Science.gov

Sample records for energy recovery systems

  1. Energy Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Cogeneration system is one in which the energy ordinarily wasted in an industrial process is recovered and reused to create a second form of energy. Such an energy recovery system is in use at Crane Company's plant in Ferguson, KY, which manufactures ceramic bathroom fixtures. Crane's system captures hot stack gases from the company's four ceramic kilns and uses them to produce electrical power for plant operations.

  2. Energy recovery system

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Albert S.; Verhoff, Francis H.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved wet air oxidation system and method for reducing the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of waste water used from scrubbers of coal gasification plants, with this COD reduction being sufficient to effectively eliminate waste water as an environmental pollutant. The improvement of the present invention is provided by heating the air used in the oxidation process to a temperature substantially equal to the temperature in the oxidation reactor before compressing or pressurizing the air. The compression of the already hot air further heats the air which is then passed in heat exchange with gaseous products of the oxidation reaction for "superheating" the gaseous products prior to the use thereof in turbines as the driving fluid. The superheating of the gaseous products significantly minimizes condensation of gaseous products in the turbine so as to provide a substantially greater recovery of mechanical energy from the process than heretofore achieved.

  3. A Novel Energy Recovery System for Parallel Hybrid Hydraulic Excavator

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Cao, Baoyu; Zhu, Zhencai; Chen, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic excavator energy saving is important to relieve source shortage and protect environment. This paper mainly discusses the energy saving for the hybrid hydraulic excavator. By analyzing the excess energy of three hydraulic cylinders in the conventional hydraulic excavator, a new boom potential energy recovery system is proposed. The mathematical models of the main components including boom cylinder, hydraulic motor, and hydraulic accumulator are built. The natural frequency of the proposed energy recovery system is calculated based on the mathematical models. Meanwhile, the simulation models of the proposed system and a conventional energy recovery system are built by AMESim software. The results show that the proposed system is more effective than the conventional energy saving system. At last, the main components of the proposed energy recovery system including accumulator and hydraulic motor are analyzed for improving the energy recovery efficiency. The measures to improve the energy recovery efficiency of the proposed system are presented. PMID:25405215

  4. Waste Heat Recovery System: Lightweight Thermal Energy Recovery (LIGHTER) System

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: GM is using shape memory alloys that require as little as a 10°C temperature difference to convert low-grade waste heat into mechanical energy. When a stretched wire made of shape memory alloy is heated, it shrinks back to its pre-stretched length. When the wire cools back down, it becomes more pliable and can revert to its original stretched shape. This expansion and contraction can be used directly as mechanical energy output or used to drive an electric generator. Shape memory alloy heat engines have been around for decades, but the few devices that engineers have built were too complex, required fluid baths, and had insufficient cycle life for practical use. GM is working to create a prototype that is practical for commercial applications and capable of operating with either air- or fluid-based heat sources. GM’s shape memory alloy based heat engine is also designed for use in a variety of non-vehicle applications. For example, it can be used to harvest non-vehicle heat sources, such as domestic and industrial waste heat and natural geothermal heat, and in HVAC systems and generators.

  5. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: the potential for energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Consonni, Stefano; Viganò, Federico

    2011-01-01

    This article is part of a set of six coordinated papers reporting the main findings of a research project carried out by five Italian universities on "Material and energy recovery in Integrated Waste Management Systems (IWMS)". An overview of the project and a summary of the most relevant results can be found in the introductory article of the series. This paper describes the work related to the evaluation of mass and energy balances, which has consisted of three major efforts (i) development of a model for quantifying the energy content and the elemental compositions of the waste streams appearing in a IWMS; (ii) upgrade of an earlier model to predict the performances of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants; (iii) evaluation of mass and energy balances of all the scenarios and the recovery paths considered in the project. Results show that not only the amount of material available for energy recovery is significantly higher than the Unsorted Residual Waste (URW) left after Separate Collection (SC), because selection and recycling generate significant amounts of residues, but its heating value is higher than that of the original, gross waste. Therefore, the energy potential of what is left after recycling is always higher than the complement to 100% of the Source Separation Level (SSL). Also, increasing SSL has marginal effects on the potential for energy recovery: nearly doubling SSL (from 35% to 65%) reduces the energy potential only by one fourth. Consequently, even at high SSL energy recovery is a fundamental step of a sustainable waste management system. Variations of SSL do bring about variations of the composition, heating value and moisture content of the material fed to WtE plants, but these variations (i) are smaller than one can expect; (ii) have marginal effects on the performances of the WtE plant. These considerations suggest that the mere value of SSL is not a good indicator of the quality of the waste management system, nor of its energy and environmental

  6. System Modeling for Ammonia Synthesis Energy Recovery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bran Anleu, Gabriela; Kavehpour, Pirouz; Lavine, Adrienne; Ammonia thermochemical Energy Storage Team

    2015-11-01

    An ammonia thermochemical energy storage system is an alternative solution to the state-of-the-art molten salt TES system for concentrating solar power. Some of the advantages of this emerging technology include its high energy density, no heat losses during the storage duration, and the possibility of long storage periods. Solar energy powers an endothermic reaction to disassociate ammonia into hydrogen and nitrogen, which can be stored for future use. The reverse reaction is carried out in the energy recovery process; a hydrogen-nitrogen mixture flowing through a catalyst bed undergoes the exothermic ammonia synthesis reaction. The goal is to use the ammonia synthesis reaction to heat supercritical steam to temperatures on the order of 650°C as required for a supercritical steam Rankine cycle. The steam will flow through channels in a combined reactor-heat exchanger. A numerical model has been developed to determine the optimal design to heat supercritical steam while maintaining a stable exothermic reaction. The model consists of a transient one dimensional concentric tube counter-flow reactor-heat exchanger. The numerical model determines the inlet mixture conditions needed to achieve various steam outlet conditions.

  7. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, W.K.; Stirling, W.L.

    1979-10-25

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employing crossed electric and magnetic fields, separates the electrons from the ions as they are extracted from the ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90/sup 0/ to each other, the electrons remain at approximately the electrical potential at which they were generated. The electromagnetic forces cause the ions to be accelerated to the full accelerating supply voltage energy while being deflected through an angle of less than 90/sup 0/. The electrons precess out of the accelerating field region into an electron recovery region where they are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply energy. It is possible, by this method, to collect > 90% of the electrons extracted along with the negative ions from a negative ion source beam at < 4% of full energy.

  8. Optimal control of Formula One car energy recovery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limebeer, D. J. N.; Perantoni, G.; Rao, A. V.

    2014-10-01

    The utility of orthogonal collocation methods in the solution of optimal control problems relating to Formula One racing is demonstrated. These methods can be used to optimise driver controls such as the steering, braking and throttle usage, and to optimise vehicle parameters such as the aerodynamic down force and mass distributions. Of particular interest is the optimal usage of energy recovery systems (ERSs). Contemporary kinetic energy recovery systems are studied and compared with future hybrid kinetic and thermal/heat ERSs known as ERS-K and ERS-H, respectively. It is demonstrated that these systems, when properly controlled, can produce contemporary lap time using approximately two-thirds of the fuel required by earlier generation (2013 and prior) vehicles.

  9. Energy recovery system using an organic rankine cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Timothy C

    2013-10-01

    A thermodynamic system for waste heat recovery, using an organic rankine cycle is provided which employs a single organic heat transferring fluid to recover heat energy from two waste heat streams having differing waste heat temperatures. Separate high and low temperature boilers provide high and low pressure vapor streams that are routed into an integrated turbine assembly having dual turbines mounted on a common shaft. Each turbine is appropriately sized for the pressure ratio of each stream.

  10. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.; Stirling, William L.

    1982-01-01

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employs crossed electric and magnetic fields to separate the electrons from ions as they are extracted from a negative ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full kinetic energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90.degree. to each other, the electrons are separated from the plasma and remain at approximately the electrical potential of the generator in which they were generated. The electrons migrate from the ion beam path in a precessing motion out of the ion accelerating field region into an electron recovery region provided by a specially designed electron collector electrode. The electron collector electrode is uniformly spaced from a surface of the ion generator which is transverse to the direction of migration of the electrons and the two surfaces are contoured in a matching relationship which departs from a planar configuration to provide an electric field component in the recovery region which is parallel to the magnetic field thereby forcing the electrons to be directed into and collected by the electron collector electrode. The collector electrode is maintained at a potential slightly positive with respect to the ion generator so that the electrons are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply voltage energy.

  11. Bio-energy Recovery Systems for brewery wastewater management

    SciTech Connect

    Beers, A.R.

    1995-11-01

    Anheuser-Busch has installed anaerobic wastewater pretreatment systems or {open_quotes}Bio-Energy Recovery Systems{close_quotes} (BERS) at six breweries in the U.S. The primary purpose of BERS is the removal of soluble organic matter (grain liquor, waste beer, cleaning solutions) from wastewater in order to reduce the impact on downstream treatment works, either privately or publicly held. A byproduct of the anaerobic process is biogas (75% methane) which is used in the plants` boilers to create steam. A history of Anheuser-Busch`s wastewater management philosophy is discussed including the adoption and refinement of various treatment methods. A case study is presented, demonstrating by way of an energy balance the savings realized by BERS installation. Finally, the environmental benefits of these projects are displayed in a life cycle analysis.

  12. Evaluation of selected energy-recovery systems. Working paper

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, T.M.; Salama, S.Y.; Kothari, V.S.

    1983-02-28

    The purpose of the paper is to document key inputs and results of work performed in the area of Energy Recovery Systems (ERS) in support of the Industrial Utilization (IU) staff. This support consisted of the following four main activities: Integration and validation of technology performance and cost data generated by technology developers under contract with GRI; Developing characteristics of the industrial test markets and refining the representation of these markets when needed, e.g., segmentation of certain markets into more-detailed unit size categories or further characterization of competing process; Evaluation and analysis of future market potentials for each ERS in all applicable markets; and Projecting the total impacts of these ERS on energy and gas demand.

  13. MICROTECHNOLOGY – A KEY TO SYSTEM MINIATURIZATION IN ADVANCED ENERGY RECOVERY & CONVERSION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, Terry J.

    2008-08-30

    Energy recovery is gaining importance in various transportation, industrial process, and military applications because of rising energy costs and geopolitical uncertainties impacting basic energy supplies. Various advanced energy recovery/conversion technologies will require high-performance heat transfer characteristics to achieve energy recovery performance targets and requirements. System analysis of thermoelectric (TE) systems quantify potential power output, conversion efficiency, specific power and power flux in a unique, useful format on maximum efficiency – power maps. Lines constant specific power and power flux and their relationship to lines of constant hot side temperature and points of maximum power were demonstrated. Regions of preferred TE design were associated with not only higher conversion efficiency, but higher specific power and power flux that motivates TE conversion designs towards use of microtechnology solutions. Water and He gas microchannel designs are investigated as potential solutions to achieve miniature TE energy recovery systems. Developing high-heat-flux thermal designs using microtechnology are key to enabling miniature energy recovery systems and should occur in parallel with on-going research in advanced energy conversion materials.

  14. Relative Recovery of Thermal Energy and Fresh Water in Aquifer Storage and Recovery Systems.

    PubMed

    Miotliński, K; Dillon, P J

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between thermal energy and fresh water recoveries from an aquifer storage recovery (ASR) well in a brackish confined aquifer. It reveals the spatial and temporal distributions of temperature and conservative solutes between injected and recovered water. The evaluation is based on a review of processes affecting heat and solute transport in a homogeneous aquifer. In this simplified analysis, it is assumed that the aquifer is sufficiently anisotropic to inhibit density-affected flow, flow is axisymmetric, and the analysis is limited to a single ASR cycle. Results show that the radial extent of fresh water at the end of injection is greater than that of the temperature change due to the heating or cooling of the geological matrix as well as the interstitial water. While solutes progress only marginally into low permeability aquitards by diffusion, conduction of heat into aquitards above and below is more substantial. Consequently, the heat recovery is less than the solute recovery when the volume of the recovered water is lower than the injection volume. When the full volume of injected water is recovered the temperature mixing ratio divided by the solute mixing ratio for recovered water ranges from 0.95 to 0.6 for ratios of maximum plume radius to aquifer thickness of 0.6 to 4.6. This work is intended to assist conceptual design for dual use of ASR for conjunctive storage of water and thermal energy to maximize the potential benefits. PMID:25399802

  15. Energy Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The United States and other countries face the problem of waste disposal in an economical, environmentally safe manner. A widely applied solution adopted by Americans is "waste to energy," incinerating the refuse and using the steam produced by trash burning to drive an electricity producing generator. NASA's computer program PRESTO II, (Performance of Regenerative Superheated Steam Turbine Cycles), provides power engineering companies, including Blount Energy Resources Corporation of Alabama, with the ability to model such features as process steam extraction, induction and feedwater heating by external sources, peaking and high back pressure. Expansion line efficiency, exhaust loss, leakage, mechanical losses and generator losses are used to calculate the cycle heat rate. The generator output program is sufficiently precise that it can be used to verify performance quoted in turbine generator supplier's proposals.

  16. From the Kinetic Energy Recovery System to the Thermo-Hydraulic Hybrid Motor Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, Corneliu; Drumea, Petrin; Guta, Dragos; Dumitrescu, Catalin

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents some theoretical and experimental results obtained by the Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute INOE 2000-IHP with its partners, regarding the creating of one hydraulic system able to recovering the kinetic energy of the motor vehicles, in the braking phases, and use this recovered energy in the starting and accelerating phases. Also, in the article is presented a testing stand, which was especially designed for testing the hydraulic system for recovery the kinetic energy. Through mounting of the kinetic energy recovering hydraulic system, on one motor vehicle, this vehicle became a thermo-hydraulic hybrid vehicle. Therefore, the dynamic behavior was analyzed for the whole hybrid motor vehicle, which includes the energy recovery system. The theoretical and experimental results demonstrate the possible performances of the hybrid vehicle and that the kinetic energy recovery hydraulic systems are good means to increase energy efficiency of the road motor vehicles and to decrease of the fuel consumption.

  17. Effects of introducing energy recovery processes to the municipal solid waste management system in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Toshiki, Kosuke; Giang, Pham Quy; Serrona, Kevin Roy B; Sekikawa, Takahiro; Yu, Jeoung-soo; Choijil, Baasandash; Kunikane, Shoichi

    2015-02-01

    Currently, most developing countries have not set up municipal solid waste management systems with a view of recovering energy from waste or reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In this article, we have studied the possible effects of introducing three energy recovery processes either as a single or combination approach, refuse derived fuel production, incineration and waste power generation, and methane gas recovery from landfill and power generation in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, as a case study. We concluded that incineration process is the most suitable as first introduction of energy recovery. To operate it efficiently, 3Rs strategies need to be promoted. And then, RDF production which is made of waste papers and plastics in high level of sorting may be considered as the second step of energy recovery. However, safety control and marketability of RDF will be required at that moment. PMID:25662253

  18. New Perspectives in Thermoelectric Energy Recovery System Design Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Karri, Naveen K.; Hogan, Tim; Cauchy, Charles J.

    2013-02-12

    Abstract: Large amounts of waste heat are generated worldwide in industrial processes, automotive transportation, diesel engine exhaust, military generators, and incinerators because 60-70% of the fuel energy is typically lost in these processes. There is a strong need to develop technologies that recover this waste heat to increase fuel efficiency and minimize fuel requirements in these industrial processes, automotive and heavy vehicle engines, diesel generators, and incinerators. There are additional requirements to reduce CO2 production and environmental footprints in many of these applications. Recent work with the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program office has investigated new thermoelectric (TE) materials and systems that can operate at higher performance levels and show a viable pathway to lightweight, small form-factor, advanced thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems to recover waste heat in many of these applications. New TE materials include nano-composite materials such as lead-antimony-silver-telluride (LAST) and lead-antimony-silver-tin-telluride (LASTT) compounds. These new materials have created opportunities for high-performance, segmented-element TE devices. New higher-performance TE devices segmenting LAST/LASTT materials with bismuth telluride have been designed and fabricated. Sectioned TEG systems using these new TE devices and materials have been designed. Integrated heat exchanger/TE device system analyses of sectioned TE system designs have been performed creating unique efficiency-power maps that provide better understandings and comparisons of design tradeoffs and nominal and off-nominal system performance conditions. New design perspectives in optimization of sectioned TE design approaches are discussed that provide insight on how to optimize such sectioned TE systems. System performance analyses using ANSYS® TE modeling capabilities have integrated heat exchanger performance models with ANSYS® TE models to extend

  19. Waste heat recovery system for recapturing energy after engine aftertreatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-06-17

    The disclosure provides a waste heat recovery (WHR) system including a Rankine cycle (RC) subsystem for converting heat of exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine, and an internal combustion engine including the same. The WHR system includes an exhaust gas heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled downstream of an exhaust aftertreatment system and is adapted to transfer heat from the exhaust gas to a working fluid of the RC subsystem. An energy conversion device is fluidly coupled to the exhaust gas heat exchanger and is adapted to receive the vaporized working fluid and convert the energy of the transferred heat. The WHR system includes a control module adapted to control at least one parameter of the RC subsystem based on a detected aftertreatment event of a predetermined thermal management strategy of the aftertreatment system.

  20. Recovery energy from ship propulsion system based on microelectronic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordanoaia, F.; Nicorescu, M.

    2009-01-01

    All shipping companies are involved in the several management programs for increasing of efficiency of transportation on the sea. Optimal transportation is one of actual tendency in the world shipbuilding which requests a lot of human resources in design development respectively in construction of the ships. One direction with very good results is to use one part of propulsion energy for electrical power generating on board with multiple technical and economical advantages. Based on this, more resources in research and design are encouraged by development projects in order to increase the efficiency of described system. Even if, power-generating plant is one of classic ship mecatronics system, it must to be continuously perfected in the way of decreasing of specific fuel consumption as well in the increasing of the friableness and endurance.

  1. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: project overview and main results.

    PubMed

    Consonni, Stefano; Giugliano, Michele; Massarutto, Antonio; Ragazzi, Marco; Saccani, Cesare

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the context, the basic assumptions and the main findings of a joint research project aimed at identifying the optimal breakdown between material recovery and energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW) in the framework of integrated waste management systems (IWMS). The project was carried out from 2007 to 2009 by five research groups at Politecnico di Milano, the Universities of Bologna and Trento, and the Bocconi University (Milan), with funding from the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR). Since the optimization of IWMSs by analytical methods is practically impossible, the search for the most attractive strategy was carried out by comparing a number of relevant recovery paths from the point of view of mass and energy flows, technological features, environmental impact and economics. The main focus has been on mature processes applicable to MSW in Italy and Europe. Results show that, contrary to a rather widespread opinion, increasing the source separation level (SSL) has a very marginal effects on energy efficiency. What does generate very significant variations in energy efficiency is scale, i.e. the size of the waste-to-energy (WTE) plant. The mere value of SSL is inadequate to qualify the recovery system. The energy and environmental outcome of recovery depends not only on "how much" source separation is carried out, but rather on "how" a given SSL is reached. PMID:21652196

  2. A wire scanner system for characterizing the BNL energy recovery LINAC beam position monitor system

    SciTech Connect

    Michnoff R.; Biscardi, C.; Cerniglia, P.; Degen, C.; Gassner, D.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.

