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Sample records for energy range wide

  1. Autonomous Vehicles Have a Wide Range of Possible Energy Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Austin Brown, Brittany Repac, Jeff Gonder

    2013-07-15

    Self-driving or “autonomous” vehicles (AVs) have leapt from science fiction into the forefront of transportation technology news. The technology is likely still years away from widespread commercial adoption, but the recent progress makes it worth considering the potential national impacts of widespread implementation. This poster makes an initial assessment of the energy impacts of AV adoptionon a per-vehicle basis and on total personal vehicle fuel use. While AVs offer numerous potential advantages in energy use, there are significant factors that could decrease or even eliminate the energy benefits under some circumstances. This analysis attempts to describe, quantify, and combine many of the possible effects. The nature and magnitude of these effects remain highly uncertain. This set of effects is very unlikely to be exhaustive, but this analysis approach can serve as a base for future estimates.

  2. Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; West, W. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Huang, C.; Soler, J.; Krause, F. C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives of this work are: (1) Develop advanced Li -ion electrolytes that enable cell operation over a wide temperature range (i.e., -30 to +60C). (2) Improve the high temperature stability and lifetime characteristics of wide operating temperature electrolytes. (3) Improve the high voltage stability of these candidate electrolytes systems to enable operation up to 5V with high specific energy cathode materials. (4) Define the performance limitations at low and high temperature extremes, as well as, life limiting processes. (5) Demonstrate the performance of advanced electrolytes in large capacity prototype cells.

  3. Autonomous Vehicles Have a Wide Range of Possible Energy Impacts (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, A.; Repac, B.; Gonder, J.

    2013-07-01

    This poster presents initial estimates of the net energy impacts of automated vehicles (AVs). Automated vehicle technologies are increasingly recognized as having potential to decrease carbon dioxide emissions and petroleum consumption through mechanisms such as improved efficiency, better routing, lower traffic congestion, and by enabling advanced technologies. However, some effects of AVs could conceivably increase fuel consumption through possible effects such as longer distances traveled, increased use of transportation by underserved groups, and increased travel speeds. The net effect on petroleum use and climate change is still uncertain. To make an aggregate system estimate, we first collect best estimates for the energy impacts of approximately ten effects of AVs. We then use a modified Kaya Identity approach to estimate the range of aggregate effects and avoid double counting. We find that depending on numerous factors, there is a wide range of potential energy impacts. Adoption of automated personal or shared vehicles can lead to significant fuel savings but has potential for backfire.

  4. Measurements and calculations of neutron scattering angular distributions over a wide mass and energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, L.F.

    1985-05-01

    Neutron elastic and inelastic differential cross sections for targets between /sup 9/Be and /sup 239/Pu at energies, E > 14 MeV have been measured using the Livermore and Ohio University neutron time-of-flight facilities. We review here the data and the analyses based on two local microscopic optical potentials: that of Jeukenne, Lejeune and Mahaux, and that of Brieva and Rook. The results are also compared with calculations using global potentials. Coupled channel formalism has been used in the analysis of targets with strong deformations, such as Be, C, Ta, and actinides. The value of the microscopic optical potentials as a tool to predict elastic and inelastic neutron cross sections over a wide mass and energy range is discussed. The need for neutron measurements up to higher energies and their analysis in conjunction with (p,p) and charge exchange (p,n) data is addressed. 17 refs.

  5. Measurements and Calculations of Neutron Scattering Angular Distributions over a Wide Mass and Energy Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, L. F.

    Neutron elastic and inelastic differential cross sections for targets between (9)Be and (239)Pu at energies, E 14 MeV have been measured using the Livermore and Ohio University neutron time-of-flight facilities. We review here the data and the analyses based on two local microscopic optical potentials: that of Jeukenne, Lejeune and Mahaux, and that of Brieva and Rook. The results are also compared with calculations using global potentials. Coupled channel formalism has been used in the analysis of targets with strong deformations, such as Be, C, Ta, and actinides. The value of the microscopic optical potentials as a tool to predict elastic and inelastic neutron cross sections over a wide mass and energy range is discussed. The need for neutron measurements up to higher energies and their analysis in conjunction with (p,p) and charge exchange (p,n) data is addressed.

  6. Photon interference effect in x-ray absorption spectra over a wide energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Suzuki, M.; Kawamura, N.; Kappen, P.; Korecki, P.; Haack, N.; Materlik, G.

    2002-09-01

    We consider fundamental structures in x-ray absorption spectra over a wide energy range. We formulate the elastic scattering in addition to the photoelectric absorption in recently reported photon interference x-ray absorption fine structure (πXAFS). The simulations show excellent agreement with experimental x-ray absorption spectra for platinum and tungsten powders far above and below the L absorption edges. πXAFS can be as big as in the order of 10% of XAFS, and cannot be easily neglected in detailed analysis of XAFS and related phenomena.

  7. Comparison of radiation damage parameter values for the widely used semiconductor gamma detector materials in wide energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkut, Turgay; Korkut, Hatun

    2014-04-01

    Number of displaced atoms (NDA) values for 3 different semiconductor detector materials (Ge, Si, and GaAs) was reviewed at 26 different primary energies emitted from 9 radiation sources (241Am, 133Ba, 109Cd, 57Co, 60Co, 137Cs, 152Eu, 55Fe and 153Gd) widely used in the literature. FLUKA Monte Carlo code was used to simulate interactions between X-gamma rays and semiconductor detector materials. Germanium has the highest average NDA value in the studied three semiconductors.

  8. Wide-range voltage modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider`s Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-{mu}s wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 {mu}s, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented.

  9. Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; West, W. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Huang, C.; Soler, J.; Krause, F. C.

    2012-01-01

    Met programmatic milestones for program. Demonstrated improved performance with wide operating temperature electrolytes containing ester co-solvents (i.e., methyl butyrate) containing electrolyte additives in A123 prototype cells: Previously demonstrated excellent low temperature performance, including 11C rates at -30 C and the ability to perform well down to -60 C. Excellent cycle life at room temperature has been displayed, with over 5,000 cycles being demonstrated. Good high temperature cycle life performance has also been achieved. Demonstrated improved performance with methyl propionate-containing electrolytes in large capacity prototype cells: Demonstrated the wide operating temperature range capability in large cells (12 Ah), successfully scaling up technology from 0.25 Ah size cells. Demonstrated improved performance at low temperature and good cycle life at 40 C with methyl propionate-based electrolyte containing increasing FEC content and the use of LiBOB as an additive. Utilized three-electrode cells to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of high voltage systems coupled with wide operating temperature range electrolytes: From Tafel polarization measurements on each electrode, it is evident the NMC-based cathode displays poor lithium kinetics (being the limiting electrode). The MB-based formulations containing LiBOB delivered the best rate capability at low temperature, which is attributed to improved cathode kinetics. Whereas, the use of lithium oxalate as an additive lead to the highest reversible capacity and lower irreversible losses.

  10. Research on simulation system with the wide range and high-precision laser energy characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ke-yan; Lou, Yan; He, Jing-yi; Tong, Shou-feng; Jiang, Hui-lin

    2012-10-01

    The Hardware-in-the-loop(HWIL) simulation test is one of the important parts for the development and performance testing of semi-active laser-guided weapons. In order to obtain accurate results, the confidence level of the target environment should be provided for a high-seeker during the HWIL simulation test of semi-active laser-guided weapons, and one of the important simulation parameters is the laser energy characteristic. In this paper, based on the semi-active laser-guided weapon guidance principles, an important parameter of simulation of confidence which affects energy characteristics in performance test of HWIL simulation was analyzed. According to the principle of receiving the same energy by using HWIL simulation and in practical application, HWIL energy characteristics simulation systems with the crystal absorption structure was designed. And on this basis, the problems of optimal design of the optical system were also analyzed. The measured results show that the dynamic attenuation range of the system energy is greater than 50dB, the dynamic attenuation stability is less than 5%, and the maximum energy changing rate driven by the servo motor is greater than 20dB/s.

  11. A closed-loop wide-range tunable mechanical resonator for energy harvesting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Christian; Maurath, Dominic; Schock, Wolfram; Mezger, Florian; Manoli, Yiannos

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents a novel electrically tunable structure which can be used as a resonator for vibration-based energy harvesters. The adjustment of the resonance frequency is provided by mechanical stiffening of the structure using piezoelectric actuators. This concept can easily be stand-alone integrated to realize an autonomous, tunable harvester. The resonator was simulated using ANSYS to find the optimum operation point concerning tuning range. The scalability of this tuning concept is also investigated in this work. A phase shift control circuit was developed for very efficient autonomous closed-loop control of the resonance frequency. Prototypes of the resonators were fabricated and measured with and without the control circuit. The tuning voltage can be kept as low as ±5 V leading to a measured resonance shift of ±15% for the larger resonator (40 mm) and around ±8% for the smaller resonator (27 mm). This tuning range can be simply enhanced by increasing the tuning voltage.

  12. Wide range magnetic electron spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coplan, M. A.; Wang, L.-J.; Moore, J. H.; Hoffman, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    An electron spectrogrpah is described that covers electron energies from 400 eV to 200 keV with an energy resolution of 10 percent. This overlaps the range of electrostatic deflection devices at low energy and solid state detectors at high energy. The spectrograph uses magnetic deflection of the electrons to achieve energy separation and images the full range of energies on a single plane. The magnetic circuit uses the fringing field of two axially located magnets to attain the large energy range. Six separate electron beams can be dispersed in the field, each entering the circuit from a different angle. This is a particular advantage when measuring plasma electron three-dimensional velocity distributions. The angular response of the instrument is particularly favorable and the stray magnetic field is sufficiently low to meet spacecraft requirements.

  13. A portable and wide energy range semiconductor-based neutron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshor, C. B.; Oakes, T. M.; Myers, E. R.; Rogers, B. J.; Currie, J. E.; Young, S. M.; Crow, J. A.; Scott, P. R.; Miller, W. H.; Bellinger, S. L.; Sobering, T. J.; Fronk, R. G.; Shultis, J. K.; McGregor, D. S.; Caruso, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    Hand-held instruments that can be used to passively detect and identify sources of neutron radiation-either bare or obscured by neutron moderating and/or absorbing material(s)-in real time are of interest in a variety of nuclear non-proliferation and health physics applications. Such an instrument must provide a means to high intrinsic detection efficiency and energy-sensitive measurements of free neutron fields, for neutrons ranging from thermal energies to the top end of the evaporation spectrum. To address and overcome the challenges inherent to the aforementioned applications, four solid-state moderating-type neutron spectrometers of varying cost, weight, and complexity have been designed, fabricated, and tested. The motivation of this work is to introduce these novel human-portable instruments by discussing the fundamental theory of their operation, investigating and analyzing the principal considerations for optimal instrument design, and evaluating the capability of each of the four fabricated spectrometers to meet the application needs.

  14. Wide Operating Temperature Range Electrolytes for High Voltage and High Specific Energy Li-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Hwang, C.; Krause, F. C.; Soler, J.; West, W. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Amine, K.

    2012-01-01

    A number of electrolyte formulations that have been designed to operate over a wide temperature range have been investigated in conjunction with layered-layered metal oxide cathode materials developed at Argonne. In this study, we have evaluated a number of electrolytes in Li-ion cells consisting of Conoco Phillips A12 graphite anodes and Toda HE5050 Li(1.2)Ni(0.15)Co(0.10)Mn(0.55)O2 cathodes. The electrolytes studied consisted of LiPF6 in carbonate-based electrolytes that contain ester co-solvents with various solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) promoting additives, many of which have been demonstrated to perform well in 4V systems. More specifically, we have investigated the performance of a number of methyl butyrate (MB) containing electrolytes (i.e., LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC) + ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) + MB (20:20:60 v/v %) that contain various additives, including vinylene carbonate, lithium oxalate, and lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB). When these systems were evaluated at various rates at low temperatures, the methyl butyrate-based electrolytes resulted in improved rate capability compared to cells with all carbonate-based formulations. It was also ascertained that the slow cathode kinetics govern the generally poor rate capability at low temperature in contrast to traditionally used LiNi(0.80)Co(0.15)Al(0.05)O2-based systems, rather than being influenced strongly by the electrolyte type.

  15. Shock absorber operates over wide range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creasy, W. K.; Jones, J. C.

    1965-01-01

    Piston-type hydraulic shock absorber, with a metered damping system, operates over a wide range of kinetic energy loading rates. It is used for absorbing shock and vibration on mounted machinery and heavy earth-moving equipment.

  16. Ionization By Impact Electrons in Solids: Electron Mean Free Path Fitted Over A Wide Energy Range

    SciTech Connect

    Ziaja, B; London, R A; Hajdu, J

    2005-06-09

    We propose a simple formula for fitting the electron mean free paths in solids both at high and at low electron energies. The free-electron-gas approximation used for predicting electron mean free paths is no longer valid at low energies (E < 50 eV), as the band structure effects become significant at those energies. Therefore we include the results of the band structure calculations in our fit. Finally, we apply the fit to 9 elements and 2 compounds.

  17. Equation of state for tungsten over a wide range of densities and internal energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khishchenko, K. V.

    2015-11-01

    A caloric model, which describes the pressure-density-internal-energy relationship in a broad region of condensed-phase states, is applied for tungsten. As distinct from previously known caloric equations of state for this material, a new form of the cold-compression curve at T = 0 K is used. Thermodynamic characteristics along the cold curve and shock Hugoniots are calculated for the metal and compared with some theoretical results and experimental data available at high energy densities.

  18. Wide-range CCD spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Elena A.; Reyes Cortes, Santiago D.

    1996-08-01

    The utilization of wide range spectrometers is a very important feature for the design of optical diagnostics. This paper describes an innovative approach, based on charged coupled device, which allows to analyze different spectral intervals with the same diffraction grating. The spectral interval is varied by changing the position of the entrance slit when the grating is stationary. The optical system can also include a spherical mirror. In this case the geometric position of the mirror is calculated aiming at compensating the first order astigmatism and the meridional coma of the grating. This device is planned to be used in Thomson scattering diagnostic of the TOKAMAK of Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (ISTTOK).

  19. Rotationally elastic total cross sections for NH3 on electron impact over a wide energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Limbachiya, Chetan; Antony, Bobby

    2011-10-01

    Electron molecule collisions are important over incident energy from very low (0.01 eV) to intermediate and high energies (10 keV). We present rotationally elastic total cross sections for electron scattering for NH3 from 0.01 eV to 2 keV using two different theoretical formalisms. We use Quantemol-N formalism for calculating total cross sections up to threshold of the target and the Spherical Optical Complex Potential (SCOP) method for calculating total cross sections beyond threshold up to 2 keV. Electron molecule collisions are important over incident energy from very low (0.01 eV) to intermediate and high energies (10 keV). We present rotationally elastic total cross sections for electron scattering for NH3 from 0.01 eV to 2 keV using two different theoretical formalisms. We use Quantemol-N formalism for calculating total cross sections up to threshold of the target and the Spherical Optical Complex Potential (SCOP) method for calculating total cross sections beyond threshold up to 2 keV. MVK and BA thank DST, CGL thanks UGC new Delhi.

  20. Communication: Accurate hydration free energies at a wide range of temperatures from 3D-RISM.

    PubMed

    Misin, Maksim; Fedorov, Maxim V; Palmer, David S

    2015-03-01

    We present a new model for computing hydration free energies by 3D reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) that uses an appropriate initial state of the system (as suggested by Sergiievskyi et al.). The new adjustment to 3D-RISM theory significantly improves hydration free energy predictions for various classes of organic molecules at both ambient and non-ambient temperatures. An extensive benchmarking against experimental data shows that the accuracy of the model is comparable to (much more computationally expensive) molecular dynamics simulations. The calculations can be readily performed with a standard 3D-RISM algorithm. In our work, we used an open source package AmberTools; a script to automate the whole procedure is available on the web (https://github.com/MTS-Strathclyde/ISc). PMID:25747054

  1. Wide Range SET Pulse Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L.; Chen, Li

    2012-01-01

    A method for measuring a wide range of SET pulses is demonstrated. Use of dynamic logic, faster than ordinary CMOS, allows capture of short pulses. A weighted binning of SET lengths allows measurement of a wide range of pulse lengths with compact circuitry. A pulse-length-conservative pulse combiner tree routes SETs from combinational logic to the measurement circuit, allowing SET measurements in circuits that cannot easily be arranged in long chains. The method is applied to add-multiplex combinational logic, and to an array of NFET routing switches, at .35 micron. Pulses are captured in a chain of Domino Logic AND gates. Propagation through the chain is frozen on the trailing edge by dropping low the second "enable" input to the AND gates. Capacitive loading is increased in the latter stages to create an approximately logarithmic weighted binning, so that a broad range of pulse lengths can be captured with a 10 stage capture chain. Simulations show pulses can be captured which are 1/5th the length of those typically captured with leading edge triggered latch methods, and less than the length of those captured with a trailing edge latch method. After capture, the pulse pattern is transferred to an SEU protected shift register for readout. 64 instances of each of two types of logic are used as targets. One is a full adder with a 4 to 1 mux on its inputs. The other is a 4 x 4 NFET routing matrix. The outputs are passed through buffered XNOR comparators to identify pulses, which are merged in a buffered not-nand (OR) tree designed to avoid pulse absorption as much as possible. The output from each of the two test circuits are input into separate pulse measurement circuits. Test inputs were provided so that the circuit could be bench tested and calibrated. A third SET measurement circuit with no inputs was used to judge the contribution from direct hits on the measurement circuit. Heavy ions were used with an LET range from 12 to 176. At LET of 21 and below, the very

  2. A Constant Energy-Per-Cycle Ring Oscillator Over a Wide Frequency Range for Wireless Sensor Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Inhee; Sylvester, Dennis; Blaauw, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an energy-efficient oscillator for wireless sensor nodes (WSNs). It avoids short-circuit current by minimizing the time spent in the input voltage range from Vthn to [Vdd − |Vthp|]. A current-feeding scheme with gate voltage control enables the oscillator to operate over a wide frequency range. A test chip is fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurements show that the proposed oscillator achieves a constant energy-per-cycle (EpC) of 0.8 pJ/cycle over the 21–60 MHz frequency range and is more efficient than a conventional current-starved ring oscillator (CSRO) below 300 kHz at 1.8 V supply voltage. As an application example, the proposed oscillator is implemented in a switched-capacitor DC–DC converter. The converter is 11%–56% more efficient for load power values ranging from 583 pW to 2.9 nW than a converter using a conventional CSRO. PMID:27546899

  3. Upgrades of DARWIN, a dose and spectrum monitoring system applicable to various types of radiation over wide energy ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Satoh, Daiki; Endo, Akira; Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Watanabe, Fusao; Sakurai, Hiroki; Arai, Yoichi

    2011-05-01

    A dose and spectrum monitoring system applicable to neutrons, photons and muons over wide ranges of energy, designated as DARWIN, has been developed for radiological protection in high-energy accelerator facilities. DARWIN consists of a phoswitch-type scintillation detector, a data-acquisition (DAQ) module for digital waveform analysis, and a personal computer equipped with a graphical-user-interface (GUI) program for controlling the system. The system was recently upgraded by introducing an original DAQ module based on a field programmable gate array, FPGA, and also by adding a function for estimating neutron and photon spectra based on an unfolding technique without requiring any specific scientific background of the user. The performance of the upgraded DARWIN was examined in various radiation fields, including an operational field in J-PARC. The experiments revealed that the dose rates and spectra measured by the upgraded DARWIN are quite reasonable, even in radiation fields with peak structures in terms of both spectrum and time variation. These results clearly demonstrate the usefulness of DARWIN for improving radiation safety in high-energy accelerator facilities.

  4. Wide Dynamic Range CCD Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younse, J. M.; Gove, R. J.; Penz, P. A.; Russell, D. E.

    1984-11-01

    A liquid crystal attenuator (LCA) operated as a variable neutral density filter has been attached to a charge-coupled device (CCD) imager to extend the dynamic range of a solid-state TV camera by an order of magnitude. Many applications are best served by a camera with a dynamic range of several thousand. For example, outside security systems must operate unattended with "dawn-to-dusk" lighting conditions. Although this can be achieved with available auto-iris lens assemblies, more elegant solutions which provide the small size, low power, high reliability advantages of solid state technology are now available. This paper will describe one such unique way of achieving these dynamic ranges using standard optics by making the CCD imager's glass cover a controllable neutral density filter. The liquid crystal attenuator's structure and theoretical properties for this application will be described along with measured transmittance. A small integrated TV camera which utilizes a "virtual-phase" CCD sensor coupled to a LCA will be described and test results for a number of the camera's optical and electrical parameters will be given. These include the following camera parameters: dynamic range, Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), spectral response, and uniformity. Also described will be circuitry which senses the ambient scene illuminance and automatically provides feedback signals to appropriately adjust the transmittance of the LCA. Finally, image photographs using this camera, under various scene illuminations, will be shown.

  5. A low-noise wide-dynamic-range event-driven detector using SOI pixel technology for high-energy particle imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Sumeet; Kamehama, Hiroki; Kawahito, Shoji; Yasutomi, Keita; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Takeda, Ayaki; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Arai, Yasuo

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a low-noise wide-dynamic-range pixel design for a high-energy particle detector in astronomical applications. A silicon on insulator (SOI) based detector is used for the detection of wide energy range of high energy particles (mainly for X-ray). The sensor has a thin layer of SOI CMOS readout circuitry and a thick layer of high-resistivity detector vertically stacked in a single chip. Pixel circuits are divided into two parts; signal sensing circuit and event detection circuit. The event detection circuit consisting of a comparator and logic circuits which detect the incidence of high energy particle categorizes the incident photon it into two energy groups using an appropriate energy threshold and generate a two-bit code for an event and energy level. The code for energy level is then used for selection of the gain of the in-pixel amplifier for the detected signal, providing a function of high-dynamic-range signal measurement. The two-bit code for the event and energy level is scanned in the event scanning block and the signals from the hit pixels only are read out. The variable-gain in-pixel amplifier uses a continuous integrator and integration-time control for the variable gain. The proposed design allows the small signal detection and wide dynamic range due to the adaptive gain technique and capability of correlated double sampling (CDS) technique of kTC noise canceling of the charge detector.

  6. Photoresistance analog multiplier has wide range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartenstein, R. G.

    1965-01-01

    Photoactivated bridge facilitates equal performance of analog multipliers over a wide frequency range. The multiplier operates from direct current to an upper frequency limited by either the light source or the closed-loop amplifier.

  7. Wide temperature range seal for demountable joints

    DOEpatents

    Sixsmith, Herbert; Valenzuela, Javier A.; Nutt, William E.

    1991-07-23

    The present invention is directed to a seal for demountable joints operating over a wide temperature range down to liquid helium temperatures. The seal has anti-extrusion guards which prevent extrusion of the soft ductile sealant material, which may be indium or an alloy thereof.

  8. Wide temperature range seal for demountable joints

    DOEpatents

    Sixsmith, H.; Valenzuela, J.A.; Nutt, W.E.

    1991-07-23

    The present invention is directed to a seal for demountable joints operating over a wide temperature range down to liquid helium temperatures. The seal has anti-extrusion guards which prevent extrusion of the soft ductile sealant material, which may be indium or an alloy thereof. 6 figures.

  9. Wide dynamic range beam profile monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.M.; van Dyck, O.B.; Bilskie, J.R.; Brown, D.; Hardekopf, R.

    1985-10-01

    An economical harp multiplexer system has been developed to achieve a wide dynamic range. The harp system incorporates a pneumatically actuated harp detector with ceramic boards and carbon wires; a high-sensitivity multiplexer packaged in a double-wide NIM module; and flat, shielded ribbon cable consisting of individual twisted pairs. The system multiplexes 30 wires in each of the x and y planes simultaneously and operates with or without computer control. The system has operated in beams of 100 nA to 1 mA, 1- to 120-Hz repetition rate, with a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 10/1.

  10. Wide dynamic range beam profile monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.M.; Brown, D.; Hardekopf, R.; Bilskie, J.R.; van Dyck, O.B.V.

    1985-01-01

    An economical harp multiplexer system has been developed to achieve a wide dynamic range. The harp system incorporates a pneumatically actuated harp detector with ceramic boards and carbon wires; a high-sensitivity multiplexer packaged in a double-wide NIM module; and flat, shielded ribbon cable consisting of individual twisted pairs. The system multiplexes 30 wires in each of the x and y planes simultaneously and operates with or without computer control. The system has operated in beams of 100 nA to 1 mA, 1- to 120-Hz repetition rate, with a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 10/1.

  11. Electron impact total cross sections for H2S and PH3 for a wide energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limbachiya, Chetan; Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Mason, Nigel

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we have computed total cross sections for H2S and PH3 using two different molecular codes, Quantemol N for low energy calculations and Spherical Complex Optical Potential for intermediate and high energies. We present rotationally elastic total cross sections for electron scattering from H2S and PH3, to demonstrate the possibility of producing robust cross sections from 0.01 eV to 2 keV using two different theoretical formalisms. We use the commercial Quantemol-N formalism for calculating total cross sections up to threshold of the target and the Spherical Optical Complex Potential (SCOP) method for calculating total sections beyond threshold up to 2 keV. CGL thanks UGC & MVK thanks DST for the Major research project.

  12. Logarithmic circuit with wide dynamic range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, P. H.; Manus, E. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A circuit deriving an output voltage that is proportional to the logarithm of a dc input voltage susceptible to wide variations in amplitude includes a constant current source which forward biases a diode so that the diode operates in the exponential portion of its voltage versus current characteristic, above its saturation current. The constant current source includes first and second, cascaded feedback, dc operational amplifiers connected in negative feedback circuit. An input terminal of the first amplifier is responsive to the input voltage. A circuit shunting the first amplifier output terminal includes a resistor in series with the diode. The voltage across the resistor is sensed at the input of the second dc operational feedback amplifier. The current flowing through the resistor is proportional to the input voltage over the wide range of variations in amplitude of the input voltage.

  13. Wide power range microwave feedback controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titus, L. E. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A substantially constant power level is derived over a predetermined frequency band, in each of a plurality of relatively widely spaced power ranges, from a microwave load having a predetermined amplitude versus frequency response, such as an antenna. A microwave source of substantially constant amplitude drives a forward path connected between the source and the load. A feedback path responsive to the microwave power level in the forward path derives a control voltage for the PIN attenuator. The equalizer attenuator drives a linear, crystal amplitude detector. Attenuating means included in the forward and feedback paths are selectively connected in circuit to maintain the power level of the microwave input to the amplitude detector substantially constant, even though different power ranges are supplied to the load by the forward path.

  14. Wide range radioactive gas concentration detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1984-01-01

    A wide range radioactive gas concentration detector and monitor which is capable of measuring radioactive gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude. The device of the present invention is designed to have an ionization chamber which is sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

  15. The electron spectro-microscopy beamline at National Synchrotron Light Source II: A wide photon energy range, micro-focusing beamlinefor photoelectron spectro-microscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Reininger R.; Hulbert L.; Johnson P.D.; Sadowski, J.T.; Starr, D.E.; Chubar, O.; Valla, T.; Vescovo, E.

    2012-02-13

    A comprehensive optical design for a high-resolution, high-flux, wide-energy range, micro-focused beamline working in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray photon energy range is proposed. The beamline is to provide monochromatic radiation to three photoelectron microscopes: a full-field x-ray photoelectron emission microscope and two scanning instruments, one dedicated to angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy ({micro}-ARPES) and one for ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning photoelectron microscopy (AP-XPS/SPEM). Microfocusing is achieved with state of the art elliptical cylinders, obtaining a spot size of 1 {micro}m for ARPES and 0.5 {micro}m for AP-XPS/SPEM. A detailed ray tracing analysis quantitatively evaluates the overall beamline performances.

  16. The electron spectro-microscopy beamline at National Synchrotron Light Source II: A wide photon energy range, micro-focusing beamline for photoelectron spectro-microscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Reininger, R.; Hulbert, S. L.; Chubar, O.; Vescovo, E.; Johnson, P. D.; Valla, T.; Sadowski, J. T.; Starr, D. E.

    2012-02-15

    A comprehensive optical design for a high-resolution, high-flux, wide-energy range, micro-focused beamline working in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray photon energy range is proposed. The beamline is to provide monochromatic radiation to three photoelectron microscopes: a full-field x-ray photoelectron emission microscope and two scanning instruments, one dedicated to angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy ({mu}-ARPES) and one for ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning photoelectron microscopy (AP-XPS/SPEM). Microfocusing is achieved with state of the art elliptical cylinders, obtaining a spot size of 1 {mu}m for ARPES and 0.5 {mu}m for AP-XPS/SPEM. A detailed ray tracing analysis quantitatively evaluates the overall beamline performances.

  17. Energy dependence and dose response of Gafchromic EBT2 film over a wide range of photon, electron, and proton beam energies

    SciTech Connect

    Arjomandy, Bijan; Tailor, Ramesh; Anand, Aman; Sahoo, Narayan; Gillin, Michael; Prado, Karl; Vicic, Milos

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: Since the Gafchromic film EBT has been recently replaced by the newer model EBT2, its characterization, especially energy dependence, has become critically important. The energy dependence of the dose response of Gafchromic EBT2 film is evaluated for a broad range of energies from different radiation sources used in radiation therapy. Methods: The beams used for this study comprised of kilovoltage x rays (75, 125, and 250 kVp), {sup 137}Cs gamma (662 KeV), {sup 60}Co gamma (1.17-1.33 MeV), megavoltage x rays (6 and 18 MV), electron beams (6 and 20 MeV), and proton beams (100 and 250 MeV). The film's response to each of the above energies was measured over the dose range of 0.4-10 Gy, which corresponds to optical densities ranging from 0.05 to 0.74 for the film reader used. Results: The energy dependence of EBT2 was found to be relatively small within measurement uncertainties (1{sigma}={+-}4.5%) for all energies and modalities. Conclusion: For relative and absolute dosimetry of radiation therapy beams, the weak energy dependence of the EBT2 makes it most suitable for clinical use compared to other films.

  18. Wide-range dynamic magnetic resonance elastography.

    PubMed

    Riek, Kerstin; Klatt, Dieter; Nuzha, Hassan; Mueller, Susanne; Neumann, Ulf; Sack, Ingolf; Braun, Jürgen

    2011-04-29

    Tissue mechanical parameters have been shown to be highly sensitive to disease by elastography. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in the human body relies on the low-dynamic range of tissue mechanics <100 Hz. In contrast, MRE suited for investigations of mice or small tissue samples requires vibration frequencies 10-20 times higher than those used in human MRE. The dispersion of the complex shear modulus (G(⁎)) prevents direct comparison of elastography data at different frequency bands and, consequently, frequency-independent viscoelastic models that fit to G(*) over a wide dynamic range have to be employed. This study presents data of G(*) of samples of agarose gel, liver, brain, and muscle measured by high-resolution MRE in a 7T-animal scanner at 200-800 Hz vibration frequency. Material constants μ and α according to the springpot model and related to shear elasticity and slope of the G(*)-dispersion were determined. Both μ and α of calf brain and bovine liver were found to be similar, while a sample of fibrotic human liver (METAVIR score of 3) displayed about fifteen times higher shear elasticity, similar to μ of bovine muscle measured in muscle fiber direction. α was the highest in fibrotic liver, followed by normal brain and liver, while muscle had the lowest α-values of all biological samples investigated in this study. As expected, the least G(*)-dispersion was seen in soft gel. The proposed technique of wide-range dynamic MRE can provide baseline data for both human MRE and high-dynamic MRE for better understanding tissue mechanics of different tissue structures. PMID:21295305

  19. Advanced 360o FOV, wide energy range, non-HV, gated time of flight mass spectrometers for Small Satellites and Cubesats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschalidis, N.; Jones, S.; Rodriguez, M.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Chornay, D. J.; Uribe, P.; Cameron, T.; Nanan, G.

    2015-12-01

    The time of flight technique is widely used for composition analysis of space plasma instruments. The foil - MCP/CEM combination is commonly used for E x TOF mass analysis at the cost of energy threshold, scattering, and direct particle interaction which ultimately affect performance. An alternative method especially effective at low energies is gated time of flight where the start foil is replaced with electric gating. There are several advantages of electric gating, including elimination of heavy HVPS required for pre-reacceleration to overcome foil thresholds, non- destructive interaction with atomic and molecular ions before analysis, and electronic controllability including geometric factor adjustment for flux dynamic range, FOV optimization, electronic filtering of most abundant elements in favor of minor species, and other properties affecting directly the scientific and engineering performance of the instruments. In addition special secondary emission surfaces can be used for triple coincidence when needed. The combination of electric gating and special surfaces works in an extensive energy range from 0 to tens of KeV without the need of start foil/HVPS making thus the use attractive to small satellites and cubesats. Those characteristics will be elaborated in the context of a gated time of flight wide field of view and energy range ion spectrometer combined with a neutral mass spectrometer (WINMS) developed at GSFC. The instrument prototypes have mass resolution adequate to separate N, O, OH, OH2; also static from ram moving H allowing thus separation of outgassing from ambient gases. A first implementation INMS with a mass <600 grams and size <1.5U is the main payload of the EXOCUBE Cubesat mission launched in January 2015 and already produced flight data; a second upgraded implementation is on onboard the GSFC Dellingr 6U CubeSat scheduled for launch in late 2015; and ongoing developments are baselined for other satellite missions.

  20. A wide-range phosphor thermometry technique

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, S.W.; Beshears, D.L.; Cates, M.R.; Gillies, G.T.

    1998-03-01

    Fluorescing materials exhibit a temperature dependence, which may be exploited for thermometry purposes. Solid state materials such as phosphors, glasses and crystals are examples of such and have been used in commercial instruments and various one-of-a- kind research and development applications. This area has been the subject of previous ISA papers. It is generally the case that fluorescence decay time or lifetime is the parameter that is measured in order to determine temperature for applications that do not require imaging. There are several good reasons for this. The decay time is a very sensitive function of temperature. Time- and rate-dependent methods are independent of amplitude fluctuations and are therefore not as susceptible to optical noise. In some applications, however, other aspects of the temperature-dependent fluorescence can also be useful. What follows is a description that concerns intensity-based methods and the types of applications to which they apply. The emphasis of the present work is the advantage for situations demanding a wide range and rapidly varying temperatures.

  1. A transportable source of gamma rays with discrete energies and wide range for calibration and on-site testing of gamma-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granja, Carlos; Slavicek, Tomas; Kroupa, Martin; Owens, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Janout, Zdenek; Kralik, Miloslav; Solc, Jaroslav; Valach, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    We describe a compact and transportable wide energy range, gamma-ray station for the calibration of gamma-ray sensitive devices. The station was specifically designed for the on-site testing and calibration of gamma-ray sensitive spacecraft payloads, intended for space flight on the BepiColombo and SoIar Orbiter missions of the European Space Agency. The source is intended to serve as a calibrated reference for post test center qualification of integrated payload instruments and for preflight evaluation of scientific radiation sensors. Discrete gamma rays in the energy range 100 keV-9 MeV are produced in the station with reasonable intensity using a radionuclide neutron source and 100 l of distilled water with 22 kg salt dissolved. The gamma-rays generated contain many discrete lines conveniently evenly distributed over the entire energy range. The neutron and gamma-ray fields have been simulated by Monte Carlo calculations. Results of the numerical calculations are given in the form of neutron and gamma-ray spectra as well as dose equivalent rate. The dose rate was also determined directly by dedicated dosemetric measurements. The gamma-ray field produced in the station was characterized using a conventional HPGe detector. The application of the station is demonstrated by measurements taken with a flight-qualified LaBr3:Ce scintillation detector. Gamma-ray spectra acquired by both detectors are presented. The minimum measuring times for calibration of the flight-version detector, was between 2 and 10 min (up to 6.2 MeV) and 20-30 min (up to 8 MeV), when the detector was placed at a distance 2-5 m from the station.

  2. Conductance measurement circuit with wide dynamic range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Bruce E. (Inventor); Von Esch, Myron (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A conductance measurement circuit to measure conductance of a solution under test with an output voltage proportional to conductance over a 5-decade range, i.e., 0.01 uS to 1000 uS or from 0.1 uS to 10,000 uS. An increase in conductance indicates growth, or multiplication, of the bacteria in the test solution. Two circuits are used each for an alternate half-cycle time periods of an alternate squarewave in order to cause alternate and opposite currents to be applied to the test solution. The output of one of the two circuits may be scaled for a different range optimum switching frequency dependent upon the solution conductance and to enable uninterrupted measurement over the complete 5-decade range. This circuitry provides two overlapping ranges of conductance which can be read simultaneously without discontinuity thereby eliminating range switching within the basic circuitry. A VCO is used to automatically change the operating frequency according to the particular value of the conductance being measured, and comparators indicate which range is valid and also facilitate computer-controlled data acquisition. A multiplexer may be used to monitor any number of solutions under test continuously.

  3. Wide-range radiation dose monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kopp, Manfred K.

    1986-01-01

    A radiation dose-rate monitor is provided which operates in a conventional linear mode for radiation in the 0 to 0.5 R/h range and utilizes a nonlinear mode of operation for sensing radiation from 0.5 R/h to over 500 R/h. The nonlinear mode is achieved by a feedback circuit which adjusts the high voltage bias of the proportional counter, and hence its gas gain, in accordance with the amount of radiation being monitored. This allows compression of readout onto a single scale over the range of 0 to greater than 500 R/h without scale switching operations.

  4. Wide-range radiation dose monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kopp, M.K.

    1984-09-20

    A radiation dose-rate monitor is provided which operates in a conventional linear mode for radiation in the 0 to 0.5 R/h range and utilizes a nonlinear mode of operation for sensing radiation from 0.5 R/h to over 500 R/h. The nonlinear mode is achieved by a feedback circuit which adjusts the high voltage bias of the proportional counter, and hence its gas gain, in accordance with the amount of radiation being monitored. This allows compression of readout onto a single scale over the range of 0 to greater than 500 R/h without scale switching operations.

  5. Controlling a wide range of flow rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, G. S.

    1979-01-01

    Servo-operated valve and two flowmeters allow accurate control over 1,900:1 flow-rate range. It was developed as part of laboratory instrument for measuring properties of confined fluids under conditions analogous to those encountered in deep drilling operations.

  6. Wide-Temperature-Range Integrated Operational Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad; Levanas, Greg; Chen, Yuan; Kolawa, Elizabeth; Cozy, Raymond; Blalock, Benjamin; Greenwell, Robert; Terry, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    A document discusses a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated- circuit operational amplifier to be replicated and incorporated into sensor and actuator systems of Mars-explorer robots. This amplifier is designed to function at a supply potential less than or equal to 5.5 V, at any temperature from -180 to +120 C. The design is implemented on a commercial radiation-hard SOI CMOS process rated for a supply potential of less than or equal to 3.6 V and temperatures from -55 to +110 C. The design incorporates several innovations to achieve this, the main ones being the following: NMOS transistor channel lengths below 1 m are generally not used because research showed that this change could reduce the adverse effect of hot carrier injection on the lifetimes of transistors at low temperatures. To enable the amplifier to withstand the 5.5-V supply potential, a circuit topology including cascade devices, clamping devices, and dynamic voltage biasing was adopted so that no individual transistor would be exposed to more than 3.6 V. To minimize undesired variations in performance over the temperature range, the transistors in the amplifier are biased by circuitry that maintains a constant inversion coefficient over the temperature range.

  7. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, B.M.; Miyano, K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1981-03-05

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed.

  8. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Bernard M.; Miyano, Kenjiro; Ketterson, John B.

    1983-01-01

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed.

  9. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, B.M.; Miyano, K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-11-08

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed. 5 figs.

  10. Improved Wide Operating Temperature Range of Li-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2013-01-01

    Future NASA missions aimed at exploring the Moon, Mars, and the outer planets require rechargeable batteries that can operate over a wide temperature range (-60 to +60 C) to satisfy the requirements of various applications including landers, rovers, penetrators, CEV, CLV, etc. This work addresses the need for robust rechargeable batteries that can operate well over a wide temperature range. The Department of Energy (DoE) has identified a number of technical barriers associated with the development of Liion rechargeable batteries for PHEVs. For this reason, DoE has interest in the development of advanced electrolytes that will improve performance over a wide range of temperatures, and lead to long life characteristics (5,000 cycles over a 10-year life span). There is also interest in improving the high-voltage stability of these candidate electrolyte systems to enable the operation of up to 5 V with high specific energy cathode materials. Currently, the state-of-the-art lithium-ion system has been demonstrated to operate over a wide range of temperatures (-40 to +40 C); however, the rate capability at the lower temperatures is very poor. In addition, the low-temperature performance typically deteriorates rapidly upon being exposed to high temperatures. A number of electrolyte formulations were developed that incorporate the use of electrolyte additives to improve the high-temperature resilience, low-temperature power capability, and life characteristics of methyl propionate (MP)-based electrolyte solutions. These electrolyte additives include mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), lithium oxalate, vinylene carbonate (VC), and lithium bis(oxalate borate) (LiBOB), which have previously been shown to result in improved high-temperature resilience of all carbonate-based electrolytes. These MP-based electrolytes with additives have been shown to have improved performance in experiments with MCMB-LiNiCoAlO2 cells.

  11. Differential and integral electron scattering cross sections from tetrahydrofuran (THF) over a wide energy range: 1-10 000 eV*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuss, Martina C.; Sanz, Ana G.; Blanco, Francisco; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Brunger, Michael J.; García, Gustavo

    2014-06-01

    Total, integral inelastic and integral and differential elastic cross sections have been calculated with the screening-corrected additivity rule (SCAR) method based on the independent atom model (IAM) for electron scattering from tetrahydrofuran (THF). Since the permanent dipole moment of THF enhances rotational excitation particularly at low energies and for small angles, an estimate of the rotational excitation cross section was also computed by assuming the interaction with a free electric dipole as an independent, additional process. Our theoretical results compare very favourably to the existing experimental data. Finally, a self-consistent set of integral and differential interaction CSs for the incident energy range 1 eV-10 keV is established for use in our low energy particle track simulation (LEPTS). All cross section data are supplied numerically in tabulated form.

  12. Wide-Band KB Optics for Spectro-Microscopy Imaging Applications in the 6-13 keV X-ray Energy Range

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, E.; De Panfilis, S.; Peverini, L.; Vaerenbergh, P. van; Rocca, F.

    2007-01-19

    We present a Kirkpatrick-Baez optics (KB) system specially optimized to operate in the 6-13 keV X-ray range, where valuable characteristic lines are present. The mirrors are coated with aperiodic laterally graded (Ru/B4C)35 multilayers to define a 15% energy bandpass and to gain flux as compared to total reflection mirrors. For any X-ray energy selected the shape of each mirror can be optimized with a dynamical bending system so as to concentrate the X-ray beam into a micrometer-size spot. Once the KB mirrors are aligned at the X-ray energy corresponding to the barycenter of the XAS spectrum to be performed they remain in a steady state during the micro-XAS scans to minimize beam displacements. Results regarding the performance of the wideband KB optics and of the spectro-microscopy setup are presented, including beam stability issues.

  13. A New Wide-Range Equation of State for Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, John H.

    2011-06-01

    We describe the development of a new wide-range equation of state (EOS) for xenon. Three different prior EOS models predicted significant variations in behavior along the high pressure Hugoniot from an initial liquid state at 163.5 K and 2.97 g/cm3, which is near the triple point. Experimental measurements on Sandia's Z machine as well as density functional theory based molecular dynamics calculations both invalidate the prior EOS models in the pressure range from 200 to 840 GPa. The reason behind these EOS model disagreements is found to lie in the contribution from the thermal electronic models. A new EOS, based upon the standard separation of the Helmholtz free energy into ionic and electronic components, is constructed by combining the successful parts of prior models with a semi-empirical electronic model. Both the fluid and fcc solid phases are combined in a wide-range, multi-phase table. The new EOS is tabulated on a fine temperature and density grid, to preserve phase boundary information, and is available as table number 5191 in the LANL SESAME database. Improvements over prior EOS models are found not only along the Hugoniot, but also along the melting curve and in the region of the liquid-vapor critical point. *Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. Range-wide patterns of greater sage-grouse persistence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldridge, C.L.; Nielsen, S.E.; Beyer, H.L.; Boyce, M.S.; Connelly, J.W.; Knick, S.T.; Schroeder, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a shrub-steppe obligate species of western North America, currently occupies only half its historical range. Here we examine how broad-scale, long-term trends in landscape condition have affected range contraction. Location: Sagebrush biome of the western USA. Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess persistence and extirpation of greater sage-grouse range based on landscape conditions measured by human population (density and population change), vegetation (percentage of sagebrush habitat), roads (density of and distance to roads), agriculture (cropland, farmland and cattle density), climate (number of severe and extreme droughts) and range periphery. Model predictions were used to identify areas where future extirpations can be expected, while also explaining possible causes of past extirpations. Results: Greater sage-grouse persistence and extirpation were significantly related to sagebrush habitat, cultivated cropland, human population density in 1950, prevalence of severe droughts and historical range periphery. Extirpation of sage-grouse was most likely in areas having at least four persons per square kilometre in 1950, 25% cultivated cropland in 2002 or the presence of three or more severe droughts per decade. In contrast, persistence of sage-grouse was expected when at least 30 km from historical range edge and in habitats containing at least 25% sagebrush cover within 30 km. Extirpation was most often explained (35%) by the combined effects of peripherality (within 30 km of range edge) and lack of sagebrush cover (less than 25% within 30 km). Based on patterns of prior extirpation and model predictions, we predict that 29% of remaining range may be at risk. Main Conclusions: Spatial patterns in greater sage-grouse range contraction can be explained by widely available landscape variables that describe patterns of remaining sagebrush habitat and loss due to cultivation, climatic trends, human

  15. EBT2 film as a depth-dose measurement tool for radiotherapy beams over a wide range of energies and modalities

    SciTech Connect

    Arjomandy, Bijan; Tailor, Ramesh; Zhao Li; Devic, Slobodan

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: One of the fundamental parameters used for dose calculation is percentage depth-dose, generally measured employing ionization chambers. There are situations where use of ion chambers for measuring depth-doses is difficult or problematic. In such cases, radiochromic film might be an alternative. The EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film was investigated as a potential tool for depth-dose measurement in radiotherapy beams over a broad range of energies and modalities. Methods: Pieces of the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC EBT2 film were exposed to x-ray, electron, and proton beams used in radiotherapy. The beams employed for this study included kilovoltage x-rays (75 kVp), {sup 60}Co gamma-rays, megavoltage x-rays (18 MV), electrons (7 and 20 MeV), and pristine Bragg-peak proton beams (126 and 152 MeV). At each beam quality, film response was measured over the dose range of 0.4-8.0 Gy, which corresponds to optical densities ranging from 0.05 to 0.4 measured with a flat-bed document scanner. To assess precision in depth-dose measurements with the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film, uncertainty in measured optical density was investigated with respect to variation in film-to-film and scanner-bed uniformity. Results: For most beams, percentage depth-doses measured with the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film show an excellent agreement with those measured with ion chambers. Some discrepancies are observed in case of (i) kilovoltage x-rays at larger depths due to beam-hardening, and (ii) proton beams around Bragg-peak due to quenching effects. For these beams, an empirical polynomial correction produces better agreement with ion-chamber data. Conclusions: The EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film is an excellent secondary dosimeter for measurement of percentage depth-doses for a broad range of beam qualities and modalities used in radiotherapy. It offers an easy and efficient way to measure beam depth-dose data with a high spatial resolution.

  16. Automatic gain control circuit handles wide input range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, S. H.

    1966-01-01

    Automatic gain control circuit for a radio receiver handles a wide range of input signal levels without overloading the output stage. The transistorized circuit maintains a relatively constant output by varying attenuation of the input signal.

  17. Dynamically stable check valve concept for wide flow range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Absalom, J. G.

    1968-01-01

    Poppet-type check valve design accommodates a wide flow range without the usual chatter problem at low flow conditions. This pressure isolation check valve is proposed for the J-2 rocket pneumatic package.

  18. Optical galaxy cluster detection across a wide redshift range

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Jiangang

    2009-04-01

    bands is very efficient. Multi-color CCD photometry allows combined detection and redshift estimation for clusters across broad redshift ranges. However, the lack of precise information about galaxy positions along the line of sight leads to contamination by projection, which plagues both cluster detection and the measurement of their properties. The dominance of red sequence galaxies, tightly clustered along the E/S0 ridgeline, provides a powerful method for de-projecting field galaxies. We developed an Error Corrected Gaussian Mixture Model to fit the galaxies color distribution around clusters by taking into account the measurement errors. By this technique, we can detect the red sequence color clustering and extract unbiased information about the evolution of the red sequence ridgeline and its width. Precision measurements of ridgelines yields better estimates of cluster richness and possibly their dynamical state, leading to better estimates of cluster mass. By using the red sequence clustering in color space identified from the Error Corrected Gaussian Mixture Model, together with the projected NFW filter in the projected RA/DEC plane, we developed a new and efficient cluster finding algorithm that can reliably detect galaxy clusters across the redshift range from 0.1 to 1.4. We have also run the cluster finder on legacy SDSS DR7 data and assembled an approximately volume limited cluster catalog across redshifts from 0.1 to 0.5. The algorithm has been tested against a Monte Carlo mock catalog, showing the identified clusters are highly complete and pure. With the completion of this thesis, we build the first and essential step towards precision cluster cosmology. Meanwhile, the large optical cluster catalog across a wide redshift range makes possible the systematic and detailed investigation of cluster formation and evolution.

  19. Switched-capacitor neuromorphs with wide-range variable dynamics.

    PubMed

    Elias, J G; Northmore, D M

    1995-01-01

    The use of switched capacitors as wide-range, programmable resistive elements in spatially extensive artificial dendritic trees (ADT's) is described. We show that silicon neuro-morphs with ADT's can produce impulse responses that last millions of times longer than the initiating impulse and that dynamical responses are tunable in both shape and duration over a wide range. The switched-capacitor resistors forming a dendritic tree are shown indirectly to have a useful programmable resistance range between 500 KOmega and 1000 GOmega. Experimental results are presented that show variable impulse response functions, tunable frequency selectivity, and rate-invariance of spatiotemporal pattern responses. PMID:18263448

  20. Range-wide success of red-cockaded woodpecker translocations.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, John W.; Costa, Ralph

    2004-12-31

    Edwards, John W.; Costa, Ralph. 2004. Range-wide success of red-cockaded woodpecker translocations. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 6. Translocation. Pp 307-311. Abstract: Red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) have declined range-wide during the past century, suffering from habitat loss and the effects of fire exclusion in older southern pine forests. Red-cockaded woodpecker translocations are a potentially important tool in conservation efforts to reestablish red-cockaded woodpeckers in areas from which they have been extirpated. Currently, translocations are critical in ongoing efforts to save and restore the many existing small populations. We examined the effects of demographic and environmental factors on the range-wide success of translocations between 1989 and 1995.

  1. Home on the Wide-Open Range of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beemyn, Genny

    2011-01-01

    Kate Bornstein and S. Bear Bergman's "Gender Outlaws: The Next Generation" is a collection of narratives written by individuals with a wide range of gender identities and expressions from around the world. The text shows how gender-nonconforming people are changing how society looks at gender. As many of the individuals who are challenging gender…

  2. Superconducting conductivity modulator for wide helium-temperature range

    SciTech Connect

    Tszyan, Y.N.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a thermomagnetic method of periodic switching of wire superconductors to the resistive state. A modulator operating on this principle over a wide range of helium temperatures with an internal-noise level of about10 TV is described.

  3. Electron-impact rotationally elastic total cross sections for H{sub 2}CO and HCOOH over a wide range of incident energy (0.01-2000 eV)

    SciTech Connect

    Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Bhutadia, Harshad; Antony, Bobby; Mason, Nigel

    2011-11-15

    This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on H{sub 2}CO and HCOOH over a wide range of electron impact energies from 0.01 eV to 2 keV. The total cross section is presented as sum of the elastic and electronic excitation cross sections for incident energies. The calculation uses two different methodologies, below the ionization threshold of the target the cross section is calculated using the UK molecular R-matrix code through the Quantemol-N software package while cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent at the transition energy ({approx}15 eV). The present results are, in general, found to be in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results (wherever available) and, thus, the present results can serve as a benchmark for the cross section over a wide range of energy.

  4. Energy Dependence of Directed Flow over a Wide Range of Pseudorapidity in Au+Au Collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Hauer, M.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2006-07-01

    We report on measurements of directed flow as a function of pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at energies of sNN=19.6, 62.4, 130 and 200 GeV as measured by the PHOBOS detector at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. These results are particularly valuable because of the extensive, continuous pseudorapidity coverage of the PHOBOS detector. There is no significant indication of structure near midrapidity and the data surprisingly exhibit extended longitudinal scaling similar to that seen for elliptic flow and charged particle pseudorapidity density.

  5. A Wide Dynamic Range Tapped Linear Array Image Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washkurak, William D.; Chamberlain, Savvas G.; Prince, N. Daryl

    1988-08-01

    Detectors for acousto-optic signal processing applications require fast transient response as well as wide dynamic range. There are two major choices of detectors: conductive or integration mode. Conductive mode detectors have an initial transient period before they reach then' i equilibrium state. The duration of 1 his period is dependent on light level as well as detector capacitance. At low light levels a conductive mode detector is very slow; response time is typically on the order of milliseconds. Generally. to obtain fast transient response an integrating mode detector is preferred. With integrating mode detectors. the dynamic range is determined by the charge storage capability of the tran-sport shift registers and the noise level of the image sensor. The conventional net hod used to improve dynamic range is to increase the shift register charge storage capability. To achieve a dynamic range of fifty thousand assuming two hundred noise equivalent electrons, a charge storage capability of ten million electrons would be required. In order to accommodate this amount of charge. unrealistic shift registers widths would be required. Therefore, with an integrating mode detector it is difficult to achieve a dynamic range of over four orders of magnitude of input light intensity. Another alternative is to solve the problem at the photodetector aml not the shift, register. DALSA's wide dynamic range detector utilizes an optimized, ion implant doped, profiled MOSFET photodetector specifically designed for wide dynamic range. When this new detector operates at high speed and at low light levels the photons are collected and stored in an integrating fashion. However. at bright light levels where transient periods are short, the detector switches into a conductive mode. The light intensity is logarithmically compressed into small charge packets, easily carried by the CCD shift register. As a result of the logarithmic conversion, dynamic ranges of over six orders of

  6. Wide temperature range electronic device with lead attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A electronic device including lead attachment structure which permits operation of the devices over a wide temperature range is reported. The device comprises a core conductor having a thin coating of metal thereon whereby only a limited amount of coating material is available to form an alloy which bonds the core conductor to the device electrode, the electrode composition thus being affected only in the region adjacent to the lead.

  7. Distant and wide range wireless power transfer from metamedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Luo, Xudong; Ma, Hongru

    2016-07-01

    Based on electromagnetic scattering theory, a model of superscatterer enhanced distant wireless power transfer (WPT) device has designed and analyzed with the concept of transformation optics. The numerical results obtained through a series expansion method reveal that a properly designed ss-WPT has high efficiency for long transfer distances as well as a wide transfer range. The transfer distance can be further enlarged by fine tuning of the design. These effects can be explained qualitatively through the study of magnetic flux.

  8. Optical characterization in wide spectral range by a coherent spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirutkaitis, Valdas; Eckardt, Robert C.; Balachninaite, Ona; Grigonis, Rimantas; Melninkaitis, A.; Rakickas, T.

    2003-11-01

    We report on the development and use of coherent spectrophotometers specialized for the unusual requirements of characterizing nonlinear optical materials and multilayer dielectric coatings used in laser systems. A large dynamic range is required to measure the linear properties of transmission, reflection and absorption and nonlinear properties of laser-induced damage threshold and nonlinear frequency conversion. Optical parametric oscillators generate coherent radiation that is widely tunable with instantaneous powers that can range from milliwatts to megawatts and are well matched to this application. As particular example a laser spectrophotometer based on optical parametric oscillators and a diode-pumped, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and suitable for optical characterization in the spectral range 420-4500 nm is described. Measurements include reflectance and transmittance, absorption, scattering and laser-induced damage thresholds. Possibilities of a system based on a 130-fs Ti:sapphire laser and optical parametric generators are also discussed.

  9. Low Power, Wide Dynamic Range Carbon Nanotube Vacuum Gauges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Manohara, Harish M.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation presents carbon nanotube vacuum pressure sensor gauges that operate at low power and exhibit a wide-dynamic range based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. The fabrication facility, and the formation process are shown. Pressure sensitivity was found to increase rapidly as the bias power was increased. In addition, by etching part of the thermal SiO2 beneath the tubes and minimizing heat conduction through the substrate, pressure sensitivity was extended toward lower pressures. Results are compared to a conventional thin film meander resistor, which was fabricated and whose pressure response was also measured for comparative purposes.

  10. A Wide Range Neutron Detector for Space Nuclear Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nassif, Eduardo; Sismonda, Miguel; Matatagui, Emilio; Pretorius, Stephan

    2007-01-30

    We propose here a versatile and innovative solution for monitoring and controlling a space-based nuclear reactor that is based on technology already proved in ground based reactors. A Wide Range Neutron Detector (WRND) allows for a reduction in the complexity of space based nuclear instrumentation and control systems. A ground model, predecessor of the proposed system, has been installed and is operating at the OPAL (Open Pool Advanced Light Water Research Reactor) in Australia, providing long term functional data. A space compatible Engineering Qualification Model of the WRND has been developed, manufactured and verified satisfactorily by analysis, and is currently under environmental testing.

  11. Amplifier circuit operable over a wide temperature range

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Ronald D.; Cannon, William L.

    1979-01-01

    An amplifier circuit having stable performance characteristics over a wide temperature range from approximately 0.degree. C up to as high as approximately 500.degree. C, such as might be encountered in a geothermal borehole. The amplifier utilizes ceramic vacuum tubes connected in directly coupled differential amplifier pairs having a common power supply and a cathode follower output stage. In an alternate embodiment, for operation up to 500.degree. C, positive and negative power supplies are utilized to provide improved gain characteristics, and all electrical connections are made by welding. Resistor elements in this version of the invention are specially heat treated to improve their stability with temperature.

  12. Ozone formation in pulsed SDBD in a wide pressure range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starikovskiy, Andrey; Nudnova, Maryia; mipt Team

    2011-10-01

    Ozone concentration in surface anode-directed DBD for wide pressure range (150 - 1300 torr) was experimentally measured. Voltage and pressure effect were investigated. Reduced electric field was measured for anode-directed and cathode-directed SDBD. E/n values in cathode-directed SDBD is higher than in cathode-directed on 50 percent at atmospheric pressure. E/n value increase leads to decrease the rate of oxygen dissociation and Ozone formation at lower pressures. Radiating region thickness of sliding discharge was measured. Typical thickness of radiating zone is 0.4-1.0 mm within pressure range 220-740 torr. It was shown that high-voltage pulsed nanosecond discharge due to high E/n value produces less Ozone with compare to other discharges. Kinetic model was proposed to describe Ozone formation in the pulsed nanosecond SDBD.

  13. Development of a wide-range tritium-concentration detector

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, F.; Zhe, L.; Shicheng, L.; Jiangfeng, S.; Deli, L.

    2015-03-15

    According to the requirements of the tritium related systems of the TBM (Test Blanket Module) for monitoring the on-line tritium concentration, a wide-range tritium-concentration detector has been developed to measure the tritium concentration in the range of 10{sup 4} Bq/ml - 5*10{sup 8} Bq/ml. This detector is combined with a low-memory helium ionization chamber. The weak current signal collected in the ionization chamber is converted to the voltage signal by an I-V converter. The minimum weak current which the detector could be measured is 10{sup -14} A. The performance of the background current and the current response linearity of the prototype have been tested. The test result indicates that the linear response of the current signal of the prototype without connecting the ionization chamber is good. The linear correlation coefficient is R{sup 2} = 0.998.

  14. Infrared optical element mounting techniques for wide temperature ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Saggin, Bortolino; Tarabini, Marco; Scaccabarozzi, Diego

    2010-01-20

    We describe the optimization of a mounting system for the infrared (IR) optics of a spaceborne interferometer working in the temperature range between -120 deg. C and +150 deg. C. The concept is based on an aluminum alloy frame with designed mechanical compliance, which allows for compensation of the different coefficient of thermal expansion between the optics and the holder; at the same time, the system provides for the high stiffness required to reach natural frequencies above 200 Hz, which are mandatory in most space missions. Thermal adapters with properly chosen thermomechanical characteristics are interposed between the metallic structure and the lens, so as to reduce the interface stresses on the mechanically weak IR material, due to both the thermoelastic and acceleration loads. With the proposed mount, the competitive requirements of stiffness and stress-free mounting can be matched in wide temperature ranges. The case study of the interferometer of a miniaturized Fourier transform IR spectrometer is presented.

  15. A Wide Range Temperature Sensor Using SOI Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Elbuluk, Malik E.; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology is becoming widely used in integrated circuit chips for its advantages over the conventional silicon counterpart. The decrease in leakage current combined with lower power consumption allows electronics to operate in a broader temperature range. This paper describes the performance of an SOIbased temperature sensor under extreme temperatures and thermal cycling. The sensor comprised of a temperature-to-frequency relaxation oscillator circuit utilizing an SOI precision timer chip. The circuit was evaluated under extreme temperature exposure and thermal cycling between -190 C and +210 C. The results indicate that the sensor performed well over the entire test temperature range and it was able to re-start at extreme temperatures.

  16. Wide-range radioactive-gas-concentration detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.

    1981-11-16

    A wide-range radioactive-gas-concentration detector and monitor capable of measuring radioactive-gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude is described. The device is designed to have an ionization chamber sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel-plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel-plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization-chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

  17. The All-Particle Spectrum of Primary Cosmic Rays in the Wide Energy Range from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 17} eV Observed with the Tibet-III Air-Shower Array

    SciTech Connect

    Amenomori, M.; Bi, X. J.; Ding, L. K.; Feng, Zhaoyang; He, H. H.; Hu, H. B.; Chen, D.; Cui, S. W.; Danzengluobu; Ding, X. H.; Guo, H. W.; Hu, Haibing; Fan, C.; Feng, C. F.; He, M.; Feng, Z. Y.; Gao, X. Y.; Geng, Q. X.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.

    2008-05-10

    We present an updated all-particle energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays in a wide range from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 17} eV using 5.5 x 10{sup 7} events collected from 2000 November through 2004 October by the Tibet-III air-shower array located 4300 m above sea level (an atmospheric depth of 606 g cm{sup -2}). The size spectrum exhibits a sharp knee at a corresponding primary energy around 4 PeV. This work uses increased statistics and new simulation calculations for the analysis. We discuss our extensive Monte Carlo calculations and the model dependencies involved in the final result, assuming interaction models QGSJET01c and SIBYLL2.1, and heavy dominant (HD) and proton dominant (PD) primary composition models. Pure proton and pure iron primary models are also examined as extreme cases. A detector simulation was also performed to improve our accuracy in determining the size of the air showers and the energy of the primary particle. We confirmed that the all-particle energy spectra obtained under various plausible model parameters are not significantly different from each other, which was the expected result given the characteristics of the experiment at high altitude, where the air showers of the primary energy around the knee reach near-maximum development, with their features dominated by electromagnetic components, leading to a weak dependence on the interaction model or the primary mass. This is the highest statistical and the best systematics-controlled measurement covering the widest energy range around the knee energy region.

  18. Innovative static spectropolarimeter concept for wide spectral ranges: tolerancing study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pertenais, Martin; Neiner, Coralie; Parès, Laurent; Petit, Pascal

    2015-09-01

    Developing an efficient and robust polarimeter for wide spectral ranges and space applications is a main issue in many projects. As part of the UVMag consortium created to develop UV facilities in space (e.g. the Arago mission proposed to ESA), we are studying an innovative concept of polarimeter that is robust, simple, and efficient on a wide spectral range. The idea, based on the article by Sparks et al. (2012), is to use polarization scramblers to create a spatial modulation of the polarization. Along the height of the wedges of the scramblers, the thickness of the birefringent material crossed by the light, and thus the retardance, vary continuously. This variation creates an intensity modulation of the light related to the entrance polarization state. Analyzing this modulation with a linear polarizer, and dispersing the light spectrally in the orthogonal spatial direction, enables the measurement of the full Stokes vector over the entire spectrum. This determination is performed with a single-shot measurement and without any moving parts in the system. After a quick introduction to the concept and optical design, this article presents the tolerancing study of the optical bench using this spectropolarimeter. The impact of different error sources, such as, birefringence uncertainty or decenter of the wedges, is investigated.

  19. Modelling of monovacancy diffusion in W over wide temperature range

    SciTech Connect

    Bukonte, L. Ahlgren, T.; Heinola, K.

    2014-03-28

    The diffusion of monovacancies in tungsten is studied computationally over a wide temperature range from 1300 K until the melting point of the material. Our modelling is based on Molecular Dynamics technique and Density Functional Theory. The monovacancy migration barriers are calculated using nudged elastic band method for nearest and next-nearest neighbour monovacancy jumps. The diffusion pre-exponential factor for monovacancy diffusion is found to be two to three orders of magnitude higher than commonly used in computational studies, resulting in attempt frequency of the order 10{sup 15} Hz. Multiple nearest neighbour jumps of monovacancy are found to play an important role in the contribution to the total diffusion coefficient, especially at temperatures above 2/3 of T{sub m}, resulting in an upward curvature of the Arrhenius diagram. The probabilities for different nearest neighbour jumps for monovacancy in W are calculated at different temperatures.

  20. Paramagnetic shimming for wide-range variable-field NMR.

    PubMed

    Ichijo, Naoki; Takeda, Kazuyuki; Takegoshi, K

    2014-09-01

    We propose a new passive shimming strategy for variable-field NMR experiments, in which the magnetic field produced by paramagnetic shim pieces placed inside the magnet bore compensates the inhomogeneity of a variable-field magnet for a wide range of magnet currents. Paramagnetic shimming is demonstrated in (7)Li, (87)Rb, and (45)Sc NMR of a liquid solution sample in magnetic fields of 3.4, 4.0, and 5.4T at a fixed carrier frequency of 56.0MHz. Since both the main-field inhomogeneity and the paramagnetic magnetization are proportional to the main-magnet current, the resonance lines are equally narrowed by the improved field homogeneity with an identical configuration of the paramagnetic shim pieces. Paramagnetic shimming presented in this work opens the possibility of high-resolution variable-field NMR experiments. PMID:25080372

  1. Wide Range Neutron Flux Measuring Channel for Aerospace Application

    SciTech Connect

    Cibils, R. M.; Busto, A.; Gonella, J. L.; Martinez, R.; Chielens, A. J.; Otero, J. M.; Nunez, M.; Tropea, S. E.

    2008-01-21

    The use of classical techniques for neutron flux measurements in nuclear reactors involves the switching between several detection chains as the power grows up to 10 decades. In space applications where mass and size constraints are of key significance, such volume of hardware represents a clear disadvantage. Instead of requiring different instruments for each reactor operating range (start-up, ramping-up, and nominal power), a single instrument chain should be desirable. A Wide Range Neutron Detector (WRND) system, combining a classic pulse Counting Channel with a Campbell's theorem based Fluctuation Channel can be implemented for the monitoring and control of a space nuclear reactor. Such an instrument will allow for a reduction in the complexity of space-based nuclear instrumentation and control systems. In this presentation we will discuss the criteria and tradeoffs involved in the development of such a system. We will focus particularly on the characteristics of the System On Chip (SOC) and the DSP board used to implement this instrument.

