possible role of CSS-related and wave-induced mechanisms and their possible coupling to interpret the emerging complicated patterns of proton isotropy boundaries.

  6. High energy conversion efficiency in laser-proton acceleration by controlling laser-energy deposition onto thin foil targets

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, C. M.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Markey, K.; Scott, R. H. H.; Lancaster, K. L.; Musgrave, I. O.; Spindloe, C.; Winstone, T.; Wyatt, D.; Neely, D.; Gray, R. J.; McKenna, P.; Rosinski, M.; Badziak, J.; Wolowski, J.; Deppert, O.; Batani, D.; Davies, J. R.; Hassan, S. M.; Tatarakis, M.; and others

    2014-02-24

    An all-optical approach to laser-proton acceleration enhancement is investigated using the simplest of target designs to demonstrate application-relevant levels of energy conversion efficiency between laser and protons. Controlled deposition of laser energy, in the form of a double-pulse temporal envelope, is investigated in combination with thin foil targets in which recirculation of laser-accelerated electrons can lead to optimal conditions for coupling laser drive energy into the proton beam. This approach is shown to deliver a substantial enhancement in the coupling of laser energy to 5–30 MeV protons, compared to single pulse irradiation, reaching a record high 15% conversion efficiency with a temporal separation of 1 ps between the two pulses and a 5 μm-thick Au foil. A 1D simulation code is used to support and explain the origin of the observation of an optimum pulse separation of ∼1 ps.

  7. Shortening Delivery Times of Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy by Reducing Proton Energy Layers During Treatment Plan Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Water, Steven van de; Kooy, Hanne M.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S.

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: To shorten delivery times of intensity modulated proton therapy by reducing the number of energy layers in the treatment plan. Methods and Materials: We have developed an energy layer reduction method, which was implemented into our in-house-developed multicriteria treatment planning system “Erasmus-iCycle.” The method consisted of 2 components: (1) minimizing the logarithm of the total spot weight per energy layer; and (2) iteratively excluding low-weighted energy layers. The method was benchmarked by comparing a robust “time-efficient plan” (with energy layer reduction) with a robust “standard clinical plan” (without energy layer reduction) for 5 oropharyngeal cases and 5 prostate cases. Both plans of each patient had equal robust plan quality, because the worst-case dose parameters of the standard clinical plan were used as dose constraints for the time-efficient plan. Worst-case robust optimization was performed, accounting for setup errors of 3 mm and range errors of 3% + 1 mm. We evaluated the number of energy layers and the expected delivery time per fraction, assuming 30 seconds per beam direction, 10 ms per spot, and 400 Giga-protons per minute. The energy switching time was varied from 0.1 to 5 seconds. Results: The number of energy layers was on average reduced by 45% (range, 30%-56%) for the oropharyngeal cases and by 28% (range, 25%-32%) for the prostate cases. When assuming 1, 2, or 5 seconds energy switching time, the average delivery time was shortened from 3.9 to 3.0 minutes (25%), 6.0 to 4.2 minutes (32%), or 12.3 to 7.7 minutes (38%) for the oropharyngeal cases, and from 3.4 to 2.9 minutes (16%), 5.2 to 4.2 minutes (20%), or 10.6 to 8.0 minutes (24%) for the prostate cases. Conclusions: Delivery times of intensity modulated proton therapy can be reduced substantially without compromising robust plan quality. Shorter delivery times are likely to reduce treatment uncertainties and costs.

  8. Investigation of gold nanoparticle radiosensitization mechanisms using a free radical scavenger and protons of different energies.

    PubMed

    Jeynes, J C G; Merchant, M J; Spindler, A; Wera, A-C; Kirkby, K J

    2014-11-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been shown to sensitize cancer cells to x-ray radiation, particularly at kV energies where photoelectric interactions dominate and the high atomic number of gold makes a large difference to x-ray absorption. Protons have a high cross-section for gold at a large range of relevant clinical energies, and so potentially could be used with GNPs for increased therapeutic effect.Here, we investigate the contribution of secondary electron emission to cancer cell radiosensitization and investigate how this parameter is affected by proton energy and a free radical scavenger. We simulate the emission from a realistic cell phantom containing GNPs after traversal by protons and x-rays with different energies. We find that with a range of proton energies (1-250 MeV) there is a small increase in secondaries compared to a much larger increase with x-rays. Secondary electrons are known to produce toxic free radicals. Using a cancer cell line in vitro we find that a free radical scavenger has no protective effect on cells containing GNPs irradiated with 3 MeV protons, while it does protect against cells irradiated with x-rays. We conclude that GNP generated free radicals are a major cause of radiosensitization and that there is likely to be much less dose enhancement effect with clinical proton beams compared to x-rays. PMID:25296027

  9. Investigation of gold nanoparticle radiosensitization mechanisms using a free radical scavenger and protons of different energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeynes, J. C. G.; Merchant, M. J.; Spindler, A.; Wera, A.-C.; Kirkby, K. J.

    2014-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been shown to sensitize cancer cells to x-ray radiation, particularly at kV energies where photoelectric interactions dominate and the high atomic number of gold makes a large difference to x-ray absorption. Protons have a high cross-section for gold at a large range of relevant clinical energies, and so potentially could be used with GNPs for increased therapeutic effect. Here, we investigate the contribution of secondary electron emission to cancer cell radiosensitization and investigate how this parameter is affected by proton energy and a free radical scavenger. We simulate the emission from a realistic cell phantom containing GNPs after traversal by protons and x-rays with different energies. We find that with a range of proton energies (1-250 MeV) there is a small increase in secondaries compared to a much larger increase with x-rays. Secondary electrons are known to produce toxic free radicals. Using a cancer cell line in vitro we find that a free radical scavenger has no protective effect on cells containing GNPs irradiated with 3 MeV protons, while it does protect against cells irradiated with x-rays. We conclude that GNP generated free radicals are a major cause of radiosensitization and that there is likely to be much less dose enhancement effect with clinical proton beams compared to x-rays.

  10. Evaluation of energy deposition and secondary particle production in proton therapy of brain using a slab head phantom

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Sayyed Bijan; Hadizadeh, Mohammad Hadi; Mowlavi, Ali Asghar; Loushab, Mahdy Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Aim Evaluation of energy deposition of protons in human brain and calculation of the secondary neutrons and photons produced by protons in proton therapy. Background Radiation therapy is one of the main methods of treating localized cancer tumors. The use of high energy proton beam in radiotherapy was proposed almost 60 years ago. In recent years, there has been a revival of interest in this subject in the context of radiation therapy. High energy protons suffer little angular deflection and have a well-defined penetration range, with a sharp increase in the energy loss at the end of their trajectories, namely the Bragg peak. Materials and methods A slab head phantom was used for the purpose of simulating proton therapy in brain tissue. In this study simulation was carried out using the Monte Carlo MCNPX code. Results By using mono energetic proton pencil beams, energy depositions in tissues, especially inside the brain, as well as estimating the neutron and photon production as a result of proton interactions in the body, together with their energy spectra, were calculated or obtained. The amount of energy escaped from the head by secondary neutrons and photons was determined. Conclusions It was found that for high energy proton beams the amount of escaped energy by neutrons is almost 10 times larger than that by photons. We estimated that at 110 MeV beam energy, the overall proton energy “leaked” from the head by secondary photons and neutrons to be around 1%. PMID:25337410

  11. Space-charge compensation in high-intensity proton rings

    SciTech Connect

    A. Burov, G.W. Foster and V.D. Shiltsev

    2000-09-21

    Recently, it was proposed to use negatively charged electron beams for compensation of beam-beam effects due to protons in the Tevatron collider. The authors show that a similar compensation is possible in space-charge dominated low energy proton beams. The idea has a potential of several-fold increase of the FNAL Booster beam brightness. Best results will be obtained using three electron lenses around the machine circumference, using co-moving electron beam with time structure and profile approximately matched to the proton beam. This technique, if feasible, will be more cost effective than the straightforward alternative of increasing the energy of the injection linac.

  12. Cognitive effects of proton irradiation at differing energy levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During exploratory class missions to space outside of the magnetic field of the Earth, astronauts will be exposed to various forms of radiation including solar particle events (SPE) which are predominantly composed of protons. As such it is important to characterize the cognitive effects of exposure...

  13. Propensity and Risk Assessment for Solar Particle Events: Consideration of Integral Fluence at High Proton Energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee; Hayat, Matthew J.; Feiveson, alan H.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2008-01-01

    For future space missions with longer duration, exposure to large solar particle events (SPEs) with high energy levels is the major concern during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) on the lunar and Mars surface. The expected SPE propensity for large proton fluence was estimated from a non-homogeneous Poisson model using the historical database for measurements of protons with energy > 30 MeV, Phi(sub 30). The database includes a continuous data set for the past 5 solar cycles. The resultant SPE risk analysis for a specific mission period was made including the 95% confidence level. In addition to total particle intensity of SPE, the detailed energy spectra of protons especially at high energy levels were recognized as extremely important parameter for the risk assessment, since there remains a significant cancer risks from those energetic particles for large events. Using all the recorded proton fluence of SPEs for energies >60 and >100 MeV, Phi(sub 60) and Phi(sub 100), respectively, the expected propensities of SPEs abundant with high energy protons were estimated from the same non-homogeneous Poisson model and the representative cancer risk was analyzed. The dependencies of risk with different energy spectra, for e.g. between soft and hard SPEs, were evaluated. Finally, we describe approaches to improve radiation protection of astronauts and optimize mission planning for future space missions.

  14. (Calorimeter based detectors for high energy hadron colliders). [State Univ. of New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-04

    This document provides a progress report on research that has been conducted under DOE Grant DEFG0292ER40697 for the past year, and describes proposed work for the second year of this 8 year grant starting November 15, 1992. Personnel supported by the contract include 4 faculty, 1 research faculty, 4 postdocs, and 9 graduate students. The work under this grant has in the past been directed in two complementary directions -- DO at Fermilab, and the second SSC detector GEM. A major effort has been towards the construction and commissioning of the new Fermilab Collider detector DO, including design, construction, testing, the commissioning of the central tracking and the central calorimeters. The first DO run is now underway, with data taking and analysis of the first events. Trigger algorithms, data acquisition, calibration of tracking and calorimetry, data scanning and analysis, and planning for future upgrades of the DO detector with the advent of the FNAL Main Injector are all involved. The other effort supported by this grant has been towards the design of GEM, a large and general-purpose SSC detector with special emphasis on accurate muon measurement over a large solid angle. This effort will culminate this year in the presentation to the SSC laboratory of the GEM Technical Design Report. Contributions are being made to the detector design, coordination, and physics simulation studies with special emphasis on muon final states. Collaboration with the RD5 group at CERN to study muon punch through and to test cathode strip chamber prototypes was begun.

  15. Laser-driven high-energy proton beam with homogeneous spatial profile from a nanosphere target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margarone, D.; Kim, I. J.; Psikal, J.; Kaufman, J.; Mocek, T.; Choi, I. W.; Stolcova, L.; Proska, J.; Choukourov, A.; Melnichuk, I.; Klimo, O.; Limpouch, J.; Sung, J. H.; Lee, S. K.; Korn, G.; Jeong, T. M.

    2015-07-01

    A high-energy, high-yield proton beam with a good homogeneous profile has been generated from a nanosphere target irradiated by a short (30-fs), intense (7 ×1020 W /cm2 ) laser pulse. A maximum proton energy of 30 MeV has been observed with a high proton number of 7 ×1010 in the energy range 5-30 MeV. A homogeneous spatial profile with a uniformity (standard deviation from an average value within 85% beam area) of 15% is observed with the nanosphere dielectric target. Particle-in-cell simulations show the enhancement of proton cutoff energy and proton number with the nanosphere target and reveal that the homogeneous beam profile is related with a broadened angular distribution of hot electrons, which is initiated by the nanosphere structure. The homogeneous spatial properties obtained with the nanosphere target will be advantageous in developing laser-driven proton sources for practical applications in which high-quality beams are required.

  16. The energy spectra of solar energetic protons in the large energy range: their functional form and parameters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nymmik, Rikho; Pervaia, Taisia

    2016-07-01

    Experimental data on the fluxes of protons of solar energetic particles (SEP) are analyzed. It is known that above energies of 2-45 MeV (averaging 27-30 MeV), the proton spectra are a power-law function of the energy (at relativistic energies - from the momentum) of the particles. At lower energies, the spectra become harder, with the high-energy part of the spectra forming the "knee". This report is devoted to the determination of the parameters of the SEP spectra, having the form of a "double power-law shape", to ascertain the reliability of the parameters of the approximations of the experimental data.

  17. The LILIA experiment: Energy selection and post-acceleration of laser generated protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchetti, Giorgio; Sinigardi, Stefano; Londrillo, Pasquale; Rossi, Francesco; Sumini, Marco; Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo

    2012-12-01

    The LILIA experiment is planned at the SPARCLAB facility of the Frascati INFN laboratories. We have simulated the laser acceleration of protons, the transport and energy selection with collimators and a pulsed solenoid and the post-acceleration with a compact high field linac. For the highest achievable intensity corresponding to a = 30 over 108 protons at 30 MeV with a 3% spread are selected, and at least107 protons are post-accelerated up to 60 MeV. If a 10 Hz repetition rated can be achieved the delivered dose would be suitable for the treatment of small superficial tumors.