    2012-04-15

    A stepper motor controlled wire scanner system has recently been modified to support testing of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Collider-Accelerator department's Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) beam position monitor (BPM) system. The ERL BPM consists of four 9.33 mm diameter buttons mounted at 90 degree spacing in a cube with 1.875 inch inside diameter. The buttons were designed by BNL and fabricated by Times Microwave Systems. Libera brilliance single pass BPM electronic modules with 700 MHz bandpass filter, manufactured by Instrumentation Technologies, will be used to measure the transverse beam positions at 14 locations around the ERL. The wire scanner assembly provides the ability to measure the BPM button response to a pulsed wire, and evaluate and calibrate the Libera position measurement electronics. A description of the wire scanner system and test result data will be presented.

  3. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, Daniel

    2011-12-31

    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  4. New Perspectives in Thermoelectric Energy Recovery System Design Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Karri, Naveen K.; Hogan, Tim P.; Cauchy, Charles J.

    2013-07-01

    It is highly desirable to develop technologies that recover the large amounts of waste heat generated worldwide in industrial processes, automotive transportation, diesel engine exhaust, military generators, and incinerators to increase fuel efficiency and reduce CO2 production and the environmental footprint of these applications. Recent work has investigated new thermoelectric (TE) materials and systems that can operate at higher performance levels and show a viable pathway to lightweight, small-form-factor, advanced thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems to recover waste heat in many of these applications. New TE materials include nanocomposite materials such as lead-antimony-silver-telluride (LAST) and lead-antimony-silver-tin-telluride (LASTT) compounds. These new materials have created opportunities for high-performance, segmented-element TE devices. New higher-performance TE devices segmenting LAST/LASTT materials with bismuth telluride have been designed and fabricated. Sectioned TEG systems using these new TE devices and materials have been designed. Integrated heat exchanger/TE device system analyses of sectioned TE system designs have been performed, creating unique efficiency-power maps that provide better understanding and comparisons of design tradeoffs and nominal and off-nominal system performance conditions. New design perspectives and mathematical foundations in optimization of sectioned TE design approaches are discussed that provide insight on how to optimize such sectioned TE systems. System performance analyses using ANSYS® TE modeling capabilities have integrated heat exchanger performance models with ANSYS® TE models to extend its analysis capabilities beyond simple constant hot-side and cold-side temperature conditions. Analysis results portray external resistance effects, matched load conditions, and maximum power versus maximum efficiency points simultaneously, and show that maximum TE power occurs at external resistances slightly

  5. Control system for an induction motor with energy recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A control circuit for an induction motor powered system is disclosed in which a power factor controlled servo loop is used to control, via the phase angle of firing of a triac, the power input to the motor, as a function of load placed on the motor by machinery of the powered system. Then, upon application of torque by this machinery to the motor, which tends to overspeed the motor, the firing angle of the triac is automatically set to a fixed, and relatively short, firing angle.

  6. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: Project overview and main results

    SciTech Connect

    Consonni, Stefano; Giugliano, Michele; Massarutto, Antonio; Saccani, Cesare

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The source separation level (SSL) of waste management system does not qualify adequately the system. > Separately collecting organic waste gives less advantages than packaging materials. > Recycling packaging materials (metals, glass, plastics, paper) is always attractive. > Composting and anaerobic digestion of organic waste gives questionable outcomes. > The critical threshold of optimal recycling seems to be a SSL of 50%. - Abstract: This paper describes the context, the basic assumptions and the main findings of a joint research project aimed at identifying the optimal breakdown between material recovery and energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW) in the framework of integrated waste management systems (IWMS). The project was carried out from 2007 to 2009 by five research groups at Politecnico di Milano, the Universities of Bologna and Trento, and the Bocconi University (Milan), with funding from the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR). Since the optimization of IWMSs by analytical methods is practically impossible, the search for the most attractive strategy was carried out by comparing a number of relevant recovery paths from the point of view of mass and energy flows, technological features, environmental impact and economics. The main focus has been on mature processes applicable to MSW in Italy and Europe. Results show that, contrary to a rather widespread opinion, increasing the source separation level (SSL) has a very marginal effects on energy efficiency. What does generate very significant variations in energy efficiency is scale, i.e. the size of the waste-to-energy (WTE) plant. The mere value of SSL is inadequate to qualify the recovery system. The energy and environmental outcome of recovery depends not only on 'how much' source separation is carried out, but rather on 'how' a given SSL is reached.

  7. Energy-Saving Effect of the Add-on Energy Recovery System for Electric Motor Drive Systems in the Injection Molding Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Keisuke; Hiraki, Eiji; Tanaka, Toshihiko

    The regenerative energy from the motor drive systems used in the injection molding is consumed by resistors connected to the DC bus of the inverters. Recently the recovery systems of the regenerative energy with a bi-directional DC-DC converter and capacitors have been developed. In this paper a new control strategy of the EDLC based energy recovery system is proposed. The basic principle of the proposed control strategy and the power losses consumed in the energy recovery system are discussed in detail. The validity and practicability are confirmed by digital computer simulation.

  8. Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Z. N.; Wu, P.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.

    2013-12-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m3/h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result.

  9. Energy recovery device

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, V.

    1982-08-31

    The energy recovery device includes a housing having a central shaft which is connected to a lever operating a work-load system capable of generating work-load forces. The central shaft is also connected to a disk having four posts generally parallel to the shaft and initially located at positions corresponding to the four major points of a compass. Within each corner of the housing, a helically coiled spring is positioned over a support post. Each spring has two extending arms which contact two respective adjacent posts on the disk so as to maintain the spring under tension. When the lever is at the neutral position, I.E., when no work-load forces are generated, the recovery forces generated by the four springs within the housing are generally balanced. As the lever is displaced from the neutral position by a driving force, the disk rotates whereby the angular displacement between the arms of any spring decreases. Once the disk is displaced, the spring forces aid in continuing displacement of the disk. Simultaneously the work-load system generates forces which oppose any displacement. The springs are preferably configured and dimensioned so that, at any given displacement of the lever from the neutral position, the recovery forces generally counterbalance the work-load forces. Thus the lever will remain at a given displacement when the driving force applied to the lever is removed. Additionally, the counterbalancing of forces permits continued displacement of the lever with a minimal and constant driving force.

  10. Development of an Organic Rankine Cycle system for exhaust energy recovery in internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipollone, Roberto; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Gualtieri, Angelo; Di Battista, Davide; Mauriello, Marco; Fatigati, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Road transportation is currently one of the most influencing sectors for global energy consumptions and CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, more than one third of the fuel energy supplied to internal combustion engines is still rejected to the environment as thermal waste at the exhaust. Therefore, a greater fuel economy might be achieved recovering the energy from exhaust gases and converting it into useful power on board. In the current research activity, an ORC-based energy recovery system was developed and coupled with a diesel engine. The innovative feature of the recovery power unit relies upon the usage of sliding vane rotary machines as pump and expander. After a preliminary exhaust gas mapping, which allowed to assess the magnitude of the thermal power to be recovered, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out to design the ORC system and the sliding vane machines using R236fa as working fluid. An experimental campaign was eventually performed at different operating regimes according to the ESC procedure and investigated the recovery potential of the power unit at design and off-design conditions. Mechanical power recovered ranged from 0.7 kW up to 1.9 kW, with an overall cycle efficiency from 3.8% up to 4.8% respectively. These results candidate sliding vane machines as efficient and reliable devices for waste heat recovery applications.

  11. Advanced space recovery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wailes, William K.

    1989-01-01

    The design evolution of a space recovery system designed by a NASA-contracted study is described, with particular attention given to the design of a recovery system for a propulsion/avionics module (P/AM), which weighs 60,000 lb at the recovery initiation and achieves subsonic terminal descent at or above 50,000 ft msl. The components of the recovery system concept are described together with the operational sequences of the recovery. The recovery system concept offers low cost, low weight, good performance, a potential for pinpoint landing, and an operational flexibility.

  12. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary and Crystalline Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, Mike S.; Detwiler, Russell L.; Lao, Kang; Serajian, Vahid; Elkhoury, Jean; Diessl, Julia; White, Nicky

    2012-12-13

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. The primary objectives of this DOE research effort are to develop and document optimum design configurations and operating practices to produce geothermal power from hot permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations using advanced horizontal well recirculation systems. During Phase I of this research project Terralog Technologies USA and The University of California, Irvine (UCI), have completed preliminary investigations and documentation of advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. We have also identified significant geologic resources appropriate for application of such technology. The main challenge for such recirculation systems is to optimize both the design configuration and the operating practices for cost-effective geothermal energy recovery. These will be strongly influenced by sedimentary formation properties, including thickness and dip, temperature, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, permeability, and porosity; and by working fluid properties.

  13. Technology Roadmap. Energy Loss Reduction and Recovery in Industrial Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-11-01

    To help guide R&D decision-making and gain industry insights on the top opportunities for improved energy systems, ITP sponsored the Energy Loss Reduction and Recoveryin Energy Systems Roadmapping Workshopin April 2004 in Baltimore, Maryland. This Technology Roadmapis based largely on the results of the workshop and additional industrial energy studies supported by ITP and EERE. It summarizes industry feedback on the top opportunities for R&D investments in energy systems, and the potential for national impacts on energy use and the environment.

  14. Intermediate water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Anderson, A. R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A water recovery system for collecting, storing, and processing urine, wash water, and humidity condensates from a crew of three aboard a spacecraft is described. The results of a 30-day test performed on a breadboard system are presented. The intermediate water recovery system produced clear, sterile, water with a 96.4 percent recovery rate from the processed urine. Recommendations for improving the system are included.

  15. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems. An evaluation based on life cycle assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Giugliano, Michele; Cernuschi, Stefano; Grosso, Mario; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2011-09-15

    This paper reports the environmental results, integrated with those arising from mass and energy balances, of a research project on the comparative analysis of strategies for material and energy recovery from waste, funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research. The project, involving the cooperation of five University research groups, was devoted to the optimisation of material and energy recovery activities within integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems. Four scenarios of separate collection (overall value of 35%, 50% without the collection of food waste, 50% including the collection of food waste, 65%) were defined for the implementation of energetic, environmental and economic balances. Two sizes of integrated MSW management system (IWMS) were considered: a metropolitan area, with a gross MSW production of 750,000 t/year and an average province, with a gross MSW production of 150,000 t/year. The environmental analysis was conducted using Life Cycle Assessment methodology (LCA), for both material and energy recovery activities. In order to avoid allocation we have used the technique of the expansion of the system boundaries. This means taking into consideration the impact on the environment related to the waste management activities in comparison with the avoided impacts related to the saving of raw materials and primary energy. Under the hypotheses of the study, both for the large and for the small IWMS, the energetic and environmental benefits are higher than the energetic and environmental impacts for all the scenarios analysed in terms of all the indicators considered: the scenario with 50% separate collection in a drop-off scheme excluding food waste shows the most promising perspectives, mainly arising from the highest collection (and recycling) of all the packaging materials, which is the activity giving the biggest energetic and environmental benefits. Main conclusions of the study in the general field of the

  16. The machine protection system for the R&D energy recovery LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    Altinbas, Z.; Kayran, D.; Jamilkowski, J.; Lee, R.C.; Oerter, B.

    2011-03-28

    The Machine Protection System (MPS) is a device-safety system that is designed to prevent damage to hardware by generating interlocks, based upon the state of input signals generated by selected sub-systems. It protects all the key machinery in the R&D Project called the Energy Recovery LINAC (ERL) against the high beam current. The MPS is capable of responding to a fault with an interlock signal within several microseconds. The ERL MPS is based on a National Instruments CompactRIO platform, and is programmed by utilizing National Instruments' development environment for a visual programming language. The system also transfers data (interlock status, time of fault, etc.) to the main server. Transferred data is integrated into the pre-existing software architecture which is accessible by the operators. This paper will provide an overview of the hardware used, its configuration and operation, as well as the software written both on the device and the server side.

  17. Heat recovery subsystem and overall system integration of fuel cell on-site integrated energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mougin, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    The best HVAC (heating, ventilating and air conditioning) subsystem to interface with the Engelhard fuel cell system for application in commercial buildings was determined. To accomplish this objective, the effects of several system and site specific parameters on the economic feasibility of fuel cell/HVAC systems were investigated. An energy flow diagram of a fuel cell/HVAC system is shown. The fuel cell system provides electricity for an electric water chiller and for domestic electric needs. Supplemental electricity is purchased from the utility if needed. An excess of electricity generated by the fuel cell system can be sold to the utility. The fuel cell system also provides thermal energy which can be used for absorption cooling, space heating and domestic hot water. Thermal storage can be incorporated into the system. Thermal energy is also provided by an auxiliary boiler if needed to supplement the fuel cell system output. Fuel cell/HVAC systems were analyzed with the TRACE computer program.

  18. Energy Recovery Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolitsa Merminga

    2007-06-01

    The success and continuing progress of the three operating FELs based on Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), the Jefferson Lab IR FEL Upgrade, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) FEL, and the Novosibirsk High Power THz FEL, have inspired multiple future applications of ERLs, which include higher power FELs, synchrotron radiation sources, electron cooling devices, and high luminosity electron-ion colliders. The benefits of using ERLs for these applications are presented. The key accelerator physics and technology challenges of realizing future ERL designs, and recent developments towards resolving these challenges are reviewed.

  19. Silver recovery system data

    SciTech Connect

    Boulineau, B.

    1991-08-26

    In August of 1990 the Savannah River Site Photography Group began testing on a different type of silver recovery system. This paper describes the baseline study and the different phases of installation and testing of the system.

  20. Analysis of an energy recovery system for reformate-based PEM fuel cells involving a binary two-phase mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yiding

    A comprehensive analysis on a novel energy recovery system for reformate-based proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems is presented. The energy recovery system includes a throttling valve, a heat exchanger, a compressor, and is coupled with a coolant loop for the fuel cell stack. The feed stock of the fuel reformer, which is primarily a mixture of water and fuel, is vaporized in the heat exchanger and is then compressed to a sufficiently high pressure before it is ducted into the fuel reformer. The analysis includes the throttling of two-phase fuel/water mixture and vaporization in the heat exchanger to obtain the temperature and pressure of the mixture at the inlet of the compressor. The results indicate that the power plant efficiency with the energy recovery system can be increased by more than 20% compared to that of a fuel cell power plant without the energy recovery system. Additionally, more than 25% of the waste heat generated by the fuel cell stack can be removed due to the energy recovery system, and the fuel burned for the fuel reforming purpose is reduced by more than 70%.

  1. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bruno; Russell L. Detwiler; Kang Lao; Vahid Serajian; Jean Elkhoury; Julia Diessl; Nicky White

    2012-09-30

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. Terralog USA, in collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), are currently investigating advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. This two-year research project, funded by the US Department of Energy, includes combined efforts for: 1) Resource characterization; 2) Small and large scale laboratory investigations; 3) Numerical simulation at both the laboratory and field scale; and 4) Engineering feasibility studies and economic evaluations. The research project is currently in its early stages. This paper summarizes our technical approach and preliminary findings related to potential resources, small-scale laboratory simulation, and supporting numerical simulation efforts.

  2. A review of technologies and performances of thermal treatment systems for energy recovery from waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, Lidia; Carnevale, Ennio; Corti, Andrea

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The topic of energy recovery from waste by thermal treatment is reviewed. • Combustion, gasification and pyrolysis were considered. • Data about energy recovery performances were collected and compared. • Main limitations to high values of energy performances were illustrated. • Diffusion of energy recovery from waste in EU, USA and other countries was discussed. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to identify the current level of energy recovery through waste thermal treatment. The state of the art in energy recovery from waste was investigated, highlighting the differences for different types of thermal treatment, considering combustion/incineration, gasification and pyrolysis. Also different types of wastes – Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) or Solid Refuse Fuels (SRF) and some typologies of Industrial Waste (IW) (sludge, plastic scraps, etc.) – were included in the analysis. The investigation was carried out mainly reviewing papers, published in scientific journals and conferences, but also considering technical reports, to gather more information. In particular the goal of this review work was to synthesize studies in order to compare the values of energy conversion efficiencies measured or calculated for different types of thermal processes and different types of waste. It emerged that the dominant type of thermal treatment is incineration associated to energy recovery in a steam cycle. When waste gasification is applied, the produced syngas is generally combusted in a boiler to generate steam for energy recovery in a steam cycle. For both the possibilities – incineration or gasification – cogeneration is the mean to improve energy recovery, especially for small scale plants. In the case of only electricity production, the achievable values are strongly dependent on the plant size: for large plant size, where advanced technical solutions can be applied and sustained from an economic point of view, net

  3. Cryogenic system for the Energy Recovery Linac and vertical test facility at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Than, R.; Soria, V.; Lederle, D.; Orfin, P.; Porqueddu, R.; Talty, P.; Zhang, Y.; Tallerico, T.; Masi, L.

    2011-03-28

    A small cryogenic system and warm helium vacuum pumping system provides cooling to either the Energy Recovery Linac's (ERL) cryomodules that consist of a 5-cell cavity and an SRF gun or a large Vertical Test Dewar (VTD) at any given time. The cryogenic system consists of a model 1660S PSI piston plant, a 3800 liter storage dewar, subcooler, a wet expander, a 50 g/s main helium compressor, and a 170 m{sup 3} storage tank. A system description and operating plan of the cryogenic plant and cryomodules is given. The cryogenic system for ERL and the Vertical Test Dewar has a plant that can produce the equivalent of 300W at 4.5K with the addition of a wet expander 350 W at 4.5K. Along with this system, a sub-atmospheric, warm compression system provides pumping to produce 2K at the ERL cryomodules or the Vertical Test Dewar. The cryogenic system for ERL and the Vertical Test Dewar makes use of existing equipment for putting a system together. It can supply either the ERL side or the Vertical Test Dewar side, but not both at the same time. Double valve isolation on the liquid helium supply line allows one side to be warmed to room temperature and worked on while the other side is being held at operating temperature. The cryogenic system maintain the end loads from 4.4K to 2K or colder depending on capacity. Liquid helium storage dewar capacity allows ERL or the VTD to operate above the plant's capacity when required and ERL cryomodules ballast reservoirs and VTD reservoir allows the end loads to operate on full vacuum pump capacity when required.

  4. A review of technologies and performances of thermal treatment systems for energy recovery from waste.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Lidia; Carnevale, Ennio; Corti, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this work is to identify the current level of energy recovery through waste thermal treatment. The state of the art in energy recovery from waste was investigated, highlighting the differences for different types of thermal treatment, considering combustion/incineration, gasification and pyrolysis. Also different types of wastes - Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) or Solid Refuse Fuels (SRF) and some typologies of Industrial Waste (IW) (sludge, plastic scraps, etc.) - were included in the analysis. The investigation was carried out mainly reviewing papers, published in scientific journals and conferences, but also considering technical reports, to gather more information. In particular the goal of this review work was to synthesize studies in order to compare the values of energy conversion efficiencies measured or calculated for different types of thermal processes and different types of waste. It emerged that the dominant type of thermal treatment is incineration associated to energy recovery in a steam cycle. When waste gasification is applied, the produced syngas is generally combusted in a boiler to generate steam for energy recovery in a steam cycle. For both the possibilities--incineration or gasification--co-generation is the mean to improve energy recovery, especially for small scale plants. In the case of only electricity production, the achievable values are strongly dependent on the plant size: for large plant size, where advanced technical solutions can be applied and sustained from an economic point of view, net electric efficiency may reach values up to 30-31%. In small-medium plants, net electric efficiency is constrained by scale effect and remains at values around 20-24%. Other types of technical solutions--gasification with syngas use in internally fired devices, pyrolysis and plasma gasification--are less common or studied at pilot or demonstrative scale and, in any case, offer at present similar or lower levels

  5. Wash water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Rousseau, J. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The Wash Water Recovery System (WWRS) is intended for use in processing shower bath water onboard a spacecraft. The WWRS utilizes flash evaporation, vapor compression, and pyrolytic reaction to process the wash water to allow recovery of potable water. Wash water flashing and foaming characteristics, are evaluated physical properties, of concentrated wash water are determined, and a long term feasibility study on the system is performed. In addition, a computer analysis of the system and a detail design of a 10 lb/hr vortex-type water vapor compressor were completed. The computer analysis also sized remaining system components on the basis of the new vortex compressor design.