  2. Wide range load controllable MCFC cycle with pressure swing operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshiba, Fumihiko; Izaki, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Takao

    Partial load efficiencies of a natural gas fuelled MCFC/GT system are calculated; the efficiencies of four systems are compared. A constant pressure air compressor is applied in system cases 1 and 2, whereas a pressure swing air compressor is provided in system cases 3 and 4. A gas cooler is integrated in the cathode gas recycling line of cases 2-4, and an anode recycling with sub-reformer is provided in case 4. The cathode pressure loss in the MCFC stack is kept below 3 kPa during the calculation procedure to avoid a leakage of cathode gas. The range of the power load is limited to 50-100% in the constant operating pressure system (cases 1 and 2), mainly because of the limited cathode gas pressure loss of 3 kPa. The range of the power load is enlarged to 20-100% in cases 3 and 4 by combining the pressure swing operation with gas cooling in the cathode recycling line. In system cases 3 and 4, the efficiency at the lowest load operation (approx. 20-30% load) remains over 35% HHV-CH 4, whereas the maximum efficiency is calculated to be 53% HHV-CH 4 in middle load operation; the efficiency of case 4 at 100% load is estimated to be 50% HHV-CH 4. The combination of the pressure swing operation and gas cooling in the cathode recycling line offers a high efficiency of the MCFC system in a wide range of loads.

  3. Compression of polypropylene across a wide range of strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okereke, M. I.; Buckley, C. P.; Siviour, C. R.

    2012-11-01

    Three grades of polypropylene were tested in uniaxial compression at room temperature, across a wide range of strain rate: 10-4 s-1 to 104 s-1. One grade is a conventional polypropylene homopolymer. The two other grades are the polypropylene forming the matrix phase of a continuous glass fibre-reinforced thermoplastic composite prepreg, with and without blending with a carbon-black master batch. Tests at the highest strain rates were performed using a compression split Hopkinson pressure bar. The test specimens, for all the three rates, were imaged using appropriate digital cameras in order to observe the deformation process. In addition, the images obtained were analysed digitally to obtain true strain measurements for the medium rates category. All three grades of polypropylene showed pronounced strain-rate dependence of compressive yield stress, increasing by factors of up to 4 across the range of rates. At the lowest rates, there was close agreement between the yield stresses for all three materials, and also close agreement with the Eyring theory. Considering the highest strain rates, however, yield stresses increased more rapidly with log(strain-rate) than would be expected from a linear Eyring prediction and values for the three materials diverged. This was attributed to the contributions made in each material by both alpha and beta relaxation processes. Also prominent in the medium- and high-rate experimental results was pronounced post-yield strain softening, greatest at the highest strain-rates. This resulted from a combination of thermal softening from adiabatic heating, and structural rejuvenation as often seen in glassy polymers in quasi-static tests.

  4. Wide-range displacement expressions for standard fracture mechanics specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapp, J. A.; Gross, B.; Leger, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    Wide-range algebraic expressions for the displacement of cracked fracture mechanics specimens are developed. For each specimen two equations are given: one for the displacement as a function of crack length, the other for crack length as a function of displacement. All the specimens that appear in ASTM Test for Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness of Metallic Materials (E 399) are represented in addition to the crack mouth displacement for a pure bending specimen. For the compact tension sample and the disk-shaped compact tension sample, the displacement at the crack mouth and at the load line are both considered. Only the crack mouth displacements for the arc-shaped tension samples are presented. The agreement between the displacements or crack lengths predicted by the various equations and the corresponding numerical data from which they were developed are nominally about 3 percent or better. These expressions should be useful in all types of fracture testing including fracture toughness, K-resistance, and fatigue crack growth.

  5. Wide range modeling study of dimethyl ether oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, W.J.; Marinov, N.M.; Westbrook, C.K.; Dagaut, P.; Boettner, J-C; Cathonnet, M.

    1997-04-01

    A detailed chemical kinetic model has been used to study dimethyl ether (DME) oxidation over a wide range of conditions. Experimental results obtained in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) at I and 10 atm, 0.2 < 0 < 2.5, and 800 < T < 1300 K were modeled, in addition to those generated in a shock tube at 13 and 40 bar, 0 = 1.0 and 650 :5 T :5 1300 K. The JSR results are particularly valuable as they include concentration profiles of reactants, intermediates and products pertinent to the oxidation of DME. These data test the Idnetic model severely, as it must be able to predict the correct distribution and concentrations of intermediate and final products formed in the oxidation process. Additionally, the shock tube results are very useful, as they were taken at low temperatures and at high pressures, and thus undergo negative temperature dependence (NTC) behavior. This behavior is characteristic of the oxidation of saturated hydrocarbon fuels, (e.g. the primary reference fuels, n-heptane and iso- octane) under similar conditions. The numerical model consists of 78 chemical species and 336 chemical reactions. The thermodynamic properties of unknown species pertaining to DME oxidation were calculated using THERM.

  6. Circularly Polarized Antenna with Wide Projection and Range: A Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanAtta, L. C.; Mailloux, R. J.

    1970-01-01

    The slotted antenna structure discussed in this tech brief radiates a circularly polarized beam pattern over a wide angle. The basic structure, composed of waveguide slots, can be flush mounted in an airplane or spacecraft, and could be used in the communication link between an airplane and an air traffic satellite.

  7. Dissociation and ionization equilibria of deuterium fluid over a wide range of temperatures and densities

    SciTech Connect

    Zaghloul, Mofreh R.

    2015-06-15

    We investigate the dissociation and ionization equilibria of deuterium fluid over a wide range of temperatures and densities. The partition functions for molecular and atomic species are evaluated, in a statistical-mechanically consistent way, implementing recent developments in the literature and taking high-density effects into account. A new chemical model (free energy function) is introduced in which the fluid is considered as a mixture of diatomic molecules, atoms, ions, and free electrons. Intensive short range hard core repulsion is taken into account together with partial degeneracy of free electrons and Coulomb interactions among charged particles. Samples of computational results are presented as a set of isotherms for the degree of ionization, dissociated fraction of molecules, pressure, and specific internal energy for a wide range of densities and temperatures. Predictions from the present model calculations show an improved and sensible physical behavior compared to other results in the literature.

  8. Wide tracking range, auto ranging, low jitter phase lock loop for swept and fixed frequency systems

    DOEpatents

    Kerner, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a wide tracking range phase locked loop (PLL) circuit that achieves minimal jitter in a recovered clock signal, regardless of the source of the jitter (i.e. whether it is in the source or the transmission media). The present invention PLL has automatic harmonic lockout detection circuitry via a novel lock and seek control logic in electrical communication with a programmable frequency discriminator and a code balance detector. (The frequency discriminator enables preset of a frequency window of upper and lower frequency limits to derive a programmable range within which signal acquisition is effected. The discriminator works in combination with the code balance detector circuit to minimize the sensitivity of the PLL circuit to random data in the data stream). In addition, the combination of a differential loop integrator with the lock and seek control logic obviates a code preamble and guarantees signal acquisition without harmonic lockup. An adaptive cable equalizer is desirably used in combination with the present invention PLL to recover encoded transmissions containing a clock and/or data. The equalizer automatically adapts to equalize short haul cable lengths of coaxial and twisted pair cables or wires and provides superior jitter performance itself. The combination of the equalizer with the present invention PLL is desirable in that such combination permits the use of short haul wires without significant jitter.

  9. Log amplifier instrument measures physiological biopotentials over wide dynamic range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kado, R. T.

    1970-01-01

    To record biopotentials with extreme dynamic ranges, biopotential inputs are capacitatively coupled to a miniature, low power, solid-state signal conditioner consisting of a two-stage differential preamplifier that has a low noise figure. The ouput of the preamplifier uses diodes to provide an overall gain which is nearly logarithmic.

  10. A wide spectral range photoacoustic aerosol absorption spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Haisch, C; Menzenbach, P; Bladt, H; Niessner, R

    2012-11-01

    A photoacoustic spectrometer for the measurement of aerosol absorption spectra, based on the excitation of a pulsed nanosecond optical parametrical oscillator (OPO), will be introduced. This spectrometer is working at ambient pressure and can be used to detect and characterize different classes of aerosols. The spectrometer features a spectral range of 410 to 2500 nm and a sensitivity of 2.5 × 10(-7) m(-1) at 550 nm. A full characterization of the system in the visible spectral range is demonstrated, and the potential of the system for near IR measurement is discussed. In the example of different kinds of soot particles, the performance of the spectrometer was assessed. As we demonstrate, it is possible to determine a specific optical absorption per particle by a combination of the new spectrometer with an aerosol particle counter. PMID:23035870

  11. Solid oxide fuel cell operable over wide temperature range

    DOEpatents

    Baozhen, Li; Ruka, Roswell J.; Singhal, Subhash C.

    2001-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

  12. High intensity accelerator for a wide range of applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conard, E. Milo

    1994-12-01

    When looking at commercial applications of accelerators from a market point of view, it appears that a common accelerator design could meet different users' needs. This would benefit both the manufacturer and the user by multiplying the number of machines sold, thus lowering their cost and improving their quality. These applications include: radioisotope production for medical imaging (positron emission tomography), industrial imaging and non-destructive testing (e.g. neutron radiography, explosive and drug detection in luggage or freight). This paper investigates the needs of the various applications and defines their common denominator to establish suitable specifications (type of particles, energy, intensity). Different accelerator types (cyclotrons, linear accelerators and electrostatic machines) are reviewed and compared on performance and estimated costs. A high intensity tandem accelerator design is studied in more detail as it seems the most appropriate candidate.

  13. Range-wide selection of catchments for Pacific salmon conservation.

    PubMed

    Pinsky, Malin L; Springmeyer, Dane B; Goslin, Matthew N; Augerot, Xanthippe

    2009-06-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are declining in quality globally, but a lack of data inhibits identification of areas valuable for conservation across national borders. We developed a biological measure of conservation value for six species of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in catchments of the northern Pacific across Canada, China, Japan, Russia, and the United States. We based the measure on abundance and life-history richness and a model-based method that filled data gaps. Catchments with high conservation value ranged from California to northern Russia and included catchments in regions that are strongly affected by human development (e.g., Puget Sound). Catchments with high conservation value were less affected by agriculture and dams than other catchments, although only 1% were within biodiversity reserves. Our set of high-value areas was largely insensitive to simulated error, although classification remained uncertain for 3% of catchments. Although salmon face many threats, we propose they will be most likely to exhibit resilience into the future if a complementary mosaic of conservation strategies can be proactively adopted in catchments with healthy salmon populations. Our analysis provides an initial map of where these catchments are likely to be located. PMID:19220368

  14. Calculation of ion-surface collisions for a wide range of scattering geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torralba, M. C.; Bolcatto, P. G.; Goldberg, E. C.

    2003-08-01

    A theoretical calculation that accounts for a fairly complete description of the resonant charge-exchange process occuring in the H+ scattering by metal surfaces is presented. Realistic trajectories defined by the binary collision model are considered. The interaction with nuclei and electrons of the all surface atoms that the projectile can see along its trajectory is calculated within a mean-field approximation, and in this form the contributions of the short-range interaction terms to the energy level shift are well contemplated. The long-range contributions and the motion of the projectile respect to the surface reference frame are also taken into account to define the level shift. All these ingredients are incorporated into a quantum mechanical description of the time evolution. The negative ion fractions calculated in this form show an excellent agreement with the experimental data for three different incoming energies and for a wide range of exit angles.

  15. Modeling of Singlet Fission Kinetics for a Wide Range of Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yost, Shane

    2015-03-01

    Singlet exciton fission is a process that occurs in organic molecules where one high energy singlet exciton decays into two low energy triplet excitons. Over the years since its first discovery in the 1960s a number of different singlet fission materials have been discovered with a wide range of rates and yields. The mechanism for singlet fission in these materials is still not fully understood, and no method is able to accurately reproduce fission rates over a wide range of timescales. In order to gain a better understanding of the singlet fission mechanism a group of fission materials with vastly different crystal structures and fission rates were modeled. Using a first principles expression the rates were computed with constrained density functional theory with configuration interactions. The computed rates successfully predict the fission rates in the different materials studied. For the slow, weak intermolecular coupling materials singlet fission obeys Marcus theory, but for faster, larger intermolecular coupling materials the rate becomes diabatic in nature. This work alters the guidelines for tailoring molecular properties from a focus on crystal packing and intermolecular coupling to properties like solubility and energy level alignment while maintaining the high fission yield required for photovoltaic applications.

  16. Constraints on the U(1)L gauge boson in a wide mass range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Yu Seon; Kim, C. S.; Lee, Hye-Sung

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing interest for the search of new light gauge bosons. The small mass of a new boson can turn various kinds of low-energy experiments to a new discovery machine, depending on their couplings to the Standard Model particles. It is important to understand the properties of each type of gauge boson and their current constraints for a given mass. While the dark photon (which couples to the electric charges) and the U(1)B‑L gauge boson have been well studied in an extensive mass range, the U(1)L gauge boson has not been fully investigated yet. We consider the gauge boson of the U(1)L in a wide mass range mZ‧≈ 0-1012eV and investigate the constraints on its coupling from various experiments, discussing the similarities and differences from the dark photon and the U(1)B‑L gauge boson.

  17. Performance characterization of Lithium-ion cells possessing carbon-carbon composite-based anodes capable of operating over a wide temperature range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Hossain, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Loutfy, R.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Davies, E. D.; Surampudi, S.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    NASA has interest in secondary energy storage batteries that display high specific energy, high energy density, long life characteristics, and perform well over a wide range of temperatures, in order to enable a number of future applications.

  18. Silicon photonics athermal Mach-Zehnder interferometer with wide thermal and spectral operating range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Peng; Viegas, Jaime

    2015-02-01

    In the context of 3D-integrated circuit (3DIC) integration of photonic and electronic components on vertical stacks covering different domains (digital, analog, RF, optical and MEMS), the control and minimization of adverse thermal effects on the behavior of the different parts of the microsystem is a major concern. Solutions based on passive athermal design are good candidates for enabling operation of optical components over electronic ICs with variable temporal and spatial thermal load while at the same time, minimizing energy loss on thermal biasing resistive loads. In this work, an improved athermal design method and the corresponding validating fabricated prototype are presented with the aim of extending the spectral athermal operating range of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) over a wide thermal range with minimal temperature sensitivity. The proposed approach is demonstrated with a CMOS compatible silicon-on-insulator process flow fabrication run. The fabricated MZIs have a temperature sensitivity of around 20 pm/K over a spectral range larger than 60 nm for operating temperatures in the range of 20°C to 60°C. These devices are suitable for future optical and electronic 3D IC integration.

  19. IC design of low power, wide tuning range VCO in 90 nm CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li; Zhigong, Wang; Zhiqun, Li; Qin, Li; Faen, Liu

    2014-12-01

    A low power VCO with a wide tuning range and low phase noise has been designed and realized in a standard 90 nm CMOS technology. A newly proposed current-reuse cross-connected pair is utilized as a negative conductance generator to compensate the energy loss of the resonator. The supply current is reduced by half compared to that of the conventional LC-VCO. An improved inversion-mode MOSFET (IMOS) varactor is introduced to extend the capacitance tuning range from 32.8% to 66%. A detailed analysis of the proposed varactor is provided. The VCO achieves a tuning range of 27-32.5 GHz, exhibiting a frequency tuning range (FTR) of 18.4% and a phase noise of -101.38 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset from a 30 GHz carrier, and shows an excellent FOM of -185 dBc/Hz. With the voltage supply of 1.5 V, the core circuit of VCO draws only 2.1 mA DC current.

  20. Electronic Transport of an Ni/ n-GaAs Diode Analysed Over a Wide Temperature Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzel, A.; Duman, S.; Yildirim, N.; Turut, A.

    2016-06-01

    We have reported a study on current-voltage ( I-V) characteristics and capacitance-voltage ( C-V) of an Ni/ n-GaAs Schottky barrier diode in a wide temperature ( T) range of 100-320 K in steps of 20 K, which is prepared by a magnetron direct current sputtering technique. The ideality factor decreases and barrier height (BH) increases with an increase in the temperature. The variation of the diode parameters with the sample temperature has been attributed to the presence of the lateral inhomogeneities in the BH. It has been seen that the junction current is dominated by thermionic field emission. The carrier concentration, diffusion potential, BH, Fermi energy level and the temperature coefficient of the BH have been calculated from the temperature-dependent C-V-T characteristics.

  1. Compact silicon photonic wavelength-tunable laser diode with ultra-wide wavelength tuning range

    SciTech Connect

    Kita, Tomohiro Tang, Rui; Yamada, Hirohito

    2015-03-16

    We present a wavelength-tunable laser diode with a 99-nm-wide wavelength tuning range. It has a compact wavelength-tunable filter with high wavelength selectivity fabricated using silicon photonics technology. The silicon photonic wavelength-tunable filter with wide wavelength tuning range was realized using two ring resonators and an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The wavelength-tunable laser diode fabricated by butt-joining a silicon photonic filter and semiconductor optical amplifier shows stable single-mode operation over a wide wavelength range.

  2. Wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor having fast time response for the Large Helical Device.

    PubMed

    Isobe, M; Ogawa, K; Miyake, H; Hayashi, H; Kobuchi, T; Nakano, Y; Watanabe, K; Uritani, A; Misawa, T; Nishitani, T; Tomitaka, M; Kumagai, T; Mashiyama, Y; Ito, D; Kono, S; Yamauchi, M; Takeiri, Y

    2014-11-01

    A fast time response, wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor has been developed toward the LHD deuterium operation by using leading-edge signal processing technologies providing maximum counting rate up to ∼5 × 10(9) counts/s. Because a maximum total neutron emission rate over 1 × 10(16) n/s is predicted in neutral beam-heated LHD plasmas, fast response and wide dynamic range capabilities of the system are essential. Preliminary tests have demonstrated successful performance as a wide dynamic range monitor along the design. PMID:25430293

  3. Wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor having fast time response for the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Isobe, M. Takeiri, Y.; Ogawa, K.; Miyake, H.; Hayashi, H.; Kobuchi, T.; Nakano, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Uritani, A.; Misawa, T.; Nishitani, T.; Tomitaka, M.; Kumagai, T.; Mashiyama, Y.; Ito, D.; Kono, S.; Yamauchi, M.

    2014-11-15

    A fast time response, wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor has been developed toward the LHD deuterium operation by using leading-edge signal processing technologies providing maximum counting rate up to ∼5 × 10{sup 9} counts/s. Because a maximum total neutron emission rate over 1 × 10{sup 16} n/s is predicted in neutral beam-heated LHD plasmas, fast response and wide dynamic range capabilities of the system are essential. Preliminary tests have demonstrated successful performance as a wide dynamic range monitor along the design.

  4. An accurate Fortran code for computing hydrogenic continuum wave functions at a wide range of parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Liang-You; Gong, Qihuang

    2010-12-01

    The accurate computations of hydrogenic continuum wave functions are very important in many branches of physics such as electron-atom collisions, cold atom physics, and atomic ionization in strong laser fields, etc. Although there already exist various algorithms and codes, most of them are only reliable in a certain ranges of parameters. In some practical applications, accurate continuum wave functions need to be calculated at extremely low energies, large radial distances and/or large angular momentum number. Here we provide such a code, which can generate accurate hydrogenic continuum wave functions and corresponding Coulomb phase shifts at a wide range of parameters. Without any essential restrict to angular momentum number, the present code is able to give reliable results at the electron energy range [10,10] eV for radial distances of [10,10] a.u. We also find the present code is very efficient, which should find numerous applications in many fields such as strong field physics. Program summaryProgram title: HContinuumGautchi Catalogue identifier: AEHD_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHD_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1233 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 7405 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran90 in fixed format Computer: AMD Processors Operating system: Linux RAM: 20 MBytes Classification: 2.7, 4.5 Nature of problem: The accurate computation of atomic continuum wave functions is very important in many research fields such as strong field physics and cold atom physics. Although there have already existed various algorithms and codes, most of them can only be applicable and reliable in a certain range of parameters. We present here an accurate FORTRAN program for

  5. Choice of alpha-probe operating voltage to suit a wide range of conditions.

    PubMed

    Bosley, R B; Simpson, J A

    2002-09-01

    Alpha probes, consisting of a ZnS(Ag) scintillator and a photo-multiplier tube, are commonly used throughout the nuclear industry for radiation protection and clearance of materials during decommissioning. The success in achieving these purposes is dependent on a number of factors including the counting efficiency of the probe, the condition of the material being monitored, the speed of monitoring and the distance between the probe and material. The efficiency of the probe is dependent on the operating voltage and is the only factor that is under the control of the calibration facility. As the calibration laboratory may not be aware of the specific environment in which the probe will be used, an operating voltage to suite a wide range of conditions must be chosen. In the past, it has frequently been assumed that it is necessary to set as high an operating voltage as possible in order to maximise the counting efficiency to low-energy alpha particles. However, the response to gamma rays, particularly those having low energies, also increases with operating voltage and will therefore limit the upper operating voltage that can be set. The efficiency of a scintillation-type probe (NE Technology AP2) in measuring contamination levels on a number of typical surfaces using different operating voltages has been investigated. It has been found that the surface characteristics of the material being monitored have far more effect on the results of alpha monitoring than the choice of operating voltage. Thus the calibration laboratory can set the operating voltage below the level at which there is a risk of response to low-energy gamma rays without significantly affecting the overall counting efficiency for low-energy alpha particles. PMID:12375790

  6. Wide-Range Varactor-Tuned Terahertz Oscillator Using Resonant Tunneling Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Seiichirou; Suzuki, Safumi; Asada, Masahiro

    2014-05-01

    We propose a wide-range varactor-tuned terahertz oscillator using a resonant tunneling diode (RTD) and estimate the tuning range. In a slot antenna, a varactor diode is placed in parallel with an RTD and can be operated with different bias voltages. Frequency tuning is possible by changing the varactor-diode capacitance with the bias voltage. A wide frequency tuning range >200 GHz (500 to 740 GHz) is obtained with an oscillator with a 20-μm-long antenna, 1.3-μm2 RTD mesa, and 16-μm2 varactor-diode mesa by electromagnetic-field analysis including a varactor-diode model.

  7. Differential Wide Temperature Range CMOS Interface Circuit for Capacitive MEMS Pressure Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yucai; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) differential interface circuit for capacitive Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) pressure sensors that is functional over a wide temperature range between −55 °C and 225 °C. The circuit is implemented using IBM 0.13 μm CMOS technology with 2.5 V power supply. A constant-gm biasing technique is used to mitigate performance degradation at high temperatures. The circuit offers the flexibility to interface with MEMS sensors with a wide range of the steady-state capacitance values from 0.5 pF to 10 pF. Simulation results show that the circuitry has excellent linearity and stability over the wide temperature range. Experimental results confirm that the temperature effects on the circuitry are small, with an overall linearity error around 2%. PMID:25686312

  8. Smart Sand—a wide bandwidth vibration energy harvesting platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinkovic, Bozidar; Koser, Hur

    2009-03-01

    We propose a concept for true wide bandwidth vibration energy harvesting. Our approach exploits nonlinear stretching of fixed-fixed beams in an off-resonance mode, effectively expanding the operational frequency range well beyond the narrow bandwidth of linear resonators. Our initial prototype demonstrates operation between 160-400 Hz, without the need for frequency tuning. A simple dynamic model shows good agreement with measurements. Optimized device geometry will allow for even lower frequency operation (starting at 60 Hz) at strain levels above 1e-3 (ideal for piezoelectric transduction).

  9. Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Real Air Plasma in Wide Range of Temperature and Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunlin; Wu, Yi; Chen, Zhexin; Yang, Fei; Feng, Ying; Rong, Mingzhe; Zhang, Hantian

    2016-07-01

    Air plasma has been widely applied in industrial manufacture. In this paper, both dry and humid air plasmas' thermodynamic and transport properties are calculated in temperature 300-100000 K and pressure 0.1-100 atm. To build a more precise model of real air plasma, over 70 species are considered for composition. Two different methods, the Gibbs free energy minimization method and the mass action law method, are used to determinate the composition of the air plasma in a different temperature range. For the transport coefficients, the simplified Chapman-Enskog method developed by Devoto has been applied using the most recent collision integrals. It is found that the presence of CO2 has almost no effect on the properties of air plasma. The influence of H2O can be ignored except in low pressure air plasma, in which the saturated vapor pressure is relatively high. The results will serve as credible inputs for computational simulation of air plasma. supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program)(No. 2015CB251002), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51521065, 51577145), the Science and Technology Project Funds of the Grid State Corporation (SGTYHT/13-JS-177), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and State Grid Corporation Project (GY71-14-004)

  10. Wide Tuning Range Wavelength-Swept Laser With Two Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers

    PubMed Central

    Oh, W. Y.; Yun, S. H.; Tearney, G. J.; Bouma, B. E.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a wide tuning range high-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser based on a polygon scanning filter that is common to two laser cavities. Linear wavelength tuning was achieved over 145 nm around 1310 nm at a tuning repetition rate of 20 kHz. The wavelength tuning filter is expandable to accommodate multiple semiconductor optical amplifiers for further widening of the laser wavelength tuning range. PMID:20651947

  11. An Integrated Compact Unit for Wide Range Micro-Newton Force Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akanda, M. A. Salam; Tohmyoh, Hironori; Saka, Masumi

    Wide range compact sensor is preferably sought for force sensing in testing of micro objects or local area of macro objects with the observation of high resolution microscope. This paper presents the design and development of an integrated passive cantilever type force sensing unit with the specificities of range variation, interchangeability of components and compact size by incorporating with cantilever, probe and a capacitive sensor for measurement of large range micro-newton forces in wide scope of application. In the design, the tactile force at the probe perpendicularly attached to the cantilever is converted as cantilever deflection, which is measured by the capacitive sensor. In connection to a tiny capacitive sensor a compatible cantilever with double-beam structure is considered. Cantilever length variation facility is incorporated in the unit for obtaining different force measurement ranges by using the same cantilever. Characterization of the cantilever is performed against a standard load cell. The force resolution with a typical cantilever is estimated as 10 nN. The elastic property of human hair is efficiently determined by testing with the combination of a digital microscope and the developed sensor system. The utility of the unit for different resolution/range by the interchangeability of cantilevers is also demonstrated. Experimental results show that this integrated force sensing unit achieves good sensitivity and linearity, and wide measurement range.

  12. Ultra-wide Range Gamma Detector System for Search and Locate Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Odell, D. Mackenzie Odell; Harpring, Larry J.; Moore, Frank S. Jr.; French, Phillip J.; Gordon, John R.

    2005-10-26

    Collecting debris samples following a nuclear event requires that operations be conducted from a considerable stand-off distance. An ultra-wide range gamma detector system has been constructed to accomplish both long range radiation search and close range hot sample collection functions. Constructed and tested on a REMOTEC Andros platform, the system has demonstrated reliable operation over six orders of magnitude of gamma dose from 100's of uR/hr to over 100 R/hr. Functional elements include a remotely controlled variable collimator assembly, a NaI(Tl)/photomultiplier tube detector, a proprietary digital radiation instrument, a coaxially mounted video camera, a digital compass, and both local and remote control computers with a user interface designed for long range operations. Long range sensitivity and target location, as well as close range sample selection performance are presented.

  13. Oxatub[4]arene: a molecular "transformer" capable of hosting a wide range of organic cations.

    PubMed

    Jia, Fei; Wang, Hao-Yi; Li, Dong-Hao; Yang, Liu-Pan; Jiang, Wei

    2016-04-14

    The molecular "transformer", oxatub[4]arene, was found to be able to host a wide range of organic cations. The strong binding ability is believed to originate from its four interconvertible and deep-cavity conformers. The binding behavior of such adaptable receptors may provide implications for molecular recognition in nature. PMID:26955919

  14. Wide-range hydrogen sensing with Nb-doped TiO2 nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hegang; Ding, Dongyan; Ning, Congqin; Li, Zhaohui

    2012-01-13

    Anatase-type titania nanotubes doped with Nb element were fabricated through an anodization of Ti35Nb alloy substrate and further annealing at 450 °C. Hydrogen sensitivity of the Nb-doped TiO(2) nanotubes at room temperature was investigated through exposure of the nanotube samples to different hydrogen atmospheres. At room temperature, the Nb-doped nanotubes demonstrated a good sensitivity for wide-range detection of both dilute and high-concentration hydrogen atmospheres ranging from 50 ppm to 2% H(2). The Nb-doped nanotubes also presented remarkable reversibility and repeatability as well as a quick response to the hydrogen atmosphere. The Nb-doped titania nanotubes have great advantages as robust and wide-range hydrogen sensors operating at room temperature. PMID:22156054

  15. Noctilucent cloud polarimetry: Twilight measurements in a wide range of scattering angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugolnikov, Oleg S.; Maslov, Igor A.; Kozelov, Boris V.; Dlugach, Janna M.

    2016-06-01

    Wide-field polarization measurements of the twilight sky background during several nights with bright and extended noctilucent clouds in central and northern Russia in 2014 and 2015 are used to build the phase dependence of the degree of polarization of sunlight scattered by cloud particles in a wide range of scattering angles (from 40° to 130°). This range covers the linear polarization maximum near 90° and large-angle slope of the curve. The polarization in this angle range is most sensitive to the particle size. The method of separation of scattering on cloud particles from the twilight background is presented. Results are compared with T-matrix simulations for different sizes and shapes of ice particles; the best-fit model radius of particles (0.06 μm) and maximum radius (about 0.1 μm) are estimated.

  16. An emittance measurement system for a wide range of bunch charges

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, B.; Engwall, D.; Hofler, A.; Keesee, M.; Legg, R.

    1997-06-01

    As a part of the emittance measurements planned for the FEL injector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), the authors have developed an emittance measurement system that covers the wide dynamic range of bunch charges necessary to fully characterize the high-DC-voltage photocathode gun. The measurements are carried out with a variant of the classical two-slit method using a slit to sample the beam in conjunction with a wire scanner to measure the transmitted beam profile. The use of commercial, ultra-low noise picoammeters makes it possible to cover the wide range of desired bunch charges, with the actual measurements made over the range of 0.25 pC to 125 pC. The entire system, including its integration into the EPICS control system, is discussed.

  17. Wide dynamic range microwave planar coupled ring resonator for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarifi, Mohammad Hossein; Daneshmand, Mojgan

    2016-06-01

    A highly sensitive, microwave-coupled ring resonator with a wide dynamic range is studied for use in sensing applications. The resonator's structure has two resonant rings and, consequently, two resonant frequencies, operating at 2.3 and 2.45 GHz. Inductive and capacitive coupling mechanisms are explored and compared to study their sensing performance. Primary finite element analysis and measurement results are used to compare the capacitive and inductive coupled ring resonators, demonstrating sensitivity improvements of up to 75% and dynamic range enhancement up to 100% in the capacitive coupled structure. In this work, we are proposing capacitive coupled planar ring resonators as a wide dynamic range sensing platform for liquid sensing applications. This sensing device is well suited for low-cost, real-time low-power, and CMOS compatible sensing technologies.

  18. Energy Expenditure Ranges and Muscular Work Grades

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. R.; Crowden, G. P.

    1963-01-01

    This paper is based on the findings of a field study which was planned to ascertain by metabolic measurement the rates of energy expenditure of men and women on productive effort at work in modern factories. The investigation which is described was carried out during a period of peace-time full employment, mainly in factories associated with the Slough Industrial Health Service in which a nutritional survey of the calorie intake of male operatives had been made by the Ministry of Health and the Medical Research Council in 1952. The rates of energy expenditure of 70 men and 54 women in 27 occupational groups were measured by indirect calorimetric methods. On the basis of the criteria for the classification of work according grades to its heaviness, adopted by the Factory Department of the Ministry of Labour, muscular work grades have been ascribed to the occupations studied. From the distribution of 390 metabolic measurements, ranges of energy expenditure have been computed for occupations classed as sedentary, light, moderate, heavy, or very heavy, Observation of recurrent phase variations in types of productive effort in the work-cycle indicated that wider work grades, such as light-to-moderate or moderate-to-heavy, are needed to cover the energy expenditure rates of men and women in many occupations. The data obtained in this study have enabled a table termed the “Slough Scales” to be compiled giving ranges of energy expenditure and pulmonary ventilation rates for the various work grades ascribed to occupations. The mean rates of energy expenditure of 257 workers (in industries in different parts of England and Scotland) which have been calculated from data published by other investigators have been found to fall within the ranges specified in these scales for the work grades of their occupations. It is felt, therefore, that the Slough Scales represent a reasonably true appraisal of the relation between the Ministry of Labour occupational work grades and the

  19. The low-energy ion range in DNA.

    PubMed

    Yu, L D; Kamwanna, T; Brown, I G

    2009-08-21

    In fundamental studies of low-energy ion irradiation effects on DNA, calculation of the low-energy ion range, an important basic physical parameter, is often necessary. However, up to now a unified model and approach for range calculation is still lacking, and reported data are quite divergent and thus unreliable. Here we describe an approach for calculation of the ion range, using a simplified mean-pseudoatom model of the DNA target. Based on ion stopping theory, for the case of low-energy (< or = a few keV) ion implantation into DNA, the stopping falls in the low reduced energy regime, which gives a cube-root energy dependence of the stopping (E(1/3)). Calculation formulas of the ion range in DNA are obtained and presented to unify the relevant calculations. The upper limits of the ion energy as a function of the atomic number of the bombarding ion species are proposed for the low-energy case to hold. Comparison of the results of this approach with the results of some widely used computer simulation codes and with results reported by other groups indicates that the approach described here provides convincing and dependable results. PMID:19652287

  20. Coherent terahertz-wave generation and detection over a wide frequency range using DAST crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamide, Hiroaki; Ito, Hiromasa

    2009-02-01

    Terahertz-frequency (THz) waves have shown potential for a wide range of applications. We have developed tunable THz-wave sources using nonlinear optical crystals, which have several advantages, including frequency agility, wide tunability, high output, and high coherency. We found that the organic nonlinear crystal of 4-dimethylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium-tosylate (DAST) had particular potential for ultra-wide THz-wave generation from sub-THz to mid-infrared frequencies. Using DAST, we manufactured a coherent, tunable source (1-40 THz) with frequency agility. Moreover, we demonstrated THz-wave detection through up-conversion using DAST or MgO:LiNbO3 nonlinear optical crystals, which provided a fast response, high sensitivity, and room-temperature operation.

  1. Wide-Range Multiwavelength Observations of Northern TeV Blazars With MAGIC / HESS, Suzaku And KVA

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashida, M.; Rugamer, S.; Mazin, D.; Firpo, R.; Mannheim, K.; Tavecchio, F.; Teshima, M.; Horns, D.; Costamante, L.; Schwarzburg, S.; Wagner, S.; Takahashi, T.; Kataoka, J.; Madejski, G.; Sato, R.; Ushio, M.; /JAXA, Sagamihara

    2007-11-14

    We have conducted multiwavelength observations of several northern TeV blazars employing the ground-based {gamma}-ray observatories MAGIC and HESS, the optical KVA telescope, and the Suzaku X-ray satellite. The data taken in 2006 establish measurements of the contemporaneous spectral energy distributions of the rapidly variable blazar emission over a wide range of frequencies. Results allow us to test leptonic and hadronic emission and particle acceleration models which predict different correlations between the optical, X-ray, and very high energy {gamma}-ray emissions. In this presentation, we report on the highlights of the results of these observations.

  2. Note: A novel dielectric barrier discharge system for generating stable patterns in wide range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weibo; Wang, Yongjie; Zhang, Hao; Pan, Yuyang; Dong, Lifang

    2016-05-01

    We develop a novel dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system with a meshed water electrode to generate stable square superlattice patterns (MSSP) in Ar/air mixture in a wide range of experimental environments. Discharge scenarios with the applied voltage increasing in the meshed DBD and ordinary DBD are presented respectively under the same experimental conditions. It is found that a square pattern and MSSP can be obtained stably and easily in meshed DBD, while no pattern emerges in ordinary DBD. MSSP can be formed when the Ar content is from 0% to 70%, and the corresponding applied voltage decreases with Ar content increasing. Results based on optical methods show that MSSP is generated by artificially designed electrodes together with nonlinear characteristics of DBD, which may account for why patterns in meshed DBD exist in a wide range.

  3. CFD comparison with centrifugal compressor measurements on a wide operating range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Sausse, P.; Fabrie, P.; Arnou, D.; Clunet, F.

    2013-04-01

    Centrifugal compressors are widely used in industrial applications thanks to their high efficiency. They are able to provide a wide operating range before reaching the flow barrier or surge limits. Performances and range are described by compressor maps obtained experimentally. After a description of performance test rig, this article compares measured centrifugal compressor performances with computational fluid dynamics results. These computations are performed at steady conditions with R134a refrigerant as fluid. Navier-Stokes equations, coupled with k-ɛ turbulence model, are solved by the commercial software ANSYS-CFX by means of volume finite method. Input conditions are varied in order to calculate several speed lines. Theoretical isentropic efficiency and theoretical surge line are finally compared to experimental data.

  4. Note: A novel dielectric barrier discharge system for generating stable patterns in wide range.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weibo; Wang, Yongjie; Zhang, Hao; Pan, Yuyang; Dong, Lifang

    2016-05-01

    We develop a novel dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system with a meshed water electrode to generate stable square superlattice patterns (MSSP) in Ar/air mixture in a wide range of experimental environments. Discharge scenarios with the applied voltage increasing in the meshed DBD and ordinary DBD are presented respectively under the same experimental conditions. It is found that a square pattern and MSSP can be obtained stably and easily in meshed DBD, while no pattern emerges in ordinary DBD. MSSP can be formed when the Ar content is from 0% to 70%, and the corresponding applied voltage decreases with Ar content increasing. Results based on optical methods show that MSSP is generated by artificially designed electrodes together with nonlinear characteristics of DBD, which may account for why patterns in meshed DBD exist in a wide range. PMID:27250476

  5. Development of ice slurry for cold storage of foods in wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koji; Kaneko, Atsushi; Teraoka, Yoshikazu; Igarashi, Yoshito

    In order to popularize use of ice slurry, authors have been proposed application of ice slurry to cold storage of foods in place of an air conditioning. For use of the ice slurry in the wide temperature range a new harmless ice slurry to human being was developed by cooling a W/O emulsion made from tap water-edible oil mixture with small amounts of edible emulsifier and food additive. The edible emulsifier is essential to form W/O emulsion, and the food additive is used to dissolve in tap water. In this paper the optimal concentrations of emulsifiers were determined, and the fundamental characteristics such as viscosity, effective latent heat of fusion and usable temperature of ice slurry were clarified. Finally, it was concluded that new ice slurry could be fully applied to cold storage of foods in the wide temperature range because its lower limit usable temperature was about -18°C.

  6. Creep Analysis for a Wide Stress Range Based on Stress Relaxation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenbach, Holm; Naumenko, Konstantin; Gorash, Yevgen

    Many materials exhibit a stress range dependent creep behavior. The power-law creep observed for a certain stress range changes to the viscous type creep if the stress value decreases. Recently published experimental data for advanced heat resistant steels indicates that the high creep exponent (in the range 5-12 for the power-law behavior) may decrease to the low value of approximately 1 within the stress range relevant for engineering structures. The aim of this paper is to confirm the stress range dependence of creep behavior based on the experimental data of stress relaxation. An extended constitutive model for the minimum creep rate is introduced to consider both the linear and the power law creep ranges. To take into account the primary creep behavior a strain hardening function is introduced. The material constants are identified for published experimental data of creep and relaxation tests for a 12%Cr steel bolting material at 500°C. The data for the minimum creep rate are well-defined only for moderate and high stress levels. To reconstruct creep rates for the low stress range the data of the stress relaxation test are applied. The results show a gradual decrease of the creep exponent with the decreasing stress level. Furthermore, they illustrate that the proposed constitutive model well describes the creep rates for a wide stress range.

  7. Wide-range Vacuum Measurements from MWNT Field Emitters Grown Directly on Stainless Steel Substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Detian; Zhao, Yangyang; Cheng, Yongjun; Dong, Changkun

    2016-12-01

    The field emission properties and the vacuum measurement application are investigated from the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) grown directly on catalytic stainless steel substrates. The MWNT emitters present excellent emission properties after the acid treatment of the substrate. The MWNT gauge is able to work down to the extreme-high vacuum (XHV) range with linear measurement performance in wide range from 10(-11) to 10(-6) Torr. A modulating grid is attempted with improved gauge sensitivity. The extension of the lower pressure limit is attributed largely to low outgassing effect due to direct growth of MWNTs and justified design of the electron source. PMID:26738501

  8. Wide-range Vacuum Measurements from MWNT Field Emitters Grown Directly on Stainless Steel Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Detian; Zhao, Yangyang; Cheng, Yongjun; Dong, Changkun

    2016-01-01

    The field emission properties and the vacuum measurement application are investigated from the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) grown directly on catalytic stainless steel substrates. The MWNT emitters present excellent emission properties after the acid treatment of the substrate. The MWNT gauge is able to work down to the extreme-high vacuum (XHV) range with linear measurement performance in wide range from 10-11 to 10-6 Torr. A modulating grid is attempted with improved gauge sensitivity. The extension of the lower pressure limit is attributed largely to low outgassing effect due to direct growth of MWNTs and justified design of the electron source.

  9. Range-wide conservation assessment of Greater Sage-Grouse and sagebrush habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2003-01-01

    Declining numbers of Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) over the past three decades across most of their range accompanied by increasing habitat degradation and loss represent major conservation and management challenges. We are conducting a range-wide Conservation Assessment of Greater Sage-grouse and sagebrush habitats. This assessment is an interagency effort sponsored by the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies to determine the status of Greater Sage-grouse and their habitats, and identify potential threats to their long-term survival. Agencies, private organizations, and landowners have an urgent need for this assessment because of conflicting views concerning causes of declines and the appropriate management actions.

  10. Improved Active Clamp Converter By Resonance Blanking Used For Wide Input Voltage Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strixner, E.; Godzik, S.

    2011-10-01

    The GPS line receiver as a standard product line of Astrium GmbH Ottobrunn shall operate according to customer requirements on different power busses with no or only minor modifications. Consequently there is an up coming demand to develop a power converter with a wide input voltage range. The hardware shall work with minor adaptation on all standard bus voltages of 28V, 50V and 100V. Themainfocuswas to cover the unregulated 28V bus and the regulated 50V bus without any modifications on the converter module and providing performance data being similar to low input voltage range converters.

  11. A Novel Anisotropic Supramolecular Hydrogel with High Stability over a Wide pH Range

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fan; Gao, Yuan; Shi, Junfeng; Browdy, Hayley M.; Xu, Bing

    2011-01-01

    The hydrolysis of carboxylic ester bond, by a base or catalyzed by an enzyme at weak basic condition, servers as the only path to obtain a novel anisotropic supramolecular hydrogel that is stable over a wide pH range. This result not only expands the molecular scope of supramolecular hydrogelators, but also illustrates the design principles for creating pH stable supramolecular soft materials. PMID:21138331

  12. Multiphase flow in complex fracture apertures under a wide range of flow conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Meakin, Paul; McCreery, Gleen E.; McEligot, Donald; Rothman, Daniel H.

    2005-06-01

    The primary purpose of this project is to use a combination of computer modeling and laboratory experiments to obtain a better understanding of multiphase flow in geometrically complex fracture apertures under a wide range of flow conditions. Because most traditional grid-based numeral methods perform poorly for multiphase flows with complex dynamic interfaces due to problems such as artificial interface broadening, grid entanglement, loss or gain of mass and their inability to handle fluid-fluid-solid contact line dynamics, the modeling component of the program relies primarily on particle based methods. In particle based models, the fluid-fluid interfaces move as the particles representing the fluids move--there is no need for explicit interface tracking, and no artificial front broadening. In addition, the fluid-fluid-solid contact line dynamics is also handled automatically by adjusting the interactions between the fluid particles and the particles used to represent solid boundaries. However, it can be difficult to select fluid-particle/solid-particle interactions that reproduce the wetting behaviors observed in experimental or natural systems. Because, different model approaches have characteristic strengths and weaknesses, three different classes of particle-based models (lattice Boltzmann, dissipative particle dynamics and smoothed particle hydrodynamics) are being employed in this program. This will allow us to achieve our objective of simulating multiphase flow under a wide range of flow conditions for a wide range of fluid properties.

  13. Wide pH range tolerance in extremophiles: towards understanding an important phenomenon for future biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Dhakar, Kusum; Pandey, Anita

    2016-03-01

    Microorganisms that inhabit the extreme pH environments are classified as acidophiles and alkaliphiles. A number of studies emerged from extreme high (hot springs, hydrothermal vents) as well as low temperature (arctic and antarctic regions, sea water, ice shelf, marine sediments, cold deserts, glaciers, temperate forests, and plantations) environments have highlighted the occurrence of microorganisms (thermophiles/psychrophiles) with the ability to tolerate wide pH range, from acidic to alkaline (1.5-14.0 in some cases), under laboratory conditions. However, the sampling source (soil/sediment) of these microorganisms showed the pH to be neutral or slightly acidic/alkaline. The aim of the present review is to discuss the phenomenon of wide pH range tolerance possessed by these microorganisms as a hidden character in perspective of their habitats, possible mechanisms, phylogeny, ecological and biotechnological relevance, and future perspectives. It is believed that the genome is a probable reservoir of the hidden variations. The extremophiles have the ability to adapt against the environmental change that is probably through the expression/regulation of the specific genes that were already present in the genome. The phenomenon is likely to have broad implications in biotechnology, including both environmental (such as bioremediation, biodegradation, and biocontrol), and industrial applications (as a source of novel extremozymes and many other useful bioactive compounds with wide pH range tolerance). PMID:26780356

  14. Fabrication of Wide-Range-Visible Photocatalyst Bi2WO6-x nanoplates via Surface Oxygen Vacancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yanhui; Yao, Wenqing; Zong, Ruilong; Zhu, Yongfa

    2016-01-01

    Bi2WO6 as a high visible-light-driven catalyst has been aroused broad interest. However, it can only be excitated by the light with λ < 450 nm and the solar energy utilization need to be improved. Here, the wide-range-visible photoresponse Bi2WO6-x nanoplates were fabricated by introducing surface oxygen vacancies through the controllable hydrogen reduction method. The visible photoresponse wavelength range is extended from 450 nm to more than 600 nm. In addition, the photocatalytic activity of Bi2WO6-x is also increased and is 2.1 times as high as that of pristine Bi2WO6. The extending of the photoresponse range and the enhancement of the photoactivity both can be attributed to the surface-oxygen-vacancy states. This is because surface-oxygen-vacancy states generated above and partly overlapping of with the valence band (VB) will result in the rising of valence band maximum (VBM), thus broadening the VB width. This approach is proposed to develop many types of wide-range-visible optical materials and to be applicable to many narrow and wide bandgap materials.

  15. Wide bandwidth optical signals for high range resolution measurements in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, Justin; Lee, Robert; Mullen, Linda

    2016-05-01

    Measurements with high range resolution are needed to identify underwater threats, especially when two-dimensional contrast information is insufficient to extract object details. The challenge is that optical measurements are limited by scattering phenomena induced by the underwater channel. Back-scatter results in transmitted photons being directed back to the receiver before reaching the target of interest which induces a clutter signal for ranging and a reduction in contrast for imaging. Multiple small-angle scattering (forward-scatter) results in transmitted photons being directed to unintended regions of the target of interest (spatial spreading), while also stretching the temporal profile of a short optical pulse (temporal spreading). Spatial and temporal spreading of the optical signal combine to cause a reduction in range resolution in conventional laser imaging systems. NAVAIR has investigated ways in which wide bandwidth, modulated optical signals can be utilized to improve ranging and imaging performance in turbid water environments. Experimental efforts have been conducted to investigate channel effects on the propagated frequency content, as well as different filtering and processing techniques on the return signals to maximize range resolution. Of particular interest for the modulated pulses are coherent detection and processing techniques employed by the radar community, including methods to reduce sidelobe clutter. This paper will summarize NAVAIR's work and show that wideband optical signals, in combination with the CLEAN algorithm, can indeed provide enhancements to range resolution and 3D imagery in turbid water environments.

  16. Applying GSH to a wide range of experiments in granular media.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yimin; Liu, Mario

    2015-03-01

    Granular solid hydrodynamics (GSH) is a continuum-mechanical theory for granular media, whose wide range of applicability is shown in this paper. Simple, frequently analytic solutions are related to classic observations at different shear rates, including: i) static stress distribution, clogging; ii) elasto-plastic motion: loading and unloading, approach to the critical state, angle of stability and repose; iii) rapid dense flow: the μ-rheology, Bagnold scaling and the stress minimum; iv) elastic waves, compaction, wide and narrow shear band. Less conventional experiments have also been considered: shear jamming, creep flow, visco-elastic behavior and non-local fluidization. With all these phenomena ordered, related, explained and accounted for, though frequently qualitatively, we believe that GSH may be taken as a unifying framework, providing the appropriate macroscopic vocabulary and mindset that help one coming to terms with the breadth of granular physics. PMID:25743026

  17. Integrated photonic emitter with a wide switching range of orbital angular momentum modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Zhao, Peng; Feng, Xue; Xu, Yuntao; Cui, Kaiyu; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong

    2016-03-01

    Due to the nature of infinite dimensionality, the orbital angular momentum (OAM) has been considered as a new degree of freedom of light and widely expanded the scopes of substantial optical applications such as optical telecommunication, quantum information, particle manipulation and imaging. In recent years, the integrated photonic OAM emitters have been actively investigated due to both compactness and tunability. Essentially, the number of available OAM modes by dynamic switching should be large enough so that the dimensionality of OAM could be explored as much as possible. In this work, an integrated photonic emitter with a wide switching range of OAM modes is theoretically developed, numerically simulated, and experimentally verified. The independence of the micro-ring cavity and the scattering unit provides the flexibility to design the device and optimize the performance. Specifically, the dynamic switching of nine OAM modes (l = -4 ~ 4) with azimuthal polarization has been demonstrated by electrically controlled thermo-optic effect.

  18. Spatiotemporal variation in range-wide Golden-cheeked Warbler habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duarte, Adam; Jensen, Jennifer; Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; Weckerly, Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Habitat availability ultimately limits the distribution and abundance of wildlife species. Consequently, it is paramount to identify where wildlife habitat is and understand how it changes over time in order to implement large scale wildlife conservation plans. Yet, no work has quantified the degree of change in range-wide breeding habitat for the golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia), despite the species being listed as endangered by the U.S. federal government. Thus, using available geographic information system (GIS) data and Landsat satellite imagery we quantified range-wide warbler breeding habitat change from 1999-2001 to 2010-2011. We detected a 29% reduction in total warbler breeding habitat and found that warbler breeding habitat was removed and became more fragmented at uneven rates across the warbler’s breeding range during this time period. This information will assist researchers and managers in prioritizing breeding habitat conservation efforts for the species and provide a foundation for more realistic carrying capacity scenarios when modeling golden-cheeked warbler populations over time. Additionally, this study highlights the need for future work centered on quantifying golden-cheeked warbler movement rates and distances in order to assess the degree of connectivity between increasingly fragmented habitat patches.

  19. Wide range of susceptibility to rhabdoviruses in homozygous clones of rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Quillet, Edwige; Dorson, Michel; Le Guillou, Sandrine; Benmansour, Abdenour; Boudinot, Pierre

    2007-05-01

    Inbred lines differentially susceptible to diseases are a powerful tool to get insights into the mechanisms of genetic resistance to pathogens. In fish, chromosome manipulation techniques allow a quick production of such homozygous lines. Using gynogenesis, we produced nine homozygous clones of rainbow trout from a domestic population (INRA Sy strain). We examined the variability between clones for resistance to two rhabdoviruses, the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and the infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). Intraperitoneal injections and waterborne infections were performed in parallel for both viruses. No survival was recorded after intraperitoneal injection of VHSV or IHNV, indicating that fish from all clones were fully susceptible to both viruses by this route of infection. In contrast, the different clones showed a wide range of survival frequency after waterborne infection. The resistance levels to VHSV ranged from 0 to 99% and resistance was not abrogated when resistant and sensitive animals were mixed and subjected to waterborne infection. VHSV was recovered from 10% of resistant fish after waterborne infection, confirming that virus replication was possible in this context but effective only in a low proportion of the population. The different clones also exhibited a wide range of survival (0-68%) after a waterborne infection with IHNV. Although VHSV-resistant clones were not fully resistant to IHNV, the susceptibility to IHNV and VHSV tended to be correlated, suggesting that non-specific mechanisms common to both viruses were involved. PMID:17085058

  20. Measurement of the dielectric properties of dispersive materials over a wide frequency range.

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, Luis Leroy; Salazar, Robert Austin; Bacon, Larry Donald; Lehr, Jane Marie

    2003-06-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves through dispersive media forms the basis for a wide variety of applications. Rapid advances in materials have produced new products with tailored responses across frequency bands. Many of these new materials, such as radar absorbing material and photonic crystals, are dispersive in nature. This, in turn, has opened up the possibility for the exploitation of these dispersive dielectric properties for a variety of applications. Thus, it is desirable to know the electromagnetic properties of both man-made and natural materials across a wide frequency range. With the advent of transient pulsers with sub-nanosecond risetimes and rates of voltage rise approaching 10**16 V/s, the frequencies of interest in the transient response extend to approximately the 2 GHz range. Although a network analyzer can provide either frequency- or time-domain data (by inverse transform), common TEM cells are only rated to 0.5 to 1.5 GHz--significantly below the maximum frequency of interest. To extend the frequency range to include 2 GHz, a TEM cell was characterized and a deembedding algorithm was applied to account, in part, for the limitations of the cell. The de-embedding technique is described along with such measurement issues such as clear time and sneak around. Measurements of complex permittivity of common drinking water are shown. This frequency extension will lead to more expansive testing of dielectric materials of interest.

  1. A regional density distribution based wide dynamic range algorithm for infrared camera systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Gyuhee; Kim, Yongsung; Joung, Shichang; Shin, Sanghoon

    2014-10-01

    Forward Looking InfraRed (FLIR) imaging system has been widely used for both military and civilian purposes. Military applications include target acquisition and tracking, night vision system. Civilian applications include thermal efficiency analysis, short-ranged wireless communication, weather forecasting and other various applications. The dynamic range of FLIR imaging system is larger than one of commercial display. Generally, auto gain controlling and contrast enhancement algorithm are applied to FLIR imaging system. In IR imaging system, histogram equalization and plateau equalization is generally used for contrast enhancement. However, they have no solution about the excessive enhancing when luminance histogram has been distributed in specific narrow region. In this paper, we proposed a Regional Density Distribution based Wide Dynamic Range algorithm for Infrared Camera Systems. Depending on the way of implementation, the result of WDR is quite different. Our approach is single frame type WDR algorithm for enhancing the contrast of both dark and white detail without loss of bins of histogram with real-time processing. The significant change in luminance caused by conventional contrast enhancement methods may introduce luminance saturation and failure in object tracking. Proposed method guarantees both the effective enhancing in contrast and successive object tracking. Moreover, since proposed method does not using multiple images on WDR, computation complexity might be significantly reduced in software / hardware implementation. The experimental results show that proposed method has better performance compared with conventional Contrast enhancement methods.

  2. Dynamic method as a simple approach for wide range pH measurements using optodes.

    PubMed

    Safavi, A; Banazadeh, A R

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, a flow system equipped with an optode has been suggested for wide range pH measurements. Triacetyl cellulose was used as the optode membrane in which different pH indicators were immobilized. For extending the pH range, the dynamic response rather than the steady-state response of the optode was measured. Since diffusion is the main process governing the system response, different parameters having influence on diffusion of the analyte into the membrane were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, wide range pH determination (up to 11 pH units) is simply achieved regardless of the pKa of the pH indicator immobilized in the membrane. To validate the application of the method different indicators with different structures and pKa values were tested and the results were all confirming the precision and accuracy of the method. The suggested method also has combined advantages of flow systems together with inherent advantages of kinetic systems. PMID:17386563

  3. Low-power wide-locking-range injection-locked frequency divider for OFDM UWB systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiangwei, Yin; Ning, Li; Renliang, Zheng; Wei, Li; Junyan, Ren

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes a divide-by-two injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) for frequency synthesizers as used in multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) ultra-wideband (UWB) systems. By means of dual-injection technique and other conventional tuning techniques, such as DCCA and varactor tuning, the divider demonstrates a wide locking range while consuming much less power. The chip was fabricated in the Jazz 0.18 μm RF CMOS process. The measurement results show that the divider achieves a locking range of 4.85 GHz (6.23 to 11.08 GHz) at an input power of 8 dBm. The core circuit without the test buffer consumes only 3.7 mA from a 1.8 V power supply and has a die area of 0.38 × 0.28 mm2. The wide locking range combined with low power consumption makes the ILFD suitable for its application in UWB systems.

  4. Wide-Range Temperature Sensors with High-Level Pulse Train Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammoud, Ahmad; Patterson, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Two types of temperature sensors have been developed for wide-range temperature applications. The two sensors measure temperature in the range of -190 to +200 C and utilize a thin-film platinum RTD (resistance temperature detector) as the temperature-sensing element. Other parts used in the fabrication of these sensors include NPO (negative-positive- zero) type ceramic capacitors for timing, thermally-stable film or wirewound resistors, and high-temperature circuit boards and solder. The first type of temperature sensor is a relaxation oscillator circuit using an SOI (silicon-on-insulator) operational amplifier as a comparator. The output is a pulse train with a period that is roughly proportional to the temperature being measured. The voltage level of the pulse train is high-level, for example 10 V. The high-level output makes the sensor less sensitive to noise or electromagnetic interference. The output can be read by a frequency or period meter and then converted into a temperature reading. The second type of temperature sensor is made up of various types of multivibrator circuits using an SOI type 555 timer and the passive components mentioned above. Three configurations have been developed that were based on the technique of charging and discharging a capacitor through a resistive element to create a train of pulses governed by the capacitor-resistor time constant. Both types of sensors, which operated successfully over the wide temperature range, have potential use in extreme temperature environments including jet engines and space exploration missions.

  5. Profile measurement of aspheric surfaces using scanning deflectometry and rotating autocollimator with wide measuring range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Kyohei; Takamura, Tomohiko; Xiao, Muzheng; Takahashi, Satoru; Takamasu, Kiyoshi

    2014-06-01

    High-accuracy aspherical mirrors and lenses with large dimensions are widely used in large telescopes and other industry fields. However, the measurement methods for large aspherical optical surfaces are not well established. Scanning deflectometry is used for measuring optical signals near flat surfaces with uncertainties on subnanometer scales. A critical issue regarding scanning deflectometry is that high-accuracy autocollimators (AC) have narrow angular measuring ranges and are not suitable for measuring surfaces with large slopes and angular changes. The goal of our study is to measure the profile of large aspherical optical surfaces with an accuracy of approximately 10 nm. We have proposed a new method to measure optical surfaces with large aspherical dimensions and large angular changes by using a scanning deflectometry method. A rotating AC was used to increase the allowable measuring range. Error analysis showed that the rotating AC reduces the accuracy of the measurements. In this study, we developed a new AC with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) as a light-receiving element (CMOS-type AC). The CMOS-type AC can measure wider ranges of angular changes, with a maximum range of 21 500 µrad (4500 arcsec) and a stability (standard deviation) of 0.1 µrad (0.02 arcsec). We conducted an experiment to verify the effectivity of the wide measuring range AC by the measurement of a spherical mirror with a curvature radius of 500 mm. Furthermore, we conducted an experiment to measure an aspherical optical surface (an off-axis parabolic mirror) and found an angular change of 0.07 rad (4 arcdegrees). The repeatability (average standard deviation) for ten measurements of the off-axis parabolic mirror was less than 4 nm.

  6. Theoretical and Experimental Study on Wide Range Optical Fiber Turbine Flow Sensor.

    PubMed

    Du, Yuhuan; Guo, Yingqing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel fiber turbine flow sensor was proposed and demonstrated for liquid measurement with optical fiber, using light intensity modulation to measure the turbine rotational speed for converting to flow rate. The double-circle-coaxial (DCC) fiber probe was introduced in frequency measurement for the first time. Through the divided ratio of two rings light intensity, the interference in light signals acquisition can be eliminated. To predict the characteristics between the output frequency and flow in the nonlinear range, the turbine flow sensor model was built. Via analyzing the characteristics of turbine flow sensor, piecewise linear equations were achieved in expanding the flow measurement range. Furthermore, the experimental verification was tested. The results showed that the flow range ratio of DN20 turbine flow sensor was improved 2.9 times after using piecewise linear in the nonlinear range. Therefore, combining the DCC fiber sensor and piecewise linear method, it can be developed into a strong anti-electromagnetic interference(anti-EMI) and wide range fiber turbine flowmeter. PMID:27428976

  7. Theoretical and Experimental Study on Wide Range Optical Fiber Turbine Flow Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yuhuan; Guo, Yingqing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel fiber turbine flow sensor was proposed and demonstrated for liquid measurement with optical fiber, using light intensity modulation to measure the turbine rotational speed for converting to flow rate. The double-circle-coaxial (DCC) fiber probe was introduced in frequency measurement for the first time. Through the divided ratio of two rings light intensity, the interference in light signals acquisition can be eliminated. To predict the characteristics between the output frequency and flow in the nonlinear range, the turbine flow sensor model was built. Via analyzing the characteristics of turbine flow sensor, piecewise linear equations were achieved in expanding the flow measurement range. Furthermore, the experimental verification was tested. The results showed that the flow range ratio of DN20 turbine flow sensor was improved 2.9 times after using piecewise linear in the nonlinear range. Therefore, combining the DCC fiber sensor and piecewise linear method, it can be developed into a strong anti-electromagnetic interference(anti-EMI) and wide range fiber turbine flowmeter. PMID:27428976

  8. Resource Selection and Its Implications for Wide-Ranging Mammals of the Brazilian Cerrado

    PubMed Central

    Vynne, Carly; Keim, Jonah L.; Machado, Ricardo B.; Marinho-Filho, Jader; Silveira, Leandro; Groom, Martha J.; Wasser, Samuel K.

    2011-01-01

    Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), jaguar (Panthera onca), and puma (Puma concolor). We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for conservation, arguing

  9. Resource selection and its implications for wide-ranging mammals of the brazilian cerrado.

    PubMed

    Vynne, Carly; Keim, Jonah L; Machado, Ricardo B; Marinho-Filho, Jader; Silveira, Leandro; Groom, Martha J; Wasser, Samuel K

    2011-01-01

    Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), jaguar (Panthera onca), and puma (Puma concolor). We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for conservation, arguing

  10. Range performance of the DARPA AWARE wide field-of-view visible imager.

    PubMed

    Nichols, J M; Judd, K P; Olson, C C; Novak, K; Waterman, J R; Feller, S; McCain, S; Anderson, J; Brady, D

    2016-06-01

    In a prior paper, we described a new imaging architecture that addresses the need for wide field-of-view imaging combined with the resolution required to identify targets at long range. Over the last two years substantive improvements have been made to the system, both in terms of the size, weight, and power of the camera as well as to the optics and data management software. The result is an overall improvement in system performance, which we demonstrate via a maritime target identification experiment. PMID:27411206

  11. A new method for achieving enhanced dielectric response over a wide temperature range

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Deepam; Sun, Fu-Chang; Pamir Alpay, S.; Priya, Shashank

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel approach for achieving high dielectric response over a wide temperature range. In this approach, multilayer ceramic heterostructures with constituent compositions having strategically tuned Curie points (TC) were designed and integrated with varying electrical connectivity. Interestingly, these multilayer structures exhibited different dielectric behavior in series and parallel configuration due to variations in electrical boundary conditions resulting in the differences in the strength of the electrostatic coupling. The results are explained using nonlinear thermodynamic model taking into account electrostatic interlayer interaction. We believe that present work will have huge significance in design of high performance ceramic capacitors. PMID:26477391

  12. A new method for achieving enhanced dielectric response over a wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, Deepam; Sun, Fu-Chang; Pamir Alpay, S.; Priya, Shashank

    2015-10-01

    We report a novel approach for achieving high dielectric response over a wide temperature range. In this approach, multilayer ceramic heterostructures with constituent compositions having strategically tuned Curie points (TC) were designed and integrated with varying electrical connectivity. Interestingly, these multilayer structures exhibited different dielectric behavior in series and parallel configuration due to variations in electrical boundary conditions resulting in the differences in the strength of the electrostatic coupling. The results are explained using nonlinear thermodynamic model taking into account electrostatic interlayer interaction. We believe that present work will have huge significance in design of high performance ceramic capacitors.

  13. Development of wide-ranged diamond-based detector unit for gamma radiation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranova, M. A.; Boyko, A. V.; Chebyshev, S. B.; Cherkashin, I. I.; Kireev, V. P.; Petrov, V. I.

    2016-02-01

    In the article the description of wide-ranged diamond-based detector unit is given. Characteristics of the diamond detector were studied in current and in impulse mode. As well it was studied how detector's sensitivity depends on power doze within the limits from 10-3 to 0,4Gy/h (impulse mode) and from 10-1to 2 104Gy/h (current mode). On the basis of the obtained data it is possible to estimate about the possibility of using the detector to prevent emergency accident on a nuclear power plant and for everyday control at a nuclear power plant.

  14. A new method for achieving enhanced dielectric response over a wide temperature range

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Maurya, Deepam; Sun, Fu -Chang; Pamir Alpay, S.; Priya, Shashank

    2015-10-19

    We report a novel approach for achieving high dielectric response over a wide temperature range. In this approach, multilayer ceramic heterostructures with constituent compositions having strategically tuned Curie points (TC) were designed and integrated with varying electrical connectivity. Interestingly, these multilayer structures exhibited different dielectric behavior in series and parallel configuration due to variations in electrical boundary conditions resulting in the differences in the strength of the electrostatic coupling. The results are explained using nonlinear thermodynamic model taking into account electrostatic interlayer interaction. We believe that present work will have huge significance in design of high performance ceramic capacitors.

  15. Generalized weighted ratio method for accurate turbidity measurement over a wide range.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbo; Yang, Ping; Song, Hong; Guo, Yilu; Zhan, Shuyue; Huang, Hui; Wang, Hangzhou; Tao, Bangyi; Mu, Quanquan; Xu, Jing; Li, Dejun; Chen, Ying

    2015-12-14

    Turbidity measurement is important for water quality assessment, food safety, medicine, ocean monitoring, etc. In this paper, a method that accurately estimates the turbidity over a wide range is proposed, where the turbidity of the sample is represented as a weighted ratio of the scattered light intensities at a series of angles. An improvement in the accuracy is achieved by expanding the structure of the ratio function, thus adding more flexibility to the turbidity-intensity fitting. Experiments have been carried out with an 850 nm laser and a power meter fixed on a turntable to measure the light intensity at different angles. The results show that the relative estimation error of the proposed method is 0.58% on average for a four-angle intensity combination for all test samples with a turbidity ranging from 160 NTU to 4000 NTU. PMID:26699060

  16. Subdigital setae of chameleon feet: Friction-enhancing microstructures for a wide range of substrate roughness

    PubMed Central

    Spinner, Marlene; Westhoff, Guido; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-01-01

    Hairy adhesive systems of microscopic setae with triangular flattened tips have evolved convergently in spiders, insects and arboreal lizards. The ventral sides of the feet and tails in chameleons are also covered with setae. However, chameleon setae feature strongly elongated narrow spatulae or fibrous tips. The friction enhancing function of these microstructures has so far only been demonstrated in contact with glass spheres. In the present study, the frictional properties of subdigital setae of Chamaeleo calyptratus were measured under normal forces in the physical range on plane substrates having different roughness. We showed that chameleon setae maximize friction on a wide range of substrate roughness. The highest friction was measured on asperities of 1 μm. However, our observations of the climbing ability of Ch. calyptratus on rods of different diameters revealed that also claws and grasping feet are additionally responsible for the force generation on various substrates during locomotion. PMID:24970387

  17. Subdigital setae of chameleon feet: Friction-enhancing microstructures for a wide range of substrate roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinner, Marlene; Westhoff, Guido; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-06-01

    Hairy adhesive systems of microscopic setae with triangular flattened tips have evolved convergently in spiders, insects and arboreal lizards. The ventral sides of the feet and tails in chameleons are also covered with setae. However, chameleon setae feature strongly elongated narrow spatulae or fibrous tips. The friction enhancing function of these microstructures has so far only been demonstrated in contact with glass spheres. In the present study, the frictional properties of subdigital setae of Chamaeleo calyptratus were measured under normal forces in the physical range on plane substrates having different roughness. We showed that chameleon setae maximize friction on a wide range of substrate roughness. The highest friction was measured on asperities of 1 μm. However, our observations of the climbing ability of Ch. calyptratus on rods of different diameters revealed that also claws and grasping feet are additionally responsible for the force generation on various substrates during locomotion.