  18. The LILIA experiment: Energy selection and post-acceleration of laser generated protons

    SciTech Connect

    Turchetti, Giorgio; Sinigardi, Stefano; Londrillo, Pasquale; Rossi, Francesco; Sumini, Marco; Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo

    2012-12-21

    The LILIA experiment is planned at the SPARCLAB facility of the Frascati INFN laboratories. We have simulated the laser acceleration of protons, the transport and energy selection with collimators and a pulsed solenoid and the post-acceleration with a compact high field linac. For the highest achievable intensity corresponding to a= 30 over 10{sup 8} protons at 30 MeV with a 3% spread are selected, and at least10{sup 7} protons are post-accelerated up to 60 MeV. If a 10 Hz repetition rated can be achieved the delivered dose would be suitable for the treatment of small superficial tumors.

  19. Response of a tungsten powder target to an incident high energy proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Fitton, M.; Loveridge, P.; O'Dell, J.; Charitonidis, N.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fabich, A.; Rivkin, L.

    2014-10-01

    The experiment described in this paper is the first study of the response of a static tungsten powder sample to an impinging high energy proton beam pulse. The experiment was carried out at the HiRadMat facility at CERN. Observations include high speed videos of a proton beam induced perturbation of the powder sample as well as data from a laser Doppler vibrometer measuring the oscillations of the powder container. A comparison with a previous analogous experiment which studied a proton beam interaction with mercury is made.

  20. A Nuclear Interaction Model for Understanding Results of Single Event Testing with High Energy Protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culpepper, William X.; ONeill, Pat; Nicholson, Leonard L.

    2000-01-01

    An internuclear cascade and evaporation model has been adapted to estimate the LET spectrum generated during testing with 200 MeV protons. The model-generated heavy ion LET spectrum is compared to the heavy ion LET spectrum seen on orbit. This comparison is the basis for predicting single event failure rates from heavy ions using results from a single proton test. Of equal importance, this spectra comparison also establishes an estimate of the risk of encountering a failure mode on orbit that was not detected during proton testing. Verification of the general results of the model is presented based on experiments, individual part test results, and flight data. Acceptance of this model and its estimate of remaining risk opens the hardware verification philosophy to the consideration of radiation testing with high energy protons at the board and box level instead of the more standard method of individual part testing with low energy heavy ions.

  1. A system of beam energy measurement based on the Compton backscattered laser photons for the VEPP-2000 electron-positron collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumova, E. V.; Achasov, M. N.; Berkaev, D. E.; Kaminsky, V. V.; Koop, I. A.; Korol, A. A.; Koshuba, S. V.; Krasnov, A. A.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Perevedentsev, E. A.; Pyata, E. E.; Shatunov, P. Yu.; Shatunov, Yu. M.; Shwartz, D. B.

    2014-04-01

    The beam energy measurement system for the VEPP-2000 electron-positron collider is described. The method of Compton backscattering of CO laser photons on the electron beam is used. The relative systematic uncertainty of the beam energy determination is estimated as 6×10-5. It was obtained through comparison of the results of the beam energy measurements using the Compton backscattering and resonance depolarization methods.

  2. Mercury Handling for the Target System for a Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, Van B; Mcdonald, K; Kirk, H.; Weggel, Robert; Souchlas, Nicholas; Sayed, H; Ding, X

    2012-01-01

    The baseline target concept for a Muon Collider or Neutrino Factory is a free-stream mercury jet being impacted by an 8-GeV proton beam. The target is located within a 20-T magnetic field, which captures the generated pions that are conducted to a downstream decay channel. Both the mercury and the proton beam are introduced at slight downward angles to the magnetic axis. A pool of mercury serves as a receiving reservoir for the mercury and a dump for the unexpended proton beam. The impact energy of the remaining beam and jet are substantial, and it is required that splashes and waves be controlled in order to minimize the potential for interference of pion production at the target. Design issues discussed in this paper include the nozzle, splash mitigation in the mercury pool, the mercury containment vessel, and the mercury recirculation system.

  3. Charmonium production at the Tevatron and Large Hadron Collider in the Regge limit of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Nefedov, M. A. Saleev, V. A. Shipilova, A. V.

    2013-12-15

    Processes involving direct J/ψ-meson production in proton-antiproton and proton-proton collisions are studied under the assumption of gluon Reggeization in t-channel exchanges and with the aid of the formalism of nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics. The present calculations are performed in the leading approximation in the strong coupling constant α{sub s} and in the relative quark velocity v. The octet nonperturbative matrix elements for the transition of a c c-bar pair to quarkonium are fixed in fitting the transverse-momentumspectra obtained by the CDF Collaboration for J/ψ mesons at the Tevatron collider. The spectra of J/ψ-meson production at the energies of the Large Hadron Collider are predicted, and the resulting predictions agree well with experimental data obtained by the ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb Collaborations at √S = 7 TeV.

  4. Search for new physics in final states with low transverse energy photon and missing transverse energy in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Demiragli, Zeynep

    2015-05-01

    A search for new physics in the γ+ET final state is performed using pp collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 7.3 fb-1 collected at √s = 8 TeV using low threshold triggers in a phase space region defined by ET > 45 GeV and E-slashT > 40 GeV. The data are also examined using optimized selections for maximum sensitivity to an exotic (gravitino/neutralino) decay of the Higgs boson predicted in a low-scale SUSY breaking scenario. The results are found to be compatible with the Standard Model hypothesis. These results are the first limits on this model from collider searches. Furthermore, proton-proton collision events containing high-energy photon and missing transverse momentum have been investigated. No deviations from the standard model have been observed using the √s = 8 TeV data set corresponding to 19.6 fb-1 of integrated luminosity. Further constraints are set on χ production and translated into upper limits on vector and axial-vector contributions to the χ-nucleon scattering cross section. For Mχ = 10 GeV, the χ-nucleon cross section is constrained to be 2.6 x 10-39 cm2 (9.6 x 10-41 cm2) for a spin-independent (spin-dependent) interaction at 90% confidence level. In addition the most stringent limits to date are obtained on the effective Planck scale in the ADD model with large spatial extra dimensions and on the brane tension scale in the branon model.

  5. Comparison of proton energy loss in thick absorbers in terms of a reduced calibration curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yevseyeva, O.; de Assis, J. T.; Evseev, I. G.; Schelin, H. R.; Ahmann, F.; Paschuk, S. A.; Milhoretto, E.; Setti, J. A. P.; Diaz, K. S.; Hormaza, J. M.; Lopes, R. T.

    2011-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are essential for the support of particle experiments and developments of novel particle registration systems ranging from detectors developed for high-energy physics experiments at CERN to those for medical tomography. For proton beams, popular Monte Carlo codes like TRIM/SRIM, MCNPX and GEANT4 generate very similar final energy spectra for relatively thin absorbers, with differences unlikely to be detected in experiments. For thick absorbers, however, the disagreement is much larger, even for a moderate energy resolution. The reason for this is unclear because the actual overall accuracy of the proton stopping power in the Bethe-Bloch domain is known to be about 1%. One approach to investigate these differences is to compare, for example, the data from the NIST PSTAR and the SRIM reference data tables with the output of the Monte Carlo codes. When the various codes are validated against these tables, the differences in the simulated spectra mainly reflect the differences in the reference tables. Of more practical interest is the validation of the codes against experimental data for thick absorbers. However, only few experimental data sets are available here, and the existing data have been acquired at different initial proton energies and for different absorber materials. In order to compare the results of Monte Carlo simulations with existing experimental data, we applied the so-called reduced calibration method. This reduced calibration curve represents the range-energy dependence normalizing the range scale to the full projected range (for a given initial proton energy in a given material), and the proton energy scale to the given initial proton energy. The advantage of this approach is that the reduced calibration curve is nearly energy and material independent, and, thus, experimental, simulated and published reference data obtained at different energies and for different materials can be compared in one graph.

  6. Evidence of subnucleonic degrees of freedom in J /ψ photoproduction in ultraperipheral collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade-II, E.; González, I.; Deppman, A.; Bertulani, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present calculations for the incoherent photoproduction of J /ψ vector mesons in ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions (UPCs) in terms of hadronic interactions. This study was carried out using the recently developed Monte Carlo model CRISP extended to include UPCs at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. A careful study of rescattering and destruction of the J /ψ particles is presented for Pb + Pb collisions at √{sN N}=2.76 TeV. We have also compared our method to Au + Au collisions at √{sN N}=200 GeV measured at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.

  7. Spin asymmetries for elastic proton scattering and the spin-dependent couplings of the Pomeron

    SciTech Connect

    Trueman, T. L.

    2008-03-01

    This paper serves as a report on the large amount of analysis done in conjunction with the polarized proton program at the Relavitistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This comprises elastic scattering data of protons on protons in colliding beam or fixed target mode and proton beams on carbon targets. In addition to providing a model for the energy dependence of the analyzing power of elastic scattering needed for proton polarimetry, it also provides some significant information about the spin dependence of dominant Regge poles. Most notably, the data indicate that the Pomeron has a significant spin-flip coupling. This allows the exploration of the double-spin flip asymmetry A{sub NN} for which some data over a wide energy range are now available, along with a concrete realization of a proposed Odderon search.

  8. Energy- and time-resolved detection of prompt gamma-rays for proton range verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verburg, Joost M.; Riley, Kent; Bortfeld, Thomas; Seco, Joao

    2013-10-01

    In this work, we present experimental results of a novel prompt gamma-ray detector for proton beam range verification. The detection system features an actively shielded cerium-doped lanthanum(III) bromide scintillator, coupled to a digital data acquisition system. The acquisition was synchronized to the cyclotron radio frequency to separate the prompt gamma-ray signals from the later-arriving neutron-induced background. We designed the detector to provide a high energy resolution and an effective reduction of background events, enabling discrete proton-induced prompt gamma lines to be resolved. Measuring discrete prompt gamma lines has several benefits for range verification. As the discrete energies correspond to specific nuclear transitions, the magnitudes of the different gamma lines have unique correlations with the proton energy and can be directly related to nuclear reaction cross sections. The quantification of discrete gamma lines also enables elemental analysis of tissue in the beam path, providing a better prediction of prompt gamma-ray yields. We present the results of experiments in which a water phantom was irradiated with proton pencil-beams in a clinical proton therapy gantry. A slit collimator was used to collimate the prompt gamma-rays, and measurements were performed at 27 positions along the path of proton beams with ranges of 9, 16 and 23 g cm-2 in water. The magnitudes of discrete gamma lines at 4.44, 5.2 and 6.13 MeV were quantified. The prompt gamma lines were found to be clearly resolved in dimensions of energy and time, and had a reproducible correlation with the proton depth-dose curve. We conclude that the measurement of discrete prompt gamma-rays for in vivo range verification of clinical proton beams is feasible, and plan to further study methods and detector designs for clinical use.

  9. Evaporation protons from 8B+58Ni at near barrier energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador-Valenzuela, P.; Aguilera, E. F.; Martinez-Quiroz, E.; Lizcano, D.; Kolata, J. J.; Roberts, A.; Becchetti, F. D.; Ojaruega, M.; Febbraro, M.; Guimarães, V.; Rossi, E. S., Jr.; Huiza, J. F. P.; Acosta, L.; Belyaeva, T. L.

    2011-10-01

    Yields of evaporated protons from the 8B+58Ni reaction are measured at backward angles, for several near barrier energies. Statistical model calculations using the code PACE are used to extrapolate the measurements to the whole angular region in order to get angle integrated cross sections. Fusion cross sections are deduced by using the calculated proton multiplicities. The obtained fusion excitation function shows a large enhancement as compared to BPM calculations using conventional barrier parameters.

  10. Energy relaxation of multi-MeV protons traveling in compressed DT+Be plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhigang; He, Bin; Fu, Zhen-Guo; Zhang, Ping

    2014-07-15

    We investigate the stopping power of the multi-MeV protons moving in the hot dense deuterium-tritium plasmas mixed with beryllium (Be), which is important in inertial confinement fusion experiments. It is shown that with increasing the density of Be, the stopping power of the proton also increases with the peaks shifting towards higher projectile velocity, which leads to the reduction of both the projectile range and the energy transferred to the electrons.

  11. Proton transfer and energy coupling in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, J. K.

    1992-01-01

    A description of the rate constants and the energetics of the elementary reaction steps of the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin has been helpful in understanding the mechanism of proton transport in this light-driven pump. The evidence suggests a single unbranched reaction sequence, BR-hv----K in equilibrium with L in equilibrium with M1----M2 in equilibrium with N in equilibrium with O----BR, where coupling to the proton-motive force is at the energetically and mechanistically important M1----M2 step. The consequences of site-specific mutations expressed homologously in Halobacterium halobium have revealed characteristics of the Schiff base deprotonation in the L----M1 reaction, the reorientation of the Schiff base from the extracellular to the cytoplasmic side in the M1----M2 reaction, and the reprotonation of the Schiff base in the M2----N reaction.

  12. Observation of snake resonances at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, M.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Alessi, J.; et al

    2010-09-27

    The Siberian snakes are powerful tools in preserving polarization in high energy accelerators has been demonstrated at the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Equipped with two full Siberian snakes in each ring, polarization is preserved during acceleration from injection to 100 GeV. However, the Siberian snakes also introduce a new set of depolarization resonances, i.e. snake resonances as first discovered by Lee and Tepikian. The intrinsic spin resonances above 100 GeV are about a factor of two stronger than those below 100 GeV which raises the challenge to preserve the polarization up to 250 GeV. In 2009, polarized protons collided for the first time at the RHIC design store energy of 250 GeV. This paper presents the experimental measurements of snake resonances at RHIC. The plan for avoiding these resonances is also presented.