  6. Integrating a Machine Protection System for High-Current Free Electron Lasers and Energy Recovery Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Allison; James Coleman; Richard Evans; Al Grippo; Kevin Jordan

    2002-09-01

    A fully integrated Machine Protection System (MPS) is critical to efficient commissioning and safe operation of all high-current accelerators. The MPS needs to monitor the status of all devices that could enter the beam path, the beam loss monitors (BLMs), magnet settings, beam dump status, etc. This information is then presented to the electron source controller, which must limit the beam power or shut down the beam completely. The MPS for the energy recovery linac (ERL) at the Jefferson Lab Free Electron Laser [1] generates eight different power limits, or beam modes, which are passed to the drive laser pulse controller (DLPC) (photocathode source controller). These range from no beam to nearly 2 megawatts of electron beam power. Automatic masking is used for the BLMs during low-power modes when one might be using beam viewers. The system also reviews the setup for the two different beamlines, the IR path or the UV path, and will allow or disallow operations based on magnet settings and valve positions. This paper will describe the approach taken for the JLab 10-kW FEL. Additional details can be found on our website http://laser.jlab.org [2].

  7. Energy recovery ventilator

    DOEpatents

    Benoit, Jeffrey T.; Dobbs, Gregory M.; Lemcoff, Norberto O.

    2015-06-23

    An energy recovery heat exchanger (100) includes a housing (102). The housing has a first flowpath (144) from a first inlet (104) to a first outlet (106). The housing has a second flowpath (146) from a second inlet (108) to a second outlet (110). Either of two cores may be in an operative position in the housing. Each core has a number of first passageways having open first and second ends and closed first and second sides. Each core has a number of second such passageways interspersed with the first passageways. The ends of the second passageways are aligned with the sides of the first passageways and vice versa. A number of heat transfer member sections separate adjacent ones of the first and second passageways. An actuator is coupled to the carrier to shift the cores between first and second conditions. In the first condition, the first core (20) is in the operative position and the second core (220) is not. In the second condition, the second core is in the operative position and the first core is not. When a core is in the operative position, its first passageways are along the first flowpath and the second passageways are along the second flowpath.

  8. Spacecraft oxygen recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrone, P. D.

    1974-01-01

    Recovery system is comprised of three integrated subsystems: electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrator which removes carbon dioxide from atmosphere, Sabatier reactor in which carbon dioxide is reduced with hydrogen to form methane and water, and static-feed water electrolysis cell to recover oxygen from water.

  9. Status of RF system for the JAERI energy-recovery linac FEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawamura, Masaru; Nagai, Ryoji

    2006-02-01

    The two types of the RF sources are used for the JAERI ERL-FEL. One is an all-solid state amplifier and the other is an inductive output tube (IOT). There are advantages of little failure and wide bandwidth for the all-solid state amplifier, low cost and high efficiency for IOT. The property of low cost with the IOT is suitable for a large machine like an energy recovery linac (ERL).

  10. Waste heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.M.; Cornelison, R.C.

    1989-10-24

    This patent describes a waste heat recovery system. It comprises a conduit for conveying an exhaust gas stream; a boiler assembly connected to the conduit including a heat recovery steam generator through which the exhaust gas if flowed, and characterized by a high temperature stream tube heat exchanger and, at a downstream location relative thereto, a water-tube boiler; an ammonia gas injector for injecting ammonia gas into the exhaust gas stream and located upstream of the water-tube boiler in juxtaposition to the exhaust gas source; and a low temperature selective catalytic reduction unit located downstream of the water-tube boiler.

  11. Recirculation System for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary Formations: Laboratory Experiments and Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkhoury, J. E.; Detwiler, R. L.; Serajian, V.; Bruno, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought and have the potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. In particular, hot permeable sedimentary formations provide many advantages over traditional geothermal recovery and enhanced geothermal systems in low permeability crystalline formations. These include: (1) eliminating the need for hydraulic fracturing, (2) significant reduction in risk for induced seismicity, (3) reducing the need for surface wastewater disposal, (4) contributing to decreases in greenhouse gases, and (5) potential use for CO2 sequestration. Advances in horizontal drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock these geothermal resources. Here, we present experimental results from a laboratory scale circulation system and numerical simulations aimed at quantifying the heat transfer capacity of sedimentary rocks. Our experiments consist of fluid flow through a saturated and pressurized sedimentary disc of 23-cm diameter and 3.8-cm thickness heated along its circumference at a constant temperature. Injection and production ports are 7.6-cm apart in the center of the disc. We used DI de-aired water and mineral oil as working fluids and explored temperatures from 20 to 150 oC and flow rates from 2 to 30 ml/min. We performed experiments on sandstone samples (Castlegate and Kirby) with different porosity, permeability and thermal conductivity to evaluate the effect of hydraulic and thermal properties on the heat transfer capacity of sediments. The producing fluid temperature followed an exponential form with time scale transients between 15 and 45 min. Steady state outflow temperatures varied between 60% and 95% of the set boundary temperature, higher percentages were observed for lower temperatures and flow rates. We used the flow and heat transport simulator TOUGH2 to develop a numerical model of our laboratory setting. Given

  12. Navigating wastewater energy recovery strategies: a life cycle comparison of anaerobic membrane bioreactor and conventional treatment systems with anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam L; Stadler, Lauren B; Cao, Ling; Love, Nancy G; Raskin, Lutgarde; Skerlos, Steven J

    2014-05-20

    The objective of this study was to evaluate emerging anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology in comparison with conventional wastewater energy recovery technologies. Wastewater treatment process modeling and systems analyses were combined to evaluate the conditions under which AnMBR may produce more net energy and have lower life cycle environmental emissions than high rate activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (HRAS+AD), conventional activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (CAS+AD), and an aerobic membrane bioreactor with anaerobic digestion (AeMBR+AD). For medium strength domestic wastewater treatment under baseline assumptions at 15 °C, AnMBR recovered 49% more energy as biogas than HRAS+AD, the most energy positive conventional technology considered, but had significantly higher energy demands and environmental emissions. Global warming impacts associated with AnMBR were largely due to emissions of effluent dissolved methane. For high strength domestic wastewater treatment, AnMBR recovered 15% more net energy than HRAS+AD, and the environmental emissions gap between the two systems was reduced. Future developments of AnMBR technology in low energy fouling control, increased flux, and management of effluent methane emissions would make AnMBR competitive with HRAS+AD. Rapid advancements in AnMBR technology must continue to achieve its full economic and environmental potential as an energy recovery strategy for domestic wastewater. PMID:24742289

  13. Integrated oxygen recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. Gene; Davenport, Ronald J.

    1993-01-01

    Life Systems has conceptualized an innovative Integrated Oxygen Recovery System (IORS) applicable to advanced mission air revitalization. The IORS provides the capability to electrochemically generate metabolic oxygen (O2) and recover O2 from the space habitat atmosphere via a carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction process within a single assembly. To achieve this capability, the IORS utilizes a Solid Metal Cathode (SMC) water electrolysis unit that simultaneously serves as the Sabatier CO2 reduction reactor. The IORS enables two major life support systems currently baselined in closed loop air revitalization systems to be combined into one smaller, less complex system. This concept reduces fluidic and electrical interface requirements and eliminates a hydrogen (H2) interface. Life Systems is performing an evaluation of the IORS process directed at demonstrating performance and quantifying key physical characteristics including power, weight, and volume. The results of the checkout, shakedown, and initial parametric tests are summarized.

  14. Integrated oxygen recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. Gene; Davenport, Ronald J.

    1993-01-01

    Life Systems has conceptualized an innovative Integrated Oxygen Recovery System (IORS) applicable to advanced mission air revitalization. The IORS provides the capability to electrochemically generate metabolic oxygen (O2) and recover O2 from the space habitat atmosphere via a carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction process within a single assembly. To achieve this capability, the IORS utilizes a Solid Metal Cathode (SMC) water electrolysis unit that simultaneously serves as the Sabatier CO2 reduction reactor. The IORS enables two major life support systems currently baselined in closed loop air revitalization systems to be combined into one smaller, less complex system. This concept reduces fluidic and electrical interface requirements and eliminates a hydrogen (H2) interface. Life Systems is performing an evaluation of the IORS process directed at demonstrating performance and quantifying key physical characteristics including power, weight, and volume. Technical progress achieved during the first two months of the program is summarized.

  15. Feasibility of energy recovery from municipal solid waste in an integrated municipal energy supply and waste management system.

    PubMed

    Luoranen, Mika; Horttanainen, Mika

    2007-10-01

    A decision-support model for determining the feasibility of a planned energy-from-waste (EfW) investment for an integrated waste management and energy supply system is presented. The aim is to present an easy-to-understand, inexpensive and fast-to-use tool to decision-makers for modelling and evaluating different kinds of processes. Special emphasis is put on forming the model and interpretation of the results of the example case. The simple integrated system management (SISMan) model is presented through a practical example of the use of the model. In the example the viability of the described system is studied by comparing five different cases including different waste-derived fuels (WDF), non-segregated municipal solid waste (MSW) being one of the fuel options. The nominal power output of the EfW plant varied in each case according to the WDF classification. The numeric values for two main variables for each WDF type were determined, the WDF price at the gate of the EfW plant and the waste management fee (WMF) according to the 'polluter pays' -principle. Comparison between the five cases was carried out according to two determinants, the WMF related to each case and the recovery rate related to each case. The numeric values for the constants and variables used in the calculations were chosen as realistically as possible using available data related to the issue. In the example of this paper, the mass-incineration solution ('pure' MSW as a fuel) was found to be the most viable solution for the described system according to the calculations. However, the final decision of the decision-makers might differ from this in the real world due to extra 'fuzzy' information that cannot be reliably included in the calculations. This paper shows that certain key values of modelled systems can be calculated using an easy-to-use tool at the very early stages of a larger design process involving municipal and business partners. The use of this kind of tools could significantly

  16. Enhanced oil recovery system

    DOEpatents

    Goldsberry, Fred L.

    1989-01-01

    All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.

  17. Exhaust Gas Energy Recovery Technology Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Robert M; Szybist, James P

    2014-01-01

    Exhaust waste heat recovery systems have the potential to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy for conventional and hybrid electric powertrains spanning passenger to heavy truck applications. This chapter discusses thermodynamic considerations and three classes of energy recovery technologies which are under development for vehicle applications. More specifically, this chapter describes the state-of-the-art in exhaust WHR as well as challenges and opportunities for thermodynamic power cycles, thermoelectric devices, and turbo-compounding systems.

  18. Energy and economic analysis of total energy systems for residential and commercial buildings. [utilizing waste heat recovery techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maag, W. L.; Bollenbacher, G.

    1974-01-01

    Energy and economic analyses were performed for an on-site power-plant with waste heat recovery. The results show that for any specific application there is a characteristic power conversion efficiency that minimizes fuel consumption, and that efficiencies greater than this do not significantly improve fuel consumption. This type of powerplant appears to be a reasonably attractive investment if higher fuel costs continue.

  19. Counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M.

    1986-01-01

    In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, a counterpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  20. Overpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M.

    1989-01-01

    In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, an overpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  1. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: A life-cycle costing approach

    SciTech Connect

    Massarutto, Antonio; Carli, Alessandro de; Graffi, Matteo

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The study aims at assessing economic performance of alternative scenarios of MSW. > The approach is the life-cycle costing (LCC). > Waste technologies must be considered as complementary into an integrated strategy. - Abstract: A critical assumption of studies assessing comparatively waste management options concerns the constant average cost for selective collection regardless the source separation level (SSL) reached, and the neglect of the mass constraint. The present study compares alternative waste management scenarios through the development of a desktop model that tries to remove the above assumption. Several alternative scenarios based on different combinations of energy and materials recovery are applied to two imaginary areas modelled in order to represent a typical Northern Italian setting. External costs and benefits implied by scenarios are also considered. Scenarios are compared on the base of the full cost for treating the total waste generated in the area. The model investigates the factors that influence the relative convenience of alternative scenarios.

  2. Counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    DOEpatents

    Honig, E.M.

    1984-09-28

    The invention presented relates to a high-power pulsing circuit and more particularly to a repetitive pulse inductive energy storage and transfer circuit for an electromagnetic launcher. In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, a counterpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  3. Overpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    DOEpatents

    Honig, E.M.

    1984-09-28

    The invention presented relates to a high-power pulsing circuit and more particularly to a repetitive pulse inductive energy storage and transfer circuit for an electromagnetic launcher. In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, an overpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  4. Introduction to deployable recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.

    1985-08-01

    This report provides an introduction to deployable recovery systems for persons with little or no background in parachutes but who are knowledgeable in aerodynamics. A historical review of parachute development is given along with a description of the basic components of most deployable recovery systems. Descriptions are given of the function of each component and of problems that occur if a component fails to perform adequately. Models are presented for deployable recovery systems. Possible directions for future work are suggested in the summary.

  5. Waste gas recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Lintonbon, R.F.; Shore, D.

    1981-06-02

    A waste gas recovery system employs a compressor which takes in raw waste gas from an inlet knock-out drum and passes compressed gas through a heat exchanger to an outlet knock-out drum. The temperature at the outlet of the compressor is sensed by a device which operates valves to inject liquid coolant into the compressor inlet and to re-circulate gas back from the outlet of the outlet knock-out drum to inhibit an excessive temperature rise. A pressure-sensing device senses the pressure of the gas passing into the compressor and controls both the speed of the compressor and an adjustable throttle valve to regulate the gas flow. The throttle valve is closed automatically should there be a fall in the pressure of the gas at the inlet below a safe level. In this event, further pressure-sensing devices act additionally to close the recirculating gas valve and a further valve in the main inlet flow path to reliably isolate the compressor.

  6. Thermal energy storage for industrial waste heat recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, H. W.; Kedl, R. J.; Duscha, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal energy storage systems designed for energy conservation through the recovery, storage, and reuse of industrial process waste heat are reviewed. Consideration is given to systems developed for primary aluminum, cement, the food processing industry, paper and pulp, and primary iron and steel. Projected waste-heat recovery and energy savings are listed for each category.

  7. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-08-12

    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and to a system and method for regulation of a fluid inventory in a condenser and a receiver of a Rankine cycle WHR system. Such regulation includes the ability to regulate the pressure in a WHR system to control cavitation and energy conversion.

  8. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2016-05-10

    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and to a system and method for regulation of a fluid inventory in a condenser and a receiver of a Rankine cycle WHR system. Such regulation includes the ability to regulate the pressure in a WHR system to control cavitation and energy conversion.

  9. Overpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, E.M.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes an overpulse railgun energy recovery circuit for propelling a projectile along a railgun. The overpulse rail gun energy recovery circuit comprising: a railgun having an effective inductance, the railgun having a breach end, a pair of parallel rails, and a muzzle end; source inductor for storing current connected across the pair of parallel rails of the railgun at the breech end thereof; means for initially charging the source inductor to an initial current for storage; switching means connected across the source inductor with a closed position for shorting across the source inductor and an open position for enabling current flow into the effective inductance of the breech end towards the muzzle end of the railgun; a muzzle switch connected across the pair of parallel rails of the railgun at the muzzle end thereof; and transfer capacitive means.

  10. Counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, E.M.

    1986-02-25

    This patent describes a counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit for propelling a projectile along a railgun the counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit consists of: a railgun having an effective inductance; a source inductor initially charged to an initial current; current means for initially charging the source inductor to the initial current; first current-zero type switching means; second current-zero type switching; third current-zero type switching; muzzle current-zero type switching means; transfer capacitor, the transfer capacitor is for cooperating with the first, second, third, and muzzle current-zero type switching means for providing a resonant circuit for transferring current from the source inductor to the effective inductance of the railgun during the propelling of a projectile along the railgun and for returning current from the effective inductance of the railgun to the source inductance after the projectile has exited the railgun.

  11. Energy Efficient Building Ventilation Systems: Innovative Building-Integrated Enthalpy Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-15

    BEETIT Project: A2 is developing a building moisture and heat exchange technology that leverages a new material and design to create healthy buildings with lower energy use. Commercial building owners/operators are demanding buildings with greater energy efficiency and healthier indoor environments. A2 is developing a membrane-based heat and moisture exchanger that controls humidity by transferring the water vapor in the incoming fresh air to the drier air leaving the building. Unlike conventional systems, A2 locates the heat and moisture exchanger within the depths of the building’s wall to slow down the air flow and increase the surface area that captures humidity, but with less fan power. The system’s integration into the wall reduces the size and demand on the air conditioning equipment and increases liable floor area flexibility.