  18. Electrical Transport Over Wide Temperature Range In Doped And Undoped Polypyrrole

    SciTech Connect

    Taunk, Manish; Chand, Subhash

    2010-12-01

    Polypyrrole was synthesized by chemical oxidation method by varying oxidant to monomer molar ratio for the optimization of electrical conductivity without using any external dopant. The conductivity in doped polypyrrole reached up to a maximum value of 7.2 S/cm. Neutralization of doped polypyrrole was done with aqueous ammonium hydroxide and three orders of reduced conductivity was obtained in neutral polypyrrole. Doping and neutralization of polypyrrole samples was supported by FTIR spectroscopy. Doped and undoped samples of polypyrrole were then electrically characterized over wide temperature range of 10-300 K. Stronger and weak temperature dependence of conductivity was revealed by undoped and doped polypyrrole samples respectively. An effort has been made to explore the electrical transport in doped and undoped polypyrrole by charge transport models. The experimental data obeys Kivelson's hopping model in temperature range of 60-300 K and fluctuation assisted tunneling was dominant conduction mechanism below 80 K.

  19. Wide range fully integrated VCO with new cells-based varactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero-Martin, Margarita; Gonzalez, Benito; Garcia, Javier; Khemchandani, Sunil L.; Hernandez, Antonio; del Pino, Javier

    2012-08-01

    This article presents a wide range inductance-capacitance voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) with a unit cells-based varactor. The unit cell represents the minimum possible integrated varactor based on p-n junction diodes, where N+ diffusions are central rectangles, surrounded by doughnut shaped P+ diffusions, with their respective contacts. The varactors are designed using the AMS 0.35 µm BiCMOS process. A physical model has been derived from the measurement of a set of eight fabricated varactors. Measurements indicate that the VCO, which is intended to be used in DVB-H, oscillates from 1.087 to 2.032 GHz, with a 61% tuning range. The phase noises of -124 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset and -108 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz offset are obtained.

  20. Narrow Angle Wide Spectral Range Radiometer Design FEANICS/REEFS Radiometer Design Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camperchioli, William

    2005-01-01

    A critical measurement for the Radiative Enhancement Effects on Flame Spread (REEFS) microgravity combustion experiment is the net radiative flux emitted from the gases and from the solid fuel bed. These quantities are measured using a set of narrow angle, wide spectral range radiometers. The radiometers are required to have an angular field of view of 1.2 degrees and measure over the spectral range of 0.6 to 30 microns, which presents a challenging design effort. This report details the design of this radiometer system including field of view, radiometer response, radiometric calculations, temperature effects, error sources, baffling and amplifiers. This report presents some radiometer specific data but does not present any REEFS experiment data.

  1. All CMOS Low-Power Wide-Gain Range Variable Gain Amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, Quoc-Hoang; Kim, Chang-Wan; Lee, Sang-Gug

    Two variable gain amplifiers (VGAs) that adopt new approximated exponential equations are proposed in this paper. The dB-linear range of the proposed VGAs is extended more than what the approximated exponential equations predict by a bias circuit technique that adopts negative feedback. The proposed VGAs feature wide gain variation, low-power, high linearity, wide control signal range, and small chip size. One of the proposed VGAs is fabricated in 0.18μm CMOS technology and measurements show a gain variation of 83dB (-36-47dB) with a gain error of less than ±2dB, and P1dB/IIP3 from -55/8 to -20/20.5dBm, while consuming an average current of 3.4mA from a 1.8V supply; the chip occupies 0.4mm2. The other VGA is simulated in 0.18μm CMOS technology and simulations show a gain variation of 91dB (-41-50dB), and P1dB/IIP3 from -50/-25 to -33/0dBm, while consuming an average current of 1.5mA from a 1.8V supply.

  2. Direct Measurements of Brown Carbon Absorption in A Wide Range of Biomass Burning Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, S. M.; Pokhrel, R. P.; Beamesderfer, E.; Lack, D.; Langridge, J.; Wagner, N. L.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning represents one of the largest global sources of absorbing aerosol. Despite the importance of biomass burning emissions on the Earth's radiative balance, there remains significant uncertainty about the optical properties of emitted particles. Of particular interest is the impact of lensing on black carbon absorption and the impact of brown carbon. This presentation describes results from the Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment-4 (FLAME-4), which occurred in October 2012. Multi-channel photoacoustic (PAS) and Cavity Ringdown (CRDS) spectrometers were used to measure absorption, extinction, and absorption enhancement of aerosol particles produced from a wide range of globally relevant biomass fuels. Measurements were made at 405, 532, and 660 nm with duplicate channels at 405 and 660 measuring denuded particles, allowing for direct observation of the enhancement of absorption by black carbon particles caused by clear and brown organic coatings. Fuels were chosen based on their contribution to global wildfire emissions and a wide range of fuels will be discussed including some of the first optical measurements of Indonesian peat. The SSA and absorption angstrom exponent (AAE) of different biomass fuels will be explored and the relative importance of black and brown carbon emitted from different biomass fuels will be assessed, demonstrating that for certain fuels absorption from brown carbon is as important, or even more important than absorption from black carbon.

  3. Evaluation of canola chlorophyll index and leaf nitrogen under wide range of soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskini-Vishkaee, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Hosein; Neyshabouri, Mohammad Reza; Shekari, Farid

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a study on the effect of soil matric suction on the variation of leaf chlorophyll index and nitrogen concentration of canola. Results showed that chlorophyll index increases exponentially with soil matric suction, especially at the late season of canola growing time. At moderate matric suction (200 and 300 kPa soil suction heads), chlorophyll index remains nearly constant, but in drier soil (matric suction >300 kPa), chlorophyll index increases gradually with time. Despite the variation of the total leaf nitrogen with the soil matric suction, it is similar to the variation of the chlorophyll index, but the results showed that the chlorophyll index - nitrogen concentration curve has a demarcated bi-modal shape. We suggest that 2.7% of nitrogen and 69.8 of the chlorophyll index value represent the upper limit of the chlorophyll meter reliability for estimation of canola nitrogen under a wide range of soil moisture levels. These results confirm that the chlorophyll meter can be used as an effective tool for rapid and non-destructive estimation of the relative chlorophyll and nitrogen content in canola leaves at a wide range of soil moisture content, except for nearly wilting coefficient or extremely high drought stress

  4. Kinetics of silicide formation over a wide range of heating rates spanning six orders of magnitude

    SciTech Connect

    Molina-Ruiz, Manel; Lopeandía, Aitor F.; Gonzalez-Silveira, Marta; Garcia, Gemma; Clavaguera-Mora, Maria T.; Peral, Inma; Rodríguez-Viejo, Javier

    2014-07-07

    Kinetic processes involving intermediate phase formation are often assumed to follow an Arrhenius temperature dependence. This behavior is usually inferred from limited data over narrow temperature intervals, where the exponential dependence is generally fully satisfied. However, direct evidence over wide temperature intervals is experimentally challenging and data are scarce. Here, we report a study of silicide formation between a 12 nm film of palladium and 15 nm of amorphous silicon in a wide range of heating rates, spanning six orders of magnitude, from 0.1 to 10{sup 5 }K/s, or equivalently more than 300 K of variation in reaction temperature. The calorimetric traces exhibit several distinct exothermic events related to interdiffusion, nucleation of Pd{sub 2}Si, crystallization of amorphous silicon, and vertical growth of Pd{sub 2}Si. Interestingly, the thickness of the initial nucleation layer depends on the heating rate revealing enhanced mass diffusion at the fastest heating rates during the initial stages of the reaction. In spite of this, the formation of the silicide strictly follows an Arrhenius temperature dependence over the whole temperature interval explored. A kinetic model is used to fit the calorimetric data over the complete heating rate range. Calorimetry is complemented by structural analysis through transmission electron microscopy and both standard and in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction.

  5. Oxidation and combustion of the n-hexene isomers: a wide range kinetic modeling study

    SciTech Connect

    Mehl, M; Vanhove, G; Pitz, W J; Ranzi, E

    2008-03-12

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed to study the oxidation of the straight-chain isomers of hexene over a wide range of operating conditions. The main features of this detailed kinetic mechanism, which includes both high and low temperature reaction pathways, are presented and discussed with special emphasis on the main classes of reactions involved in alkene oxidation. Simulation results have been compared with experimental data over a wide range of operating conditions including shock tube, jet stirred reactor and rapid compression machine. The different reactivities of the three isomers have been successfully predicted by the model. Isomerization reactions of the hexenyl radicals were found to play a significant role in the chemistry and interactions of the three n-hexene isomers. A comparative reaction flux analysis is used to verify and discuss the fundamental role of the double bond position in the isomerization reactions of alkenyl radicals, as well as the impact of the allylic site in the low and high temperature mechanism of fuel oxidation.

  6. Nonlinear analysis and dynamic compensation of stylus scanning measurement with wide range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Heiyang; Liu, Xiaojun; Lu, Wenlong

    2011-12-01

    Surface topography is an important geometrical feature of a workpiece that influences its quality and functions such as friction, wearing, lubrication and sealing. Precision measurement of surface topography is fundamental for product quality characterizing and assurance. Stylus scanning technique is a widely used method for surface topography measurement, and it is also regarded as the international standard method for 2-D surface characterizing. Usually surface topography, including primary profile, waviness and roughness, can be measured precisely and efficiently by this method. However, by stylus scanning method to measure curved surface topography, the nonlinear error is unavoidable because of the difference of horizontal position of the actual measured point from given sampling point and the nonlinear transformation process from vertical displacement of the stylus tip to angle displacement of the stylus arm, and the error increases with the increasing of measuring range. In this paper, a wide range stylus scanning measurement system based on cylindrical grating interference principle is constructed, the originations of the nonlinear error are analyzed, the error model is established and a solution to decrease the nonlinear error is proposed, through which the error of the collected data is dynamically compensated.

  7. Biased diffusion in tubes of alternating diameter: Numerical study over a wide range of biasing force

    SciTech Connect

    Makhnovskii, Yurii A.; Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Antipov, Anatoly E.; Zitserman, Vladimir Yu.

    2015-11-07

    This paper is devoted to particle transport in a tube formed by alternating wide and narrow sections, in the presence of an external biasing force. The focus is on the effective transport coefficients—mobility and diffusivity, as functions of the biasing force and the geometric parameters of the tube. Dependences of the effective mobility and diffusivity on the tube geometric parameters are known in the limiting cases of no bias and strong bias. The approximations used to obtain these results are inapplicable at intermediate values of the biasing force. To bridge the two limits Brownian dynamics simulations were run to determine the transport coefficients at intermediate values of the force. The simulations were performed for a representative set of tube geometries over a wide range of the biasing force. They revealed that there is a range of the narrow section length, where the force dependence of the mobility has a maximum. In contrast, the diffusivity is a monotonically increasing function of the force. A simple formula is proposed, which reduces to the known dependences of the diffusivity on the tube geometric parameters in both limits of zero and strong bias. At intermediate values of the biasing force, the formula catches the diffusivity dependence on the narrow section length, if the radius of these sections is not too small.

  8. A wide-range modeling study of iso-octane oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Ranzi, E.; Faravelli, T.; Gaffuri, P.; Sogaro, A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a semidetailed kinetic scheme for the oxidation of iso-octane (2,2,4-trimethyl-pentane). Both the low- and high-temperature primary mechanisms are reduced to a lumped kinetic model involving only a limited number of intermediate steps. This primary reaction scheme, similar to the one already presented for n-heptane, is flexible enough to maintain accurate prediction of intermediate components, heat release, and ignition delay times for a wide range of operating parameters. General criteria for the reduction of intermediate species allow an efficient coupling, with a detailed kinetic model of C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} oxidation. Thermochemical oscillations and the negative temperature coefficient (NTC) region of the reaction rate of the low-temperature oxidation of iso-octane in a jet-stirred reactor are reproduced quite well by the model. Several comparisons with experimental data, obtained under very different operating conditions, including a shock tube, a rapid compression machine, flow and jet-stirred reactors, support the applicability of this model of iso-octane oxidation over a wide range of pressures, temperatures, and mixture compositions.

  9. Long-Term Cathodoluminescent Characterization of Thin-Film Oxide Phosphors in a Wide Range of Electron Excitation Densities

    SciTech Connect

    Bondar, V D; Felter, T E; Hunt, C E; Dubov, Y G; Chakhovskoy, A G

    2001-04-09

    Long-term processes of cathodoluminescence degradation of thin film phosphors Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}:Ti and Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}:Mn were investigated in a wide range of e-beam energies, current and power densities. The time dependencies describing decreasing of emission intensity have been found. At high-level densities of e-beam irradiation the specific behavior of long-term degradation processes was observed, which is characteristic with rapid degradation at initial stage and slow consequent decrease of intensity. The most probable mechanisms responsible for long-term processes of degradation in investigated phosphors are proposed.

  10. Long-Term Cathodoluminescent Characterization of Thin-Film Oxide Phosphors in a Wide Range of Electron Excitation Densities

    SciTech Connect

    Bondar, V D; Felter, T E; Hunt, C E; Dubov, Y G; Chakhovskoi, A G

    2001-05-06

    Long-term processes of cathodoluminescence degradation of thin film phosphors Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}:Ti and Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}:Mn were investigated in a wide range of e-beam energies, current and power densities. The time dependencies describing decreasing of emission intensity have been found. At high-level densities of e-beam irradiation the specific behavior of long-term degradation processes was observed, which is characteristic with rapid degradation at initial stage and slow consequent decrease of intensity. The most probable mechanisms responsible for long-term processes of degradation in investigated phosphors are proposed.

  11. Understanding the wide geographic range of a clonal perennial grass: plasticity versus local adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanjie; Zhang, Lirong; Xu, Xingliang; Niu, Haishan

    2016-01-01

    Both phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation may allow widely distributed plant species to either acclimate or adapt to environmental heterogeneity. Given the typically low genetic variation of clonal plants across their habitats, phenotypic plasticity may be the primary adaptive strategy allowing them to thrive across a wide range of habitats. In this study, the mechanism supporting the widespread distribution of the clonal plant Leymus chinensis was determined, i.e. phenotypic plasticity or local specialization in water use efficiency (WUE; reflected by foliar δ13C). To test whether plasticity is required for the species to thrive in different habitats, samples were collected across its distribution in the Mongolian steppe, and a controlled watering experiment was conducted with two populations at two different sites. Five populations were also transplanted from different sites into a control environment, and the foliar δ13C was compared between the control and original habitats, to test for local specialization in WUE. Results demonstrated decreased foliar δ13C with increasing precipitation during controlled watering experiments, with divergent responses between the two populations assessed. Change in foliar δ13C (−3.69 ‰) due to water addition was comparable to fluctuations of foliar δ13C observed in situ (−4.83 ‰). Foliar δ13C differed by −0.91 ‰ between two transplanted populations; however, this difference was not apparent between the two populations when growing in their original habitats. Findings provide evidence that local adaptation affects foliar δ13C much less than phenotypic plasticity. Thus, plasticity in WUE is more important than local adaptation in allowing the clonal plant L. chinensis to occupy a wide range of habitats in the Mongolian steppe. PMID:26644341

  12. Understanding the wide geographic range of a clonal perennial grass: plasticity versus local adaptation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjie; Zhang, Lirong; Xu, Xingliang; Niu, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    Both phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation may allow widely distributed plant species to either acclimate or adapt to environmental heterogeneity. Given the typically low genetic variation of clonal plants across their habitats, phenotypic plasticity may be the primary adaptive strategy allowing them to thrive across a wide range of habitats. In this study, the mechanism supporting the widespread distribution of the clonal plant Leymus chinensis was determined, i.e. phenotypic plasticity or local specialization in water use efficiency (WUE; reflected by foliar δ(13)C). To test whether plasticity is required for the species to thrive in different habitats, samples were collected across its distribution in the Mongolian steppe, and a controlled watering experiment was conducted with two populations at two different sites. Five populations were also transplanted from different sites into a control environment, and the foliar δ(13)C was compared between the control and original habitats, to test for local specialization in WUE. Results demonstrated decreased foliar δ(13)C with increasing precipitation during controlled watering experiments, with divergent responses between the two populations assessed. Change in foliar δ(13)C (-3.69 ‰) due to water addition was comparable to fluctuations of foliar δ(13)C observed in situ (-4.83 ‰). Foliar δ(13)C differed by -0.91 ‰ between two transplanted populations; however, this difference was not apparent between the two populations when growing in their original habitats. Findings provide evidence that local adaptation affects foliar δ(13)C much less than phenotypic plasticity. Thus, plasticity in WUE is more important than local adaptation in allowing the clonal plant L. chinensis to occupy a wide range of habitats in the Mongolian steppe. PMID:26644341

  13. FEL Beamline for Wide Tunable Range and Beam Sharing System at Kyoto University

    SciTech Connect

    Bakr, Mahmoud; Yoshida, K.; Higashimura, K.; Ueda, S.; Kinjo, R.; Sonobe, T.; Kii, T.; Masuda, K.; Ohgaki, H.; Zen, H.

    2010-02-03

    A mid-infrared free electron laser (MIR-FEL) facility (KU-FEL: Kyoto University Free Electron Laser) has been constructed for developing energy materials in Institute of Advanced Energy (IAE), Kyoto University. The tunable range of KU-FEL was estimated as 5-13.2 {mu}m by numerical calculation to design the MIR-FEL transport line for application purposes. Aiming to increase the number of FEL users with different desires we decided to develop an FEL beam sharing system that is useful for multi-utilization at different end-stations. The transport line and the beam sharing system has been designed and constructed to the user stations. Applications of the MIR-FEL in the renewable energy research at Kyoto University will start as well.

  14. Design and operation of the wide angular-range chopper spectrometer ARCS at the Spallation Neutron Source.

    PubMed

    Abernathy, D L; Stone, M B; Loguillo, M J; Lucas, M S; Delaire, O; Tang, X; Lin, J Y Y; Fultz, B

    2012-01-01

    The wide angular-range chopper spectrometer ARCS at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is optimized to provide a high neutron flux at the sample position with a large solid angle of detector coverage. The instrument incorporates modern neutron instrumentation, such as an elliptically focused neutron guide, high speed magnetic bearing choppers, and a massive array of (3)He linear position sensitive detectors. Novel features of the spectrometer include the use of a large gate valve between the sample and detector vacuum chambers and the placement of the detectors within the vacuum, both of which provide a window-free final flight path to minimize background scattering while allowing rapid changing of the sample and sample environment equipment. ARCS views the SNS decoupled ambient temperature water moderator, using neutrons with incident energy typically in the range from 15 to 1500 meV. This range, coupled with the large detector coverage, allows a wide variety of studies of excitations in condensed matter, such as lattice dynamics and magnetism, in both powder and single-crystal samples. Comparisons of early results to both analytical and Monte Carlo simulation of the instrument performance demonstrate that the instrument is operating as expected and its neutronic performance is understood. ARCS is currently in the SNS user program and continues to improve its scientific productivity by incorporating new instrumentation to increase the range of science covered and improve its effectiveness in data collection. PMID:22299993

  15. Design and operation of the wide angular-range chopper spectrometer ARCS at the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, D. L.; Stone, M. B.; Loguillo, M. J.; Lucas, M. S.; Delaire, O.; Tang, X.; Lin, J. Y. Y.; Fultz, B.

    2012-01-15

    The wide angular-range chopper spectrometer ARCS at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is optimized to provide a high neutron flux at the sample position with a large solid angle of detector coverage. The instrument incorporates modern neutron instrumentation, such as an elliptically focused neutron guide, high speed magnetic bearing choppers, and a massive array of {sup 3}He linear position sensitive detectors. Novel features of the spectrometer include the use of a large gate valve between the sample and detector vacuum chambers and the placement of the detectors within the vacuum, both of which provide a window-free final flight path to minimize background scattering while allowing rapid changing of the sample and sample environment equipment. ARCS views the SNS decoupled ambient temperature water moderator, using neutrons with incident energy typically in the range from 15 to 1500 meV. This range, coupled with the large detector coverage, allows a wide variety of studies of excitations in condensed matter, such as lattice dynamics and magnetism, in both powder and single-crystal samples. Comparisons of early results to both analytical and Monte Carlo simulation of the instrument performance demonstrate that the instrument is operating as expected and its neutronic performance is understood. ARCS is currently in the SNS user program and continues to improve its scientific productivity by incorporating new instrumentation to increase the range of science covered and improve its effectiveness in data collection.

  16. Ultrafast and Wide Range Analysis of DNA Molecules Using Rigid Network Structure of Solid Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahong, Sakon; Yasui, Takao; Yanagida, Takeshi; Nagashima, Kazuki; Kanai, Masaki; Klamchuen, Annop; Meng, Gang; He, Yong; Zhuge, Fuwei; Kaji, Noritada; Kawai, Tomoji; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2014-06-01

    Analyzing sizes of DNA via electrophoresis using a gel has played an important role in the recent, rapid progress of biology and biotechnology. Although analyzing DNA over a wide range of sizes in a short time is desired, no existing electrophoresis methods have been able to fully satisfy these two requirements. Here we propose a novel method using a rigid 3D network structure composed of solid nanowires within a microchannel. This rigid network structure enables analysis of DNA under applied DC electric fields for a large DNA size range (100 bp-166 kbp) within 13 s, which are much wider and faster conditions than those of any existing methods. The network density is readily varied for the targeted DNA size range by tailoring the number of cycles of the nanowire growth only at the desired spatial position within the microchannel. The rigid dense 3D network structure with spatial density control plays an important role in determining the capability for analyzing DNA. Since the present method allows the spatial location and density of the nanostructure within the microchannels to be defined, this unique controllability offers a new strategy to develop an analytical method not only for DNA but also for other biological molecules.

  17. Characterization of motor units in behaving adult mice shows a wide primary range

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Laura K.; Tresch, Matthew C.; Heckman, C. J.; Manuel, Marin

    2014-01-01

    The mouse is essential for genetic studies of motor function in both normal and pathological states. Thus it is important to consider whether the structure of motor output from the mouse is in fact analogous to that recorded in other animals. There is a striking difference in the basic electrical properties of mouse motoneurons compared with those in rats, cats, and humans. The firing evoked by injected currents produces a unique frequency-current (F-I) function that emphasizes recruitment of motor units at their maximum force. These F-I functions, however, were measured in anesthetized preparations that lacked two key components of normal synaptic input: high levels of synaptic noise and neuromodulatory inputs. Recent studies suggest that the alterations in the F-I function due to these two components are essential for recreating firing behavior of motor units in human subjects. In this study we provide the first data on firing patterns of motor units in the awake mouse, focusing on steady output in quiet stance. The resulting firing patterns did not match the predictions from the mouse F-I behaviors but instead revealed rate modulation across a remarkably wide range (10–60 Hz). The low end of the firing range may be due to changes in the F-I relation induced by synaptic noise and neuromodulatory inputs. The high end of the range may indicate that, unlike other species, quiet standing in the mouse involves recruitment of relatively fast-twitch motor units. PMID:24805075

  18. Comprehensive Measurement of Atmospheric Aerosols with a Wide Range Aerosol Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keck, L.; Pesch, M.; Grimm, H.

    2011-07-01

    A wide range aerosol spectrometer (WRAS) was used for comprehensive long term measurements of aerosol size distributions. The system combines the results of an optical aerosol spectrometer with the results of a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) to record essentially the full size range (5 nm - 32 μm) of atmospheric particles in 72 channels. Measurements were carried out over one year (2009) at the Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW)-Station Hohenpeißenberg, Bavaria. Total particle number concentrations obtained from the aerosol size distributions were compared to the total number concentrations measured by a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). The comparison showed an excellent agreement of the data. The high time resolution of 5 minutes allows the combination of the measured size distributions with meteorological data and correlations to gaseous pollutants (CO, NOx and SO2). A good correlation of particle number and CO concentrations was found for long distance transported small particles, which were probably mainly soot particles. Correlations to NOx were observed for aerosols from local sources such as traffic emissions. The formation of secondary aerosols from gaseous precursors was also observed. Episodes of relatively high concentration of particles in the range of 2-3 μm were probably caused by pollen.

  19. A wide range sigma—delta fractional-N frequency synthesizer with adaptive frequency calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianjun, Wei; Hanjun, Jiang; Lingwei, Zhang; Jingjing, Dong; Fule, Li; Zhihua, Wang; Chun, Zhang

    2013-06-01

    A wide range fractional-N frequency synthesizer in 0.18 μm RF CMOS technology is implemented. A switched-capacitors bank LC-tank VCO and an adaptive frequency calibration technique are used to expand the frequency range. A 16-bit third-order sigma—delta modulator with dither is used to randomize the fractional spur. The active area is 0.6 mm2. The experimental results show the proposed frequency synthesizer consumes 4.3 mA from a single 1.8 V supply voltage except for buffers. The frequency range is 1.44-2.11 GHz and the frequency resolution is less than 0.4 kHz. The phase noise is -94 dBc/Hz @ 100 kHz and -121 dBc/Hz @ 1 MHz at the output of the prescaler with a loop bandwidth of approximately 120 kHz. The performance meets the requirements for the multi-band and multi-mode transceiver applications.

  20. Wide tuning-range CMOS VCO based on a tunable active inductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaei Kia, Hojjat; Khari A'ain, Abu; Grout, Ian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a wide tuning-range CMOS voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) with high output power using an active inductor circuit is presented. In this VCO design, the coarse frequency is achieved by tuning the integrated active inductor. The circuit has been simulated using a 0.18-µm CMOS fabrication process and presents output frequency range from 100 MHz to 2.5 GHz, resulting in a tuning range of 96%. The phase noise is -85 dBc/Hz at a 1 MHz frequency offset. The output power is from -3 dBm at 2.55 GHz to +14 dBm at 167 MHz. The active inductor power dissipation is 6.5 mW and the total power consumption is 16.27 mW when operating on a 1.8 V supply voltage. By comparing this active inductor architecture VCO with general VCO topology, the result shows that this topology, which employs the proposed active inductor, produces a better performance.

  1. Characterization of motor units in behaving adult mice shows a wide primary range.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Laura K; Tresch, Matthew C; Heckman, C J; Manuel, Marin; Tysseling, Vicki M

    2014-08-01

    The mouse is essential for genetic studies of motor function in both normal and pathological states. Thus it is important to consider whether the structure of motor output from the mouse is in fact analogous to that recorded in other animals. There is a striking difference in the basic electrical properties of mouse motoneurons compared with those in rats, cats, and humans. The firing evoked by injected currents produces a unique frequency-current (F-I) function that emphasizes recruitment of motor units at their maximum force. These F-I functions, however, were measured in anesthetized preparations that lacked two key components of normal synaptic input: high levels of synaptic noise and neuromodulatory inputs. Recent studies suggest that the alterations in the F-I function due to these two components are essential for recreating firing behavior of motor units in human subjects. In this study we provide the first data on firing patterns of motor units in the awake mouse, focusing on steady output in quiet stance. The resulting firing patterns did not match the predictions from the mouse F-I behaviors but instead revealed rate modulation across a remarkably wide range (10-60 Hz). The low end of the firing range may be due to changes in the F-I relation induced by synaptic noise and neuromodulatory inputs. The high end of the range may indicate that, unlike other species, quiet standing in the mouse involves recruitment of relatively fast-twitch motor units. PMID:24805075

  2. Consistency pays: sex differences and fitness consequences of behavioural specialization in a wide-ranging seabird.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Samantha C; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2014-10-01

    Specialists and generalists often coexist within a single population, but the biological drivers of individual strategies are not fully resolved. When sexes differ in their foraging strategy, this can lead them to different environmental conditions and stability across their habitat range. As such, sexual segregation, combined with dominance, may lead to varying levels of specialization between the sexes. Here, we examine spatial and temporal niche width (intraindividual variability in aspects of foraging behaviour) of male and female black-browed albatrosses (Thalassarche melanophrys), and its consequences for fitness. We show that females, where maximum foraging range is under fluctuating selection, exhibit more variable behaviours and appear more generalist than males, who are under directional selection to forage close to the colony. However within each sex, successful birds had a much narrower niche width across most behaviours, suggesting some specialization is adaptive in both sexes. These results demonstrate that while there are sex differences in niche width, the fitness benefit of specialization in spatial distribution is strong in this wide-ranging seabird. PMID:25354918

  3. Consistency pays: sex differences and fitness consequences of behavioural specialization in a wide-ranging seabird

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Samantha C.; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2014-01-01

    Specialists and generalists often coexist within a single population, but the biological drivers of individual strategies are not fully resolved. When sexes differ in their foraging strategy, this can lead them to different environmental conditions and stability across their habitat range. As such, sexual segregation, combined with dominance, may lead to varying levels of specialization between the sexes. Here, we examine spatial and temporal niche width (intraindividual variability in aspects of foraging behaviour) of male and female black-browed albatrosses (Thalassarche melanophrys), and its consequences for fitness. We show that females, where maximum foraging range is under fluctuating selection, exhibit more variable behaviours and appear more generalist than males, who are under directional selection to forage close to the colony. However within each sex, successful birds had a much narrower niche width across most behaviours, suggesting some specialization is adaptive in both sexes. These results demonstrate that while there are sex differences in niche width, the fitness benefit of specialization in spatial distribution is strong in this wide-ranging seabird. PMID:25354918

  4. Range-wide assessment of livestock grazing across the sagebrush biome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veblen, Kari E.; Pyke, David A.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Casazza, Michael L.; Assal, Timothy J.; Farinha, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic livestock grazing occurs in virtually all sagebrush habitats and is a prominent disturbance factor. By affecting habitat condition and trend, grazing influences the resources required by, and thus, the distribution and abundance of sagebrush-obligate wildlife species (for example, sage-grouse Centrocercus spp.). Yet, the risks that livestock grazing may pose to these species and their habitats are not always clear. Although livestock grazing intensity and associated habitat condition may be known in many places at the local level, we have not yet been able to answer questions about use, condition, and trend at the landscape scale or at the range-wide scale for wildlife species. A great deal of information about grazing use, management regimes, and ecological condition exists at the local level (for individual livestock management units) under the oversight of organizations such as the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). However, the extent, quality, and types of existing data are unknown, which hinders the compilation, mapping, or analysis of these data. Once compiled, these data may be helpful for drawing conclusions about rangeland status, and we may be able to identify relationships between those data and wildlife habitat at the landscape scale. The overall objective of our study was to perform a range-wide assessment of livestock grazing effects (and the relevant supporting data) in sagebrush ecosystems managed by the BLM. Our assessments and analyses focused primarily on local-level management and data collected at the scale of BLM grazing allotments (that is, individual livestock management units). Specific objectives included the following: 1. Identify and refine existing range-wide datasets to be used for analyses of livestock grazing effects on sagebrush ecosystems. 2. Assess the extent, quality, and types of livestock grazing-related natural resource data collected by BLM range-wide (i.e., across allotments, districts and regions). 3. Compile and

  5. Electrical, optical, and electronic properties of Al:ZnO films in a wide doping range

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, Ilaria; Valeri, Sergio; Perucchi, Andrea; Di Pietro, Paola; Lupi, Stefano; Torelli, Piero

    2015-10-28

    The combination of photoemission spectroscopies, infrared and UV-VIS absorption, and electric measurements has allowed to clarify the mechanisms governing the conductivity and the electronic properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films in a wide doping range. The contribution of defect-related in-gap states to conduction has been excluded in optimally doped films (around 4 at. %). The appearance of gap states at high doping, the disappearance of occupied DOS at Fermi level, and the bands evolution complete the picture of electronic structure in AZO when doped above 4 at. %. In this situation, compensating defects deplete the conduction band and increase the electronic bandgap of the material. Electrical measurements and figure of merit determination confirm the high quality of the films obtained by magnetron sputtering, and thus allow to extend their properties to AZO films in general.

  6. Parallel PWMs Based Fully Digital Transmitter with Wide Carrier Frequency Range

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Kun; Zhou, Wenbiao; Zhang, Yanjun; Liu, Dake

    2013-01-01

    The carrier-frequency (CF) and intermediate-frequency (IF) pulse-width modulators (PWMs) based on delay lines are proposed, where baseband signals are conveyed by both positions and pulse widths or densities of the carrier clock. By combining IF-PWM and precorrected CF-PWM, a fully digital transmitter with unit-delay autocalibration is implemented in 180 nm CMOS for high reconfiguration. The proposed architecture achieves wide CF range of 2 M–1 GHz, high power efficiency of 70%, and low error vector magnitude (EVM) of 3%, with spectrum purity of 20 dB optimized in comparison to the existing designs. PMID:24223503

  7. A new multifunctional device for femtosecond pulse characterization with a wide operating range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F. J.; Zhang, S. X.; Liu, Q. F.; Zhao, G. K.; Liu, J.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel and simple device for femtosecond pulse characterization, which combines the frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) and the self-referenced spectral interferometry (SRSI) methods in the frequency-resolved optical gating and self-referenced spectral interferometry (FASI) method. It was found that the comparative advantages of FROG and SRSI can complement each other. Therefore FASI can be used to characterize femtosecond pulses in different conditions, which may need different devices when using either the FROG or the SRSI method independently. With our multifunctional FASI device, the TG-FROG, SHG-FROG and TG-SRSI methods were used to fully characterize femtosecond pulses at 800 nm with different dispersions. The experimental results obtained by all three methods were compared with each other and also with the calculated data. These results proved the reliability and the wide operating range of our FASI device.

  8. Effects of ionic liquid electrode on pulse discharge plasmas in the wide range of gas pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Qiang; Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2010-11-15

    Gas-liquid interfacial pulse discharge plasmas are generated in the wide range of gas pressures, where an ionic liquid is used as the liquid electrode. By analyzing the characteristics of discharge voltage and current, the discharge mechanisms at low and high pressures are found to be dominated by secondary electron emission and first Townsend ionization, respectively. Therefore, the discharge properties at low and high pressures are mainly determined by the cathode material and the discharge gas type, respectively. Furthermore, the plasma properties are investigated by a double Langmuir probe. The density of the positive pulse plasma is found to be much smaller than that of the negative pulse plasma, although the discharge voltage and current of the negative and positive pulse plasmas are of the same order of magnitude. The positive pulse discharge plasma is considered to quickly diffuse onto the chamber wall from the radially central region due to its high plasma potential compared with that in the peripheral region.

  9. Wide-Range Filter-Based Sinusoidal Wave Synthesizer for Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Measurements.

    PubMed

    Chia-Ling Wei; Yi-Wen Wang; Bin-Da Liu

    2014-06-01

    A filter-based wide-range programmable sinusoidal wave synthesizer for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement is proposed. The adopted filter is implemented with switched-capacitor circuits, so its corner frequency is accurate and adjustable by changing its switching frequency. The proposed sine wave synthesizer is implemented by using a 0.35 μm 2P4M 3.3 V mixed-signal polycide process. According to the measured results, the output frequency of the proposed synthesizer is 40 mHz-40 kHz . The measured total harmonic distortion is 0.073% at 10 Hz and 0.075% at 10 kHz, both of which are better than that of a typical function generator. PMID:24043398

  10. Wide Range Vacuum Pumps for the SAM Instrument on the MSL Curiosity Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, Paul; Kline-Schoder, Robert; Farley, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    Creare Incorporated and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center developed and space qualified two wide range pumps (WRPs) that were included in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument. This instrument was subsequently integrated into the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) "Curiosity Rover," launched aboard an Atlas V rocket in 2011, and landed on August 6, 2012, in the Gale Crater on Mars. The pumps have now operated for more than 18 months in the Gale Crater and have been evacuating the key components of the SAM instrument: a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a tunable laser spectrometer, and six gas chromatograph columns. In this paper, we describe the main design challenges and the ways in which they were solved. This includes the custom design of a miniaturized, high-speed motor to drive the turbo drag pump rotor, analysis of rotor dynamics for super critical operation, and bearing/lubricant design/selection.

  11. Rod photoreceptors drive circadian photoentrainment across a wide range of light intensities

    PubMed Central

    Altimus, C.M.; Güler, A.D.; Alam, N.M.; Arman, A.C.; Prusky, G.T.; Sampath, A.P.; Hattar, S

    2010-01-01

    In mammals, synchronization of the circadian pacemaker in the hypothalamus is achieved through direct input from the eyes conveyed by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). Circadian photoentrainment can be maintained by rod and cone photoreceptors, but their functional contributions and their retinal circuits that impinge on ipRGCs are not well understood. We demonstrate in genetic mouse models lacking functional rods, or where rods are the only functional photoreceptors, that rods are solely responsible for photoentrainment at scotopic light intensities. Surprisingly, rods were also capable of driving circadian photoentrainment at photopic intensities where they were incapable of supporting a visually–guided behavior. Using animals in which cone photoreceptors were ablated, we demonstrate that rods signal through cones at high light intensities, but not low light intensities. Thus two distinct retinal circuits drive ipRGC function to support circadian photoentrainment across a wide range of light intensities. PMID:20711184

  12. A PARMELA model of the CEBAF injector valid over a wide range of beam parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Yuhong Zhang; Kevin Beard; Jay Benesch; Yu-Chiu Chao; Arne Freyberger; Joseph Grames; Reza Kazimi; Geoffrey Krafft; Rui Li; Nikolitsa Merminga; Benard Poelker; Byung Yunn

    2004-07-01

    A PARMELA model of the CEBAF injector valid over a wide range of beam parameters Yuhong Zhang, Kevin Beard, Jay Benesch, Yu-Chiu Chao, Arne Freyberger, Joseph Grames, Reza Kazimi, Geoff Krafft, Rui Li, Lia Merminga, Matt Poelker, Michael Tiefenback, Byung Yunn Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 USA An earlier PARMELA model of the Jefferson Lab CEBAF photoinjector was recently revised. The initial phase space distribution of an electron bunch was determined by measuring spot size and pulselength of the driver laser and by beam emittance measurements. The improved model has been used for simulations of the simultaneous delivery of the Hall A beam required for a hypernuclear experiment, and the Hall C beam required for the G0 parity violation experiment.

  13. Development of a Piezoelectric Vacuum Sensing Component for a Wide Pressure Range

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing-Yu; Hsieh, Fan-Chun; Lin, Che-Yu; Chen, Shao-En; Chen, Fong-Zhi; Wu, Chia-Che

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we develop a clamped–clamped beam-type piezoelectric vacuum pressure sensing element. The clamped–clamped piezoelectric beam is composed of a PZT layer and a copper substrate. A pair of electrodes is set near each end. An input voltage is applied to a pair of electrodes to vibrate the piezoelectric beam, and the output voltage is measured at the other pair. Because the viscous forces on the piezoelectric beam vary at different air pressures, the vibration of the beam depends on the vacuum pressure. The developed pressure sensor can sense a wide range of pressure, from 6.5 × 10−6 to 760 Torr. The experimental results showed that the output voltage is inversely proportional to the gas damping ratio, and thus, the vacuum pressure was estimated from the output voltage. PMID:25421736

  14. Integrated photonic emitter with a wide switching range of orbital angular momentum modes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Zhao, Peng; Feng, Xue; Xu, Yuntao; Cui, Kaiyu; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong

    2016-01-01

    Due to the nature of infinite dimensionality, the orbital angular momentum (OAM) has been considered as a new degree of freedom of light and widely expanded the scopes of substantial optical applications such as optical telecommunication, quantum information, particle manipulation and imaging. In recent years, the integrated photonic OAM emitters have been actively investigated due to both compactness and tunability. Essentially, the number of available OAM modes by dynamic switching should be large enough so that the dimensionality of OAM could be explored as much as possible. In this work, an integrated photonic emitter with a wide switching range of OAM modes is theoretically developed, numerically simulated, and experimentally verified. The independence of the micro-ring cavity and the scattering unit provides the flexibility to design the device and optimize the performance. Specifically, the dynamic switching of nine OAM modes (l = −4 ~ 4) with azimuthal polarization has been demonstrated by electrically controlled thermo-optic effect. PMID:26936327

  15. Integrated photonic emitter with a wide switching range of orbital angular momentum modes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Zhao, Peng; Feng, Xue; Xu, Yuntao; Cui, Kaiyu; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong

    2016-01-01

    Due to the nature of infinite dimensionality, the orbital angular momentum (OAM) has been considered as a new degree of freedom of light and widely expanded the scopes of substantial optical applications such as optical telecommunication, quantum information, particle manipulation and imaging. In recent years, the integrated photonic OAM emitters have been actively investigated due to both compactness and tunability. Essentially, the number of available OAM modes by dynamic switching should be large enough so that the dimensionality of OAM could be explored as much as possible. In this work, an integrated photonic emitter with a wide switching range of OAM modes is theoretically developed, numerically simulated, and experimentally verified. The independence of the micro-ring cavity and the scattering unit provides the flexibility to design the device and optimize the performance. Specifically, the dynamic switching of nine OAM modes (l = -4 ~ 4) with azimuthal polarization has been demonstrated by electrically controlled thermo-optic effect. PMID:26936327

  16. Generation of ultralow tensions over a wide EACN range using Pennsylvania State University surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Klaus, E.E.; Arf, G.; Chung, Y.M.; Dudenas, P.; Ertekin, T.; Jones, J.H.; Nagarajan, R.; Yarzumbeck, A.J.

    1983-02-01

    Saturated paraffinic and naphthenic hydrocarbons without aromatics have been vapor-phase oxidized to produce cyclic ethers and lesser amounts of olefins. These cyclic ethers appear to be effective cosurfactants for the preparation of slugs containing petroleum sulfonate surfactants. The cyclic-ether/olefin mixture has been reacted with SO/sub 3/ from oleum or liquid SO/sub 3/ to form sulfonates comprising a mixture of mono-, di-, and polysulfonates. The reaction products consisting of the sulfonates, unreacted oxidized products, and residual hydrocarbons have been extracted with isopropanol (IPA) to give two sulfonate fractions. The first fraction is predominantly monosulfonate with lesser quantities of disulfonates. The second fraction consists primarily of di-, tri-, and polysulfonates. The monosulfonate fraction in a low-concentration slug exhibits ultralow interfacial tension (IFT) against hydrocarbons of low equivalent alkane carbon number (EACN). The behavior of this fraction is similar to that of the commercial sulfonates in that its ability to generate low IFT is confined to a narrow range of EACN. To achieve low IFT's at higher EACN in the range of a Pennsylvania crude oil, it is necessary to raise the equivalent weight of the Pennsylvania State U. monosulfonate fraction by blending with a commercial sulfonate of higher equivalent weight. Recent studies show that by mixing the two IPA fractions of the sulfonation products, a remarkably new surfactant behavior is obtained. In contrast to the behavior of other surfactants that yield ultralow tensions over only a narrow range of values of EACN, this mixture of mono- and polysulfonates generates low IFT's over a wide range of EACN extending from C/sub 4/ to C/sub 12/. The salt tolerance of monosulfonates and polysulfonates, either alone or in mixture, is rather high, and even at about 4 wt% NaCl, the surfactant solutions remain stable and yield low IFT's against crude oil.

  17. Natural Selection Constrains Neutral Diversity across A Wide Range of Species

    PubMed Central

    Corbett-Detig, Russell B.; Hartl, Daniel L.; Sackton, Timothy B.

    2015-01-01

    The neutral theory of molecular evolution predicts that the amount of neutral polymorphisms within a species will increase proportionally with the census population size (Nc). However, this prediction has not been borne out in practice: while the range of Nc spans many orders of magnitude, levels of genetic diversity within species fall in a comparatively narrow range. Although theoretical arguments have invoked the increased efficacy of natural selection in larger populations to explain this discrepancy, few direct empirical tests of this hypothesis have been conducted. In this work, we provide a direct test of this hypothesis using population genomic data from a wide range of taxonomically diverse species. To do this, we relied on the fact that the impact of natural selection on linked neutral diversity depends on the local recombinational environment. In regions of relatively low recombination, selected variants affect more neutral sites through linkage, and the resulting correlation between recombination and polymorphism allows a quantitative assessment of the magnitude of the impact of selection on linked neutral diversity. By comparing whole genome polymorphism data and genetic maps using a coalescent modeling framework, we estimate the degree to which natural selection reduces linked neutral diversity for 40 species of obligately sexual eukaryotes. We then show that the magnitude of the impact of natural selection is positively correlated with Nc, based on body size and species range as proxies for census population size. These results demonstrate that natural selection removes more variation at linked neutral sites in species with large Nc than those with small Nc and provides direct empirical evidence that natural selection constrains levels of neutral genetic diversity across many species. This implies that natural selection may provide an explanation for this longstanding paradox of population genetics. PMID:25859758

  18. Wide-range fine pointing mechanism for free-space laser communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Kazuhiko; Yanagita, Yoshiho; Kuroda, Hidehiko; Shiratama, Koichi

    2004-01-01

    A breadboard model of a Wide-range Fine Pointing Mechanism (WFPM) designed for free-space laser communications and composed of electromagnetic actuators and a flexible support system has been developed. The WFPM is compact (45 x 45 x 39 mm3) and light in weight (160 grams). Its actuators, which consist of four moving-coil-type motors with long strokes, ensure a wide optical scan range, +/-4 degrees. The support system, which consists of a center torsion bar and four preformed thin springs, allows the mechanism's 20 mm-diameter mirror to be rotated freely about a vertically constant point; the mirror can be rotated about its x- and y-axes simultaneously. The breadboard model has passed a launch vibration test under conditions of 20 G rms overall. With its coarse and fine quadrant detectors, the WFPM is able to provide stable acquisition and tracking without any need for built-in sensors. The digital control system of the WFPM has a 1 kHz control bandwidth and -90-dB disturbance suppression at 1 Hz. Use of the WFPM by an acquisition and tracking terminal significantly shortens acquisition time and ensures accurate tracking. Acquisition and tracking simulations have shown fast acquisition time (58.7 ms for 3.5-milli-radian initial error) and high tracking precision (+/-1 micro-radian, 3 sigma). To maintain high tracking precision, we employ a tradeoff between noise reduction and disturbance suppression. The WFPM has the potential to play an essential role in helping to provide high-data-rate free-space laser communications.

  19. Operation of a New COTS Crystal Oscillator - CXOMHT over a Wide Temperature Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Crystal oscillators are extensively used in electronic circuits to provide timing or clocking signals in data acquisition, communications links, and control systems, to name a few. They are affordable, small in size, and reliable. Because of the inherent characteristics of the crystal, the oscillator usually exhibits extreme accuracy in its output frequency within the intrinsic crystal stability. Stability of the frequency could be affected under varying load levels or other operational conditions. Temperature is one of those important factors that influence the frequency stability of an oscillator; as it does to the functionality of other electronic components. Electronics designed for use in NASA deep space and planetary exploration missions are expected to be exposed to extreme temperatures and thermal cycling over a wide range. Thus, it is important to design and develop circuits that are able to operate efficiently and reliably under in these harsh temperature environments. Most of the commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) devices are very limited in terms of their specified operational temperature while very few custom-made commercial and military-grade parts have the ability to operate in a slightly wider range of temperature than those of the COTS parts. These parts are usually designed for operation under one temperature extreme, i.e. hot or cold, and do not address the wide swing in the operational temperature, which is typical of the space environment. For safe and successful space missions, electronic systems must therefore be designed not only to withstand the extreme temperature exposure but also to operate efficiently and reliably. This report presents the results obtained on the evaluation of a new COTS crystal oscillator under extreme temperatures.

  20. Wide range double photoionisation spectra of N2 and CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eland, J. H. D.; Plogmaker, S.; Lablanquie, P.; Penent, F.; Palaudoux, J.; Nicolas, C.; Robert, E.; Miron, C.; Feifel, R.

    2016-02-01

    Using a magnetic bottle time-of-flight electron spectrometer we have measured double photoionisation spectra of N2 and CO2 covering the range from threshold up to the triple ionisation energies. The experiments demonstrate the use of a new asynchronous chopper in eight-bunch mode of the synchrotron radiation source SOLEIL. For CO22+ some broad bands in the Auger spectra are found to have multiple resolved counterparts in the photoionisation spectrum. All the bands in the Auger spectra have counterparts in the photoionisation spectra, where extra bands attributed to triplet states are present. In the spectrum of N22+ we suggest reassignment of one band.

  1. Structure and ionic conductivity of block copolymer electrolytes over a wide salt concentration range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chintapalli, Mahati; Le, Thao; Venkatesan, Naveen; Thelen, Jacob; Rojas, Adriana; Balsara, Nitash

    Block copolymer electrolytes are promising materials for safe, long-lasting lithium batteries because of their favorable mechanical and ion transport properties. The morphology, phase behavior, and ionic conductivity of a block copolymer electrolyte, SEO mixed with LiTFSI was studied over a wide, previously unexplored salt concentration range using small angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry and ac impedance spectroscopy, respectively. SEO exhibits a maximum in ionic conductivity at twice the salt concentration that PEO, the homopolymer analog of the ion-containing block, does. This finding is contrary to prior studies that examined a more limited range of salt concentrations. In SEO, the phase behavior of the PEO block and LiTFSI closely resembles the phase behavior of homopolymer PEO and LiTFSI. The grain size of the block copolymer morphology was found to decrease with increasing salt concentration, and the ionic conductivity of SEO correlates with decreasing grain size. Structural effects impact the ionic conductivity-salt concentration relationship in block copolymer electrolytes. SEO: polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide); also PS-PEO LiTFSI: lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide

  2. Nucleotide sequence analysis of beta tubulin gene in a wide range of dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Mirhendi, Hossein; Makimura, Koichi; de Hoog, G Sybren; Satoh, Kazuo; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Shidfar, Mohammad Reza

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the resolving power of the beta tubulin protein-coding gene (BT2) for systematic study of dermatophyte fungi. Initially, 144 standard and clinical strains belonging to 26 species in the genera Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton were identified by internal transcribe spacer (ITS) sequencing. Subsequently, BT2 was partially amplified in all strains, and sequence analysis performed after construction of a BT2 database that showed length ranged from approximately 723 (T. ajelloi) to 808 nucleotides (M. persicolor) in different species. Intraspecific sequence variation was found in some species, but T. tonsurans, T. equinum, T. concentricum, T. verrucosum, T. rubrum, T. violaceum, T. eriotrephon, E. floccosum, M. canis, M. ferrugineum, and M. audouinii were invariant. The sequences were found to be relatively conserved among different strains of the same species. The species with the closest resemblance were Arthroderma benhamiae and T. concentricum and T. tonsurans and T. equinum with 100% and 99.8% identity, respectively; the most distant species were M. persicolor and M. amazonicum. The dendrogram obtained from BT2 topology was almost compatible with the species concept based on ITS sequencing, and similar clades and species were distinguished in the BT2 tree. Here, beta tubulin was characterized in a wide range of dermatophytes in order to assess intra- and interspecies variation and resolution and was found to be a taxonomically valuable gene. PMID:25079222

  3. Wide spectral-range imaging spectroscopy of photonic crystal microbeads for multiplex biomolecular assay applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianping

    2014-05-01

    Suspension assay using optically color-encoded microbeads is a novel way to increase the reaction speed and multiplex of biomolecular detection and analysis. To boost the detection speed, a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system is of great interest for quickly decoding the color codes of the microcarriers. Imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (IFTS) is a potential candidate for this task due to its advantages in HSI measurement. However, conventional IFTS is only popular in IR spectral bands because it is easier to track its scanning mirror position in longer wavelengths so that the fundamental Nyquist criterion can be satisfied when sampling the interferograms; the sampling mechanism for shorter wavelengths IFTS used to be very sophisticated, high-cost and bulky. In order to overcome this handicap and take better usage of its advantages for HSI applications, a new wide spectral range IFTS platform is proposed based on an optical beam-folding position-tracking technique. This simple technique has successfully extended the spectral range of an IFTS to cover 350-1000nm. Test results prove that the system has achieved good spectral and spatial resolving performances with instrumentation flexibilities. Accurate and fast measurement results on novel colloidal photonic crystal microbeads also demonstrate its practical potential for high-throughput and multiplex suspension molecular assays.

  4. An improved approach for measuring immersion freezing in large droplets over a wide temperature range.

    PubMed

    Tobo, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Immersion freezing (ice nucleation by particles immersed in supercooled water) is a key process for forming ice in mixed-phase clouds. Immersion freezing experiments with particles in microliter-sized (millimeter-sized) water droplets are often applied to detecting very small numbers of ice nucleating particles (INPs). However, the application of such large droplets remains confined to the detection of INPs active at temperatures much higher than the homogeneous freezing limit, because of artifacts related to freezing of water droplets without added INPs at temperatures of -25 °C or higher on a supporting substrate. Here I report a method for measuring immersion freezing in super-microliter-sized droplets over a wide temperature range. To reduce possible artifacts, droplets are pipetted onto a thin layer of Vaseline and cooled in a clean booth. In the Cryogenic Refrigerator Applied to Freezing Test (CRAFT) system, freezing of pure (Milli-Q) water droplets are limited at temperatures above -30 °C. An intercomparison of various techniques for immersion freezing experiments with reference particles (Snomax and illite NX) demonstrates that despite the use of relatively large droplets, the CRAFT setup allows for evaluating the immersion freezing activity of the particles over almost the entire temperature range (about -30 °C to 0 °C) relevant for mixed-phase cloud formation. PMID:27596247

  5. An improved approach for measuring immersion freezing in large droplets over a wide temperature range

    PubMed Central

    Tobo, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Immersion freezing (ice nucleation by particles immersed in supercooled water) is a key process for forming ice in mixed-phase clouds. Immersion freezing experiments with particles in microliter-sized (millimeter-sized) water droplets are often applied to detecting very small numbers of ice nucleating particles (INPs). However, the application of such large droplets remains confined to the detection of INPs active at temperatures much higher than the homogeneous freezing limit, because of artifacts related to freezing of water droplets without added INPs at temperatures of −25 °C or higher on a supporting substrate. Here I report a method for measuring immersion freezing in super-microliter-sized droplets over a wide temperature range. To reduce possible artifacts, droplets are pipetted onto a thin layer of Vaseline and cooled in a clean booth. In the Cryogenic Refrigerator Applied to Freezing Test (CRAFT) system, freezing of pure (Milli-Q) water droplets are limited at temperatures above −30 °C. An intercomparison of various techniques for immersion freezing experiments with reference particles (Snomax and illite NX) demonstrates that despite the use of relatively large droplets, the CRAFT setup allows for evaluating the immersion freezing activity of the particles over almost the entire temperature range (about −30 °C to 0 °C) relevant for mixed-phase cloud formation. PMID:27596247

  6. Wide Dynamic Range Front-end Electronics for Beam Current and Position Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Rawnsley, W. R.; Potter, R. J.; Verzilov, V. A.; Root, L.

    2006-11-20

    An Analog Devices log detector, AD8306, and a Digital Signal Processor (DSP), ADSP-21992, have been found useful for building wide dynamic range, accurate and inexpensive front-end electronics to measure and process the RF signals from TRIUMF's beam monitors. The high-precision log detector has a useful dynamic range of over 100 dB. The 160 MHz mixed-signal DSP is used to digitize the log detector output, linearize it via a lookup table, perform temperature compensation, and remove the variable duty cycle 1 kHz pulse structure of the beam. This approach has been applied to two types of devices in a 500 MeV proton beamline. The 0.1% DC to CW total current monitor is based on a capacitive pickup resonant at 46.11 MHz, the second harmonic of the bunch frequency. The DSP software provides low pass filtering, calculates the antilog of the data and passes the output to a CAMAC input register. The BPM electronics process data from inductive pickup loops. The DSP controls a GaAs switch which multiplexes signals from four adjacent pickups to a single log detector. The DSP performs difference-over-sum or log-ratio data analysis along with averaging over an arbitrary number of samples.

  7. Spectroscopic technique with wide range of wavelength information improves near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eda, Hideo; Aoki, Hiromichi; Eura, Shigeru; Ebe, Kazutoshi

    2009-02-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) calculates hemoglobin parameters, such as oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxyHb) using the near-infrared light around the wavelength of 800nm. This is based on the modified-Lambert-Beer's law that changes in absorbance are proportional to changes in hemoglobin parameters. Many conventional measurement methods uses only a few wavelengths, however, in this research, basic examination of NIRS measurement was approached by acquiring wide range of wavelength information. Venous occlusion test was performed by using the blood pressure cuff around the upper arm. Pressure of 100mmHg was then applied for about 3 minutes. During the venous occlusion, the spectrum of the lower arm muscles was measured every 15 seconds, within the range of 600 to 1100nm. It was found that other wavelength bands hold information correlating to this venous occlusion task. Technique of improving the performance of NIRS measurement using the Spectroscopic Method is very important for Brain science.

  8. Experimental Investigation of Soil Thermal Conductivity Over a Wide Temperature Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, Ivan V.; Leong, Wey H.; Rosen, Marc A.

    2013-06-01

    The results are reported of an experimental investigation of the soil thermal conductivity over a wide temperature range, for various water contents and two soil types. The results are particularly important in predictions of underground heat transfer, which require a quantitative understanding of the coupled dependence of the soil thermal conductivity on texture, temperature, and water content. In the research, comprehensive sets of thermal conductivity for Ottawa sand (coarse soil) and Richmond Hill fine sandy loam (medium soil) are experimentally obtained using the guarded hot-plate method, for temperatures ranging from 2° C to 92° C and water contents varying from complete dryness to full saturation. For both soils, the thermal conductivity is observed to vary in three stages with respect to increasing water content: a very minor increase as water content increases to the permanent wilting point, a steep increase as water content further increases to field capacity, and a minor increase (for temperatures less than 72° C) or decrease for (temperatures greater than 72° C) when the field capacity is exceeded. Then, on the basis of gathered datasets, a similar Ke(Sr,T) form of the soil thermal conductivity model by Tarnawski et al. is used to empirically fit the data. The resulted correlations fit the data well with their overall root-relative-mean-square percentage errors of 4.7 % and 6.1 % for Ottawa sand and Richmond Hill fine sandy loam, respectively, and are suitable for most engineering applications.

  9. Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for extremely wide dynamic-range applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, A.; Dalla Mora, A.; Zappa, F.; Cova, S.; Contini, D.; Pifferi, A.; Spinelli, L.; Torricelli, A.; Cubeddu, R.

    2009-02-01

    Near-Infrared (NIR) picosecond pulsed light shined in biological tissues (e.g. brain, breast, muscle) offers the opportunity for non-invasive quantitative spectroscopy and imaging. Tissue optical properties determine high attenuation levels of optical signals and nanosecond scale dynamics. Therefore high-performance set-ups are needed. We aimed at developing a winning photodetector-electronics pairing for a broad field of multiple-wavelengths faint-signal optical investigations, like brain functional imaging, optical mammography, in-vivo spectroscopy, drugs characterization, molecular imaging. We present an electronic instrumentation based on silicon Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) and fast-gating frontend electronics, in a Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting (TCSPC) set-up. Detection efficiency is very high (50% at 550 nm and 15% at 800 nm), allowing acquisition of very faint optical signals on a wide spectral range. Furthermore, the fast-gating circuitry enables the detector very quickly (500 ps) and for user-selectable (200 ps - 510 ns) durations, thus allowing the rejection of very intense optical signals (e.g. scattered light from more superficial layers of the tissue under investigation) preceding useful faint signals (e.g. scattered light from sub-cellular components or coming from "deep" tissue layers), which would be otherwise overwhelmed and made undetectable. We attain photon-counting dynamic ranges up to 107 with photon-timing resolutions of 95 ps.

  10. Ni-doped TiO2 nanotubes for wide-range hydrogen sensing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Doping of titania nanotubes is one of the efficient way to obtain improved physical and chemical properties. Through electrochemical anodization and annealing treatment, Ni-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays were fabricated and their hydrogen sensing performance was investigated. The nanotube sensor demonstrated a good sensitivity for wide-range detection of both dilute and high-concentration hydrogen atmospheres ranging from 50 ppm to 2% H2. A temperature-dependent sensing from 25°C to 200°C was also found. Based on the experimental measurements and first-principles calculations, the electronic structure and hydrogen sensing properties of the Ni-doped TiO2 with an anatase structure were also investigated. It reveals that Ni substitution of the Ti sites could induce significant inversion of the conductivity type and effective reduction of the bandgap of anatase oxide. The calculations also reveal that the resistance change for Ni-doped anatase TiO2 with/without hydrogen absorption was closely related to the bandgap especially the Ni-induced impurity level. PMID:24624981

  11. Design and optimization of an ultra-wide frequency range CMOS divide-by-two circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Lu; Niansong, Mei; Hu, Chen; Zhiliang, Hong

    2010-11-01

    A novel toggled flip-flop (TFF) divide-by-two circuit (DTC) and its optimization method based on a large-signal analysis approach are proposed. By reducing the output RC constant in tracking mode and making it large in latching mode, compressing the internal signal swing as well as compensating the current leaked in the latching mode, the operating frequency range is greatly expanded. Implemented in a SMIC 0.13 μm RF CMOS process with a 1.2 V power supply, it can work under an ultra-wide frequency band ranging from 320 MHz to 29.6 GHz. Experimental results show that two phase-locked loops (PLLs) with the proposed DTC can achieve in-band phase noise of -94 dBc/Hz @ 10 kHz under 4224 MHz operating frequency and -84 dBc/Hz @ 10 kHz under 10 GHz operating frequency, respectively. The power consumption of the proposed DTC is reduced by almost 50% compared with the conventional counterparts.

  12. Development of gyrotrons for fusion with power exceeding 1 MW over a wide frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kariya, T.; Imai, T.; Minami, R.; Numakura, T.; Eguchi, T.; Kato, T.; Endo, Y.; Ichimura, M.; Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Takahashi, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Ito, S.; Mutoh, T.; Sakamoto, K.; Idei, H.; Zushi, H.; Nagasaki, K.; Sano, F.; Ono, M.; Mitsunaka, Y.

    2015-09-01

    Megawatt-class gyrotrons covering a wide frequency range (14 GHz-300 GHz) are in increasing demand for nuclear fusion. Recent electron cyclotron heating and electron cyclotron current drive experiments highlight a requirement of megawatt-scale gyrotrons at a relatively lower frequency (14-35 GHz) range of some plasma devices, like GAMMA 10/PDX of the University of Tsukuba, QUEST of Kyushu University, NSTX-U of Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, and Heliotron J of Kyoto University. Collaborative studies for designing a new 28 GHz/35 GHz dual-frequency gyrotron and a 14 GHz gyrotron have commenced. Operation above 1 MW of 28 GHz/35 GHz dual oscillation was demonstrated experimentally. Further in the design of dual-frequency gyrotron, operations with 2 MW 3 s and 0.4 MW CW (continuous wave) at 28 GHz, and power exceeding 1 MW for 3 s at 34.8 GHz have been shown to be feasible. The 14 GHz gyrotron is expected to operate above 1 MW. We are also developing higher frequency gyrotrons (77-300 GHz). The joint program of National Institute for Fusion Science and the University of Tsukuba developed two new 154 GHz gyrotrons for the large helical device after the demonstration of three 77 GHz gyrotrons. The 154 GHz gyrotrons achieved a maximum output power of 1.25 MW and quasi-CW operation of 0.35 MW for 30 min.

  13. Preliminary core design studies for the advanced burner reactor over a wide range of conversion ratios.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E. A.; Yang, W. S.; Hill, R. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-05-05

    A consistent set of designs for 1000 MWt commercial-scale sodium-cooled Advance Burner Reactors (ABR) have been developed for both metal and oxide-fueled cores with conversion ratios from breakeven (CR=1.0) to fertile-free (CR=0.0). These designs are expected to satisfy thermal and irradiation damage limits based on the currently available data. The very low conversion ratio designs require fuel that is beyond the current fuel database, which is anticipated to be qualified by and for the Advanced Burned Test Reactor. Safety and kinetic parameters were calculated, but a safety analysis was not performed. Development of these designs was required to achieve the primary goal of this study, which was to generate representative fuel cycle mass flows for system studies of ABRs as part of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). There are slight variations with conversion ratio but the basic ABR configuration consists of 144 fuel assemblies and between 9 and 22 primary control assemblies for both the metal and oxide-fueled cores. Preliminary design studies indicated that it is feasible to design the ABR to accommodate a wide range of conversion ratio by employing different assembly designs and including sufficient control assemblies to accommodate the large reactivity swing at low conversion ratios. The assemblies are designed to fit within the same geometry, but the size and number of fuel pins within each assembly are significantly different in order to achieve the target conversion ratio while still satisfying thermal limits. Current irradiation experience would allow for a conversion ratio of somewhat below 0.75. The fuel qualification for the first ABR should expand this experience to allow for much lower conversion ratios and higher bunrups. The current designs were based on assumptions about the performance of high and very high enrichment fuel, which results in significant uncertainty about the details of the designs. However, the basic fuel cycle performance

  14. A Numerical Study of Comet Mcnaught over a Wide Range of Heliocentric Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou, Yinsi; Combi, M. R.; Rubin, M.; Toth, G.

    2012-10-01

    A numerical study of Comet McNaught over a wide range of heliocentric distances Yinsi Shou, Michael R. Combi, Martin Rubin, Gabor Toth The Comet C/2006 P1 (McNaught) has a small perihelion distance (0.17 AU) and had a very high production rate during its passage close to the Sun in January and February of 2007. During that period, it was monitored by both ground- and space-based observatories, which provided substantial information about the comet. In early February, the Ulysses spacecraft encountered its ion tail and gave clues to the surrounding solar wind conditions and to the cometary environment. Therefore, Comet McNaught is an ideal object to study the cometary structures under extreme conditions and the solar wind-comet interaction over a wide range of heliocentric distances. A numerical study of Comet McNaught combining two models is conducted. First, a single species magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) [Gombosi et al. (1996, JGR 101, 15233)] simulation is performed using a set of ‘observed’ comet parameters as input. Then a chemistry model [Häberli et al. (1997, Icarus 130, 373)] extracts the streamlines from the MHD model and calculates the densities of different species accounting for photo-dissociation, photo-ionization, electron recombination, ion-molecule and charge-exchange reactions. The MHD results are able to give the diamagnetic cavity sizes and shock distances at various heliocentric distances while the chemistry model better resolves the distribution of the major chemical species in the cometary plasma environment. The combination of the two models allows us to obtain detailed information on the chemical composition of a much wider range of atoms and molecules compared to multi-species or multi-fluid MHD models and at much lower computational expense. Some preliminary results are presented and discussed. This work has been partially supported by grant AST-0707283 from the NSF Planetary Astronomy program and NASA Planetary Atmospheres program grant

  15. Recommended methods for range-wide monitoring of prairie dogs in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, Lyman L.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Otis, David L.; Biggins, Dean E.; Stevens, Patricia D.; Koprowski, John L.; Ballard, Warren

    2011-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for conserving grassland, prairie scrub, and shrub-steppe ecosystems is maintaining prairie dog populations across the landscape. Of the four species of prairie dogs found in the United States, the Utah prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens) is listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as threatened, the Gunnison's prairie dog (C. gunnisoni) is a candidate for listing in a portion of its range, and the black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus) and white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus) have each been petitioned for listing at least once in recent history. Although the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) determined listing is not warranted for either the black-tailed prairie dog or white-tailed prairie dog, the petitions and associated reviews demonstrated the need for the States to monitor and manage for self-sustaining populations. In response to these findings, a multi-State conservation effort was initiated for the nonlisted species which included the following proposed actions: (1) completing an assessment of each prairie dog species in each State, (2) developing a range-wide monitoring protocol for each species using a statistically valid sampling procedure that would allow comparable analyses across States, and (3) monitoring prairie dog status every 3-5 years depending upon the species. To date, each State has completed an assessment and currently is monitoring prairie dog status; however, for some species, the inconsistency in survey methodology has made it difficult to compare data year-to-year or State-to-State. At the Prairie Dog Conservation Team meeting held in November 2008, there was discussion regarding the use of different methods to survey prairie dogs. A recommendation from this meeting was to convene a panel in a workshop-type forum and have the panel review the different methods being used and provide recommendations for range-wide monitoring protocols for each species of prairie dog. Consequently, the Western

  16. Propulsion over a wide Mach number range. Final Report M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resler, Edwin L., Jr.; Greenberg, Barry M.