  13. Microstructured snow targets for high energy quasi-monoenergetic proton acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleifer, E.; Nahum, E.; Eisenmann, S.; Botton, M.; Baspaly, A.; Pomerantz, I.; Abricht, F.; Branzel, J.; Priebe, G.; Steinke, S.; Andreev, A.; Schnuerer, M.; Sandner, W.; Gordon, D.; Sprangle, P.; Ledingham, K. W. D.; Zigler, A.

    2013-05-01

    Compact size sources of high energy protons (50-200MeV) are expected to be key technology in a wide range of scientific applications 1-8. One promising approach is the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) scheme 9,10, holding record level of 67MeV protons generated by a peta-Watt laser 11. In general, laser intensity exceeding 1018 W/cm2 is required to produce MeV level protons. Another approach is the Break-Out Afterburner (BOA) scheme which is a more efficient acceleration scheme but requires an extremely clean pulse with contrast ratio of above 10-10. Increasing the energy of the accelerated protons using modest energy laser sources is a very attractive task nowadays. Recently, nano-scale targets were used to accelerate ions 12,13 but no significant enhancement of the accelerated proton energy was measured. Here we report on the generation of up to 20MeV by a modest (5TW) laser system interacting with a microstructured snow target deposited on a Sapphire substrate. This scheme relax also the requirement of high contrast ratio between the pulse and the pre-pulse, where the latter produces the highly structured plasma essential for the interaction process. The plasma near the tip of the snow target is subject to locally enhanced laser intensity with high spatial gradients, and enhanced charge separation is obtained. Electrostatic fields of extremely high intensities are produced, and protons are accelerated to MeV-level energies. PIC simulations of this targets reproduce the experimentally measured energy scaling and predict the generation of 150 MeV protons from laser power of 100TW laser system18.

  14. The standard model and colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1987-03-01

    Some topics in the standard model of strong and electroweak interactions are discussed, as well as how these topics are relevant for the high energy colliders which will become operational in the next few years. The radiative corrections in the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model are discussed, stressing how these corrections may be measured at LEP and the SLC. CP violation is discussed briefly, followed by a discussion of the Higgs boson and the searches which are relevant to hadron colliders are then discussed. Some of the problems which the standard model does not solve are discussed, and the energy ranges accessible to the new colliders are indicated. (LEW)

  15. Isochoric heating of matter by laser-accelerated high-energy protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antici, P.; Fuchs, J.; Atzeni, S.; Benuzzi, A.; Brambrink, E.; Esposito, M.; Koenig, M.; Ravasio, A.; Schreiber, J.; Schiavi, A.; Audebert, P.

    2006-06-01

    We describe an experiment on isochoric heating of matter by intense laser-accelerated protons. The experiment was performed using the LULI 100 TW facility with 15-20 J on target energy and > 1019 W.cm - 2 maximum focused intensity. Focusing the laser on a 10 micron thick Au foil, we accelerated forward a laminar proton beam with a maximum energy of 16 MeV. This proton beam irradiated and heated a secondary target positioned after a variable vacuum gap. The heating was diagnosed by 1D and 2D time-resolved measurements of the optical self-emission of the heated target rear-surface. Detailed results as a function of the Z and the thickness of the secondary target as well as analysis, including a full modelling of the target heating with a 2D hydro-code (DUED) coupled to a proton energy deposition code, were obtained. We have also studied the efficiency of heating as a function of the primary target topology, i.e. either flat, which results in a diverging proton beam, or curved, which has the ability of focusing partly the proton beam.

  16. Jet quenching effects on the direct, elliptic, and triangular flow at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, R. P. G.; Noronha, J.; Denicol, Gabriel S.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we investigate how the energy and momentum deposited by partonic dijets in the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) may affect the direct, elliptic, and triangular flow of low (and intermediate) pT hadrons in central Au +Au collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The dijets are modeled as external sources in the energy-momentum conservation equations for hydrodynamics, which are solved on an event-by-event basis within the ideal-fluid approximation. We focus our investigation at midrapidity and solve the hydrodynamic equations by imposing boost invariance. Differential anisotropic flow coefficients for pT≳1GeV are found to be significantly enhanced if the dijets deposit on average more than 12 GeV in the QGP (or more than 6 GeV per jet). Because this extra energy and momentum added to the medium perturbs the geometry-induced hydrodynamic expansion, the correlation between the v2 and v3 coefficients (for pT≳1GeV) and their corresponding initial eccentricities are considerably weakened. In addition, we argue that the extra amount of direct flow induced by dijets may be quantified by comparing the azimuthal dependence of dihadron correlations in dijet events with the corresponding quantity obtained in events without dijets. This comparison could be used to give a rough estimate of the magnitude of the effective coupling between the jets and the medium.

  17. Measurement of high energy resolution inelastic proton scattering at and close to zero degrees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamii, A.; Fujita, Y.; Matsubara, H.; Adachi, T.; Carter, J.; Dozono, M.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Hatanaka, K.; Itahashi, T.; Itoh, M.; Kawabata, T.; Nakanishi, K.; Ninomiya, S.; Perez-Cerdan, A. B.; Popescu, L.; Rubio, B.; Saito, T.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakemi, Y.; Sasamoto, Y.; Shimbara, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Smit, F. D.; Tameshige, Y.; Yosoi, M.; Zenhiro, J.

    2009-07-01

    Measurements of inelastic proton scattering with high energy resolution at forward scattering angles including 0∘ are described. High-resolution halo-free beams were accelerated by the cyclotron complex at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics. Instrumental background events were minimized using the high-quality beam. The remaining instrumental background events were eliminated by applying a background subtraction method. As a result, clean spectra were obtained even for a heavy target nucleus such as Pb208. A high energy resolution of 20 keV (FWHM) and a scattering angle resolution of ±0.6∘ were achieved at an incident proton energy of 295 MeV.

  18. The effect of low energy protons on silicon solar cells with simulated coverglass cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasner, S.; Anspaugh, B.; Francis, R.; Marvin, D.

    1991-01-01

    Results of a series of low-energy proton (LEP) tests are presented. The purpose of the tests was to investigate the effect of low-energy protons on the electrical performance of solar cells with simulated cracked covers. The results of the tests were then related to the space environment. A matrix of LEP tests was set up using solar cells with simulated cracks to determine the effect on electrical performance as a function of fluence, energy, crack width, coverglass adhesive shielding, crack location, and solar cell size. The results of the test were, for the most part, logical, and consistent.

  19. Interaction of High-Energy Proton Beam with a Thin Target and Multiplicities of Neutron

    SciTech Connect

    Demirkol, I.; Tatar, M.; Safak, M. S.; Arasoglu, A.; Tel, E.

    2007-04-23

    An important ingredient in the performance of accelerator driven systems for energy production, waste transmutation and other applications are the number of spallation neutrons produced per incident proton. The neutron multiplicities, angular and energy distributions are usually calculated using simulation codes. We have presented multiplicities of the neutrons emitted in the interaction of a high-energy proton (1500 MeV) with a thin target Pb, Bi. In this study we have used the code ISABEL to calculate multiplicities of the neutron emitted. The results obtained have been compared with the available data.

  20. Theoretical and computational studies of renewable energy materials: Room temperature ionic liquids and proton exchange membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shulu

    2011-12-01

    Two kinds of renewable energy materials, room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and proton exchange membranes (PEMs), especially Nafion, are studied by computational and theoretical approaches. The ultimate purpose of the present research is to design novel materials to meet the future energy demands. To elucidate the effect of alkyl side chain length and anion on the structure and dynamics of the mixtures, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of three RTILs/water mixtures at various water mole fractions: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM+)/BF4-, 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium (OMIM+)/BF4-, and OMIM +/Cl- are performed. Replacing the BMIM + cation with OMIM+ results in stronger aggregation of the cations as well as a slower diffusion of the anions, and replacing the BF4- anion with Cl- alters the water distribution at low water mole fractions and slows diffusion of the mixtures. Potential experimental manifestations of these behaviors in both cases are provided. Proton solvation properties and transport mechanisms are studied in hydrated Nafion, by using the self-consistent multistate empirical valence bond (SCI-MS-EVB) method. It is found that by stabilizing a more Zundel-like (H5O 2+) structure in the first solvation shells, the solvation of excess protons, as well as the proton hydration structure are both influenced by the sulfonate groups. Hydrate proton-related hydrogen bond networks are observed to be more stable than those with water alone. In order to characterize the nature of the proton transport (PT), diffusive motion, Arrhenius activation energies, and transport pathways are calculated and analyzed. Analysis of diffusive motion suggests that (1) a proton-hopping mechanism dominates the proton transport for the studied water loading levels and (2) there is an obvious degree of anti-correlation between the proton hopping and the vehicular transport. The activation energy drops rapidly with an increasing water content when the water loading level is smaller

  1. Protection of the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, R.; Assmann, R.; Carlier, E.; Dehning, B.; Denz, R.; Goddard, B.; Holzer, E. B.; Kain, V.; Puccio, B.; Todd, B.; Uythoven, J.; Wenninger, J.; Zerlauth, M.

    2006-11-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will collide two counter-rotating proton beams, each with an energy of 7 TeV. The energy stored in the superconducting magnet system will exceed 10 GJ, and each beam has a stored energy of 362 MJ which could cause major damage to accelerator equipment in the case of uncontrolled beam loss. Safe operation of the LHC will therefore rely on a complex system for equipment protection. The systems for protection of the superconducting magnets in case of quench must be fully operational before powering the magnets. For safe injection of the 450 GeV beam into the LHC, beam absorbers must be in their correct positions and specific procedures must be applied. Requirements for safe operation throughout the cycle necessitate early detection of failures within the equipment, and active monitoring of the beam with fast and reliable beam instrumentation, mainly beam loss monitors (BLM). When operating with circulating beams, the time constant for beam loss after a failure extends from apms to a few minutes—failures must be detected sufficiently early and transmitted to the beam interlock system that triggers a beam dump. It is essential that the beams are properly extracted on to the dump blocks at the end of a fill and in case of emergency, since the beam dump blocks are the only elements of the LHC that can withstand the impact of the full beam.

  2. New limit on the low-energy antiproton/proton ratio in the Galactic cosmic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlen, S. P.; Beatty, J. J.; Barwick, S.; Gerbier, G.; Bower, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from a balloon-borne apparatus searching for low-energy antiprotons in the Galactic cosmic rays. For energies less than 640 MeV at the top of the atmosphere, no cosmic-ray antiprotons were observed. This yields an upper limit to the antiproton/proton ratio of 0.000046 at the 85-percent confidence level.

  3. Isospin dependence of fragment spectra in heavy/super-heavy colliding nuclei at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugh, Rajiv; Kumar, Rohit; Vinayak, Karan Singh

    2016-05-01

    Using isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) approach, we performed a theoretical investigation of the evolution of various kinds of fragments in heavy and superheavy-ion reactions in the intermediate/medium energy domain. We demonstrated direct impact of symmetry energy and Coulomb interactions on the evolution of fragments. Final fragment spectra (yields) obtained from the analysis of various heavy/super-heavy ion reactions at different reaction conditions show high sensitivity towards Coulomb interactions and less significant sensitivity to symmetry energy forms. No inconsistent pattern of fragment structure is obtained in case of super-heavy ion involved reactions for all the parameterizations of density dependence of symmetry energy.

  4. Large Higgs energy region in Higgs associated top pair production at the Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, Cailin; Hoang, Andre H.

    2005-07-01

    The process e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}ttH is considered in the kinematic end point region where the Higgs energy is close to its maximal energy. In perturbative QCD, using the loop expansion, the amplitudes are plagued by Coulomb singularities that need to be resummed. We show that the QCD dynamics in this end point region is governed by nonrelativistic heavy quarkonium dynamics, and we use a nonrelativistic effective theory to compute the Higgs energy distribution at leading and next-to-leading-logarithmic approximation in the nonrelativistic expansion. Updated numbers for the total cross section including the summations in the Higgs energy end point region are presented.

  5. HE-LHC and FCC: The quest for increasing the energy beyond the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Frank

    In the 21st century circular proton-proton (pp) or proton-antiproton l( {pbar p} right) colliders are the main, and possibly the only, experimental tools available for exploring particle physics in the energy range of tens of TeV...

  6. Studies and calculations of transverse emittance growth in high-energy proton storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Mane, S.R.; Jackson, G.

    1989-03-01

    In the operation of proton-antiproton colliders, an important goal is to maximize the integrated luminosity. During such operations in the Fermilab Tevatron, the transverse beam emittances were observed to grow unexpectedly quickly, thus causing a serious reduction of the luminosity. We have studied this phenomenon experimentally and theoretically. A formula for the emittance growth rate, due to random dipole kicks, is derived. In the experiment, RF phase noise of known amplitude was deliberately injected into the Tevatron to kick the beam randomly, via dispersion at the RF cavities. Theory and experiment are found to agree reasonably well. We also briefly discuss the problem of quadrupole kicks. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Particle Physics after the Higgs-Boson Discovery: Opportunities for the Large Hadron Collider

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Quigg, Chris

    2015-08-24

    The first run of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN brought the discovery of the Higgs boson, an apparently elementary scalar particle with a mass of 125 GeV, the avatar of the mechanism that hides the electroweak symmetry. Then, a new round of experimentation is beginning, with the energy of the proton–proton colliding beams raised to 6.5 TeV per beam, from 4 TeV at the end of the first run. I summarize what we have learned about the Higgs boson, and calls attention to some issues that will be among our central concerns in the near future.