  12. Microwave Plasma Hydrogen Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, James; Wheeler, Richard, Jr.; Dahl, Roger; Hadley, Neal

    2010-01-01

    A microwave plasma reactor was developed for the recovery of hydrogen contained within waste methane produced by Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA), which reclaims oxygen from CO2. Since half of the H2 reductant used by the CRA is lost as CH4, the ability to reclaim this valuable resource will simplify supply logistics for longterm manned missions. Microwave plasmas provide an extreme thermal environment within a very small and precisely controlled region of space, resulting in very high energy densities at low overall power, and thus can drive high-temperature reactions using equipment that is smaller, lighter, and less power-consuming than traditional fixed-bed and fluidized-bed catalytic reactors. The high energy density provides an economical means to conduct endothermic reactions that become thermodynamically favorable only at very high temperatures. Microwave plasma methods were developed for the effective recovery of H2 using two primary reaction schemes: (1) methane pyrolysis to H2 and solid-phase carbon, and (2) methane oligomerization to H2 and acetylene. While the carbon problem is substantially reduced using plasma methods, it is not completely eliminated. For this reason, advanced methods were developed to promote CH4 oligomerization, which recovers a maximum of 75 percent of the H2 content of methane in a single reactor pass, and virtually eliminates the carbon problem. These methods were embodied in a prototype H2 recovery system capable of sustained high-efficiency operation. NASA can incorporate the innovation into flight hardware systems for deployment in support of future long-duration exploration objectives such as a Space Station retrofit, Lunar outpost, Mars transit, or Mars base. The primary application will be for the recovery of hydrogen lost in the Sabatier process for CO2 reduction to produce water in Exploration Life Support systems. Secondarily, this process may also be used in conjunction with a Sabatier reactor employed to

  13. The use of commercial and industrial waste in energy recovery systems - A UK preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lupa, Christopher J; Ricketts, Lois J; Sweetman, Andy; Herbert, Ben M J

    2011-08-01

    With 2020 energy targets set out by the EU fast approaching, the UK is trying to source a higher proportion of its energy from renewable resources. Coupled with this, a growing population and increasing trends in consumer demand have resulted in national waste loads increasing. A possible solution to both issues is energy-from-waste (EfW) technologies. Many studies have focused on municipal solid waste (MSW) as a potential feedstock, but appear to overlook the potential benefits of commercial and industrial waste (C&IW). In this study, samples of C&IW were collected from three North West waste management companies and Lancaster University campus. The samples were tested for their gross and net calorific value, moisture content, ash content, volatile matter, and also elemental composition to determine their suitability in EfW systems. Intra-sample analysis showed there to be little variation between samples with the exception two samples, from waste management site 3, which showed extensive variation with regards to net calorific value, ash content, and elemental analysis. Comparisons with known fuel types revealed similarities between the sampled C&IW, MSW, and refuse derived fuel (RDF) thereby justifying its potential for use in EfW systems. Mean net calorific value (NCV) was calculated as 9.47MJ/kg and concentrations of sulphur, nitrogen, and chlorine were found to be below 2%. Potential electrical output was calculated using the NCV of the sampled C&IW coupled with four differing energy generation technologies. Using a conventional incinerator with steam cycle, total electrical output was calculated as 24.9GWh, based on a plant operating at 100,000tpa. This value rose to 27.0GWh when using an integrated gasification combined cycle. A final aspect of this study was to deduce the potential total national electrical output if all suitable C&IW were to be used in EfW systems. Using incineration coupled with a steam turbine, this was determined to be 6TWh, 1.9% of

  14. Mechanical Vapor Recompression for waste energy recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, F.E.; Zakak, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes energy recovery in petroleum refineries utilizing mechanical vapor recompression. Several examples illustrating recompression of waste steam or vapors from turbine exhausts, vents and distillation towers are presented. The advantages of the Mechanical Vapor Recompression System (MVRS) using a screw compressor are discussed in detail. Significant energy savings can be achieved by integration of the MVRS into the steam flow loop. Attractive simple payback periods, often less than two years, can be achieved.

  15. Design of heat and power recovery systems for energy conservation in chemical plants

    SciTech Connect

    Colmenares Torrealba, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    The heat and power integration problem is formulated as a nonlinear programming (NLP) model using an optimality criterion as a design objective that includes the energy-capital trade-offs for the power cycles. The strategies utilize the Temperature Interval method and permit the efficient use of negative heat deficits to obtain lower cost designs. Also, a technique for the lumping of temperature intervals is developed, which often increases the efficiency of optimization without adversely affecting the solution. Initially, a NLP model is formulated for the integration of the heat engines and heat pumps with the process. The model permits an easy assessment of the alternatives for integration and the potential working fluids. Then, an algorithm is presented for the synthesis of cascade refrigeration systems, integrated with the process, with alternate working fluids, and optimized over a continuous range of operating temperatures. Finally, a nonlinear programming strategy is presented for the synthesis of utility systems that satisfy the heating and power demands of the process at 100 percent efficiency. The utility system is modeled as a cascade of heat engines that exchange heat with the process and among themselves. Mass exchange between the adjacent heat engines produces lower pressure designs and provides heat for the process over a broader range of temperatures for a given power demand. Through mass integration, it was discovered that simple Rankine cycles are adequate to generate the complex utility systems that characterize industrial practice. Process examples are presented to illustrate the utility of these models.

  16. Energy recovery through termites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Granger, J.A.

    1981-12-15

    This project, Energy Recovery Through Termites, was based on the proposed development of an energy recovery system to produce low cost animal protein for use in animal feeds. The result of my study shows that to date we are unable to establish viable colonies of termites. This is based on several key factors as follows: (a) inability to capture reproductives to establish new colonies in a confined area needed to offer recovery or harvest of protein; (b) confinement of colonies (even without queen or reproductives) has proven to be far too complex to establish in low cost and modest facilities; (c) the proposal is not cost effective. The resources of skill and materials could not be repaid from the protein recovered.

  17. Investigation of a passenger car's dynamic response due to a flywheel-based kinetic energy recovery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischof, Günter; Reisinger, Karl; Singraber, Thomas; Summer, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    With the advent of flywheel-based kinetic energy recovery systems in automotive applications new safety issues arise as a consequence of the flywheel's high rotational speed. While the special structural safety requirements of the components are well discussed in the literature, there is still little research on the influence of gyroscopic effects on vehicle dynamics. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of a typical high-speed flywheel on the driving dynamics of an average passenger car. To this end the equations of motion of a gyroscope are derived, which relate the vehicle's roll, pitch and yaw rate with the transverse torque acting on the flywheel. These equations are implemented in a commercial vehicle dynamics simulation program in order to determine the reaction torques acting on the vehicle within a representative range of driving situations. Numerical simulations indicate that the gyroscopic effect can be considered insignificant in standard driving situations.

  18. Bioelectrochemical systems-driven directional ion transport enables low-energy water desalination, pollutant removal, and resource recovery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Liang, Peng; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Huang, Xia

    2016-09-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are integrated water treatment technologies that generate electricity using organic matter in wastewater. In situ use of bioelectricity can direct the migration of ionic substances in a BES, thereby enabling water desalination, resource recovery, and valuable substance production. Recently, much attention has been placed on the microbial desalination cells in BESs to drive water desalination, and various configurations have optimized electricity generation and desalination performance and also coupled hydrogen production, heavy metal reduction, and other reactions. In addition, directional transport of other types of charged ions can remediate polluted groundwater, recover nutrient, and produce valuable substances. To better promote the practical application, the use of BESs as directional drivers of ionic substances requires further optimization to improve energy use efficiency and treatment efficacy. This article reviews existing researches on BES-driven directional ion transport to treat wastewater and identifies a few key factors involved in efficiency optimization. PMID:26961714

  19. Hydraulic waste energy recovery, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The energy required for booster station operation is supplied by the electrical utility company and has an associated cost. Energy removed by pressure reducing valves in the system is lost or wasted. The objective of this project is to capture the wasted hydraulic energy with in-line turbines. In this application, the in-line turbines act as pressure reducing valves while removing energy from the water distribution system and converting it to electrical energy. The North Service Center pumping station was selected for the pilot program due to the availability of a wide range in pressure drop and flow, which are necessary for hydraulic energy recovery. The research performed during this project resulted in documentation of technical, economic, installation, and operational information necessary for local government officials to make an informed judgement as it relates to in-line turbine generation.

  20. Mechanical vapor recompression for waste energy recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, F.E.; Zakak, A.I.

    1985-03-01

    This paper is concerned with energy recovery in petroleum distillation processes utilizing mechanical vapor recompression. Several examples illustrating recompression of head vapors for heating the reboiler of a distillation tower are presented. The advantages of the mechanical vapor recompression system using a screw compressor are discussed in detail. The system is economically attractive with simple payback periods often less than two years. The paper describes the merits of mechanical vapor recompression, using a screw-type compressor for recovering energy at the distillation tower, and how it can be accomplished by using an intermediary fluid such as steam or by recompressing the distillation column vapors directly.

  1. The Exploration Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ORourke, Mary Jane E.; Carter, Layne; Holder, Donald W.; Tomes, Kristin M.

    2006-01-01

    The Exploration Water Recovery System is designed towards fulfillment of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration, which will require elevation of existing technologies to higher levels of optimization. This new system, designed for application to the Exploration infrastructure, presents a novel combination of proven air and water purification technologies. The integration of unit operations is modified from that of the current state-of-the-art water recovery system so as to optimize treatment of the various waste water streams, contaminant loads, and flow rates. Optimization is achieved primarily through the removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase prior to their absorption into the liquid phase. In the current state-of-the-art system, the water vapor in the cabin atmosphere is condensed, and the volatile organic contaminants present in that atmosphere are absorbed into the aqueous phase. Removal of contaminants the5 occurs via catalytic oxidation in the liquid phase. Oxidation kinetics, however, dictate that removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase can inherently be more efficient than their removal from the aqueous phase. Taking advantage of this efficiency reduces the complexity of the water recovery system. This reduction in system complexity is accompanied by reductions in the weight, volume, power, and resupply requirements of the system. Vapor compression distillation technology is used to treat the urine, condensate, and hygiene waste streams. This contributes to the reduction in resupply, as incorporation of vapor compression distillation technology at this point in the process reduces reliance on the expendable ion exchange and adsorption media used in the current state-of-the-art water recovery system. Other proven technologies that are incorporated into the Exploration Water Recovery System include the Trace Contaminant Control System and the Volatile Removal Assembly.

  2. Spacecraft oxygen recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrone, P. D.

    1973-01-01

    A system which uses an electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrator to remove carbon dioxide from the cabin atmosphere and a Sabatier reactor to reduce carbon dioxide with hydrogen to form methane and water is described. Oxygen is recovered from water by means of a static-feed water electrolysis system. The hydrogen thus generated is reused in the carbon dioxide concentrator. The methane is a system byproduct. The CO2 removal reactions and the implementation of the CO2 concentration concept are discussed, and test results are examined.

  3. Use of a turboexpander in steam power units for heat energy recovery in heat supply systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadykov, R. A.; Daminov, A. Z.; Solomin, I. N.; Futin, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    A method for raising the efficiency of a boiler plant by installing a unit operating by the organic Rankine cycle is presented. Such units allow one to generate electricity to cover the auxiliaries of a heat source at a heat-transfer fluid temperature of no more than 130°C. The results of commissioning tests of boilers revealed that their efficiency is maximized under a load that is close or corresponds to the nominal one. If this load is maintained constantly, excess heat energy is produced. This excess may be used to generate electric energy in a steam power unit with a turboexpander. A way to insert this unit into the flow diagram of a boiler plant is proposed. The results of analysis of turbine types (turboexpanders included) with various capacities are presented, and the optimum type for the proposed flow diagram is chosen. The methodology for the design of turboexpanders and compressors used in the oil and gas industry and their operational data were applied in the analysis of a turboexpander. The results of the thermogasdynamic analysis of a turboexpander and the engineered shape of an axial-radial impeller are presented. Halocarbon R245fa is chosen as the working medium based on its calorimetric properties.

  4. LiCl dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, S.M.

    1980-06-03

    This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system. 4 figs.

  5. LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Ko, Suk M.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

  6. Oil Recovery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-01-01

    A Downhole Steam Generation System brings oil up from deep reservoirs. The system, developed by Foster-Miller Associates consists of a steam generator, a "packer" that keeps the steam from leaking up the wellbore, and tube string that supplies air, fuel, water and hydraulics to the generator and packer; all are encased in a standard seven-inch well casing. Downhole means that the steam generator is located far down the well casing rather than on the surface. This design is more efficient than surface generated steam. A COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center) program aided in the design.

  7. Energy balance for uranium recovery from seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, E.; Lindner, H.

    2013-07-01

    The energy return on investment (EROI) of an energy resource is the ratio of the energy it ultimately produces to the energy used to recover it. EROI is a key viability measure for a new recovery technology, particularly in its early stages of development when financial cost assessment would be premature or highly uncertain. This paper estimates the EROI of uranium recovery from seawater via a braid adsorbent technology. In this paper, the energy cost of obtaining uranium from seawater is assessed by breaking the production chain into three processes: adsorbent production, adsorbent deployment and mooring, and uranium elution and purification. Both direct and embodied energy inputs are considered. Direct energy is the energy used by the processes themselves, while embodied energy is used to fabricate their material, equipment or chemical inputs. If the uranium is used in a once-through fuel cycle, the braid adsorbent technology EROI ranges from 12 to 27, depending on still-uncertain performance and system design parameters. It is highly sensitive to the adsorbent capacity in grams of U captured per kg of adsorbent as well as to potential economies in chemical use. This compares to an EROI of ca. 300 for contemporary terrestrial mining. It is important to note that these figures only consider the mineral extraction step in the fuel cycle. At a reference performance level of 2.76 g U recovered per kg adsorbent immersed, the largest energy consumers are the chemicals used in adsorbent production (63%), anchor chain mooring system fabrication and operations (17%), and unit processes in the adsorbent production step (12%). (authors)

  8. Highlights from U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Recovery Act Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Fuel Cell Technologies Office

    2012-05-01

    This fact sheets highlights U.S. Department of Energy fuel cell projects funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act). More than 1,000 fuel cell systems have been deployed through Recovery Act funding.

  9. Energy Recovery in Individuals with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sparling, Tawnee L.; Schmitt, Daniel; Miller, Charlotte E.; Guilak, Farshid; Somers, Tamara J.; Keefe, Francis J.; Queen, Robin M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pathological gaits have been shown to limit transfer between potential (PE) and kinetic (KE) energy during walking, which can increase locomotor costs. The purpose of this study was to examine whether energy exchange would be limited in people with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Ground reaction forces during walking were collected from 93 subjects with symptomatic knee OA (self-selected and fast speeds) and 13 healthy controls (self-selected speed) and used to calculate their center of mass (COM) movements, PE and KE relationships, and energy recovery during a stride. Correlations and linear regressions examined the impact of energy fluctuation phase and amplitude, walking velocity, body mass, self-reported pain, and radiographic severity on recovery. Paired t-tests were run to compare energy recovery between cohorts. Results Symptomatic knee OA subjects displayed lower energetic recovery during self-selected walking speeds than healthy controls (p=0.0018). PE and KE phase relationships explained the majority (66%) of variance in recovery. Recovery had a complex relationship with velocity and its change across speeds was significantly influenced by the self-selected walking speed of each subject. Neither radiographic OA scores nor subject self-reported measures demonstrated any relationship with energy recovery. Conclusions Knee OA reduces effective exchange of PE and KE, potentially increasing the muscular work required to control movements of the COM. Gait retraining may return subjects to more normal patterns of energy exchange and allow them to reduce fatigue. PMID:24752039

  10. Heat recovery reduces process energy losses

    SciTech Connect

    Anon

    1981-09-01

    After evaluation of process and plant operation losses, a pharmaceutical plant found heat recovery a viable means of reducing energy losses. One of the first applications of air-to-air heat recovery was in a recirculation/dehumidification process. Heat exchangers were used to recover heat from the air used to generate or dry the dehumidification material.

  11. Advanced Membrane Separation Technologies for Energy Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop novel materials for use in membrane separation technologies for the recovery of waste energy and water from industrial process streams.

  12. Temperature and energy deficit in the ground during operation and recovery phases of closed-loop ground source heat pump system: Effect of the groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erol, Selcuk; Francois, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    The advection/dispersion mechanism of the groundwater flow in the ground has a significant effect on a borehole heat exchanger (BHE) to enhance its thermal performance. However, the amount of energy extracted from the ground never disappears and only shifts with the magnitude of the effective thermal velocity in the infinite domain. In this work, we focus on the temperature and the energy balance of the ground in an advection/dispersion dominated heat transfer system during the operation period of a BHE and the subsequent recovery phase when the system is idle. The problem is treated with single BHE and multi-BHEs systems, for different representative geology and different groundwater flow velocity. In order to assess the thermal energy deficit due to heat extraction from the ground, we used the finite line source analytical model, developed recently (Erol et al., 2015) that provides the temperature distributions around the boreholes for discontinuous heat extraction. The model is developed based on the Green's function, which is the solution of heat conduction/advection/dispersion equation in porous media, for discontinuous heat extraction by analytically convoluting rectangular function or pulses in time domain. The results demonstrate the significant positive impact of the groundwater flow for the recovery in terms of temperature deficit at the location of the borehole. However, the total thermal energy deficit is not affected by the groundwater movement. The energy balance of the ground is the same no matter the prevailing heat transfer system, which can be only conduction or advection/dispersion. In addition, the energy balance of the ground is not based on either the duration of the production period operation or of the recovery phase, but depends on the total amount of heat that is extracted and on the bulk volumetric heat capacity of the ground.

  13. Recovery system for an underwater projectile

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.

    1986-10-01

    A recovery system has been designed to recover and bring to the surface of the ocean a vehicle weighting 640 lbs under water and approximately 800 lbs in air. The vehicle has a terminal sink rate of 52-55 ft/sec. The recovery system includes a 4.2-ft-dia ribbon parachute, a 13-ft/sup 3/ flotation bag, and a gas generator for inflating the bag. Deployment of the recovery system normally occurs at depths between 400 and 600 ft. Components of the recovery system were tested before the system was used. Results of the tests along with a description of the recovery system are presented.

  14. The CEBAF Energy Recovery Experiment: Update and Future Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Arne Freyberger; Kevin Beard; S. Bogacz; Yu-Chiu Chao; Swapan Chattopadhyay; David Douglas; Andrew Hutton; Nikolitsa Merminga; Christopher Tennant; Michael Tiefenback

    2004-07-01

    A successful GeV scale energy recovery demonstration with a high ratio of peak-to-injection energies (50:1) was carried out on the CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) recirculating superconducting linear accelerator in the spring of 2003. To gain a quantitative understanding of the beam behavior through the machine, data was taken to characterize the 6D phase space during the CEBAF-ER (CEBAF with Energy Recovery) experimental run. The transverse emittance of the accelerating and energy recovered beams was measured in several locations to ascertain the beam quality preservation during energy recovery. Measurements also included the RF system's response to the energy recovery process and transverse beam profile of the energy recovered beam. One of the salient conclusions from the experiment is that the energy recovery process does not contribute significantly to the emittance degradation. The current status of the data analysis will be presented as well as plans for a GeV scale energy recovery experimental run with current doubling.

  15. Energy Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    SciTech Connect

    Sy, Amy; Krafft, Geoffrey A.; Johnson, Rolland; Roberts, Tom; Boulware, Chase; Hollister, Jerry

    2015-09-01

    Photonuclear reactions with bremsstrahlung photon beams from electron linacs can generate radioisotopes of critical interest. An SRF Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) provides a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes in a more compact footprint and at a lower cost than those produced by conventional reactor or ion accelerator methods. Use of an ERL enables increased energy efficiency of the complex through energy recovery of the waste electron beam, high electron currents for high production yields, and reduced neutron production and shielding activation at beam dump components. Simulation studies using G4Beamline/GEANT4 and MCNP6 through MuSim, as well as other simulation codes, will design an ERL-based isotope production facility utilizing bremsstrahlung photon beams from an electron linac. Balancing the isotope production parameters versus energy recovery requirements will inform a choice of isotope production target for future experiments.

  16. Nanostructured systems for enhanced oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, V. A.; Kuvshinov, I. V.

    2015-10-01

    The reservoir energy or that of the injected heat carrier was used to generate in situ intelligent chemical systems—nanostructured gels, sols and oil-displacing surfactants systems, preserving for a long time in the reservoir a complex of the properties being optimal for oil displacement. The results of field tests and commercial application of physicochemical technologies using nanostructured systems for enhanced oil recovery in oilfields with difficult-to-recover reserves, including deposits of high-viscosity oils, have been presented. Field tests of new "cold" technologies on the deposit of high-viscosity oil in Usinskoye oilfield proved their high efficiency.