    1989-01-01

    Criteria is presented to assess the relative merits of different propulsion systems. Previous references focus mainly on subsonic or low supersonic flight speeds. The main focus here is on a higher range, from low supersonic to orbital velocities. Air breathing propulsion systems for hypersonic flight persent the engine designer with circumstances that differ in important fundamental ways from those encountered in engines designed for operation at subsonic or low supersonic speeds. This analysis highlights the importance of various features of hypersonic engine design. Since the performance of hypersonic engines are energy limited, unlike low speed engines which are stagnation pressure limited, the efficient use of the energy of the fuel used is critical to minimize the take-off fuel mass fraction of the vehicle. Furthermore, since the required energy increase of a vehicle per incremental speed change increases with speed, the engine must be designed to operate efficiently at high speed. An analysis of engine performance in terms of entropy changes of the flow passing through the engine allows comparison of various engine designs as well as a convenient method to determine the effect of individual engine component efficiencies on overall engine performance.

  17. Estimating wide range Total Suspended Solids concentrations from MODIS 250-m imageries: An improved method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuisen; Han, Liusheng; Chen, Xiuzhi; Li, Dan; Sun, Lin; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250 m based TSS (Total Suspended Solids) retrieval model for developing the model of wide-range TSS concentrations. Using field spectral and TSS data (5.8-577.2 mg/l) collected from estuary and coast of China, we calibrated (N = 40) and validated (N = 20) the 6 TSS retrieval models in forms of single band (B1 or B2), difference of the two bands, sediment index, band ratio and log-ratio by the least-squares technique. Results showed that the quadratic model of log-ratio is of the best accuracy (Calibration: R2 = 0.752, N = 40. Validation: TSS > 31 mg/l, RMSE = 37.9 mg/l, N = 12; TSS ⩽ 31mg /l, RMSE = 3.25 mg/l, N = 8). We also found that the spectral log-ratio values increased with the increasing of TSS when TSS < 31 mg/l, but decreased with increasing TSS when TSS > 31 mg/l. The findings of quadratic curve vertex (log-ratio: ∼1.58) in the proposed TSS model indicated that the spectral log-ratio may be sensitive to TSS of both low and high concentrations. We further applied the preferred model to retrieve TSS concentration from the MODIS 250-m images in turbid estuarial and clear coastal waters, and obtained a good mapping accuracy from the result (TSS > 31 mg/l: RMSE = 38.6 mg/l, MRE = 24.7%, N = 17; TSS ⩽ 31mg /l : RMSE = 2.1 mg/l, MRE = 19.5%, N = 11). The vertex-based methodology of TSS model developed in the study is applicable in mapping TSS concentrations that are of a wide range variation in estuarine and coastal water bodies based on MODIS 250-m image, and as well to maximize its application potential due to high imaging frequency (two times during daytime) and appropriate space resolution of MODIS images. Therefore, the method can be used to detect the high temporal variability of TSS during tidal cycle. As such, the application of MODIS-water quality detection technology can be extended to coastal sediment movement.

  18. Wide Range of Mercury Contamination in Chicks of Southern Ocean Seabirds

    PubMed Central

    Blévin, Pierre; Carravieri, Alice; Jaeger, Audrey; Chastel, Olivier; Bustamante, Paco; Cherel, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Using top predators as sentinels of the marine environment, Hg contamination was investigated within the large subantarctic seabird community of Kerguelen Islands, a remote area from the poorly known Southern Indian Ocean. Chicks of 21 sympatric seabirds presented a wide range of Hg concentrations, with the highest contaminated species containing ∼102 times more feather Hg than the less contaminated species. Hence, Kerguelen seabirds encompass the whole range of chick feather Hg values that were previously collected worldwide in poorly industrialized localities. Using stable isotopes, the effects of foraging habitats (reflected by δ13C) and trophic positions (reflected by δ15N) on Hg concentrations were investigated. Species-related Hg variations were highly and positively linked to feather δ15N values, thus highlighting the occurrence of efficient Hg biomagnification processes within subantarctic marine trophic webs. By contrast, Hg contamination overall correlated poorly with feeding habitats, because of the pooling of species foraging within different isotopic gradients corresponding to distinct seabird habitats (benthic, pelagic, neritic and oceanic). However, when focusing on oceanic seabirds, Hg concentration was related to feather δ13C values, with species feeding in colder waters (lower δ13C values) south of Kerguelen Islands being less prone to be contaminated than species feeding in northern warmer waters (higher δ13C values). Within the context of continuous increase in global Hg emissions, Kerguelen Islands that are located far away from anthropogenic sources can be considered as an ideal study site to monitor the temporal trend of global Hg contamination. The present work helps selecting some seabird species as sentinels of environmental pollution according to their high Hg concentrations and their contrasted foraging ecology. PMID:23349912

  19. Phase Curves of 10 Trojan Asteroids in BVI over a Wide Phase Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Martha W.; Schaefer, B. E.; Rabinowitz, D. L.; Tourtellotte, S. W.

    2008-09-01

    We have used the SMARTS 1.3 m telescope at CTIO to acquire 50 nights of B, V, and I observations from very low to high phase angles of the following 10 Trojans: 588 Achilles, 1208 Troilus, 1383 Limburgia, 4348 Poulydamas, 6998 Tithonus, 8317 Eurysaces, 12126 (1999 RM11), 13323 (1998 SQ), 24506 (2001 BS15), and 51378 (2001 AT33). Due to the queue scheduling of this telescope we were able to obtain many observations over a wide range of phase angles in only a few years, including a significant number at < 0.5 deg. All the phase curves are roughly linear over the entire phase range (as much as +/- 10 deg), with slopes between about 0.045 and 0.075 mag/deg (except for 51378, which displays an anomalous slope near zero). There may be evidence for rotational modulation in some cases. There appear to be no pronounced opposition spikes, and no differences between the phase curves in different colors. With the exception of 51378, these slopes are higher than is possible with shadow-hiding alone; therefore coherent backscatter must be involved. The slopes are consistent with similar published slopes for many types of asteroids. In particular, the phase curves of the Trojan asteroids are similar to the phase curves of non-Trojan P-type asteroids. However, the phase curves are not consistent with those of E- and S-type asteroids, which show prominent opposition spikes. The slopes are not inconsistent with those of gray Centaurs, but are greatly inconsistent with the slopes of red Centaurs. This agrees with the prediction (see B. E. Schaefer et al. poster, this conference) that the Trojans should have similar surge properties to the gray Centaurs. We thank the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program for support.

  20. Bedload transport flux fluctuations over a wide range of time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, H.; Fu, X.; Ancey, C.

    2014-12-01

    Bedload transport is a highly fluctuating process. Our previous study (Ma et al., 2014) demonstrated a three-regime relation of the variance of bedload transport flux across a wide range of sampling time scales. This study further explored the fluctuation spectrum of at-a-point bedload transport flux with different sampling times. We derived out analytical solutions of the third- and fourth-order moments of bedload transport flux, based on a physically-based formulation (Ancey et al., 2008; Ma et al., 2014). A formulation of the probability density function of bedload transport flux was constructed based on the 1st through 4th order moments. Experimental data were used to test against the solutions of both the moments and PDF. Interestingly, the higher order statistical moments were found to exhibit the three-regime pattern as well. This study contributes to a comprehensive understanding of bedload transport flux fluctuation and emphasizes its timescale-dependent features resulting from the discrete nature and correlated motion of bedload material. The correlated structures of bedload transport, such as bed forms and particle clusters, deserve to be further exploration in future studies. Keywords: bedload transport; stochastic theory; high order moment; fluctuation; time scale; PDF. Ancey, C., Davison, A. C., Bohm, T., Jodeau, M., and Frey, P. Entrainment and motion of coarse particles in a shallow water stream down a steep slope, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2008, 595, 83-114, doi: 10.1017/S0022112007008774. Ma, H. B., Heyman, J., Fu, X. D., Mettra, F., Ancey, C. and Parker, G. Bedload transport over a broad range of time scales: determination of three regimes of fluctuations. Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface, 2014. (under review)

  1. Non-Malignant Thyroid Diseases Following a Wide Range of Radiation Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Ron, Elaine; Brenner, Alina

    2013-01-01

    Background The thyroid gland is one of the most radiosensitive human organs. While it is well known that radiation exposure increases the risk of thyroid cancer, less is known about its effects in relation to non-malignant thyroid diseases. Objectives The aim of this review is to evaluate the effects of high and low dose radiation on benign structural and functional diseases of the thyroid. Methods We examined the results of major studies from cancer patients treated with high-dose radiotherapy or thyrotoxicosis patients treated with high doses of iodine-131, patients treated with moderate to high dose radiotherapy for benign diseases, persons exposed to low doses from environmental radiation and survivors of the atomic bombings who were exposed to a range of doses. We evaluated radiation effects on structural (tumors, nodules), functional (hyper- and hypothyroidism), and autoimmune thyroid diseases. Results Following a wide range of doses of ionizing radiation, an increased risk of thyroid adenomas and nodules was observed in a variety of populations and settings. The dose response appeared to be linear at low to moderate doses, but in one study there was some suggestion of a reduction in risk above 5 Gy. The elevated risk for benign tumors continues for decades following exposure. Considerably less consistent findings are available regarding functional thyroid diseases including autoimmune diseases. In general, associations for these outcomes were fairly weak and significant radiation effects were most often observed following high doses, particularly for hypothyroidism. Conclusions A significant radiation dose-response relation was demonstrated for benign nodules and follicular adenomas. The effects of radiation on functional thyroid diseases are less clear, partly due to the greater difficulties studying these diseases. PMID:21128812

  2. Evolution of the energetic characteristics of {silicalite-1 + water} repulsive clathrates in a wide temperature range.

    PubMed

    Ievtushenko, Oleksii V; Eroshenko, Valentin A; Grosu, Yaroslav G; Nedelec, Jean-Marie; Grolier, Jean-Pierre E

    2013-03-28

    Recently {lyophobic porous powders + liquid} systems were proposed to be used for nontraditional energy storage and conversion purposes. This article reports the experimental study of the mechanical behavior, within the pressure-volume (PV) diagram, of the {hydrophobic silicalite-1 + water} system in the temperature range 10-80 °C. Repeated recordings of PV-isotherms and thermal effects of the repulsive clathrate during successive compression-decompression runs were performed using scanning transitiometry. An unexpected steady decline in the intrusion-extrusion pressure and volume of embedded water was found during the forced (repeated) intrusion of water into the pores of silicalite-1 and its spontaneous extrusion at constant temperature. A discussion of possible reasons of unconventional behavior of these heterogeneous systems as well as a thermodynamic analysis is presented. PMID:23407667

  3. A “twisted” microfluidic mixer suitable for a wide range of flow rate applications

    PubMed Central

    Sivashankar, Shilpa; Agambayev, Sumeyra; Mashraei, Yousof; Li, Er Qiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.; Salama, Khaled Nabil

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new “twisted” 3D microfluidic mixer fabricated by a laser writing/microfabrication technique. Effective and efficient mixing using the twisted micromixers can be obtained by combining two general chaotic mixing mechanisms: splitting/recombining and chaotic advection. The lamination of mixer units provides the splitting and recombination mechanism when the quadrant of circles is arranged in a two-layered serial arrangement of mixing units. The overall 3D path of the microchannel introduces the advection. An experimental investigation using chemical solutions revealed that these novel 3D passive microfluidic mixers were stable and could be operated at a wide range of flow rates. This micromixer finds application in the manipulation of tiny volumes of liquids that are crucial in diagnostics. The mixing performance was evaluated by dye visualization, and using a pH test that determined the chemical reaction of the solutions. A comparison of the tornado-mixer with this twisted micromixer was made to evaluate the efficiency of mixing. The efficiency of mixing was calculated within the channel by acquiring intensities using ImageJ software. Results suggested that efficient mixing can be obtained when more than 3 units were consecutively placed. The geometry of the device, which has a length of 30 mm, enables the device to be integrated with micro total analysis systems and other lab-on-chip devices. PMID:27453767

  4. A "twisted" microfluidic mixer suitable for a wide range of flow rate applications.

    PubMed

    Sivashankar, Shilpa; Agambayev, Sumeyra; Mashraei, Yousof; Li, Er Qiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Salama, Khaled Nabil

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a new "twisted" 3D microfluidic mixer fabricated by a laser writing/microfabrication technique. Effective and efficient mixing using the twisted micromixers can be obtained by combining two general chaotic mixing mechanisms: splitting/recombining and chaotic advection. The lamination of mixer units provides the splitting and recombination mechanism when the quadrant of circles is arranged in a two-layered serial arrangement of mixing units. The overall 3D path of the microchannel introduces the advection. An experimental investigation using chemical solutions revealed that these novel 3D passive microfluidic mixers were stable and could be operated at a wide range of flow rates. This micromixer finds application in the manipulation of tiny volumes of liquids that are crucial in diagnostics. The mixing performance was evaluated by dye visualization, and using a pH test that determined the chemical reaction of the solutions. A comparison of the tornado-mixer with this twisted micromixer was made to evaluate the efficiency of mixing. The efficiency of mixing was calculated within the channel by acquiring intensities using ImageJ software. Results suggested that efficient mixing can be obtained when more than 3 units were consecutively placed. The geometry of the device, which has a length of 30 mm, enables the device to be integrated with micro total analysis systems and other lab-on-chip devices. PMID:27453767

  5. An efficient camera calibration technique offering robustness and accuracy over a wide range of lens distortion.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Taufiqur; Krouglicof, Nicholas

    2012-02-01

    In the field of machine vision, camera calibration refers to the experimental determination of a set of parameters that describe the image formation process for a given analytical model of the machine vision system. Researchers working with low-cost digital cameras and off-the-shelf lenses generally favor camera calibration techniques that do not rely on specialized optical equipment, modifications to the hardware, or an a priori knowledge of the vision system. Most of the commonly used calibration techniques are based on the observation of a single 3-D target or multiple planar (2-D) targets with a large number of control points. This paper presents a novel calibration technique that offers improved accuracy, robustness, and efficiency over a wide range of lens distortion. This technique operates by minimizing the error between the reconstructed image points and their experimentally determined counterparts in "distortion free" space. This facilitates the incorporation of the exact lens distortion model. In addition, expressing spatial orientation in terms of unit quaternions greatly enhances the proposed calibration solution by formulating a minimally redundant system of equations that is free of singularities. Extensive performance benchmarking consisting of both computer simulation and experiments confirmed higher accuracy in calibration regardless of the amount of lens distortion present in the optics of the camera. This paper also experimentally confirmed that a comprehensive lens distortion model including higher order radial and tangential distortion terms improves calibration accuracy. PMID:21843988

  6. Very Low Population Structure in a Highly Mobile and Wide-Ranging Endangered Bird Species

    PubMed Central

    Kvistad, Lynna; Ingwersen, Dean; Pavlova, Alexandra; Bull, James K.; Sunnucks, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The loss of biodiversity following fragmentation and degradation of habitat is a major issue in conservation biology. As competition for resources increases following habitat loss and fragmentation, severe population declines may occur even in common, highly mobile species; such demographic decline may cause changes within the population structure of the species. The regent honeyeater, Anthochaera phrygia, is a highly nomadic woodland bird once common in its native southeast Australia. It has experienced a sharp decline in abundance since the late 1970s, following clearing of large areas of its preferred habitat, box-ironbark woodland, within the last 200 years. A captive breeding program has been established as part of efforts to restore this species. This study used genetic data to examine the range-wide population structure of regent honeyeaters, including spatial structure, its change through time, sex differences in philopatry and mobility, and genetic differences between the captive and wild populations. There was low genetic differentiation between birds captured in different geographic areas. Despite the recent demographic decline, low spatial structure appears to have some temporal consistency. Both sexes appear to be highly mobile, and there does not seem to be significant genetic differentiation between the captive and wild populations. We conclude that management efforts for survival of this species, including habitat protection, restoration, and release of captive-bred birds into the wild, can treat the species as effectively a single genetic population. PMID:26649426

  7. An abundance of small exoplanets around stars with a wide range of metallicities.

    PubMed

    Buchhave, Lars A; Latham, David W; Johansen, Anders; Bizzarro, Martin; Torres, Guillermo; Rowe, Jason F; Batalha, Natalie M; Borucki, William J; Brugamyer, Erik; Caldwell, Caroline; Bryson, Stephen T; Ciardi, David R; Cochran, William D; Endl, Michael; Esquerdo, Gilbert A; Ford, Eric B; Geary, John C; Gilliland, Ronald L; Hansen, Terese; Isaacson, Howard; Laird, John B; Lucas, Philip W; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Morse, Jon A; Robertson, Paul; Shporer, Avi; Stefanik, Robert P; Still, Martin; Quinn, Samuel N

    2012-06-21

    The abundance of heavy elements (metallicity) in the photospheres of stars similar to the Sun provides a 'fossil' record of the chemical composition of the initial protoplanetary disk. Metal-rich stars are much more likely to harbour gas giant planets, supporting the model that planets form by accumulation of dust and ice particles. Recent ground-based surveys suggest that this correlation is weakened for Neptunian-sized planets. However, how the relationship between size and metallicity extends into the regime of terrestrial-sized exoplanets is unknown. Here we report spectroscopic metallicities of the host stars of 226 small exoplanet candidates discovered by NASA's Kepler mission, including objects that are comparable in size to the terrestrial planets in the Solar System. We find that planets with radii less than four Earth radii form around host stars with a wide range of metallicities (but on average a metallicity close to that of the Sun), whereas large planets preferentially form around stars with higher metallicities. This observation suggests that terrestrial planets may be widespread in the disk of the Galaxy, with no special requirement of enhanced metallicity for their formation. PMID:22722196

  8. Effects of wide dynamic-range compression on the perceived clarity of individual musical instruments.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Stone, Michael A; McKinney, Martin F; Fitz, Kelly; Moore, Brian C J

    2015-04-01

    The effects of wide-dynamic-range compression (WDRC) on the ability of hearing-impaired subjects to hear out individual instruments or voices (called "sources") in a mixture were explored. On each trial, the subjects were asked to judge the relative clarity of the target in two repetitions of the same music excerpt (mixture of sources) that were processed in different ways. The stimuli were processed via a five-channel simulated WDRC hearing aid, using individual insertion gains and compression ratios recommended by the CAM2 fitting procedure. Both fast- and slow-acting WDRC and a condition with linear amplification and frequency-response shaping were used. To investigate the role of cross-modulation (the partial correlation of the envelopes of different sources caused by the time-varying gain applied by the compressor), conditions were included where the sounds from different sources were compressed before being added together and where the sounds were added together before being compressed. The results showed no effect of cross-modulation, lower clarity with WDRC than with linear amplification, and no significant overall effect of compression speed, although some subjects consistently rated clarity as greater with slow compression. The deleterious effect of WDRC may be related to changes in temporal-envelope shape or reduced spectral contrast produced by WDRC. PMID:25920839

  9. Elastic Properties of Potassium Borate Glass in a Wide Composition Range Studied by Brillouin Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Mitsuru; Matsuda, Yu; Fukawa, Yasuteru; Mamiya, Seiichi; Kodama, Masao; Kojima, Seiji

    2009-07-01

    The elastic properties of potassium borate glass, xK2O·(100 - x)B2O3, where x is the molar composition of K2O in mol %, have been investigated by Brillouin scattering spectroscopy over a wide composition range of 2 ≤x ≤42 mol %. From the observed values of longitudinal sound velocity, the elastic constant has been determined and compared with that of lithium borate glass. The sound velocity increases with increasing x below x = 30; however, for a further increase in x, it decreases owing to the softening caused by the formation and increase in the number of nonbridging oxygen atoms. The absorption coefficient also increases markedly above x = 30 owing to the scattering of acoustic waves by nonbridging oxygen atoms. The temperature dependences of both sound velocity and absorption coefficient of 14K2O·86B2O3 show a markedly change at approximately the glass transition temperature Tg of 395 °C.

  10. A robust color signal processing with wide dynamic range WRGB CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawada, Shun; Kuroda, Rihito; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a robust color reproduction methodology by a simple calculation with a new color matrix using the formerly developed wide dynamic range WRGB lateral overflow integration capacitor (LOFIC) CMOS image sensor. The image sensor was fabricated through a 0.18 μm CMOS technology and has a 45 degrees oblique pixel array, the 4.2 μm effective pixel pitch and the W pixels. A W pixel was formed by replacing one of the two G pixels in the Bayer RGB color filter. The W pixel has a high sensitivity through the visible light waveband. An emerald green and yellow (EGY) signal is generated from the difference between the W signal and the sum of RGB signals. This EGY signal mainly includes emerald green and yellow lights. These colors are difficult to be reproduced accurately by the conventional simple linear matrix because their wave lengths are in the valleys of the spectral sensitivity characteristics of the RGB pixels. A new linear matrix based on the EGY-RGB signal was developed. Using this simple matrix, a highly accurate color processing with a large margin to the sensitivity fluctuation and noise has been achieved.

  11. Testing MOND over a wide acceleration range in x-ray ellipticals.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Mordehai

    2012-09-28

    The gravitational fields of two isolated ellipticals, NGC 720 and NGC 1521, have been recently measured to very large galactic radii (~100 and ~200 kpc), assuming hydrostatic balance of the hot gas enshrouding them. They afford, for the first time to my knowledge, testing modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) in ellipticals with force and quality that, arguably, approach those of rotation-curve tests in disk galaxies. In the context of MOND, it is noteworthy that the measured accelerations span a wide range, from more than 10a(0) to about 0.1a(0), unprecedented in individual ellipticals. I find that MOND predicts correctly the measured dynamical mass runs (apart from a possible minor tension in the inner few kpc of NGC 720, which might be due to departure from hydrostatic equilibrium): The predicted mass discrepancy increases outward from none near the center, to ~10 at the outermost radii. The implications for the MOND-versus-dark-matter controversy go far beyond the simple fact of two more galaxies conforming to MOND. PMID:23030078

  12. Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Cantilever Wide Dynamic Range Acceleration/Vibration /Pressure Sensor

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, Alan R.; Gruen, Dieter M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Auciello, Orlando

    2003-09-02

    An ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) element formed in a cantilever configuration is used in a highly sensitive, ultra-small sensor for measuring acceleration, shock, vibration and static pressure over a wide dynamic range. The cantilever UNCD element may be used in combination with a single anode, with measurements made either optically or by capacitance. In another embodiment, the cantilever UNCD element is disposed between two anodes, with DC voltages applied to the two anodes. With a small AC modulated voltage applied to the UNCD cantilever element and because of the symmetry of the applied voltage and the anode-cathode gap distance in the Fowler-Nordheim equation, any change in the anode voltage ratio V1/V2 required to maintain a specified current ratio precisely matches any displacement of the UNCD cantilever element from equilibrium. By measuring changes in the anode voltage ratio required to maintain a specified current ratio, the deflection of the UNCD cantilever can be precisely determined. By appropriately modulating the voltages applied between the UNCD cantilever and the two anodes, or limit electrodes, precise independent measurements of pressure, uniaxial acceleration, vibration and shock can be made. This invention also contemplates a method for fabricating the cantilever UNCD structure for the sensor.

  13. Ultrananocrystalline diamond cantilever wide dynamic range acceleration/vibration/pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, Alan R.; Gruen, Dieter M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Auciello, Orlando

    2002-07-23

    An ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) element formed in a cantilever configuration is used in a highly sensitive, ultra-small sensor for measuring acceleration, shock, vibration and static pressure over a wide dynamic range. The cantilever UNCD element may be used in combination with a single anode, with measurements made either optically or by capacitance. In another embodiment, the cantilever UNCD element is disposed between two anodes, with DC voltages applied to the two anodes. With a small AC modulated voltage applied to the UNCD cantilever element and because of the symmetry of the applied voltage and the anode-cathode gap distance in the Fowler-Nordheim equation, any change in the anode voltage ratio V1/N2 required to maintain a specified current ratio precisely matches any displacement of the UNCD cantilever element from equilibrium. By measuring changes in the anode voltage ratio required to maintain a specified current ratio, the deflection of the UNCD cantilever can be precisely determined. By appropriately modulating the voltages applied between the UNCD cantilever and the two anodes, or limit electrodes, precise independent measurements of pressure, uniaxial acceleration, vibration and shock can be made. This invention also contemplates a method for fabricating the cantilever UNCD structure for the sensor.

  14. A wide-range micromachined threshold accelerometer array and interface circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvakumar, Arjun; Yazdi, Navid; Najafi, Khalil

    2001-03-01

    This paper presents a complete threshold acceleration detection microsystem comprising an array of threshold accelerometers and a low power interface circuit. The sensors were designed and fabricated using the bulk-silicon dissolved-wafer process. The process offers a wide latitude in sensor threshold levels, as demonstrated in the fabrication of devices with levels of 1.5-1000 g, bandwidths of 45 Hz to 40 kHz, with mass sizes ranging from 0.015 µg to 0.7 µg, and low-resistance gold-gold contacts for the switch. The interface circuit dissipates less than 300 µW, measures 2.2 mm×2.2 mm it was fabricated in-house using a standard 3 µm, p-well CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) process, and is connected to the sensor chip in a multi-chip module. The key aspects of the microsystem are the implementation of sensor redundancy and supporting circuit logic to improve detection accuracy and fault tolerance, which are crucial factors in many applications. In addition, the microsystem supports communication with a standard microcontroller bus in a smart sensor network.

  15. Removal of GABAA Receptor γ2 Subunits from Parvalbumin Neurons Causes Wide-Ranging Behavioral Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Leppä, Elli; Linden, Anni-Maija; Vekovischeva, Olga Y.; Swinny, Jerome D.; Rantanen, Ville; Toppila, Esko; Höger, Harald; Sieghart, Werner; Wulff, Peer; Wisden, William; Korpi, Esa R.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral significance of fast synaptic inhibition by αβγ2-type GABAA receptors on parvalbumin (Pv) cells. The GABAA receptor γ2 subunit gene was selectively inactivated in Pv-positive neurons by Cre/loxP recombination. The resulting Pv-Δγ2 mice were relatively healthy in the first postnatal weeks; but then as Cre started to be expressed, the mice progressively developed wide-ranging phenotypic alterations including low body weight, motor deficits and tremor, decreased anxiety levels, decreased pain sensitivity and deficient prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex and impaired spatial learning. Nevertheless, the deletion was not lethal, and mice did not show increased mortality even after one year. Autoradiography with t-butylbicyclophosphoro[35S]thionate suggested an increased amount of GABAA receptors with only α and β subunits in central nervous system regions that contained high levels of parvalbumin neurons. Using BAC-transgenesis, we reduced some of the Pv-Δγ2 phenotype by selectively re-expressing the wild-type γ2 subunit back into some Pv cells (reticular thalamic neurons and cerebellar Pv-positive neurons). This produced less severe impairments of motor skills and spatial learning compared with Pv-Δγ2 mice, but all other deficits remained. Our results reveal the widespread significance of fast GABAergic inhibition onto Pv-positive neurons for diverse behavioral modalities, such as motor coordination, sensorimotor integration, emotional behavior and nociception. PMID:21912668

  16. Development of an indirect stereolithography technology for scaffold fabrication with a wide range of biomaterial selectivity.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2012-09-01

    Tissue engineering, which is the study of generating biological substitutes to restore or replace tissues or organs, has the potential to meet current needs for organ transplantation and medical interventions. Various approaches have been attempted to apply three-dimensional (3D) solid freeform fabrication technologies to tissue engineering for scaffold fabrication. Among these, the stereolithography (SL) technology not only has the highest resolution, but also offers quick fabrication. However, a lack of suitable biomaterials is a barrier to applying the SL technology to tissue engineering. In this study, an indirect SL method that combines the SL technology and a sacrificial molding process was developed to address this challenge. A sacrificial mold with an inverse porous shape was fabricated from an alkali-soluble photopolymer by the SL technology. A sacrificial molding process was then developed for scaffold construction using a variety of biomaterials. The results indicated a wide range of biomaterial selectivity and a high resolution. Achievable minimum pore and strut sizes were as large as 50 and 65 μm, respectively. This technology can also be used to fabricate three-dimensional organ shapes, and combined with traditional fabrication methods to construct a new type of scaffold with a dual-pore size. Cytotoxicity tests, as well as nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography analyses, showed that this technology has great potential for tissue engineering applications. PMID:22443315

  17. Performance of MEMS Silicon Oscillator, ASFLM1, under Wide Operating Temperature Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few years, MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) resonator-based oscillators began to be offered as commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) parts by a few companies [1-2]. These quartz-free, miniature silicon devices could compete with the traditional crystal oscillators in providing the timing (clock function) for many digital and analog electronic circuits. They provide stable output frequency, offer great tolerance to shock and vibration, and are immune to electro-static discharge [1-2]. In addition, they are encapsulated in compact lead-free packages, cover a wide frequency range (1 MHz to 125 MHz), and are specified, depending on the grade, for extended temperature operation from -40 C to +85 C. The small size of the MEMS oscillators along with their reliability and thermal stability make them candidates for use in space exploration missions. Limited data, however, exist on the performance and reliability of these devices under operation in applications where extreme temperatures or thermal cycling swings, which are typical of space missions, are encountered. This report presents the results of the work obtained on the evaluation of an ABRACON Corporation MEMS silicon oscillator chip, type ASFLM1, under extreme temperatures.

  18. Assessment of Operation of EMK21 MEMS Silicon Oscillator Over Wide Temperature Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Electronic control systems, data-acquisition instrumentation, and microprocessors require accurate timing signals for proper operation. Traditionally, ceramic resonators and crystal oscillators provided this clock function for the majority of these systems. Over the last few years, MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) resonator-based oscillators began to surface as commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) parts by a few companies. These quartz-free, miniature silicon devices could easily replace the traditional crystal oscillators in providing the timing/clock function for many digital and analog circuits. They are reported to provide stable output frequency, offer great tolerance to shock and vibration, and are immune to electro-static discharge [ 1-2]. In addition, they are encapsulated in compact lead-free packages and cover a wide frequency range (1 MHz to 125 MHz). The small size of the MEMS oscillators along with their thermal stability make them ideal candidates for use in space exploration missions. Limited data, however, exist on the performance and reliability of these devices under operation in applications where extreme temperatures or thermal cycling swings, which are typical of space missions, are encountered. This report presents the results of the work obtained on the evaluation of an Ecliptek Corporation MEMS silicon oscillator chip under extreme temperatures.

  19. Constitutive modeling of polycarbonate over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haitao; Zhou, Huamin; Huang, Zhigao; Zhang, Yun; Zhao, Xiaoxuan

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical behavior of polycarbonate was experimentally investigated over a wide range of strain rates ( 10^{-4} to 5× 103 s^{-1}) and temperatures (293 to 353 K). Compression tests under these conditions were performed using a SHIMADZU universal testing machine and a split Hopkinson pressure bar. Falling weight impact testing was carried out on an Instron Dynatup 9200 drop tower system. The rate- and temperature-dependent deformation behavior of polycarbonate was discussed in detail. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) tests were utilized to observe the glass ( α ) transition and the secondary ( β ) transition of polycarbonate. The DMA results indicate that the α and β transitions have a dramatic influence on the mechanical behavior of polycarbonate. The decompose/shift/reconstruct (DSR) method was utilized to decompose the storage modulus into the α and β components and extrapolate the entire modulus, the α-component modulus and the β-component modulus. Based on three previous models, namely, Mulliken-Boyce, G'Sell-Jonas and DSGZ, an adiabatic model is proposed to predict the mechanical behavior of polycarbonate. The model considers the contributions of both the α and β transitions to the mechanical behavior, and it has been implemented in ABAQUS/Explicit through a user material subroutine VUMAT. The model predictions are proven to essentially coincide with the experimental results during compression testing and falling weight impact testing.

  20. Numerical Simulation of Blanking Process over a Wide Range of Clearances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Yusuke; Hirota, Kenji

    A number of special blanking processes are available for producing fine cut edges and blanking with a negative clearance is one of them. The aim of this study is to elucidate the mechanism of precision blanking with a negative clearance by using finite element method. Experiments were performed for two kinds of aluminum sheets over a wide range of clearances between -30 and 20 percent of the sheet thickness. Fine blanked products with no fractured zone were obtained in the case with negatively large clearances, while fractured zone appeared on the cut edge by conventional blanking. Corresponding simulations were carried out by using the Ayada's and the Jeong's criterion to predict ductile fracture initiation. Numerical results with both criteria agreed well with the experimental results except a few cases accompanied by secondary shear. The difference in blanking mechanism between the positive and the negative clearance blanking was explained by the variation of the damage value; it reached the threshold value for positive clearances, while it was kept low and never exceeded the threshold for negatively large clearances.

  1. Optimized streak-camera system: wide excitation range and extended time scale for fluorescence lifetime measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Urs; Buehler, Christof; Betz, Michael; Zuber, Herbert; Anliker, M.

    1994-08-01

    A new versatile system for the measurement of time-resolved fluorescence emission spectra of biomolecules is presented. Frequency doubling and tripling of a Ti:Sapphire laser allows excitation over a wide wavelength range. The influence of increasing the spectral resolution on the time resolution has been investigated. System performance can be optimized for best resolution in the spectral or time domain, respectively. System performance can be optimized for best resolution in the spectral or time domain, respectively. The currently achieved temporal resolution is 6 psec, and the best spectral resolution is 3 nm. Long fluorescence decays can be resolved with optimal time resolution by way of taking into account the flyback of the streak camera. With the system described, the core complex ((alpha) (beta) )3APCLC8.9 of the phycobilisome from the photosynthetic cyanobacteria Mastigocladus laminosus has been analyzed. Lifetime analysis clearly demonstrated the influence of the linker polypeptide on the phycobiliprotein complex and the identity of native and reconstituted complex.

  2. Very Low Population Structure in a Highly Mobile and Wide-Ranging Endangered Bird Species.

    PubMed

    Kvistad, Lynna; Ingwersen, Dean; Pavlova, Alexandra; Bull, James K; Sunnucks, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The loss of biodiversity following fragmentation and degradation of habitat is a major issue in conservation biology. As competition for resources increases following habitat loss and fragmentation, severe population declines may occur even in common, highly mobile species; such demographic decline may cause changes within the population structure of the species. The regent honeyeater, Anthochaera phrygia, is a highly nomadic woodland bird once common in its native southeast Australia. It has experienced a sharp decline in abundance since the late 1970s, following clearing of large areas of its preferred habitat, box-ironbark woodland, within the last 200 years. A captive breeding program has been established as part of efforts to restore this species. This study used genetic data to examine the range-wide population structure of regent honeyeaters, including spatial structure, its change through time, sex differences in philopatry and mobility, and genetic differences between the captive and wild populations. There was low genetic differentiation between birds captured in different geographic areas. Despite the recent demographic decline, low spatial structure appears to have some temporal consistency. Both sexes appear to be highly mobile, and there does not seem to be significant genetic differentiation between the captive and wild populations. We conclude that management efforts for survival of this species, including habitat protection, restoration, and release of captive-bred birds into the wild, can treat the species as effectively a single genetic population. PMID:26649426

  3. Wide-range particle characterization and elemental concentration in Beijing aerosol during the 2013 Spring Festival.

    PubMed

    Jing, Hui; Li, Yu-Feng; Zhao, Jiating; Li, Bai; Sun, Jialong; Chen, Rui; Gao, Yuxi; Chen, Chunying

    2014-09-01

    The number and mass concentration, size distribution, and the concentration of 16 elements were studied in aerosol samples during the Spring Festival celebrations in 2013 in Beijing, China. Both the number and mass concentration increased sharply in a wide range from 10 nm to 10 μm during the firecrackers and fireworks activities. The prominent increase of the number concentration was in 50 nm-500 nm with a peak of 1.7 × 10(5)/cm(3) at 150 nm, which is 8 times higher than that after 1.5 h. The highest mass concentration was in 320-560 nm, which is 4 times higher than the control. K, Mg, Sr, Ba and Pb increased sharply during the firework activities in PM10. Although the aerosol emission from firework activities is a short-term air quality degradation event, there may be a substantial hazard arising from the chemical composition of the emitted particles. PMID:24975025

  4. Formulation of wide-ranging embedded-atom-type potentials: the role of mechanical stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechenik, Eugene; Kelson, Itzhak; Makov, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Wide-ranging inter-atomic potentials are necessary for modeling many problems in material physics that involve multiple atomic environments and phases. The domains of thermodynamic and mechanical stability of embedded-atom-type potentials are examined for the cubic phases. It is shown that the choice of the pair potential is critical in determining the domain of stability of embedded-atom-type potentials. In particular, the Lennard-Jones embedded-atom potential is shown not to stabilize the bcc phase. A simple four-parameter universal equation of state-based embedded-atom potential is shown to have a domain of stability for all the cubic phases and to reproduce the high-pressure equation of state. A model phase diagram for the three cubic phases is presented. This potential is fitted to 17 elemental systems and found to be able to reproduce both the elastic constants and the ground state crystalline structure. For elements with a low degree of elastic anisotropy, this potential can also reproduce the high-pressure behavior.

  5. Development of radon sources with a high stability and a wide range

    SciTech Connect

    Fukutsu, K.; Yamada, Y.

    2013-12-15

    A solid {sup 222}Rn (radon) source using a fibrous and porous SiC ceramic disk was developed. The emission rate of radon emanated from the disk depended on the content of {sup 226}Ra and the sintering temperature. A {sup 226}Ra sulfate ({sup 226}RaSO{sub 4}) solution was dropped on a fibrous SiC ceramic disk (33 mmφ) of 1 mm in thickness, and sintered at 400 °C. The radon concentration from a disk containing {sup 226}Ra of 1.85 MBq was measured to be 38 kBq m{sup −3} at a carrier airflow rate of 0.5 L min{sup −1}. By adjusting the {sup 226}Ra content or the sweep airflow rate, the radon concentrations were easily controlled over a wide range of over three orders of magnitude. The concentration was very stable for a long term. The compactness of the source disk made is easy for handling the source container and the shielding of gamma radiation from {sup 226}Ra and its decay products. Such advantages in a radon generation system are desirable for experiments of high-level, large-scale radon exposure.

  6. Multilateration with the wide-angle airborne laser ranging system: positioning precision and atmospheric effects.

    PubMed

    Bock, O

    1999-05-20

    Numerical simulations based on previously validated models for the wide-angle airborne laser ranging system are used here for assessing the precision in coordinate estimates of ground-based cube-corner retroreflectors (CCR's). It is shown that the precision can be optimized to first order as a function of instrument performance, number of laser shots (LS's), and network size. Laser beam divergence, aircraft altitude, and CCR density are only second-order parameters, provided that the number of echoes per LS is greater than 20. Thus precision in the vertical is approximately 1 mm, with a signal-to-noise ratio of 50 at nadir, a 10-km altitude, a 20 degrees beam divergence, and approximately 5 x 10(3) measurements. Scintillation and fair-weather cumulus clouds usually have negligible influence on the estimates. Laser biases and path delay are compensated for by adjustment of aircraft offsets. The predominant atmospheric effect is with mesoscale nonuniform horizontal temperature gradients, which might lead to biases near 0.5 mm. PMID:18319932

  7. Electro-optical detector for use in a wide mass range mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffin, Charles E. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An electro-optical detector is disclosed for use in a wide mass range mass spectrometer (MS), in the latter the focal plane is at or very near the exit end of the magnetic analyzer, so that a strong magnetic field of the order of 1000G or more is present at the focal plane location. The novel detector includes a microchannel electron multiplier array (MCA) which is positioned at the focal plane to convert ion beams which are focused by the MS at the focal plane into corresponding electron beams which are then accelerated to form visual images on a conductive phosphored surface. These visual images are then converted into images on the target of a vidicon camera or the like for electronic processing. Due to the strong magnetic field at the focal plane, in one embodiment of the invention, the MCA with front and back parallel ends is placed so that its front end forms an angle of not less than several degrees, preferably on the order of 10.degree.-20.degree., with respect to the focal plane, with the center line of the front end preferably located in the focal plane. In another embodiment the MCA is wedge-shaped, with its back end at an angle of about 10.degree.-20.degree. with respect to the front end. In this embodiment the MCA is placed so that its front end is located at the focal plane.

  8. Carbon nanotube vacuum gauges with wide-dynamic range and processes thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Kaul, Anupama B. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A miniature thermal conductivity gauge employs a carbon single-walled-nanotube. The gauge operates on the principle of thermal exchange between the voltage-biased nanotube and the surrounding gas at low levels of power and low temperatures to measure vacuum across a wide dynamic range. The gauge includes two terminals, a source of constant voltage to the terminals, a single-walled carbon nanotube between the terminals, a calibration of measured conductance of the nanotube to magnitudes of surrounding vacuum and a current meter in electrical communication with the source of constant voltage. Employment of the nanotube for measuring vacuum includes calibrating the electrical conductance of the nanotube to magnitudes of vacuum, exposing the nanotube to a vacuum, applying a constant voltage across the nanotube, measuring the electrical conductance of the nanotube in the vacuum with the constant voltage applied and converting the measured electrical conductance to the corresponding calibrated magnitude of vacuum using the calibration. The nanotube may be suspended to minimize heat dissipation through the substrate, increasing sensitivity at even tower pressures.

  9. Assessing range-wide habitat suitability for the Lesser Prairie-Chicken

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Grisham, Blake A.; Timmer, Jennifer M.; Boal, Clint W.; Butler, Matthew; Pitman, James C.; Kyle, Sean; Klute, David; Beauprez, Grant M.; Janus, Allan; Van Pelt, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Population declines of many wildlife species have been linked to habitat loss incurred through land-use change. Incorporation of conservation planning into development planning may mitigate these impacts. The threatened Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) is experiencing loss of native habitat and high levels of energy development across its multijurisdictional range. Our goal was to explore relationships of the species occurrence with landscape characteristics and anthropogenic effects influencing its distribution through evaluation of habitat suitability associated with one particular habitat usage, lekking. Lekking has been relatively well-surveyed, though not consistently, in all jurisdictions. All five states in which Lesser Prairie-Chickens occur cooperated in development of a Maxent habitat suitability model. We created two models, one with state as a factor and one without state. When state was included it was the most important predictor, followed by percent of land cover consisting of known or suspected used vegetation classes within a 5000 m area around a lek. Without state, land cover was the most important predictor of relative habitat suitability for leks. Among the anthropogenic predictors, landscape condition, a measure of human impact integrated across several factors, was most important, ranking third in importance without state. These results quantify the relative suitability of the landscape within the current occupied range of Lesser Prairie-Chickens. These models, combined with other landscape information, form the basis of a habitat assessment tool that can be used to guide siting of development projects and targeting of areas for conservation.

  10. Wide-range average temperature measurements of convective fluid flows by using a schlieren system.

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, A; Moreno-Hernández, D; León-Rodríguez, M; Carrillo-Delgado, C

    2016-01-20

    In the schlieren method, the deflection of light by the presence of an inhomogeneous medium is proportional to the gradient of its refractive index. In the presence of temperature variations in a fluid flow, the refraction index is related to the gas density by the Gladstone-Dale constant, which depends on the nature of the gas and the wavelength of light propagating in the medium. The deflection of light in a schlieren system is represented by intensity variations on the observation plane. Then, for a digital camera, the intensity level registered in each pixel depends mainly on the refractive index variation of the medium and exposure time. Therefore, if we regulate the intensity value of each pixel by controlling the exposure time, it is possible to adjust the temperature value measurements. In this way, a specific exposure time of a digital camera allows us to measure a determined range of temperature values. For that reason, in this study we determine the range of temperatures that can be measured with a digital camera for different exposure times. By doing this, a wide range of average temperature value fields can be obtained by summing up the temperature contribution of each exposure time. The basic idea in our approach to measure temperature by using a schlieren system is to relate the intensity level of each pixel in a schlieren image to the corresponding knife-edge position measured at the exit focal plane of the system. Our approach is applied to the measurement of temperature fields of the air convection caused by a heated rectangular metal plate (7.3  cm×12  cm) and a candle flame. We found that the maximum temperature values obtained for exposure times of 31.3, 15.7, 7.9, 3.9, and 2 ms were 67.3°C, 122.6°C, 217.4°C, 364.3°C, and 524.0°C, respectively. PMID:26835931

  11. A range-wide synthesis and timeline for phylogeographic events in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many boreo-temperate mammals have a Pleistocene fossil record throughout Eurasia and North America, but only few have a contemporary distribution that spans this large area. Examples of Holarctic-distributed carnivores are the brown bear, grey wolf, and red fox, all three ecological generalists with large dispersal capacity and a high adaptive flexibility. While the two former have been examined extensively across their ranges, no phylogeographic study of the red fox has been conducted across its entire Holarctic range. Moreover, no study included samples from central Asia, leaving a large sampling gap in the middle of the Eurasian landmass. Results Here we provide the first mitochondrial DNA sequence data of red foxes from central Asia (Siberia), and new sequences from several European populations. In a range-wide synthesis of 729 red fox mitochondrial control region sequences, including 677 previously published and 52 newly obtained sequences, this manuscript describes the pattern and timing of major phylogeographic events in red foxes, using a Bayesian coalescence approach with multiple fossil tip and root calibration points. In a 335 bp alignment we found in total 175 unique haplotypes. All newly sequenced individuals belonged to the previously described Holarctic lineage. Our analyses confirmed the presence of three Nearctic- and two Japan-restricted lineages that were formed since the Mid/Late Pleistocene. Conclusions The phylogeographic history of red foxes is highly similar to that previously described for grey wolves and brown bears, indicating that climatic fluctuations and habitat changes since the Pleistocene had similar effects on these highly mobile generalist species. All three species originally diversified in Eurasia and later colonized North America and Japan. North American lineages persisted through the last glacial maximum south of the ice sheets, meeting more recent colonizers from Beringia during postglacial expansion into the

  12. All-solid-state lithium-oxygen battery with high safety in wide ambient temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaura, Hirokazu; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-08-01

    There is need to develop high energy storage devices with high safety to satisfy the growing industrial demands. Here, we show the potential to realize such batteries by assembling a lithium-oxygen cell using an inorganic solid electrolyte without any flammable liquid or polymer materials. The lithium-oxygen battery using Li1.575Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 solid electrolyte was examined in the pure oxygen atmosphere from room temperature to 120 °C. The cell works at room temperature and first full discharge capacity of 1420 mAh g-1 at 10 mA g-1 (based on the mass of carbon material in the air electrode) was obtained. The charge curve started from 3.0 V, and that the majority of it lay below 4.2 V. The cell also safely works at high temperature over 80 °C with the improved battery performance. Furthermore, fundamental data of the electrochemical performance, such as cyclic voltammogram, cycle performance and rate performance was obtained and this work demonstrated the potential of the all-solid-state lithium-oxygen battery for wide temperature application as a first step.

  13. All-solid-state lithium-oxygen battery with high safety in wide ambient temperature range.

    PubMed

    Kitaura, Hirokazu; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-01-01

    There is need to develop high energy storage devices with high safety to satisfy the growing industrial demands. Here, we show the potential to realize such batteries by assembling a lithium-oxygen cell using an inorganic solid electrolyte without any flammable liquid or polymer materials. The lithium-oxygen battery using Li1.575Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 solid electrolyte was examined in the pure oxygen atmosphere from room temperature to 120 °C. The cell works at room temperature and first full discharge capacity of 1420 mAh g(-1) at 10 mA g(-1) (based on the mass of carbon material in the air electrode) was obtained. The charge curve started from 3.0 V, and that the majority of it lay below 4.2 V. The cell also safely works at high temperature over 80 °C with the improved battery performance. Furthermore, fundamental data of the electrochemical performance, such as cyclic voltammogram, cycle performance and rate performance was obtained and this work demonstrated the potential of the all-solid-state lithium-oxygen battery for wide temperature application as a first step. PMID:26293134

  14. All-solid-state lithium-oxygen battery with high safety in wide ambient temperature range

    PubMed Central

    Kitaura, Hirokazu; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-01-01

    There is need to develop high energy storage devices with high safety to satisfy the growing industrial demands. Here, we show the potential to realize such batteries by assembling a lithium-oxygen cell using an inorganic solid electrolyte without any flammable liquid or polymer materials. The lithium-oxygen battery using Li1.575Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 solid electrolyte was examined in the pure oxygen atmosphere from room temperature to 120 °C. The cell works at room temperature and first full discharge capacity of 1420 mAh g−1 at 10 mA g−1 (based on the mass of carbon material in the air electrode) was obtained. The charge curve started from 3.0 V, and that the majority of it lay below 4.2 V. The cell also safely works at high temperature over 80 °C with the improved battery performance. Furthermore, fundamental data of the electrochemical performance, such as cyclic voltammogram, cycle performance and rate performance was obtained and this work demonstrated the potential of the all-solid-state lithium-oxygen battery for wide temperature application as a first step. PMID:26293134

  15. A Study on Flow Behavior of AA5086 Over a Wide Range of Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgharzadeh, A.; Jamshidi Aval, H.; Serajzadeh, S.

    2016-03-01

    Flow stress behavior of AA5086 was determined using tensile testing at different temperatures from room temperature to 500 °C and strain rates varying between 0.002 and 1 s-1. The strain rate sensitivity parameter and occurrence of dynamic strain aging were then investigated in which an Arrhenius-type model was employed to study the serrated flow. Additionally, hot deformation behavior at temperatures higher than 320 °C was evaluated utilizing hyperbolic-sine constitutive equation. Finally, a feed forward artificial neural network model with back propagation learning algorithm was proposed to predict flow stress for all deformation conditions. The results demonstrated that the strain rate sensitivity at temperature range of 25-270 °C was negative due to occurrence of dynamic strain aging leading to significant reduction in fracture strain. The serrated yielding activation energy was found to be 46.1 kJ/mol. It indicated that the migration of Mg-atoms could be the main reason for this phenomenon. The hot deformation activation energy of AA5086 was also calculated about 202.3 kJ/mol while the dynamic recovery was the main softening process. Moreover, the ANN model having two hidden layers was shown to be an efficient structure for determining flow stress of the examined alloy for all temperatures and strain rates.

  16. Rubber to rigid, clamped to undamped: toward composite materials with wide-range controllable stiffness and damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornbluh, Roy D.; Prahlad, Harsha; Pelrine, Ron; Stanford, Scott; Rosenthal, Marcus A.; von Guggenberg, Philip A.

    2004-07-01

    Composite materials have increased the range of mechanical properties available to the design engineer compared with the range afforded by single component materials, leading to a revolution in capabilities. Nearly all commonly used engineering materials, including these composite materials, however, have a great limitation; that is, once their mechanical properties are set they cannot be changed. Imagine a material that could, under electric control, change from rubbery to rigid. Such composite "meta-materials" with stiffness and damping properties that can be electrically controlled over a wide range would find widespread application in areas such as morphing structures, tunable and conformable devices for human interaction, and greatly improved vibration control. Such a technology is a breakthrough capability because it fundamentally changes the paradigm of composite materials having a fixed set of mechanical properties. These electronically controllable composites may be the basis of discrete devices with tunable impedance. The composites can also be multifunctional materials: They can minimize size and mass by acting not only as a tunable impedance device, but also as a supporting structure or protective skin. Current approaches to controllable mechanical properties include composites with materials that have intrinsically variable properties such as shape memory alloys or polymers, or magnetorheological fluids, or composites that have active materials such as piezoelectrics, magnetostrictives, and newly emerging electroactive polymers. Each of these materials is suitable for some applications, but no single technology is capable of fast and efficient response that can produce a very wide range of stiffness and damping with a high elongation capability, that is, go from rubber to rigid. Such a material would be capable of a change in its maximum elastic energy of deformation of 50,000 J/cm3. No existing material is within three orders of magnitude of this

  17. Predicting sorption of organic acids to a wide range of carbonized sorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmund, Gabriel; Kah, Melanie; Sun, Huichao; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    Many contaminants and infochemicals are organic acids that undergo dissociation under environmental conditions. The sorption of dissociated anions to biochar and other carbonized sorbents is typically lower than that of neutral species. It is driven by complex processes that are not yet fully understood. It is known that predictive approaches developed for neutral compounds are unlikely to be suitable for organic acids, due to the effects of dissociation on sorption. Previous studies on the sorption of organic acids to soils have demonstrated that log Dow, which describes the decrease in hydrophobicity of acids upon dissociation, is a useful alternative to log Kow. The aim of the present study was to adapt a log Dow based approach to describe the sorption of organic acids to carbonized sorbents. Batch experiments were performed with a series of 9 sorbents (i.e., carbonized wood shavings, pig manure, and sewage sludge, carbon nanotubes and activated carbon), and four acids commonly used for pesticidal and biocidal purposes (i.e., 2,4-D, MCPA, 2,4-DB, and triclosan). Sorbents were comprehensively characterized, including by N2 and CO2 physisorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The wide range of sorbents considered allows (i) discussing the mechanisms driving the sorption of neutral and anionic species to biochar, and (ii) their dependency on sorbate and sorbent properties. Results showed that the sorption of the four acids was influenced by factors that are usually not considered for neutral compounds (i.e., pH, ionic strength). Dissociation affected the sorption of the four compounds, and sorption of the anions ranged over five orders of magnitude, thus substantially contributing to sorption in some cases. For prediction purposes, most of the variation in sorption to carbonized sorbents (89%) could be well described with a two-parameter regression equation including log Dow and sorbent specific surface area. The proposed model

  18. Evaluating the impact of a wide range of vegetation densities on river channel pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattison, Ian; Roucou, Ron

    2016-04-01

    develop a simple conceptual model to explain the observations along the wide range of vegetation densities investigated. At low plant densities, each plant acted independently and caused flow separation and convergence around each plant, similar to in the Coulthard (2005] experiment. At medium densities, individual plants start to interact together with narrow channels developing longitudinally between vegetative bars. Finally at very high densities, there was both lateral and longitudinal interaction between plants meaning that flow was diverted around them forming wandering, meandering channels. In summary, the relationship between vegetation density and channel braiding is more complex than previous thought, taking a parabolic shape, with maximum braiding occurring at medium vegetation densities.

  19. Accurate Measurements of Aerosol Hygroscopic Growth over a Wide Range in Relative Humidity.

    PubMed

    Rovelli, Grazia; Miles, Rachael E H; Reid, Jonathan P; Clegg, Simon L

    2016-06-30

    Using a comparative evaporation kinetics approach, we describe a new and accurate method for determining the equilibrium hygroscopic growth of aerosol droplets. The time-evolving size of an aqueous droplet, as it evaporates to a steady size and composition that is in equilibrium with the gas phase relative humidity, is used to determine the time-dependent mass flux of water, yielding information on the vapor pressure of water above the droplet surface at every instant in time. Accurate characterization of the gas phase relative humidity is provided from a control measurement of the evaporation profile of a droplet of know equilibrium properties, either a pure water droplet or a sodium chloride droplet. In combination, and by comparison with simulations that account for both the heat and mass transport governing the droplet evaporation kinetics, these measurements allow accurate retrieval of the equilibrium properties of the solution droplet (i.e., the variations with water activity in the mass fraction of solute, diameter growth factor, osmotic coefficient or number of water molecules per solute molecule). Hygroscopicity measurements can be made over a wide range in water activity (from >0.99 to, in principle, <0.05) on time scales of <10 s for droplets containing involatile or volatile solutes. The approach is benchmarked for binary and ternary inorganic solution aerosols with typical uncertainties in water activity of <±0.2% at water activities >0.9 and ∼±1% below 80% RH, and maximum uncertainties in diameter growth factor of ±0.7%. For all of the inorganic systems examined, the time-dependent data are consistent with large values of the mass accommodation (or evaporation) coefficient (>0.1). PMID:27285052

  20. GluN1 hypomorph mice exhibit wide-ranging behavioral alterations

    PubMed Central

    Barkus, C; Dawson, L A; Sharp, T; Bannerman, D M

    2012-01-01

    The psychotomimetic effects of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA) antagonists such as ketamine and phencyclidine suggest a role for reduced NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission in schizophrenia. GluN1 ‘hypomorph’ (GluN1hypo) mice exhibit reduced NMDA receptor expression and have been suggested as a mouse model of schizophrenia. However, NMDA receptors are ubiquitous and are implicated in many physiological and pathological processes. The GluN1hypo mice have a global reduction of NMDA receptors and the consequences of such a global manipulation are likely to be wide-ranging. We therefore assessed GluN1hypo mice on a battery of behavioral tests, including tests of naturalistic behaviors, anxiety and cognition. GluN1hypo mice exhibited impairments on all tests of cognition that we employed, as well as reduced engagement in naturalistic behaviors, including nesting and burrowing. Behavioral deficits were present in both spatial and non-spatial domains, and included deficits on both short- and long-term memory tasks. Results from anxiety tests did not give a clear overall picture. This may be the result of confounds such as the profound hyperactivity seen in GluN1hypo mice, although hyperactivity cannot account for all of the results obtained. When viewed against this background of far-reaching behavioral abnormalities, the specificity of any one behavioral deficit is inevitably called into question. Indeed, the present data from GluN1hypo mice are indicative of a global impairment rather than any specific disease. The deficits seen go beyond what one would expect from a mouse model of schizophrenia, thus questioning their utility as a selective model of this disease. PMID:22300668

  1. Multicolor photoacoustic imaging by a single transducer with piezoelectric copolymer film in a wide frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmori, Tsutomu; Ishihara, Miya; Tsujita, Kazuhiro; Bansaku, Isao; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2010-02-01

    We built a photoacoustic tomographic (PAT) imaging system by scanning a single detector (φ 3.5 mm) made of piezoelectric copolymer poly(vinylidene difluoride-trifluoroethylene), P(VDF-TrFE), which had been fabricated for diagnostic photoacoustic measurement of cartilage tissues in our group. The PAT images of a phantom were obtained at two excitation wavelength of 687.5 nm and 795 nm. The phantom was made of agar including a black hair and agarose gels dissolving indocyanine green (ICG) and methylene blue (MB). Laser pulses (685-900 nm) were generated from a Ti:Sappire tunable laser to excite ICG and MB molecules. The PAT image at 687.5 nm shows signals due to all absorption sources. This is good agreement with dimension of the phantom. The PAT image at 795 nm shows a strong signal due to the ICG-dyed gel and almost no signal due to the MB-dyed gel. This result indicated that absorption sources were extracted by excitation wavelength according to their absorption spectra. The signal/noise ratio of the PAT images were compared between the P(VDF-TrFE) transducer in our group and a PZT transducer (Parametrics V309, 5 MHz, φ 12.7 mm) which is commercially available. The P(VDF-TrFE) transducer was more sensitive by 9 times (120 times per area) than the PZT transducer. By using this imaging system with a P(VDF-TrFE) transducer which is highly sensitive in a wide frequency range, we will achieve frequency analysis of the PAT images to associate photoacoustic waveforms with physical properties of sample tissues.

  2. A CMOS frontend chip for implantable neural recording with wide voltage supply range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jialin, Liu; Xu, Zhang; Xiaohui, Hu; Yatao, Guo; Peng, Li; Ming, Liu; Bin, Li; Hongda, Chen

    2015-10-01

    A design for a CMOS frontend integrated circuit (chip) for neural signal acquisition working at wide voltage supply range is presented in this paper. The chip consists of a preamplifier, a serial instrumental amplifier (IA) and a cyclic analog-to-digital converter (CADC). The capacitive-coupled and capacitive-feedback topology combined with MOS-bipolar pseudo-resistor element is adopted in the preamplifier to create a -3 dB upper cut-off frequency less than 1 Hz without using a ponderous discrete device. A dual-amplifier instrumental amplifier is used to provide a low output impedance interface for ADC as well as to boost the gain. The preamplifier and the serial instrumental amplifier together provide a midband gain of 45.8 dB and have an input-referred noise of 6.7 μVrms integrated from 1 Hz to 5 kHz. The ADC digitizes the amplified signal at 12-bits precision with a highest sampling rate of 130 kS/s. The measured effective number of bits (ENOB) of the ADC is 8.7 bits. The entire circuit draws 165 to 216 μA current from the supply voltage varied from 1.34 to 3.3 V. The prototype chip is fabricated in the 0.18-μm CMOS process and occupies an area of 1.23 mm2 (including pads). In-vitro recording was successfully carried out by the proposed frontend chip. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61474107, 61372060, 61335010, 61275200, 61178051) and the Key Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. KJZD-EW-L11-01).

  3. Wide-range screening of psychoactive substances by FIA-HRMS: identification strategies.

    PubMed

    Alechaga, Élida; Moyano, Encarnación; Galceran, Maria Teresa

    2015-06-01

    Recreational drugs (illicit drugs, human and veterinary medicines, legal highs, etc.) often contain lacing agents and adulterants which are not related to the main active ingredient. Serious side effects and even the death of the consumer have been related to the consumption of mixtures of psychoactive substances and/or adulterants, so it is important to know the actual composition of recreational drugs. In this work, a method based on flow injection analysis (FIA) coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is proposed for the fast identification of psychoactive substances in recreational drugs and legal highs. The FIA and HRMS working conditions were optimized in order to detect a wide range of psychoactive compounds. As most of the psychoactive substances are acid-base compounds, methanol-0.1 % aqueous formic acid (1:1 v/v) as a carrier solvent and electrospray in both positive ion mode and negative ion mode were used. Two data acquisition modes, full scan at high mass resolution (HRMS) and data-dependent tandem mass spectrometry (ddMS/HRMS) with a quadrupole-Orbitrap mass analyzer were used, resulting in sufficient selectivity for identification of the components of the samples. A custom-made database containing over 450 substances, including psychoactive compounds and common adulterants, was built to perform a high-throughput target and suspect screening. Moreover, online accurate mass databases and mass fragmenter software were used to identify unknowns. Some examples, selected among the analyzed samples of recreational drugs and legal highs using the FIA-HRMS(ddMS/HRMS) method developed, are discussed to illustrate the screening strategy used in this study. The results showed that many of the analyzed samples were adulterated, and in some cases the sample composition did not match that of the supposed marketed substance. PMID:25862473

  4. [A wide-ranging project to the best use of S. Niccolo Psychiatric Hospital].

    PubMed

    Vannozzi, Francesca

    2007-01-01

    The S. Niccolò Psychiatric Hospital was one of the most important health institutions not only for Siena but for the entire Tuscan district and beyond. It was known to serve all the catchment area for mentally ill patients coming from other cities. At a national level, it is also one of the most beautiful models of hospital architecture of the "village" type, the expression of a late nineteenth-century tendency to perceive mental disorders as illnesses that could be improved and cured through "moral treatment", with work and distraction as the principal therapeutic instruments. The closure of the psychiatric hospital in Siena provided for by the Italian psychiatric reform of 1978 actually took place over an extremely long period of time. It was definitively closed only on 30 September 1999 and was the last psychiatric hospital in Tuscany to cease its activity. Its history, the importance it had for the considerable number of committed patients, the extension of the area of the hospital over 183,574 m2 and its organization in 16 edifices, mean that S. Niccolò is now an architectonic complex of great value and interest but also subject to progressive deterioration. This reality, together with the urgency of salvaging the collections of books from its very rich library and its archives of administrative documents and medical records, has led the author to prepare a wide-ranging and extremely complex project that aims at the best use of S. Niccolò. Thanks to the collaboration of a group of experts from various Faculties of the University of Siena, and beginning with a multidisciplinary study of S. Niccolò's history, the project proceeds to the identification of concrete actions of cultural policy as well. PMID:18450025

  5. Wide-ranging phylogeographic structure of invasive red lionfish in the Western Atlantic and Greater Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butterfield, John S.; Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo; Silliman, Brian R.; Saunders, Jonathan W.; Buddo, Dayne; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Searle, Linda; Allen, Aarin C; Hunter, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    The red lionfish (Pterois volitans) is an invasive predatory marine fish that has rapidly expanded its presence in the western hemisphere. We collected 214 invasive red lionfish samples from nine countries and territories, including seven unpublished locations. To evaluate connectivity better, we compiled our d-loop data with 846 published sequences resulting in 1060 samples from 14 locations. We found low nucleotide diversity (π=0.003) and moderate haplotype diversity (h=0.59). Using haplotype population pairwise ΦST tests, we analyzed possible phylogeographic breaks that were previously proposed based on other reef organisms. We found support for the Bahamas/Turks/Caicos vs. Caribbean break (ΦST=0.12) but not for the northwestern, eastern, or United States vs. Bahamas breaks. The northern region had higher variation and more haplotypes, supporting introduction(s) of at least five haplotypes in the region. Our wide-ranging samples showed that a lower-frequency haplotype in the north region dominated the southern region, and suggested multiple and possibly southern introductions. We tested multiple scenarios of phylogeographic structure with analyses of molecular variance and found support for a northern and southern region split at the Bahamas/Turks/Caicos vs. Caribbean break (percentage of variation among regions=8.49%). We found that Puerto Rico clustered with the southern region more strongly than with the northern region, as opposed to previous reports. We also found the rare haplotype, H03, for the first time in the southern Caribbean (Panama), indicating that either secondary releases occurred or that the low frequency haplotypes have had time to disperse to extreme southern Caribbean locations.

  6. Assessing the umbrella value of a range-wide conservation network for jaguars (Panthera onca).

    PubMed

    Thornton, Daniel; Zeller, Kathy; Rondinini, Carlo; Boitani, Luigi; Crooks, Kevin; Burdeh, Christopher; Rabinowitz, Alan; Quigley, Howard

    2016-06-01

    Umbrella species are employed as conservation short-cuts for the design of reserves or reserve networks. However, empirical data on the effectiveness of umbrellas is equivocal, which has prevented more widespread application of this conservation strategy. We perform a novel, large-scale evaluation of umbrella species by assessing the potential umbrella value of a jaguar (Panthera onca) conservation network (consisting of viable populations and corridors) that extends from Mexico to Argentina. Using species richness, habitat quality, and fragmentation indices of ~1500 co-occurring mammal species, we show that jaguar populations and corridors overlap a substantial amount and percentage of high-quality habitat for co-occurring mammals and that the jaguar network performs better than random networks in protecting high-quality, interior habitat. Significantly, the effectiveness of the jaguar network as an umbrella would not have been noticeable had we focused on species richness as our sole metric of umbrella utility. Substantial inter-order variability existed, indicating the need for complementary conservation strategies for certain groups of mammals. We offer several reasons for the positive result we document, including the large spatial scale of our analysis and our focus on multiple metrics of umbrella effectiveness. Taken together, our results demonstrate that a regional, single-species conservation strategy can serve as an effective umbrella for the larger community and should help conserve viable populations and connectivity for a suite of co-occurring mammals. Current and future range-wide planning exercises for other large predators may therefore have important umbrella benefits. PMID:27509752

  7. A simple and wide-range refractive index measuring approach by using a sub-micron grating

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chun-Wei; Wu, Chun-Che; Lin, Shih-Chieh

    2015-04-13

    This paper presents the design and simulation results of a high-precision low-cost refractometer that demonstrates the main advantage of a wide measurement range (1 ≤ n ≤ 2). The proposed design is based on the diffractive properties of sub-micron gratings and Snell's Law. The precision and uncertainty factors of the proposed system were tested and analyzed, revealing that the proposed refractometer demonstrates a wide measurement range with sensitivity of 10{sup −4}.

  8. A universal prediction of stall onset for airfoils at a wide range of Reynolds number flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Wallace J., II

    M > 250, these waves delay in the mean flow the onset of large separation to values of A s that increase with ReM, in contrast to MST predictions, and overlap the As RANS predictions. The RANS computed A s shows a continuing increase with ReM and good agreement for a wide range of Reynolds number with much available experimental data for the stall of airfoils. The simulations also exhibit the existence of stall hysteresis loops between As and a reattachment value of A, which is greater than MST stall prediction for a given ReM . The reduced-order model is also applied to predict the onset of leading-edge sheet cavitation on thin, smooth, hydrofoils. The approach determines the minimum pressure coefficient and a universal criterion for the critical cavitation number as function of hydrofoil's geometry, Reynolds number, and fluid thermodynamic properties. Predictions show agreement with results from available experimental data.

  9. Martinez Refinery Completes Plant-Wide Energy Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2002-11-01

    This OIT BestPractices Case Study describes how the Equilon Enterprises oil refinery in Martinez, California undertook a plant-wide energy assessment that focused on three key areas: waste minimization, process debottlenecking, and operations optimization. The assessment yielded recommendations, which, if implemented, can save more than 6,000,000 MMBtu per year and an estimated $52,000,000 per year, plus improve process control and reduce waste.