  8. Study of the Polarization Deterioration During Physics Stores in RHIC Polarized Proton Runs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Z.; Qin, Q.; Bai, M.; Roser, T.

    2016-02-01

    As the only high energy polarized proton collider in the world, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has achieved a great success in colliding polarized proton beams up to 255GeV per beam energy with over 50% average store polarizations for spin physics studies. With the help of Siberian snakes as well as outstanding beam control during the acceleration, polarization loss during acceleration up to 100 GeV is negligible. However, about 10% polarization loss was observed between acceleration from 100 GeV to 255 GeV. In addition, a mild polarization deterioration during long store for physics data taking was also observed. In this paper, studies in understanding the store depolarizing mechanism is reported, including the analysis of polarization deterioration data based on the past couple of RHIC polarized proton runs.

  9. Jet energy measurement with the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at √{s}=7 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, D.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Beck, G. A.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G. D.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A. M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S. A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Chapman, J. W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D. G.; Chavda, V.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S. L.; Chevalier, L.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I. A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciba, K.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M. D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clifft, R. W.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coe, P.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C. D.; Colas, J.; Colijn, A. P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N. J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Consonni, M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Côté, D.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B. 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J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villani, E. G.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vujicic, M.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walbersloh, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Weydert, C.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wong, W. C.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, M.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ybeles Smit, G. V.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V. G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo. K.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Q.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2013-03-01

    The jet energy scale and its systematic uncertainty are determined for jets measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of sqrt{s}=7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 38 pb-1. Jets are reconstructed with the anti- k t algorithm with distance parameters R=0.4 or R=0.6. Jet energy and angle corrections are determined from Monte Carlo simulations to calibrate jets with transverse momenta p T≥20 GeV and pseudorapidities | η|<4.5. The jet energy systematic uncertainty is estimated using the single isolated hadron response measured in situ and in test-beams, exploiting the transverse momentum balance between central and forward jets in events with dijet topologies and studying systematic variations in Monte Carlo simulations. The jet energy uncertainty is less than 2.5 % in the central calorimeter region (| η|<0.8) for jets with 60≤ p T<800 GeV, and is maximally 14 % for p T<30 GeV in the most forward region 3.2≤| η|<4.5. The jet energy is validated for jet transverse momenta up to 1 TeV to the level of a few percent using several in situ techniques by comparing a well-known reference such as the recoiling photon p T, the sum of the transverse momenta of tracks associated to the jet, or a system of low- p T jets recoiling against a high- p T jet. More sophisticated jet calibration schemes are presented based on calorimeter cell energy density weighting or hadronic properties of jets, aiming for an improved jet energy resolution and a reduced flavour dependence of the jet response. The systematic uncertainty of the jet energy determined from a combination of in situ techniques is consistent with the one derived from single hadron response measurements over a wide kinematic range. The nominal corrections and uncertainties are derived for isolated jets in an inclusive sample of high- p T jets. Special cases such as event topologies with close-by jets, or selections of samples with an enhanced

  10. Stochastic spatial energy deposition profiles for MeV protons and keV electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udalagama, C.; Bettiol, A. A.; Watt, F.

    2009-12-01

    With the rapid advances being made in novel high-energy ion-beam techniques such as proton beam writing, single-ion-event effects, ion-beam-radiation therapy, ion-induced fluorescence imaging, proton/ion microscopy, and ion-induced electron imaging, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the spatial energy-deposition profiles of energetic ions as they penetrate matter. In this work we present the results of comprehensive yet straightforward event-by-event Monte Carlo calculations that simulate ion/electron propagation and secondary electron ( δ ray) generation to yield spatial energy-deposition data. These calculations combine SRIM/TRIM features, EEDL97 data and volume-plasmon-localization models with a modified version of one of the newer δ ray generation models, namely, the Hansen-Kocbach-Stolterfoht. The development of the computer code DEEP (deposition of energy due to electrons and protons) offers a unique means of studying the energy-deposition/redistribution problem while still retaining the important stochastic nature inherent in these processes which cannot be achieved with analytical modeling. As an example of an application of DEEP we present results that compare the energy-deposition profiles of primary MeV protons and primary keV electrons in polymethymethacrylate. Such data are important when comparing proximity effects in the direct write lithography processes of proton-beam writing and electron-beam writing. Our calculations demonstrate that protons are able to maintain highly compact spatial energy-deposition profiles compared with electrons.

  11. High-energy proton radiation damage of high-purity germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pehl, R. H.; Varnell, L. S.; Metzger, A. E.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative studies of radiation damage in high-purity germanium gamma-ray detectors due to high-energy charged particles have been carried out; two 1.0 cm thick planar detectors were irradiated by 6 GeV/c protons. Under proton bombardment, degradation in the energy resolution was found to begin below 7 x 10 to the 7th protons/sq cm and increased proportionately in both detectors until the experiment was terminated at a total flux of 5.7 x 10 to the 8th protons/sq cm, equivalent to about a six year exposure to cosmic-ray protons in space. At the end of the irradiation, the FWHM resolution measured at 1332 keV stood at 8.5 and 13.6 keV, with both detectors of only marginal utility as a spectrometer due to the severe tailing caused by charge trapping. Annealing these detectors after proton damage was found to be much easier than after neutron damage.

  12. Exclusive production of {omega} meson in proton-proton collisions at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Cisek, Anna; Lebiedowicz, Piotr; Schaefer, Wolfgang; Szczurek, Antoni

    2011-06-01

    First we calculate cross section for the {gamma}p{yields}{omega}p reaction from the threshold to very large energies. At low energies the pion exchange is the dominant mechanism. At large energies the experimental cross section can be well described assuming Pomeron exchange within the k{sub t}-factorization approach by adjusting light quark constituent mass. Next we calculate differential distributions for the pp{yields}pp{omega} reaction at RHIC, Tevatron and LHC energies for the first time in the literature. We consider photon-Pomeron (Pomeron-photon), photon-pion (pion-photon) as well as novel diffractive hadronic bremsstrahlung mechanisms. The latter are included in the meson/Reggeon exchange picture with parameters fixed from the known phenomenology. Interesting rapidity distributions are predicted. The hadronic bremsstrahlung contributions dominate at large (forward, backward) rapidities. At small energies the photon-Pomeron contribution is negligible compared to the bremsstrahlung contributions. It could be, however, easily identified at large energies at midrapidities. Absorptions effects are included and discussed. Our predictions are ready for verification at RHIC and LHC.

  13. Accelerating protons to therapeutic energies with ultraintense, ultraclean, and ultrashort laser pulses

    PubMed Central

    Bulanov, Stepan S.; Brantov, Andrei; Bychenkov, Valery Yu.; Chvykov, Vladimir; Kalinchenko, Galina; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Rousseau, Pascal; Reed, Stephen; Yanovsky, Victor; Krushelnick, Karl; Litzenberg, Dale William; Maksimchuk, Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    Proton acceleration by high-intensity laser pulses from ultrathin foils for hadron therapy is discussed. With the improvement of the laser intensity contrast ratio to 10−11 achieved on the Hercules laser at the University of Michigan, it became possible to attain laser-solid interactions at intensities up to 1022 W∕cm2 that allows an efficient regime of laser-driven ion acceleration from submicron foils. Particle-in-cell (PIC) computer simulations of proton acceleration in the directed Coulomb explosion regime from ultrathin double-layer (heavy ions∕light ions) foils of different thicknesses were performed under the anticipated experimental conditions for the Hercules laser with pulse energies from 3 to 15 J, pulse duration of 30 fs at full width half maximum (FWHM), focused to a spot size of 0.8 μm (FWHM). In this regime heavy ions expand predominantly in the direction of laser pulse propagation enhancing the longitudinal charge separation electric field that accelerates light ions. The dependence of the maximum proton energy on the foil thickness has been found and the laser pulse characteristics have been matched with the thickness of the target to ensure the most efficient acceleration. Moreover, the proton spectrum demonstrates a peaked structure at high energies, which is required for radiation therapy. Two-dimensional PIC simulations show that a 150–500 TW laser pulse is able to accelerate protons up to 100–220 MeV energies. PMID:18561651

  14. Accelerating protons to therapeutic energies with ultraintense, ultraclean, and ultrashort laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Bulanov, Stepan S.; Brantov, Andrei; Bychenkov, Valery Yu.; Chvykov, Vladimir; Kalinchenko, Galina; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Rousseau, Pascal; Reed, Stephen; Yanovsky, Victor; Krushelnick, Karl; Litzenberg, Dale William; Maksimchuk, Anatoly

    2008-05-15

    Proton acceleration by high-intensity laser pulses from ultrathin foils for hadron therapy is discussed. With the improvement of the laser intensity contrast ratio to 10{sup -11} achieved on the Hercules laser at the University of Michigan, it became possible to attain laser-solid interactions at intensities up to 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2} that allows an efficient regime of laser-driven ion acceleration from submicron foils. Particle-in-cell (PIC) computer simulations of proton acceleration in the directed Coulomb explosion regime from ultrathin double-layer (heavy ions/light ions) foils of different thicknesses were performed under the anticipated experimental conditions for the Hercules laser with pulse energies from 3 to 15 J, pulse duration of 30 fs at full width half maximum (FWHM), focused to a spot size of 0.8 {mu}m (FWHM). In this regime heavy ions expand predominantly in the direction of laser pulse propagation enhancing the longitudinal charge separation electric field that accelerates light ions. The dependence of the maximum proton energy on the foil thickness has been found and the laser pulse characteristics have been matched with the thickness of the target to ensure the most efficient acceleration. Moreover, the proton spectrum demonstrates a peaked structure at high energies, which is required for radiation therapy. Two-dimensional PIC simulations show that a 150-500 TW laser pulse is able to accelerate protons up to 100-220 MeV energies.

  15. Ideal hydrodynamics and elliptic flow at CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies: Importance of the initial conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Hannah; Bleicher, Marcus

    2009-05-15

    The elliptic flow excitation function calculated in a full (3+1) dimensional hybrid Boltzmann approach with an intermediate hydrodynamic stage for heavy ion reactions from GSI Schwerionen Synchrotron to the highest CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies is discussed in the context of the experimental data. In this study, we employ a hadron gas equation of state to investigate the differences in the dynamics and viscosity effects. The specific event-by-event setup with initial conditions and freeze-out from a nonequilibrium transport model allows for a direct comparison between ideal fluid dynamics and transport simulations. At higher SPS energies, where the pure transport calculation cannot account for the high elliptic flow values, the smaller mean free path in the hydrodynamic evolution leads to higher elliptic flow values. In contrast to previous studies within pure hydrodynamics, the more realistic initial conditions employed here and the inclusion of a sequential final state hadronic decoupling provides results that are in line with the experimental data almost over the whole energy range from E{sub lab}=2-160A GeV. Thus, this new approach leads to a substantially different shape of the v{sub 2}/{epsilon} scaling curve as a function of (1/SdN{sub ch}/dy) in line with the experimental data compared to previous ideal hydrodynamic calculations. This hints at a strong influence of the initial conditions for the hydrodynamic evolution on the finally observed v{sub 2} values, thus questioning the standard interpretation that the hydrodynamic limit is only reached at BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider energies.

  16. Progress and perspectives in the low-energy kaon-nucleon/nuclei interaction studies at the DAΦNE collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliescu, M.; Bazzi, M.; Beer, G.; Berucci, C.; Bosnar, D.; Bragadireanu, A. M.; Cargnelli, M.; Curceanu, C.; d'Uffizi, A.; Fabietti, L.; Fiorini, C.; Ghio, F.; Guaraldo, C.; Hayano, R. S.; Ishiwatari, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Marton, J.; Okada, S.; Pietreanu, D.; Piscicchia, K.; Poli Lener, M.; Ponta, T.; Quaglia, R.; Romero Vidal, A.; Levi Sandri, P.; Sbardella, E.; Schembari, F.; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D. L.; Sirghi, F.; Tatsuno, H.; Tucakovic, I.; Vazquez Doce, O.; Widmann, E.; Wünschek, B.; Zmeskal, J.; Siddharta; Siddharta-2; Amadeus Collaborations

    2014-11-01

    Low-energy QCD is still lacking experimental results, fundamental for reaching a good understanding of the strangeness sector. The information provided by the low energy kaon- nucleon/nuclei interaction is accessible through the study of kaonic atoms and kaonic nuclear processes. The lightest atomic systems, namely the kaonic hydrogen and the kaonic deuterium, provide the isospin dependent kaon-nucleon scattering lengths by measuring the X-rays emitted during their de-excitation to the 1s level. The most precise kaonic hydrogen measurement to date, together with an exploratory measurement of kaonic deuterium and of upper-level transitions in kaonic helium 3 and kaonic helium 4 were carried out at the DAΦNE collider by the SIDDHARTA collaboration. Presently, a significantly upgraded setup developped by the SIDDHARTA-2 collaboration is ready to perform a precise measurement of kaonic deuterium and, afterwards, of heavier exotic atoms. In parallel, the kaon-nuclei interaction at momenta below 130 MeV/c is studied by the AMADEUS collaboration, using the KLOE detector and a dedicated setup inserted in the central region, near the interaction point. Preliminary results of the study of charged antikaons interacting with nuclei are shown, including an analysis of the controversial Λ(1405).