  17. The use of salinity contrast for density difference compensation to improve the thermal recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lopik, Jan H.; Hartog, Niels; Zaadnoordijk, Willem Jan

    2016-02-01

    The efficiency of heat recovery in high-temperature (>60 °C) aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) systems is limited due to the buoyancy of the injected hot water. This study investigates the potential to improve the efficiency through compensation of the density difference by increased salinity of the injected hot water for a single injection-recovery well scheme. The proposed method was tested through numerical modeling with SEAWATv4, considering seasonal HT-ATES with four consecutive injection-storage-recovery cycles. Recovery efficiencies for the consecutive cycles were investigated for six cases with three simulated scenarios: (a) regular HT-ATES, (b) HT-ATES with density difference compensation using saline water, and (c) theoretical regular HT-ATES without free thermal convection. For the reference case, in which 80 °C water was injected into a high-permeability aquifer, regular HT-ATES had an efficiency of 0.40 after four consecutive recovery cycles. The density difference compensation method resulted in an efficiency of 0.69, approximating the theoretical case (0.76). Sensitivity analysis showed that the net efficiency increase by using the density difference compensation method instead of regular HT-ATES is greater for higher aquifer hydraulic conductivity, larger temperature difference between injection water and ambient groundwater, smaller injection volume, and larger aquifer thickness. This means that density difference compensation allows the application of HT-ATES in thicker, more permeable aquifers and with larger temperatures than would be considered for regular HT-ATES systems.

  18. The use of salinity contrast for density difference compensation to improve the thermal recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lopik, Jan H.; Hartog, Niels; Zaadnoordijk, Willem Jan

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency of heat recovery in high-temperature (>60 °C) aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) systems is limited due to the buoyancy of the injected hot water. This study investigates the potential to improve the efficiency through compensation of the density difference by increased salinity of the injected hot water for a single injection-recovery well scheme. The proposed method was tested through numerical modeling with SEAWATv4, considering seasonal HT-ATES with four consecutive injection-storage-recovery cycles. Recovery efficiencies for the consecutive cycles were investigated for six cases with three simulated scenarios: (a) regular HT-ATES, (b) HT-ATES with density difference compensation using saline water, and (c) theoretical regular HT-ATES without free thermal convection. For the reference case, in which 80 °C water was injected into a high-permeability aquifer, regular HT-ATES had an efficiency of 0.40 after four consecutive recovery cycles. The density difference compensation method resulted in an efficiency of 0.69, approximating the theoretical case (0.76). Sensitivity analysis showed that the net efficiency increase by using the density difference compensation method instead of regular HT-ATES is greater for higher aquifer hydraulic conductivity, larger temperature difference between injection water and ambient groundwater, smaller injection volume, and larger aquifer thickness. This means that density difference compensation allows the application of HT-ATES in thicker, more permeable aquifers and with larger temperatures than would be considered for regular HT-ATES systems.

  19. Status report on energy recovery from municipal solid waste: technologies, lessons and issues. Information bulletin of the energy task force of the urban consortium

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    A review is presented of the lessons learned and issues raised regarding the recovery of energy from solid wastes. The review focuses on technologies and issues significant to currently operating energy recovery systems in the US - waterwall incineration, modular incineration, refuse derived fuels systems, landfill gas recovery systems. Chapters are: Energy Recovery and Solid Waste Disposal; Energy Recovery Systems; Lessons in Energy Recovery; Issues in Energy Recovery. Some basic conclusions are presented concerning the state of the art of energy from waste. Plants in shakedown or under construction, along with technologies in the development stages, are briefly described. Sources of additional information and a bibliography are included. (MCW)

  20. Energy integrated dairy farm system in Georgia: Technical manual, Mathis/P and M Dairy Farm, Social Circle, Georgia. [Cogeneration using biogas; heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, J.L. Jr.; Ross, C.C.; Lamade, R.M.

    1986-09-01

    This manual describes a project sponsored to optimize energy generation and utilization in the agricultural or food processing industry. The particular project involves the Mathis/P and M Dairy Farm located in Social Circle, Georgia (about 60 miles east of Atlanta). The farm is designed for a 550 milking cow herd and produces certified raw milk for sale to a processing plant located in Atlanta. The project converted the Mathis/P and and M Dairy into an energy integrated dairy farm system (EIDFS) in which the interaction of the subsystems and components are modified such that the energy resources of the farm are optimized. This manual is a description of the system, subsystems and components composing the Mathis EIDFS and is primarily intended for farmers, extension agents, and equipment manufacturers who might be involved in future EIDFS projects. Cogeneration using biogas from manures and heat recovery from the refrigeration machinery were among the options chosen.

  1. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojnar, F.; Lunberg, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A study to assess the potential for waste heat recovery in the food industry and to evaluate prospective waste heat recovery system concepts employing thermal energy storage was conducted. The study found that the recovery of waste heat in canning facilities can be performed in significant quantities using systems involving thermal energy storage that are both practical and economical. A demonstration project is proposed to determine actual waste heat recovery costs and benefits and to encourage system implementation by the food industry.

  2. Neutral beamline with improved ion energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.; Haselton, Halsey H.; Stirling, William L.; Whealton, John H.

    1984-01-01

    A neutral beamline generator with unneutralized ion energy recovery is provided which enhances the energy recovery of the full energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer cell of the beamline. The unneutralized full energy ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected from the beam path and the electrons in the cell are blocked by a magnetic field applied transverse to the beamline in the cell exit region. The ions, which are generated at essentially ground potential and accelerated through the neutralizer cell by a negative acceleration voltage, are collected at ground potential. A neutralizer cell exit end region is provided which allows the magnetic and electric fields acting on the exiting ions to be closely coupled. As a result, the fractional energy ions exiting the cell with the full energy ions are reflected back into the gas cell. Thus, the fractional energy ions do not detract from the energy recovery efficiency of full energy ions exiting the cell which can reach the ground potential interior surfaces of the beamline housing.

  3. Neutral beamline with improved ion energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jinchoon

    1984-01-01

    A neutral beamline employing direct energy recovery of unneutralized residual ions is provided which enhances the energy recovery of the full energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer cell, and thus improves the overall neutral beamline efficiency. The unneutralized full energy ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected from the beam path and the electrons in the cell are blocked by a magnetic field applied transverse to the beam direction in the neutral izer exit region. The ions which are generated at essentially ground potential and accelerated through the neutralizer cell by a negative acceleration voltage are collected at ground potential. A neutralizer cell exit end region is provided which allows the magnetic and electric fields acting on the exiting ions to be loosely coupled. As a result, the fractional energy ions exiting the cell are reflected onto and collected at an interior wall of the neutralizer formed by the modified end geometry, and thus do not detract from the energy recovery efficiency of full energy ions exiting the cell. Electrons within the neutralizer are prevented from exiting the neutralizer end opening by the action of crossed fields drift (ExB) and are terminated to a collector collar around the downstream opening of the neutralizer. The correct combination of the extended neutralizer end structure and the magnet region is designed so as to maximize the exit of full energy ions and to contain the fractional energy ions.

  4. A pilot-scale steam autoclave system for treating municipal solid waste for recovery of renewable organic content: Operational results and energy usage.

    PubMed

    Holtman, Kevin M; Bozzi, David V; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Offeman, Richard D; Orts, William J

    2016-05-01

    A pilot-scale (1800 kg per batch capacity) autoclave used in this study reduces municipal solid waste to a debris contaminated pulp product that is efficiently separated into its renewable organic content and non-renewable organic content fractions using a rotary trommel screen. The renewable organic content can be recovered at nearly 90% efficiency and the trommel rejects are also much easier to sort for recovery. This study provides the evaluation of autoclave operation, including mass and energy balances for the purpose of integration into organic diversion systems. Several methods of cooking municipal solid waste were explored from indirect oil heating only, a combination of oil and direct steam during the same cooking cycle, and steam only. Gross energy requirements averaged 1290 kJ kg(-1) material in vessel, including the weight of free water and steam added during heating. On average, steam recovery can recoup 43% of the water added and 30% of the energy, supplying on average 40% of steam requirements for the next cook. Steam recycle from one vessel to the next can reduce gross energy requirements to an average of 790 kJ kg(-1). PMID:26987737

  5. FUEL CELL ENERGY RECOVERY FROM LANDFILL GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    International Fuel Cells Corporation is conducting a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored program to demonstrate energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The US EPA is interested in fuel cells for this application b...

  6. Energy recovery from solid waste. Volume 1: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A systems analysis of energy recovery from solid waste which demonstrates the feasibility of several processes for converting solid waste to an energy form is presented. The social, legal, environmental, and political factors are considered and recommendations made in regard to legislation and policy. A technical and economic evaluation of available and developing energy-recovery processes is given with emphasis on thermal decomposition and biodegradation. A pyrolysis process is suggested. The use of prepared solid waste as a fuel supplemental to coal is considered to be the most economic process for recovery of energy from solid waste. Markets are discussed with suggestions for improving market conditions and for developing market stability. A decision procedure is given to aid a community in deciding on its options in dealing with solid waste.

  7. Automatic flue gas heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, D.A.

    1983-02-22

    An automatic flue gas heat recovery system for supplementing or replacing a conventional, separate hot water system. In the example described, the heat recovery system is applied to a pizza restaurant where large quantities of heat energy are normally wasted up an oven chimney stack, and large quantities of hot water also are required for restaurant operations. An electric motor driven pump circulates water in a closed loop between a storage tank and a heat exchanger tube located in the oven chimney stack. A thermostat control automatically starts the pump when the oven heats the chimney stack to an effective water heating temperature. When temperature in the storage tank reaches a predetermined maximum, the thermostat control stops the pump, opens a drain valve, and dumps water quickly and completely from the heat exchanger tube. Three different embodiments are shown and described illustrating systems with one or more storage tanks and one or more pumps. In the plural storage tank embodiments, an existing hot water heating tank may be converted for use to augment a main tank supplied with the present system.

  8. Application of disturbance observer-based control in low-level radio-frequency system in a compact energy recovery linac at KEK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Feng; Michizono, Shinichiro; Miura, Takako; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Omet, Mathieu; Sigit, Basuki Wibowo

    2015-09-01

    A disturbance observer (DOB)-based control for a digital low-level radio-frequency (LLRF) system in a compact energy recovery linac (cERL) at KEK has been developed. The motivation for this control approach is to compensate for or suppress the disturbance signal in the rf system such as beam loading, power supply ripples, and microphonics. Disturbance signals in specified frequency ranges were observed and reconstructed accurately in the field-programmable gate array and were then removed in the feedforward model in real time. The key component in this DOB controller is a disturbance observer, which includes the inverse mathematical model of the rf plant. In this paper, we have designed a DOB control-based approach in order to improve the LLRF system performance in disturbance rejection. We have confirmed this approach in the cERL beam commissioning.

  9. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2015-09-22

    A waste heat recovery (WHR) system connects a working fluid to fluid passages formed in an engine block and/or a cylinder head of an internal combustion engine, forming an engine heat exchanger. The fluid passages are formed near high temperature areas of the engine, subjecting the working fluid to sufficient heat energy to vaporize the working fluid while the working fluid advantageously cools the engine block and/or cylinder head, improving fuel efficiency. The location of the engine heat exchanger downstream from an EGR boiler and upstream from an exhaust heat exchanger provides an optimal position of the engine heat exchanger with respect to the thermodynamic cycle of the WHR system, giving priority to cooling of EGR gas. The configuration of valves in the WHR system provides the ability to select a plurality of parallel flow paths for optimal operation.

  10. Energy efficiency of substance and energy recovery of selected waste fractions.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Klaus; Bahr, Tobias; Bidlingmaier, Werner; Springer, Christian

    2011-04-01

    In order to reduce the ecological impact of resource exploitation, the EU calls for sustainable options to increase the efficiency and productivity of the utilization of natural resources. This target can only be achieved by considering resource recovery from waste comprehensively. However, waste management measures have to be investigated critically and all aspects of substance-related recycling and energy recovery have to be carefully balanced. This article compares recovery methods for selected waste fractions with regard to their energy efficiency. Whether material recycling or energy recovery is the most energy efficient solution, is a question of particular relevance with regard to the following waste fractions: paper and cardboard, plastics and biowaste and also indirectly metals. For the described material categories material recycling has advantages compared to energy recovery. In accordance with the improved energy efficiency of substance opposed to energy recovery, substance-related recycling causes lower emissions of green house gases. For the fractions paper and cardboard, plastics, biowaste and metals it becomes apparent, that intensification of the separate collection systems in combination with a more intensive use of sorting technologies can increase the extent of material recycling. Collection and sorting systems must be coordinated. The objective of the overall system must be to achieve an optimum of the highest possible recovery rates in combination with a high quality of recyclables. The energy efficiency of substance related recycling of biowaste can be increased by intensifying the use of anaerobic technologies. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the overall system, the energy efficiencies of energy recovery plants must be increased so that the waste unsuitable for substance recycling is recycled or treated with the highest possible energy yield. PMID:21145722

  11. Energy efficiency of substance and energy recovery of selected waste fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, Klaus; Bahr, Tobias; Bidlingmaier, Werner; Springer, Christian

    2011-04-15

    In order to reduce the ecological impact of resource exploitation, the EU calls for sustainable options to increase the efficiency and productivity of the utilization of natural resources. This target can only be achieved by considering resource recovery from waste comprehensively. However, waste management measures have to be investigated critically and all aspects of substance-related recycling and energy recovery have to be carefully balanced. This article compares recovery methods for selected waste fractions with regard to their energy efficiency. Whether material recycling or energy recovery is the most energy efficient solution, is a question of particular relevance with regard to the following waste fractions: paper and cardboard, plastics and biowaste and also indirectly metals. For the described material categories material recycling has advantages compared to energy recovery. In accordance with the improved energy efficiency of substance opposed to energy recovery, substance-related recycling causes lower emissions of green house gases. For the fractions paper and cardboard, plastics, biowaste and metals it becomes apparent, that intensification of the separate collection systems in combination with a more intensive use of sorting technologies can increase the extent of material recycling. Collection and sorting systems must be coordinated. The objective of the overall system must be to achieve an optimum of the highest possible recovery rates in combination with a high quality of recyclables. The energy efficiency of substance related recycling of biowaste can be increased by intensifying the use of anaerobic technologies. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the overall system, the energy efficiencies of energy recovery plants must be increased so that the waste unsuitable for substance recycling is recycled or treated with the highest possible energy yield.

  12. Continuous recovery system for electrorefiner system

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Mark A.; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G.; Willit, James L.; Barnes, Laurel A.; Blaskovitz, Robert J.

    2014-06-10

    A continuous recovery system for an electrorefiner system may include a trough having a ridge portion and a furrow portion. The furrow portion may include a first section and a second section. An inlet and exit pipe may be connected to the trough. The inlet pipe may include an outlet opening that opens up to the first section of the furrow portion of the trough. The exit pipe may include an entrance opening that opens up to the second section of the furrow portion of the trough. A chain may extend through the inlet and exit pipes and along the furrow portion of the trough. The chain may be in a continuous loop form. A plurality of flights may be secured to the chain. Accordingly, the desired product may be continuously harvested from the electrorefiner system without having to halt the electrical power and/or remove the cathode and anode assemblies.

  13. Potential for energy recovery from municipal solid waste in the Duck and Elk Rivers area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    Options for developing resource recovery projects in Bedford, Coffee, Franklin, Lincoln, and Moore Counties in Middle Tennessee are described. The solid waste inventory for the area; energy use inventory; energy and resource recovery technology alternatives; energy recovery project proposals (resource recovery plan, cogeneration option, subregional option); risk management; financial alternatives; design, procurement, and construction management alternatives; and system management alternatives are discussed in separate chapters. Energy and resource recovery technology alternatives cover incineration (waste heat recovery systems, modular controlled air incinerators, modular refractory incinerators, waterwall rotary combustor, waterwall incineration with unprocessed waste and processed waste, environmental aspects); refuse-derived fuel; pyrolysis systems; materials separation and recovery (handpicking, mechanical separation, and source separation). Information provided in appendices is: energy user data forms; transfer stations; TVA experimental cogeneration program; manpower requirements; state of Tennessee loan program; Warren County solid waste inventory; and comments from the state of Tennessee Department of Public Health. (MCW)

  14. Displacement Threshold Energy and Recovery in an Al-Ti Nanolayered System with Intrinsic Point Defect Partitioning

    SciTech Connect

    Gerboth, Matthew D.; Setyawan, Wahyu; Henager, Charles H.

    2014-01-07

    A method is established and validated using molecular dynamics (MD) to determine the displacement threshold energies as Ed in nanolayered, multilayered systems of dissimilar metals. The method is applied to specifically oriented nanolayered films of Al-Ti where the crystal structure and interface orientations are varied in atomic models and Ed is calculated. Methods for defect detection are developed and discussed based on prior research in the literature and based on specific crystallographic directions available in the nanolayered systems. These are compared and contrasted to similar calculations in corresponding bulk materials, including fcc Al, fcc Ti, hcp Al, and hcp Ti. In all cases, the calculated Ed in the multilayers are intermediate to the corresponding bulk values but exhibit some important directionality. In the nanolayer, defect detection demonstrated systematic differences in the behavior of Ed in each layer. Importantly, collision cascade damage exhibits significant defect partitioning within the Al and Ti layers that is hypothesized to be an intrinsic property of dissimilar nanolayered systems. This type of partitioning could be partly responsible for observed asymmetric radiation damage responses in many multilayered systems. In addition, a pseudo-random direction was introduced to approximate the average Ed without performing numerous simulations with random directions.

  15. High Current Energy Recovery Linac at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir N. Litvinenko; Donald Barton; D. Beavis; Ilan Ben-Zvi; Michael Blaskiewicz; J.M. Brennan; A. Burrill; R. Calaga; P. Cameron; X. Chang; Roger Connolly; D. Gassner; H. Hahn; A. Hershcovitch; H.C. Hseuh; P. Johnson; D. Kayran; J. Kewisch; R. Lambiase; G. McIntyre; W. Meng; T. C. Nehring; A. Nicoletti; D. Pate; J. Rank; T. Roser; T. Russo; J. Scaduto; K. Smith; T. Srinivasan-Rao; N. Williams; K.-C. Wu; Vitaly Yakimenko; K. Yip; A. Zaltsman; Y. Zhao; H. Bluem; A. Burger; Mike Cole; A. Favale; D. Holmes; John Rathke; Tom Schultheiss; A. Todd; J. Delayen; W. Funk; L. Phillips; Joe Preble

    2004-08-01

    We present the design, the parameters of a small test Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) facility, which is under construction at Collider-Accelerator Department, BNL. This R&D facility has goals to demonstrate CW operation of ERL with average beam current in the range of 0.1 - 1 ampere, combined with very high efficiency of energy recovery. A possibility for future up-grade to a two-pass ERL is considered. The heart of the facility is a 5-cell 700 MHz super-conducting RF linac with HOM damping. Flexible lattice of ERL provides a test-bed for testing issues of transverse and longitudinal instabilities and diagnostics of intense CW e-beam. ERL is also perfectly suited for a far-IR FEL. We present the status and our plans for construction and commissioning of this facility.