  10. Multiple-input multiple-output synthetic aperture ladar system for wide-range swath with high azimuth resolution.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yu; Qin, Bao; Yan, Yun; Xing, Mengdao

    2016-02-20

    For the trade-off between the high azimuth resolution and the wide-range swath in the single-input single-output synthetic aperture ladar (SAL) system, the range swath of the SAL system is restricted to a narrow range, this paper proposes a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) synthetic aperture ladar system. The MIMO system adopts a low pulse repetition frequency (PRF) to avoid a range ambiguity for the wide-range swath and in azimuth adopts the multi-channel method to achieve azimuth high resolution from the unambiguous azimuth wide-spectrum signal, processed through adaptive digital beam-forming technology. Simulations and analytical results are presented. PMID:26906593

  11. Preliminary assessment of the ecological risks to wide-ranging wildlife species on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Sample, B.E.; Baron, L.A.; Jackson, B.L.

    1995-08-01

    Historically, ecological risk assessment at CERCLA sites [such as the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)], has focused on species that may be definitively associated with a contaminated area or source operable unit. Consequently the species that are generally considered are those with home ranges small enough such that multiple individuals or a distinct population can be expected to reside within the boundaries of the contaminated site. This approach is adequate for sites with single, discrete areas of contamination that only provide habitat for species with limited requirements. This approach is not adequate however for large sites with multiple, spatially separated contaminated areas that provide habitat for wide-ranging wildlife species. Because wide-ranging wildlife species may travel between and use multiple contaminated sites they may be exposed to and be at risk from contaminants from multiple locations. Use of a particular contaminated site by wide-ranging species will be dependent upon the amount of suitable habitat available at that site. Therefore to adequately evaluate risks to wide-ranging species at the ORR-wide scale, the use of multiple contaminated sites must be weighted by the amount of suitable habitat on OUs. This reservation-wide ecological risk assessment is intended to identify which endpoints are significantly at risk; which contaminants are responsible for this risk; and which OUs significantly contribute to risk.

  12. Data resources for range-wide assessment of livestock grazing across the sagebrush biome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Assal, T.J.; Veblen, K.E.; Farinha, M.A.; Aldridge, C.L.; Casazza, M.L.; Pyke, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The data contained in this series were compiled, modified, and analyzed for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) report "Range-Wide Assessment of Livestock Grazing Across the Sagebrush Biome." This report can be accessed through the USGS Publications Warehouse (online linkage: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1263/). The dataset contains spatial and tabular data related to Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Grazing Allotments. We reviewed the BLM national grazing allotment spatial dataset available from the GeoCommunicator National Integrated Land System (NILS) website in 2007 (http://www.geocommunicator.gov). We identified several limitations in those data and learned that some BLM State and/or field offices had updated their spatial data to rectify these limitations, but maintained the data outside of NILS. We contacted appropriate BLM offices (State or field, 25 in all) to obtain the most recent data, assessed the data, established a data development protocol, and compiled data into a topologically enforced dataset throughout the area of interest for this project (that is, the pre-settlement distribution of Greater Sage-Grouse in the Western United States). The final database includes three spatial datasets: Allotments (BLM Grazing Allotments), OUT_Polygons (nonallotment polygons used to ensure topology), and Duplicate_Polygon_Allotments. See Appendix 1 of the aforementioned report for complete methods. The tabular data presented here consists of information synthesized by the Land Health Standard (LHS) analysis (Appendix 2), and data obtained from the BLM Rangeland Administration System (http://www.blm.gov/ras/). In 2008, available LHS data for all allotments in all regions were compiled by BLM in response to a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request made by a private organization. The BLM provided us with a copy of these data. These data provided three major types of information that were of interest: (1) date(s) (if any) of the most recent LHS evaluation for each

  13. Flattop beam illumination for 3D imaging ladar with simple optical devices in the wide distance range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Hidenobu; Nakano, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Kameyama, Shumpei

    2016-04-01

    We have developed an illumination optical system for 3D imaging ladar (laser detection and ranging) which forms flattop beam shape by transformation of the Gaussian beam in the wide distance range. The illumination is achieved by beam division and recombination using a prism and a negative powered lens. The optimum condition of the transformation by the optical system is derived. It is confirmed that the flattop distribution can be formed in the wide range of the propagation distance from 1 to 1000 m. The experimental result with the prototype is in good agreement with the calculation result.

  14. Evaluation of some wide dynamic range readout systems for photoelectric integrating spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, M. L.; Gordon, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    Five types of electronic circuits commonly used for readout of currents from photomultiplier tubes were evaluated. This evaluation was conducted to define the experimental limits of achieving the widest possible dynamic range of light detection and concentration measurements in spectrochemical analysis. The circuits evaluated included the photon-counting technique and four dc circuits. These circuits displayed a dynamic range from 3 to about 4.5 decades within a repeatability criterion of 1 percent, or better. The maximum dynamic range allowed by the photomultiplier tube in this application was estimated to be about 6 decades.

  15. Wide range stress intensity factor expressions for ASTM E 399 standard fracture toughness specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srawley, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    For each of the two types of specimens, bend and compact, described previously for plane strain fracture toughness of materials, E 399, a polynominal expression is given for calculation of the stress intensity factor, K, from the applied force, P, and the specimen dimensions. It is explicitly stated, however, that these expressions should not be used outside the range of relative crack length, a/W, from 0.45 to 0.55. While this range is sufficient for the purpose of E 399, the same specimen types are often used for other purposes over a much wider range of a/W; for example, in the study of fatigue crack growth. Expressions are presented which are at least as accurate as those in E 399-74, and which cover much wider ranges of a/W: for the three-point bend specimen from 0 to 1; and for the compact specimen from 0.2 to 1. The range has to be restricted for the compact specimen because of the proximity of the loading pin holes to the crackline, which causes the stress intensity factor to be sensitive to small variations in dimensions when a/W is small. This is a penalty inherently associated with the compactness of the specimen.

  16. Tunable optical filters with wide wavelength range based on porous multilayers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A novel concept for micromechanical tunable optical filter (TOF) with porous-silicon-based photonic crystals which provide wavelength tuning of ca. ±20% around a working wavelength at frequencies up to kilohertz is presented. The combination of fast mechanical tilting and pore-filling of the porous silicon multilayer structure increases the tunable range to more than 200 nm or provides fine adjustment of working wavelength of the TOF. Experimental and optical simulation data for the visible and near-infrared wavelength range supporting the approach are shown. TOF are used in spectroscopic applications, e.g., for process analysis. PMID:25232293

  17. Tunable optical filters with wide wavelength range based on porous multilayers.

    PubMed

    Mescheder, Ulrich; Khazi, Isman; Kovacs, Andras; Ivanov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    A novel concept for micromechanical tunable optical filter (TOF) with porous-silicon-based photonic crystals which provide wavelength tuning of ca. ±20% around a working wavelength at frequencies up to kilohertz is presented. The combination of fast mechanical tilting and pore-filling of the porous silicon multilayer structure increases the tunable range to more than 200 nm or provides fine adjustment of working wavelength of the TOF. Experimental and optical simulation data for the visible and near-infrared wavelength range supporting the approach are shown. TOF are used in spectroscopic applications, e.g., for process analysis. PMID:25232293

  18. Development of a multivalent live vaccine active against a wide range of Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Levi, B; Witz, I; Malkinson, M; Singer, N; Wiseman, Y; Ron, E Z

    1980-01-01

    We have constructed a deletion mutant of E. coli which lacks O-antigen - "deep rough". Living bacteria of this strain were injected repeatedly in high numbers into mice and chicks and in all cases were found to be completely harmless. In C3HeB mice, protection was obtained against a wide variety of enteric bacteria and was accompanied by an appreciable increase in titer of antibodies which cross react with LPS extracted from these bacteria. Preliminary experiments indicate that the vaccine provides protection against avian coli pathogens. PMID:7010371

  19. Patterns of range-wide genetic variation in six North American bumble bee (Apidae: Bombus) species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing evidence for population declines in bumble bee (Bombus) species worldwide has accelerated research efforts to explain losses in these important native pollinators. In North America, a number of once widespread Bombus species have suffered serious reductions in range and abundance, alt...

  20. A detector based on silica fibers for ion beam monitoring in a wide current range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, M.; Braccini, S.; Carzaniga, T. S.; Ereditato, A.; Nesteruk, K. P.; Scampoli, P.

    2016-03-01

    A detector based on doped silica and optical fibers was developed to monitor the profile of particle accelerator beams of intensity ranging from 1 pA to tens of μA. Scintillation light produced in a fiber moving across the beam is measured, giving information on its position, shape and intensity. The detector was tested with a continuous proton beam at the 18 MeV Bern medical cyclotron used for radioisotope production and multi-disciplinary research. For currents from 1 pA to 20 μA, Ce3+ and Sb3+ doped silica fibers were used as sensors. Read-out systems based on photodiodes, photomultipliers and solid state photomultipliers were employed. Profiles down to the pA range were measured with this method for the first time. For currents ranging from 1 pA to 3 μA, the integral of the profile was found to be linear with respect to the beam current, which can be measured by this detector with an accuracy of ~1%. The profile was determined with a spatial resolution of 0.25 mm. For currents ranging from 5 μA to 20 μA, thermal effects affect light yield and transmission, causing distortions of the profile and limitations in monitoring capabilities. For currents higher than ~1 μA, non-doped optical fibers for both producing and transporting scintillation light were also successfully employed.

  1. Wide field of view laser beacon system for three dimensional aircraft range measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, E. Y.

    1982-01-01

    A system that measures accurately the distance from an aircraft to a helicoper for rotor noise flight testing was developed. The system measures the range and angles between two aircraft using laser optics. This system can be applied in collision avoidance, robotics and other measurement critical tasks.

  2. Range and Energy Straggling in Ion Beam Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Tai, Hsiang

    2000-01-01

    A first-order approximation to the range and energy straggling of ion beams is given as a normal distribution for which the standard deviation is estimated from the fluctuations in energy loss events. The standard deviation is calculated by assuming scattering from free electrons with a long range cutoff parameter that depends on the mean excitation energy of the medium. The present formalism is derived by extrapolating Payne's formalism to low energy by systematic energy scaling and to greater depths of penetration by a second-order perturbation. Limited comparisons are made with experimental data.

  3. Non-Linearity in Wide Dynamic Range CMOS Image Sensors Utilizing a Partial Charge Transfer Technique

    PubMed Central

    Shafie, Suhaidi; Kawahito, Shoji; Halin, Izhal Abdul; Hasan, Wan Zuha Wan

    2009-01-01

    The partial charge transfer technique can expand the dynamic range of a CMOS image sensor by synthesizing two types of signal, namely the long and short accumulation time signals. However the short accumulation time signal obtained from partial transfer operation suffers of non-linearity with respect to the incident light. In this paper, an analysis of the non-linearity in partial charge transfer technique has been carried, and the relationship between dynamic range and the non-linearity is studied. The results show that the non-linearity is caused by two factors, namely the current diffusion, which has an exponential relation with the potential barrier, and the initial condition of photodiodes in which it shows that the error in the high illumination region increases as the ratio of the long to the short accumulation time raises. Moreover, the increment of the saturation level of photodiodes also increases the error in the high illumination region. PMID:22303133

  4. A wide dynamic range laser rangefinder with cm-level resolution based on AGC amplifier structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Feihu; Gong, Ke; Huo, Yujing

    2012-03-01

    A pulsed time-of-flight (TOF) laser rangefinder with a pulsed laser diode and an avalanche photo diode (APD) receiver is constructed and tested. Trigged by an avalanche transistor, the laser diode can emit a periodic pulse with rise time of ˜2 ns. A new structure with auto gain control (AGC) circuits both in the pre-amplifier and the post-amplifier is presented. Through this technology, not only the dynamic range of the receiver is extended, but also the walk error of timing discriminators is reduced. Large measurement range from 5 m to 500 m is achieved without any cooperative target. The single-shot precision is 3 cm for the weakest signal. Compared with previous laser rangefinders, the complexity of this system is greatly simplified.

  5. Polynomial approximations of thermodynamic properties of arbitrary gas mixtures over wide pressure and density ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, D. O.

    1972-01-01

    Computer programs for flow fields around planetary entry vehicles require real-gas equilibrium thermodynamic properties in a simple form which can be evaluated quickly. To fill this need, polynomial approximations were found for thermodynamic properties of air and model planetary atmospheres. A coefficient-averaging technique was used for curve fitting in lieu of the usual least-squares method. The polynomials consist of terms up to the ninth degree in each of two variables (essentially pressure and density) including all cross terms. Four of these polynomials can be joined to cover, for example, a range of about 1000 to 11000 K and 0.00001 to 1 atmosphere (1 atm = 1.0133 x 100,000 N/m sq) for a given thermodynamic property. Relative errors of less than 1 percent are found over most of the applicable range.

  6. Precise control of coupling strength in photonic molecules over a wide range using nanoelectromechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Han; Zhang, Xingwang; Chen, Guoqiang; Deng, Jie; Chau, Fook Siong; Zhou, Guangya

    2016-04-01

    Photonic molecules have a range of promising applications including quantum information processing, where precise control of coupling strength is critical. Here, by laterally shifting the center-to-center offset of coupled photonic crystal nanobeam cavities, we demonstrate a method to precisely and dynamically control the coupling strength of photonic molecules through integrated nanoelectromechanical systems with a precision of a few GHz over a range of several THz without modifying the nature of their constituent resonators. Furthermore, the coupling strength can be tuned continuously from negative (strong coupling regime) to zero (weak coupling regime) and further to positive (strong coupling regime) and vice versa. Our work opens a door to the optimization of the coupling strength of photonic molecules in situ for the study of cavity quantum electrodynamics and the development of efficient quantum information devices.

  7. Precise control of coupling strength in photonic molecules over a wide range using nanoelectromechanical systems.

    PubMed

    Du, Han; Zhang, Xingwang; Chen, Guoqiang; Deng, Jie; Chau, Fook Siong; Zhou, Guangya

    2016-01-01

    Photonic molecules have a range of promising applications including quantum information processing, where precise control of coupling strength is critical. Here, by laterally shifting the center-to-center offset of coupled photonic crystal nanobeam cavities, we demonstrate a method to precisely and dynamically control the coupling strength of photonic molecules through integrated nanoelectromechanical systems with a precision of a few GHz over a range of several THz without modifying the nature of their constituent resonators. Furthermore, the coupling strength can be tuned continuously from negative (strong coupling regime) to zero (weak coupling regime) and further to positive (strong coupling regime) and vice versa. Our work opens a door to the optimization of the coupling strength of photonic molecules in situ for the study of cavity quantum electrodynamics and the development of efficient quantum information devices. PMID:27097883

  8. Precise control of coupling strength in photonic molecules over a wide range using nanoelectromechanical systems

    PubMed Central

    Du, Han; Zhang, Xingwang; Chen, Guoqiang; Deng, Jie; Chau, Fook Siong; Zhou, Guangya

    2016-01-01

    Photonic molecules have a range of promising applications including quantum information processing, where precise control of coupling strength is critical. Here, by laterally shifting the center-to-center offset of coupled photonic crystal nanobeam cavities, we demonstrate a method to precisely and dynamically control the coupling strength of photonic molecules through integrated nanoelectromechanical systems with a precision of a few GHz over a range of several THz without modifying the nature of their constituent resonators. Furthermore, the coupling strength can be tuned continuously from negative (strong coupling regime) to zero (weak coupling regime) and further to positive (strong coupling regime) and vice versa. Our work opens a door to the optimization of the coupling strength of photonic molecules in situ for the study of cavity quantum electrodynamics and the development of efficient quantum information devices. PMID:27097883

  9. Moment method analysis of microstrip antennas over a wide frequency range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwan, B. W.; Newman, E. H.

    1985-01-01

    Expressions for the self and mutual impedance between microstrip antenna modes on a grounded dielectric slab are presented. The mutual impedance between the microstrip modes and a vertical current filament in the dielectric is also presented. These are the quantities required in a method of moments analysis of the microstrip antenna. Entire domain expansion modes, suitable for representing the microstrip current over a broad frequency range, are used. Efficient methods for the evaluation of the mutual impedance elements are described.

  10. Complexities in Pressure Dependent Kinetics Across a Wide-Range of Temperatures and Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klippenstein, Stephen

    Sample ab initio transition state theory based master equation calculations will be used to illustrate interesting features of the kinetics for a variety of reactions of importance in astrochemistry, atmospheric, and combustion chemistry. The calculations will explore the role of long-range interactions, angular momentum conservation, tunneling, radiative emission, roaming processes, torsional motions, and prompt dissociation of incipient molecules. Comparisons with experiment will be presented to illustrate the current accuracy of such calculations.

  11. Ductility of metal alloys with grain size distribution in a wide range of strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skripnyak, Vladimir V.; Skripnyak, Nataliya V.; Skripnyak, Evgeniya G.

    Ductility of ultrafine grained (UFG) metal alloys with a distribution of grain size was investigated in wide loading conditions by numerical simulation. The multiscale models with a unimodal and a bimodal grain size distributions were developed using the data of structure research of hexagonal close packed and face center cubic UFG alloys. Macroscopic fracture is considered as a result of the formation of percolation clusters of damage at the mesoscopic level. The critical fracture strain of UFG alloys on the mesoscale level depends on the relative volumes of coarse grains. The nucleation of damages at quasi-static and dynamic loading is associated with strain localization in UFG partial volumes with bimodal grain size distribution. The concentration of damages arise in the vicinity of the boundaries of coarse and ultrafine grains. The occurrence of a bimodal grain size distributions causes the increase of UFG alloys' ductility, but decrease of their tensile strength. Linkoping University, Sweden.

  12. Burkholderia cepacia Complex: Emerging Multihost Pathogens Equipped with a Wide Range of Virulence Factors and Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Sílvia A.; Ramos, Christian G.; Leitão, Jorge H.

    2011-01-01

    The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) comprises at least 17 closely-related species of the β-proteobacteria subdivision, widely distributed in natural and man-made inhabitats. Bcc bacteria are endowed with an extraordinary metabolic diversity and emerged in the 1980s as life-threatening and difficult-to-treat pathogens among patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. More recently, these bacteria became recognized as a threat to hospitalized patients suffering from other diseases, in particular oncological patients. In the present paper, we review these and other traits of Bcc bacteria, as well as some of the strategies used to identify and validate the virulence factors and determinants used by these bacteria. The identification and characterization of these virulence factors is expected to lead to the design of novel therapeutic strategies to fight the infections caused by these emergent multidrug resistant human pathogens. PMID:20811541

  13. Winding Schemes for Wide Constant Power Range of Double Stator Transverse Flux Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Husain, Tausif; Hassan, Iftekhar; Sozer, Yilmaz; Husain, Iqbal; Muljadi, Eduard

    2015-05-01

    Different ring winding schemes for double sided transverse flux machines are investigated in this paper for wide speed operation. The windings under investigation are based on two inverters used in parallel. At higher power applications this arrangement improves the drive efficiency. The new winding structure through manipulation of the end connection splits individual sets into two and connects the partitioned turns from individual stator sets in series. This configuration offers the flexibility of torque profiling and a greater flux weakening region. At low speeds and low torque only one winding set is capable of providing the required torque thus providing greater fault tolerance. At higher speeds one set is dedicated to torque production and the other for flux control. The proposed method improves the machine efficiency and allows better flux weakening which is desirable for traction applications.

  14. A Liquid Density Standard Over Wide Ranges of Temperature and Pressure Based on Toluene

    PubMed Central

    McLinden, Mark O.; Splett, Jolene D.

    2008-01-01

    The density of liquid toluene has been measured over the temperature range −60 °C to 200 °C with pressures up to 35 MPa. A two-sinker hydrostatic-balance densimeter utilizing a magnetic suspension coupling provided an absolute determination of the density with low uncertainties. These data are the basis of NIST Standard Reference Material® 211d for liquid density over the temperature range −50 °C to 150 °C and pressure range 0.1 MPa to 30 MPa. A thorough uncertainty analysis is presented; this includes effects resulting from the experimental density determination, possible degradation of the sample due to time and exposure to high temperatures, dissolved air, uncertainties in the empirical density model, and the sample-to-sample variations in the SRM vials. Also considered is the effect of uncertainty in the temperature and pressure measurements. This SRM is intended for the calibration of industrial densimeters. PMID:27096111

  15. Wavelength scanning interferometry using a Ti:Sapphire laser with wide tuning range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila, A.; Huntley, J. M.; Pallikarakis, C.; Ruiz, P. D.; Coupland, J. M.

    2012-08-01

    Wavelength scanning interferometry in the visible or near-infra red is normally restricted to relatively narrow wavelength tuning ranges, which results in poor depth resolution compared to related techniques such as scanning white light interferometry. We describe how a commercially-available Ti:Sapphire laser with>100 nm scan range has been customized to allow high speed scans of several tens of thousands of frames at rates of up to 30 frames s-1, with variable exposure time to compensate for wavelength variation of laser power output and camera sensitivity. Mode hops and other nonlinearities in the scans, which prevent successful depth reconstructions by the standard approach of temporal Fourier transformation, are handled by measuring phase changes in the interferograms from a set of four wedges, and resampling the intensity signals on a uniformly-spaced vector of wavenumbers. With these changes, the depth-resolution is improved by a factor of more than 100x, and is found to approach the theoretical limit for scan ranges of up to 37 nm.

  16. Return Customers: Foraging Site Fidelity and the Effect of Environmental Variability in Wide-Ranging Antarctic Fur Seals

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Benjamin; Hindell, Mark; Bester, Marthan; Trathan, Phil; Jonsen, Ian; Staniland, Iain; Oosthuizen, W. Chris; Wege, Mia; Lea, Mary-Anne

    2015-01-01

    Strategies employed by wide-ranging foraging animals involve consideration of habitat quality and predictability and should maximise net energy gain. Fidelity to foraging sites is common in areas of high resource availability or where predictable changes in resource availability occur. However, if resource availability is heterogeneous or unpredictable, as it often is in marine environments, then habitat familiarity may also present ecological benefits to individuals. We examined the winter foraging distribution of female Antarctic fur seals, Arctocephalus gazelle, over four years to assess the degree of foraging site fidelity at two scales; within and between years. On average, between-year fidelity was strong, with most individuals utilising more than half of their annual foraging home range over multiple years. However, fidelity was a bimodal strategy among individuals, with five out of eight animals recording between-year overlap values of greater than 50%, while three animals recorded values of less than 5%. High long-term variance in sea surface temperature, a potential proxy for elevated long-term productivity and prey availability, typified areas of overlap. Within-year foraging site fidelity was weak, indicating that successive trips over the winter target different geographic areas. We suggest that over a season, changes in prey availability are predictable enough for individuals to shift foraging area in response, with limited associated energetic costs. Conversely, over multiple years, the availability of prey resources is less spatially and temporally predictable, increasing the potential costs of shifting foraging area and favouring long-term site fidelity. In a dynamic and patchy environment, multi-year foraging site fidelity may confer a long-term energetic advantage to the individual. Such behaviours that operate at the individual level have evolutionary and ecological implications and are potential drivers of niche specialization and modifiers of

  17. AKARI IRC 2.5-5 μm spectroscopy of infrared galaxies over a wide luminosity range

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, Kohei; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakagawa, Takao; Shirahata, Mai; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Oyabu, Shinki

    2014-10-20

    We present the result of a systematic infrared 2.5-5 μm spectroscopic study of 22 nearby infrared galaxies over a wide infrared luminosity range (10{sup 10} L {sub ☉} < L {sub IR} < 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉}) obtained from the AKARI Infrared Camera (IRC). The unique band of the AKARI IRC spectroscopy enables us to access both the 3.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission feature from star-forming activity and the continuum of torus-dust emission heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Applying our AGN diagnostics to the AKARI spectra, we discover 14 buried AGNs. The large fraction of buried AGNs suggests that AGN activity behind the dust is almost ubiquitous in ultra-/luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs). We also find that both the fraction and energy contribution of buried AGNs increase with infrared luminosity from 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉} to 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉}, including normal infrared galaxies with L {sub IR} < 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉}. The energy contribution from AGNs in the total infrared luminosity is only ∼7% in LIRGs and ∼20% in ULIRGs, suggesting that the majority of the infrared luminosity originates from starburst activity. Using the PAH emission, we investigate the luminosity relation between star formation and AGNs. We find that these infrared galaxies exhibit higher star formation rates than optically selected Seyfert galaxies with the same AGN luminosities, implying that infrared galaxies could be an early evolutionary phase of AGN.

  18. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2007-05-15

    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  19. Patterns of range-wide genetic variation in six North American bumble bee (Apidae: Bombus) species.

    PubMed

    Lozier, Jeffrey D; Strange, James P; Stewart, Isaac J; Cameron, Sydney A

    2011-12-01

    The increasing evidence for population declines in bumble bee (Bombus) species worldwide has accelerated research efforts to explain losses in these important pollinators. In North America, a number of once widespread Bombus species have suffered serious reductions in range and abundance, although other species remain healthy. To examine whether declining and stable species exhibit different levels of genetic diversity or population fragmentation, we used microsatellite markers to genotype populations sampled across the geographic distributions of two declining (Bombus occidentalis and Bombus pensylvanicus) and four stable (Bombus bifarius; Bombus vosnesenskii; Bombus impatiens and Bombus bimaculatus) Bombus species. Populations of declining species generally have reduced levels of genetic diversity throughout their range compared to codistributed stable species. Genetic diversity can be affected by overall range size and degree of isolation of local populations, potentially confounding comparisons among species in some cases. We find no evidence for consistent differences in gene flow among stable and declining species, with all species exhibiting weak genetic differentiation over large distances (e.g. >1000 km). Populations on islands and at high elevations experience relatively strong genetic drift, suggesting that some conditions lead to genetic isolation in otherwise weakly differentiated species. B. occidentalis and B. bifarius exhibit stronger genetic differentiation than the other species, indicating greater phylogeographic structure consistent with their broader geographic distributions across topographically complex regions of western North America. Screening genetic diversity in North American Bombus should prove useful for identifying species that warrant monitoring, and developing management strategies that promote high levels of gene flow will be a key component in efforts to maintain healthy populations. PMID:22035452

  20. Wide measurement range scanning heterodyne interferometer utilizing astigmatic position sensing scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngkyu; Kim, Kyoung-Eop; Kim, Seong-Jin; Park, June-Gyu; Joo, Young-Hun; Shin, Bu Hyun; Lee, Seung-Yop; Cho, Kyuman

    2011-08-01

    A scanning heterodyne I/Q-interferometer scheme is proposed to overcome phase ambiguity caused by the periodic nature of its phase-dependent signal. A position sensing scheme using an astigmatic method in the confocal arrangement has been interfaced to the interferometer to retrieve the real phase value during a scanning process. The experimental results show that the vertical measurement range can be expanded up to 16μm. The potential of this interferometer on the scanning microscopy of a rough surface is discussed.

  1. Social Networks: A Powerful Model for Serving a Wide Range of Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memon, Nasrullah; Alhajj, Reda

    By nature, social networks exist and evolve; they arc dynamic. However the development in information technology increased the interest in social networks and they arc adapted to more applications and domains. To cope with the change, wc took the initiative and started three major projects, conference, journal and lecture notes scries that arc intended to meet the expectations of the involved research groups whose members have diverse backgrounds. This book is the first volume in our new scries entitled lecture notes in social networks. It includes papers that cover different topics ranging from fundamentals to applications of social networks.

  2. Kinetic measurements on elementary fossil fuel combustion reactions over wide temperatures ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Fontijin, A.

    1992-01-01

    The goals of this work are to provide accurate data on the temperature dependence of the kinetics of elementary combustion reactions (i) for use by combustion modelers, and (ii) to gain a better fundamental understanding of, and hence predictive ability for, the chemistry involved. Experimental measurements are made using the pseudo-static HTP (high-temperature photochemistry) technique. This approach allows observations on single reactions in the 300 to 1800 K temperature range to be made. Typical total (bath gas) pressures are in the 100 to 1000 mbar range. Ground-state O and H atoms are produced by flash or excimer laser photolysis of suitable precursors (O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}). The relative atom concentrations are monitored by resonance fluorescence pumped by a cw microwave discharge flow lamp. The molecular reactant-in-excess is introduced through a cooled inlet. Adequate time for mixing, 0.1 to 10 s, between this inlet and the photolysis/observation zone is achieved by using slow flows (typically less than 20 cm s{sup {minus}1}). Results are reported for: O-Atom Reactions with the Four Isomeric Butenes, H + HCl {yields} H{sub 2} + Cl, and the O-atom 1,3-butadiene reaction.

  3. Generation of ultralow tensions over a wide EACN range using Pennsylvania State University surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Klaus, E.E.; Arf, G.; Chung, Y.M.; Dudenas, P.; Erteken, T.; Jones, J.H.; Nagarajan, R.; Yarzumbeck, A.J.

    1983-02-01

    Saturated paraffinic and naphthenic hydrocarbons without aromatics have been vapor-phase oxidized to produce cyclic ethers and lesser amounts of olefins. These cyclic ethers appear to be effective cosurfactants for the preparation of slugs containing petroleum sulfonate surfactants. The cyclic-ether/olefin mixture has been reacted with SO/sub 3/ from oleum or liquid SO/sub 3/ to form sulfonates comprising a mixture of mono-, di-, and polysulfonates. The reaction products consisting of the sulfonates, unreacted oxidized products, and residual hydrocarbons have been extracted with isopropanol (IPA) to give two sulfonate fractions. The first fraction is predominantly monosulfonate with lesser quantities of disulfonates. The second fraction consists primarily of di-, tri-, and polysulfonates. The monosulfonate fraction in a low-concentration slug exhibits ultralow interfacial tension (IFT) against hydrocarbons of low equivalent alkane carbon number (EACN). The behavior of this fraction is similar to that of the commercial sulfonates in that its ability to generate low IFT is confined to a narrow range of EACN. To achieve low IFT's at higher EACN in the range of a Pennsylvania crude oil, it is necessary to raise the equivalent weight of the Pennsylvania State U. monosulfonate fraction by blending with a commercial sulfonate of higher equivalent weight.

  4. A panoply of insertion devices at SOLEIL for a wide spectral range and flexible polarisation

    SciTech Connect

    Couprie, M. E.; Benabderrahmane, C.; Berteaud, P.; Briquez, F.; Chapuis, L.; Elajjouri, T.; Marteau, F.; Filhol, J. M.; Kitegi, C.; Marcouille, O.; Massal, M.; Valleau, M.; Veteran, J.; Chubar, O.

    2010-06-23

    The SOLEIL storage ring presents a very high fraction of its circumference dedicated to accommodate Insertion Devices (ID). Over the 25 presently planned insertion devices presenting a large variety of systems, 16 have been already installed and commissioned in September 2009. The UV-VUV region is covered with electromagnetic devices, offering tuneable polarisations. An electromagnet/permanent magnet undulator using copper sheets coils for fast switching of the helicity is under construction. 13 APPLE-II type undulators, with period ranging from 80 down to 36 mm, provide photons in the 0.1-10 keV region, some of them featuring tapering or quasi-periodicity. Five U20 in vacuum undulators cover typically the 3-30 keV range whereas an in vacuum wiggler, with compensation of the magnetic forces via adequate springs will cover the 10-50 keV spectral domain. R and D on cryogenic in-vacuum undulator is also under progress. A magnetic chicane using permanent magnet dipoles has also been designed in order to accommodate two canted undulators on the same straight section. A wiggler dedicated to slicing (production of femto second long pulses) is also being designed, its radiation will also serve for an X-ray beamline.

  5. Wide range operation of advanced low NOx combustors for supersonic high-altitude aircraft gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. B.; Fiorito, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    An initial rig program tested the Jet Induced Circulation (JIC) and Vortex Air Blast (VAB) systems in small can combustor configurations for NOx emissions at a simulated high altitude, supersonic cruise condition. The VAB combustor demonstrated the capability of meeting the NOx goal of 1.0 g NO2/kg fuel at the cruise condition. In addition, the program served to demonstrate the limited low-emissions range available from the lean, premixed combustor. A follow-on effort was concerned with the problem of operating these lean, premixed combustors with acceptable emissions at simulated engine idle conditions. Various techniques have been demonstrated that allow satisfactory operation on both the JIC and VAB combustors at idle with CO emissions below 20 g/kg fuel. The VAB combustor was limited by flashback/autoignition phenomena at the cruise conditions to a pressure of 8 atmospheres. The JIC combustor was operated up to the full design cruise pressure of 14 atmospheres without encountering an autoignition limitation although the NOx levels, in the 2-3 g NO2/kg fuel range, exceeded the program goal.

  6. A panoply of insertion devices at SOLEIL for a wide spectral range and flexible polarisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couprie, M. E.; Benabderrahmane, C.; Berteaud, P.; Briquez, F.; Chapuis, L.; Chubar, O.; Elajjouri, T.; Marteau, F.; Filhol, J. M.; Kitegi, C.; Marcouillé, O.; Massal, M.; Valleau, M.; Vétéran, J.

    2010-06-01

    The SOLEIL storage ring presents a very high fraction of its circumference dedicated to accommodate Insertion Devices (ID). Over the 25 presently planned insertion devices presenting a large variety of systems, 16 have been already installed and commissioned in September 2009. The UV-VUV region is covered with electromagnetic devices, offering tuneable polarisations. An electromagnet/permanent magnet undulator using copper sheets coils for fast switching of the helicity is under construction. 13 APPLE-II type undulators, with period ranging from 80 down to 36 mm, provide photons in the 0.1-10 keV region, some of them featuring tapering or quasi-periodicity. Five U20 in vacuum undulators cover typically the 3-30 keV range whereas an in vacuum wiggler, with compensation of the magnetic forces via adequate springs will cover the 10-50 keV spectral domain. R&D on cryogenic in-vacuum undulator is also under progress. A magnetic chicane using permanent magnet dipoles has also been designed in order to accommodate two canted undulators on the same straight section. A wiggler dedicated to slicing (production of femto second long pulses) is also being designed, its radiation will also serve for an X-ray beamline.

  7. Application of a vortex shedding flowmeter to the wide range measurement of high temperature gas flow

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.P.; Ennis, R.M. Jr.; Herndon, P.G.

    1981-01-01

    A single flowmeter was required for helium gas measurement in a Gas Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor loss of coolant simulator. Volumetric flow accuracy of +-1.0% of reading was required over the Reynolds Number range 6 x 10/sup 3/ to 1 x 10/sup 6/ at flowing pressures from 0.2 to 9 MPa (29 to 1305 psia) at 350/sup 0/C (660/sup 0/F) flowing temperature. Because of its inherent accuracy and rangeability, a vortex shedding flowmeter was selected and specially modified to provide for a remoted thermal sensor. Experiments were conducted to determine the relationship between signal attenuation and sensor remoting geometry, as well as the relationship between gas flow parameters and remoted thermal sensor signal for both compressed air and helium gas. Based upon the results of these experiments, the sensor remoting geometry was optimized for this application. The resultant volumetric flow rangeability was 155:1. The associated temperature increase at the sensor position was 9/sup 0/C above ambient (25/sup 0/F) at a flowing temperature of 350/sup 0/C. The volumetric flow accuracy was measured over the entire 155:1 flow range at parametric values of flowing density. A volumetric flow accuracy of +- % of reading was demonstrated.

  8. Arabidopsis microRNA expression regulation in a wide range of abiotic stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Barciszewska-Pacak, Maria; Milanowska, Kaja; Knop, Katarzyna; Bielewicz, Dawid; Nuc, Przemyslaw; Plewka, Patrycja; Pacak, Andrzej M.; Vazquez, Franck; Karlowski, Wojciech; Jarmolowski, Artur; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis microRNA expression regulation was studied in a wide array of abiotic stresses such as drought, heat, salinity, copper excess/deficiency, cadmium excess, and sulfur deficiency. A home-built RT-qPCR mirEX platform for the amplification of 289 Arabidopsis microRNA transcripts was used to study their response to abiotic stresses. Small RNA sequencing, Northern hybridization, and TaqMan® microRNA assays were performed to study the abundance of mature microRNAs. A broad response on the level of primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) was observed. However, stress response at the level of mature microRNAs was rather confined. The data presented show that in most instances, the level of a particular mature miRNA could not be predicted based on the level of its pri-miRNA. This points to an essential role of posttranscriptional regulation of microRNA expression. New Arabidopsis microRNAs responsive to abiotic stresses were discovered. Four microRNAs: miR319a/b, miR319b.2, and miR400 have been found to be responsive to several abiotic stresses and thus can be regarded as general stress-responsive microRNA species. PMID:26089831

  9. A Graphene-Based Resistive Pressure Sensor with Record-High Sensitivity in a Wide Pressure Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, He; Shu, Yi; Wang, Xue-Feng; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Bie, Zhi; Xie, Qian-Yi; Li, Cheng; Mi, Wen-Tian; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2015-02-01

    Pressure sensors are a key component in electronic skin (e-skin) sensing systems. Most reported resistive pressure sensors have a high sensitivity at low pressures (<5 kPa) to enable ultra-sensitive detection. However, the sensitivity drops significantly at high pressures (>5 kPa), which is inadequate for practical applications. For example, actions like a gentle touch and object manipulation have pressures below 10 kPa, and 10-100 kPa, respectively. Maintaining a high sensitivity in a wide pressure range is in great demand. Here, a flexible, wide range and ultra-sensitive resistive pressure sensor with a foam-like structure based on laser-scribed graphene (LSG) is demonstrated. Benefitting from the large spacing between graphene layers and the unique v-shaped microstructure of the LSG, the sensitivity of the pressure sensor is as high as 0.96 kPa-1 in a wide pressure range (0 ~ 50 kPa). Considering both sensitivity and pressure sensing range, the pressure sensor developed in this work is the best among all reported pressure sensors to date. A model of the LSG pressure sensor is also established, which agrees well with the experimental results. This work indicates that laser scribed flexible graphene pressure sensors could be widely used for artificial e-skin, medical-sensing, bio-sensing and many other areas.

  10. Construct Validity of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence and Wide Range Intelligence Test: Convergent and Structural Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.; Konold, Timothy R.; Collins, Jason M.; Wilson, Greg

    2009-01-01

    The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; Psychological Corporation, 1999) and the Wide Range Intelligence Test (WRIT; Glutting, Adams, & Sheslow, 2000) are two well-normed brief measures of general intelligence with subtests purportedly assessing verbal-crystallized abilities and nonverbal-fluid-visual abilities. With a sample of 152…

  11. Compelling Self-Authored Computer Material for Wide-Ranging English as a Second Language (ESL) Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uram, Andrea

    An application of the self-authoring component of commercial software programs is described that can be used effectively in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classrooms whose students have a wide range of literacy skills. The programs described, DOUBLE UP and RHUBARB, are in the form of a puzzle that helps students to practice reconstructing…

  12. A Graphene-Based Resistive Pressure Sensor with Record-High Sensitivity in a Wide Pressure Range

    PubMed Central

    Tian, He; Shu, Yi; Wang, Xue-Feng; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Bie, Zhi; Xie, Qian-Yi; Li, Cheng; Mi, Wen-Tian; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Pressure sensors are a key component in electronic skin (e-skin) sensing systems. Most reported resistive pressure sensors have a high sensitivity at low pressures (<5 kPa) to enable ultra-sensitive detection. However, the sensitivity drops significantly at high pressures (>5 kPa), which is inadequate for practical applications. For example, actions like a gentle touch and object manipulation have pressures below 10 kPa, and 10–100 kPa, respectively. Maintaining a high sensitivity in a wide pressure range is in great demand. Here, a flexible, wide range and ultra-sensitive resistive pressure sensor with a foam-like structure based on laser-scribed graphene (LSG) is demonstrated. Benefitting from the large spacing between graphene layers and the unique v-shaped microstructure of the LSG, the sensitivity of the pressure sensor is as high as 0.96 kPa−1 in a wide pressure range (0 ~ 50 kPa). Considering both sensitivity and pressure sensing range, the pressure sensor developed in this work is the best among all reported pressure sensors to date. A model of the LSG pressure sensor is also established, which agrees well with the experimental results. This work indicates that laser scribed flexible graphene pressure sensors could be widely used for artificial e-skin, medical-sensing, bio-sensing and many other areas. PMID:25721159

  13. A Modified Johnson-Cook Model for Advanced High-Strength Steels Over a Wide Range of Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qingdong, Zhang; Qiang, Cao; Xiaofeng, Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) is widely used in automotive industry. In order to investigate the mechanical behaviors of AHSS over a wide range of temperatures, quasi-static tensile experiments were conducted at the temperatures from 298 to 1073 K on a Gleeble-3500 thermo-simulation machine. The results show that flow behaviors are affected by testing temperature significantly. In order to describe the flow features of AHSS, the Johnson-Cook (JC) model is employed. By introducing polynomial functions to consider the effects of temperature on hardening behavior, the JC model is modified and used to predict flow behavior of AHSS at different experimental conditions. The accuracy of the modified JC model is verified and the predicted flow stress is in good agreement with experimental results, which confirms that the modified JC model can give an accurate and precise estimate over a wide range of temperatures.

  14. Low-voltage, wide-range, current-controlled DC current generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, M.; Hart, B. L.; Hayatleh, K.; Lidgey, F. J.

    2011-08-01

    Operating from a 1 V rail supply, a proposed CMOS current-controlled DC current generator can function as a repeater, attenuator or amplifier over the input current range, 1 µA to 1 mA, with a current-transfer ratio accuracy better than 1% using IBM technology, characterised by a process with a 0.13 µm minimum feature size. In repeater mode, the incremental output resistance exceeds 30 MΩ for an output current of 500 µA at an output voltage of 0.20 V, and exceeds 1 MΩ for an output current of 1 mA at an output voltage of 0.22 V. For zero input current, the circuit dissipation is 117 µW.

  15. Direct Chemical Vapor Deposition-Derived Graphene Glasses Targeting Wide Ranged Applications.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingyu; Chen, Yubin; Priydarshi, Manish Kr; Chen, Zhang; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Zou, Zhiyu; Chen, Zhaolong; Song, Xiuju; Gao, Yanfeng; Rümmeli, Mark H; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan

    2015-09-01

    Direct growth of graphene on traditional glasses is of great importance for various daily life applications. We report herein the catalyst-free atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition approach to directly synthesizing large-area, uniform graphene films on solid glasses. The optical transparency and sheet resistance of such kinds of graphene glasses can be readily adjusted together with the experimentally tunable layer thickness of graphene. More significantly, these graphene glasses find a broad range of real applications by enabling the low-cost construction of heating devices, transparent electrodes, photocatalytic plates, and smart windows. With a practical scalability, the present work will stimulate various applications of transparent, electrically and thermally conductive graphene glasses in real-life scenarios. PMID:26305883

  16. High-performance, wide-magnification-range IR zoom telescope with automatic compensation for temperature effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shechterman, Mark S.

    1991-04-01

    A high performance IR zoom telescope with a 15:1 magnification ratio arid fully automatic compensation for changes in optical properties caused by changes in temperature has been developed. This novel IR zoom telescope is characterized by using of three moveable optical element groups, instead of two usually used. Magnification change in it is performed by moving these three optical groups in a predetermined manner with respect to two stationary lens elements. The positioning of the three movable lens groups is controlled by means of a computerized program. The required magnification and the measured system temperature comprise the inputs to the program. The main advantages of this new telescope design relative to existing IR zoom telescopes are: better MTF performance, reduced sensitivity of optical performance to temperature changes, small number of lenses, wider magnification range and high optical transmission.

  17. VLSI Potentiostat Array With Oversampling Gain Modulation for Wide-Range Neurotransmitter Sensing.

    PubMed

    Stanacevic, M; Murari, K; Rege, A; Cauwenberghs, G; Thakor, N V

    2007-03-01

    A 16-channel current-measuring very large-scale integration (VLSI) sensor array system for highly sensitive electrochemical detection of electroactive neurotransmiters like dopamine and nitric-oxide is presented. Each channel embeds a current integrating potentiostat within a switched-capacitor first-order single-bit delta-sigma modulator implementing an incremental analog-to-digital converter. The duty-cycle modulation of current feedback in the delta-sigma loop together with variable oversampling ratio provide a programmable digital range selection of the input current spanning over six orders of magnitude from picoamperes to microamperes. The array offers 100-fA input current sensitivity at 3.4-muW power consumption per channel. The operation of the 3 mm times3 mm chip fabricated in 0.5-mum CMOS technology is demonstrated with real-time multichannel acquisition of neurotransmitter concentration. PMID:23851522

  18. Method for predicting the fracture toughness of pipeline steels within a wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, A. A.

    2015-03-01

    Eight pipeline steels in the as-is state are studied. A linear relation between yield strength σ0.2 and Brinell hardness HB is found within the temperature range 77 ≤ T ≤ 293 K. A technique is developed to predict the hardness at low temperatures from HB 293 at room temperature. A generalized relationship between K Ic , T / K Ic , 243 and HB T / HB 243 ( K Ic , T and HB T are the fracture toughness and the Brinell hardness at any temperature, respectively, K Ic , 243 and HB 243 are the same at the phase-transition temperature (243 K)) is found. This relationship is used to propose a new fast method for estimating the fracture toughness of pipeline steels from the results of testing standard small samples in liquid nitrogen.

  19. Format transparent, wide range and independent dispersion monitoring method based on four-wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Sheng; He, Sheng; Sun, Simin; Ke, Changjian; Liu, Deming

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we propose an improved all optical chromatic dispersion (CD) monitoring method based on highly nonlinear power transfer function (PTF) provided by four-wave mixing (FWM) in highly nonlinear fibers (HNLFs). This method can be applied for various modulation formats, including on-off keying and advanced multi-level modulation formats, without necessitating any changes of the hardware or software. Furthermore, it can expand the CD monitoring range beyond the limitation of Talbot effects and is insensitive to optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD). These improvements are achieved by optimizing the profile of the PTF curve and utilizing a sweeping tunable dispersion compensator (TDC) in combination with an extremely simple digital signal processing (DSP) to find the zero residual dispersion point. Numerical simulations are then used to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method.

  20. Wide range operation of advanced low NOx aircraft gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. B.; Fiorito, R. J.; Butze, H. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results of an experimental test rig program designed to define and demonstrates techniques which would allow the jet-induced circulation and vortex air blast combustors to operate stably with acceptable emissions at simulated engine idle without compromise to the low NOx emissions under the high-altitude supersonic cruise condition. The discussion focuses on the test results of the key combustor modifications for both the simulated engine idle and cruise conditions. Several range-augmentation techniques are demonstrated that allow the lean-reaction premixed aircraft gas turbine combustor to operate with low NOx emissons at engine cruise and acceptable CO and UHC levels at engine idle. These techniques involve several combinations, including variable geometry and fuel switching designs.

  1. A new AC susceptibility instrument for detecting frequency dependence over a wide range of frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, K.

    2008-12-01

    A unique equipment was developed for measuring low-field AC susceptibility over a frequency spectrum ranging from 10 Hz to 4 kHz. The coil system consists of a primary coil for applying an excitation field, and a set of pickup coils linked in series and wound oppositely for compensation. The number of turns for the primary coil is 6,000 and that for the pickup coils is 4,400, using 0.1 mm thick copper wire, wound around a quartz-glass tube of 36 mm in diameter, allowing to measure conventional 10cc samples. The excitation field is produced by a commercial function generator with two independent outputs, capable of generating sinusoidal current with frequencies of 0 to 10 MHz. A mutual inductor coil is connected in series, to which the wave generator supplies, through the second output, a small current that can be adjusted in phase and magnitude to compensate the out-of-balance of the pickup coils. The resulting signal output voltage is fed to a digital rock-in amplifier. The AC frequency spans practically from 10 Hz to 4 kHz due to the limitation of the lock-in amplifier, but can be swept over the entire range with a constant amplitude of the applied field, which is changeable from 0.4 to 1.0 Oe. The outputs from the lock-in amplifier, in both magnitude and phase, are transferred to a PC to obtain the frequency dependence spectrum of both real and imaginary parts of AC susceptibility. The system calibration was made using a paramagnetic Gd2O3 powder as well as several natural samples that have ever been used for inter-laboratory calibrations.

  2. Range-wide mtDNA phylogeography yields insights into the origins of Asian elephants.

    PubMed

    Vidya, T N C; Sukumar, Raman; Melnick, Don J

    2009-03-01

    Recent phylogeographic studies of the endangered Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) reveal two highly divergent mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages, an elucidation of which is central to understanding the species's evolution. Previous explanations for the divergent clades include introgression of mtDNA haplotypes between ancestral species, allopatric divergence of the clades between Sri Lanka or the Sunda region and the mainland, historical trade of elephants, and retention of divergent lineages due to large population sizes. However, these studies lacked data from India and Myanmar, which host approximately 70 per cent of all extant Asian elephants. In this paper, we analyse mtDNA sequence data from 534 Asian elephants across the species's range to explain the current distribution of the two divergent clades. Based on phylogenetic reconstructions, estimates of times of origin of clades, probable ancestral areas of origin inferred from dispersal-vicariance analyses and the available fossil record, we believe both clades originated from Elephas hysudricus. This probably occurred allopatrically in different glacial refugia, the alpha clade in the Myanmar region and the beta clade possibly in southern India-Sri Lanka, 1.6-2.1Myr ago. Results from nested clade and dispersal-vicariance analyses indicate a subsequent isolation and independent diversification of the beta clade in both Sri Lanka and the Sunda region, followed by northward expansion of the clade. We also find more recent population expansions in both clades based on mismatch distributions. We therefore suggest a contraction-expansion scenario during severe climatic oscillations of the Quaternary, with range expansions from different refugia during warmer interglacials leading to the varying geographical overlaps of the two mtDNA clades. We also demonstrate that trade in Asian elephants has not substantially altered the species's mtDNA population genetic structure. PMID:19019786

  3. Frictional strength of ground dolerite gouge at a wide range of slip rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Jun-ichi; Kanagawa, Kyuichi; Kitajima, Hiroko; Takahashi, Miki; Inoue, Atsuyuki; Hirose, Takehiro; Ando, Jun-ichi; Noda, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a series of rotary-shear friction experiments on ground dolerite gouges, in which the amount of adsorbed moisture increases with grinding time (tgr), at room temperature and humidity, a normal stress of 2 MPa, and constant equivalent slip rates (Veqs) ranging from 20 µm/s to 1.3 m/s. Their frictional strength changed with Veq and tgr in three different ways depending on Veq and the gouge temperature (T). At Veq ≤ 1.3 cm/s, T did not exceed 80°C, and the steady state friction coefficient (μss) ranged from 0.59 to 0.80. μss changes little with Veq, while μss at a given Veq systematically increases with tgr probably due to moisture-adsorbed strengthening of gouges. At Veq = 4 cm/s, T exceeded 100°C, and dehydration of gouges resulted in roughly the same μss values (0.60-0.66) among gouges with different periods of tgr. At Veq ≥ 13 cm/s, T reached 160-500°C, and μss dramatically decreases with Veq to 0.08-0.26 at Veq = 1.3 m/s, while μss at a given Veq systematically decreases with tgr. At these fast Veqs, dehydration of gouges likely occurred too fast for water vapor to completely escape out from the gouge layer. Therefore, faster dehydration at faster Veq possibly resulted in a larger pore pressure increase and lower frictional strength. In addition, because gouges with longer periods of tgr contain larger amounts of adsorbed moisture, they became weaker due to larger increases in pore pressure and hence larger amounts of reduction in frictional strength.

  4. AC electric field induced dielectrophoretic assembly behavior of gold nanoparticles in a wide frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weiyu; Wang, Chunhui; Ding, Haitao; Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we focus on frequency-dependence of pearl chain formations (PCF) of gold nanoparticles driven by AC dielectrophoresis (DEP), especially in a low field-frequency range, where induced double-layer charging effect at ideally polarizable surfaces on particle DEP behavior and surrounding liquid motion need not be negligible. As field frequency varies, grown features of DEP assembly structures ranging from low-frequency non-bridged gap to high-frequency single gold nanoparticle-made nanowires bridging the electrodes are demonstrated experimentally. Specifically, at 10 kHz, a kind of novel channel-like structure with parallel opposing banks is formed at the center of interelectrode gap. In stark contrast, at 1 MHz, thin PCF with diameter of 100 nm is created along the shortest distance of the isolation spacing. Moreover, a particular conductive path of nanoparticle chains is produced at 1 MHz in a DEP device embedded with multiple floating electrodes. A theoretical framework taking into account field-induced double-layer polarization at both the particle/electrolyte and electrode/electrolyte interface is developed to correlate these experimental observations with induced-charge electrokinetic (ICEK) phenomenon. And a RC circuit model is helpful in accounting for the formation of this particular non-bridged channel-like structure induced by a low-frequency AC voltage. As compared to thin PCF formed at high field frequency that effectively short circuits the electrode pair, though it is difficult for complete PCF bridging to occur at low frequency, the non-bridged conducting microstructure has potential to further miniaturize the size of electrode gap fabricated by standard micromachining process and may find useful application in biochemical sensing.

  5. Energy-range relations for hadrons in nuclear matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Range-energy relations for hadrons in nuclear matter exist similarly to the range-energy relations for charged particles in materials. When hadrons of GeV kinetic energies collide with atomic nuclei massive enough, events occur in which incident hadron is stopped completely inside the target nucleus without causing particle production - without pion production in particular. The stoppings are always accompanied by intensive emission of nucleons with kinetic energy from about 20 up to about 400 MeV. It was shown experimentally that the mean number of the emitted nucleons is a measure of the mean path in nuclear matter in nucleons on which the incident hadrons are stopped.

  6. Pea embryonic tissues show common responses to the replication of a wide range of viruses.

    PubMed

    Escaler, M; Aranda, M A; Thomas, C L; Maule, A J

    2000-02-15

    The response of pea embryonic tissues to the replication of a range of different viruses was investigated using in situ hybridization to analyze changes in the expression of two host genes, heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and lipoxygenase (lox1). Excised pea embryos were infected using microprojectile bombardment with a nonseed transmissible strain of Pea seed-borne mosaic potyvirus, or with Pea early browning tobravirus (PEBV), White Clover mosaic potexvirus, or Beet curly top geminivirus. Collectively, these examples represent families of viruses with differing genomic features, differing numbers of genomic components and differing replication strategies. In all cases, there was an induction of hsp70 associated with virus replication and, in most cases, a downregulation of lox1. Hence, either each virus has a direct inducer of these common responses or the induction is indirectly the result of a generic feature of virus infection. By exploiting the bipartite nature of the PEBV genome, the coat protein gene and genes involved in vector transmission were excluded as potential inducers. PMID:10662627

  7. Computer prediction of human thermoregulatory and temperature responses to a wide range of environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiala, D.; Lomas, K. J.; Stohrer, M.

    A mathematical model for predicting human thermal and regulatory responses in cold, cool, neutral, warm, and hot environments has been developed and validated. The multi-segmental passive system, which models the dynamic heat transport within the body and the heat exchange between body parts and the environment, is discussed elsewhere. This paper is concerned with the development of the active system, which simulates the regulatory responses of shivering, sweating, and peripheral vasomotion of unacclimatised subjects. Following a comprehensive literature review, 26 independent experiments were selected that were designed to provoke each of these responses in different circumstances. Regression analysis revealed that skin and head core temperature affect regulatory responses in a non-linear fashion. A further signal, i.e. the rate of change of the mean skin temperature weighted by the skin temperature error signal, was identified as governing the dynamics of thermoregulatory processes in the cold. Verification and validation work was carried out using experimental data obtained from 90 exposures covering a range of steady and transient ambient temperatures between 5°C and 50°C and exercise intensities between 46 W/m2 and 600 W/m2. Good general agreement with measured data was obtained for regulatory responses, internal temperatures, and the mean and local skin temperatures of unacclimatised humans for the whole spectrum of climatic conditions and for different activity levels.

  8. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Enables Gene Transfer and Transsynaptic Tracing in a Wide Range of Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Mundell, Nathan A.; Beier, Kevin T.; Pan, Y. Albert; Lapan, Sylvain W.; Aytürk, Didem Göz; Berezovskii, Vladimir K.; Wark, Abigail R.; Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Bielecki, Jan; Born, Richard T.; Schier, Alexander F.; Cepko, Constance L.

    2015-01-01

    Current limitations in technology have prevented an extensive analysis of the connections among neurons, particularly within nonmammalian organisms. We developed a transsynaptic viral tracer originally for use in mice, and then tested its utility in a broader range of organisms. By engineering the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to encode a fluorophore and either the rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G) or its own glycoprotein (VSV-G), we created viruses that can transsynaptically label neuronal circuits in either the retrograde or anterograde direction, respectively. The vectors were investigated for their utility as polysynaptic tracers of chicken and zebrafish visual pathways. They showed patterns of connectivity consistent with previously characterized visual system connections, and revealed several potentially novel connections. Further, these vectors were shown to infect neurons in several other vertebrates, including Old and New World monkeys, seahorses, axolotls, and Xenopus. They were also shown to infect two invertebrates, Drosophila melanogaster, and the box jellyfish, Tripedalia cystophora, a species previously intractable for gene transfer, although no clear evidence of transsynaptic spread was observed in these species. These vectors provide a starting point for transsynaptic tracing in most vertebrates, and are also excellent candidates for gene transfer in organisms that have been refractory to other methods. PMID:25688551

  9. MRI profiles over very wide concentration ranges: application to swelling of a bentonite clay.

    PubMed

    Dvinskikh, S V; Szutkowski, K; Furó, I

    2009-06-01

    In MRI investigation of soils, clays, and rocks, mainly mobile water is detected, similarly to that in biological and medical samples. However, the spin relaxation properties of water in these materials and/or low water concentration may make it difficult to use standard MRI approaches. Despite these limitations, one can combine MRI techniques developed for solid and liquid states and use independent information on relaxation properties of water, interacting with the material of interest, to obtain true images of both water and material content. We present procedures for obtaining such true density maps and demonstrate their use for studying the swelling of bentonite clay by water. A constant time imaging protocol provides 1D mapping of the clay distribution in regions with clay concentration above 10 vol%. T(1) relaxation time imaging is employed to monitor the clay content down to 10(-3) vol%. Data provided by those two approaches are in good agreement in the overlapping range of concentrations. Covering five orders of magnitude of clay concentration, swelling of sodium-exchanged bentonite clays from pre-compacted pellets into a gel phase is followed in detail. PMID:19233697

  10. MRI profiles over very wide concentration ranges: Application to swelling of a bentonite clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvinskikh, S. V.; Szutkowski, K.; Furó, I.

    2009-06-01

    In MRI investigation of soils, clays, and rocks, mainly mobile water is detected, similarly to that in biological and medical samples. However, the spin relaxation properties of water in these materials and/or low water concentration may make it difficult to use standard MRI approaches. Despite these limitations, one can combine MRI techniques developed for solid and liquid states and use independent information on relaxation properties of water, interacting with the material of interest, to obtain true images of both water and material content. We present procedures for obtaining such true density maps and demonstrate their use for studying the swelling of bentonite clay by water. A constant time imaging protocol provides 1D mapping of the clay distribution in regions with clay concentration above 10 vol%. T1 relaxation time imaging is employed to monitor the clay content down to 10 -3 vol%. Data provided by those two approaches are in good agreement in the overlapping range of concentrations. Covering five orders of magnitude of clay concentration, swelling of sodium-exchanged bentonite clays from pre-compacted pellets into a gel phase is followed in detail.

  11. Development of a Reagentless Biosensor for Inorganic Phosphate, Applicable over a Wide Concentration Range.

    PubMed

    Solscheid, Claudia; Kunzelmann, Simone; Davis, Colin T; Hunter, Jackie L; Nofer, Annie; Webb, Martin R

    2015-08-18

    A fluorescent reagentless biosensor for inorganic phosphate (Pi), based on the E. coli PstS phosphate binding protein, was redesigned to allow measurements of higher Pi concentrations and at low, substoichiometric concentrations of biosensor. This was achieved by weakening Pi binding of the previous biosensor, and different approaches are described that could enable this change in properties. The readout, providing response to the Pi concentration, is delivered by tetramethylrhodamine fluorescence. In addition to two cysteine mutations for rhodamine labeling at positions 17 and 197, the final variant had an I76G mutation in the hinge region between the two lobes that make up the protein. Upon Pi binding, the lobes rotate on this hinge and the mutation on the hinge lowers affinity ∼200-fold, with a dissociation constant now in the tens to hundreds micromolar range, depending on solution conditions. The signal change on Pi binding was up to 9-fold, depending on pH. The suitability of the biosensor for steady-state ATPase assays was demonstrated with low biosensor usage and its advantage in ability to cope with Pi contamination. PMID:26199994

  12. Hydrogen peroxide sensor: Uniformly decorated silver nanoparticles on polypyrrole for wide detection range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nia, Pooria Moozarm; Meng, Woi Pei; Alias, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole (PPy) decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was prepared and used as a nonenzymatic sensor for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection. Polypyrrole was fabricated through electrodeposition, while silver nanoparticles were deposited on polypyrrole by the same technique. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed that the electrodeposited AgNPs were aligned along the PPy uniformly and the mean particle size of AgNPs is around 25 nm. The electrocatalytic activity of AgNPs-PPy-GCE toward H2O2 was studied using chronoamperometry and cyclic voltammetry. The first linear section was in the range of 0.1-5 mM with a limit of detection of 0.115 μmol l-1 and the second linear section was raised to 120 mM with a correlation factor of 0.256 μmol l-1 (S/N of 3). Moreover, the sensor presented excellent stability, selectivity, repeatability and reproducibility. These excellent performances make AgNPs-PPy/GCE an ideal nonenzymatic H2O2 sensor.

  13. Computer prediction of human thermoregulatory and temperature responses to a wide range of environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Fiala, D; Lomas, K J; Stohrer, M

    2001-09-01

    A mathematical model for predicting human thermal and regulatory responses in cold, cool, neutral, warm, and hot environments has been developed and validated. The multi-segmental passive system, which models the dynamic heat transport within the body and the heat exchange between body parts and the environment, is discussed elsewhere. This paper is concerned with the development of the active system, which simulates the regulatory responses of shivering, sweating, and peripheral vasomotion of unacclimatised subjects. Following a comprehensive literature review, 26 independent experiments were selected that were designed to provoke each of these responses in different circumstances. Regression analysis revealed that skin and head core temperature affect regulatory responses in a nonlinear fashion. A further signal, i.e. the rate of change of the mean skin temperature weighted by the skin temperature error signal, was identified as governing the dynamics of thermoregulatory processes in the cold. Verification and validation work was carried out using experimental data obtained from 90 exposures covering a range of steady and transient ambient temperatures between 5 degrees C and 50 degrees C and exercise intensities between 46 W/m2 and 600 W/m2. Good general agreement with measured data was obtained for regulatory responses, internal temperatures, and the mean and local skin temperatures of unacclimatised humans for the whole spectrum of climatic conditions and for different activity levels. PMID:11594634

  14. Predicting the biochemical methane potential of wide range of organic substrates by near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Doublet, J; Boulanger, A; Ponthieux, A; Laroche, C; Poitrenaud, M; Cacho Rivero, J A

    2013-01-01

    The use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as an alternative method to predict the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of a broad range of organic substrates was investigated. A total of 296 samples including most of the substrates treated by anaerobic co-digestion were used for NIRS calibration and validation. The NIRS predictions of the BMP values were satisfactory (Root Mean Square Error = 40 ml CH(4) g(-1) VS(fed); r(2) = 0.85). The integration of the entire substrate diversity in the model remained nevertheless difficult due to the specific organic matter properties of stabilised substrates and the high level of uncertainty of the BMP values. The elaboration of a model restricted to "fresh" substrates allows the practical use of the NIR technique to design and operate anaerobic co-digestion plants. The addition of more samples in the dataset in order to perform local calibrations would probably make the elaboration of a global NIR-model possible. PMID:23196247

  15. KINETIC MODELING OF FUEL EFFECTS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF CHEMISTRY, PROPERTIES, AND SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Bunting, Bruce G; Bunce, Michael; Niak, Chitralkumar; Puduppakkam, Karthik

    2012-01-01

    Kinetic modeling is an important tool for engine design and can also be used for engine tuning and to study response to fuel chemistry and properties before an engine configuration is physically built and tested. Methodologies needed for studying fuel effects include development of fuel kinetic mechanisms for pure compounds, tools for designing surrogate blends of pure compounds that mimic a desired market fuel, and tools for reducing kinetic mechanisms to a size that allows inclusion in complex CFD engine models. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of these tools to reproduce engine results for a series of research diesel fuels using surrogate fuels in an engine and then modeling results with a simple 2 component surrogate blend with physical properties adjusted to vary fuel volatility. Results indicate that we were reasonably successful in mimicking engine performance of real fuels with blends of pure compounds. We were also successful in spanning the range of the experimental data using CFD and kinetic modeling, but further tuning and matching will be needed to exactly match engine performance of the real and surrogate fuels.

  16. Vesicular stomatitis virus enables gene transfer and transsynaptic tracing in a wide range of organisms.

    PubMed

    Mundell, Nathan A; Beier, Kevin T; Pan, Y Albert; Lapan, Sylvain W; Göz Aytürk, Didem; Berezovskii, Vladimir K; Wark, Abigail R; Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Bielecki, Jan; Born, Richard T; Schier, Alexander F; Cepko, Constance L

    2015-08-01

    Current limitations in technology have prevented an extensive analysis of the connections among neurons, particularly within nonmammalian organisms. We developed a transsynaptic viral tracer originally for use in mice, and then tested its utility in a broader range of organisms. By engineering the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to encode a fluorophore and either the rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G) or its own glycoprotein (VSV-G), we created viruses that can transsynaptically label neuronal circuits in either the retrograde or anterograde direction, respectively. The vectors were investigated for their utility as polysynaptic tracers of chicken and zebrafish visual pathways. They showed patterns of connectivity consistent with previously characterized visual system connections, and revealed several potentially novel connections. Further, these vectors were shown to infect neurons in several other vertebrates, including Old and New World monkeys, seahorses, axolotls, and Xenopus. They were also shown to infect two invertebrates, Drosophila melanogaster, and the box jellyfish, Tripedalia cystophora, a species previously intractable for gene transfer, although no clear evidence of transsynaptic spread was observed in these species. These vectors provide a starting point for transsynaptic tracing in most vertebrates, and are also excellent candidates for gene transfer in organisms that have been refractory to other methods. PMID:25688551

  17. Multiphase Flow in Complex Fracture Apertures under a Wide Range of Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel H. Rothman

    2006-12-12

    A better understanding of multiphase flow through fractures requires knowledge of the detailed physics of interfacial flows at the microscopic pore scale. The objective of our project was to develop tools for the simulation of such phenomena. Complementary work was performed by a group led by Dr.~Paul Meakin of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Our focus was on the lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method. In particular, we studied both the statics and dynamics of contact lines where two fluids (wetting and non-wetting) meet solid boundaries. Previous work had noted deficiencies in the way LB methods simulate such interfaces. Our work resulted in significant algorithmic improvements that alleviated these deficiencies. As a result, we were able to study in detail the behavior of the dynamic contact angle in flow through capillary tubes. Our simulations revealed that our LB method reproduces the correct scaling of the dynamic contact angle with respect to velocity, viscosity, and surface tension, without specification of an artificial slip length. Further study allowed us to identify the microscopic origin of the dynamic contact angle in LB methods. These results serve to delineate the range of applicability of multiphase LB methods to flows through complex geometries.

  18. Wide range force feedback for catheter insertion mechanism for use in minimally invasive mitral valve repair surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Roozbeh; Sokhanvar, Saeed; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Dargahi, Javad

    2009-02-01

    Mitral valve regurgitation (MR) is a condition in which heart's mitral valve does not close tightly, which allows blood to leak back into the left atrium. Restoring the dimension of the mitral-valve annulus by percutaneous intervention surgery is a common choice to treat MR. Currently, this kind of open heart annuloplasty surgery is being performed through sternotomy with cardiomyopathy bypass. In order to reduce trauma to the patient and also to eliminate bypass surgery, robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery (MIS) procedure, which requires small keyhole incisions, has a great potential. To perform this surgery through MIS procedure, an accurate computer controlled catheter with wide-range force feedback capabilities is required. There are three types of tissues at the site of operation: mitral leaflet, mitral annulus and left atrium. The maximum allowable applied force to these three types of tissue is totally different. For instance, leaflet tissue is the most sensitive one with the lowest allowable force capacity. For this application, therefore, a wide-range force sensing is highly required. Most of the sensors that have been developed for use in MIS applications have a limited range of sensing. Therefore, they need to be calibrated for different types of tissue. The present work, reports on the design, modeling and simulation of a novel wide-range optical force sensor for measurement of contact pressure between catheter tip and heart tissue. The proposed sensor offers a wide input range with a high resolution and sensitivity over this range. Using Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) technology, this sensor can be microfabricated and integrated with commercially available catheters.