  17. LDEF (Postflight), M0002-01 : Trapped-Proton Energy Spectrum Determination, Tray G12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The postflight photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC after the experiment tray was removed from the LDEF. The Trapped Proton Energy Spectrum Determination Experiment is one of four experiments located in a three (3) inch deep LDEF end center tray. Additional Trapped Proton Energy Experiments are located in periph eral LDEF integrated experiment trays in the D03 and D09 tray locations. The Trapped Proton Energy experiment, located in the upper left quadrant of the integrated tray, appears to be intact with no apparent physical damage. The brown discoloration appears to be much lighter in this photograph than in the flight photograph, however, the postflight photograph of the individual experiment verifies the darker discoloration in the flight photograph. The light ing angle and intensity appear to have washed out the colors in the upper half of the integrated tray. The sub experiments appear to be intact and secure.

  18. An ISR Discovery: The Rise of the Proton-Proton Cross-Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaldi, Ugo

    2015-07-01

    The Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) were the first hadron collider ever built, providing proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies as high as 62GeV, almost five times larger than any previous accelerator. When in 1971 the ISR began operation the Reggepole approach dominated and the proton-proton total cross-section was expected to have already reached a finite asymptotic value. However, ISR experiments found that the cross-section was rising by 10% between 22 and 62 GeV, while the interaction radius was increasing by 5%, a trend that continues up to the hundred times larger energies available at the Large Hadron Collider. In order to accurately measure the total and elastic cross-sections, new experimental methods -- uniquely adapted to the environment of a hadron collider -- had to be developed; they are described in the central part of this paper, which closes with a review of the data obtained at the LHC since they put in a wider perspective the forty years old ISR results.

  19. Numerical calculation of ion polarization in the NICA collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalenko, A. D.; Butenko, A. V.; Kekelidze, V. D.; Mikhaylov, V. A.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Kondratenko, A. M.; Filatov, Yu N.

    2016-02-01

    The NICA Collider with two solenoid Siberian snakes is “transparent” to the spin. The collider transparent to the spin provides a unique capability to control any polarization direction of protons and deuterons using additional weak solenoids without affecting orbital parameters of the beam. The spin tune induced by the control solenoids must significantly exceed the strength of the zero-integer spin resonance, which contains a coherent part associated with errors in the collider's magnetic structure and an incoherent part associated with the beam emittances. We present calculations of the coherent part of the resonance strength in the NICA collider for proton and deuteron beams.

  20. Proton-Nucleus Scattering Approximations and Implications for LHC Crystal Collimation

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, Robert; /SLAC

    2010-06-07

    In particle accelerators, scattered protons with energies close to the incident particles may travel considerable distances with the beam before impacting on accelerator components downstream. To analyze such problems, angular deflection and energy loss of scattered particles are the main quantities to be simulated since these lead to changes in the beam's phase space distribution and particle loss. Simple approximations for nuclear scattering processes causing limited energy loss to high-energy protons traversing matter are developed which are suitable for rapid estimates and reduced-description Monte Carlo simulations. The implications for proton loss in the Large Hadron Collider due to nuclear scattering on collimation crystals are discussed.

  1. Radiobiological Characterization of Two Therapeutic Proton Beams With Different Initial Energy Spectra Used at the Institut Curie Proton Therapy Center in Orsay

    SciTech Connect

    Calugaru, Valentin; Nauraye, Catherine; Noeel, Georges; Giocanti, Nicole; Favaudon, Vincent; Megnin-Chanet, Frederique

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Treatment planning in proton therapy uses a generic value for the relative biological efficiency (RBE) of 1.1 throughout the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) generated. In this article, we report on the variation of the RBE with depth in the SOBP of the 76- and 201-MeV proton beams used for treatment at the Institut Curie Proton Therapy Center in Orsay. Methods and Materials: The RBE (relative to {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays) of the two modulated proton beams at three positions in the SOBP was determined in two human tumor cells using as endpoints clonogenic cell survival and the incidence of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) as measured by pulse-field gel electrophoresis without and with enzymatic treatment to reveal clustered lesions. Results: The RBE for induced cell killing by the 76-MeV beam increased with depth in the SOBP. However for the 201-MeV protons, it was close to that for {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays and did not vary significantly. The incidence of DSBs and clustered lesions was higher for protons than for {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays, but did not depend on the proton energy or the position in the SOBP. Conclusions: Until now, little attention has been paid to the variation of RBE with depth in the SOBP as a function of the nominal energy of the primary proton beam and the molecular nature of the DNA damage. The RBE increase in the 76-MeV SOBP implies that the tumor tissues at the distal end receives a higher biologically equivalent dose than at the proximal end, despite a homogeneous physical dose. This is not the case for the 201-MeV energy beam. The precise determination of the effects of incident beam energy, modulation, and depth in tissues on the linear energy transfer-RBE relationship is essential for treatment planning.

  2. The International Linear Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List, Benno

    2014-04-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed e+e- linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy of 200-500 GeV, based on superconducting RF cavities. The ILC would be an ideal machine for precision studies of a light Higgs boson and the top quark, and would have a discovery potential for new particles that is complementary to that of LHC. The clean experimental conditions would allow the operation of detectors with extremely good performance; two such detectors, ILD and SiD, are currently being designed. Both make use of novel concepts for tracking and calorimetry. The Japanese High Energy Physics community has recently recommended to build the ILC in Japan.

  3. Energy loss and small angle scattering of swift protons passing through liquid ethanol target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, M.; Sato, S.; Shimizu, M.; He, Z.; Ishii, K.; Tsuchida, H.; Itoh, A.

    2007-03-01

    We have measured energy and angular distributions of fast protons passing through an ethanol liquid jet target. By applying the Moliére's theory of multiple scattering, we reproduced successfully our experimental results of energy and angular distributions and found that the Moliére's theory is useful for the prediction of energetic proton and heavy ion deflection in liquid materials. Moreover, we compared stopping powers obtained from our experiment with SRIM2003 and found an about 10% discrepancy between them. The present method can become a powerful tool for the measurement of particle stopping in liquids and the other collision interactions.

  4. Hadron collider physics at UCR

    SciTech Connect

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes the research work in high energy physics by the group at the University of California, Riverside. Work has been divided between hadron collider physics and e{sup +}-e{sup {minus}} collider physics, and theoretical work. The hadron effort has been heavily involved in the startup activities of the D-Zero detector, commissioning and ongoing redesign. The lepton collider work has included work on TPC/2{gamma} at PEP and the OPAL detector at LEP, as well as efforts on hadron machines.

  5. Vanilla technicolor at linear colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frandsen, Mads T.; Järvinen, Matti; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-08-01

    We analyze the reach of linear colliders for models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We show that linear colliders can efficiently test the compositeness scale, identified with the mass of the new spin-one resonances, until the maximum energy in the center of mass of the colliding leptons. In particular we analyze the Drell-Yan processes involving spin-one intermediate heavy bosons decaying either leptonically or into two standard model gauge bosons. We also analyze the light Higgs production in association with a standard model gauge boson stemming also from an intermediate spin-one heavy vector.

  6. FUTURE LEPTON COLLIDERS AND LASER ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2000-05-30

    Future high energy colliders along with their physics potential, and relationship to new laser technology are discussed. Experimental approaches and requirements for New Physics exploration are also described.

  7. Transition of proton energy scaling using an ultrathin target irradiated by linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Kim, I Jong; Pae, Ki Hong; Kim, Chul Min; Kim, Hyung Taek; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Seong Ku; Yu, Tae Jun; Choi, Il Woo; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Nam, Kee Hwan; Nickles, Peter V; Jeong, Tae Moon; Lee, Jongmin

    2013-10-18

    Particle acceleration using ultraintense, ultrashort laser pulses is one of the most attractive topics in relativistic laser-plasma research. We report proton and/or ion acceleration in the intensity range of 5×10(19) to 3.3×10(20) W/cm2 by irradiating linearly polarized, 30-fs laser pulses on 10-to 100-nm-thick polymer targets. The proton energy scaling with respect to the intensity and target thickness is examined, and a maximum proton energy of 45 MeV is obtained when a 10-nm-thick target is irradiated by a laser intensity of 3.3×10(20) W/cm2. The proton acceleration is explained by a hybrid acceleration mechanism including target normal sheath acceleration, radiation pressure acceleration, and Coulomb explosion assisted-free expansion. The transition of proton energy scaling from I(1/2) to I is observed as a consequence of the hybrid acceleration mechanism. The experimental results are supported by two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. PMID:24182274

  8. Optimization of the {sup 7}Li(p,n) proton beam energy for BNCT applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bleuel, B.L.; Donahue, R.J.

    1996-05-01

    The reaction {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7} Be has been proposed as an accelerator-based source of neutrons for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). This reaction has a large steep resonance for proton energies of about 2.3 MeV which ends at about 2.5 MeV. It has generally been accepted that one should use 2.5 MeV protons to get the highest yield of neutrons for BNCT. This paper suggests that for BNCT the optimum proton energy may be about 2.3 MeV and that a proton energy of about 2.2 MeV will provide the same useful neutron flux outside a thinner moderator as the neutron flux from a 2.5 MeV proton beam with a, thicker moderator. These results are based on optimization of the useful neutron spectrum in air at the point of irradiation, not on depth-dose profiles in tissue/tumor.

  9. Design of the large hadron electron collider interaction region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Alaniz, E.; Newton, D.; Tomás, R.; Korostelev, M.

    2015-11-01

    The large hadron electron collider (LHeC) is a proposed upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) within the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, to provide electron-nucleon collisions and explore a new regime of energy and luminosity for deep inelastic scattering. The design of an interaction region for any collider is always a challenging task given that the beams are brought into crossing with the smallest beam sizes in a region where there are tight detector constraints. In this case integrating the LHeC into the existing HL-LHC lattice, to allow simultaneous proton-proton and electron-proton collisions, increases the difficulty of the task. A nominal design was presented in the the LHeC conceptual design report in 2012 featuring an optical configuration that focuses one of the proton beams of the LHC to β*=10 cm in the LHeC interaction point to reach the desired luminosity of L =1033 cm-2 s-1 . This value is achieved with the aid of a new inner triplet of quadrupoles at a distance L*=10 m from the interaction point. However the chromatic beta beating was found intolerable regarding machine protection issues. An advanced chromatic correction scheme was required. This paper explores the feasibility of the extension of a novel optical technique called the achromatic telescopic squeezing scheme and the flexibility of the interaction region design, in order to find the optimal solution that would produce the highest luminosity while controlling the chromaticity, minimizing the synchrotron radiation power and maintaining the dynamic aperture required for stability.

  10. Measurement and Simulation of the Variation in Proton-Induced Energy Deposition in Large Silicon Diode Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Christina L.; Weller, Robert A.; Reed, Robert A.; Sierawski, Brian D.; Marshall, Paul W.; Marshall, Cheryl J.; Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.

    2007-01-01

    The proton induced charge deposition in a well characterized silicon P-i-N focal plane array is analyzed with Monte Carlo based simulations. These simulations include all physical processes, together with pile up, to accurately describe the experimental data. Simulation results reveal important high energy events not easily detected through experiment due to low statistics. The effects of each physical mechanism on the device response is shown for a single proton energy as well as a full proton space flux.

  11. A simulation study of Methane by proton at low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quashie, Edwin E.; Correaa, Alfredo A.; Schwegler, Eric R.; Saha, Bidhan C.

    2014-05-01

    Proton impact molecular collisions have received considerable attentions over last few decades due to wide applications in various fields such as plasma physics, astrophysics, material science, and radiation therapy. Methane is the simplest hydrocarbon and has recently been detected in the atmosphere of the outer planets. In addition to provide the fundamental information, the charge exchange studies remain critical for understanding the phenomena in studies of comets, the solar wind, and space weather. The charge exchange processes in recent years have been used as diagnostics for temperature and transport. Using the time dependent density functional theory our results for both the elastic and inelastic scattering will be presented. Supported by National Nuclear Security Agency & Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  12. Laser-Produced and Accelerated High Energy Protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Ultra-low emittance, multi-MeV proton beams have recently been produced by the interaction of high-intensity short-pulse lasers with thin metallic foils [1]. The acceleration process proceeds in two steps. First the laser ponderomotively accelerates huge, MA currents of ˜MeV electrons which propagate through the foil and form a dense relativistic electron sheath on the non-irradiated rear surface. This sheath produces an electrostatic field >10^12 V/m that ionizes the surface atoms almost instantaneously, forming a ˜1 nm thick ion layer which, together with the electron sheath, resembles a virtual cathode. The ions are accelerated initially normal to the foil surface, followed by a diverging plasma expansion phase driven by the electron plasma pressure. By structuring the rear surface of the foil, we have succeeded to produce modulations in the transverse phase space of the ions, which resemble fiducial ``beamlets'' within the envelope of the expanding plasma. This allows one to image the initial accelerating sheath, and map the plasma expansion of the beam envelope, to fully reconstruct the transverse phase space. We find that for protons of 10 MeV, the normalized transverse rms emittance is less than 0.004 π mm.mrad [1], i.e. 100-fold better than typical RF accelerators and at substantially higher ion currents exceeding 10 kA. Recent results will be reported on stripping the electrons while maintaining the low emittance from experiments at the LULI 100 TW laser, and theoretical estimates of the lowest emittance which can be expected based on ion heating mechanisms during the initial sheath formation and ion acceleration processes, will be presented. [1] T.E. Cowan, J. Fuchs, H. Ruhl et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 204801 (2004).

  13. Lattice design for the ERL electron ion collider in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Trbojevic, D.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Tsoupas, N.; Chang, X.; Kayran, D.; Ptitsyn, V.; Litvinenko, V.; Hao, Y.; Parker, B.; Pozdeyev, E.