  16. HIGH CURRENT ENERGY RECOVERY LINAC AT BNL.

    SciTech Connect

    LITVINENKO,V.N.; BEN-ZVI,I.; BARTON,D.S.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    We present the design and parameters of an energy recovery linac (ERL) facility, which is under construction in the Collider-Accelerator Department at BNL. This R&D facility has the goal of demonstrating CW operation of an ERL with an average beam current in the range of 0.1-1 ampere and with very high efficiency of energy recovery. The possibility of a future upgrade to a two-pass ERL is also being considered. The heart of the facility is a 5-cell 703.75 MHz super-conducting RF linac with strong Higher Order Mode (HOM) damping. The flexible lattice of the ERL provides a test-bed for exploring issues of transverse and longitudinal instabilities and diagnostics of intense CW electron beams. This ERL is also perfectly suited for a far-IR FEL. We present the status and plans for construction and commissioning of this facility.

  17. Energy recovery in Metro-Dade County

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, Garrett; Henderson, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In a draft report issued by the Metropolitan Dade County Planning Department, it is reported that Dade County depends almost entirely on oil, natural gas, and nuclear fuel to meet its energy needs. Consequently, one of the energy policies proposed by the Commission is that the recyclying of materials and products should be encouraged when the recycling process is economical, energy efficient, and environmentally sound. Two energy recovery projects, one old and one new, which embody the goal of this policy are described. In fiscal 1978, an average of 408,000 cubic feet of digestor was recovered from the anaerobic digestors at the Virginia Key Central District Wastewater Treatment Plant. The digester gas, with a heat content of 720 Btu's/cubic feet, is treated, stored and burned in internal combustion engines which drive blowers that supply air to the activated sludge tanks. With No. 2 fuel oil prices at $.60 per gallon, it is estimated that about $453,000 per year (755,000 gallons/year) are saved in fuel costs. In April, 1979, construction began in Dade County on the largest resource recovery facility in the US to incorporate the wet processig approach to energy recovery from waste. In this approach water is added to the waste stream to form a slurry. The slurry is then treated using processes developed for the pulp and paper industry, such as centrifugation, screening, thickening, and dewatering. The fuel that is produced contains from 20 to 50% moisture and has a heating value of about 3000 to 5000 Btu's/lb. In addition, steel, aluminum, glass, and mixed nonferous metals will be recovered.

  18. Energy and phosphorus recovery from black water.

    PubMed

    de Graaff, M S; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

    2011-01-01

    Source-separated black water (BW) (toilet water) containing 38% of the organic material and 68% of the phosphorus in the total household waste (water) stream including kitchen waste, is a potential source for energy and phosphorus recovery. The energy recovered, in the form of electricity and heat, is more than sufficient for anaerobic treatment, nitrogen removal and phosphorus recovery. The phosphorus balance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating concentrated BW showed a phosphorus conservation of 61% in the anaerobic effluent. Precipitation of phosphate as struvite from this stream resulted in a recovery of 0.22 kgP/p/y, representing 10% of the artificial phosphorus fertiliser production in the world. The remaining part of the phosphorus ended up in the anaerobic sludge, mainly due to precipitation (39%). Low dilution and a high pH favour the accumulation of phosphorus in the anaerobic sludge and this sludge could be used as a phosphorus-enriched organic fertiliser, provided that it is safe regarding heavy metals, pathogens and micro-pollutants. PMID:22049776

  19. Mach disc formation in cylindrical recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C.E.; McQueen, R.G.; Marsh, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Cylindrical recovery systems have been used to shock-load polymers to pressures exceeding 50 GPa. In order to determine the pressures generated in these recovery systems the formation of the Mach disc on axis and its approach to steady state was monitored. The relation of the Mach disc diameter to the lateral dimension of the high explosive used to compress the polymer samples was also investigated.

  20. Microbial battery for efficient energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xing; Ye, Meng; Hsu, Po-Chun; Liu, Nian; Criddle, Craig S; Cui, Yi

    2013-10-01

    By harnessing the oxidative power of microorganisms, energy can be recovered from reservoirs of less-concentrated organic matter, such as marine sediment, wastewater, and waste biomass. Left unmanaged, these reservoirs can become eutrophic dead zones and sites of greenhouse gas generation. Here, we introduce a unique means of energy recovery from these reservoirs-a microbial battery (MB) consisting of an anode colonized by microorganisms and a reoxidizable solid-state cathode. The MB has a single-chamber configuration and does not contain ion-exchange membranes. Bench-scale MB prototypes were constructed from commercially available materials using glucose or domestic wastewater as electron donor and silver oxide as a coupled solid-state oxidant electrode. The MB achieved an efficiency of electrical energy conversion of 49% based on the combustion enthalpy of the organic matter consumed or 44% based on the organic matter added. Electrochemical reoxidation of the solid-state electrode decreased net efficiency to about 30%. This net efficiency of energy recovery (unoptimized) is comparable to methane fermentation with combined heat and power. PMID:24043800

  1. Heat recovery/thermal energy storage for energy conservation in food processing

    SciTech Connect

    Combes, R.S.; Boykin, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    Based on energy consumption data compiled for 1974, 59% of the total energy consumed in the US food processing industry was thermal energy. The energy-consuming processes which utilize this thermal energy reject significant quantities of waste heat, usually to the atmosphere or to the wastewater discharged from the plant. Design considerations for waste heat recovery systems in the food processing industry are discussed. A systematic analysis of the waste heat source, in terms of quantity and quality is explored. Other aspects of the waste heat source, such as contamination, are addressed as potential impediments to practical heat recovery. The characteristics of the recipient process which will utilize the recovered waste heat are discussed. Thermal energy storage, which can be used as a means of allowing the waste eat recovery process to operate independent of the subsequent utilization of the recovered energy, is discussed. The project included the design, installation and monitoring of two heat recovery systems in a Gold Kist broiler processing plant. These systems recover waste heat from a poultry scalder overflow (heated wastewater) and from a refrigeration condenser utilizing ammonia as the refrigerant. The performance and economic viability of the heat recovery systems are presented.

  2. Multipass Beam Breakup in Energy Recovery Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Eduard Pozdeyev; Christopher Tennant; Joseph Bisognano; M Sawamura; R. Hajima; T.I. Smith

    2005-03-19

    This paper is a compilation of several presentations on multipass beam breakup (BBU) in energy recovery linacs (ERL) given at the 32nd Advanced ICFA Beam Workshop on ERLs. The goal of this paper is to summarize the progress achieved in analytical, numerical, and experimental studies of the instability and outline available and proposed BBU mitigation techniques. In this paper, a simplified theory of multipass BBU in recirculating linacs is presented. Several BBU suppression techniques and their working principles are discussed. The paper presents an overview of available BBU codes. Results of experimental studies of multipass BBU at the Jefferson Laboratory (JLab) FEL Upgrade are described.

  3. Disposal of solid wastes with simultaneous energy recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.

    1980-01-01

    The need for resource recovery from solid wastes is discussed. The incentives for a comprehensive system, a gasification based disposal system, and biological recovery methods are reviewed. Biogas process development and the Lanfilgas process are described. (MHR)

  4. Hydraulic waste energy recovery, Phase 2. A technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The energy required for booster station operation is supplied by the electrical utility company and has an associated cost. Energy removed by pressure reducing valves in the system is lost or wasted. The objective of this project is to capture the wasted hydraulic energy with in-line turbines. In this application, the in-line turbines act as pressure reducing valves while removing energy from the water distribution system and converting it to electrical energy. The North Service Center pumping station was selected for the pilot program due to the availability of a wide range in pressure drop and flow, which are necessary for hydraulic energy recovery. The research performed during this project resulted in documentation of technical, economic, installation, and operational information necessary for local government officials to make an informed judgement as it relates to in-line turbine generation.

  5. Energy Recovery Linacs for Light Source Applications

    SciTech Connect

    George Neil

    2011-04-01

    Energy Recovery Linacs are being considered for applications in present and future light sources. ERLs take advantage of the continuous operation of superconducting rf cavities to accelerate high average current beams with low losses. The electrons can be directed through bends, undulators, and wigglers for high brightness x ray production. They are then decelerated to low energy, recovering power so as to minimize the required rf drive and electrical draw. When this approach is coupled with advanced continuous wave injectors, very high power, ultra-short electron pulse trains of very high brightness can be achieved. This paper will review the status of worldwide programs and discuss the technology challenges to provide such beams for photon production.

  6. Quantifying fault recovery in multiprocessor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malek, Miroslaw; Harary, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Various aspects of reliable computing are formalized and quantified with emphasis on efficient fault recovery. The mathematical model which proves to be most appropriate is provided by the theory of graphs. New measures for fault recovery are developed and the value of elements of the fault recovery vector are observed to depend not only on the computation graph H and the architecture graph G, but also on the specific location of a fault. In the examples, a hypercube is chosen as a representative of parallel computer architecture, and a pipeline as a typical configuration for program execution. Dependability qualities of such a system is defined with or without a fault. These qualities are determined by the resiliency triple defined by three parameters: multiplicity, robustness, and configurability. Parameters for measuring the recovery effectiveness are also introduced in terms of distance, time, and the number of new, used, and moved nodes and edges.

  7. Liquid booster engine reuse - A recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Eckroth, Wulf; Rohrkaste, Gary R.; Delurgio, Phillip R.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents the design of a recovery system for a suborbital payload of an Atlas E rocket. This program utilizes off-the-shelf and previously qualified avionics, flotation, and decelerator systems. A brief history of liquid-engine recoveries is presented first, then the system design utilizing two self-contained structurally-identical pods diametrically mounted to the thrust section is outlined. A mortar-deployed drogue and the main parachute are described, and experimental procedures are considered. Data obtained from one tricluster drop employing a cylindrical test vehicle and helicopter is analyzed, and a satisfactory load balance between the parachutes is observed.

  8. Gas storage and recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A system for recovering and recycling gases is disclosed. The system is comprised of inlet and outlet flow lines, controllers, an inflatable enclosure, and inflatable rib stiffeners which are inflatable by the gas to be stored. The system does not present gas at an undesirable back pressure to the gas source. A filtering relief valve is employed which prevents environmental airborne contamination from flowing back into the system when the relief valve is closing. The system is for storing and re-using helium.

  9. Gas storage and recovery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Joseph S.

    1993-03-01

    A system for recovering and recycling gases is disclosed. The system is comprised of inlet and outlet flow lines, controllers, an inflatable enclosure, and inflatable rib stiffeners which are inflatable by the gas to be stored. The system does not present gas at an undesirable back pressure to the gas source. A filtering relief valve is employed which prevents environmental airborne contamination from flowing back into the system when the relief valve is closing. The system is for storing and re-using helium.

  10. Gas storage and recovery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr.

    1994-11-01

    A system for recovering and recycling gases is disclosed. The system is comprised of inlet and outlet flow lines, controllers, an inflatable enclosure, and inflatable rib stiffeners which are inflatable by the gas to be stored. The system does not present gas at an undesirable back pressure to the gas source. A filtering relief valve is employed which prevents environmental airborne contamination from flowing back into the system when the relief valve is closing. The system is for storing and re-using helium.

  11. Immediate Deployment of Waste Energy Recovery Technologies at Multi Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Castonguay

    2012-06-29

    Verso Paper Corp. implemented a portfolio of 13 commercially available proven industrial technologies each exceeding 30% minimum threshold efficiency and at least 25% efficiency increase. These sub-projects are a direct result of a grant received from the Department of Energy (DOE) through its FOA 0000044 (Deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems, District Energy Systems, Waste Energy Recovery Systems, and Efficient Industrial Equipment), which was funded by the American Recovery Act. These were installed at 3 sites in 2 states and are helping to reduce Verso costs, making the facilities more competitive. This created approximately 100 construction jobs (FTE's) and reduced impacted Verso facilities' expense budgets. These sub-projects were deployed at Verso paper mills located in Jay, Maine, Bucksport, Maine, and Sartell, Minnesota. The paper mills are the economic engines of the rural communities in which these mills are located. Reinvestment in waste energy recovery capital improvements is providing a stimulus to help maintain domestic jobs and to competitively position the US pulp and paper industry with rising energy costs. Energy efficiency improvements are also providing a positive environmental impact by reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the quantity of wastewater treated and discharged, and fossil fuel demand. As a result of these projects, when fully operating, Verso realized a total of approximately 1.5 TBtu/Year reduction in overall energy consumption, which is 119% of the project objectives. Note that three paper machines have since been permanently curtailed. However even with these shutdowns, the company still met its energy objectives. Note also that the Sartell mill's paper machine is down due to a recent fire which damaged the mill's electrical infrastructure (the company has not decided on the mill's future).

  12. Geothermal Energy Production With Innovative Methods Of Geothermal Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, Allen; Darlow, Rick; Sanchez, Angel; Pierce, Michael; Sellers, Blake

    2014-12-19

    The ThermalDrive™ Power System (“TDPS”) offers one of the most exciting technological advances in the geothermal power generation industry in the last 30 years. Using innovations in subsurface heat recovery methods, revolutionary advances in downhole pumping technology and a distributed approach to surface power production, GeoTek Energy, LLC’s TDPS offers an opportunity to change the geothermal power industry dynamics.

  13. Energy recovery in membrane capacitive deionization.

    PubMed

    Długołęcki, Piotr; van der Wal, Albert

    2013-05-01

    Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is a water desalination technology based on applying a cell voltage between two oppositely placed porous carbon electrodes. In front of each electrode, an ion-exchange membrane is positioned, and between them, a spacer is situated, which transports the water to be desalinated. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time that up to 83% of the energy used for charging the electrodes during desalination can be recovered in the regeneration step. This can be achieved by charging and discharging the electrodes in a controlled manner by using constant current conditions. By implementing energy recovery as an integral part of the MCDI operation, the overall energy consumption can be as low as 0.26 (kW·h)/m(3) of produced water to reduce the salinity by 10 mM, which means that MCDI is more energy efficient for treatment of brackish water than reverse osmosis. Nevertheless, the measured energy consumption is much higher than the thermodynamically calculated values for desalinating the water, and therefore, a further improvement in thermodynamic efficiency will be needed in the future. PMID:23477563

  14. Cost analysis of water recovery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    A methodology was developed to predict the relevant contributions of the more intangible cost elements encountered in the development of flight-qualified hardware based on an extrapolation of past hardware development experience. Major items of costs within water recovery systems were identified and related to physical and/or performance criteria. Cost and performance data from Gemini, Skylab, and other aerospace and biotechnology programs were analyzed to identify major cost elements required to establish cost estimating relationships for advanced water recovery systems. The results of the study are expected to assist NASA in long-range planning and allocation of resources in a cost effective manner in support of earth orbital programs. This report deals with the cost analysis of the five leading water reclamation systems, namely: (1) RITE waste management-water system, (2) reverse osmosis system, (3) multifiltration system, (4) vapor compression system, and (5) closed air evaporation system with electrolytic pretreatment.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY RECOVERY POTENTIAL OF INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An assessment was conducted to evaluate the waste heat content and energy recovery potential of flue gases from 30 industrial combustion devices. Pollution controls on nine of the devices were evaluated to estimate energy requirements and particulate reduction; energy requirement...

  16. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management system - An Italian case study on the quality of MSW data

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchini, A.; Pellegrini, M.; Saccani, C.

    2011-09-15

    This paper analyses the way numerical data on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) quantities are recorded, processed and then reported for six of the most meaningful Italian Districts and shows the difficulties found during the comparison of these Districts, starting from the lack of homogeneity and the fragmentation of the data indispensable to make this critical analysis. These aspects are often ignored, but data certainty are the basis for serious MSW planning. In particular, the paper focuses on overall Source Separation Level (SSL) definition and on the influence that Special Waste (SW) assimilated to MSW has on it. An investigation was then necessary to identify new parameters in place of overall SSL. Moreover, these parameters are not only important for a waste management system performance measure, but are fundamental in order to design and check management plan and to identify possible actions to improve it.

  17. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management system--an Italian case study on the quality of MSW data.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, A; Pellegrini, M; Saccani, C

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the way numerical data on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) quantities are recorded, processed and then reported for six of the most meaningful Italian Districts and shows the difficulties found during the comparison of these Districts, starting from the lack of homogeneity and the fragmentation of the data indispensable to make this critical analysis. These aspects are often ignored, but data certainty are the basis for serious MSW planning. In particular, the paper focuses on overall Source Separation Level (SSL) definition and on the influence that Special Waste (SW) assimilated to MSW has on it. An investigation was then necessary to identify new parameters in place of overall SSL. Moreover, these parameters are not only important for a waste management system performance measure, but are fundamental in order to design and check management plan and to identify possible actions to improve it. PMID:21486689

  18. Uses and abuses of recovery: implementing recovery-oriented practices in mental health systems

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Mike; Amering, Michaela; Farkas, Marianne; Hamilton, Bridget; O'Hagan, Mary; Panther, Graham; Perkins, Rachel; Shepherd, Geoff; Tse, Samson; Whitley, Rob

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of recovery as a personal and subjective experience has emerged within mental health systems. This meaning of recovery now underpins mental health policy in many countries. Developing a focus on this type of recovery will involve transformation within mental health systems. Human systems do not easily transform. In this paper, we identify seven mis-uses (“abuses”) of the concept of recovery: recovery is the latest model; recovery does not apply to “my” patients; services can make people recover through effective treatment; compulsory detention and treatment aid recovery; a recovery orientation means closing services; recovery is about making people independent and normal; and contributing to society happens only after the person is recovered. We then identify ten empirically-validated interventions which support recovery, by targeting key recovery processes of connectedness, hope, identity, meaning and empowerment (the CHIME framework). The ten interventions are peer support workers, advance directives, wellness recovery action planning, illness management and recovery, REFOCUS, strengths model, recovery colleges or recovery education programs, individual placement and support, supported housing, and mental health trialogues. Finally, three scientific challenges are identified: broadening cultural understandings of recovery, implementing organizational transformation, and promoting citizenship. PMID:24497237

  19. Uses and abuses of recovery: implementing recovery-oriented practices in mental health systems.

    PubMed

    Slade, Mike; Amering, Michaela; Farkas, Marianne; Hamilton, Bridget; O'Hagan, Mary; Panther, Graham; Perkins, Rachel; Shepherd, Geoff; Tse, Samson; Whitley, Rob

    2014-02-01

    An understanding of recovery as a personal and subjective experience has emerged within mental health systems. This meaning of recovery now underpins mental health policy in many countries. Developing a focus on this type of recovery will involve transformation within mental health systems. Human systems do not easily transform. In this paper, we identify seven mis-uses ("abuses") of the concept of recovery: recovery is the latest model; recovery does not apply to "my" patients; services can make people recover through effective treatment; compulsory detention and treatment aid recovery; a recovery orientation means closing services; recovery is about making people independent and normal; and contributing to society happens only after the person is recovered. We then identify ten empirically-validated interventions which support recovery, by targeting key recovery processes of connectedness, hope, identity, meaning and empowerment (the CHIME framework). The ten interventions are peer support workers, advance directives, wellness recovery action planning, illness management and recovery, REFOCUS, strengths model, recovery colleges or recovery education programs, individual placement and support, supported housing, and mental health trialogues. Finally, three scientific challenges are identified: broadening cultural understandings of recovery, implementing organizational transformation, and promoting citizenship. PMID:24497237

  20. Audit Report on "The Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act -- Florida State Energy Program"

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-01

    Florida's ability to meet the goals of the SEP and the Recovery Act. Specifically: (1) Florida used about $8.3 million to pay for activities that did not meet the intent of the Recovery Act to create new or save existing jobs. With the approval of the Department, Florida used these funds to pay for rebates related to solar energy projects that had been completed prior to passage of the Recovery Act; (2) State officials did not meet Florida's program goals to obligate all Recovery Act funds by January 1, 2010, thus delaying projects and preventing them from achieving the desired stimulative economic impact. Obligations were delayed because Florida officials selected a number of projects that either required a lengthy review and approval process or were specifically prohibited. In June 2009, the Department notified Florida that a number of projects would not be approved; however, as of April 1, 2010, the State had not acted to name replacement projects or move funds to other projects; (3) Florida officials had not ensured that 7 of the 18 award requirements for Recovery Act funding promulgated by the Department had been passed down to sub-recipients of the award, as required; and, (4) Certain internal control weaknesses that could jeopardize the program and increase the risk of fraud, waste and abuse were identified in the Solar Energy System Incentives Program during our September 2009 visit to Florida. These included a lack of separation of duties related to the processing of rebates and deficiencies in the written procedures for grant managers to review and approve rebates. From a forward looking perspective, absent aggressive corrective action, these weaknesses threaten Florida's efforts to meet future Recovery Act goals. In response to our review, Florida took corrective action to incorporate the additional award requirements in sub-recipient documents. It also instituted additional controls to correct the internal control weaknesses we identified. More, however, needs

  1. Disaster Recovery Planning for Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sooun; Ross, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the need for businesses to have a disaster recovery plan (DRP) to survive any type of disaster that affects an information system; for example natural disasters, inadvertent errors, or deliberate actions. A five-step guideline is suggested for developing and implementing a DRP. (Author/LRW)

  2. Cost analysis of oxygen recovery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    Report is made of the cost analysis of four leading oxygen recovery subsystems which include two carbon dioxide reduction subsystems and two water electrolysis subsystems, namely, the solid polymer electrolyte and the circulating KOH electrolyte. The four oxygen recovery systems were quantitatively evaluated. System characteristics, including process flows, performance, and physical characteristics were also analyzed. Additionally, the status of development of each of the systems considered and the required advance technology efforts required to bring conceptual and/or pre-prototype hardware to an operational prototype status were defined. Intimate knowledge of the operations, development status, and capabilities of the systems to meet space mission requirements were found to be essential in establishing the cost estimating relationships for advanced life support systems.