  19. Natural variability of atmospheric temperatures and geomagnetic intensity over a wide range of time scales

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Jon D.

    2002-01-01

    The majority of numerical models in climatology and geomagnetism rely on deterministic finite-difference techniques and attempt to include as many empirical constraints on the many processes and boundary conditions applicable to their very complex systems. Despite their sophistication, many of these models are unable to reproduce basic aspects of climatic or geomagnetic dynamics. We show that a simple stochastic model, which treats the flux of heat energy in the atmosphere by convective instabilities with random advection and diffusive mixing, does a remarkable job at matching the observed power spectrum of historical and proxy records for atmospheric temperatures from time scales of one day to one million years (Myr). With this approach distinct changes in the power-spectral form can be associated with characteristic time scales of ocean mixing and radiative damping. Similarly, a simple model of the diffusion of magnetic intensity in Earth's core coupled with amplification and destruction of the local intensity can reproduce the observed 1/f noise behavior of Earth's geomagnetic intensity from time scales of 1 (Myr) to 100 yr. In addition, the statistics of the fluctuations in the polarity reversal rate from time scales of 1 Myr to 100 Myr are consistent with the hypothesis that reversals are the result of variations in 1/f noise geomagnetic intensity above a certain threshold, suggesting that reversals may be associated with internal fluctuations rather than changes in mantle thermal or magnetic boundary conditions. PMID:11875208

  20. Comparison of impact results for several polymeric composites over a wide range of low impact velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, C. C., Jr.; Portanova, M. A.; Masters, J. E.; Sankar, B. V.; Jackson, Wade C.

    1991-01-01

    Static indentation, falling weight, and ballistic impact tests were conducted in clamped plates made of AS4/3501-6 and IM7/8551-7 prepreg tape. The transversely isotropic plates were nominally 7-mm thick. Pendulum and ballistic tests were also conducted on simply supported plates braided with Celion 12000 fibers and 3501-6 epoxy. The 20 degree braided plates were about 5-mm thick. The impactors had spherical or hemispherical shapes with a 12.7 mm diameter. Residual compression strength and damage size were measured. For a given kinetic energy, damage size was least for IM7/8551-7 and greatest for the braided material. Strengths varied inversely with damage size. For a given damage size, strength loss as a fraction of original strength was least for the braided material and greatest for AS4/3501-6 and IM7/8551-7. Strength loss for IM7/8551-7 and AS4/3501-6 was nearly equal. No significant differences were noticed between damage sizes and residual compression strengths for the static indentation, falling weight, and ballistic tests of AS4/3501-6 and IM7/8551-7. For the braided material, sizes of damage were significantly less and compression strengths were significantly more for the falling weight tests than for the ballistic tests.

  1. Natural variability of atmospheric temperatures and geomagnetic intensity over a wide range of time scales.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Jon D

    2002-02-19

    The majority of numerical models in climatology and geomagnetism rely on deterministic finite-difference techniques and attempt to include as many empirical constraints on the many processes and boundary conditions applicable to their very complex systems. Despite their sophistication, many of these models are unable to reproduce basic aspects of climatic or geomagnetic dynamics. We show that a simple stochastic model, which treats the flux of heat energy in the atmosphere by convective instabilities with random advection and diffusive mixing, does a remarkable job at matching the observed power spectrum of historical and proxy records for atmospheric temperatures from time scales of one day to one million years (Myr). With this approach distinct changes in the power-spectral form can be associated with characteristic time scales of ocean mixing and radiative damping. Similarly, a simple model of the diffusion of magnetic intensity in Earth's core coupled with amplification and destruction of the local intensity can reproduce the observed 1/f noise behavior of Earth's geomagnetic intensity from time scales of 1 (Myr) to 100 yr. In addition, the statistics of the fluctuations in the polarity reversal rate from time scales of 1 Myr to 100 Myr are consistent with the hypothesis that reversals are the result of variations in 1/f noise geomagnetic intensity above a certain threshold, suggesting that reversals may be associated with internal fluctuations rather than changes in mantle thermal or magnetic boundary conditions. PMID:11875208

  2. Range-wide patterns of migratory connectivity in the western sandpiper Calidris mauri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franks, Samantha E.; Norris, D. Ryan; Kyser, T. Kurt; Fernández, Guillermo; Schwarz, Birgit; Carmona, Roberto; Colwell, Mark A.; Sandoval, Jorge Correa; Dondua, Alexey; Gates, H. River; Haase, Ben; Hodkinson, David J.; Jiménez, Ariam; Lanctot, Richard B.; Ortego, Brent; Sandercock, Brett K.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Warnock, Nils; Ydenberg, Ron C.; Lank, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the population dynamics of migratory animals and predicting the consequences of environmental change requires knowing how populations are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle. We used stable isotopes to examine patterns of migratory connectivity across the range of the western sandpiper Calidris mauri. First, we developed a winter isotope basemap from stable-hydrogen (δD), -carbon (δ13C), and -nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes of feathers grown in wintering areas. δD and δ15N values from wintering individuals varied with the latitude and longitude of capture location, while δ13C varied with longitude only. We then tested the ability of the basemap to assign known-origin individuals. Sixty percent of wintering individuals were correctly assigned to their region of origin out of seven possible regions. Finally, we estimated the winter origins of breeding and migrant individuals and compared the resulting empirical distribution against the distribution that would be expected based on patterns of winter relative abundance. For breeding birds, the distribution of winter origins differed from expected only among males in the Yukon-Kuskokwim (Y-K) Delta and Nome, Alaska. Males in the Y-K Delta originated overwhelmingly from western Mexico, while in Nome, there were fewer males from western North America and more from the Baja Peninsula than expected. An unexpectedly high proportion of migrants captured at a stopover site in the interior United States originated from eastern and southern wintering areas, while none originated from western North America. In general, we document substantial mixing between the breeding and wintering populations of both sexes, which will buffer the global population of western sandpipers from the effects of local habitat loss on both breeding and wintering grounds.

  3. Black locust--successful invader of a wide range of soil conditions.

    PubMed

    Vítková, Michaela; Tonika, Jaroslav; Müllerová, Jana

    2015-02-01

    Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia, BL), a species native to North America, has successfully invaded many types of habitats over the world. This study provides an overall assessment of BL soil conditions to determine the range of physical-chemical soil properties it can tolerate. 511 BL stands (for the soil types) and 33 permanent plots (for the soil chemistry) were studied in the Czech Republic. Relationships among different environmental variables (physical-chemical soil properties, vegetation characteristics and habitat conditions) were investigated and variables with the highest effect on species composition were detected. The results were compared with data in the literature for other parts of the secondary and native distributions of this species. This assessment showed that BL is able to tolerate extremely diverse soil physical-chemical conditions, from extremely acid to strongly alkaline, and from medium to highly base saturated soils with a gradient of different subsurface stoniness. Soil nitrate, N mineralization and nitrification rates also varied considerably and the concentrations of exchangeable phosphorus and ammonium were consistently low. N mineralization rate, incubated inorganic nitrogen and nitrates were positively correlated with base saturation and cation exchange capacity. The most common soil types were young soils (Cambisols, Leptosols, Arenosols, and coarsely textured Fluvisols). BL seems to be limited by water supply and soil aeration and prefers well aerated and drained soils, and tolerates desiccation but avoids compact soils and areas where the soils are frequently waterlogged. On steep slopes, BL was less vigorous, stunted and less competitive. By contrast, the tallest BL trees were found on sandy soils in a flat landscape. Number and share of nitrophytes in the herb layer were positively related to basic bedrock, soil reaction and N-NO3/N ratio. Soil reaction was determined as the most important environmental characteristic

  4. Assessing ecological specialization of an ant-seed dispersal mutualism through a wide geographic range.

    PubMed

    Manzaneda, Antonio J; Rey, Pedro J

    2009-11-01

    Specialization in species interactions is of central importance for understanding the ecological structure and evolution of plant-animal mutualisms. Most plant-animal mutualisms are facultative and strongly asymmetric. In particular, myrmecochory (seed dispersal by ants) has been regarded as a very generalized interaction. Although some recent studies have suggested that only a few ant species are really important for dispersal, no rigorous measurement of the specialization in ant-seed dispersal mutualisms has been performed. Here, we use individual plants as basic units for replication to investigate the generalization-specialization of the herb Helleborus foetidus on its ant dispersers over a considerable part of its geographical range. We define generalization in terms of diversity components (species richness and evenness) of the ant visitor that realizes dispersal by removing diaspores. We obtain truly comparable values of ant visitor diversity, distinguishing among different functional groups of visitors and identifying incidental visitors and real ant dispersers. Using null model approaches, we test the null hypothesis that ant-mediated dispersal is a generalized mutualism. At least two premises should be confirmed to validate the hypothesis: (1) diaspores are dispersed by multiple ant-visitor species, and (2) diaspore dispersal is significantly equitable. Though up to 37 ant species visited diaspores across 10 populations, only two large formicines, Camponotus cruentatus and Formica lugubris, were responsible for the vast majority of visits resulting in dispersal in most populations and years, which strongly suggests that ant seed dispersal in H. foetidus is ecologically specialized. Interestingly, specialization degree was unrelated to dispersal success across populations. Our study offers new insights into the spatiotemporal dynamics of myrmecochory. We propose the existence of an alternative scenario to extensive generalization. In this new scenario

  5. Quadrupedal galloping control for a wide range of speed via vertical impulse scaling.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Won; Kim, Sangbae

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a bio-inspired quadruped controller that allows variable-speed galloping. The controller design is inspired by observations from biological runners. Quadrupedal animals increase the vertical impulse that is generated by ground reaction forces at each stride as running speed increases and the duration of each stance phase reduces, whereas the swing phase stays relatively constant. Inspired by this observation, the presented controller estimates the required vertical impulse at each stride by applying the linear momentum conservation principle in the vertical direction and prescribes the ground reaction forces at each stride. The design process begins with deriving a planar model from the MIT Cheetah 2 robot. A baseline periodic limit cycle is obtained by optimizing ground reaction force profiles and the temporal gait pattern (timing and duration of gait phases). To stabilize the optimized limit cycle, the obtained limit cycle is converted to a state feedback controller by representing the obtained ground reaction force profiles as functions of the state variable, which is monotonically increasing throughout the gait, adding impedance control around the height and pitch trajectories of the obtained limit cycle and introducing a finite state machine and a pattern stabilizer to enforce the optimized gait pattern. The controller that achieves a stable 3 m s(-1) gallop successfully adapts the speed change by scaling the vertical ground reaction force to match the momentum lost by gravity and adding a simple speed controller that controls horizontal speed. Without requiring additional gait optimization processes, the controller achieves galloping at speeds ranging from 3 m s(-1) to 14.9 m s(-1) while respecting the torque limit of the motor used in the MIT Cheetah 2 robot. The robustness of the controller is verified by demonstrating stable running during various disturbances, including 1.49 m step down and 0.18 m step up, as well as random ground

  6. Dramatic performance of Clostridium thermocellum explained by its wide range of cellulase modalities

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qi; Resch, Michael G.; Podkaminer, Kara; Yang, Shihui; Baker, John O.; Donohoe, Bryon S.; Wilson, Charlotte; Klingeman, Dawn M.; Olson, Daniel G.; Decker, Stephen R.; Giannone, Richard J.; Hettich, Robert L.; Brown, Steven D.; Lynd, Lee R.; Bayer, Edward A.; Himmel, Michael E.; Bomble, Yannick J.

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is the most efficient microorganism for solubilizing lignocellulosic biomass known to date. Its high cellulose digestion capability is attributed to efficient cellulases consisting of both a free-enzyme system and a tethered cellulosomal system wherein carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) are organized by primary and secondary scaffoldin proteins to generate large protein complexes attached to the bacterial cell wall. This study demonstrates that C. thermocellum also uses a type of cellulosomal system not bound to the bacterial cell wall, called the “cell-free” cellulosomal system. The cell-free cellulosome complex can be seen as a “long range cellulosome” because it can diffuse away from the cell and degrade polysaccharide substrates remotely from the bacterial cell. The contribution of these two types of cellulosomal systems in C. thermocellum was elucidated by characterization of mutants with different combinations of scaffoldin gene deletions. The primary scaffoldin, CipA, was found to play the most important role in cellulose degradation by C. thermocellum, whereas the secondary scaffoldins have less important roles. Additionally, the distinct and efficient mode of action of the C. thermocellum exoproteome, wherein the cellulosomes splay or divide biomass particles, changes when either the primary or secondary scaffolds are removed, showing that the intact wild-type cellulosomal system is necessary for this essential mode of action. This new transcriptional and proteomic evidence shows that a functional primary scaffoldin plays a more important role compared to secondary scaffoldins in the proper regulation of CAZyme genes, cellodextrin transport, and other cellular functions. PMID:26989779

  7. Wide-Band Spatially Tunable Photonic Bandgap in Visible Spectral Range and Laser based on a Polymer Stabilized Blue Phase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-De; Wang, Tsai-Yen; Mo, Ting-Shan; Huang, Shuan-Yu; Lee, Chia-Rong

    2016-01-01

    This work successfully develops a largely-gradient-pitched polymer-stabilized blue phase (PSBP) photonic bandgap (PBG) device with a wide-band spatial tunability in nearly entire visible region within a wide blue phase (BP) temperature range including room temperature. The device is fabricated based on the reverse diffusion of two injected BP-monomer mixtures with a low and a high chiral concentrations and afterwards through UV-curing. This gradient-pitched PSBP can show a rainbow-like reflection appearance in which the peak wavelength of the PBG can be spatially tuned from the blue to the red regions at room temperature. The total tuning spectral range for the cell is as broad as 165 nm and covers almost the entire visible region. Based on the gradient-pitched PSBP, a spatially tunable laser is also demonstrated in this work. The temperature sensitivity of the lasing wavelength for the laser is negatively linear and approximately -0.26 nm/°C. The two devices have a great potential for use in applications of photonic devices and displays because of their multiple advantages, such as wide-band tunability, wide operated temperature range, high stability and reliability, no issue of hysteresis, no need of external controlling sources, and not slow tuning speed (mechanically). PMID:27456475

  8. Wide-Band Spatially Tunable Photonic Bandgap in Visible Spectral Range and Laser based on a Polymer Stabilized Blue Phase

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jia-De; Wang, Tsai-Yen; Mo, Ting-Shan; Huang, Shuan-Yu; Lee, Chia-Rong

    2016-01-01

    This work successfully develops a largely-gradient-pitched polymer-stabilized blue phase (PSBP) photonic bandgap (PBG) device with a wide-band spatial tunability in nearly entire visible region within a wide blue phase (BP) temperature range including room temperature. The device is fabricated based on the reverse diffusion of two injected BP-monomer mixtures with a low and a high chiral concentrations and afterwards through UV-curing. This gradient-pitched PSBP can show a rainbow-like reflection appearance in which the peak wavelength of the PBG can be spatially tuned from the blue to the red regions at room temperature. The total tuning spectral range for the cell is as broad as 165 nm and covers almost the entire visible region. Based on the gradient-pitched PSBP, a spatially tunable laser is also demonstrated in this work. The temperature sensitivity of the lasing wavelength for the laser is negatively linear and approximately −0.26 nm/°C. The two devices have a great potential for use in applications of photonic devices and displays because of their multiple advantages, such as wide-band tunability, wide operated temperature range, high stability and reliability, no issue of hysteresis, no need of external controlling sources, and not slow tuning speed (mechanically). PMID:27456475

  9. Wide-Band Spatially Tunable Photonic Bandgap in Visible Spectral Range and Laser based on a Polymer Stabilized Blue Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jia-De; Wang, Tsai-Yen; Mo, Ting-Shan; Huang, Shuan-Yu; Lee, Chia-Rong

    2016-07-01

    This work successfully develops a largely-gradient-pitched polymer-stabilized blue phase (PSBP) photonic bandgap (PBG) device with a wide-band spatial tunability in nearly entire visible region within a wide blue phase (BP) temperature range including room temperature. The device is fabricated based on the reverse diffusion of two injected BP-monomer mixtures with a low and a high chiral concentrations and afterwards through UV-curing. This gradient-pitched PSBP can show a rainbow-like reflection appearance in which the peak wavelength of the PBG can be spatially tuned from the blue to the red regions at room temperature. The total tuning spectral range for the cell is as broad as 165 nm and covers almost the entire visible region. Based on the gradient-pitched PSBP, a spatially tunable laser is also demonstrated in this work. The temperature sensitivity of the lasing wavelength for the laser is negatively linear and approximately ‑0.26 nm/°C. The two devices have a great potential for use in applications of photonic devices and displays because of their multiple advantages, such as wide-band tunability, wide operated temperature range, high stability and reliability, no issue of hysteresis, no need of external controlling sources, and not slow tuning speed (mechanically).

  10. Automatic Generation of Wide Dynamic Range Image without Pseudo-Edge Using Integration of Multi-Steps Exposure Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migiyama, Go; Sugimura, Atsuhiko; Osa, Atsushi; Miike, Hidetoshi

    Recently, digital cameras are offering technical advantages rapidly. However, the shot image is different from the sight image generated when that scenery is seen with the naked eye. There are blown-out highlights and crushed blacks in the image that photographed the scenery of wide dynamic range. The problems are hardly generated in the sight image. These are contributory cause of difference between the shot image and the sight image. Blown-out highlights and crushed blacks are caused by the difference of dynamic range between the image sensor installed in a digital camera such as CCD and CMOS and the human visual system. Dynamic range of the shot image is narrower than dynamic range of the sight image. In order to solve the problem, we propose an automatic method to decide an effective exposure range in superposition of edges. We integrate multi-step exposure images using the method. In addition, we try to erase pseudo-edges using the process to blend exposure values. Afterwards, we get a pseudo wide dynamic range image automatically.

  11. Kinematics of flap-bounding flight in the zebra finch over a wide range of speeds

    PubMed

    Tobalske; Peacock; Dial

    1999-07-01

    It has been proposed elsewhere that flap-bounding, an intermittent flight style consisting of flapping phases interspersed with flexed-wing bounds, should offer no savings in average mechanical power relative to continuous flapping unless a bird flies 1.2 times faster than its maximum range speed (Vmr). Why do some species use intermittent bounds at speeds slower than 1.2Vmr? The 'fixed-gear hypothesis' suggests that flap-bounding is used to vary mean power output in small birds that are otherwise constrained by muscle physiology and wing anatomy to use a fixed muscle shortening velocity and pattern of wing motion at all flight speeds; the 'body-lift hypothesis' suggests that some weight support during bounds could make flap-bounding flight aerodynamically advantageous in comparison with continuous flapping over most forward flight speeds. To test these predictions, we studied high-speed film recordings (300 Hz) of wing and body motion in zebra finches (Taenopygia guttata, mean mass 13.2 g, N=4) taken as the birds flew in a variable-speed wind tunnel (0-14 m s-1). The zebra finches used flap-bounding flight at all speeds, so their flight style was unique compared with that of birds that facultatively shift from continuous flapping or flap-gliding at slow speeds to flap-bounding at fast speeds. There was a significant effect of flight speed on all measured aspects of wing motion except percentage of the wingbeat spent in downstroke. Changes in angular velocity of the wing indicated that contractile velocity in the pectoralis muscle changed with flight speed, which is not consistent with the fixed-gear hypothesis. Although variation in stroke-plane angle relative to the body, pronation angle of the wing and wing span at mid-upstroke showed that the zebra finch changed within-wingbeat geometries according to speed, a vortex-ring gait with a feathered upstroke appeared to be the only gait used during flapping. In contrast, two small species that use continuous flapping

  12. Range fluctuations of high energy muons passing through matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minorikawa, Y.; Mitsui, K.

    1985-01-01

    The information about energy spectrum of sea level muons at high energies beyond magnetic spectrographs can be obtained from the underground intensity measurements if the fluctuations problems are solved. The correction factor R for the range fluctuations of high energy muons were calculated by analytical method of Zatsepin, where most probable energy loss parameter are used. It is shown that by using the R at great depth together with the slope, lambda, of the vertical depth-intensity (D-I) curve in the form of exp(-t/lambda), the spectral index, gamma, in the power law energy spectrum of muons at sea level can be obtained.

  13. Kinetics of Heterogeneous Reaction of CaCO3 Particles with Gaseous HNO3 Over a Wide Range of Humidity

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yong; Gibson, Elizabeth R.; Cain, Jeremy P.; Wang, Hai; Grassian, Vicki H.; Laskin, Alexander

    2008-02-21

    Heterogeneous reaction kinetics of gaseous nitric acid (HNO3) with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles was investigated using the Particle-on-Substrate Stagnation Flow Reactor (PS-SFR). The technique utilizes the exposure of substrate deposited, isolated, and narrowly dispersed particles to a gas mixture of HNO3/H2O/N2 followed by microanalysis of individual reacted particles using computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (CCSEM/EDX). The first series of experiment was conducted at atmospheric pressure, room temperature and constant relative humidity (40%) with a median dry particle diameter pD = 0.85 μm, particle loading densities 2×104 ≤ Ns ≤ 6×106 cm–2 and free stream HNO3 concentrations of 7, 14 and 25 ppb. The apparent, pseudo first-order rate constant for the reaction was determined from oxygen enrichment in individual particles as a function of particle loading. Quantitative treatment of the data using a diffusion-kinetic model yields lower limit to the net reaction probability γnet ≥ 0.06 (×3/÷2). In the second series of experiments, HNO3 uptake on CaCO3 of the same particle size was examined over a wide range of relative humidity, from 10 to 80%. The lower limit for the net reaction probability was found to increase with an increase in the relative humidity, from γnet ≥ 0.003 at RH = 10% to 0.21 at 80%.

  14. Pyrolysis of waste materials: Characterization and prediction of sorption potential across a wide range of mineral contents and pyrolysis temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kah, Melanie; Sun, Huichao; Sigmund, Gabriel; Hüffer, Thorsten; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-08-01

    Sewage sludge (50% mineral), manure (29%) and wood (<1%) were pyrolyzed at 200, 350 and 500°C with the aim to study the characteristics and sorption potential of materials undergoing pyrolysis across a wide range of mineral contents. A commercial plant-derived biochar (41% mineral) was also considered. The materials were extensively characterized and tested for their sorption towards the model sorbates benzene, naphthalene and pyrene. Plant-derived materials, regardless of their mineral content, developed micropores causing size exclusion of pyrene. Changes in properties and sorption behavior upon pyrolysis were generally consistent for the manure and wood series. A single regression equation developed on our data (including the sorbate hydrophobicity and sorbent polarity) provided excellent prediction of previously reported changes in sorption upon pyrolysis across a wide range of mineral content (up to 500°C). The sewage sludge series, however, followed a particular behavior, possibly due to very high mineral content (up to 67%). PMID:27136609

  15. A wide spectral range single-photon avalanche diode fabricated in an advanced 180 nm CMOS technology.

    PubMed

    Mandai, Shingo; Fishburn, Matthew W; Maruyama, Yuki; Charbon, Edoardo

    2012-03-12

    We present a single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) with a wide spectral range fabricated in an advanced 180 nm CMOS process. The realized SPAD achieves 20 % photon detection probability (PDP) for wavelengths ranging from 440 nm to 820 nm at an excess bias of 4 V, with 30 % PDP at wavelengths from 520 nm to 720 nm. Dark count rates (DCR) are at most 5 kHz, which is 30 Hz/μm2, at an excess bias of 4V when we measure 10 μm diameter active area structure. Afterpulsing probability, timing jitter, and temperature effects on DCR are also presented. PMID:22418462

  16. Experimental Investigation of Muon-catalyzed dt Fusion in Wide Ranges of D/T Mixture Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Bom, V.R.; Eijk, C.W.E. van; Demin, A.M.; Golubkov, A.N.; Grishechkin, S.K.; Klevtsov, V.G.; Kuryakin, A.V.; Musyaev, R.K.; Perevozchikov, V.V.; Vinogradov, Yu.I.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Zlatoustovskii, S.V.; Demin, D.L.; Filchenkov, V.V.; Grafov, N.N.; Gritsaj, K.I.; Konin, A.D.; Medved', S.V.; Rudenko, A.I.; Yukhimchuk, S.A.

    2005-04-01

    A vast program of the experimental investigation of muon-catalyzed dt fusion was performed on the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research phasotron. Parameters of the dt cycle were obtained in a wide range of the D/T mixture conditions: temperatures of 20-800 K, densities of 0.2-1.2 of the liquid hydrogen density (LHD), and tritium concentrations of 15-86%. In this paper, the results obtained are summarized.

  17. A simple spectroscopic method to determine the degree of dissociation in hydrogen plasmas with wide-range spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y S

    2016-05-01

    A new and simple method for determining the degree of dissociation in hydrogen plasmas is presented. In this method, wide-range spectrum covering from an atomic H-γ line (434.05 nm) to molecular Fulcher-α band (600-640 nm) is measured simultaneously by a wide-range miniature spectrometer. Since the wide-range spectrum measured by the miniature spectrometer is too broadened to resolve respective lines in the Fulcher-α band, a synthetic spectrum method is applied to improve the accuracy in the Q-branch of Fulcher-α band intensity measurement. In order to reduce the influence from other transitions or anomalous P- and R-branch of Fulcher-α spectrum, the Fulcher-α spectra of which vibrational states are higher than 1 (υ ≥ 1) are synthesized using the rotational temperature obtained by the 0-0 Fulcher-α spectrum. The degree of dissociation is determined from the intensity ratio between H-γ line and the synthesized Fulcher-α band spectrum. A comparative study carried out in a volume-produced negative hydrogen ion source shows that the degree of dissociation determined by this method agrees well with the measured values using a spectrometer with high spectral resolution. The present method is expected to be useful to characterize the plasma sources with molecular species since it provides important parameters for understanding neutral particle behaviors. PMID:27250419

  18. Design and fabrication of three-axis accelerometer sensor microsystem for wide temperature range applications using semi-custom process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merdassi, A.; Wang, Y.; Xereas, G.; Chodavarapu, V. P.

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes an integrated CMOS-MEMS inertial sensor microsystem, consisting of a 3-axis accelerometer sensor device and its complementary readout circuit, which is designed to operate over a wide temperature range from - 55°C to 175°C. The accelerometer device is based on capacitive transduction and is fabricated using PolyMUMPS, which is a commercial process available from MEMSCAP. The fabricated accelerometer device is then post-processed by depositing a layer of amorphous silicon carbide to form a composite sensor structure to improve its performance over an extended wide temperature range. We designed and fabricated a CMOS readout circuit in IBM 0.13μm process that interfaces with the accelerometer device to serve as a capacitance to voltage converter. The accelerometer device is designed to operate over a measurement range of +/-20g. The described sensor system allows low power, low cost and mass-producible implementation well suited for a variety of applications with harsh or wide temperature operating conditions.

  19. A simple spectroscopic method to determine the degree of dissociation in hydrogen plasmas with wide-range spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2016-05-01

    A new and simple method for determining the degree of dissociation in hydrogen plasmas is presented. In this method, wide-range spectrum covering from an atomic H-γ line (434.05 nm) to molecular Fulcher-α band (600-640 nm) is measured simultaneously by a wide-range miniature spectrometer. Since the wide-range spectrum measured by the miniature spectrometer is too broadened to resolve respective lines in the Fulcher-α band, a synthetic spectrum method is applied to improve the accuracy in the Q-branch of Fulcher-α band intensity measurement. In order to reduce the influence from other transitions or anomalous P- and R-branch of Fulcher-α spectrum, the Fulcher-α spectra of which vibrational states are higher than 1 (υ ≥ 1) are synthesized using the rotational temperature obtained by the 0-0 Fulcher-α spectrum. The degree of dissociation is determined from the intensity ratio between H-γ line and the synthesized Fulcher-α band spectrum. A comparative study carried out in a volume-produced negative hydrogen ion source shows that the degree of dissociation determined by this method agrees well with the measured values using a spectrometer with high spectral resolution. The present method is expected to be useful to characterize the plasma sources with molecular species since it provides important parameters for understanding neutral particle behaviors.

  20. A comparative study of wide plate behavior of a range of structural steels using the failure assessment diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Bannister, A.C.; Harrison, P.L.

    1995-12-31

    In the field of structural integrity assessments, attention is currently focused on the ability of such methods to conservatively predict the deformation and fracture behavior of structural steels and their weldments. In the current paper, the results of a series of wide plate tests on a range of structural steels are presented and the results assessed in terms of CTOD-strain relationships, BS PD 6493 Levels 2 and 3, and the crack driving force approach. The behavior of the large scale tests and the results of the various analyses are assessed with regard to the stress-strain characteristics of the individual steels. In a second step, the approach is extended to the assessment of a number of wide plate tests comprising welded joints with mismatched strength levels. Over, under and even-matched welded plates are compared with the behavior of normalized and Quenched and Tempered parent plates. The study demonstrates that the behavior of parent material wide plate tests can vary widely depending on the stress-strain characteristics of the material. The different behavior is a result of the consecutive effects of different steel processing conditions, microstructure, yield to tensile strength ratio and strain hardening exponent. These features are also manifested, to a lesser or greater extent, in the results of wide plate tests on welded plates of mismatched strength. Studies on mismatch effects should therefore include equal attention to the stress-strain characteristics of the parent materials as this may, in some circumstances, dominate any effects of weld strength mismatch.

  1. Periodic discrete energy for long-range potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardin, D. P.; Saff, E. B.; Simanek, B.

    2014-12-01

    We consider periodic energy problems in Euclidean space with a special emphasis on long-range potentials that cannot be defined through the usual infinite sum. One of our main results builds on more recent developments of Ewald summation to define the periodic energy corresponding to a large class of long-range potentials. Two particularly interesting examples are the logarithmic potential and the Riesz potential when the Riesz parameter is smaller than the dimension of the space. For these examples, we use analytic continuation methods to provide concise formulas for the periodic kernel in terms of the Epstein Hurwitz Zeta function. We apply our energy definition to deduce several properties of the minimal energy including the asymptotic order of growth and the distribution of points in energy minimizing configurations as the number of points becomes large. We conclude with some detailed calculations in the case of one dimension, which shows the utility of this approach.

  2. A wide linear range Eddy Current Displacement Sensor equipped with dual-coil probe applied in the Magnetic Suspension Flywheel.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jiancheng; Wen, Tong

    2012-01-01

    The Eddy Current Displacement Sensor (ECDS) is widely used in the Magnetic Suspension Flywheel (MSFW) to measure the tiny clearance between the rotor and the magnetic bearings. The linear range of the ECDS is determined by the diameter of its probe coil. Wide clearances must be measured in some new MSFWs recently designed for the different space missions, but the coil diameter is limited by some restrictions. In this paper, a multi-channel ECDS equipped with dual-coil probes is proposed to extend the linear range to satisfy the demands of such MSFWs. In order to determine the best configuration of the dual-coil probe, the quality factors of the potential types of the dual-coil probes, the induced eddy current and the magnetic intensity on the surface of the measuring object are compared with those of the conventional single-coil probe. The linear range of the ECDS equipped with the selected dual-coil probe is extended from 1.1 mm to 2.4 mm under the restrictions without adding any cost for additional compensation circuits or expensive coil materials. The effectiveness of the linear range extension ability and the dynamic response of the designed ECDS are confirmed by the testing and the applications in the MSFW. PMID:23112623

  3. Sensitive and selective analysis of a wide concentration range of IGFBP7 using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Jang, Dae-Ho; Choi, Youngbo; Choi, Yong-Soo; Kim, Sun-Mi; Kwak, Hojung; Shin, Se-Hyun; Hong, Surin

    2014-11-01

    A sensitive method for selectively detecting insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) over a wide range of concentrations based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensing techniques is described. IGFBP7 has been shown to regulate cell proliferation, cell adhesion, cellular senescence, apoptosis, and angiogenesis in several different cancer cell lines. Since the concentration of IGFBP7 can vary widely in the body, determining the precise concentration of IGFBP7 over a wide range of concentrations is important, since it serves as an inducible biomarker for both disease diagnosis and subsequent therapy. The SPR sensing method is based on the selective interaction of IGFBP7 with specific anti-IGFBP7 proteins on a gold thin film, which was covalently bound to the Fc-binding domain of protein G on a mixed self-assembled monolayer composed of DSNHS (S2(CH2)11COO(CH2)2COO-(N-hydroxysuccinimide)) and mercaptoundecanol, and effect of this on changes in the SPR profiles. The limit of detection (LOD) of the SPR biosensor was determined to be 10 ng/ml, which is a reasonable LOD value for biomedical applications. The response is essentially linear in the concentration range of 10-300 ng/ml. The SPR biosensor also shows specificity for IGFBP7 compared to that for biologically relevant interleukin (IL) derivatives including IL4, IL23, IL29, and IFG1. These molecules are also present along with IGFBP7 in the cell culture medium and have the potential to interfere with the analysis. Finally, the level secretion of IGFBP7 from cancer cells detected by the SPR biosensor showed a good correlation with a commercial kit using an IGFBP7 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The findings reported herein indicate that the SPR biosensor for IGFBP7 would be applicable in a wide variety of biomedical fields. PMID:25466460

  4. Readout design for 1×64 quantum dot-in-well photodetector array based on wide dynamic range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Guo, Fangmin

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we studied the readout circuit for high sensitivity 1×64 InGaAs/GaAs/AlAs quantum dot-in-well photodetector array based on wide dynamic range. The improved design capacitor feedback trans-impedance amplifier (CTIA) is researched as a low-noise adaptive gain control (AGC) CTIA readout circuit. The dynamic range and sensitivity of the circuit was greatly increased. Two switches K1 and K2 were used to controlling two capacitors 5pF and 9pF, respectively. Then four integration capacitors (1pF, 6pF, 10pF and 15pF) were obtained. The dynamic range of the circuit was increased 23.5dB. The readout circuit was designed in with the area of 3.6mm×2.9mm in 0.35um CMOS technology.

  5. Optical characterization of SiO2 thin films using universal dispersion model over wide spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franta, Daniel; Nečas, David; Ohlídal, Ivan; Giglia, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    Vacuum evaporated SiO2 thin films are very important in a design and manufacturing of optical devices produced in optics industry. In this contribution a reliable and precise optical characterization of such SiO2 thin films is performed using the combined method of spectrophotometry at normal incidence and variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry applied over spectral range from far IR to extreme UV (0.01-45 eV). This method uses the Universal Dispersion Model based on parametrization of the joint density of states and structural model comprising film defects such as nanometric boundary roughness, inhomogeneity and area non-uniformity. The optical characterization over the wide spectral range provides not only the spectral dependencies of the optical constants of the films within the wide range but, more significantly, it enables their correct and precise determination within the spectral range of interest, i.e. the range of their transparency. Furthermore, measurements in the ranges of film absorption, i. e. phonon excitations in IR and electron excitations in UV, reveal information about the material structure. The results of the optical characterization of the SiO2 thin films prepared on silicon single crystal substrates under various technological conditions are presented in detail for two selected samples. Beside film thicknesses and values of dispersion parameters and spectral dependencies of the optical constants of the SiO2 films, the characterization also enables quantification of film defects and their parameters are presented as well. The results concerning the optical constants of SiO2 films are compared with silica optical constants determined in our earlier studies.

  6. Quantifying the spatial ecology of wide-ranging marine species in the Gulf of California: implications for marine conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Anadón, José Daniel; D'Agrosa, Caterina; Gondor, Anne; Gerber, Leah R

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in systematic establishment of marine protected area (MPA) networks and representative conservation sites. This movement toward networks of no-take zones requires that reserves are deliberately and adequately spaced for connectivity. Here, we test the network functionality of an ecoregional assessment configuration of marine conservation areas by evaluating the habitat protection and connectivity offered to wide-ranging fauna in the Gulf of California (GOC, Mexico). We first use expert opinion to identify representative species of wide-ranging fauna of the GOC. These include leopard grouper, hammerhead sharks, California brown pelicans and green sea turtles. Analyzing habitat models with both structural and functional connectivity indexes, our results indicate that the configuration includes large proportions of biologically important habitat for the four species considered (25-40%), particularly, the best quality habitats (46-57%). Our results also show that connectivity levels offered by the conservation area design for these four species may be similar to connectivity levels offered by the entire Gulf of California, thus indicating that connectivity offered by the areas may resemble natural connectivity. The selected focal species comprise different life histories among marine or marine-related vertebrates and are associated with those habitats holding the most biodiversity values (i.e. coastal habitats); our results thus suggest that the proposed configuration may function as a network for connectivity and may adequately represent the marine megafauna in the GOC, including the potential connectivity among habitat patches. This work highlights the range of approaches that can be used to quantify habitat protection and connectivity for wide-ranging marine species in marine reserve networks. PMID:22163013

  7. Quantifying the Spatial Ecology of Wide-Ranging Marine Species in the Gulf of California: Implications for Marine Conservation Planning

    PubMed Central

    Anadón, José Daniel; D'Agrosa, Caterina; Gondor, Anne; Gerber, Leah R.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in systematic establishment of marine protected area (MPA) networks and representative conservation sites. This movement toward networks of no-take zones requires that reserves are deliberately and adequately spaced for connectivity. Here, we test the network functionality of an ecoregional assessment configuration of marine conservation areas by evaluating the habitat protection and connectivity offered to wide-ranging fauna in the Gulf of California (GOC, Mexico). We first use expert opinion to identify representative species of wide-ranging fauna of the GOC. These include leopard grouper, hammerhead sharks, California brown pelicans and green sea turtles. Analyzing habitat models with both structural and functional connectivity indexes, our results indicate that the configuration includes large proportions of biologically important habitat for the four species considered (25–40%), particularly, the best quality habitats (46–57%). Our results also show that connectivity levels offered by the conservation area design for these four species may be similar to connectivity levels offered by the entire Gulf of California, thus indicating that connectivity offered by the areas may resemble natural connectivity. The selected focal species comprise different life histories among marine or marine-related vertebrates and are associated with those habitats holding the most biodiversity values (i.e. coastal habitats); our results thus suggest that the proposed configuration may function as a network for connectivity and may adequately represent the marine megafauna in the GOC, including the potential connectivity among habitat patches. This work highlights the range of approaches that can be used to quantify habitat protection and connectivity for wide-ranging marine species in marine reserve networks. PMID:22163013

  8. Amorphous effect on the advancing of wide-range absorption and structural-phase transition in γ-In2Se3 polycrystalline layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Ching-Hwa

    2014-04-01

    The exploitation of potential functions in material is crucial in materials research. In this study, we demonstrate a III-VI chalcogenide, polycrystalline γ-In2Se3, which simultaneously possesses the capabilities of thickness-dependent optical gaps and wide-energy-range absorption existed in the polycrystalline layers of γ-In2Se3. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman measurement show a lot of γ-phase nanocrystals contained in the disordered and polycrystalline state of the chalcogenide with medium-range order (MRO). The MRO effects on the γ-In2Se3 layers show thickness-dependent absorption-edge shift and thickness-dependent resistivities. The amorphous effect of MRO also renders a structural-phase transition of γ --> α occurred inside the γ-In2Se3 layer with a heat treatment of about 700°C. Photo-voltage-current (Photo V-I) measurements of different-thickness γ-In2Se3 layers propose a wide-energy-range photoelectric conversion unit ranging from visible to ultraviolet (UV) may be achieved by stacking γ-In2Se3 layers in a staircase form containing dissimilar optical gaps.

  9. Amorphous effect on the advancing of wide-range absorption and structural-phase transition in γ-In2Se3 polycrystalline layers.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ching-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    The exploitation of potential functions in material is crucial in materials research. In this study, we demonstrate a III-VI chalcogenide, polycrystalline γ-In2Se3, which simultaneously possesses the capabilities of thickness-dependent optical gaps and wide-energy-range absorption existed in the polycrystalline layers of γ-In2Se3. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman measurement show a lot of γ-phase nanocrystals contained in the disordered and polycrystalline state of the chalcogenide with medium-range order (MRO). The MRO effects on the γ-In2Se3 layers show thickness-dependent absorption-edge shift and thickness-dependent resistivities. The amorphous effect of MRO also renders a structural-phase transition of γ → α occurred inside the γ-In2Se3 layer with a heat treatment of about 700 °C. Photo-voltage-current (Photo V-I) measurements of different-thickness γ-In2Se3 layers propose a wide-energy-range photoelectric conversion unit ranging from visible to ultraviolet (UV) may be achieved by stacking γ-In2Se3 layers in a staircase form containing dissimilar optical gaps. PMID:24755902

  10. Amorphous effect on the advancing of wide-range absorption and structural-phase transition in γ-In2Se3 polycrystalline layers

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ching-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    The exploitation of potential functions in material is crucial in materials research. In this study, we demonstrate a III-VI chalcogenide, polycrystalline γ-In2Se3, which simultaneously possesses the capabilities of thickness-dependent optical gaps and wide-energy-range absorption existed in the polycrystalline layers of γ-In2Se3. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman measurement show a lot of γ-phase nanocrystals contained in the disordered and polycrystalline state of the chalcogenide with medium-range order (MRO). The MRO effects on the γ-In2Se3 layers show thickness-dependent absorption-edge shift and thickness-dependent resistivities. The amorphous effect of MRO also renders a structural-phase transition of γ → α occurred inside the γ-In2Se3 layer with a heat treatment of about 700°C. Photo-voltage-current (Photo V-I) measurements of different-thickness γ-In2Se3 layers propose a wide-energy-range photoelectric conversion unit ranging from visible to ultraviolet (UV) may be achieved by stacking γ-In2Se3 layers in a staircase form containing dissimilar optical gaps. PMID:24755902

  11. Long-ranged contributions to solvation free energies from theory and short-ranged models.

    PubMed

    Remsing, Richard C; Liu, Shule; Weeks, John D

    2016-03-15

    Long-standing problems associated with long-ranged electrostatic interactions have plagued theory and simulation alike. Traditional lattice sum (Ewald-like) treatments of Coulomb interactions add significant overhead to computer simulations and can produce artifacts from spurious interactions between simulation cell images. These subtle issues become particularly apparent when estimating thermodynamic quantities, such as free energies of solvation in charged and polar systems, to which long-ranged Coulomb interactions typically make a large contribution. In this paper, we develop a framework for determining very accurate solvation free energies of systems with long-ranged interactions from models that interact with purely short-ranged potentials. Our approach is generally applicable and can be combined with existing computational and theoretical techniques for estimating solvation thermodynamics. We demonstrate the utility of our approach by examining the hydration thermodynamics of hydrophobic and ionic solutes and the solvation of a large, highly charged colloid that exhibits overcharging, a complex nonlinear electrostatic phenomenon whereby counterions from the solvent effectively overscreen and locally invert the integrated charge of the solvated object. PMID:26929375

  12. Long-ranged contributions to solvation free energies from theory and short-ranged models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remsing, Richard C.; Liu, Shule; Weeks, John D.

    2016-03-01

    Long-standing problems associated with long-ranged electrostatic interactions have plagued theory and simulation alike. Traditional lattice sum (Ewald-like) treatments of Coulomb interactions add significant overhead to computer simulations and can produce artifacts from spurious interactions between simulation cell images. These subtle issues become particularly apparent when estimating thermodynamic quantities, such as free energies of solvation in charged and polar systems, to which long-ranged Coulomb interactions typically make a large contribution. In this paper, we develop a framework for determining very accurate solvation free energies of systems with long-ranged interactions from models that interact with purely short-ranged potentials. Our approach is generally applicable and can be combined with existing computational and theoretical techniques for estimating solvation thermodynamics. We demonstrate the utility of our approach by examining the hydration thermodynamics of hydrophobic and ionic solutes and the solvation of a large, highly charged colloid that exhibits overcharging, a complex nonlinear electrostatic phenomenon whereby counterions from the solvent effectively overscreen and locally invert the integrated charge of the solvated object.

  13. Kilovoltage energy imaging with a radiotherapy linac with a continuously variable energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D. A.; Hansen, V. N.; Thompson, M. G.; Poludniowski, G.; Niven, A.; Seco, J.; Evans, P. M.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: In this paper, the effect on image quality of significantly reducing the primary electron energy of a radiotherapy accelerator is investigated using a novel waveguide test piece. The waveguide contains a novel variable coupling device (rotovane), allowing for a wide continuously variable energy range of between 1.4 and 9 MeV suitable for both imaging and therapy.Method: Imaging at linac accelerating potentials close to 1 MV was investigated experimentally and via Monte Carlo simulations. An imaging beam line was designed, and planar and cone beam computed tomography images were obtained to enable qualitative and quantitative comparisons with kilovoltage and megavoltage imaging systems. The imaging beam had an electron energy of 1.4 MeV, which was incident on a water cooled electron window consisting of stainless steel, a 5 mm carbon electron absorber and 2.5 mm aluminium filtration. Images were acquired with an amorphous silicon detector sensitive to diagnostic x-ray energies. Results: The x-ray beam had an average energy of 220 keV and half value layer of 5.9 mm of copper. Cone beam CT images with the same contrast to noise ratio as a gantry mounted kilovoltage imaging system were obtained with doses as low as 2 cGy. This dose is equivalent to a single 6 MV portal image. While 12 times higher than a 100 kVp CBCT system (Elekta XVI), this dose is 140 times lower than a 6 MV cone beam imaging system and 6 times lower than previously published LowZ imaging beams operating at higher (4-5 MeV) energies. Conclusions: The novel coupling device provides for a wide range of electron energies that are suitable for kilovoltage quality imaging and therapy. The imaging system provides high contrast images from the therapy portal at low dose, approaching that of gantry mounted kilovoltage x-ray systems. Additionally, the system provides low dose imaging directly from the therapy portal, potentially allowing for target tracking during radiotherapy treatment. There is

  14. Evaluation of a Programmable Voltage-Controlled MEMS Oscillator, Type SiT3701, Over a Wide Temperature Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Semiconductor chips based on MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) technology, such as sensors, transducers, and actuators, are becoming widely used in today s electronics due to their high performance, low power consumption, tolerance to shock and vibration, and immunity to electro-static discharge. In addition, the MEMS fabrication process allows for the miniaturization of individual chips as well as the integration of various electronic circuits into one module, such as system-on-a-chip. These measures would simplify overall system design, reduce parts count and interface, improve reliability, and reduce cost; and they would meet requirements of systems destined for use in space exploration missions. In this work, the performance of a recently-developed MEMS voltage-controlled oscillator was evaluated under a wide temperature range. Operation of this new commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) device was also assessed under thermal cycling to address some operational conditions of the space environment

  15. Preliminary assessment of the ecological risks to wide-ranging wildlife species on the Oak Ridge Reservation. 1996 update

    SciTech Connect

    Sample, B.E.; Hinzman, R.L.; Jackson, B.L.; Baron, L.

    1996-09-01

    More than approximately 50 years of operations, storage, and disposal of wastes generated by the three facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant) has resulted in a mosaic of uncontaminated property and lands that are contaminated to varying degrees. This contaminated property includes source areas and the terrestrial and aquatic habitats down gradient from these source areas. Although the integrator OUs generally contain considerable habitat for biota, the source OUs provide little or no suitable habitat. Historically, ecological risk assessment at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites has focused on species that may be definitively associated with a contaminated area or source OU. Endpoints considered in source OUs include plants, soil/litter invertebrates and processes, aquatic biota found in on-OU sediments and surface waters, and small herbivorous, omnivorous, and vermivorous (i.e., feeding on ground, litter, or soil invertebrates) wildlife. All of these endpoints have limited spatial distributions or home ranges such that numerous individuals or a distinct population can be expected to reside within the boundaries of the source OU. Most analyses are not adequate for large sites with multiple, spatially separated contaminated areas such as the ORR that provide habitat for wide-ranging wildlife species. This report is a preliminary response to a plan for assessing risks to wide-ranging species.

  16. A fully integrated W-band push-push CMOS VCO with low phase noise and wide tuning range.

    PubMed

    Wang, To-Po

    2011-07-01

    A circuit topology suitable for a low-phase-noise wide-tuning-range push-push voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is proposed in this paper. By applying varactors connected between drain and source terminations of the cross-coupled pair, the tuning range is effectively increased and the phase noise is improved. Moreover, a small capacitor is inserted between the VCO core and testing buffer to reduce loading effects on the VCO core. Furthermore, the enhanced second-harmonic output signal is extracted at middle of the varactors, leading to the elimination of RF choke at VCO's second-harmonic output port and a reduced chip size. Based on the proposed architecture, this VCO fabricated in 0.18-μm CMOS exhibits a measured 6.35% tuning range. Operating at a supply voltage of 1.2 V, the VCO core consumes 7.5-mW dc power, and the measured phase noise is -75 dBc/Hz and -91.5 dBc/Hz at 100-kHz and 1-MHz offsets from the 77.8-GHz carrier, respectively. Compared with previously published silicon-based VCOs over 70 GHz, this work can simultaneously achieve low phase noise, wide tuning range, and low dc power consumption, leading to a superior figure of merit (FOM), and better figure of merit considering the tuning range (FOM(T)). In addition, this fully integrated VCO also demonstrates the highest operation frequency among previously published 0.18-μm CMOS VCOs. PMID:21768016

  17. Wide-range controllable n-doping of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) through thermal and optical activation.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung-Youl; Lim, Myung-Hoon; Jeon, Jeaho; Yoo, Gwangwe; Kang, Dong-Ho; Jang, Sung Kyu; Jeon, Min Hwan; Lee, Youngbin; Cho, Jeong Ho; Yeom, Geun Young; Jung, Woo-Shik; Lee, Jaeho; Park, Seongjun; Lee, Sungjoo; Park, Jin-Hong

    2015-03-24

    Despite growing interest in doping two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) for future layered semiconductor devices, controllability is currently limited to only heavy doping (degenerate regime). This causes 2D materials to act as metallic layers, and an ion implantation technique with precise doping controllability is not available for these materials (e.g., MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, WSe2, graphene). Since adjustment of the electrical and optical properties of 2D materials is possible within a light (nondegenerate) doping regime, a wide-range doping capability including nondegenerate and degenerate regimes is a critical aspect of the design and fabrication of 2D TMD-based electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, we demonstrate a wide-range controllable n-doping method on a 2D TMD material (exfoliated trilayer and bulk MoS2) with the assistance of a phosphorus silicate glass (PSG) insulating layer, which has the broadest doping range among the results reported to date (between 3.6 × 10(10) and 8.3 × 10(12) cm(-2)) and is also applicable to other 2D semiconductors. This is achieved through (1) a three-step process consisting of, first, dopant out-diffusion between 700 and 900 °C, second, thermal activation at 500 °C, and, third, optical activation above 5 μW steps and (2) weight percentage adjustment of P atoms in PSG (2 and 5 wt %). We anticipate our widely controllable n-doping method to be a starting point for the successful integration of future layered semiconductor devices. PMID:25692499

  18. Trans-splicing of pre-mRNA is predicted to occur in a wide range of organisms including vertebrates.

    PubMed Central

    Dandekar, T; Sibbald, P R

    1990-01-01

    Several known trans-splicing RNA structures were used to define a canonical trans-splicing structure which was then used to perform a computer search of the EMBL nucleotide database. In addition to most known trans-splicing structures, many putative new trans-splicing sites were detected. These were found in a broad range of organisms including the vertebrates. Control experiments indicate that the search predicts known false positives at a rate of only 20%. Trans-splicing may therefore be a very wide-spread phenomenon. PMID:2395638

  19. Direct measurement high resolution wide range extreme temperature optical sensor using an all-silicon carbide probe.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Mumtaz; Riza, Nabeel A

    2009-05-01

    We propose and demonstrate a temperature sensing method using an all-silicon carbide probe that combines wavelength-tuned signal processing for coarse measurements and classical Fabry-Perot etalon peak shift for fine measurements. This method gives direct unambiguous temperature measurements with a high temperature resolution over a wide temperature range. Specifically, temperature measurements from room temperature to 1000 degrees C are experimentally demonstrated with an estimated resolution varying from 0.66 degrees C at room temperature to 0.12 degrees C at 1000 degrees C. The proposed sensor has applications in next-generation greener gas turbines for power production. PMID:19412286

  20. A High Sensitivity and Wide Dynamic Range Fiber-Optic Sensor for Low-Concentration VOC Gas Detection

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Md. Rajibur Rahaman; Kang, Shin-Won

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a volatile organic compound (VOC) gas sensing system with high sensitivity and a wide dynamic range that is based on the principle of the heterodyne frequency modulation method. According to this method, the time period of the sensing signal shift when Nile Red containing a VOC-sensitive membrane of a fiber-optic sensing element comes into contact with a VOC. This sensing membrane produces strong, fast and reversible signals when exposed to VOC gases. The response and recovery times of the proposed sensing system were less than 35 s, and good reproducibility and accuracy were obtained. PMID:25490592

  1. Optimization of nonimaging focusing heliostat in dynamic correction of astigmatism for a wide range of incident angles.

    PubMed

    Chong, Kok-Keong

    2010-05-15

    To overcome astigmatism has always been a great challenge in designing a heliostat capable of focusing the sunlight on a small receiver throughout the year. In this Letter, a nonimaging focusing heliostat with a dynamic adjustment of facet mirrors in a group manner has been analyzed for optimizing the astigmatic correction in a wide range of incident angles. This what is to the author's knowledge a new heliostat is not only designed to serve the purpose of concentrating sunlight to several hundreds of suns, but also to significantly reduce the variation of the solar flux distribution with the incident angle. PMID:20479826

  2. A 1-channel 3-band wide dynamic range compression chip for vibration transducer of implantable hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongwook; Seong, Kiwoong; Kim, Myoungnam; Cho, Jinho; Lee, Jyunghyun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a digital audio processing chip which uses a wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) algorithm is designed and implemented for implantable hearing aids system. The designed chip operates at a single voltage of 3.3V and drives a 16 bit parallel input and output at 32 kHz sample. The designed chip has 1-channel 3-band WDRC composed of a FIR filter bank, a level detector, and a compression part. To verify the performance of the designed chip, we measured the frequency separations of bands and compression gain control to reflect the hearing threshold level. PMID:24211991

  3. Optical conductivity of warm dense matter within a wide frequency range using quantum statistical and kinetic approaches.

    PubMed

    Veysman, M; Röpke, G; Winkel, M; Reinholz, H

    2016-07-01

    Fundamental properties of warm dense matter are described by the dielectric function, which gives access to the frequency-dependent electrical conductivity; absorption, emission, and scattering of radiation; charged particles stopping; and further macroscopic properties. Different approaches to the dielectric function and the related dynamical collision frequency are compared in a wide frequency range. The high-frequency limit describing inverse bremsstrahlung and the low-frequency limit of the dc conductivity are considered. Sum rules and Kramers-Kronig relation are checked for the generalized linear response theory and the standard approach following kinetic theory. The results are discussed in application to aluminum, xenon, and argon plasmas. PMID:27575226

  4. Optical conductivity of warm dense matter within a wide frequency range using quantum statistical and kinetic approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veysman, M.; Röpke, G.; Winkel, M.; Reinholz, H.

    2016-07-01

    Fundamental properties of warm dense matter are described by the dielectric function, which gives access to the frequency-dependent electrical conductivity; absorption, emission, and scattering of radiation; charged particles stopping; and further macroscopic properties. Different approaches to the dielectric function and the related dynamical collision frequency are compared in a wide frequency range. The high-frequency limit describing inverse bremsstrahlung and the low-frequency limit of the dc conductivity are considered. Sum rules and Kramers-Kronig relation are checked for the generalized linear response theory and the standard approach following kinetic theory. The results are discussed in application to aluminum, xenon, and argon plasmas.

  5. Long-range energy transport in photosystem II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roden, Jan J. J.; Bennett, Doran I. G.; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2016-06-01

    We simulate the long-range inter-complex electronic energy transfer in photosystem II - from the antenna complex, via a core complex, to the reaction center - using a non-Markovian (ZOFE) quantum master equation description that allows the electronic coherence involved in the energy transfer to be explicitly included at all length scales. This allows us to identify all locations where coherence is manifested and to further identify the pathways of the energy transfer in the full network of coupled chromophores using a description based on excitation probability currents. We investigate how the energy transfer depends on the initial excitation - localized, coherent initial excitation versus delocalized, incoherent initial excitation - and find that the overall energy transfer is remarkably robust with respect to such strong variations of the initial condition. To explore the importance of vibrationally enhanced transfer and to address the question of optimization in the system parameters, we systematically vary the strength of the coupling between the electronic and the vibrational degrees of freedom. We find that the natural parameters lie in a (broad) region that enables optimal transfer efficiency and that the overall long-range energy transfer on a ns time scale appears to be very robust with respect to variations in the vibronic coupling of up to an order of magnitude. Nevertheless, vibrationally enhanced transfer appears to be crucial to obtain a high transfer efficiency, with the latter falling sharply for couplings outside the optimal range. Comparison of our full quantum simulations to results obtained with a "classical" rate equation based on a modified-Redfield/generalized-Förster description previously used to simulate energy transfer dynamics in the entire photosystem II complex shows good agreement for the overall time scales of excitation energy transport.

  6. Long range energy transfer in graphene hybrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Hugo; Bernardo, César; Moura, Cacilda; Ferreira, R. A. S.; André, P. S.; Stauber, Tobias; Belsley, Michael; Schellenberg, Peter

    2016-08-01

    In this work we quantify the distance dependence for the extraction of energy from excited chromophores by a single layer graphene flake over a large separation range. To this end hybrid structures were prepared, consisting of a thin (2 nm) layer of a polymer matrix doped with a well chosen strongly fluorescent organic molecule, followed by an un-doped spacer layer of well-defined thicknesses made of the same polymer material and an underlying single layer of pristine, undoped graphene. The coupling strength is assessed through the variation of the fluorescence decay kinetics as a function of distance between the graphene and the excited chromophore molecules. Non-radiative energy transfer to the graphene was observed at distances of up to 60 nm a range much greater than typical energy transfer distances observed in molecular systems.

  7. Using Range-Wide Abundance Modeling to Identify Key Conservation Areas for the Micro-Endemic Bolson Tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus).

    PubMed

    Ureña-Aranda, Cinthya A; Rojas-Soto, Octavio; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Yáñez-Arenas, Carlos; Landgrave Ramírez, Rosario; Espinosa de los Monteros, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    A widespread biogeographic pattern in nature is that population abundance is not uniform across the geographic range of species: most occurrence sites have relatively low numbers, whereas a few places contain orders of magnitude more individuals. The Bolson tortoise Gopherus flavomarginatus is endemic to a small region of the Chihuahuan Desert in Mexico, where habitat deterioration threatens this species with extinction. In this study we combined field burrows counts and the approach for modeling species abundance based on calculating the distance to the niche centroid to obtain range-wide abundance estimates. For the Bolson tortoise, we found a robust, negative relationship between observed burrows abundance and distance to the niche centroid, with a predictive capacity of 71%. Based on these results we identified four priority areas for the conservation of this microendemic and threatened tortoise. We conclude that this approach may be a useful approximation for identifying key areas for sampling and conservation efforts in elusive and rare species. PMID:26115482

  8. Performance of a 100V Half-Bridge MOSFET Driver, Type MIC4103, Over a Wide Temperature Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    The operation of a high frequency, high voltage MOSFET (metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors) driver was investigated over a wide temperature regime that extended beyond its specified range. The Micrel MIC4103 is a 100V, non-inverting, dual driver that is designed to independently drive both high-side and low-side N-channel MOSFETs. It features fast propagation delay times and can drive 1000 pF load with 10ns rise times and 6 ns fall times [1]. The device consumes very little power, has supply under-voltage protection, and is rated for a -40 C to +125 C junction temperature range. The floating high-side driver of the chip can sustain boost voltages up to 100 V. Table I shows some of the device manufacturer s specification.

  9. Using Range-Wide Abundance Modeling to Identify Key Conservation Areas for the Micro-Endemic Bolson Tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus)

    PubMed Central

    Ureña-Aranda, Cinthya A.; Rojas-Soto, Octavio; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Yáñez-Arenas, Carlos; Landgrave Ramírez, Rosario; Espinosa de los Monteros, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    A widespread biogeographic pattern in nature is that population abundance is not uniform across the geographic range of species: most occurrence sites have relatively low numbers, whereas a few places contain orders of magnitude more individuals. The Bolson tortoise Gopherus flavomarginatus is endemic to a small region of the Chihuahuan Desert in Mexico, where habitat deterioration threatens this species with extinction. In this study we combined field burrows counts and the approach for modeling species abundance based on calculating the distance to the niche centroid to obtain range-wide abundance estimates. For the Bolson tortoise, we found a robust, negative relationship between observed burrows abundance and distance to the niche centroid, with a predictive capacity of 71%. Based on these results we identified four priority areas for the conservation of this microendemic and threatened tortoise. We conclude that this approach may be a useful approximation for identifying key areas for sampling and conservation efforts in elusive and rare species. PMID:26115482

  10. Modeling and Simulation of - and Silicon Germanium-Base Bipolar Transistors Operating at a Wide Range of Temperatures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaheed, M. Reaz

    1995-01-01

    to provide consistently accurate values for base sheet resistance for both Si- and SiGe-base transistors over a wide range of temperatures. A model for plasma-induced bandgap narrowing suitable for implementation in a numerical simulator has been developed. The appropriate method of incorporating this model in a drift -diffusion solver is described. The importance of including this model for low temperature simulation is demonstrated. With these models in place, the enhanced simulator has been used for evaluating and designing the Si- and SiGe-base bipolar transistors. Silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors offer significant performance and cost advantages over conventional technologies in the production of integrated circuits for communications, computer and transportation applications. Their high frequency performance at low cost, will find widespread use in the currently exploding wireless communication market. However, the high performance SiGe-base transistors are prone to have a low common-emitter breakdown voltage. In this dissertation, a modification in the collector design is proposed for improving the breakdown voltage without sacrificing the high frequency performance. A comprehensive simulation study of p-n-p SiGe-base transistors has been performed. Different figures of merit such as drive current, current gain, cut -off frequency and Early voltage were compared between a graded germanium profile and an abrupt germanium profile. The differences in the performance level between the two profiles diminishes as the base width is scaled down.

  11. Development of a New DNA Vaccine for Alzheimer Disease Targeting a Wide Range of Aβ Species and Amyloidogenic Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yoh; Niimi, Naoko; Kohyama, Kuniko

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been determined that not only Aβ oligomers, but also other Aβ species and amyloidogenic peptides are neurotoxic in Alzheimer disease (AD) and play a pivotal role in AD pathogenesis. In the present study, we attempted to develop new DNA vaccines targeting a wide range of Aβ species. For this purpose, we first performed in vitro assays with newly developed vaccines to evaluate Aβ production and Aβ secretion abilities and then chose an IgL-Aβx4-Fc-IL-4 vaccine (designated YM3711) for further studies. YM3711 was vaccinated to mice, rabbits and monkeys to evaluate anti-Aβ species antibody-producing ability and Aβ reduction effects. It was found that YM3711 vaccination induced significantly higher levels of antibodies not only to Aβ1-42 but also to AD-related molecules including AβpE3-42, Aβ oligomers and Aβ fibrils. Importantly, YM3711 significantly reduced these Aβ species in the brain of model mice. Binding and competition assays using translated YM3711 protein products clearly demonstrated that a large part of antibodies induced by YM3711 vaccination are directed at conformational epitopes of the Aβ complex and oligomers. Taken together, we demonstrate that YM3711 is a powerful DNA vaccine targeting a wide range of AD-related molecules and is worth examining in preclinical and clinical trials. PMID:24086465

  12. Achieving a Linear Dose Rate Response in Pulse-Mode Silicon Photodiode Scintillation Detectors Over a Wide Range of Excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Lewis

    2014-02-01

    We are developing a new dose calibrator for nuclear pharmacies that can measure radioactivity in a vial or syringe without handling it directly or removing it from its transport shield “pig”. The calibrator's detector comprises twin opposing scintillating crystals coupled to Si photodiodes and current-amplifying trans-resistance amplifiers. Such a scheme is inherently linear with respect to dose rate over a wide range of radiation intensities, but accuracy at low activity levels may be impaired, beyond the effects of meager photon statistics, by baseline fluctuation and drift inevitably present in high-gain, current-mode photodiode amplifiers. The work described here is motivated by our desire to enhance accuracy at low excitations while maintaining linearity at high excitations. Thus, we are also evaluating a novel “pulse-mode” analog signal processing scheme that employs a linear threshold discriminator to virtually eliminate baseline fluctuation and drift. We will show the results of a side-by-side comparison of current-mode versus pulse-mode signal processing schemes, including perturbing factors affecting linearity and accuracy at very low and very high excitations. Bench testing over a wide range of excitations is done using a Poisson random pulse generator plus an LED light source to simulate excitations up to ˜106 detected counts per second without the need to handle and store large amounts of radioactive material.

  13. Wide-range quantification of human thyroid-stimulating hormone using gold-nanopatterned single-molecule sandwich immunoassay chip.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungah; Kang, Seong Ho

    2012-09-15

    We performed wide-range quantification of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (hTSH) using a gold nano-patterned sandwich immunoassay chip. Objective-type total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) was used to detect hTSH at the single-molecule level. A gold spot with a diameter of 100 nm on a 10-mm square glass substrate was fabricated by electron beam nanolithography. When hTSH bound to antibodies conjugated to each 100-nm gold spot, there was an increase in the relative fluorescent intensity (RFI). The detection limit of this "TSH-nanoarray chip" was 360 zM (equivalent to five molecules), which demonstrated that a TSH-nanoarray chip could be used for detection at the single-molecule level. A linear response was observed over a wide dynamic range (from 360 zM to 36 pM, R=0.9812) without a fluorescence quenching effect. A significant enhancement in the sensitivity (~12,000-fold) was achieved with the 100-nm gold nano-patterned chip compared with results obtained using a traditional chemiluminescence immunoassay for the evaluation of TSH in human serum. PMID:22967658

  14. Bobcats ( Lynx rufus) as a Model Organism to Investigate the Effects of Roads on Wide-Ranging Carnivores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvaitis, John A.; Reed, Gregory C.; Carroll, Rory P.; Litvaitis, Marian K.; Tash, Jeffrey; Mahard, Tyler; Broman, Derek J. A.; Callahan, Catherine; Ellingwood, Mark

    2015-06-01

    We are using bobcats ( Lynx rufus) as a model organism to examine how roads affect the abundance, distribution, and genetic structure of a wide-ranging carnivore. First, we compared the distribution of bobcat-vehicle collisions to road density and then estimated collision probabilities for specific landscapes using a moving window with road-specific traffic volume. Next, we obtained incidental observations of bobcats from the public, camera-trap detections, and locations of bobcats equipped with GPS collars to examine habitat selection. These data were used to generate a cost-surface map to investigate potential barrier effects of roads. Finally, we have begun an examination of genetic structure of bobcat populations in relation to major road networks. Distribution of vehicle-killed bobcats was correlated with road density, especially state and interstate highways. Collision models suggested that some regions may function as demographic sinks. Simulated movements in the context of the cost-surface map indicated that some major roads may be barriers. These patterns were supported by the genetic structure of bobcats. The sharpest divisions among genetically distinct demes occurred along natural barriers (mountains and large lakes) and in road-dense regions. In conclusion, our study has demonstrated the utility of using bobcats as a model organism to understand the variety of threats that roads pose to a wide-ranging species. Bobcats may also be useful as one of a group of focal species while developing approaches to maintain existing connectivity or mitigate the negative effects of roads.

  15. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) as a Model Organism to Investigate the Effects of Roads on Wide-Ranging Carnivores.