    2010-05-23

    We present electron ion collider lattice design for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (eRHIC) where the electrons have multi-passes through recirculating linacs (ERL) and arcs placed in the existing RHIC tunnel. The present RHIC interaction regions (IR's), where the electron ion collisions will occur, are modified to allow for the large luminosity. Staging of eRHIC will bring the electron energy from 4 up to 20 (30) GeV as the superconducting cavities are built and installed sequentially. The synchrotron radiation from electrons at the IR is reduced as they arrive straight to the collision while ions and protons come with 10 mrad crossing angle using the crab cavities.

  14. Innermost Van Allen Radiation Belt for High Energy Protons at Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.

    2008-01-01

    The high energy proton radiation belts of Saturn are energetically dominated by the source from cosmic ray albedo neutron decay (CRAND), trapping of protons from beta decay of neutrons emitted from galactic cosmic ray nuclear interactions with the main rings. These belts were originally discovered in wide gaps between the A-ring, Janus/Epimetheus, Mimas, and Enceladus. The narrow F and G rings significant affected the CRAND protons but did not produce total depletion. Voyager 2 measurements subsequently revealed an outermost CRAND proton belt beyond Enceladus. Although the source rate is small, the trapping times limited by radial magnetospheric diffusion are very long, about ten years at peak measured flux inwards of the G ring, so large fluxes can accumulate unless otherwise limited in the trapping region by neutral gas, dust, and ring body interactions. One proposed final extension of the Cassini Orbiter mission would place perikrone in a 3000-km gap between the inner D ring and the upper atmosphere of Saturn. Experience with CRAND in the Earth's inner Van Allen proton belt suggests that a similar innermost belt might be found in this comparably wide region at Saturn. Radial dependence of magnetospheric diffusion, proximity to the ring neutron source, and northward magnetic offset of Saturn's magnetic equator from the ring plane could potentially produce peak fluxes several orders of magnitude higher than previously measured outside the main rings. Even brief passes through such an intense environment of highly penetrating protons would be a significant concern for spacecraft operations and science observations. Actual fluxes are limited by losses in Saturn's exospheric gas and in a dust environment likely comparable to that of the known CRAND proton belts. The first numerical model of this unexplored radiation belt is presented to determine limits on peak magnitude and radial profile of the proton flux distribution.

  15. The H1 very forward proton spectrometer at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astvatsatourov, A.; Cerny, K.; Delvax, J.; Favart, L.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Roosen, R.; Sykora, T.; Van Mechelen, P.

    2014-02-01

    The very forward proton spectrometer, VFPS, is a component of the H1 detector at the HERA collider. Scattered protons emitted with a polar angle less than 1 mrad and carrying a fractional energy 1 -xP, 0.008 proton beam energy can be detected by scintillating fiber detectors which are read out by position sensitive photo-multipliers. These detectors are contained in Roman pot stations which are moved close to the circulating proton beam. The structure, operation and performance of the two Roman pot stations located at about 220 m from the H1 interaction point in the cryogenic section of the proton ring are described.

  16. The first colliders: AdA, VEP-1 and Princeton-Stanford

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir

    The idea of exploring collisions in the center-of-mass system to fully exploit the energy of the accelerated particles had been given serious consideration by the Norwegian engineer and inventor Rolf Wideröe, who applied for a patent on the idea in 1943 (and got the patent in 1953 [1]) after considering the kinematic advantage of keeping the center of mass at rest to produce larger momentum transfers. Describing this advantage, G. K. O'Neill, one of the collider pioneers, wrote in 1956 [2]: "... as accelerators of higher and higher energy are built, their usefulness is limited by the fact that the energy available for creating new particles is measured in the center-of-mass system of the target nucleon and the bombarding particle. In the relativistic limit, this energy rises only as the square root of the accelerator energy. However, if two particles of equal energy traveling in opposite directions could be made to collide, the available energy would be twice the whole energy of one particle ... " Therefore, no kinetic energy is wasted by the motion of the center of mass of the system, and the available reaction energy ER = 2Ebeam (while a particle with the same energy Ebeam colliding with another particle of the mass m at rest produces only ER = (2Ebeamm)1/2 in the extreme relativistic case). One can also add that the colliders are "cleaner" machines with respect to the fixed-target ones since the colliding beams do not interact with the target materials. The other advantage is that it is much easier to organize collisions of beams composed of matter-antimatter particles, like in electron-positron and proton-antiproton colliders...

  17. Light-by-light scattering in ultraperipheral Pb-Pb collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kłusek-Gawenda, Mariola; Lebiedowicz, Piotr; Szczurek, Antoni

    2016-04-01

    We calculate cross sections for diphoton production in (semi)exclusive PbPb collisions, relevant for the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The calculation is based on the equivalent photon approximation in the impact parameter space. The cross sections for the elementary γ γ →γ γ subprocess are calculated including two different mechanisms. We take into account box diagrams with leptons and quarks in the loops. In addition, we consider a vector-meson dominance (VDM-Regge) contribution with virtual intermediate hadronic (vector-like) excitations of the photons. We get measurable cross sections in PbPb collisions. This opens a possibility to study the γ γ →γ γ (quasi)elastic scattering at the LHC. We present many interesting differential distributions which could be measured by the ALICE, CMS, or ATLAS Collaborations at the LHC. We study whether a separation or identification of different components (boxes, VDM-Regge) is possible. We find that the cross section for elastic γ γ scattering could be measured in the heavy-ion collisions for subprocess energies smaller than Wγ γ≈15 -20 GeV.

  18. First year of Mark-J: physics with high energy electron-positron colliding beams. Report No. 107

    SciTech Connect

    Aachen DESY M.I.T. NIKHEF Peking Collaboration

    1980-04-01

    This report reviews the experimental investigation of high energy e/sup +/e/sup -/ interactions by the MARK J collaboration at PETRA, the electron-positron colliding beam accelerator at DESY in Hamburg, West Germany. The physics objectives include studies of several purely electromagnetic processes and hadronic final states, which further our knowledge of the nature of the fundamental constituents and of their strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions. Before discussing the physics results, the main features and the principal components of the MARK J detector are discussed in terms of design, function, and performance. Several aspects of the online data collection and the offline analysis are also outlined. Results are presented on tests of quantum electrodynamics using e/sup +/e/sup -/ ..-->.. e/sup +/e/sup -/, ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/ and tau/sup +/tau/sup -/, on the measurement of R, the ratio of the hadronic to the point-like muon pair cross section, on the search for new quark flavors, on the discovery of three jet events arising from the radiation of hard noncollinear gluons as predicted by quantum chromodynamics, and on the determination of the strong coupling constant ..cap alpha../sub s/.

  19. A Harmonic Kicker Scheme for the Circulator Cooler Ring in the Proposed Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Nissen, Edward W.; Hutton, Andrew M.; Kimber, Andrew J.

    2013-06-01

    The current electron cooler design for the proposed Medium Energy Electron-Ion collider (MEIC) at Jefferson Lab utilizes a circulator ring for reuse of the cooling electron bunch up to 100 times to cool the ion beams. This cooler requires a fast kicker system for injecting and extracting individual bunches in the circulator ring. Such a kicker must work at a high repetition rate, up to 7.5 to 75 MHz depending on the number of turns in the recirculator ring. It also must have a very short rise and fall time (of order of 1 ns) such that it will kick an individual bunch without disturbing the others in the ring. Both requirements are orders of magnitude beyond the present state-of-the-art as well as the goals of other on-going kicker R&D programs such as that for the ILC damping rings. In this paper we report a scheme of creating this fast, high repetition rate kicker by combining RF waveforms at multiple frequencies to create a kicker waveform that will, for example, kick every eleventh bunch while leaving the other ten unperturbed. We also present a possible implementation of this scheme as well as discuss its limitations.

  20. Criticality of Low-Energy Protons in Single-Event Effects Testing of Highly-Scaled Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Gordon, Michael S.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Schwank, James R.; Dodds, Nathaniel A.; Castaneda, Carlos M.; Berg, Melanie D.; Kim, Hak S.; Phan, Anthony M.; Seidleck, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    We report low-energy proton and low-energy alpha particle single-event effects (SEE) data on a 32 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) latches and static random access memory (SRAM) that demonstrates the criticality of using low-energy protons for SEE testing of highly-scaled technologies. Low-energy protons produced a significantly higher fraction of multi-bit upsets relative to single-bit upsets when compared to similar alpha particle data. This difference highlights the importance of performing hardness assurance testing with protons that include energy distribution components below 2 megaelectron-volt. The importance of low-energy protons to system-level single-event performance is based on the technology under investigation as well as the target radiation environment.

  1. High energy accelerator and colliding beam user group: Progress report, March 1, 1987-February 29, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    Progress is reported on the OPAL experiment at LEP, including construction and assembly of the hadron calorimeter and development of OPAL software. Progress on the JADE experiment, which examines e/sup +/e/sup -/ interactions at PETRA, and of the PLUTO collaboration are also discussed. Experiments at Fermilab are reported, including deep inelastic muon scattering at TeV II, the D0 experiment at TeV I, and hadron jet physics. Neutrino-electron elastic scattering and a search for point-sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays are reported. Other activities discussed include polarization in electron storage rings, participation in studies for the SSC and LEP 200, neutron-antineutron oscillations, and the work of the electronics support group. High energy physics computer experience is also discussed. 158 refs. (LEW)

  2. Remarkable virtual supersymmetric effects in W{sup {+-}} production at high energy hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Gounaris, G. J.; Layssac, J.; Renard, F. M.

    2008-01-01

    We present a complete 1-loop study of the electroweak corrections to the process ug{yields}dW{sup +} in the minimal supersymmetric standard model and the standard model. The occurrence of a number of remarkable properties in the behavior of the helicity amplitudes at high energies is stressed, and the crucial role of the virtual supersymmetric (SUSY) contributions in establishing them is emphasized. The approach to asymptopia of these amplitudes is discussed, comparing the effects of the logarithmic and constant contributions to the mass-suppressed ones, which are relevant at lower energies. Applying crossing to ug{yields}dW{sup +}, we obtain all subprocesses needed for the 1-loop electroweak corrections to W{sup {+-}}-production at LHC. The SUSY model dependence of such a production is then studied, and illustrations are given for the transverse W{sup {+-}} momentum distribution, as well as the angular distribution in the subprocess center of mass.

  3. Future of high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Panofsky, W.K.H.

    1984-06-01

    A rough overview is given of the expectations for the extension of high energy colliders and accelerators into the xtremely high energy range. It appears likely that the SSC or something like it will be the last gasp of the conventional method of producing high energy proton-proton collisions using synchrotron rings with superconducting magnets. It is likely that LEP will be the highest energy e+e/sup -/ colliding beam storage ring built. The future beyond that depends on the successful demonstrations of new technologies. The linear collider offers hope in this respect for some extension in energy for electrons, and maybe even for protons, but is too early to judge whether, by how much, or when such an extension will indeed take place.

  4. Transverse Spin Asymmetries in the CNI Region of Elastic Proton-Proton Scattering at s=200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svirida, Dmitry

    2016-02-01

    Precise measurements of transverse spin asymmetries in proton-proton elastic scattering at very small values of four-momentum transfer squared, t, have been performed using the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) polarized proton beams. The measurements of both single and double spin asymmetries were made at the center-of-mass energy s = 200 GeV and in the region 0.003 ≤|t|≤ 0.035 (GeV/c)2, which was accessed using Roman Pot devices incorporated into the STAR experimental setup. The obtained set of asymmetries is sensitive to the poorly known hadronic contribution to the spin-flip amplitudes and provide significant constraints for the theoretical descriptions of the reaction mechanism of proton-proton elastic scattering at high energies.

  5. Quantum-beamsstrahlung laser collider

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, T.; Chattopadyay, S.; Xie, M.

    1997-11-01

    An e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider at energies beyond a TeV runs into a problem of severe beamsstrahlung, characterized by {Upsilon} on the order of unity (and beyond). In the regime of extremely high {Upsilon} the beamsstrahlung may be largely suppressed due to the quantum effect. In the design of an e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider there are two ways to satisfy the collider physics constraints. One is to decrease the number of particles per bunch (and thus to increase the repetition rate) and the other is to decrease the longitudinal bunch length. The former approach can limit {Upsilon}, while the latter boosts it. (It may be useful to reevaluate the future collider parameters in view of this.) The laser wakefield driver for a collider in comparison with the microwave driver naturally offers a very short bunch length, which is appropriate for the latter collider option. The authors show that this choice of collider design with a short bunch length and high {Upsilon} has advantages and provide sample design parameters at 5 TeV. Such sample design parameters challenge them in a number of fronts, such as the preservation of high quality bunches, efficient high repetition rate lasers, etc. The collision point physics simulated by the CAIN code shows a surprisingly well preserved luminosity spectrum.

  6. Low energy proton radiation damage to (AlGa)As-GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loo, R.; Kamath, S.; Knechtli, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-seven 2 times 2 sq cm (AlGa)As-GaAs solar cells were fabricated and subjected to 50 keV, 100 keV, and 290 keV of proton irradiation along with eighteen high efficiency silicon solar cells. The results of the study further corroborate the advantages for space missions offered by GaAs cells over state of the art silicon cells. Thus, even though the GaAs cells showed greater degradation when irradiated by protons with energy less than 5 MeV, the solar cells were normally protected from these protons by the glass covers used in space arrays. The GaAs cells also offered superior end of life power capability compared with silicon. The change in the open circuit voltage, short circuit current, spectral response, and dark 1-5 characteristics after irradiation at each proton energy and fluence were found to be consistent with the explanation of the effect of the protons. Also dark 1-5 characteristics showed that a new recombination center dominates the current transport mechanism after irradiation.