  3. Solvent recovery system provides timely compliance solution

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    Hoechst Celanese Corp. (Coventry, Rhode Island) faced the challenge of meeting an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) deadline for solvent recovery within one year. The company also had to ensure that a new solvent recovery system would satisfy Rhode Island state requirements. An initial search for the required technology was fruitless. Finally, MG Industries (Saint Charles, Missouri), an industrial gas supplier, was chosen for the job. Using CRYOSOLV, as the waste stream cools in the cryogenic condenser (heat exchanger), the solvents condense at temperatures below the dewpoint. The recovered solvent can be recycled into the process, while clean gas is vented to the atmosphere.

  4. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: an innovative approach for the characterization of the gaseous emissions from residual MSW bio-drying.

    PubMed

    Ragazzi, M; Rada, E C; Antolini, D

    2011-01-01

    In the sector of residual municipal solid waste management an increasing attention is put towards the role of biological treatments like bio-drying and bio-stabilization in order to decrease the need of landfilling volumes. The literature shows a lack of information concerning the emission factor of pollutants released from these processes. The available data are generally spot characterizations of concentration and air flow-rate that are used together in order to assess the emission factors. This approach caused significant differences among the available data as the release of pollutants is not steady. This paper belongs to a group of six papers concerning a research on material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems, developed by a network of five universities. The contribution of the University of Trento, focuses on the bio-drying process with the following targets: (a) developing an innovative low cost method of sampling/measurement able to take into account the dynamics of release of pollutants; (b) checking the efficiency of a bio-filter; (c) verifying the variability of generation of some pollutants; (d) generating emission factors. The research was developed using a bio-drying pilot plant. As a treatment of the process air, the bio-reactor was coupled with a bio-filter. The emissions were characterized using an original approach based on the adoption of two measurement chambers suitable for hosting passive samplers. The passive samplers allowed the characterization of VOCs, N(2)O, NH(3) and H(2)S. A bio-chemical model, useful for energy and mass balances, supported the interpretation of the presented bio-drying run. PMID:21482095

  5. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: An innovative approach for the characterization of the gaseous emissions from residual MSW bio-drying

    SciTech Connect

    Ragazzi, M.; Rada, E.C.; Antolini, D.

    2011-09-15

    In the sector of residual municipal solid waste management an increasing attention is put towards the role of biological treatments like bio-drying and bio-stabilization in order to decrease the need of landfilling volumes. The literature shows a lack of information concerning the emission factor of pollutants released from these processes. The available data are generally spot characterizations of concentration and air flow-rate that are used together in order to assess the emission factors. This approach caused significant differences among the available data as the release of pollutants is not steady. This paper belongs to a group of six papers concerning a research on material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems, developed by a network of five universities. The contribution of the University of Trento, focuses on the bio-drying process with the following targets: (a) developing an innovative low cost method of sampling/measurement able to take into account the dynamics of release of pollutants; (b) checking the efficiency of a bio-filter; (c) verifying the variability of generation of some pollutants; (d) generating emission factors. The research was developed using a bio-drying pilot plant. As a treatment of the process air, the bio-reactor was coupled with a bio-filter. The emissions were characterized using an original approach based on the adoption of two measurement chambers suitable for hosting passive samplers. The passive samplers allowed the characterization of VOCs, N{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}S. A bio-chemical model, useful for energy and mass balances, supported the interpretation of the presented bio-drying run.

  6. Miscible Applied Simulation Techniques for Energy Recovery

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-07-01

    During the use of MASTER at the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center (PRRC) as research division of New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology a number of modification have been made to the original MASTER. We have worked at minimizing programming errors and incorporating a foaming option for surfactant solution (aqueous phase) injection altemating with gas (SAG) The original program checks and modifications performed at PRRC were under the direction of Dr. Shih-Hsien Changmore » under previous DOE contracts. The final modifications and completion of the documentation were performed by Dr. Zhengwen Zeng under DOE Contract Number DE-FG26-01BC15364. Drs. Chang and Zeng worked under Dr. Reid B. Grigg in the Gas Flooding Processes and Flow Heterogeneities Section of PRRC. This work is not intended to have any long-term support from the PRRC, but any errors should be reported to the Department of Energy for inclusion in future releases of MASTER. MASTER is an effective reservoir simulator for modeling a number of fluid flow problems and is a straight forward and economical program. We thank the Department of Energy for the original development of this program and the availability for our use.« less

  7. Department of Energy Recovery Act Investment in Biomass Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    2010-11-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) provided more than $36 billion to the Department of Energy (DOE) to accelerate work on existing projects, undertake new and transformative research, and deploy clean energy technologies across the nation. Of this funding, $1029 million is supporting innovative work to advance biomass research, development, demonstration, and deployment.

  8. CW Energy Recovery Operation of XFELs

    SciTech Connect

    Jacek Sekutowicz; S. Bogacz; Dave Douglas; Peter Kneisel; Gwyn P. Wiliams; Massimo Ferrario; Luca Serafini; Ilan Ben-Zvi; James Rose; Triveni Srinivasan-Rao; Patrick Colestock; Wolf-Dietrich Moeller; Bernd Petersen; Dieter Proch; S. Simrock; James B. Rosenzweig

    2003-09-01

    Commissioning of two large coherent light facilities at SLAC and DESY should begin in 2008 and in 2011 respectively. In this paper we look further into the future, hoping to answer, in a very preliminary way, two questions. First: What will the next generation of the XFEL facilities look like ? Believing that super-conducting technology offers several advantages over room-temperature technology, such as high quality beams with highly populated bunches and the possibility of energy recovery or higher overall efficiency, we focus this preliminary study on the superconducting option. From this belief the second question arises: ''What modifications in superconducting technology and in machine design are needed, as compared to the present DESY XFEL, and what kind of R&D program is required over the next few years to arrive at a technically feasible solution with even higher brilliance and increased overall conversion of AC power to photon beam power. In this paper we will very often refer to and profit from the DESY XFEL design, acknowledging its many technically innovative solutions.

  9. Resource Recovery. Energy and Environment. Teacher's Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Smith and Hills, Inc., Jacksonville, FL.

    Designed to assist students in understanding solid waste resource recovery, this teaching aid package aims to get students involved in practical activities that require participation, observation, and interpretation. Provided in this package are definitions, methods, causes and effects, costs, and benefits of resource recovery presented in the…

  10. Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) with CO2 as heat transmission fluid--A scheme for combining recovery of renewable energy with geologic storage of CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.; Spycher, N.

    2009-05-01

    It has been suggested that enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) may be operated with supercritical CO{sub 2} instead of water as heat transmission fluid (D.W. Brown, 2000). Such a scheme could combine recovery of geothermal energy with simultaneous geologic storage of CO{sub 2}, a greenhouse gas. At geothermal temperature and pressure conditions of interest, the flow and heat transfer behavior of CO{sub 2} would be considerably different from water, and chemical interactions between CO{sub 2} and reservoir rocks would also be quite different from aqueous fluids. This paper summarizes our research to date into fluid flow and heat transfer aspects of operating EGS with CO{sub 2}. (Chemical aspects of EGS with CO{sub 2} are discussed in a companion paper; Xu and Pruess, 2010.) Our modeling studies indicate that CO{sub 2} would achieve heat extraction at larger rates than aqueous fluids. The development of an EGS-CO{sub 2} reservoir would require replacement of the pore water by CO{sub 2} through persistent injection. We find that in a fractured reservoir, CO{sub 2} breakthrough at production wells would occur rapidly, within a few weeks of starting CO{sub 2} injection. Subsequently a two-phase water-CO{sub 2} mixture would be produced for a few years,followed by production of a single phase of supercritical CO{sub 2}. Even after single-phase production conditions are reached,significant dissolved water concentrations will persist in the CO{sub 2} stream for many years. The presence of dissolved water in the production stream has negligible impact on mass flow and heat transfer rates.

  11. Implications of incomplete energy recovery in SRF-based energy recovery linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Powers; Chris Tennant

    2007-05-21

    The choice of the loaded quality factor (QL) of a superconducting cavity is driven by many factors, including beam loading effects and microphonics. In accelerators with minimal beam loading, use of SRF cavities with relatively high loaded-Q allows one to employ lower power RF sources. Many individuals are therefore considering energy recovered linac designs making use of SRF cavities with loaded-Q values that are primarily limited by microphonic effects. While this is valid for machines which have near-ideal energy recovery, many applications do not necessarily fit this model. In some applications the second pass, energy recovered beam experiences a phase shift between one state of machine operation and a second state. One complication in this process is that the cavity resonance control algorithms are influenced by this phase shift. With respect to RF power requirements, this is a positive interaction inasmuch as the tuner partially compensates for the phase shift of the recovered beam. This work will go through the implications of partial energy recovery on the selection of the loaded-Q for cavity fundamental power couplers.

  12. Environmental residuals and capital costs of energy recovery from municipal sludge and feedlot manure

    SciTech Connect

    Ballou, S W; Dale, L; Johnson, R; Chambers, W; Mittelhauser, H

    1980-09-01

    The capital and environmental cost of energy recovery from municipal sludge and feedlot manure is analyzed. Literature on waste processing and energy conversion and interviews with manufacturers were used for baseline data for construction of theoretical models using three energy conversion processes: anaerobic digestion, incineration, and pyrolysis. Process characteristics, environmental impact data, and capital costs are presented in detail for each conversion system. The energy recovery systems described would probably be sited near large sources of sludge and manure, i.e., metropolitan sewage treatment plants and large feedlots in cattle-raising states. Although the systems would provide benefits in terms of waste disposal as well as energy production, they would also involve additional pollution of air and water. Analysis of potential siting patterns and pollution conflicts is needed before energy recovery systems using municipal sludge can be considered as feasible energy sources.

  13. Calorimeter in the ARIES recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, J.R.; Sampson, T.E.; Cremers, T.L.

    1997-11-01

    The Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System is an automated weapons component recovery system that includes four state-of-the-art nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments to analyze all outputs and the final product. The instruments are integrated with robotics sample handling to provide the analytical data and are controlled by a central computer. The NDA instruments are a plutonium isotopic composition system, neutron coincidence counter, segmented gamma scanner, and a calorimeter. This paper will describe the calorimeter system which uses the new Windows environment software package to communicate between the calorimeter and the control computer. Storage, retrieval, database, and operations with other software packages, such as Excel, are provided to allow the operator to analyze the calorimeter system. The host computer assumes control of all functions of the calorimeter system in the remote operations and retrieves the data upon completion of the calorimeter sample run allowing the robotics system to change samples at the earliest possible time for maximum sample throughput. The calorimeter Windows operating system allows viewing of the calorimeter, room, and bath data during the sample run. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Solar power satellite life-cycle energy recovery consideration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingartner, S.; Blumenberg, J.

    The construction, in-orbit installation and maintenance of a solar power satellite (SPS) will demand large amounts of energy. As a minimum requirement for an energy effective power satellite it is asked that this amount of energy be recovered. The energy effectiveness in this sense resulting in a positive net energy balance is a prerequisite for cost-effective power satellite. This paper concentrates on life-cycle energy recovery instead on monetary aspects. The trade-offs between various power generation systems (different types of solar cells, solar dynamic), various construction and installation strategies (using terrestrial or extra-terrestrial resources) and the expected/required lifetime of the SPS are reviewed. The presented work is based on a 2-year study performed at the Technical University of Munich. The study showed that the main energy which is needed to make a solar power satellite a reality is required for the production of the solar power components (up to 65%), especially for the solar cell production. Whereas transport into orbit accounts in the order of 20% and the receiving station on earth (rectenna) requires about 15% of the total energy investment. The energetic amortization time, i.e. the time the SPS has to be operational to give back the amount of energy which was needed for its production installation and operation, is about two years.

  15. Solar power satellite—Life-cycle energy recovery considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingartner, S.; Blumenberg, J.

    1995-05-01

    The construction, in-orbit installation and maintenance of a solar power satellite (SPS) will demand large amounts of energy. As a minimum requirement for an energy effective power satellite it is asked that this amount of energy be recovered. The energy effectiveness in this sense resulting in a positive net energy balance is a prerequisite for a cost-effective power satellite. This paper concentrates on life-cycle energy recovery instead of monetary aspects. The trade-offs between various power generation systems (different types of solar cells, solar dynamic), various construction and installation strategies (using terrestrial or extra-terrestrial resources) and the expected/required lifetime of the SPS are reviewed. The presented work is based on a 2-year study performed at the Technical University of Munich. The study showed that the main energy which is needed to make a solar power satellite a reality is required for the production of the solar power plant components (up to 65%), especially for the solar cell production. Whereas transport into orbit accounts in the order of 20% and the receiving station on Earth (rectenna) requires in the order of 15% of the total energy investment. The energetic amortization time, i.e. the time the SPS has to be operational to give back the amount of energy which was needed for its production, installation and operation, is in the order of two years.

  16. A Water Recovery System Evolved for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ORourke, Mary Jane E.; Perry, Jay L.; Carter, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    A new water recovery system designed towards fulfillment of NASA's Vision for Space Exploration is presented. This water recovery system is an evolution of the current state-of-the-art system. Through novel integration of proven technologies for air and water purification, this system promises to elevate existing technology to higher levels of optimization. The novel aspect of the system is twofold: Volatile organic contaminants will be removed from the cabin air via catalytic oxidation in the vapor phase, prior to their absorption into the aqueous phase, and vapor compression distillation technology will be used to process the condensate and hygiene waste streams in addition to the urine waste stream. Oxidation kinetics dictate that removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase is more efficient. Treatment of the various waste streams by VCD will reduce the load on the expendable ion exchange and adsorption media which follow, and on the aqueous-phase volatile removal assembly further downstream. Incorporating these advantages will reduce the weight, volume, and power requirements of the system, as well as resupply.

  17. Safety assessment of the tritium recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This Safety Assessment (SA) contains descriptions and evaluations of the environmental, health, and safety issues associated with the Tritium Recovery System (TRS) at the Pinellas Plant. It provides: 1. site and facility descriptions, 2. an overall description of the TRS and its operations, 3. an evaluation of the hazards associated with TRS operations, 4. descriptions and analyses of the adequacy of measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate identified hazards, and 5. assessment of potential accidents and their associated risks. This SA contains the results of safety evaluations of TRS operations, equipment, and supplied systems. The evaluations include, as appropriate, preliminary hazards listings, qualitative risk assessments, and quantitative risk assessments.

  18. Air Evaporation closed cycle water recovery technology - Advanced energy saving designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morasko, Gwyndolyn; Putnam, David F.; Bagdigian, Robert

    1986-01-01

    The Air Evaporation water recovery system is a visible candidate for Space Station application. A four-man Air Evaporation open cycle system has been successfully demonstrated for waste water recovery in manned chamber tests. The design improvements described in this paper greatly enhance the system operation and energy efficiency of the air evaporation process. A state-of-the-art wick feed design which results in reduced logistics requirements is presented. In addition, several design concepts that incorporate regenerative features to minimize the energy input to the system are discussed. These include a recuperative heat exchanger, a heat pump for energy transfer to the air heater, and solar collectors for evaporative heat. The addition of the energy recovery devices will result in an energy reduction of more than 80 percent over the systems used in earlier manned chamber tests.

  19. Renewable energy recovery through selected industrial wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pengchong

    Typically, industrial waste treatment costs a large amount of capital, and creates environmental concerns as well. A sound alternative for treating these industrial wastes is anaerobic digestion. This technique reduces environmental pollution, and recovers renewable energy from the organic fraction of those selected industrial wastes, mostly in the form of biogas (methane). By applying anaerobic technique, selected industrial wastes could be converted from cash negative materials into economic energy feed stocks. In this study, three kinds of industrial wastes (paper mill wastes, brown grease, and corn-ethanol thin stillage) were selected, their performance in the anaerobic digestion system was studied and their applicability was investigated as well. A pilot-scale system, including anaerobic section (homogenization, pre-digestion, and anaerobic digestion) and aerobic section (activated sludge) was applied to the selected waste streams. The investigation of selected waste streams was in a gradually progressive order. For paper mill effluents, since those effluents contain a large amount of recalcitrant or toxic compounds, the anaerobic-aerobic system was used to check its treatability, including organic removal efficiency, substrate utilization rate, and methane yield. The results showed the selected effluents were anaerobically treatable. For brown grease, as it is already well known as a treatable substrate, a high rate anaerobic digester were applied to check the economic effect of this substrate, including methane yield and substrate utilization rate. These data from pilot-scale experiment have the potential to be applied to full-scale plant. For thin stillage, anaerobic digestion system has been incorporated to the traditional ethanol making process as a gate-to-gate process. The performance of anaerobic digester was applied to the gate-to-gate life-cycle analysis to estimate the energy saving and industrial cost saving in a typical ethanol plant.

  20. Design, construction, system integration, and test results of the 1 MW CW RF system for the e-gun cavity in the energy recovery LINAC at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lenci,S.J.; Eisen, E. L.; Dickey, D. L.; Sainz, J. E.; Utay, P. F.; Zaltsman, A.; Lambiase, R.