    PubMed

    Litvaitis, John A; Reed, Gregory C; Carroll, Rory P; Litvaitis, Marian K; Tash, Jeffrey; Mahard, Tyler; Broman, Derek J A; Callahan, Catherine; Ellingwood, Mark

    2015-06-01

    We are using bobcats (Lynx rufus) as a model organism to examine how roads affect the abundance, distribution, and genetic structure of a wide-ranging carnivore. First, we compared the distribution of bobcat-vehicle collisions to road density and then estimated collision probabilities for specific landscapes using a moving window with road-specific traffic volume. Next, we obtained incidental observations of bobcats from the public, camera-trap detections, and locations of bobcats equipped with GPS collars to examine habitat selection. These data were used to generate a cost-surface map to investigate potential barrier effects of roads. Finally, we have begun an examination of genetic structure of bobcat populations in relation to major road networks. Distribution of vehicle-killed bobcats was correlated with road density, especially state and interstate highways. Collision models suggested that some regions may function as demographic sinks. Simulated movements in the context of the cost-surface map indicated that some major roads may be barriers. These patterns were supported by the genetic structure of bobcats. The sharpest divisions among genetically distinct demes occurred along natural barriers (mountains and large lakes) and in road-dense regions. In conclusion, our study has demonstrated the utility of using bobcats as a model organism to understand the variety of threats that roads pose to a wide-ranging species. Bobcats may also be useful as one of a group of focal species while developing approaches to maintain existing connectivity or mitigate the negative effects of roads. PMID:25832342

  16. Smart thorium and uranium determination exploiting renewable solid-phase extraction applied to environmental samples in a wide concentration range.

    PubMed

    Avivar, Jessica; Ferrer, Laura; Casas, Montserrat; Cerdà, Víctor

    2011-07-01

    A smart fully automated system is proposed for determination of thorium and uranium in a wide concentration range, reaching environmental levels. The hyphenation of lab-on-valve (LOV) and multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA), coupled to a long path length liquid waveguide capillary cell, allows the spectrophotometric determination of thorium and uranium in different types of environmental sample matrices achieving high selectivity and sensitivity levels. Online separation and preconcentration of thorium and uranium is carried out by means of Uranium and TEtraValents Actinides resin. The potential of the LOV-MSFIA makes possible the full automation of the system by the in-line regeneration of the column and its combination with a smart methodology is a step forward in automation. After elution, thorium(IV) and uranium(VI) are spectrophotometrically detected after reaction with arsenazo-III. We propose a rapid, inexpensive, and fully automated method to determine thorium(IV) and uranium(VI) in a wide concentration range (0-1,200 and 0-2,000 μg L(-1) Th and U, respectively). Limits of detection reached are 5.9 ηg L(-1) of uranium and 60 ηg L(-1) of thorium. Different water sample matrices (seawater, well water, freshwater, tap water, and mineral water), and a channel sediment reference material which contained thorium and uranium were satisfactorily analyzed with the proposed method. PMID:21573729

  17. Performance Demonstration of Mcmb-LiNiCoO2 Cells Containing Electrolytes Designed for Wide Operating Temperature Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Whicanack, L. D.; Smith, K. A.; Santee, S.; Puglia, F. J.; Gitzendanner, R.

    2009-01-01

    With the intent of improving the performance of Li-ion cells over a wide operating temperature range, we have investigated the use of co-solvents to improve the properties of electrolyte formulations. In the current study, we have focused upon evaluating promising electrolytes which have been incorporated into large capacity (7 Ah) prototype Li-ion cells, fabricated by Yardney Technical Products, Inc. The electrolytes selected for performance evaluation include the use of a number of esters as co-solvents, including methyl propionate (MP), ethyl propionate (EP), ethyl butyrate (EB), propyl butyrate (PB), and 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl butyrate (TFEB). The performance of the prototype cells containing the ester-based electrolytes was compared with an extensive data base generated on cells containing previously developed all carbonate-based electrolytes. A number of performance tests were performed, including determining (i) the discharge rate capacity over a wide range of temperatures, (ii) the charge characteristics, (iii) the cycle life characteristics under various conditions, and (iv) the impedance characteristics.

  18. Development of Superior Sorbents for Separation of CO2 from Flue Gas at a Wide Temperature range during Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Panagiotis Smirniotis

    2002-09-17

    A number basic sorbents based on CaO were synthesized, characterized with novel techniques and tested for sorption of CO{sub 2} and selected gas mixtures simulating flue gas from coal fired boilers. Our studies resulted in highly promising sorbents which demonstrated zero affinity for N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and NO very low affinity for water, ultrahigh CO{sub 2} sorption capacities, and rapid sorption characteristics, CO{sub 2} sorption at a very wide temperature range, durability, and low synthesis cost. One of the 'key' characteristics of the proposed materials is the fact that we can control very accurately their basicity (optimum number of basic sites of the appropriate strength) which allows for the selective chemisorption of CO{sub 2} at a wide range of temperatures. These unique characteristics of this family of sorbents offer high promise for development of advanced industrial sorbents for the effective CO{sub 2} removal.

  19. A-189 dBc/Hz FoMT Wide Tuning Range VCO Using Q-Factor Enhancement Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Faen; Wang, Zhigong; Li, Zhiqun; Li, Qin; Wang, Rong; Yang, Geliang; Li, Zhu

    2015-06-01

    A 28-GHz voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) with a wide tuning range and a low phase noise is presented in this paper. A PMOS-only cross-coupled pair with a lower flicker noise is exploited to provide the negative resistance. The mechanisms for enhancing the Q-factor of the LC tank at millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequencies are analyzed and applied to optimize the proposed VCO design to obtain a low phase noise. To guarantee accurate oscillating frequencies, distributed interconnections are carefully modeled by EM simulations. Fabricated in a standard 90-nm CMOS process, the proposed VCO achieves a wide tuning range of 20.1 %, from 25 to 30.66 GHz and a low phase noise of -105.47 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset. The current of the core circuit is 10.5 mA under a single 1.2-V supply. The core area of the chip is 0.38 mm × 0.24 mm.

  20. A method for evaluating the thrust of a space propulsion device with wide range time variations using a disturbance observer.

    PubMed

    Kakami, Akira; Muto, Takuya; Yano, Yasuyuki; Tachibana, Takeshi

    2015-11-01

    A new method for evaluating thrust with high-frequency variations beyond the resonant frequency using a disturbance observer is presented. Setpoint control is applied to a conventional pendulum-type thrust stand to keep the pendulum at the target position using a solenoid actuator. During control, pendulum acceleration and solenoid-actuator current are measured, and the disturbance observer determines thrust with a wide range of frequency variations. The method allows thrust to be evaluated not only with constant and low-frequency variations, but also with high-frequency variations outside the resonant frequency. A thrust measurement device is prototyped to investigate accuracy over a wide frequency range from 0 to 100 Hz and the effects of the proportional-derivative-integral (PID) controller design. Calibration yields thrust measurement errors of 20% below 90 Hz. PID controller design has a smaller influence on the accuracy of the proposed method than the conventional null-balance method, so the proposed method requires the same stability under PID control as that for the null-balance method. PMID:26628179

  1. A method for evaluating the thrust of a space propulsion device with wide range time variations using a disturbance observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakami, Akira; Muto, Takuya; Yano, Yasuyuki; Tachibana, Takeshi

    2015-11-01

    A new method for evaluating thrust with high-frequency variations beyond the resonant frequency using a disturbance observer is presented. Setpoint control is applied to a conventional pendulum-type thrust stand to keep the pendulum at the target position using a solenoid actuator. During control, pendulum acceleration and solenoid-actuator current are measured, and the disturbance observer determines thrust with a wide range of frequency variations. The method allows thrust to be evaluated not only with constant and low-frequency variations, but also with high-frequency variations outside the resonant frequency. A thrust measurement device is prototyped to investigate accuracy over a wide frequency range from 0 to 100 Hz and the effects of the proportional-derivative-integral (PID) controller design. Calibration yields thrust measurement errors of 20% below 90 Hz. PID controller design has a smaller influence on the accuracy of the proposed method than the conventional null-balance method, so the proposed method requires the same stability under PID control as that for the null-balance method.

  2. Testing copper-speciation predictions in freshwaters over a wide range of metal-organic matter ratios.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Imad A M; Hamilton Taylor, John; Lofts, Stephen; Meeussen, Johannes C L; Lin, Chun; Zhang, Hao; Davison, William

    2013-02-01

    The harsh chemical conditions involved in the isolation of fulvic acids (FA) and humic acids (HA) have been identified as a possible contributing factor to the significant mismatch between in situ measurements and model predictions of trace metal speciation in freshwaters, resulting from the use of isolated FA and HA in model calibration. A set of experimental assays were developed to enable Cu binding to DOM to be measured over the full range of [Cu]/[DOC] ratios (∼1-460 μmol g(-1)) observed in surface freshwaters. They were applied to the widely used and traditionally isolated Suwannee River HA and FA and to DOM isolated from headwater streams by a mild procedure using minimal chemical treatment. Good agreement was observed between measured free ion activities and those predicted using both WHAM/Model VII and NICA-Donnan speciation models for both traditionally and mildly isolated DOM. Agreement to within a factor of 2 for WHAM/Model VII contrasts with 100-fold differences previously reported between in situ Cu(2+) measurements and model predictions for a wide range of conditions. The results demonstrate that (a) existing speciation models are capable of accurately predicting Cu-humic binding in natural waters at environmentally realistic [Cu]/[DOC] ratios, under equilibrium conditions, and (b) that the isolation procedures traditionally used for HA and FA do not appreciably affect their binding characteristics. PMID:23286231

  3. Phantom energy mediates a long-range repulsive force.

    PubMed

    Amendola, Luca

    2004-10-29

    Scalar field models with nonstandard kinetic terms have been proposed in the context of k inflation, of Born-Infeld Lagrangians, of phantom energy and, more in general, of low-energy string theory. In general, scalar fields are expected to couple to matter inducing a new interaction. In this Letter I derive the cosmological perturbation equations and the Yukawa correction to gravity for such general models. I find three interesting results: first, when the field behaves as phantom energy (equation of state less than -1), then the coupling strength is negative, inducing a long-range repulsive force; second, the dark-energy field might cluster on astrophysical scales; third, applying the formalism to a Brans-Dicke theory with a general kinetic term it is shown that its Newtonian effects depend on a single parameter that generalizes the Brans-Dicke constant. PMID:15525149

  4. Renewable Energy Opportunities at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Chvala, William D.; Solana, Amy E.; States, Jennifer C.; Warwick, William M.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2008-09-01

    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewable Energy Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  5. Energy Spectrum in the Dissipation Range of Fluid Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, D. O.; Chen, S.; Doolen, G. D.; Kraichnan, R. H.; Wang, L.-P.; Zhou, Y.

    1996-01-01

    High resolution, direct numerical simulations of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are carried out to study the energy spectrum in the dissipation range. An energy spectrum of the form A(k/k( sub d))(sup alpha) exp[- betak/k(sub d) is confirmed. The possible values of the parameters alpha and beta, as well as their dependence on Revnolds numbers and length scales, are investigated, showing good agreement with recent theoretical predictions. A "bottleneck'-type effect is reported at k/k(sub d) approximately 4, exhibiting a possible transition from near-dissipation to far- dissipation.

  6. A tuning fork based wide range mechanical characterization tool with nanorobotic manipulators inside a scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Juan Camilo; Hwang, Gilgueng; Polesel-Maris, Jérôme; Régnier, Stéphane

    2011-03-01

    This study proposes a tuning fork probe based nanomanipulation robotic system for mechanical characterization of ultraflexible nanostructures under scanning electron microscope. The force gradient is measured via the frequency modulation of a quartz tuning fork and two nanomanipulators are used for manipulation of the nanostructures. Two techniques are proposed for attaching the nanostructure to the tip of the tuning fork probe. The first technique involves gluing the nanostructure for full range characterization whereas the second technique uses van der Waals and electrostatic forces in order to avoid destroying the nanostructure. Helical nanobelts (HNB) are proposed for the demonstration of the setup. The nonlinear stiffness behavior of HNBs during their full range tensile studies is clearly revealed for the first time. Using the first technique, this was between 0.009 N/m for rest position and 0.297 N/m before breaking of the HNB with a resolution of 0.0031 N/m. For the second experiment, this was between 0.014 N/m for rest position and 0.378 N/m before detaching of the HNB with a resolution of 0.0006 N/m. This shows the wide range sensing of the system for potential applications in mechanical property characterization of ultraflexible nanostructures. PMID:21456797

  7. A tuning fork based wide range mechanical characterization tool with nanorobotic manipulators inside a scanning electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Acosta, Juan Camilo; Hwang, Gilgueng; Regnier, Stephane; Polesel-Maris, Jerome

    2011-03-15

    This study proposes a tuning fork probe based nanomanipulation robotic system for mechanical characterization of ultraflexible nanostructures under scanning electron microscope. The force gradient is measured via the frequency modulation of a quartz tuning fork and two nanomanipulators are used for manipulation of the nanostructures. Two techniques are proposed for attaching the nanostructure to the tip of the tuning fork probe. The first technique involves gluing the nanostructure for full range characterization whereas the second technique uses van der Waals and electrostatic forces in order to avoid destroying the nanostructure. Helical nanobelts (HNB) are proposed for the demonstration of the setup. The nonlinear stiffness behavior of HNBs during their full range tensile studies is clearly revealed for the first time. Using the first technique, this was between 0.009 N/m for rest position and 0.297 N/m before breaking of the HNB with a resolution of 0.0031 N/m. For the second experiment, this was between 0.014 N/m for rest position and 0.378 N/m before detaching of the HNB with a resolution of 0.0006 N/m. This shows the wide range sensing of the system for potential applications in mechanical property characterization of ultraflexible nanostructures.

  8. The International Energy Agency`s role in world-wide wind energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Rangi, R.; Ancona, D.

    1997-12-31

    Wind energy is now being deployed world-wide at a rapidly increasing rate and the International Energy Agency (IEA) has a changing role in its growth. IEA was founded in 1974 within the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to collaborate on comprehensive international energy programs. IEA membership consists of eighteen parties from sixteen countries and the European Commission. Recently there has been increasing interest in IEA participation from both OECD and non-OECD countries. Non-OECD countries participating in various IEA Agreements include: China, India, Israel, Korea, and Russia. Because of its diverse international makeup, the IEA is viewed as a source of reliable technical and economic information. The World Bank has approached the Executive Committee for Wind Energy R & D, through the IEA Renewable Energy Working Party, to assist in the expansion of wind deployment. In addition, IEA is moving from R & D programs to include tracking of implementation incentives offered by its members.

  9. Thuringiensin: A Thermostable Secondary Metabolite from Bacillus thuringiensis with Insecticidal Activity against a Wide Range of Insects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Ruan, Lifang; Peng, Donghai; Li, Lin; Sun, Ming; Yu, Ziniu

    2014-01-01

    Thuringiensin (Thu), also known as β-exotoxin, is a thermostable secondary metabolite secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis. It has insecticidal activity against a wide range of insects, including species belonging to the orders Diptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, and Isoptera, and several nematode species. The chemical formula of Thu is C22H32O19N5P, and it is composed of adenosine, glucose, phosphoric acid, and gluconic diacid. In contrast to the more frequently studied insecticidal crystal protein, Thu is not a protein but a small molecule oligosaccharide. In this review, a detailed and updated description of the characteristics, structure, insecticidal mechanism, separation and purification technology, and genetic determinants of Thu is provided. PMID:25068925

  10. Improvement of the dynamic range using background subtraction in single shot wide-field optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anna, Tulsi; Singh Mehta, Dalip; Sato, Manabu

    2015-12-01

    We investigated on the signal in single shot wide-field optical coherence tomographic (SS-WF-OCT) system to improve the dynamic range (DR). The SS-WF-OCT system is based on two-dimensional (2D) polarization Michelson interferometer and superluminescent diode (center wavelength of 842.5 nm) as light source. Two π-phase-shifted interferograms were acquired simultaneously using a single CCD camera and after subtraction, the en-face OCT image (area (x) 4.0 mm × (y) 4.3 mm) is obtained using 2D Hilbert transform. The OCT signal including incoherent background noises was analyzed. To improve the DR, background noise subtraction has been introduced and its measurement process is presented. This method is valuable during the background noise is stable. Using the scattering samples, such as, grind metal and polymer sponge with background subtraction algorithm, a significant reduction in background noise and improvement in the DR was demonstrated .

  11. A wide-frequency range AC magnetometer to measure the specific absorption rate in nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garaio, E.; Collantes, J. M.; Garcia, J. A.; Plazaola, F.; Mornet, S.; Couillaud, F.; Sandre, O.

    2014-11-01

    Measurement of specific absorption rate (SAR) of magnetic nanoparticles is crucial to assert their potential for magnetic hyperthermia. To perform this task, calorimetric methods are widely used. However, those methods are not very accurate and are difficult to standardize. In this paper, we present AC magnetometry results performed with a lab-made magnetometer that is able to obtain dynamic hysteresis-loops in the AC magnetic field frequency range from 50 kHz to 1 MHz and intensities up to 24 kA m-1. In this work, SAR values of maghemite nanoparticles dispersed in water are measured by AC magnetometry. The so-obtained values are compared with the SAR measured by calorimetric methods. Both measurements, by calorimetry and magnetometry, are in good agreement. Therefore, the presented AC magnetometer is a suitable way to obtain SAR values of magnetic nanoparticles.

  12. Wide-range and fast-convergence frequency offset estimator by BER-aiding for optical coherent receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiyu; Chen, Xue; Zhou, Weiqin; Zhu, Hai; Zhou, Xian; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2009-11-01

    Optical coherent detection with digital signal processing (DSP) attracts more and more interests owing to its high performance. Due to a free-running local oscillator (LO) on the receiver, a frequency offset (FO) to the optical carrier brings phase distortion with which data can not be correctly decided and decoded. All-digital feed-forward FO estimation algorithms for optical (D)QPSK coherent receivers, such as PADE, have advantages of low complexity and stable-running wide range of estimation. However, it only converges under the condition that the initialed FO is near enough to the real FO while possible FO with typical tunable lasers can be very large. In order to solve this problem, we present a novel FO estimation scheme by BER aiding. This scheme has been demonstrated to be accurate and effective to break the restriction of PADE by simulation.

  13. Glass Transitions and Elastic Properties of Lithium Borate Glasses over a Wide Composition Range Studied by Micro-Brillouin Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukawa, Yasuteru; Matsuda, Yu; Ike, Yuji; Kodama, Masao; Kojima, Seiji

    2008-05-01

    The elastic properties of lithium borate glasses, denoted by the composition formula xLi2O·(100 - x)B2O3 where x is the molar concentration in mol %, have been investigated over a wide composition range 6 ≤x ≤52 mol % by micro-Brillouin scattering. From the observed values of the longitudinal and transverse sound velocities, the elastic constants such as longitudinal modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio have been determined. The elastic constants have shown a strong composition dependence due to the variation of intermediate structural units. The temperature dependences of the longitudinal sound velocity and absorption coefficient of 44Li2O·56B2O3 clearly show the anomalies at the glass transition and crystallization temperatures.

  14. Wide-range simulation of elastoplastic wave fronts and failure of solids under high-speed loading

    SciTech Connect

    Saveleva, Natalia Bayandin, Yuriy Naimark, Oleg

    2015-10-27

    The aim of this paper is numerical study of deformation processes and failure of vanadium under shock-wave loading. According developed statistical theory of solid with mesoscopic defects the constitutive equations were proposed in terms of two structural variables characterizing behavior of defects ensembles: defect density tensor and structural scaling parameter. On the basis of wide-range constitutive equations the mathematical model of deformation behavior and failure of vanadium was developed taking into account the bond relaxation mechanisms, multistage of fracture and nonlinearity kinetic of defects. Results of numerical simulation allow the description of the major effects of shock wave propagation (elastic precursor decay, grow of spall strength under grow strain rate)

  15. Electrocaloric properties of ferroelectric-paraelectric superlattices controlled by the thickness of paraelectric layer in a wide temperature range

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, D. C.; Lin, S. P.; Chen, W. J.; Zheng, Yue Xiong, W. M.; Wang, Biao

    2014-10-15

    As functions of the paraelectric layer thickness, misfit strain and temperature, the electrocaloric properties of ferroelectric-paraelectric superlattices are investigated using a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau thermodynamic model. Ferroelectric phase transition driven by the relative thickness of the superlattice is found to dramatically impact the electrocaloric response. Near the phase transition temperature, the magnitude of the electrocaloric effect is maximized and shifted to lower temperatures by increasing the relative thickness of paraelectric layer. Theoretical calculations also imply that the electrocaloric effect of the superlattices depends not only on the relative thickness of paraelectric layer but also on misfit strain. Furthermore, control of the relative thickness of paraelectric layer and the misfit strain can change availably both the magnitude and the temperature sensitivity of the electrocaloric effect, which suggests that ferroelectric-paraelectric superlattices may be promising candidates for use in cooling devices in a wide temperature range.

  16. High diffraction efficiency of three-layer diffractive optics designed for wide temperature range and large incident angle.

    PubMed

    Mao, Shan; Cui, Qingfeng; Piao, Mingxu; Zhao, Lidong

    2016-05-01

    A mathematical model of diffraction efficiency and polychromatic integral diffraction efficiency affected by environment temperature change and incident angle for three-layer diffractive optics with different dispersion materials is put forward, and its effects are analyzed. Taking optical materials N-FK5 and N-SF1 as the substrates of multilayer diffractive optics, the effect on diffraction efficiency and polychromatic integral diffraction efficiency with intermediate materials POLYCARB is analyzed with environment temperature change as well as incident angle. Therefore, three-layer diffractive optics can be applied in more wide environmental temperature ranges and larger incident angles for refractive-diffractive hybrid optical systems, which can obtain better image quality. Analysis results can be used to guide the hybrid imaging optical system design for optical engineers. PMID:27140370

  17. Biomolecular solvation study of proteins in liquid water by a wide range gigahertz-to-terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charkhesht, Ali; George, Deepu; Nguyen, Vinh

    Solvent dynamics within biomolecular solvation layers play a major role in enzyme activity, but obtaining an accurate and quantitative picture of solvent activity around proteins is challenging. Due to the strong absorption of water in the gigahertz-to-terahertz frequencies, it is challenging to study properties of the solvent dynamics as well as conformational changes protein in water. We have developed a highly sensitive dielectric gigahertz-to-terahertz frequency-domain spectroscopy system for probing the collective dynamics of proteins and solvent. Using this technique, we investigate the complex dielectric response of bovine serum albumin and lysozyme proteins in aqueous environment on a wide frequency range from 0.1 GHz up to 2 THz. We explore the conformation flexibility of proteins and compare the hydration dynamics around proteins to understand the effects of surface-mediated solvent dynamics, relationships among different measures of interfacial solvent dynamics, and protein-mediated solvent dynamics.

  18. Study of GaN doping with carbon from propane in a wide range of MOVPE conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, W. V.; Sakharov, A. V.; Zavarin, E. E.; Kazantsev, D. Yu.; Ber, B. Ya.; Yagovkina, M. A.; Brunkov, P. N.; Tsatsulnikov, A. F.

    2016-09-01

    Complex studies of intentional GaN carbon doping from propane during MOVPE were performed in a wide range of growth conditions. A strong dependence of carbon doping efficiency on growth rate and ammonia flow is revealed, while dependence of carbon doping efficiency on reactor pressure is small. Atomic force microscopy confirms the good quality of the GaN:C layers for doping levels as high as 2*1019 cm-3 grown with growth rate up to 45 μm/h. The dependence of carbon incorporation into GaN is proportional to the propane concentration to the power 3/2 in most growth regimes, but for very high growth rate a linear or sub-linear component of the dependence becomes prominent.

  19. Design of a robust modulation controller over a wide range of load characteristics for ac/dc systems

    SciTech Connect

    Choudry, M.A.; Reza, M.A. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Ellithy, K.A. )

    1990-02-01

    This paper presents a method to design a robust modulation controller to improve the dynamic performance of ac/dc systems. Static load is modeled as a nonlinear function of load bus voltage and dynamic load is modeled by an equivalent induction motor. Reactive power and dc power are considered for the modulation control. Static var compensator (SVC) is used for the reactive power modulation. The rotor speed and angle deviations of the synchronous generator are used as a stabilizing signal to the SVC. The controller gains are selected based on the eigenvalue sensitivity of electromechanical mode of the closed loop system with respect to load characteristic. Eigenvalue analysis and simulation results show that the proposed reactive power modulation control improves the system response over a wide range of voltage dependent load characteristic as compared with the control using only the rotor speed deviation.

  20. Wide Range of Biotin (Vitamin H) Content in Foodstuffs and Powdered Milks as Assessed by High-performance Affinity Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Kou; Katsumata, Noriyuki; Abe, Kiyomi; Hirano, Masahiko; Yoshikawa, Kazuyuki; Ogata, Tsutomu; Horikawa, Reiko; Nagamine, Takeaki

    2009-01-01

    The biotin (vitamin H) contents of various foodstuffs were determined by using a newly developed high-performance affinity chromatography with a trypsin-treated avidin-bound column. Biotin was derivatized with 9-anthryldiazomethane (ADAM) to fluorescent biotin-ADAM ester. A wide range of biotin contents were found in various foodstuffs depending upon the species (strain), season, organ (of plants and animals), geography, freshness, preparation method and storage method. Among the foodstuffs and fermented foods tested, it was found that wide distributions of biotin content were observed in powdered milk, natto, sake (rice wine), beer, edible oil and sea weed. Since powdered milk is important for child health and development, 14 kinds of powdered and special milks for use in children’s diseases were intensively measured. We found that several special milk powders for children with allergies contained low levels of free biotin. Use of these powdered milks caused skin diseases and alopecia in some patients possessing thermolabile serum biotinidase, and administration of free biotin improved their symptoms dramatically. Therefore, it is essential to estimate the total and free biotin contents on each foodstuff in order to improve effective biotin intake and support better health and quality of life for people. PMID:24790379

  1. Micropollutants in urban stormwater: occurrence, concentrations, and atmospheric contributions for a wide range of contaminants in three French catchments.

    PubMed

    Gasperi, J; Sebastian, C; Ruban, V; Delamain, M; Percot, S; Wiest, L; Mirande, C; Caupos, E; Demare, D; Kessoo, M Diallo Kessoo; Saad, M; Schwartz, J J; Dubois, P; Fratta, C; Wolff, H; Moilleron, R; Chebbo, G; Cren, C; Millet, M; Barraud, S; Gromaire, M C

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed at: (a) providing information on the occurrence and concentration ranges in urban stormwater for a wide array of pollutants (n = 77); (b) assessing whether despite the differences between various catchments (land use, climatic conditions, etc.), the trends in terms of contamination level are similar; and (c) analyzing the contribution of total atmospheric fallout (TAF) with respect to sources endogenous to this contamination. The studied contaminants include conventional stormwater contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Zn, Cu, Pb, etc.), in addition to poorly or undocumented pollutants such as nonylphenol and octylphenol ethoxylates (NPnEO and OPnEO), bisphenol A (BPA), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a wide variety of pesticides, and various metals of relevance (As, Ti, Sr, V). Sampling and analysis were performed using homogeneous methods on three urban catchments with different land use patterns located in three distinct French towns. For many of these pollutants, the results do not allow highlighting a significant difference in stormwater quality at the scale of the three urban catchments considered. Significant differences were, however, observed for several metals (As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Sr and Zn), PAHs, and PBDEs, though this assessment would need to be confirmed by further experiments. The pollutant distributions between dissolved and particulate phases were found to be similar across the three experimental sites, thus suggesting no site dependence. Lastly, the contributions of TAF to stormwater contamination for micropollutants were quite low. This finding held true not only for PAHs, as previously demonstrated in the literature, but also for a broader range of molecules such as BPA, NPnEO, OPnEO, and PBDEs, whose high local production is correlated with the leaching of urban surfaces, buildings, and vehicles. PMID:24323325

  2. Continuous fast focusing in a trapezoidal void channel based on bidirectional isotachophoresis in a wide pH range.

    PubMed

    Stastna, Miroslava; Slais, Karel

    2015-10-01

    This study concentrates on development of instrumentation for focusing and separation of analytes in continuous flow. It is based on bidirectional ITP working in wide pH range with separation space of closed void channel of trapezoidal shape and continuous supply of sample. The novel instrumentation is working with electrolyte system formulated previously and on the contrary to devices currently available, it allows preparative separation and concentration of cationic, anionic, and amphoteric analytes simultaneously and in wide pH range. The formation of sharp edges at zone boundaries as well as low conductivity zones are avoided in suggested system and thus, local overheating is eliminated allowing for high current densities at initial stages of focusing. This results in high focusing speed and reduction of analysis time, which is particularly advantageous for separations performed in continuous flow systems. The closed void channel is designed to avoid basic obstacles related to liquid leakage, bubbles formation, contacts with electrodes, channel height and complicated assembling. The performance of designed instrumentation and focusing dynamics were tested by using colored low molecular mass pH indicators for local pH determination, focusing pattern, and completion. In addition, feasibility and separation efficiency were demonstrated by focusing of cytochrome C and myoglobin. The collection of fractions at instrument output allows for subsequent analysis and identification of sample components that are concentrated and conveniently in form of solution for further processing. Since the instrumentation operates with commercially available simple defined buffers and compounds without need of carrier ampholytes background, it is economically favorable. PMID:26104601

  3. Power wheelchair range testing and energy consumption during fatigue testing.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R A; VanSickle, D P; Albright, S J; Stewart, K J; Flannery, M; Robertson, R N

    1995-10-01

    The range of a power wheelchair depends on many factors including: battery type, battery state, wheelchair/rider weight, terrain, the efficiency of the drive train, and driving behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of three methods of estimating power wheelchair range. Another significant purpose was to compare the current draw on pavement to current draw on an International Standards Organization (ISO) Double Drum tester at one m/sec. Tests were performed on seven different power wheelchairs unloaded, and loaded with an ISO 100 kg test dummy. Each chair was configured according to the manufacturer's specifications, and tires were properly inflated. Experienced test technicians were used for the tennis court tests, and treadmill tests. An ISO 100 kg test dummy was used for the ISO Double Drum test. Energy consumption was measured over a distance of 1500 m for each of the three test conditions. The rolling surface was level in all cases. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant difference (p = 0.0001) between the predicted range at maximum speed for the three tests. Post hoc analysis demonstrated a significant difference (p < 0.01) in estimated range at maximum speed between the Double Drum test and the treadmill test, as well as between the Double Drum test and the tennis court test. Our results indicate no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the predicted range at maximal speed between the treadmill and tennis court tests. A simple relationship does not exist between the results of range testing with the Double Drum tester and the tennis court. An alternative would be to permit the use of a treadmill for range testing as simple relationships between all pertinent treadmill and tennis court range data were found. For the Double Drum tester used, the current demand is higher than under normal usage. This presents a problem as current is related to load torque in a power wheelchair. Hence, the Double

  4. Wide energy electron precipitations and their impact on the middle atmosphere associated with the pulsating aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Y.; Oyama, S. I.; Saito, S.; Turunen, E. S.; Kurita, S.; Kero, A.; Verronen, P. T.; Kataoka, R.; Ebihara, Y.; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G. D.; Santolik, O.; Clilverd, M. A.; Rodger, C. J.; Tsuchiya, F.

    2015-12-01

    The pulsating aurora is caused by intermittent precipitations of tens keV electrons. It is also expected that not only tens keV electrons but also sub-relativistic/relativistic electrons precipitate simultaneously into the polar ionosphere owing to whistler-mode wave-particle interactions. We analyzed a pulsating aurora event in November 2012 using several ground-based observation data from EISCAT radar, riometer, sub-ionospheric radio wave receivers, and the Van Allen Probes satellite. The electron density profile obtained from EISCA Tromsø VHF radar identifies electron density enhancements at >68 km altitudes. The electron energy spectrum derived from the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method indicates the wide energy electron precipitations from 10 - 200 keV, suggesting precipitation of the population from the outer belt. The riometer and network of sub-ionospheric radio wave observations also show energetic electron precipitations coinciding with the electron density enhancements at 68 km altitude. During this period, footprint of the Van Allen Probe-A satellite was very close to Tromsø, and the satellite observed rising tone emissions of the lower-band chorus (LBC) waves near the equatorial plane. Using the satellite-observed LBC and trapped electrons as an initial condition, we conducted a computer simulation of the wave-particle interactions. The simulation showed simultaneous precipitation of electrons at both tens of keV and a few hundred keV. This result is consistent with the energy spectrum estimated with the MCMC method. This result revealed that electrons with a wide energy range from the plasma sheet to the outer belt simultaneously precipitate into the polar ionosphere in association with the pulsating aurora. Using the Sodankylä Ion Chemistry (SIC) model that is a detailed coupled neutral and ion chemistry model of the upper atmosphere, we also discuss the possible impacts on the middle atmosphere due to precipitations of wide energy electrons.

  5. High-utility conserved avian microsatellite markers enable parentage and population studies across a wide range of species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microsatellites are widely used for many genetic studies. In contrast to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and genotyping-by-sequencing methods, they are readily typed in samples of low DNA quality/concentration (e.g. museum/non-invasive samples), and enable the quick, cheap identification of species, hybrids, clones and ploidy. Microsatellites also have the highest cross-species utility of all types of markers used for genotyping, but, despite this, when isolated from a single species, only a relatively small proportion will be of utility. Marker development of any type requires skill and time. The availability of sufficient “off-the-shelf” markers that are suitable for genotyping a wide range of species would not only save resources but also uniquely enable new comparisons of diversity among taxa at the same set of loci. No other marker types are capable of enabling this. We therefore developed a set of avian microsatellite markers with enhanced cross-species utility. Results We selected highly-conserved sequences with a high number of repeat units in both of two genetically distant species. Twenty-four primer sets were designed from homologous sequences that possessed at least eight repeat units in both the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and chicken (Gallus gallus). Each primer sequence was a complete match to zebra finch and, after accounting for degenerate bases, at least 86% similar to chicken. We assessed primer-set utility by genotyping individuals belonging to eight passerine and four non-passerine species. The majority of the new Conserved Avian Microsatellite (CAM) markers amplified in all 12 species tested (on average, 94% in passerines and 95% in non-passerines). This new marker set is of especially high utility in passerines, with a mean 68% of loci polymorphic per species, compared with 42% in non-passerine species. Conclusions When combined with previously described conserved loci, this new set of conserved markers will not only

  6. The electronic structure formation of Cu(x)TiSe2 in a wide range (0.04 < x < 0.8) of copper concentration.

    PubMed

    Shkvarin, A S; Yarmoshenko, Yu M; Yablonskikh, M V; Merentsov, A I; Shkvarina, E G; Titov, A A; Zhukov, Yu M; Titov, A N

    2016-02-21

    An experimental study of the electronic structure of copper intercalated titanium dichalcogenides in a wide range of copper concentrations (x = 0.04-0.8) using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, resonant photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy has been performed. Shift towards low energies of the Ti 2p and Se 3d core level spectra and a corresponding decrease in the photon energy of Ti 2p absorption spectra with the increase in copper concentration have been found. These sign-anomalous shifts may be explained by the shielding effect of the corresponding atomic shells as a result of the dynamic charge transfer during the formation of a covalent chemical bond between the copper atoms and the TiSe2 matrix. PMID:26896994

  7. Long-range correlation energy calculated from coupled atomic response functions

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosetti, Alberto; Reilly, Anthony M.; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; DiStasio, Robert A.

    2014-05-14

    An accurate determination of the electron correlation energy is an essential prerequisite for describing the structure, stability, and function in a wide variety of systems. Therefore, the development of efficient approaches for the calculation of the correlation energy (and hence the dispersion energy as well) is essential and such methods can be coupled with many density-functional approximations, local methods for the electron correlation energy, and even interatomic force fields. In this work, we build upon the previously developed many-body dispersion (MBD) framework, which is intimately linked to the random-phase approximation for the correlation energy. We separate the correlation energy into short-range contributions that are modeled by semi-local functionals and long-range contributions that are calculated by mapping the complex all-electron problem onto a set of atomic response functions coupled in the dipole approximation. We propose an effective range-separation of the coupling between the atomic response functions that extends the already broad applicability of the MBD method to non-metallic materials with highly anisotropic responses, such as layered nanostructures. Application to a variety of high-quality benchmark datasets illustrates the accuracy and applicability of the improved MBD approach, which offers the prospect of first-principles modeling of large structurally complex systems with an accurate description of the long-range correlation energy.

  8. Fast, Highly-Sensitive, and Wide-Dynamic-Range Interdigitated Capacitor Glucose Biosensor Using Solvatochromic Dye-Containing Sensing Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Md. Rajibur Rahaman; Khalilian, Alireza; Kang, Shin-Won

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed an interdigitated capacitor (IDC)-based glucose biosensor to measure different concentrations of glucose from 1 μM to 1 M. We studied four different types of solvatochromic dyes: Auramine O, Nile red, Rhodamine B, and Reichardt’s dye (R-dye). These dyes were individually incorporated into a polymer [polyvinyl chloride (PVC)] and N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAC) solution to make the respective dielectric/sensing materials. To the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time an IDC glucose biosensing system utilizing a solvatochromic-dye-containing sensing membrane. These four dielectric or sensing materials were individually placed into the interdigitated electrode (IDE) by spin coating to make four IDC glucose biosensing elements. The proposed IDC glucose biosensor has a high sensing ability over a wide dynamic range and its sensitivity was about 23.32 mV/decade. It also has fast response and recovery times of approximately 7 s and 5 s, respectively, excellent reproducibility with a standard deviation of approximately 0.023, highly stable sensing performance, and real-time monitoring capabilities. The proposed IDC glucose biosensor was compared with an IDC, potentiometric, FET, and fiber-optic glucose sensor with respect to response time, dynamic range width, sensitivity, and linearity. We observed that the designed IDC glucose biosensor offered excellent performance. PMID:26907291

  9. Wide-Range Tunable Fluorescence Lifetime and Ultrabright Luminescence of Eu-Grafted Plasmonic Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Song, Feng; He, Zhubing; Liu, Yanling; Chen, Zhanyao; Lin, Shangxin; Huang, Ling; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-20

    Wide-range, well-separated, and tunable lifetime nanocomposites with ultrabright fluorescence are highly desirable for applications in optical multiplexing such as multiplexed biological detection, data storage, and security printing. Here, a synthesis of tunable fluorescence lifetime nanocomposites is reported featuring europium chelate grafted onto the surface of plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles, and systematically investigated their optical performance. In a single red color emission channel, more than 12 distinct fluorescence lifetime populations with high fluorescence efficiency (up to 73%) are reported. The fluorescence lifetime of Eu-grafted core-shell nanoparticles exhibits a wider tunable range, possesses larger lifetime interval and is more sensitive to separation distance than that of ordinary Eu-doping core-shell type. These superior performances are attributed to the unique nanostructure of Eu-grafed type. In addition, these as-prepared nanocomposites are used for security printing to demonstrate optical multiplexing applications. The optical multiplexing experiments show an interesting pseudo-information "a rabbit in a well" and conceal the real message "NKU." PMID:26618616

  10. Wide dynamic range FPGA-based TDC for monitoring a trigger timing distribution system in linear accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwada, T.; Miyahara, F.; Furukawa, K.; Shoji, M.; Ikeno, M.; Tanaka, M.

    2015-06-01

    A new field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based time-to-digital converter (TDC) with a wide dynamic range greater than 20 ms has been developed to monitor the timing of various pulsed devices in the trigger timing distribution system of the KEKB injector linac for the Super KEK B-factory project. The pulsed devices are driven by feeding regular as well as any irregular (or event-based) timing pulses. The timing pulses are distributed to these pulsed devices along the linac beam line with fiber-optic links on the basis of the parameters to be set pulse-by-pulse in the event-based timing and control system within 20 ms. For monitoring the timing as precisely as possible, a 16-ch FPGA-based TDC has been developed on a Xilinx Spartan-6 FPGA equipped on VME board with a resolution of 1 ns. The resolution was achieved by applying a multisampling technique, and the accuracies were 2.6 ns (rms) and less than 1 ns (rms) within the dynamic ranges of 20 ms and 7.5 ms, respectively. The various nonlinear effects were improved by implementing a high-precision external clock with a built-in temperature-compensated crystal oscillator.

  11. First observation of SASE radiation using the compact wide-spectral-range XUV spectrometer at FLASH2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, T.; Hage, A.; Kuhlmann, M.; Gonschior, J.; Grunewald, S.; Plönjes, E.; Düsterer, S.; Brenner, G.; Dziarzhytski, S.; Braune, M.; Brachmanski, M.; Yin, Z.; Siewert, F.; Dzelzainis, T.; Dromey, B.; Prandolini, M. J.; Tavella, F.; Zepf, M.; Faatz, B.

    2016-09-01

    The Free-electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH) has been extended with a new undulator line FLASH2 in 2014. A compact grazing-incident wide-spectral-range spectrometer based on spherical-variable-line-spacing (SVLS) gratings in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) region was constructed to optimize and characterize the free-electron laser (FEL) performance at FLASH2. The spectrometer is equipped with three different concave SVLS gratings covering a spectral range from 1 to 62 nm to analyze the spectral characteristics of the XUV radiation. Wavelength calibration and evaluation of the spectral resolution were performed at the plane grating monochromator beamline PG2 at FLASH1 before the installation at FLASH2, and compared with analytical simulations. The first light using self-amplified spontaneous emission from FLASH2 was observed by the spectrometer during a simultaneous operation of both undulator lines-FLASH1 and FLASH2. In addition, the spectral resolution of the spectrometer was evaluated by comparing the measured spectrum from FLASH2 with FEL simulations.

  12. Analysis and performance evaluation of an all-fiber wide range interrogation system for a Bragg grating sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Ginu; Semenova, Yuliya; Farrell, Gerald

    2009-05-01

    Analysis and performance evaluation of a macro-bend fiber based interrogation system for a Bragg grating sensor array is presented. Due to the characteristic properties of the macro-bend fiber filter such as polarization and temperature dependence and the total noise associated with the ratiometric system, a best fit ratio slope is required to interrogate multiple fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) whose peak wavelengths are spread over a wide wavelength range, rather than the optimal slope for individual FBGs. In this study, we have used an FBG array with 5 FBGs with peak reflected wavelengths lying between 1525 and 1575 nm. The analysis of the system is carried out and a fiber filter with a slope which covers a wavelength range of 1525-1575 nm is selected which ensures a resolution and accuracy for all the FBG sensors in the array as close as possible to that which would be achieved with a filter with an optimal slope for each FBG. Performance evaluation of the system is carried out and the static strain, dynamic strain, and temperature are measured with the developed interrogation system.

  13. A 5.5Mpixel 100 frames/sec wide dynamic range low noise CMOS image sensor for scientific applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Boyd; Liu, Chiao; Mims, Steve; Balicki, Janusz; Li, Wang; Do, Hung; Appelbaum, Jeff; Vu, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a 5.5Mpixel 100 frames/sec wide-dynamic-range low-noise CMOS image sensor (CIS) designed for scientific applications. The sensor has 6.5μm pitch 5T pixels with pinned photodiodes and integrated microlenses. The 5T pixel architecture enables low noise rolling and global shutter operation. The measured peak quantum efficiency of the sensor is greater than 55% at 550nm, the Nyquist MTF is greater than 0.4 at 550nm, and the linear full well capacity is greater than 35ke-. The measured rolling and global shutter readout noise are 1.28e- RMS and 2.54e- RMS respectively at 30 f/s and 20°C. The pinned photodiode dark current is less than 3.8pA/cm2 at 20°C. The sensor achieves an intra-scene linear dynamic range in rolling shutter operation of greater than 86dB (20000:1) at room temperature. In global shutter readout the shutter efficiency is greater than 1000:1 with 500nm illumination.

  14. Conserved Microsatellites in Ants Enable Population Genetic and Colony Pedigree Studies across a Wide Range of Species

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Ian A.; Siletti, Kimberly; Oxley, Peter R.; Kronauer, Daniel J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Broadly applicable polymorphic genetic markers are essential tools for population genetics, and different types of markers have been developed for this purpose. Microsatellites have been employed as particularly polymorphic markers for over 20 years. However, PCR primers for microsatellite loci are often not useful outside the species for which they were designed. This implies that a new set of loci has to be identified and primers developed for every new study species. To overcome this constraint, we identified 45 conserved microsatellite loci based on the eight currently available ant genomes and designed primers for PCR amplification. Among these loci, we chose 24 for in-depth study in six species covering six different ant subfamilies. On average, 11.16 of these 24 loci were polymorphic and in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in any given species. The average number of alleles for these polymorphic loci within single populations of the different species was 4.59. This set of genetic markers will thus be useful for population genetic and colony pedigree studies across a wide range of ant species, supplementing the markers available for previously studied species and greatly facilitating the study of the many ant species lacking genetic markers. Our study shows that it is possible to develop microsatellite loci that are both conserved over a broad range of taxa, yet polymorphic within species. This should encourage researchers to develop similar tools for other large taxonomic groups. PMID:25244681

  15. Near-infrared spectroscopy with Spectroscopic technique with wide range of wavelength information detects tissue oxygenation level clearly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eda, Hideo; Aoki, Hiromichi; Eura, Shigeru; Ebe, Kazutoshi

    2010-02-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is based on the modified-Lambert-Beer's law that changes in absorbance are proportional to changes in hemoglobin parameters. Majority of the conventional measurement methods uses only two or three wavelengths. In this research, basic examination of NIRS measurement was approached by acquiring wide range of wavelength information. Arterial occlusion task was performed by using the blood pressure cuff around the upper arm. Pressure of 200mmHg was then applied for about 3 minutes. During the arterial occlusion, the spectrum of the lower arm muscles was measured every 15 seconds, within the range of 600 to 1100nm. The secondary derivative spectrum was calculated from the measured spectrum. Arterial occlusion is a task which changes the oxygenation level of the tissue. The change can be regarded as the change of the spectrum form, not as the change of the baseline. Furthermore, it was found that other wavelength bands hold information correlating to this arterial occlusion task.

  16. Range-wide phylogeographic analysis of the spotted frog complex (Rana luteiventris and Rana pretiosa) in northwestern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, W.C.; Pearl, C.A.; Draheim, H.M.; Adams, M.J.; Mullins, T.D.; Haig, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic geological and climatic history of northwestern North America has made it a focal region for phylogeography. We conducted a range-wide phylogeographic analysis of the spotted frog complex (Rana luteiventris and Rana pretiosa) across its range in northwestern North America to understand its evolutionary history and the distribution of clades to inform conservation of R. pretiosa and Great Basin R. luteiventris, candidates for listing under the US Endangered Species Act. Mitochondrial DNA sequence data from a segment of the cytochrome b gene were obtained from 308 R. luteiventris and R. pretiosa from 96 sites. Phylogenetic analysis revealed one main R. pretiosa clade and three main R. luteiventris clades, two of which overlapped in southeastern Oregon. The three R. luteiventris clades were separated from each other by high levels of sequence divergence (average of 4.75-4.97%). Two divergent clades were also uncovered within the Great Basin. Low genetic variation in R. pretiosa and the southeastern Oregon clade of R. luteiventris suggests concern about their vulnerability to extinction. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc.

  17. The initial magnetic susceptibility of polydisperse ferrofluids: A comparison between experiment and theory over a wide range of concentration.

    PubMed

    Solovyova, Anna Y; Goldina, Olga A; Ivanov, Alexey O; Lebedev, Aleksandr V; Elfimova, Ekaterina A

    2016-08-28

    Temperature dependencies of the static initial magnetic susceptibility for ferrofluids at various concentrations are studied using experiment and statistical-mechanical theories. Magnetic susceptibility measurements are carried out for twelve samples of magnetite-based fluids stabilized with oleic acid over a wide range of temperatures (210 K ≲T ≲ 390 K); all samples have the same granulometric composition but different volume ferroparticle concentrations (0.2 ≲ φ ≲ 0.5). Experimental results are analyzed using three theories: the second-order modified mean-field theory (MMF2) [A. O. Ivanov and O. B. Kuznetsova, Phys. Rev. E 64, 41405 (2001)]; its correction for polydisperse ferrofluids arising from Mayer-type cluster expansion and taking into account the first terms of the polydisperse second virial coefficient [A. O. Ivanov and E. A. Elfimova, J. Magn. Magn. Mater 374, 327 (2015)]; and a new theory based on MMF2 combined with the first terms of the polydisperse second and third virial contributions to susceptibility. It turns out that the applicability of each theory depends on the experimental sample density. If twelve ferrofluid samples are split into three groups of strong, moderate, and low concentrated fluids, the temperature dependences of the initial magnetic susceptibility in each group are very precisely described by one of the three theories mentioned above. The determination of a universal formula predicting a ferrofluid susceptibility over a broad range of concentrations and temperatures remains as a challenge. PMID:27586948

  18. Experimental validation of the intrinsic spatial efficiency method over a wide range of sizes for cylindrical sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Ramírez, Pablo; Camilla, S.; Larroquette, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The intrinsic spatial efficiency method is a new absolute method to determine the efficiency of a gamma spectroscopy system for any extended source. In the original work the method was experimentally demonstrated and validated for homogeneous cylindrical sources containing 137Cs, whose sizes varied over a small range (29.5 mm radius and 15.0 to 25.9 mm height). In this work we present an extension of the validation over a wide range of sizes. The dimensions of the cylindrical sources vary between 10 to 40 mm height and 8 to 30 mm radius. The cylindrical sources were prepared using the reference material IAEA-372, which had a specific activity of 11320 Bq/kg at july 2006. The obtained results were better for the sources with 29 mm radius showing relative bias lesser than 5% and for the sources with 10 mm height showing relative bias lesser than 6%. In comparison with the obtained results in the work where we present the method, the majority of these results show an excellent agreement.

  19. An adjustable, high sensitivity, wide dynamic range two channel wave-front sensor based on moiré deflectometry.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, Saifollah; Dashti, M; Ramaprakash, Anamparambu N

    2010-11-01

    An adjustable, high sensitivity, wide dynamic range two channel wave-front sensor based on moiré deflectometry has been constructed for measuring distortions of light wave-front transmitted through the atmosphere. In this approach, a slightly divergent laser beam is passed through the turbulent ground level atmosphere and then a beam-splitter divides it into two beams. The beams pass through a pair of moiré deflectometers which are installed parallel and close together. From deviations in the moiré fringes we calculate the two orthogonal components of angle of arrival at each location across the wave-front. The deviations have been deduced in successive frames which allows evolution of the wave-front shape to be determined. The dynamic range and sensitivity of detection are adjustable by merely changing the separation of the gratings and the angle between the rulings of the gratings in both of channels. The spatial resolution of the method is also adjustable by means of bright, dark, and virtual traces for given moiré fringes without paying a toll in the measurement precision. PMID:21164736

  20. Sampling the low-energy range of EEDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Dominik A.; Franck, Christian M.

    2011-10-01

    Electron swarms are investigated by the classical Pulsed Townsend Method in mixtures of N2/CO2 with controlled traces of SF6. The electron swarms are released from a back- illuminated photocathode by 1.5 ns FWHM laser pulses and drift in the homogeneous field of Rogowski electrodes. From an analysis of displacement currents the coefficient of electron attachment to gas molecules η is obtained. The pronounced s-wave attachment of SF6 acts on the electron swarm energy distribution (EEDF) by reducing the number of electrons in the energy range below 0.2 eV. It will be investigated if, vice versa, the observed η can be used as a measure for the EEDF in the range below 0.2 eV. The effect of the N2/CO2 mixing ratio on η will be measured and put in relation to the difference between N2 and CO2 concerning their elastic and inelastic cross sections. The goal is to provide data about that range of the EEDF which are not accessible by optical emission spectroscopy or by Langmuir probes.

  1. Rat Injury Model under Controlled Field-Relevant Primary Blast Conditions: Acute Response to a Wide Range of Peak Overpressures

    PubMed Central

    Skotak, Maciej; Wang, Fang; Alai, Aaron; Holmberg, Aaron; Harris, Seth; Switzer, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the acute (up to 24 h) pathophysiological response to primary blast using a rat model and helium driven shock tube. The shock tube generates animal loadings with controlled pure primary blast parameters over a wide range and field-relevant conditions. We studied the biomechanical loading with a set of pressure gauges mounted on the surface of the nose, in the cranial space, and in the thoracic cavity of cadaver rats. Anesthetized rats were exposed to a single blast at precisely controlled five peak overpressures over a wide range (130, 190, 230, 250, and 290 kPa). We observed 0% mortality rates in 130 and 230 kPa groups, and 30%, 24%, and 100% mortality rates in 190, 250, and 290 kPa groups, respectively. The body weight loss was statistically significant in 190 and 250 kPa groups 24 h after exposure. The data analysis showed the magnitude of peak-to-peak amplitude of intracranial pressure (ICP) fluctuations correlates well with mortality rates. The ICP oscillations recorded for 190, 250, and 290 kPa are characterized by higher frequency (10–20 kHz) than in other two groups (7–8 kHz). We noted acute bradycardia and lung hemorrhage in all groups of rats subjected to the blast. We established the onset of both corresponds to 110 kPa peak overpressure. The immunostaining against immunoglobulin G (IgG) of brain sections of rats sacrificed 24-h post-exposure indicated the diffuse blood-brain barrier breakdown in the brain parenchyma. At high blast intensities (peak overpressure of 190 kPa or more), the IgG uptake by neurons was evident, but there was no evidence of neurodegeneration after 24 h post-exposure, as indicated by cupric silver staining. We observed that the acute response as well as mortality is a non-linear function over the peak overpressure and impulse ranges explored in this work. PMID:23362798

  2. The influence of landscape matrix on isolated patch use by wide-ranging animals: conservation lessons for woodland caribou.

    PubMed

    Lesmerises, Rémi; Ouellet, Jean-Pierre; Dussault, Claude; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues

    2013-09-01

    For conservation purposes, it is important to design studies that explicitly quantify responses of focal species to different land management scenarios. Here, we propose an approach that combines the influence of landscape matrices with the intrinsic attributes of remaining habitat patches on the space use behavior of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), a threatened subspecies of Rangifer. We sought to link characteristics of forest remnants and their surrounding environment to caribou use (i.e., occurrence and intensity). We tracked 51 females using GPS telemetry north of the Saguenay River (Québec, Canada) between 2004 and 2010 and documented their use of mature forest remnants ranging between 30 and ∼170 000 ha in a highly managed landscape. Habitat proportion and anthropogenic feature density within incremental buffer zones (from 100 to 7500 m), together with intrinsic residual forest patch characteristics, were linked to caribou GPS location occurrence and density to establish the range of influence of the surrounding matrix. We found that patch size and composition influence caribou occurrence and intensity of use within a patch. Patch size had to reach approximately 270 km(2) to attain 75% probability of use by caribou. We found that small patches (<100 km(2)) induced concentration of caribou activities that were shown to make them more vulnerable to predation and to act as ecological traps. Woodland caribou clearly need large residual forest patches, embedded in a relatively undisturbed matrix, to achieve low densities as an antipredator strategy. Our patch-based methodological approach, using GPS telemetry data, offers a new perspective of space use behavior of wide-ranging species inhabiting fragmented landscapes and allows us to highlight the impacts of large scale management. Furthermore, our study provides insights that might have important implications for effective caribou conservation and forest management. PMID:24101980

  3. Crossover from weak localization to anti-weak localization in indium oxide systems with wide range of resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozaki, B.; Hidaka, K.; Ezaki, S.; Makise, K.; Asano, T.; Tomai, S.; Yano, K.; Nakamura, H.

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the magnetoconductivity Δσ(H)≡1/ρ(H)-1/ρ(0) in a wide range of magnetic fields for three-dimensional indium oxide films doped with zinc, tin, or gallium in the range of resistivity ρ(300K) between 4.1×10-6 Ωm and 1.7×10-3 Ωm. The weak localization theory was fitted to data for Δσ(H) at various temperatures in the range 2.0 K ≤T≤50 K by the use of suitable characteristics Dτin(T) and Dτso, where D , τin, and τso are the electron diffusion constant, inelastic scattering time, and spin-orbit (s-o) scattering time, respectively. It was found that (i) for films with a large value of ρ, the sign of Δσ(H) changes from positive to negative with decreasing temperature as a precursor to an anti-weak localization effect; (ii) the ratio τso/τin decreases from ≈4000 to≈4.0 with increasing ρ; (iii) the strong ρ dependence of Dτso cannot be explained by the model with a constant atomic number Z in a formula τso∝1/Z4 proposed by Abrikozov and Gorkov Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 42, 1088 (1962); [Sov. Phys. JETP 15, 752 (1962)]. As a reason for this ρ dependence, we suggest that the s-o scattering changes with increasing ρ from light oxygen atoms to heavy atoms, i.e., indium, zinc, and gallium, because of the decrease in the number of oxygen vacancies acting as s-o scattering centers.

  4. Surrogate immiscible liquid pairs with refractive indexes matchable over a wide range of density and viscosity ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saksena, Rajat; Christensen, Kenneth T.; Pearlstein, Arne J.

    2015-08-01

    In liquid-liquid flows, use of optical diagnostics is limited by interphase refractive index mismatch, which leads to optical distortion and complicates data interpretation, and sometimes also by opacity. Both problems can be eliminated using a surrogate pair of immiscible index-matched transparent liquids, whose density and viscosity ratios match corresponding ratios for the original liquid pair. We show that a wide range of density and viscosity ratios is accessible using aqueous solutions of 1,2-propanediol and CsBr (for which index, density, and viscosity are available), and solutions of light and heavy silicone oils and 1-bromooctane (for which we measured the same properties at 119 compositions). For each liquid phase, polynomials in the composition variables, least-squares fitted to index and density and to the logarithm of kinematic viscosity, were used to determine accessible density and viscosity ratios for each matchable index. Index-matched solution pairs can be prepared with density and viscosity ratios equal to those for water-liquid CO2 at 0 °C over a range of pressure (allowing water-liquid CO2 behavior at inconveniently high pressure to be simulated by 1-bar experiments), and for water-crude oil and water-trichloroethylene (avoiding opacity and toxicity problems, respectively), each over a range of temperature. For representative index-matched solutions, equilibration changes index, density, and viscosity only slightly, and mass spectrometry and elemental analysis show that no component of either phase has significant interphase solubility. Finally, procedures are described for iteratively reducing the residual index mismatch in surrogate solution pairs prepared on the basis of approximate polynomial fits to experimental data, and for systematically dealing with nonzero interphase solubility.

  5. An Experiment to Measure Range, Range Straggling, Stopping Power, and Energy Straggling of Alpha Particles in Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouseph, P. J.; Mostovych, Andrew

    1978-01-01

    Experiments to measure range, range straggling, stopping power, and energy straggling of alpha particles are discussed in this article. Commercially available equipment with simple modifications is used for these measurements. (Author/GA)

  6. Extending the energy range of materials activation modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, R. A.

    2004-08-01

    Activation calculations are an essential contribution to understanding the interactions of fusion materials with neutrons. The existing state-of-the-art tools such as EASY-2003 enable calculations to be carried out with neutrons up to 20 MeV. Plans to expose fusion components to high neutron fluxes include the IFMIF materials testing facility. This accelerator-based device will produce neutrons with a high-energy tail up to about 55 MeV. In order to carry out activation calculations on materials exposed to such neutrons it is necessary to extend the energy range of the data libraries. An extension of the European Activation System (EASY) to a new version, EASY-2004, for testing has been completed. The existing reactions have been extended up to 60 MeV and new classes of reactions added using calculated cross sections. Results of preliminary calculations in an IFMIF relevant neutron field are given.

  7. a Multi-Beam Radio Transient Detector with Real-Time De-Dispersion Over a Wide DM Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, N.; D'Addario, L.; Navarro, R.; Trinh, J.

    Isolated, short dispersed pulses of radio emission of unknown origin have been reported and there is strong interest in wide-field, sensitive searches for such events. To achieve high sensitivity, large collecting area is needed and dispersion due to the interstellar medium should be removed. To survey a large part of the sky in reasonable time, a telescope that forms multiple simultaneous beams is desirable. We have developed a novel FPGA-based transient search engine that is suitable for these circumstances. It accepts short-integration-time spectral power measurements from each beam of the telescope, performs incoherent de-dispersion simultaneously for each of a wide range of dispersion measure (DM) values, and automatically searches the de-dispersed time series for pulse-like events. If the telescope provides buffering of the raw voltage samples of each beam, then our system can provide trigger signals to allow data in those buffers to be saved when a tentative detection occurs; this can be done with a latency of tens of ms, and only the buffers for beams with detections need to be saved. In one version of our implementation, intended for the ASKAP array of 36 antennas (currently under construction in Australia), 36 beams are simultaneously de-dispersed for 448 different DMs with an integration time of 1.0 ms. In the absence of such a multi-beam telescope, we have built a second version that handles up to 6 beams at 0.1 ms integration time and 512 DMs. We have deployed and tested this at a 34-m antenna of the Deep Space Network in Goldstone, California. A third version that processes up to 6 beams at an integration time of 2.0 ms and 1,024 DMs has been built and deployed at the Murchison Widefield Array telescope.

  8. Identification and Characterization of Highly Divergent Simian Foamy Viruses in a Wide Range of New World Primates from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Muniz, Cláudia P.; Troncoso, Lian L.; Moreira, Miguel A.; Soares, Esmeralda A.; Pissinatti, Alcides; Bonvicino, Cibele R.; Seuánez, Héctor N.; Sharma, Bechan; Jia, Hongwei; Shankar, Anupama; Switzer, William M.; Santos, André F.; Soares, Marcelo A.

    2013-01-01

    Foamy viruses naturally infect a wide range of mammals, including Old World (OWP) and New World primates (NWP), which are collectively called simian foamy viruses (SFV). While NWP species in Central and South America are highly diverse, only SFV from captive marmoset, spider monkey, and squirrel monkey have been genetically characterized and the molecular epidemiology of SFV infection in NWPs remains unknown. We tested a large collection of genomic DNA (n  = 332) comprising 14 genera of NWP species for the presence of SFV polymerase (pol) sequences using generic PCR primers. Further molecular characterization of positive samples was carried out by LTR-gag and larger pol sequence analysis. We identified novel SFVs infecting nine NWP genera. Prevalence rates varied between 14–30% in different species for which at least 10 specimens were tested. High SFV genetic diversity among NWP up to 50% in LTR-gag and 40% in pol was revealed by intragenus and intrafamilial comparisons. Two different SFV strains infecting two captive yellow-breasted capuchins did not group in species-specific lineages but rather clustered with SFVs from marmoset and spider monkeys, indicating independent cross-species transmission events. We describe the first SFV epidemiology study of NWP, and the first evidence of SFV infection in wild NWPs. We also document a wide distribution of distinct SFVs in 14 NWP genera, including two novel co-speciating SFVs in capuchins and howler monkeys, suggestive of an ancient evolutionary history in NWPs for at least 28 million years. A high SFV genetic diversity was seen among NWP, yet these viruses seem able to jump between NWP species and even genera. Our results raise concerns for the risk of zoonotic transmission of NWP SFV to humans as these primates are regularly hunted for food or kept as pets in forest regions of South America. PMID:23844033

  9. Neutron-proton effective range parameters and zero-energy shape dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackenburg, R. W.

    2006-04-01

    The low-energy np elastic-scattering parameters, including the zero-energy free-proton cross section σ0, are determined with a substantially improved precision over previous values, using available np-scattering data below 3 MeV. The method includes a careful handling of a correlation between the singlet and triplet effective ranges which does not seem to have been previously treated. This correlation is responsible for a large systematic error in the singlet effective range and spoils a model-independent determination of the zero-energy triplet effective range. It is shown that improved cross section measurements between 20 and 600 keV (laboratory neutron energy) are needed to overcome the degrading effect of this correlation. The values obtained for the zero-energy cross section and the scattering lengths and effective ranges for the singlet and triplet are: σ0=20.4278(78) b, at=5.4112(15) fm, as=-23.7148(43) fm, rt=1.7436(19) fm, rs=2.750(18) fm (systematic error: -0.059 fm). The widely used measurement of the zero-energy free-proton elastic cross section from W. Dilg, Phys. Rev. C 11, 103 (1975), appears to be in error.

  10. Crustal Structure across The North China Craton from long-range seismic wide angle reflection/refraction profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiaofeng; Wang, Fuyun; Jia, Shixu; Duan, Yonghong

    2014-05-01

    The North China Craton (NCC) is the oldest craton in China, which formed around 2.5Ga and had a 200 km thick lithosphere during the Paleozoic. The cratonic lithosphere of NCC has experienced strong thinning since the Mesozoic. In the past 30 years, a lot of excellent research about NCC have provided some different tectonic models, however, carton destruction is a sophisticated process. Though there have been many deep seismic sounding profiles in North China, but none of them is long enough to sample the complete section of thinned and preserved Craton. Recent long range seismic wide angle reflection/refraction experiment have provided the best opportunities to obtain better knowledge of seismic structure and properties of lithosphere. A 1500 km long wide angle reflection/refraction profile was completed in 2009. Our long range profile extends from west end of Ordos Plateau, across Shanxi Plateau, Taihang Mountains, to Luxi Uplift. We present a hybrid tomographic and layered velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle along the profile crossed whole the north China craton. The model shows the crustal thickness of the region is very variable. The Moho topography varies more than 10km in the Central part of the north China craton. In particular, the crust appears the thinnest in the North China Plain, where the crust consists of very thick upper-mid crust and very thin lower crust, and the lower crust is with a lower velocity (~6.8km/s). The Moho dip with thinner lower crust beneath the Shanxi plateau may support the Central NCC has been affected at some time since its formation in the Archean. Furthermore, the TFZ is manifested in the deep structure. Our model provide the seismic evidences supporting that the TFZ extend deep into the uppermost mantle. It is the hypothesis that TFZ is a major channel for asthenosphere upwelling accompanying the tectonic extension and lithospheric reactivation in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic time. The different structural features may

  11. Multicolor fluorescent graphene quantum dots colorimetrically responsive to all-pH and a wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Fanglong; Ding, Ling; Li, Yunchao; Li, Xiaohong; Fan, Louzhen; Zhou, Shixin; Fang, Decai; Yang, Shihe

    2015-07-01

    Smart functional nanomaterials colorimetrically responsive to all-pH and a wide temperature range are urgently needed due to their widespread applications in biotechnology, drug delivery, diagnosis and optical sensing. Although graphene quantum dots possess remarkable advantages in biological applications, they are only stable in neutral or weak acidic solutions, and strong acidic or alkaline conditions invariably suppress or diminish the fluorescence intensity. Herein, we report a new type of water-soluble, multicolor fluorescent graphene quantum dot which is responsive to all-pH from 1 to 14 with the naked eye. The synthesis was accomplished by electrolysis of the graphite rod, followed by refluxing in a concentrated nitric and sulfuric acid mixed solution. We demonstrate the novel red fluorescence of quinone structures transformed from the lactone structures under strong alkaline conditions. The fluorescence of the resulting graphene quantum dots was also found to be responsive to the temperature changes, demonstrating their great potential as a dual probe of pH and temperature in complicated environments such as biological media.Smart functional nanomaterials colorimetrically responsive to all-pH and a wide temperature range are urgently needed due to their widespread applications in biotechnology, drug delivery, diagnosis and optical sensing. Although graphene quantum dots possess remarkable advantages in biological applications, they are only stable in neutral or weak acidic solutions, and strong acidic or alkaline conditions invariably suppress or diminish the fluorescence intensity. Herein, we report a new type of water-soluble, multicolor fluorescent graphene quantum dot which is responsive to all-pH from 1 to 14 with the naked eye. The synthesis was accomplished by electrolysis of the graphite rod, followed by refluxing in a concentrated nitric and sulfuric acid mixed solution. We demonstrate the novel red fluorescence of quinone structures transformed

  12. EVIDENCE FOR A WIDE RANGE OF ULTRAVIOLET OBSCURATION IN z {approx} 2 DUSTY GALAXIES FROM THE GOODS-HERSCHEL SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, Kyle; Dickinson, Mark; Dey, Arjun; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Pope, Alexandra; Magnelli, Benjamin; Pannella, Maurilio; Aussel, Herve; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Buat, Veronique; Bussmann, Shane; Hwang, Ho Seong; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Lin Lihwai; Magdis, Georgios; Morrison, Glenn; and others

    2012-11-01

    Dusty galaxies at z {approx} 2 span a wide range of relative brightness between rest-frame mid-infrared (8 {mu}m) and ultraviolet wavelengths. We attempt to determine the physical mechanism responsible for this diversity. Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), which have rest-frame mid-IR to UV flux density ratios {approx}> 1000, might be abnormally bright in the mid-IR, perhaps due to prominent emission from active galactic nuclei and/or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or abnormally faint in the UV. We use far-infrared data from the GOODS-Herschel survey to show that most DOGs with 10{sup 12} L {sub Sun} {approx}< L {sub IR} {approx}< 10{sup 13} L {sub Sun} are not abnormally bright in the mid-IR when compared to other dusty galaxies with similar IR (8-1000 {mu}m) luminosities. We observe a relation between the median IR to UV luminosity ratios and the median UV continuum power-law indices for these galaxies, and we find that only 24% have specific star formation rates that indicate the dominance of compact star-forming regions. This circumstantial evidence supports the idea that the UV- and IR-emitting regions in these galaxies are spatially coincident, which implies a connection between the abnormal UV faintness of DOGs and dust obscuration. We conclude that the range in rest-frame mid-IR to UV flux density ratios spanned by dusty galaxies at z {approx} 2 is due to differing amounts of UV obscuration. Of galaxies with these IR luminosities, DOGs are the most obscured. We attribute differences in UV obscuration to either (1) differences in the degree of alignment between the spatial distributions of dust and massive stars or (2) differences in the total dust content.