  7. Charm production in Pb + Pb collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Taesoo; Berrehrah, Hamza; Cabrera, Daniel; Cassing, Wolfgang; Bratkovskaya, Elena

    2016-03-01

    We study charm production in Pb +Pb collisions at √{sN N}=2.76 TeV in the parton-hadron-string-dynamics (PHSD) transport approach and the charm dynamics in the partonic and hadronic medium. The charm quarks are produced through initial binary nucleon-nucleon collisions by using the pythia event generator, taking into account the (anti-)shadowing incorporated in the eps09 package. The produced charm quarks interact with off-shell massive partons in the quark-gluon plasma and are hadronized into D mesons through coalescence or fragmentation close to the critical energy density, and then interact with hadrons in the final hadronic stage with scattering cross sections calculated in an effective Lagrangian approach with heavy-quark spin symmetry. The PHSD results show a reasonable RAA and elliptic flow of D mesons in comparison to the experimental data for Pb +Pb collisions at √{sN N}=2.76 TeV from the ALICE Collaboration. We also study the effect of temperature-dependent off-shell charm quarks in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. We find that the scattering cross sections are only moderately affected by off-shell charm degrees of freedom. However, the position of the peak of RAA for D mesons depends on the strength of the scalar partonic forces which also have an impact on the D meson elliptic flow. The comparison with experimental data on the RAA suggests that the repulsive force is weaker for off-shell charm quarks as compared to that for light quarks. Furthermore, the effects from radiative charm energy loss appear to be low compared to the collisional energy loss up to transverse momenta of ˜15 GeV/c .

  8. Criticality of Low-Energy Protons in Single-Event Effects Testing of Highly-Scaled Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan Allen; Marshall, Paul W.; Rodbell, K. P.; Gordon, M. S.; LaBel, K. A.; Schwank, J. R.; Dodds, N. A.; Castaneda, C. M.; Berg, M. D.; Kim, H. S.; Phan, A. M.; Seidleck, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report low-energy proton and alpha particle SEE data on a 32 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) static random access memory (SRAM) that demonstrates the criticality of understanding and using low-energy protons for SEE testing of highly-scaled technologies

  9. High Energy Accelerator and Colliding Beam User Group. Progress report, May 1, 1980--March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, G.A.

    1980-12-01

    The major activities of the High Energy Physics Group at the University of Maryland during the current contract period have been: analysis of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} events from the PLUTO detector at PETRA, design and construction of modifications to PLUTO for 2{gamma} physics, analyses of {nu}{sub {mu}}D{sub 2} bubble chamber pictures from Fermilab, completion of the {nu}{sub {mu}}e elastic scattering experiment at Fermilab, development and demonstration of an ultra cold neutron source produced by Doppler shifting, testing of equipment for the hadron jet experiment at Fermilab that is about to begin, and planning for large projects in the future.

  10. Thermodynamics of proton transfer in phenol-acetate hydrogen bonds with large proton polarizability and the conversion of light energy into chemical energy in bacteriorhodopsin

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, H.; Tangermann, U.; Zundel, G.

    1986-11-20

    Phenol-acetate solutions in CCl/sub 4/ are studied by IR spectroscopy as a function of the pK/sub a/ of the phenols. The (I) Ar-OH.../sup -/OC in equilibrium Ar-O/sup -/...HOC (II) hydrogen bonds formed show large proton polarizability as indicated by continua in the IR spectra. The percent proton transfer (PT) increases from the p-cresol-acetate to the pentachlorophenol-acetate system from 0% to 56%. The Gibbs free energy, ..delta..G/sup 0//sub PT/, values of the PT equilibria at 295 K are determined as well as the standard enthalpy values, ..delta..H/sup 0//sub PT/, and the standard entropy values, ..delta..S/sup 0//sub PT. The shape of the intensity of the continuum as a function of the ..delta..H/sup 0//sub PT/ value changes. In the classical approximation the average difference between the two minima of the proton double-minimum potential is given by ..delta..H/sup 0//sub PT/. With the decreasing amount of ..delta..H/sup 0//sub PT/, i.e., decreasing degree of asymmetry, the intensity of the continua decreases at higher and increases at lower wavenumbers. This result is in good agreement with the predictions from calculated line spectra. In the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin a tyrosine-aspartate hydrogen bond is probably of importance for the conversion of light energy into chemical energy. On the basis of the obtained data it is shown that 9.5 kJ/mol can be converted into chemical energy due to a proton transfer induced by a local electrical field in a Tyr-Asp hydrogen bond. Furthermore, if the Ar-O/sup -/...HOC structure is broken afterwards by a conformation change, at least 25 kJ/mol of conformation energy is converted. Thus, altogether 34.5 kJ/mol of Gibbs free energy may be converted into chemical energy and stored by these processes.

  11. Transition Radiation Detector in the D0 colliding beam experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarz, H.

    1995-04-01

    The construction, operation and response of the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) at DO colliding beam experiment at Fermilab are presented. The use of the TRD signal to enhance electron identification and hadronic rejection in the multiparticle background characteristic for the antiproton-proton interactions at the center-of-mass energy of 1.8 TeV is also described and results are discussed.

  12. Measurement of the radiation field at the Collider Detector at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    K. Kordas et al.

    2003-01-12

    We present direct measurements of the spatial distribution of both ionizing radiation and low energy neutrons (E{sub n} < 200 keV) inside the tracking volume of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). Using data from multiple exposures we are able to separate the contributions from beam losses and proton-antiproton collisions. Initial measurements of leakage currents in the CDF silicon detectors show patterns consistent with predictions based on our measurements.

  13. Applications of High Intensity Proton Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Rajendran; Mishra, Shekhar

    2010-06-01

    Superconducting radiofrequency linac development at Fermilab / S. D. Holmes -- Rare muon decay experiments / Y. Kuno -- Rare kaon decays / D. Bryman -- Muon collider / R. B. Palmer -- Neutrino factories / S. Geer -- ADS and its potential / J.-P. Revol -- ADS history in the USA / R. L. Sheffield and E. J. Pitcher -- Accelerator driven transmutation of waste: high power accelerator for the European ADS demonstrator / J. L. Biarrotte and T. Junquera -- Myrrha, technology development for the realisation of ADS in EU: current status & prospects for realisation / R. Fernandez ... [et al.] -- High intensity proton beam production with cyclotrons / J. Grillenberger and M. Seidel -- FFAG for high intensity proton accelerator / Y. Mori -- Kaon yields for 2 to 8 GeV proton beams / K. K. Gudima, N. V. Mokhov and S. I. Striganov -- Pion yield studies for proton driver beams of 2-8 GeV kinetic energy for stopped muon and low-energy muon decay experiments / S. I. Striganov -- J-Parc accelerator status and future plans / H. Kobayashi -- Simulation and verification of DPA in materials / N. V. Mokhov, I. L. Rakhno and S. I. Striganov -- Performance and operational experience of the CNGS facility / E. Gschwendtner -- Particle physics enabled with super-conducting RF technology - summary of working group 1 / D. Jaffe and R. Tschirhart -- Proton beam requirements for a neutrino factory and muon collider / M. S. Zisman -- Proton bunching options / R. B. Palmer -- CW SRF H linac as a proton driver for muon colliders and neutrino factories / M. Popovic, C. M. Ankenbrandt and R. P. Johnson -- Rapid cycling synchrotron option for Project X / W. Chou -- Linac-based proton driver for a neutrino factory / R. Garoby ... [et al.] -- Pion production for neutrino factories and muon colliders / N. V. Mokhov ... [et al.] -- Proton bunch compression strategies / V. Lebedev -- Accelerator test facility for muon collider and neutrino factory R&D / V. Shiltsev -- The superconducting RF linac for muon

  14. Heavy quarkonium production at collider energies: Partonic cross section and polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Jian -Wei; Kang, Zhong -Bo; Ma, Yan -Qing; Sterman, George

    2015-01-27

    We calculate the O(α³s) short-distance, QCD collinear-factorized coefficient functions for all partonic channels that include the production of a heavy quark pair at short distances. Thus, this provides the first power correction to the collinear-factorized inclusive hadronic production of heavy quarkonia at large transverse momentum, pT, including the full leading-order perturbative contributions to the production of heavy quark pairs in all color and spin states employed in NRQCD treatments of this process. We discuss the role of the first power correction in the production rates and the polarizations of heavy quarkonia in high-energy hadronic collisions. The consistency of QCD collinear factorization and nonrelativistic QCD factorization applied to heavy quarkonium production is also discussed.

  15. Heavy quarkonium production at collider energies: Partonic cross section and polarization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Qiu, Jian -Wei; Kang, Zhong -Bo; Ma, Yan -Qing; Sterman, George

    2015-01-27

    We calculate the O(α³s) short-distance, QCD collinear-factorized coefficient functions for all partonic channels that include the production of a heavy quark pair at short distances. Thus, this provides the first power correction to the collinear-factorized inclusive hadronic production of heavy quarkonia at large transverse momentum, pT, including the full leading-order perturbative contributions to the production of heavy quark pairs in all color and spin states employed in NRQCD treatments of this process. We discuss the role of the first power correction in the production rates and the polarizations of heavy quarkonia in high-energy hadronic collisions. The consistency of QCD collinearmore » factorization and nonrelativistic QCD factorization applied to heavy quarkonium production is also discussed.« less

  16. Harmonics suppression of vacuum chamber eddy current-induced fields with application to the Superconducting Super Collider Low Energy Booster Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, R.; Halbach, K.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the formulation of an expression for eddy currents induced in a thin-walled conductor due to a time-dependent electromagnet field excitation. Then follows an analytical development for prediction of vacuum chamber eddy current-induced field harmonics in iron-core electromagnets. A passive technique for harmonics suppression is presented with specific application to the design of the Superconducting Super Collider Low Energy Booster Magnets.

  17. Harmonics suppression of vacuum chamber eddy current induced fields with application to the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Low Energy Booster (LEB) Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, R.D.; Halbach, K.

    1991-12-04

    This memo presents the formulation of an expression for eddy currents induced in a thin-walled conductor due to a time-dependent electromagnet field excitation. Then follows an analytical development for prediction of vacuum chamber eddy current induced field harmonics in iron-core electromagnets. A passive technique for harmonics suppression is presented with specific application to the design of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Low Energy B (LEB) Magnets.

  18. High-Efficiency Volume Reflection of an Ultrarelativistic Proton Beam with a Bent Silicon Crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Scandale, Walter; Still, Dean A.; Baricordi, Stefano; Dalpiaz, Pietro; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Guidi, Vincenzo; Martinelli, Giuliano; Mazzolari, Andrea; Milan, Emiliano; Ambrosi, Giovanni; Azzarello, Philipp; Battiston, Roberto; Bertucci, Bruna; Burger, William J.; Ionica, Maria; Zuccon, Paolo; Cavoto, Gianluca; Santacesaria, Roberta; Valente, Paolo; Vallazza, Erik

    2007-04-13

    The volume reflection phenomenon was detected while investigating 400 GeV proton interactions with bent silicon crystals in the external beam H8 of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. Such a process was observed for a wide interval of crystal orientations relative to the beam axis, and its efficiency exceeds 95%, thereby surpassing any previously observed value. These observations suggest new perspectives for the manipulation of high-energy beams, e.g., for collimation and extraction in new-generation hadron colliders, such as the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  19. Energetic photons from intermediate energy proton- and heavy-ion-induced reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, W.; Bertsch, G.F.; Cassing, W.; Mosel, U.

    1986-12-01

    The cross section for emitting high energy gamma rays in heavy-ion collisions is calculated in a model based on the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation. The elementary production cross section is assumed to be neutron-proton bremsstrahlung. Comparison is made with experimental data at bombarding energies from 20 to 84 MeV/nucleon. The calculations are found to roughly reproduce the energy spectrum, bombarding energy dependence, and angular distribution. From the numerical analysis we conclude that the production of high-energy ..gamma.. rays is limited to the very early stage of the collision.

  20. Radial compression of protons and H3+ ions in a multiring trap for the production of ultralow energy antiproton beams.

    PubMed

    Higaki, H; Kuroda, N; Yoshiki Franzen, K; Wang, Z; Hori, M; Mohri, A; Komaki, K; Yamazaki, Y

    2004-08-01

    Radial compression of a proton cloud was performed in a multiring trap which was designed to trap and cool a large number of antiprotons for the production of low-energy ( 10-1000 eV ) antiproton beams. The resonance frequency for the radial compression was almost constant from 3 x 10(5) to 3 x 10(6) protons. The collision process of the trapped protons was also investigated to estimate the energy of the protons inside the trap. This technique will be applied to the ASACUSA experiment at the antiproton decelerator, CERN, to extract ultraslow antiprotons with good emittance. PMID:15447603

  1. Measurement of the inclusive jet cross section in proton-antiproton collisions at the center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Voutilainen, Mikko Antero

    2008-07-01

    This thesis studies the high-energy collisions of protons and antiprotons. The data used in the measurement were collected during 2004-2005 with the D0 detector at the Tevatron Collider of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and correspond to 0.7 fb-1 of integrated luminosity. High energy hadron collisions usually produce collimated sprays of particles called jets. The energy of the jets is measured using a liquid Argon-Uranium calorimeter and the production angle is determined with the help of silicon microstrip and scintillating fiber trackers. The inclusive jet cross section in proton-antiproton collisions is measured as a function of jet transverse momentum pT in six bins of jet rapidity at the center-of-mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV. The measurement covers jet transerve momenta from 50 GeV up to 600 GeV and jet rapidities up to |y| = 2.4. The data are collected using a set of seven single jet triggers. Event and jet cuts are applied to remove non-physical backgrounds and cosmic-ray interactions. The data are corrected for jet energy calibration, cut and trigger efficiencies and finite jet pT resolution. The corrections are determined from data and the methods are tested with Monte Carlo simulation. The main experimental challenges in the measurement are the calibration of jet energies and the determination of the jet pT resolution. New methods are developed for the jet energy calibration that take into account physical differences between the {gamma}+jet and dijet calibration samples arising from quark and gluon jet differences. The uncertainty correlations are studied and provided as a set of uncertainty sources. The production of particle jets in hadron collisions is described by the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). When the transverse jet momentum is large, the contributions from long-distance physics processes are small and the production rates of jets can be predicted by perturbative QCD. The

  2. Compact energy selector for use with intense, short-pulse laser produced proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazi, Andrew; Chen, Hui; Perez, Frederic; Marley, Edward; Park, Jaebum; Williams, Jackson; Vassura, Laura; Fuchs, Julien; Chen, Sophia; Shepherd, Ronnie

    2012-10-01

    Irradiation of thin solid targets with short, intense laser pulses produces energetic charged particles. The proton and ion beams generated from such laser-plasma interactions have several attractive features, but usually exhibit a broad energy distribution extending up to tens of MeV. However for some applications, such as energy-loss measurements in plasmas or injection into high-energy accelerators, quasi-mono energetic beams are preferred [1]. We have designed, built and tested a small (9 x 7 x 5 cm^3) energy selector for use with laser-produced proton beams in beam-plasma interaction experiments that utilize multiple laser beams. The device uses permanent magnets in a dipole configuration, with a fixed entrance aperture and an adjustable exit slit to select a narrow portion of the broad energy distribution in the beam. The energy selector was tested in a recent experiment at the Titan laser at Livermore. Sample data from the experiment and simulations of the device's characteristics will be presented. [4pt] [1] T. Toncian, et al., ``Ultrafast Laser--Driven Microlens to Focus and Energy-Select Mega--Electron Volt Protons,'' Science, 312, 410 (2006).

  3. Centrality-dependent forward J/ψ production in high energy proton-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducloué, B.; Lappi, T.; Mäntysaari, H.

    2016-03-01

    Forward J/ψ production and suppression in high energy proton-nucleus collisions can be an important probe of gluon saturation. In an earlier work we studied this process in the Color Glass Condensate framework and showed that using the Glauber approach to extrapolate the dipole cross section of a proton to a nucleus leads to results closer to experimental data than previous calculations in this framework. Here we investigate the centrality dependence of the nuclear suppression in this model and show a comparison of our results with recent LHC data.

  4. Energy deposition in selected-mammalian cell for several-MeV single-proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, K.; Yu, Z.

    2007-05-01

    The phenomena resulting from interaction between ion beam and mammalian cell pose important problems for biological applications. Classic Bethe-Bloch theory utilizing attached V79 mammalian cell has been conducted in order to establish the stopping powers of the mammalian cell for several-MeV single-proton microbeam. Based on the biological structure of the mammalian cell, a physical model is proposed which presumes that the attached cell is simple MWM model. According to this model and Monte Carlo simulation, we studied the energy deposition and its ratio on the selected attached mammalian cell for MeV proton implantation.

  5. Medium energy proton radiation damage to (AlGa)As-GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loo, R. Y.; Kamath, G. S.; Knechtli, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of (AlGa)As-GaAs solar cells irradiated by medium energy 2, 5, and 10 MeV protons was evaluated. The Si cells without coverglass and a number of GaAs solar cells with 12 mil coverglass were irradiated simultaneously with bare GaAs cells. The cell degradation is directly related to the penetration of depth of protons with GaAs. The influence of periodic and continuous thermal annealing on the GaAs solar cells was investigated.

  6. High energy proton irradiation induced pinning centers in Bi-2212 and Bi-2223 superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, J.O.; Safar, H.; Cho, J.H.

    1995-12-01

    Bi-2212 single crystals and Bi-2223/Ag-sheathed tapes were irradiated with high energy protons. TEM images reveal the production of randomly oriented (splayed) columnar defects with an amorphous core of {approximately}10 nm diameter caused by the fissioning of Bi nuclei. The critical current density J{sub c} and irreversibility line both substantially increased with the proton dose for both crystals and tapes, especially for the magnetic field parallel to the c axis. An irradiated tape had a J{sub c} value {approximately}100 times greater than that of an unirradiated one at 1 T and 75 K.

  7. Energy deposition studies for the high-luminosity Large Hadron Collider inner triplet magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhov, N. V.; Rakhno, I. L.; Tropin, I. S.; Cerutti, F.; Esposito, L. S.; Lechner, A.

    2015-05-01

    A detailed model of the high-luminosity LHC inner triplet region with new large-aperture Nb3Sn magnets, field maps, corrector packages, and segmented tungsten inner absorbers was built and implemented into the fluka and mars15 codes. Detailed simulations have been performed coherently with the codes on the impact of particle debris from the 14-TeV center-of-mass pp-collisions on the short- and long-term stability of the inner triplet magnets. After optimizing the absorber configuration, the peak power density averaged over the magnet inner cable width is found to be safely below the quench limit at the luminosity of 5 ×1034 cm-2 s-1 . For the anticipated lifetime integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1 , the peak dose calculated for the innermost magnet insulator ranges from 20 to 35 MGy, a figure close to the commonly accepted limit. Dynamic heat loads to the triplet magnet cold mass are calculated to evaluate the cryogenic capability. fluka and mars results on energy deposition are in very good agreement.

  8. ACCELERATING POLARIZED PROTONS TO 250 GEV

    SciTech Connect

    BAI,M.; AHRENS, L.; ALEKSEEV, I.G.; ALESSI, J.; BEEBE-WANG, J.; ET AL.

    2007-06-25

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) as the first high energy polarized proton collider was designed t o provide polarized proton collisions a t a maximum beam energy of 250 GeV. I t has been providing collisions a t a beam energy of 100 Gel' since 2001. Equipped with two full Siberian snakes in each ring, polarization is preserved during the acceleration from injection to 100 GeV with careful control of the betatron tunes and the vertical orbit distortions. However, the intrinsic spin resonances beyond 100 GeV are about a factor of two stronger than those below 100 GeV? making it important t o examine the impact of these strong intrinsic spin resonances on polarization survival and the tolerance for vertical orbit distortions. Polarized protons were accelerated t o the record energy of 250 GeV in RHIC with a polarization of 46% measured a t top energy in 2006. The polarization measurement as a function of beam energy also shows some polarization loss around 136 GeV, the first strong intrinsic resonance above 100 GeV. This paper presents the results and discusses the sensitivity of the polarization survival t o orbit distortions.

  9. Energy Dependence of Elliptic Flow over a Large Pseudorapidity Range in Au+Au Collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Hauer, M.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2005-04-01

    This Letter describes the measurement of the energy dependence of elliptic flow for charged particles in Au+Au collisions using the PHOBOS detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Data taken at collision energies of √(sNN)=19.6, 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV are shown over a wide range in pseudorapidity. These results, when plotted as a function of η'=|η|-ybeam, scale with approximate linearity throughout η', implying no sharp changes in the dynamics of particle production as a function of pseudorapidity or increasing beam energy.

  10. Helicity parton distributions at a future electron-ion collider: A quantitative appraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschenauer, Elke C.; Stratmann, Marco; Sassot, Rodolfo

    2012-09-01

    We present a quantitative assessment of the impact a future electron-ion collider will have on determinations of helicity quark and gluon densities and their contributions to the proton spin. Our results are obtained by performing a series of global QCD analyses at next-to-leading order accuracy based on realistic sets of pseudo-data for the inclusive and semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons and protons at different, conceivable center-of-mass system energies.

  11. Using neural networks to enhance the Higgs boson signal at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.D.; Kanev, Y.; Tayebnejad, M.; Griffin, P.A.

    1995-12-31

    Neural networks are used to help distinguish the ZZ {yields} {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup {minus}}-jet-jet signal produced by the decay of a 400 GeV Higgs boson at a proton-proton collider energy of 15 TeV from the ``ordinary`` QCD Z + jets background. The ideal case where only one event at a time enters the detector (no pile-up) and the case of multiple interactions per beam crossing (pile-up) are examined. In both cases, when used in conjunction with the standard cuts, neural networks provide an additional signal to background enhancement.

  12. Soft Fusion Energy Path: Isotope Production in Energy Subcritical/Economy Hypercritical D +D Colliding-Beam Mini Fusion Reactor `Exyder'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, Tim; Maglich, Bogdan; Calsec Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Bethe1 and Sakharov2 argued for soft fusion energy path via isotope production, substantiated by Manheimer3. - Copious T and 3He production4 , 5 from D(d, p) T and D(d, n) 3He reactions in 725 KeV D +D colliding beams was measured in weak-focusing Self-Collider6 , 7 radius 0.15 m, in B = 3.12 T, non-linearly stabilized by electron cloud oscillations8 to confinement time = 24 s. Simulations6 predict that by switching to strong focusing9, 10 deuterons 0.75 MeV each, generate 1 3He +1T +1p + 1n at total input energy cost 10.72 MeV. Economic value of T and 3He is 65 and 120 MeV/atom, respectively. We obtain economic gain 205MeV/10.72 MeV ~ 2,000% i.e. 3He production funds cost of T. If first wall is made of Thorium n's will breed 233U releasing 200 MeV/fission, at neutron cost 5.36 MeV versus 160 MeV in beam on target, resulting in no cost 3He production, valued 75K/g. 1. Physics Today, May 1979, p.44; 2. Memoirs, Vintage Books, (1992); 3. Phys. Today, May 2012 p. 12; 4. Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 796 (1985); 5. Bull. APS, 57, No. 3 (2012); 6. Part. Acc.1, (1970); 7. ANEUTRONIC FUSION NIM A 271 1-167 (1988); 8. Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1818 (1993); 9. Part. Acc. 34, 13 (1990).

  13. From the Proton Synchroton to the Large Hadron Collider - 50 Years of Nobel Memories in High-Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-07

    The seminars will be held in the Main Auditorium with transmission to : Council Chamber, IT Auditorium, Prévessin BE Auditorium , Kjell Johnssen Auditorium in Building 30, Room 40-S2-A01, and via webcast. Confirmed Speakers include: Prof. Jack Steinberger, Dr. Guenther Plass, Prof. Emilio Picasso, Dr. Steve Myers, Prof. Carlo Rubbia, Prof. Burton Richter, Dr. Lyndon Evans, Prof. Rolf-Dieter Heuer, Prof. Leon Lederman, Prof. Jim Cronin, Prof. Sheldon Glashow, Prof. Jerome Friedman, Prof. Frank Wilczek, Prof. Martinus Veltman, Prof. Gerardus 't Hooft, Prof. David Gross, Prof. Samuel Ting, Prof. Steven Weinberg (via teleconference) --- Contact: Directorate.Office@cern.ch

  14. From the Proton Synchroton to the Large Hadron Collider - 50 Years of Nobel Memories in High-Energy Physics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    The seminars will be held in the Main Auditorium with transmission to : Council Chamber, IT Auditorium, Prévessin BE Auditorium , Kjell Johnssen Auditorium in Building 30, Room 40-S2-A01, and via webcast. Confirmed Speakers include: Prof. Jack Steinberger, Dr. Guenther Plass, Prof. Emilio Picasso, Dr. Steve Myers, Prof. Carlo Rubbia, Prof. Burton Richter, Dr. Lyndon Evans, Prof. Rolf-Dieter Heuer, Prof. Leon Lederman, Prof. Jim Cronin, Prof. Sheldon Glashow, Prof. Jerome Friedman, Prof. Frank Wilczek, Prof. Martinus Veltman, Prof. Gerardus 't Hooft, Prof. David Gross, Prof. Samuel Ting, Prof. Steven Weinberg (via teleconference) --- Contact: Directorate.Office@cern.ch

  15. Research methods for parameters of accelerated low-energy proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystritsky, V. M.; Dudkin, G. N.; Kyznetsov, S. I.; Nechaev, B. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Philippov, A. V.; Sadovsky, A. B.; Varlachev, V. A.; Zvaygintsev, O. A.

    2015-07-01

    To study the pd-reaction cross-section it is necessary to know the main parameters of the accelerated hydrogen ion beam with a high accuracy. These parameters include: the energy ion dispersion; the content of neutrals; the ratio of atomic and molecular ions of hydrogen in the flux of accelerated particles. This work is aimed at development of techniques and the measurement of the above mentioned parameters of the low-energy proton beam.

  16. Intermediate energy proton stopping power for hydrogen molecules and monoatomic helium gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Y. J.; Khandelwal, G. S.; Wilson, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Stopping power in the intermediate energy region (100 keV to 1 MeV) was investigated, based on the work of Lindhard and Winther, and on the local plasma model. The theory is applied to calculate stopping power of hydrogen molecules and helium gas for protons of energy ranging from 100 keV to 2.5 MeV. Agreement with the experimental data is found to be within 10 percent.

  17. Comparison of MCNPX and Geant4 proton energy deposition predictions for clinical use

    PubMed Central

    Titt, U.; Bednarz, B.; Paganetti, H.

    2012-01-01

    Several different Monte Carl