  13. Simulating range-wide population and breeding habitat dynamics for an endangered woodland warbler in the face of uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adam Duarte; Hatfield, Jeffrey; Todd M. Swannack; Michael R. J. Forstner; M. Clay Green; Floyd W. Weckerly

    2015-01-01

    Population viability analyses provide a quantitative approach that seeks to predict the possible future status of a species of interest under different scenarios and, therefore, can be important components of large-scale species’ conservation programs. We created a model and simulated range-wide population and breeding habitat dynamics for an endangered woodland warbler, the golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia). Habitat-transition probabilities were estimated across the warbler's breeding range by combining National Land Cover Database imagery with multistate modeling. Using these estimates, along with recently published demographic estimates, we examined if the species can remain viable into the future given the current conditions. Lastly, we evaluated if protecting a greater amount of habitat would increase the number of warblers that can be supported in the future by systematically increasing the amount of protected habitat and comparing the estimated terminal carrying capacity at the end of 50 years of simulated habitat change. The estimated habitat-transition probabilities supported the hypothesis that habitat transitions are unidirectional, whereby habitat is more likely to diminish than regenerate. The model results indicated population viability could be achieved under current conditions, depending on dispersal. However, there is considerable uncertainty associated with the population projections due to parametric uncertainty. Model results suggested that increasing the amount of protected lands would have a substantial impact on terminal carrying capacities at the end of a 50-year simulation. Notably, this study identifies the need for collecting the data required to estimate demographic parameters in relation to changes in habitat metrics and population density in multiple regions, and highlights the importance of establishing a common definition of what constitutes protected habitat, what management goals are suitable within those protected

  14. Evidence for a Wide Range of Ultraviolet Obscuration in z ~ 2 Dusty Galaxies from the GOODS-Herschel Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penner, Kyle; Dickinson, Mark; Pope, Alexandra; Dey, Arjun; Magnelli, Benjamin; Pannella, Maurilio; Altieri, Bruno; Aussel, Herve; Buat, Veronique; Bussmann, Shane; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Coia, Daniela; Daddi, Emanuele; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Elbaz, David; Hwang, Ho Seong; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Lin, Lihwai; Magdis, Georgios; Morrison, Glenn; Popesso, Paola; Scott, Douglas; Valtchanov, Ivan

    2012-11-01

    Dusty galaxies at z ~ 2 span a wide range of relative brightness between rest-frame mid-infrared (8 μm) and ultraviolet wavelengths. We attempt to determine the physical mechanism responsible for this diversity. Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), which have rest-frame mid-IR to UV flux density ratios >~ 1000, might be abnormally bright in the mid-IR, perhaps due to prominent emission from active galactic nuclei and/or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or abnormally faint in the UV. We use far-infrared data from the GOODS-Herschel survey to show that most DOGs with 1012 L ⊙ <~ L IR <~ 1013 L ⊙ are not abnormally bright in the mid-IR when compared to other dusty galaxies with similar IR (8-1000 μm) luminosities. We observe a relation between the median IR to UV luminosity ratios and the median UV continuum power-law indices for these galaxies, and we find that only 24% have specific star formation rates that indicate the dominance of compact star-forming regions. This circumstantial evidence supports the idea that the UV- and IR-emitting regions in these galaxies are spatially coincident, which implies a connection between the abnormal UV faintness of DOGs and dust obscuration. We conclude that the range in rest-frame mid-IR to UV flux density ratios spanned by dusty galaxies at z ~ 2 is due to differing amounts of UV obscuration. Of galaxies with these IR luminosities, DOGs are the most obscured. We attribute differences in UV obscuration to either (1) differences in the degree of alignment between the spatial distributions of dust and massive stars or (2) differences in the total dust content. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  15. Ultra-compact and wide-spectrum-range thermo-optic switch based on silicon coupled photonic crystal microcavities

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xingyu E-mail: swapnajit.chakravarty@omegaoptics.com Chung, Chi-Jui; Pan, Zeyu; Yan, Hai; Chakravarty, Swapnajit E-mail: swapnajit.chakravarty@omegaoptics.com; Chen, Ray T. E-mail: swapnajit.chakravarty@omegaoptics.com

    2015-11-30

    We design, fabricate, and experimentally demonstrate a compact thermo-optic gate switch comprising a 3.78 μm-long coupled L0-type photonic crystal microcavities on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. A nanohole is inserted in the center of each individual L0 photonic crystal microcavity. Coupling between identical microcavities gives rise to bonding and anti-bonding states of the coupled photonic molecules. The coupled photonic crystal microcavities are numerically simulated and experimentally verified with a 6 nm-wide flat-bottom resonance in its transmission spectrum, which enables wider operational spectrum range than microring resonators. An integrated micro-heater is in direct contact with the silicon core to efficiently drive the device. The thermo-optic switch is measured with an optical extinction ratio of 20 dB, an on-off switching power of 18.2 mW, a thermo-optic tuning efficiency of 0.63 nm/mW, a rise time of 14.8 μs, and a fall time of 18.5 μs. The measured on-chip loss on the transmission band is as low as 1 dB.

  16. High anhydrous proton conductivity of imidazole-loaded mesoporous polyimides over a wide range from subzero to moderate temperature.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yingxiang; Zhang, Liuqin; Peng, Qinfang; Wang, Guan-E; Shen, Yangcan; Li, Ziyin; Wang, Lihua; Ma, Xiuling; Chen, Qian-Huo; Zhang, Zhangjing; Xiang, Shengchang

    2015-01-21

    On-board fuel cell technology requires proton conducting materials with high conductivity not only at intermediate temperatures for work but also at room temperature and even at subzero temperature for startup when exposed to the colder climate. To develop such materials is still challenging because many promising candidates for the proton transport on the basis of extended microstructures of water molecules suffer from significant damage by heat at temperatures above 80 °C or by freeze below -5 °C. Here we show imidazole loaded tetrahedral polyimides with mesopores and good stability (Im@Td-PNDI 1 and Im@Td-PPI 2) exhibiting a high anhydrous proton conductivity over a wide temperature range from -40 to 90 °C. Among all anhydrous proton conductors, the conductivity of 2 is the highest at temperatures below 40 °C and comparable with the best materials, His@[Al(OH)(1,4-ndc)]n and [Zn3(H2PO4)6(H2O)3](Hbim), above 40 °C. PMID:25551516

  17. Measurement of vortex velocities over a wide range of vortex age, downstream distance and free stream velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rorke, J. B.; Moffett, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted to obtain vortex velocity signatures over a wide parameter range encompassing the data conditions of several previous researchers while maintaining a common instrumentation and test facility. The generating wing panel was configured with both a revolved airfoil tip shape and a square tip shape and had a semispan aspect of 4.05/1.0 with a 121.9 cm span. Free stream velocity was varied from 6.1 m/sec to 76.2 m/sec and the vortex core velocities were measured at locations 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 chordlengths downstream of the wing trailing edge, yielding vortex ages up to 2.0 seconds. Wing pitch angles of 6, 8, 9 and 12 deg were investigated. Detailed surface pressure distributions and wing force measurements were obtained for each wing tip configuration. Correlation with vortex velocity data taken in previous experiments is good. During the rollup process, vortex core parameters appear to be dependent primarily on vortex age. Trending in the plateau and decay regions is more complex and the machanisms appear to be more unstable.

  18. Peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles stabilized by hyperbranched polyglycidol derivatives over a wide pH range.

    PubMed

    Drozd, Marcin; Pietrzak, Mariusz; Parzuchowski, Paweł; Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, Marta; Malinowska, Elżbieta

    2015-12-11

    The aim of this work was to carry out comparative studies on the peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) stabilized with low molecular weight hyperbranched polyglycidol (HBPG-OH) and its derivative modified with maleic acid residues (HBPG-COOH). The influence of the stabilizer to gold precursor ratio on the size and morphology of nanoparticles obtained was checked, and prepared nanoparticles were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results indicated the divergent effect of increasing the concentration of stabilizers (HBPG-OH or HBPG-COOH) on the size of the nanostructures obtained. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized as having intrinsic peroxidase-like activity and the mechanism of catalysis in acidic and alkaline mediums was consistent with the standard Michaelis-Menten kinetics, revealing a strong affinity of AuNPs with 2, 2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 3, 3', 5, 5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), and significantly lower affinity towards phenol. By comparing the kinetic parameters, a negligible effect of polymeric ligand charge on activity against various types of substrates (anionic or cationic) was indicated. The superiority of steric stabilization via the application of tested low-weight hyperbranched polymers over typical stabilizers in preventing salt-induced aggregation and maintaining high catalytic activity in time was proved. The applied hyperbranched stabilizers provide a good tool for manufacturing gold-based nanozymes, which are highly stable and active over a wide pH range. PMID:26567596

  19. Multiple fiber Bragg grating sensor network with a rapid response and wide spectral dynamic range using code division multiple access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngbok; Jeon, Sie-Wook; Park, Chang-Soo

    2011-05-01

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor networks have been intensively researched in optical sensor area and it developed in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and time division multiplexing (TDM) technologies which was adopted for its interrogating many optical sensors. In particular, WDM technology can be easily employed to interrogate FBG sensor however, the number of FBG sensors is limited. On the other hand, the TDM technique can extremely expand the number of sensor because the FBG sensors have same center wavelength. However, it suffers from a reduced sensor output power due to low reflectivity of FBG sensor. In this paper, we proposed and demonstrated the FBG sensor network based on code division multiple access (CDMA) with a rapid response and wide spectral dynamic range. The reflected semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) as a light source was directly modulated by the generated pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) code and the modulated signal is amplified and goes through FBG sensors via circulator. When the modulated optical signal experienced FBG sensor array, the optical signal which was consistent with center wavelength of FBGs is reflected and added from each sensors. The added signal goes into dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) as a dispersion medium. After through the DCF, the optical signal is converted into electrical signal by using photodetector (PD). For separate individual reflected sensor signal, the sliding correlation method was used. The proposed method improves the code interference and it also has advantages such as a large number of sensors, continuously measuring individual sensors, and decreasing the complexity of the sensor network.

  20. Wide linear-range detecting nonenzymatic glucose biosensor based on CuO nanoparticles inkjet-printed on electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rafiq; Vaseem, Mohammad; Tripathy, Nirmalya; Hahn, Yoon-Bong

    2013-11-01

    Inkjet-printed copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) on silver electrodes were used to fabricate the nonenzymatic glucose biosensor. The inkjet-printed CuO NPs electrodes produced high and reproducible sensitivity of 2762.5 μAm M(-1) cm(-2) at an applied potential of +0.60 V with the wide linear-detecting range of 0.05-18.45 mM and the detection limit of ~0.5 μM (S/N = 3). The long-term stability and reproducibility of sensor in glucose electro-oxidation resulted from the chemical stability of CuO NPs and pore-like structure formed on Ag surface, which prevented the CuO NPs from conglomeration and the interference of oxygen in the air. Significantly, the effect of interfering species, such as AA, UA, and DA were negligible, whereas sugar derivatives (lactose, fructose, and mannose) show insignificant interference. Finally, the electrode was applied to analyze glucose concentration in human serum samples. PMID:24070377

  1. Parallel Mutations Result in a Wide Range of Cooperation and Community Consequences in a Two-Species Bacterial Consortium.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Sarah M; Chubiz, Lon M; Harcombe, William R; Ytreberg, F Marty; Marx, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Multi-species microbial communities play a critical role in human health, industry, and waste remediation. Recently, the evolution of synthetic consortia in the laboratory has enabled adaptation to be addressed in the context of interacting species. Using an engineered bacterial consortium, we repeatedly evolved cooperative genotypes and examined both the predictability of evolution and the phenotypes that determine community dynamics. Eight Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains evolved methionine excretion sufficient to support growth of an Escherichia coli methionine auxotroph, from whom they required excreted growth substrates. Non-synonymous mutations in metA, encoding homoserine trans-succinylase (HTS), were detected in each evolved S. enterica methionine cooperator and were shown to be necessary for cooperative consortia growth. Molecular modeling was used to predict that most of the non-synonymous mutations slightly increase the binding affinity for HTS homodimer formation. Despite this genetic parallelism and trend of increasing protein binding stability, these metA alleles gave rise to a wide range of phenotypic diversity in terms of individual versus group benefit. The cooperators with the highest methionine excretion permitted nearly two-fold faster consortia growth and supported the highest fraction of E. coli, yet also had the slowest individual growth rates compared to less cooperative strains. Thus, although the genetic basis of adaptation was quite similar across independent origins of cooperative phenotypes, quantitative measurements of metabolite production were required to predict either the individual-level growth consequences or how these propagate to community-level behavior. PMID:27617746

  2. Optimization of statistical methods for HpGe gamma-ray spectrometer used in wide count rate ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervino, G.; Mana, G.; Palmisano, C.

    2016-07-01

    The need to perform γ-ray measurements with HpGe detectors is a common technique in many fields such as nuclear physics, radiochemistry, nuclear medicine and neutron activation analysis. The use of HpGe detectors is chosen in situations where isotope identification is needed because of their excellent resolution. Our challenge is to obtain the "best" spectroscopy data possible in every measurement situation. "Best" is a combination of statistical (number of counts) and spectral quality (peak, width and position) over a wide range of counting rates. In this framework, we applied Bayesian methods and the Ellipsoidal Nested Sampling (a multidimensional integration technique) to study the most likely distribution for the shape of HpGe spectra. In treating these experiments, the prior information suggests to model the likelihood function with a product of Poisson distributions. We present the efforts that have been done in order to optimize the statistical methods to HpGe detector outputs with the aim to evaluate to a better order of precision the detector efficiency, the absolute measured activity and the spectra background. Reaching a more precise knowledge of statistical and systematic uncertainties for the measured physical observables is the final goal of this research project.

  3. Population structure over a broad spatial scale driven by nonanthropogenic factors in a wide-ranging migratory mammal, Alaskan caribou.

    PubMed

    Mager, Karen H; Colson, Kevin E; Groves, Pam; Hundertmark, Kris J

    2014-12-01

    Wide-ranging mammals face significant conservation threats, and knowledge of the spatial scale of population structure and its drivers is needed to understand processes that maintain diversity in these species. We analysed DNA from 655 Alaskan caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) from 20 herds that vary in population size, used 19 microsatellite loci to document genetic diversity and differentiation in Alaskan caribou, and examined the extent to which genetic differentiation was associated with hypothesized drivers of population subdivision including landscape features, population size and ecotype. We found that Alaskan caribou are subdivided into two hierarchically structured clusters: one group on the Alaska Peninsula containing discrete herds and one large group on the Mainland lacking differentiation between many herds. Population size, geographic distance, migratory ecotype and the Kvichak River at the nexus of the Alaska Peninsula were associated with genetic differentiation. Contrary to previous hypotheses, small Mainland herds were often differentiated genetically from large interconnected herds nearby, and genetic drift coupled with reduced gene flow may explain this pattern. Our results raise the possibility that behaviour helps to maintain genetic differentiation between some herds of different ecotypes. Alaskan caribou show remarkably high diversity and low differentiation over a broad geographic scale. These results increase information for the conservation of caribou and other migratory mammals threatened by population reductions and landscape barriers and may be broadly applicable to understanding the spatial scale and ecological drivers of population structure in widespread species. PMID:25403098

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF SUPERIOR SORBENTS FOR SEPARATION OF CO2 FROM FLUE GAS AT A WIDE TEMPERATURE RANGE DURING COAL COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    Panagiotis G. Smirniotis

    2005-01-30

    For this part of the project the studies focused on the development of novel sorbents for reducing the carbon dioxide emissions at high temperatures. Our studies focused on cesium doped CaO sorbents with respect to other major flue gas compounds in a wide temperature range. The thermo-gravimetric analysis of sorbents with loadings of CaO doped on 20 wt% cesium demonstrated high CO{sub 2} sorption uptakes (up to 66 wt% CO{sub 2}/sorbent). It is remarkable to note that zero adsorption affinity for N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and NO at temperatures as high as 600 C was observed. For water vapor and nitrogen oxide we observed a positive effect for CO{sub 2} adsorption. In the presence of steam, the CO{sub 2} adsorption increased to the highest adsorption capacity of 77 wt% CO{sub 2}/sorbent. In the presence of nitrogen oxide, the final CO{sub 2} uptake remained same, but the rate of adsorption was higher at the initial stages (10%) than the case where no nitrogen oxide was fed.

  5. A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Transitional Flows in Low-Pressure Turbines under a Wide Range of Operating Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzen, Y. B.; Huang, P. G.; Ashpis, D. E.; Volino, R. J.; Corke, T. C.; Thomas, F. O.; Huang, J.; Lake, J. P.; King, P. I.

    2007-01-01

    A transport equation for the intermittency factor is employed to predict the transitional flows in low-pressure turbines. The intermittent behavior of the transitional flows is taken into account and incorporated into computations by modifying the eddy viscosity, mu(sub p) with the intermittency factor, gamma. Turbulent quantities are predicted using Menter's two-equation turbulence model (SST). The intermittency factor is obtained from a transport equation model which can produce both the experimentally observed streamwise variation of intermittency and a realistic profile in the cross stream direction. The model had been previously validated against low-pressure turbine experiments with success. In this paper, the model is applied to predictions of three sets of recent low-pressure turbine experiments on the Pack B blade to further validate its predicting capabilities under various flow conditions. Comparisons of computational results with experimental data are provided. Overall, good agreement between the experimental data and computational results is obtained. The new model has been shown to have the capability of accurately predicting transitional flows under a wide range of low-pressure turbine conditions.

  6. Quality of Education Predicts Performance on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition Word Reading Subtest

    PubMed Central

    Sayegh, Philip; Arentoft, Alyssa; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Dean, Andy C.; Thames, April D.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether self-rated education quality predicts Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition (WRAT-4) Word Reading subtest and neurocognitive performance, and aimed to establish this subtest's construct validity as an educational quality measure. In a community-based adult sample (N = 106), we tested whether education quality both increased the prediction of Word Reading scores beyond demographic variables and predicted global neurocognitive functioning after adjusting for WRAT-4. As expected, race/ethnicity and education predicted WRAT-4 reading performance. Hierarchical regression revealed that when including education quality, the amount of WRAT-4's explained variance increased significantly, with race/ethnicity and both education quality and years as significant predictors. Finally, WRAT-4 scores, but not education quality, predicted neurocognitive performance. Results support WRAT-4 Word Reading as a valid proxy measure for education quality and a key predictor of neurocognitive performance. Future research should examine these findings in larger, more diverse samples to determine their robust nature. PMID:25404004

  7. Quality of education predicts performance on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition Word Reading subtest.

    PubMed

    Sayegh, Philip; Arentoft, Alyssa; Thaler, Nicholas S; Dean, Andy C; Thames, April D

    2014-12-01

    The current study examined whether self-rated education quality predicts Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition (WRAT-4) Word Reading subtest and neurocognitive performance, and aimed to establish this subtest's construct validity as an educational quality measure. In a community-based adult sample (N = 106), we tested whether education quality both increased the prediction of Word Reading scores beyond demographic variables and predicted global neurocognitive functioning after adjusting for WRAT-4. As expected, race/ethnicity and education predicted WRAT-4 reading performance. Hierarchical regression revealed that when including education quality, the amount of WRAT-4's explained variance increased significantly, with race/ethnicity and both education quality and years as significant predictors. Finally, WRAT-4 scores, but not education quality, predicted neurocognitive performance. Results support WRAT-4 Word Reading as a valid proxy measure for education quality and a key predictor of neurocognitive performance. Future research should examine these findings in larger, more diverse samples to determine their robust nature. PMID:25404004

  8. Management of frontotemporal dementia: targeting symptom management in such a heterogeneous disease requires a wide range of therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Jicha, Gregory A; Nelson, Peter T

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY There are no US FDA-approved therapies for the management of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Evidence-based medicine that would support a FDA indication for the treatment of FTD requires large-scale, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials that do not currently exist. Progress in obtaining approval and therapeutic indications for FTD has been severely hampered by the heterogeneity of clinical and pathological phenotypes seen in various FTD disease states. These issues are often misinterpreted by clinicians, caregivers and patients suggesting that potential treatment options are nonexistent for this devastating disease. This article discusses these issues in the context of recent studies and publications investigating therapeutic options in FTD, and further suggests a rationale for individualized therapy in FTD. Targeting the myriad of symptoms seen in FTD requires recognition of such symptoms that may play primary or secondary roles in the spectrum of deficits that lead to functional disability in FTD, and the availability of a wide range of therapeutic options that may be helpful in alleviating such symptomatology. Fortunately, agents targeting the many cognitive, behavioral, psychiatric and motor symptoms that can be seen in FTD are readily available, having been previously developed and approved for symptomatic benefit in other disease states. In contrast to the widespread belief that beneficial treatments are not available for FTD today, our therapeutic armament is stocked with pharmacological tools that may improve quality of life for those suffering from this devastating and incurable class of degenerative diseases. PMID:21927623

  9. Expressed repeat elements improve RT-qPCR normalization across a wide range of zebrafish gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Vanhauwaert, Suzanne; Van Peer, Gert; Rihani, Ali; Janssens, Els; Rondou, Pieter; Lefever, Steve; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul J; Speleman, Frank; Vandesompele, Jo; Willaert, Andy

    2014-01-01

    The selection and validation of stably expressed reference genes is a critical issue for proper RT-qPCR data normalization. In zebrafish expression studies, many commonly used reference genes are not generally applicable given their variability in expression levels under a variety of experimental conditions. Inappropriate use of these reference genes may lead to false interpretation of expression data and unreliable conclusions. In this study, we evaluated a novel normalization method in zebrafish using expressed repetitive elements (ERE) as reference targets, instead of specific protein coding mRNA targets. We assessed and compared the expression stability of a number of EREs to that of commonly used zebrafish reference genes in a diverse set of experimental conditions including a developmental time series, a set of different organs from adult fish and different treatments of zebrafish embryos including morpholino injections and administration of chemicals. Using geNorm and rank aggregation analysis we demonstrated that EREs have a higher overall expression stability compared to the commonly used reference genes. Moreover, we propose a limited set of ERE reference targets (hatn10, dna15ta1 and loopern4), that show stable expression throughout the wide range of experiments in this study, as strong candidates for inclusion as reference targets for qPCR normalization in future zebrafish expression studies. Our applied strategy to find and evaluate candidate expressed repeat elements for RT-qPCR data normalization has high potential to be used also for other species. PMID:25310091

  10. Expressed Repeat Elements Improve RT-qPCR Normalization across a Wide Range of Zebrafish Gene Expression Studies

    PubMed Central

    Vanhauwaert, Suzanne; Van Peer, Gert; Rihani, Ali; Janssens, Els; Rondou, Pieter; Lefever, Steve; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul J.; Speleman, Frank; Vandesompele, Jo; Willaert, Andy

    2014-01-01

    The selection and validation of stably expressed reference genes is a critical issue for proper RT-qPCR data normalization. In zebrafish expression studies, many commonly used reference genes are not generally applicable given their variability in expression levels under a variety of experimental conditions. Inappropriate use of these reference genes may lead to false interpretation of expression data and unreliable conclusions. In this study, we evaluated a novel normalization method in zebrafish using expressed repetitive elements (ERE) as reference targets, instead of specific protein coding mRNA targets. We assessed and compared the expression stability of a number of EREs to that of commonly used zebrafish reference genes in a diverse set of experimental conditions including a developmental time series, a set of different organs from adult fish and different treatments of zebrafish embryos including morpholino injections and administration of chemicals. Using geNorm and rank aggregation analysis we demonstrated that EREs have a higher overall expression stability compared to the commonly used reference genes. Moreover, we propose a limited set of ERE reference targets (hatn10, dna15ta1 and loopern4), that show stable expression throughout the wide range of experiments in this study, as strong candidates for inclusion as reference targets for qPCR normalization in future zebrafish expression studies. Our applied strategy to find and evaluate candidate expressed repeat elements for RT-qPCR data normalization has high potential to be used also for other species. PMID:25310091

  11. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in a Legacy Collection of Spring Barley Landraces Adapted to a Wide Range of Climates

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Alexander; Özkan, Hakan; Graner, Andreas; Kilian, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Global environmental change and increasing human population emphasize the urgent need for higher yielding and better adapted crop plants. One strategy to achieve this aim is to exploit the wealth of so called landraces of crop species, representing diverse traditional domesticated populations of locally adapted genotypes. In this study, we investigated a comprehensive set of 1485 spring barley landraces (Lrc1485) adapted to a wide range of climates, which were selected from one of the largest genebanks worldwide. The landraces originated from 5° to 62.5° N and 16° to 71° E. The whole collection was genotyped using 42 SSR markers to assess the genetic diversity and population structure. With an average allelic richness of 5.74 and 372 alleles, Lrc1485 harbours considerably more genetic diversity than the most polymorphic current GWAS panel for barley. Ten major clusters defined most of the population structure based on geographical origin, row type of the ear and caryopsis type – and were assigned to specific climate zones. The legacy core reference set Lrc648 established in this study will provide a long-lasting resource and a very valuable tool for the scientific community. Lrc648 is best suited for multi-environmental field testing to identify candidate genes underlying quantitative traits but also for allele mining approaches. PMID:25541702

  12. Multicolor fluorescent graphene quantum dots colorimetrically responsive to all-pH and a wide temperature range.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fanglong; Ding, Ling; Li, Yunchao; Li, Xiaohong; Fan, Louzhen; Zhou, Shixin; Fang, Decai; Yang, Shihe

    2015-07-21

    Smart functional nanomaterials colorimetrically responsive to all-pH and a wide temperature range are urgently needed due to their widespread applications in biotechnology, drug delivery, diagnosis and optical sensing. Although graphene quantum dots possess remarkable advantages in biological applications, they are only stable in neutral or weak acidic solutions, and strong acidic or alkaline conditions invariably suppress or diminish the fluorescence intensity. Herein, we report a new type of water-soluble, multicolor fluorescent graphene quantum dot which is responsive to all-pH from 1 to 14 with the naked eye. The synthesis was accomplished by electrolysis of the graphite rod, followed by refluxing in a concentrated nitric and sulfuric acid mixed solution. We demonstrate the novel red fluorescence of quinone structures transformed from the lactone structures under strong alkaline conditions. The fluorescence of the resulting graphene quantum dots was also found to be responsive to the temperature changes, demonstrating their great potential as a dual probe of pH and temperature in complicated environments such as biological media. PMID:26102292

  13. Conservation genetics of the alligator snapping turtle: cytonuclear evidence of range-wide bottleneck effects and unusually pronounced geographic structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Echelle, A.A.; Hackler, J.C.; Lack, Justin B.; Ballard, S. R.; Roman, J.; Fox, S. F.; Leslie,, David M., Jr.; Van Den Bussche, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    A previous mtDNA study indicated that female-mediated gene flow was extremely rare among alligator snapping turtle populations in different drainages of the Gulf of Mexico. In this study, we used variation at seven microsatellite DNA loci to assess the possibility of male-mediated gene flow, we augmented the mtDNA survey with additional sampling of the large Mississippi River System, and we evaluated the hypothesis that the consistently low within-population mtDNA diversity reflects past population bottlenecks. The results show that dispersal between drainages of the Gulf of Mexico is rare (F STmsat  = 0.43, ΦSTmtDNA = 0.98). Past range-wide bottlenecks are indicated by several genetic signals, including low diversity for microsatellites (1.1–3.9 alleles/locus; H e = 0.06–0.53) and mtDNA (h = 0.00 for most drainages; π = 0.000–0.001). Microsatellite data reinforce the conclusion from mtDNA that the Suwannee River population might eventually be recognized as a distinct taxonomic unit. It was the only population showing fixation or near fixation for otherwise rare microsatellite alleles. Six evolutionarily significant units are recommended on the basis of reciprocal mtDNA monophyly and high levels of microsatellite DNA divergence.

  14. Plasmid integration in a wide range of bacteria mediated by the integrase of Lactobacillus delbrueckii bacteriophage mv4.

    PubMed Central

    Auvray, F; Coddeville, M; Ritzenthaler, P; Dupont, L

    1997-01-01

    Bacteriophage mv4 is a temperate phage infecting Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. During lysogenization, the phage integrates its genome into the host chromosome at the 3' end of a tRNA(Ser) gene through a site-specific recombination process (L. Dupont et al., J. Bacteriol., 177:586-595, 1995). A nonreplicative vector (pMC1) based on the mv4 integrative elements (attP site and integrase-coding int gene) is able to integrate into the chromosome of a wide range of bacterial hosts, including Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei (two strains), Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Integrative recombination of pMC1 into the chromosomes of all of these species is dependent on the int gene product and occurs specifically at the pMC1 attP site. The isolation and sequencing of pMC1 integration sites from these bacteria showed that in lactobacilli, pMC1 integrated into the conserved tRNA(Ser) gene. In the other bacterial species where this tRNA gene is less or not conserved; secondary integration sites either in potential protein-coding regions or in intergenic DNA were used. A consensus sequence was deduced from the analysis of the different integration sites. The comparison of these sequences demonstrated the flexibility of the integrase for the bacterial integration site and suggested the importance of the trinucleotide CCT at the 5' end of the core in the strand exchange reaction. PMID:9068626

  15. A generalized viscoelastic Biot/squirt model for clay-bearing sandstones in a wide range of permeabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Jianxin; Yang, Dinghui; Yang, Huizhu

    2008-12-01

    To simultaneously take into account the Biot-flow mechanism, the squirt-flow mechanism, and the frame-viscoelasticity mechanism, a generalized viscoelastic BISQ (Biot/squirt) model is developed for wave propagation in clay-bearing sandstones based on Dvorkin’s elastic BISQ model. The present model is extended to a wide range of permeabilities ( k > 0.05 mD) by introducing a dimensionless correction factor for viscoelastic parameters, defined as a function of the permeability and the clay content. We describe the frame’s stress-strain relationship of the clay-bearing sandstones by the differential constitutive equations of generalized viscoelasticity and then derive the viscoelastic-wave dynamic equations. With the assumption of a plane-wave solution, we finally yield the phase velocities and the attenuation coefficients by solving the dynamic wave equations in the frequency and wave number domain. The comparison of numerical results and experimental data shows that the generalized viscoelastic BISQ model is applicable for modeling the wave propagation in most of the sandstones mainly bearing kaolinite clay.

  16. The electron and spin polarized transport in wide-voltage-ranges through colbaltporphyrin-based molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jue-Fei; Yan, Qiang; Zhou, Liping; Han, Qin; Gao, Lei

    2016-02-01

    The electron and spin polarized transport properties of Co benzene-porphyrin-benzene (BPB) molecule coupled to gold (Au) nanowires in a wide voltage range (0-3.0 V) are investigated. By successively removing the front-end Au atoms, we construct Au nanowires with different molecule-electrode contact symmetries. Multiple negative differential resistance (NDR) peaks emerge at different bias voltage regions. It is found that the low-voltage NDR effect at 0.4 V can only be found in the junctions with S-Au top bindings. High-bias NDR effects intrinsic to central molecule at 2.8 V are observed in all the six structures. In particular, both the electron and spin polarized current-voltage (I-V) curves depend strongly on the contact configurations between Co-BPB molecule and the Au electrodes. And the top-binding may result in spin dependent transport properties and will be the priority selection in the design of molecular devices.

  17. The electron and spin polarized transport in wide-voltage-ranges through colbaltporphyrin-based molecular junctions.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jue-Fei; Yan, Qiang; Zhou, Liping; Han, Qin; Gao, Lei

    2016-02-28

    The electron and spin polarized transport properties of Co benzene-porphyrin-benzene (BPB) molecule coupled to gold (Au) nanowires in a wide voltage range (0-3.0 V) are investigated. By successively removing the front-end Au atoms, we construct Au nanowires with different molecule-electrode contact symmetries. Multiple negative differential resistance (NDR) peaks emerge at different bias voltage regions. It is found that the low-voltage NDR effect at 0.4 V can only be found in the junctions with S-Au top bindings. High-bias NDR effects intrinsic to central molecule at 2.8 V are observed in all the six structures. In particular, both the electron and spin polarized current-voltage (I-V) curves depend strongly on the contact configurations between Co-BPB molecule and the Au electrodes. And the top-binding may result in spin dependent transport properties and will be the priority selection in the design of molecular devices. PMID:26931718

  18. Temperature and frequency characteristics of low-loss MnZn ferrite in a wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ke; Lan, Zhongwen; Yu, Zhong; Xu, Zhiyong; Jiang, Xiaona; Wang, Zihui; Liu, Zhi; Luo, Ming

    2011-05-01

    A low-loss Mn0.7Zn0.24Fe2.06O4 ferrite has been prepared by a solid-state reaction method. The MnZn ferrite has a high initial permeability, μi (3097), a high saturation induction, Bs (526 mT), a high Curie temperature, Tc (220 °C), and a low core loss, PL (≤ 415 kW/m3) in a wide temperature (25-120 °C) and frequency (10-100 kHz) range. As the temperature increases, an initial decrease followed by a subsequent increase of hysteresis loss, Ph, and eddy current loss, Pe is observed. Both Ph and Pe increase with increasing frequency. When f ≥ 300 kHz, a residual loss, Pr, appears. Pe increases with increasing temperature and frequency. The temperature and frequency dependence of Ph can be explained by irreversible domain wall movements, Pe by the skin effect, and Pr by domain wall resonance, respectively.

  19. Characteristics of an OSLD in the diagnostic energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Senan, Rani M.; Hatab, Mustapha R.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry has been recently introduced in radiation therapy as a potential alternative to the thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) system. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using OSL point dosimeters in the energy range used in diagnostic imaging. Methods: NanoDot OSL dosimeters (OSLDs) were used in this study, which started with testing the homogeneity of a new packet of nanoDots. Reproducibility and the effect of optical treatment (bleaching) were then examined, followed by an investigation of the effect of accumulated dose on the OSLD indicated doses. OSLD linearity, angular dependence, and energy dependence were also studied. Furthermore, comparison with LiF:Mg,Ti TLD chips using standard CT dose phantoms at 80 and 120 kVp settings was performed. Results: Batch homogeneity showed a coefficient of variation of <5%. Single-irradiation measurements with bleaching after each OSL readout was found to be associated with a 3.3% reproducibility (one standard deviation measured with a 8 mGy test dose), and no systematic change in OSLDs sensitivity could be noted from measurement to measurement. In contrast, the multiple-irradiation readout without bleaching in between measurements was found to be associated with an uncertainty (using a 6 mGy test dose) that systematically increased with accumulated dose, reaching 42% at 82 mGy. Good linearity was shown by nanoDots under general x-ray, CT, and mammography units with an R{sup 2} > 0.99. The angular dependence test showed a drop of approximately 70% in the OSLD response at 90 deg. in mammography (25 kVp). With the general radiography unit, the maximum drop was 40% at 80 kVp and 20% at 120 kVp, and it was only 10% with CT at both 80 and 120 kVp. The energy dependence study showed a range of ion chamber-to-OSLDs ratios between 0.81 and 1.56, at the energies investigated (29-62 keV). A paired t-test for comparing the OSLDs and TLDs showed no significant

  20. Advanced Range Safety System for High Energy Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claxton, Jeffrey S.; Linton, Donald F.

    2002-01-01

    The advanced range safety system project is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the United States Air Force to develop systems that would reduce costs and schedule for safety approval for new classes of unmanned high-energy vehicles. The mission-planning feature for this system would yield flight profiles that satisfy the mission requirements for the user while providing an increased quality of risk assessment, enhancing public safety. By improving the speed and accuracy of predicting risks to the public, mission planners would be able to expand flight envelopes significantly. Once in place, this system is expected to offer the flexibility of handling real-time risk management for the high-energy capabilities of hypersonic vehicles including autonomous return-from-orbit vehicles and extended flight profiles over land. Users of this system would include mission planners of Space Launch Initiative vehicles, space planes, and other high-energy vehicles. The real-time features of the system could make extended flight of a malfunctioning vehicle possible, in lieu of an immediate terminate decision. With this improved capability, the user would have more time for anomaly resolution and potential recovery of a malfunctioning vehicle.

  1. Wide spectral range multiple orders and half-wave achromatic phase retarders fabricated from two lithium tantalite single crystal plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emam-Ismail, M.

    2015-11-01

    In a broad spectral range (300-2500 nm), we report the use of channeled spectra formed from the interference of polarized white light to extract the dispersion of the phase birefringence Δnp(λ) of the x- and y-cuts of lithium tantalite (LiTaO3:LT) plates. A new method named as wavenumber difference method is used to extract the spectral behavior of the phase birefringence of the x- and y- cuts of LT plates. The correctness of the obtained birefringence data is confirmed by using Jones vector method through recalculating the plates thicknesses. The spectral variation of the phase birefringence Δnp(λ) of the x- and y-cuts of LT plates is fitted to Cauchy dispersion function with relative error for both x- and y-cuts of order 2.4×10-4. The group birefringence dispersion Δng (λ) of the x- and y-cuts of LT plates is also calculated and fitted to Ghosh dispersion function with relative error for both x- and y-cuts of order 2.83×10-4. Furthermore, the phase retardation introduced by the x- and y-cuts of LT plates is also calculated. It is found that the amount of phase retardation confirms that the x- and y-cuts of LT plates can act as a multiple order half- and quarter-wave plates working at many different wavelengths through the spectral range 300-2500 nm. For the x- and y-cuts of LT plates, a large difference between group and phase birefringence is observed at a short wavelength (λ=300 nm); while such difference progressively diminished at longer wavelength (λ=2000 nm). In the near infrared region (NIR) region (700-2500 nm), a broad spectral full width at half maximum (FWHM) is observed for either x- or y-cut of LT plate which can act as if it is working as a zero order wave plate. Finally, an achromatic half-wave plate working at 598 nm and covering a wide spectral range (300-900 nm) is demonstrated experimentally by combining both x- and y-cuts of LT plates.

  2. A spectroscopic and computational study of Al(III) complexes in sodium cryolite melts: Ionic composition in a wide range of cryolite ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazmutdinov, Renat R.; Zinkicheva, Tamara T.; Vassiliev, Sergey Yu.; Glukhov, Dmitri V.; Tsirlina, Galina A.; Probst, Michael

    2010-04-01

    The structure of sodium cryolite melts was studied using Raman spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations performed at the density functional theory level. The existence of bridged forms in the melts was argued first from the analysis of experimental Raman spectra. In the quantum chemical modelling emphasis was put on the construction of potential energy surfaces describing the formation/dissociation of certain complex species. Effects of the ionic environment were found to play a crucial role in the energetics of model processes. The structure of the simplest possible polymeric forms involving two Al centres linked through F atoms ("dimers") was thoroughly investigated. The calculated equilibrium constants and model Raman spectra yield additional evidence in favour of the dimers. This agrees with a self-consistent analysis of a series of Raman spectra for a wide range of the melt composition.

  3. A spectroscopic and computational study of Al(III) complexes in sodium cryolite melts: ionic composition in a wide range of cryolite ratios.

    PubMed

    Nazmutdinov, Renat R; Zinkicheva, Tamara T; Vassiliev, Sergey Yu; Glukhov, Dmitri V; Tsirlina, Galina A; Probst, Michael

    2010-04-01

    The structure of sodium cryolite melts was studied using Raman spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations performed at the density functional theory level. The existence of bridged forms in the melts was argued first from the analysis of experimental Raman spectra. In the quantum chemical modelling emphasis was put on the construction of potential energy surfaces describing the formation/dissociation of certain complex species. Effects of the ionic environment were found to play a crucial role in the energetics of model processes. The structure of the simplest possible polymeric forms involving two Al centres linked through F atoms ("dimers") was thoroughly investigated. The calculated equilibrium constants and model Raman spectra yield additional evidence in favour of the dimers. This agrees with a self-consistent analysis of a series of Raman spectra for a wide range of the melt composition. PMID:20149721

  4. OBSERVATIONS OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES FROM {sup 3}He-RICH EVENTS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF HELIOGRAPHIC LONGITUDE

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Mason, G. M.; Haggerty, D. K; Cohen, C. M. S.; Nitta, N. V.; Gomez-Herrero, R.

    2013-01-01

    A prevailing model for the origin of {sup 3}He-rich solar energetic particle (SEP) events attributes particle acceleration to processes associated with the reconnection between closed magnetic field lines in an active region and neighboring open field lines. The open field from the small reconnection volume then provides a path along which accelerated particles escape into a relatively narrow range of angles in the heliosphere. The narrow width (standard deviation <20 Degree-Sign ) of the distribution of X-ray flare longitudes found to be associated with {sup 3}He-rich SEP events detected at a single spacecraft at 1 AU supports this model. We report multispacecraft observations of individual {sup 3}He-rich SEP events that occurred during the solar minimum time period from 2007 January through 2011 January using instrumentation carried by the two Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft and the Advanced Composition Explorer. We find that detections of {sup 3}He-rich events at pairs of spacecraft are not uncommon, even when their longitudinal separation is >60 Degree-Sign . We present the observations of the {sup 3}He-rich event of 2010 February 7, which was detected at all three spacecraft when they spanned 136 Degree-Sign in heliographic longitude. Measured fluences of {sup 3}He in this event were found to have a strong dependence on longitude which is well fit by a Gaussian with standard deviation {approx}48 Degree-Sign centered at the longitude that is connected to the source region by a nominal Parker spiral magnetic field. We discuss several mechanisms for distributing flare-accelerated particles over a wide range of heliographic longitudes including interplanetary diffusion perpendicular to the magnetic field, spreading of a compact cluster of open field lines between the active region and the source surface where the field becomes radial and opens out into the heliosphere, and distortion of the interplanetary field by a preceding coronal mass

  5. The interaction of intraspecific competition and habitat on individual diet specialization: a near range-wide examination of sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newsome, Seth D.; Tinker, M. Tim; Gill, Verena A.; Hoyt, Zachary N.; Doroff, Angela; Nichol, Linda; Bodkin, James L.

    2015-01-01

    The quantification of individuality is a common research theme in the fields of population, community, and evolutionary ecology. The potential for individuality to arise is likely context-dependent, and the influence of habitat characteristics on its prevalence has received less attention than intraspecific competition. We examined individual diet specialization in 16 sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations from southern California to the Aleutian Islands in Alaska. Because population histories, relative densities, and habitat characteristics vary widely among sites, we could examine the effects of intraspecific competition and habitat on the prevalence of individual diet specialization. Using observed diet data, we classified half of our sites as rocky substrate habitats and the other half containing a mixture of rocky and unconsolidated (soft) sediment substrates. We used stable isotope data to quantify population- and individual-level diet variation. Among rocky substrate sites, the slope [±standard error (SE)] of the positive significant relationship between the within-individual component (WIC) and total isotopic niche width (TINW) was shallow (0.23 ± 0.07) and negatively correlated with sea otter density. In contrast, the slope of the positive WIC/TINW relationship for populations inhabiting mixed substrate habitats was much higher (0.53 ± 0.14), suggesting a low degree of individuality, irrespective of intraspecific competition. Our results show that the potential for individuality to occur as a result of increasing intraspecific competition is context-dependent and that habitat characteristics, which ultimately influence prey diversity, relative abundance, and the range of skillsets required for efficient prey procurement, are important in determining when and where individual diet specialization occurs in nature.

  6. Information and redundancy in the burial folding code of globular proteins within a wide range of shapes and sizes.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Diogo C; van der Linden, Marx G; de Oliveira, Leandro C; Onuchic, José N; Pereira de Araújo, Antônio F

    2016-04-01

    Recent ab initio folding simulations for a limited number of small proteins have corroborated a previous suggestion that atomic burial information obtainable from sequence could be sufficient for tertiary structure determination when combined to sequence-independent geometrical constraints. Here, we use simulations parameterized by native burials to investigate the required amount of information in a diverse set of globular proteins comprising different structural classes and a wide size range. Burial information is provided by a potential term pushing each atom towards one among a small number L of equiprobable concentric layers. An upper bound for the required information is provided by the minimal number of layers L(min) still compatible with correct folding behavior. We obtain L(min) between 3 and 5 for seven small to medium proteins with 50 ≤ Nr  ≤ 110 residues while for a larger protein with Nr  = 141 we find that L ≥ 6 is required to maintain native stability. We additionally estimate the usable redundancy for a given L ≥ L(min) from the burial entropy associated to the largest folding-compatible fraction of "superfluous" atoms, for which the burial term can be turned off or target layers can be chosen randomly. The estimated redundancy for small proteins with L = 4 is close to 0.8. Our results are consistent with the above-average quality of burial predictions used in previous simulations and indicate that the fraction of approachable proteins could increase significantly with even a mild, plausible, improvement on sequence-dependent burial prediction or on sequence-independent constraints that augment the detectable redundancy during simulations. Proteins 2016; 84:515-531. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26815167

  7. Local administration of resveratrol inhibits excitability of nociceptive wide-dynamic range neurons in rat trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Yoshihito; Shibuya, Eri; Takehana, Shiori; Sekiguchi, Kenta; Oshima, Katsuo; Kamata, Hiroaki; Karibe, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Mamoru

    2016-06-01

    Although we recently reported that intravenous administration of resveratrol suppresses trigeminal nociception, the precise peripheral effect of resveratrol on nociceptive and non-nociceptive mechanical stimulation-induced trigeminal neuron activity in vivo remains to be determined. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether local subcutaneous administration of resveratrol attenuates mechanical stimulation-induced excitability of trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis (SpVc) neuron activity in rats, in vivo. Extracellular single-unit recordings were made of SpVc wide-dynamic range (WDR) neuron activity in response to orofacial mechanical stimulation in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats. Neurons responded to non-noxious and noxious mechanical stimulation applied to the orofacial skin. Local subcutaneous administration of resveratrol (1-10mM) into the orofacial skin dose dependently and significantly reduced the mean number of SpVc WDR neurons firing in response to both non-noxious and noxious mechanical stimuli, with the maximal inhibition of discharge frequency in response to both stimuli being seen within 5min. These inhibitory effects were no longer evident after approximately 20min. The mean magnitude of inhibition by resveratrol (10mM) of SpVc neuron discharge frequency was almost equal to that of the local anesthetic 1% lidocaine (37mM). These results suggest that local injection of resveratrol into the peripheral receptive field suppresses the excitability of SpVc neurons, possibly via inhibition of Na(+) channels in the nociceptive nerve terminals of trigeminal ganglion neurons. Therefore, local subcutaneous administration of resveratrol may provide relief of trigeminal nociceptive pain, without side effects, thus contributing to the suite of complementary and alternative medicines used as local anesthetic agents. PMID:27288246

  8. The interaction of intraspecific competition and habitat on individual diet specialization: a near range-wide examination of sea otters.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Seth D; Tinker, M Tim; Gill, Verena A; Hoyt, Zachary N; Doroff, Angela; Nichol, Linda; Bodkin, James L

    2015-05-01

    The quantification of individuality is a common research theme in the fields of population, community, and evolutionary ecology. The potential for individuality to arise is likely context-dependent, and the influence of habitat characteristics on its prevalence has received less attention than intraspecific competition. We examined individual diet specialization in 16 sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations from southern California to the Aleutian Islands in Alaska. Because population histories, relative densities, and habitat characteristics vary widely among sites, we could examine the effects of intraspecific competition and habitat on the prevalence of individual diet specialization. Using observed diet data, we classified half of our sites as rocky substrate habitats and the other half containing a mixture of rocky and unconsolidated (soft) sediment substrates. We used stable isotope data to quantify population- and individual-level diet variation. Among rocky substrate sites, the slope [±standard error (SE)] of the positive significant relationship between the within-individual component (WIC) and total isotopic niche width (TINW) was shallow (0.23 ± 0.07) and negatively correlated with sea otter density. In contrast, the slope of the positive WIC/TINW relationship for populations inhabiting mixed substrate habitats was much higher (0.53 ± 0.14), suggesting a low degree of individuality, irrespective of intraspecific competition. Our results show that the potential for individuality to occur as a result of increasing intraspecific competition is context-dependent and that habitat characteristics, which ultimately influence prey diversity, relative abundance, and the range of skillsets required for efficient prey procurement, are important in determining when and where individual diet specialization occurs in nature. PMID:25645269

  9. Wide Range pH-Tolerable Silicon@Pyrite Cobalt Dichalcogenide Microwire Array Photoelectrodes for Solar Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Jung; Yang, Kai-Chih; Basu, Mrinmoyee; Lu, Tzu-Hsiang; Lu, Ying-Rui; Dong, Chung-Li; Hu, Shu-Fen; Liu, Ru-Shi

    2016-03-01

    This study employed silicon@cobalt dichalcogenide microwires (MWs) as wide range pH-tolerable photocathode material for solar water splitting. Silicon microwire arrays were fabricated through lithography and dry etching technologies. Si@Co(OH)2 MWs were utilized as precursors to synthesize Si@CoX2 (X = S or Se) photocathodes. Si@CoS2 and Si@CoSe2 MWs were subsequently prepared by thermal sulfidation and hydrothermal selenization reaction of Si@Co(OH)2, respectively. The CoX2 outer shell served as cocatalyst to accelerate the kinetics of photogenerated electrons from the underlying Si MWs and reduce the recombination. Moreover, the CoX2 layer completely deposited on the Si surface functioned as a passivation layer by decreasing the oxide formation on Si MWs during solar hydrogen evolution. Si@CoS2 photocathode showed a photocurrent density of -3.22 mA cm(-2) at 0 V (vs RHE) in 0.5 M sulfuric acid electrolyte, and Si@CoSe2 MWs revealed moderate photocurrent density of -2.55 mA cm(-2). However, Si@CoSe2 presented high charge transfer efficiency in neutral and alkaline electrolytes. Continuous chronoamperometry in acid, neutral, and alkaline solutions was conducted at 0 V (vs RHE) to evaluate the photoelectrochemical durability of Si@CoX2 MWs. Si@CoS2 electrode showed no photoresponse after the chronoamperometry test because it was etched through the electrolyte. By contrast, the photocurrent density of Si@CoSe2 MWs gradually increased to -5 mA cm(-2) after chronoamperometry characterization owing to the amorphous structure generation. PMID:26859427

  10. The investigation of the electrical properties of Fe3O4/n-Si heterojunctions in a wide temperature range.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Ali Rıza; Çaldıran, Zakir; Metin, Önder; Meral, Kadem; Aydoğan, Şakir

    2016-07-01

    Monodisperse 8nm Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by the thermal decomposition of iron(III) acetylacetonate in oleylamine and then were deposited onto n-type silicon wafer having the Al ohmic contact. Next, the morphology of the Fe3O4 NPs were characterized by using TEM and XRD. The optical properties of Fe3O4 NPs film was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopoy and its band gap was calculated to be 2.16eV. Au circle contacts with 7.85×10(-3)cm(2) area were provided on the Fe3O4 film via evaporation at 10(-5)Torr and the Au/Fe3O4 NPs/n-Si/Al heterojunction device were fabricated. The temperature-dependent junction parameters of Au/Fe3O4/n-Si/Al device including ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance were calculated by using the I-V characteristics in a wide temperature range of 40-300K. The results revealed that the ideality factor and series resistance increased by the decreasing temperature while the barrier height decreases. The Richardson constant of Au/Fe3O4/n-Si/Al device was calculated to be 2.17A/K(2)cm(2) from the I-V characteristics. The temperature dependence of Au/Fe3O4/n-Si/Al heterojunction device showed a double Gaussian distribution, which is caused by the inhomogeneities characteristics of Fe3O4/n-Si heterojunction. PMID:27078739

  11. Peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles stabilized by hyperbranched polyglycidol derivatives over a wide pH range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd, Marcin; Pietrzak, Mariusz; Parzuchowski, Paweł; Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, Marta; Malinowska, Elżbieta

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to carry out comparative studies on the peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) stabilized with low molecular weight hyperbranched polyglycidol (HBPG-OH) and its derivative modified with maleic acid residues (HBPG-COOH). The influence of the stabilizer to gold precursor ratio on the size and morphology of nanoparticles obtained was checked, and prepared nanoparticles were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results indicated the divergent effect of increasing the concentration of stabilizers (HBPG-OH or HBPG-COOH) on the size of the nanostructures obtained. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized as having intrinsic peroxidase-like activity and the mechanism of catalysis in acidic and alkaline mediums was consistent with the standard Michaelis-Menten kinetics, revealing a strong affinity of AuNPs with 2, 2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 3, 3‧, 5, 5‧-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), and significantly lower affinity towards phenol. By comparing the kinetic parameters, a negligible effect of polymeric ligand charge on activity against various types of substrates (anionic or cationic) was indicated. The superiority of steric stabilization via the application of tested low-weight hyperbranched polymers over typical stabilizers in preventing salt-induced aggregation and maintaining high catalytic activity in time was proved. The applied hyperbranched stabilizers provide a good tool for manufacturing gold-based nanozymes, which are highly stable and active over a wide pH range.

  12. Short-range order in Fe-based metallic glasses: Wide-angle X-ray scattering studies

    SciTech Connect

    Babilas, Rafał; Hawełek, Łukasz; Burian, Andrzej

    2014-11-15

    The local atomic structure of the Fe{sub 80}B{sub 20}, Fe{sub 70}Nb{sub 10}B{sub 20} and Fe{sub 62}Nb{sub 8}B{sub 30} glasses prepared in the form of ribbons has been studied by wide-angle X-ray scattering. Structural information about the amorphous ribbons has been derived from analysis of the radial distribution functions using the least-squares curve-fitting method. The obtained structural parameters indicate that Fe–Fe, Fe–B, Fe–Nb and Nb–B contributions are involved in the near-neighbor coordination spheres. The possible similarities of the local atomic arrangement in the investigated glasses and the crystalline Fe{sub 3}B, Fe{sub 23}B{sub 6} and bcc Fe structures are also discussed. - Graphical abstract: Pair distribution functions (a) and best-fit model and experimental radial distribution functions for Fe{sub 80}B{sub 20} (b), Fe{sub 70}Nb{sub 10}B{sub 20} (c) and Fe{sub 62}Nb{sub 8}B{sub 30} (d) metallic glasses. - Highlights: • The short-range ordering in the Fe-based metallic glasses is presented. • The results of RDF function have been analyzed using the least-squares method. • The Fe–Fe, Fe–B, Fe–Nb or Nb–B contributions are involved in coordination spheres. • The structural unit is distorted triangular prism containing B, Fe or Nb atoms. • Similarities of atomic arrangement in glassy and crystalline structures are discussed.

  13. Scaling Hyporheic Flow and Biogeochemical Reactions across a Wide Range of Flow and Sediment Conditions in Aquatic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J. W.; O'Connor, B. L.

    2008-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are strongly influenced by advective transport from surface water into shallow sediments of the hyporheic zone. The delivery of energy and nutrient-rich materials to microbially and geochemically reactive sediment stimulates high rates of biogeochemical reactions that influence the overall metabolism of the ecosystem as well as influencing the chemistry of downstream receiving waters. Predicting hyporheic flow is difficult because of the potential involvement of many physical processes, including diffusion, shear, bedform-scale advective pumping, bed mobility and bioturbation, turbulence penetration, and head potential- driven groundwater exchange. We used published data from carefully controlled laboratory flume experiments to develop a scaling relationship that predicts hyporheic exchange based on physical descriptors (e.g. shear stress velocity, roughness height, and sediment permeability) that summarize fluid- flow and sediment characteristics. We tested the scaling relationship's predictions by comparing them with more time and labor intensive measurements of solute and reactive tracer transport made in situ in hyporheic zones. In situ measurements were acquired using the USGS MINIPOINT sampler, which allows detailed subsurface measurements without significant disturbance of sediment or the ambient surface or subsurface water fluxes. Fieldwork was undertaken in several streams that varied widely in surface water flow velocities, grain type, median grain size, sediment porosity, sediment organic content, sediment hydraulic conductivity, and groundwater specific discharge. The comparison generally supported the predictive capability of the scaling relationship in complex field settings. The value of the scaling relationship is also indicated for improving rate measurements of biogeochemical reactions in hyporheic zones (e.g. oxygen uptake, denitrification, and manganese oxidation), as well as for estimating the cumulative influence of

  14. Appleton Papers Plant-Wide Energy Assessment Saves Energy and Reduces Waste (Paper machine at Appleton's West Carrollton paper mill)

    SciTech Connect

    2002-03-01

    Plant-wide energy survey at the Appleton Papers, Inc. West Carrollton paper mill resulted in 21 recommendations for projects to reduce energy consumption and waste production and improve process efficiency.

  15. A wide area Bipolar Cascade Resonant Cavity Light Emitting Diode for a Hybrid Range-Intensity Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Reginald J.

    Autonomous Ground Vehicles (AGV) will require high-speed, real-time three dimensional (3-D) image processing to navigate treacherous terrain in order to complete their assigned mission without a human in the loop. LIDAR scanners of the 3-D variety, provide the necessary area coverage for 3-D image processing, but lack the speed to deliver the collected data for real-time processing. A novel Hybrid Range-Intensity System (HRIS) has been proposed for imaging large swaths of area very rapidly. This system is comprised of two infrared cameras, an illumination source, a control and coordination system to position the cameras, and signal processing algorithms to extract the contour image of the scene. This dissertation focused on the development of an illuminator for the HRIS. This illuminator enables faster image rendering and reduces the potential of errors in return signal data, that could be generated from extremely rough terrain. Four major achievements resulted from this work, which advance the field of 3-D image acquisition. The first is that the TJ is an effective current spreading layer for LEDs with mesa width up to 140 mum and current densities of ˜ 1 x 106A/cm2. The TJ allows fabrication of an efficient illuminator, with required geometry for the HRIS to operate as a real-time 3-D imaging system. Secondly, a design for a Bipolar Cascade-Resonant Cavity Light Emitting Diode (BC-RCLED) has been accomplished, that will illuminate the FOV of the hybrid-ranged intensity system with a single sweep of the beam. This device is capable of producing ˜ 330 mW of output power. Additionally, from this work, key parameters for HRIS design were identified. Using a collection optic with a 15 cm diameter, an HRIS mounting height of 1.5 m, and a detector integration time of 330 msec, a SNR of 20 dB was achieved. Lastly, we demonstrated that the BC-RCLED designed for the HRIS can deliver sufficient energy to produce the required SNR. Also, through parametric analysis, we

  16. Forecasting the range-wide status of polar bears at selected times in the 21st century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Marcot, Bruce G; Douglas, David C.

    2007-01-01

    To inform the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service decision, whether or not to list polar bears as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), we forecast the status of the world's polar bear (Urslls maritimus) populations 45, 75 and 100 years into the future. We applied the best available information about predicted changes in sea ice in the 21 st century to current knowledge of polar bear populations and their ecological relationships to the sea ice to understand how the range-wide population of polar bears might change. We combined the world's 19 polar bear subpopulations into 4 ecological regions based on current and projected sea ice conditions. These "ecoregions" are the (1) Seasonal Ice Ecoregion which includes Hudson Bay, and occurs mainly at the southern extreme of the polar bear range, (2) the Archipelago Ecoregion of the Canadian Arctic, (3) the Polar Basin Divergent Ecoregion where ice is formed and then adverted away from near-shore areas, and (4) the Polar Basin Convergent Ecoregion where sea ice formed elsewhere tends to collect against the shore. We mcolporated projections of future sea ice in each ecoregion, based on 10 general circulation models (GCMs), into two models of polar bear habitat and potential population response. First, we used a deterministic model of past, current, and future polar bear carrying capacity which assumed a linear relationship between bear density and annual average sea ice extent. Because this approach did not include seasonal changes in ice availability or other possible population stressors, it provided an optimistic view of the potential magnitude of and change m population carrying capacity by ecoregion and time step. Second, we developed a Bayesian network (BN) model structured around population successors that could affect the factors considered in ESA decisions. The BN model combined empirical data, interpretations of data, and professional judgment into a probabilistic framework. Although BN models can be

  17. Range-wide distribution of genetic diversity in the North American tree Juglans cinerea: a product of range shifts, not ecological marginality or recent population decline.

    PubMed

    Hoban, Sean M; Borkowski, Daniel S; Brosi, Sunshine L; McCleary, Tim S; Thompson, Laura M; McLachlan, Jason S; Pereira, Marie A; Schlarbaum, Scott E; Romero-Severson, Jeanne

    2010-11-01

    The spatial distribution of genetic diversity is a product of recent and historical ecological processes, as well as anthropogenic activities. A current challenge in population and conservation genetics is to disentangle the relative effects of these processes, as a first step in predicting population response to future environmental change. In this investigation, we compare the influence of contemporary population decline, contemporary ecological marginality and postglacial range shifts. Using classical model comparison procedures and Bayesian methods, we have identified postglacial range shift as the clear determinant of genetic diversity, differentiation and bottlenecks in 29 populations of butternut, Juglans cinerea L., a North American outcrossing forest tree. Although butternut has experienced dramatic 20th century decline because of an introduced fungal pathogen, our analysis indicates that recent population decline has had less genetic impact than postglacial recolonization history. Location within the range edge vs. the range core also failed to account for the observed patterns of diversity and differentiation. Our results suggest that the genetic impact of large-scale recent population losses in forest trees should be considered in the light of Pleistocene-era large-scale range shifts that may have had long-term genetic consequences. The data also suggest that the population dynamics and life history of wind-pollinated forest trees may provide a buffer against steep population declines of short duration, a result having important implications for habitat management efforts, ex situ conservation sampling and population viability analysis. PMID:21040046

  18. Microstrip Antennas with Polarization Diversity across a Wide Frequency Range and Phased Array Antennas for Radar and Satellite Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Kevin Ming-Jiang

    The thesis comprises of 3 projects; an L-band microstrip antenna with frequency agility and polarization diversity, X-band phased array antennas incorporating commercially packaged RFIC phased array chips, and studies for Ku/Ka-band shared aperture antenna array. The first project features the use of commercially packaged RF-MEMS SPDT switches, that boasts of high reliability, high linearity, low losses, hermetically packaged and fully compatible for SMTA processes for mass-assembly and production. Using the switches in a novel manner for the feed network, microstrip antennas with polarization diversity are presented. Frequency agility is achieved with the use of tuning diodes to provide capacitive loading to the antenna element. Additional inductance effects from surface-mounted capacitors, and its impact, is introduced. Theoretical cross-polarization of probe-fed antenna elements is presented for both linear and circular polarized microstrip antennas. Designs and measurements are presented, for microstrip antennas with polarization diversity, wide frequency tuning range, and both features. Replacement of the tuning diodes with commercially-packaged high Q RF MEMS tunable capacitors will allow for significant improvements to the radiation efficiency. In another project, multi-channel CMOS RFIC phased-array receiver chips are assembled in QFN packages and directly integrated on the same multi-layered PCB stack-up with the antenna arrays. Problems of isolation from the PCB-QFN interface, and potential performance degradation on antenna array from the use of commercial-grade laminates for assembly requirements, namely potential scan blindness and radiation efficiency, are presented. Causes for apparent drift of dielectric constant for microstrip circuits, and high conductor losses observed in measurements, are introduced. Finally, studies are performed for the design of a Ku/Ka-Band shared aperture array. Different approaches for developing dual-band shared apertures

  19. Improving the Rapid Refresh and High Resolution Rapid Refresh physics to better perform across a wide range of spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Joseph; Grell, Georg

    2014-05-01

    Model development at NOAA/GSD spans a wide range of spatial scales: global scale (Flow-following finite-volume Icosohedral Model, FIM; 10-250 km grid spacing), continental scale (RAP; 13 km grid spacing), CONUS scale (HRRR; 3 km grid spacing), and regional modeling (experimental nesting at 1 km grid spacing over complex terrain). As the model resolution changes, the proportion of resolved vs unresolved physical processes changes; therefore, physical parameterizations need to adapt to different model resolutions to more accurately handle the unresolved processes. The Limited Area Model (LAM) component of the Grey Zone Experiment was designed to assess the change in behavior of numerical weather prediction models between 16 and 1 km by simulating a cold-air outbreak over the North Atlantic and North Sea. The RAP and HRRR model physics were tested in this case study in order to examine the change in behavior of the model physics at 16, 8, 4, 2, and 1 km grid spacings with and without the use a convective parameterization. The primary purpose of these tests is to better understand the change in behavior of the boundary layer and convective schemes across the grey zone, such that further targeted modifications can then help improve general performance at various scales. The RAP currently employs a modified form of the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (MYNN) PBL scheme, which is an improved TKE-based scheme tuned to match large-eddy simulations. Modifications have been performed to better match observations at 13 km (RAP) grid spacing but more multi-scale testing is required before modifications are introduced to make it scale-aware. A scale-aware convective parameterization, the Grell-Freitas scheme (both deep- and shallow-cumulus scheme), has been developed to better handle the transition in behavior of the sub-grid scale convective processes through the grey zone. This study examines the change in behavior of both schemes across the grey zone. Their transitional behavior

  20. Prediction of rumen degradability parameters of a wide range of forages and non-forages by NIRS.

    PubMed

    Foskolos, A; Calsamiglia, S; Chrenková, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Albanell, E

    2015-07-01

    Kinetics of nutrient degradation in the rumen is an important component of feed evaluation systems for ruminants. The in situ technique is commonly used to obtain such dynamic parameters, but it requires cannulated animals and incubations last several days limiting its application in practice. On the other hand, feed industry relies strongly on NIRS to predict chemical composition of feeds and it has been used to predict nutrient degradability parameters. However, most of these studies were feedstuff specific, predicting degradability parameters of a particular feedstuff or category of feedstuffs, mainly forages or compound feeds and not grains and byproducts. Our objective was to evaluate the potential of NIRS to predict degradability parameters and effective degradation utilizing a wide range of feedstuffs commonly used in ruminant nutrition. A database of 809 feedstuffs was created. Feedstuffs were grouped as forages (FF; n=256), non-forages (NF; n=539) and of animal origin (n=14). In situ degradability data for dry matter (DM; n=665), CP (n=682) and NDF (n=100) were collected. Degradability was described in terms of washable fraction (a), slowly degradable fraction (b) and its rate of degradation (c). All samples were scanned from 1100 to 2500 nm using an NIRSystems 5000 scanning in reflectance mode. Calibrations were developed for all samples (ALL), FF and NF. Equations were validated with an external validation set of 20% of total samples. NIRS equations to predict the effective degradability and fractions a and b of DM, CP and NDF could be evaluated from being adequate for screening (r(2)>0.77; ratio of performance to deviation (RPD)=2.0 to 2.9) to suitable for quantitative purposes (r(2)>0.84; RPD=3.1 to 4.7), and some predictions were improved by group separation reducing the standard error of prediction. Similarly, the rate of degradation of CP (CP(c)) and DM (DM(c)) was predicted for screening purposes (RPD⩾2 and 2.5 for CP(c) and DM(c), respectively