    2009-05-04

    Brookhaven's ERL (Energy Recovery LINAC) requires a 1 MW CW RF system for the superconducting electron gun cavity. The system consists primarily of a klystron tube, transmitter, and High-Voltage Power Supply (HVPS). The 703.75 MHz klystron made by CPl, Inc. provides RF power of 1MW CW with efficiency of 65%. It has a single output window, diode-type electron gun, and collector capable of dissipating the entire beam power. It was fully factory tested including 24-hour heat run at 1.1 MW CWo The solid state HVPS designed by Continental Electronics provides up to 100 kV at low ripple and 2.1 MW CW with over 95% efficiency. With minimal stored energy and a fast shut-down mode no crowbar circuit is needed. Continental 's transmitter includes PLC based user interface and monitoring, RF pre-amplifier, magnet and Vac-Ion pump supplies, cooling water instrumentation, and integral safety interlock system. BNL installed the klystron, HVPS, and transmitter along with other items, such as circulator, water load, and waveguide components. The collaboration of BNL, CPI, and Continental in the design, installation, and testing was essential to the successful operation of the 1MW system.

  1. Recovery Act Incentives for Wind Energy Equipment Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-01

    This document lists some of the federal incentives available to manufacturers of wind energy equipment. These incentives were authorized by or expanded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.

  2. Upgrades to the ISS Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayatin, Matthew J.; Carter, Donald L.; Schunk, Richard G.; Pruitt, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station Water Recovery System (WRS) is comprised of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The WRS produces potable water from a combination of crew urine (first processed through the UPA), crew latent, and Sabatier product water. Though the WRS has performed well since operations began in November 2008, several modifications have been identified to improve the overall system performance. These modifications can reduce resupply and improve overall system reliability, which is beneficial for the ongoing ISS mission as well as for future NASA manned missions. The following paper details efforts to reduce the resupply mass of the WPA Multifiltration Bed, develop improved catalyst for the WPA Catalytic Reactor, evaluate optimum operation of UPA through parametric testing, and improve reliability of the UPA fluids pump and Distillation Assembly.

  3. Upgrades to the ISS Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruitt, Jennifer M.; Carter, Layne; Bagdigian, Robert M.; Kayatin, Mattthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The ISS Water Recovery System (WRS) includes the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The WRS produces potable water from a combination of crew urine (first processed through the UPA), crew latent, and Sabatier product water. The WRS has been operational on ISS since November 2008, producing over 21,000 L of potable water during that time. Though the WRS has performed well during this time, several modifications have been identified to improve the overall system performance. These modifications can reduce resupply and improve overall system reliability, which is beneficial for the ongoing ISS mission as well as for future NASA manned missions. The following paper lists these modifications, how they improve WRS performance, and a status on the ongoing development effort.

  4. Future Technologies to Enhance Geothermal Energy Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J J; Kaahaaina, N; Aines, R; Zucca, J; Foxall, B; Atkins-Duffin, C

    2008-07-25

    Geothermal power is a renewable, low-carbon option for producing base-load (i.e., low-intermittency) electricity. Improved technologies have the potential to access untapped geothermal energy sources, which experts estimate to be greater than 100,000 MWe. However, many technical challenges in areas such as exploration, drilling, reservoir engineering, and energy conversion must be addressed if the United States is to unlock the full potential of Earth's geothermal energy and displace fossil fuels. (For example, see Tester et al., 2006; Green and Nix, 2006; and Western Governors Association, 2006.) Achieving next-generation geothermal power requires both basic science and applied technology to identify prospective resources and effective extraction strategies. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has a long history of research and development work in support of geothermal power. Key technologies include advances in scaling and brine chemistry, economic and resource assessment, direct use, exploration, geophysics, and geochemistry. For example, a high temperature, multi-spacing, multi-frequency downhole EM induction logging tool (GeoBILT) was developed jointly by LLNL and EMI to enable the detection and orientation of fractures and conductive zones within the reservoir (Figure 1). Livermore researchers also conducted studies to determine how best to stave off increased salinity in the Salton Sea, an important aquatic ecosystem in California. Since 1995, funding for LLNL's geothermal research has decreased, but the program continues to make important contributions to sustain the nation's energy future. The current efforts, which are highlighted in this report, focus on developing an Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) and on improving technologies for exploration, monitoring, characterization, and geochemistry. Future research will also focus on these areas.

  5. Advanced recovery systems wind tunnel test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, R. H.; Wailes, W. K.

    1990-01-01

    Pioneer Aerospace Corporation (PAC) conducted parafoil wind tunnel testing in the NASA-Ames 80 by 120 test sections of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex, Moffett Field, CA. The investigation was conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of two scale ram air wings in support of air drop testing and full scale development of Advanced Recovery Systems for the Next Generation Space Transportation System. Two models were tested during this investigation. Both the primary test article, a 1/9 geometric scale model with wing area of 1200 square feet and secondary test article, a 1/36 geometric scale model with wing area of 300 square feet, had an aspect ratio of 3. The test results show that both models were statically stable about a model reference point at angles of attack from 2 to 10 degrees. The maximum lift-drag ratio varied between 2.9 and 2.4 for increasing wing loading.

  6. Recovery system containing lanthanide-crosslinked polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Dovan, H.T.; Hutchins, R.D.

    1993-07-13

    A recovery system is described comprising: (a) a subterranean formation; (b) a well bore penetrating at least a portion of the subterranean formation; and (c) a composition capable of forming a gel present in at least a portion of the well bore, wherein the composition comprises: (i) a crosslinkable polymer (CP) selected from the group consisting of heteropolysaccharides obtained by the fermentation of starch-derived sugar, ammonium salts, and alkali metal salts; (ii) a lanthanide; and (iii) an ingredient selected from the group consisting of gel breakers, sequestering agents, proppants for use in hydraulically fracturing, particulate agents for forming a gravel pack, and base precursors selected from the group consisting of ammonium slats, urea, thiourea, and mixtures of these. A second recovery system is described in which the gel composition comprises: (i) a CP selected from the group consisting of acrylic acid-acrylamide copolymers, acrylic acid-methacrylamide copolymers, polyacrylamides, polymethacrylamides, partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides, partially hydrolyzed polymethacrylamides, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, polyalkyleneoxides, lignosulfonates, ammonium salts, alkali metal salts, and alkaline earth salts of lignosulfonates; and (ii) a crosslinking agent selected from the group consisting of lanthanides, sequestered lanthanides, and mixtures thereof. A third system is described in which the gel composition comprises: (i) a CP, hydroxyethylcellulose; and (ii) a crosslinking agent selected from the group consisting of lanthanides, sequestered lanthanides, and mixtures thereof. A fourth system is described in which the gel composition comprises: (i) a CP selected from the group consisting of polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, polyalkyleneoxides, lignosulfonates, ammonium salts, alkali metal salts, and alkaline earth salts of lignosulfonates; and (ii) a lanthanide.

  7. Energy Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation developed the drive train for use in the Chrysler Corporation's Patriot Mark II, which includes the Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) system. In Chrysler's experimental hybrid- electric car, the hybrid drive train uses an advanced turboalternator that generates electricity by burning a fuel; a powerful, compact electric motor; and a FES that eliminates the need for conventional batteries. The FES system incorporates technology SatCon developed in more than 30 projects with seven NASA centers, mostly for FES systems for spacecraft attitude control and momentum recovery. SatCon will continue to develop the technology with Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  8. Energy recovery from biosolids: The City of Los Angeles experience

    SciTech Connect

    Haug, R.T.; Moore, G.L.; Harrison, D.S.

    1995-11-01

    The City of Los Angeles` Hyperion Treatment Plant serves an area of 1,500 sq km (600 sq mi) with a contributory population of nearly 4 million. The plant currently produces more than 250 dry tonnes per day (dtpd) of digested, dewatered biosolids and is being expanded and upgraded to provide pure oxygen, full secondary treatment by 1998. The modern Hyperion Plant began operating in 1951. Since that time, Hyperion has provided anaerobic digestion for its biosolids and has used the produced biogas for power generation. In the 1980`s the City completed a major expansion of its power generation and biosolids handling facilities at Hyperion. These facilities became known as the Hyperion Energy Recovery System (HERS) and their objective is to maximize the recovery of energy from the renewable biosolids. Today, these facilities are operational and continue to be modified to optimize performance and expanded to meet the increased loadings from full secondary treatment. Biogas produced by the anaerobic digestion process is compressed, scrubbed to remove H{sub 2}S, and used to power a gas turbine, combined cycle cogeneration system. Emergency flares are provided in the event of a power plant outage. A portion of the biosolids are transported offsite for beneficial reuse, such as composting and direct land application. The remaining solids are centrifugally dewatered and dried by indirect rotary dryers to produce about 50 dtpd of dried biofuel. Biofuel produced from the drying processes is fired in a fluidized bed gasification and staged combustion process (FBC) designed to recover energy and reduce air emissions. Superheated steam is produced in a waste heat boiler and converted to electrical power is a condensing steam turbine. Bioash from the FBC`s is contracted for off-site reuse, primarily as a fluxing agent in copper smelting and as a source of silica, aluminum, iron and calcium for manufacture of portland cement.

  9. Performance assessment techniques for groundwater recovery and treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, G.L.

    1993-03-01

    Groundwater recovery and treatment (pump and treat systems) continue to be the most commonly selected remedial technology for groundwater restoration and protection programs at hazardous waste sites and RCRA facilities nationwide. Implementing a typical groundwater recovery and treatment system includes the initial assessment of groundwater quality, characterizing aquifer hydrodynamics, recovery system design, system installation, testing, permitting, and operation and maintenance. This paper focuses on methods used to assess the long-term efficiency of a pump and treat system. Regulatory agencies and industry alike are sensitive to the need for accurate assessment of the performance and success of groundwater recovery systems for contaminant plume abatement and aquifer restoration. Several assessment methods are available to measure the long-term performance of a groundwater recovery system. This paper presents six assessment techniques: degree of compliance with regulatory agency agreement (Consent Order of Record of Decision), hydraulic demonstration of system performance, contaminant mass recovery calculation, system design and performance comparison, statistical evaluation of groundwater quality and preferably, integration of the assessment methods. Applying specific recovery system assessment methods depends upon the type, amount, and quality of data available. Use of an integrated approach is encouraged to evaluate the success of a groundwater recovery and treatment system. The methods presented in this paper are for engineers and corporate management to use when discussing the effectiveness of groundwater remediation systems with their environmental consultant. In addition, an independent (third party) system evaluation is recommended to be sure that a recovery system operates efficiently and with minimum expense.

  10. 16. VIEW OF THE ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY SYSTEM. ENRICHED URANIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF THE ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY SYSTEM. ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESSED RELATIVELY PURE MATERIALS AND SOLUTIONS AND SOLID RESIDUES WITH RELATIVELY LOW URANIUM CONTENT. URANIUM RECOVERY INVOLVED BOTH SLOW AND FAST PROCESSES. (4/4/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  11. Design of a new type vapor recovery system nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, S. H.; Cao, G. J.; Zhang, D. S.

    2016-05-01

    To settle the problem of low-efficiency recovery for Vapor recovery system nozzle, this paper advances a purely mechanical structure of the self-sealing refueling VRS nozzle. The structure, operating principle and controlled process of the nozzle is given. And an application of the nozzle is discussed. All indicated that the nozzle has a reasonable structure, can fuel and vapor recovery simultaneous start and stop. And thus improve the recovery efficiency and reduce oil leakage.

  12. Clinical management IT system for enhanced recovery.

    PubMed

    Yi, Eunjue; Jheon, Sanghoon

    2016-02-01

    Surgical resection has a key role for the treatment of early stage lung cancer along with certain advanced cases, and minimally invasive techniques, representatively video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), are becoming standard for lung cancer surgery. Implementation of integrated programs which could manage the whole process of patient treatment including preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative care is thought to be essential partner for successful application of minimally invasive thoracic surgery for lung cancer treatment. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS), so called "fast-track" programs pursue the adequate and efficient delivery of health care services therefore to improve postoperative outcomes and reduce medical cost. Well-organized information technology systems would be helpful to achieve the goals of ERAS without increasing the burden of budget or working staffs. Furthermore, it could contribute to create knowledge and translate to the clinical process. PMID:26941972

  13. Cost analysis of oxygen recovery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    The design and development of equipment for flight use in earth-orbital programs, when optimally approached cost effectively, proceed through the following logical progression: (1) bench testing of breadboard designs, (2) the fabrication and evaluation of prototype equipment, (3) redesign to meet flight-imposed requirements, and (4) qualification and testing of a flight-ready system. Each of these steps is intended to produce the basic design information necessary to progress to the next step. The cost of each step is normally substantially less than that of the following step. An evaluation of the cost elements involved in each of the steps and their impact on total program cost are presented. Cost analyses of four leading oxygen recovery subsystems which include two carbon dioxide reduction subsystem, Sabatier and Bosch, and two water electrolysis subsystems, the solid polymer electrolyte and the circulating KOH electrolyte are described.

  14. Preliminary design of the Shuttle-C avionics recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brookfield, Morgan; Decker, Deron; Gilbert, Harold; Moore, David; Rist, Mark

    1989-01-01

    The analysis done in developing a recovery system for the Shuttle-C cargo vehicle is presented. This recovery system is comprised of a reentry capsule which houses the vehicles avionics. The avionics are contained in a single package which is extracted from the capsule by the parachute recovery system. The Shuttle-C will be able to satisfy NASA's design and mission requirements. Included, is an analysis of the structural, thermal protection, and parachute recovery systems. A discussion of the merits of the proposed system is also included.

  15. Surfactant oil recovery systems and recovery of oil therewith

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J. E.; Pardue, J. E.

    1985-12-31

    In accordance with the present invention, oil is recovered from a subsurface earth formation by injecting into the subsurface formation an aqueous surfactant system containing a polyvalent metal carboxylate, as a surfactant, a cosurfactant and an electrolyte in concentrations and proportions to form multiphase system with the reservoir oil, thereafter, injecting into the earth formation a drive fluid to drive the multiphase system through the reservoir and displace a significant amount of the reservoir oil and withdrawing the thus displaced oil from the subsurface earth formation. A novel aqueous surfactant system, adapted to thus recover oil from a subsurface formation, comprises a polyvalent metal carboxylate, such as calcium isosteareate, as a surfactant, and an alcohol having at least five carbon atoms, as a cosurfactant, and an electrolyte, such as sodium chloride, in proportions which form a multiphase system with the reservoir oil.

  16. IEA Annex 26: Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, VAN

    2003-05-19

    With increased concern about the impact of refrigerant leakage on global warming, a number of new supermarket refrigeration system configurations requiring significantly less refrigerant charge are being considered. In order to help promote the development of advanced systems and expand the knowledge base for energy-efficient supermarket technology, the International Energy Agency (IEA) established IEA Annex 26 (Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems) under the ''IEA Implementing Agreement on Heat Pumping Technologies''. Annex 26 focuses on demonstrating and documenting the energy saving and environmental benefits of advanced systems design for food refrigeration and space heating and cooling for supermarkets. Advanced in this context means systems that use less energy, require less refrigerant and produce lower refrigerant emissions. Stated another way, the goal is to identify supermarket refrigeration and HVAC technology options that reduce the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of supermarkets by reducing both system energy use (increasing efficiency) and reducing total refrigerant charge. The Annex has five participating countries: Canada, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The working program of the Annex has involved analytical and experimental investigation of several candidate system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption. Advanced refrigeration system types investigated include the following: distributed compressor systems--small parallel compressor racks are located in close proximity to the food display cases they serve thus significantly shortening the connecting refrigerant line lengths; secondary loop systems--one or more central chillers are used to refrigerate a secondary coolant (e.g. brine, ice slurry, or CO2) that is pumped to the food display cases on the sales floor; self-contained display cases--each food display case has its own

  17. Heat Energy Recovery from Domestic Output Fluids (HERDOF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, F. M.

    A device incorporating energy storage is described which permits recovery of part of the available heat energy in domestic output fluids. Preliminary estimates of the potential savings indicate the device should be examined in depth and practical tests conducted. The attitude of industry to the proposed device was considered and positive recommendations were made in that area.

  18. A potential new energy source - Assessment of energy recovery from municipal solid waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwin, E. T.; Nollet, A. R.

    1980-08-01

    The state-of-the-art of recovering resources from the 135 million tons of household, industrial, and commercial wastes generated each year in the United States is discussed. Some of the hazards attendant upon the preliminary shredding of solid wastes at resource recovery plants are described with reference made to the impetus for resource recovery arising from legislation and to the difficulty in finding markets for refuse-derived fuel. Economic factors militating against resource recovery are enumerated, including the unviability of mass-burning systems to generate process or heating steam and/or electrical energy. It is also shown that the cost per ton of incoming waste has been underestimated and that the revenues to be derived from recovered resources have been overestimated. A new system in which separation, that is, classification, of incoming waste is the first step is proposed. This system would avoid the hazards of shredding and would make the recovery of resources less costly. It is shown that the cellulose contained in solid waste could be converted into ethanol.

  19. Energy recovery ventilation as a radon mitigation method for Navy family housing in Guam

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Energy recovery ventilation involves the exchange of contaminated indoor air with fresh, uncontaminated outdoor air with recovery of energy. During radon mitigation diagnostics, air change measurements were performed within three typical Navy family houses, and some were found to be well below recommended minimum standards. The only practical way to solve the indoor air quality problem was to increase the ventilation rate. Options were evaluated, and it was decided to install energy recovery ventilation (ERV) systems. An ERV system is a packaged unit complete with blower fans, controls, and air-to-air heat exchanger. However, because of economical limits on the quantity of conditioned air that can be exchanged, ERV has a finite range of application in radon abatement. In Guam, ERV has potential applications in up to 370 units and in an additional 154 units if the mechanical systems are moved indoors. The performance of ERV systems were evaluated during a demonstration program to determine the removal efficiency of radon.

  20. Energy and nutrient recovery from anaerobic treatment of organic wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrich, Christian-Dominik

    The objective of the research was to develop a complete systems design and predictive model framework of a series of linked processes capable of providing treatment of landfill leachate while simultaneously recovering nutrients and bioenergy from the waste inputs. This proposed process includes an "Ammonia Recovery Process" (ARP) consisting of: (1) ammonia de-sorption requiring leachate pH adjustment with lime or sodium hydroxide addition followed by, (2) ammonia re-absorption into a 6-molar sulfuric acid spray-tower followed by, (3) biological activated sludge treatment of soluble organic residuals (BOD) followed by, (4) high-rate algal post-treatment and finally, (5) an optional anaerobic digestion process for algal and bacterial biomass, and/or supplemental waste fermentation providing the potential for additional nutrient and energy recovery. In addition, the value provided by the waste treatment function of the overall processes, each of the sub-processes would provide valuable co-products offering potential GHG credit through direct fossil-fuel replacement, or replacement of products requiring fossil fuels. These valuable co-products include, (1) ammonium sulfate fertilizer, (2) bacterial biomass, (3) algal biomass providing, high-protein feeds and oils for biodiesel production and, (4) methane bio-fuels. Laboratory and pilot reactors were constructed and operated, providing data supporting the quantification and modeling of the ARP. Growth parameters, and stoichiometric coefficients were determined, allowing for design of the leachate activated sludge treatment sub-component. Laboratory and pilot algal reactors were constructed and operated, and provided data that supported the determination of leachate organic/inorganic-nitrogen ratio, and loading rates, allowing optimum performance of high-rate algal post-treatment. A modular and expandable computer program was developed, which provided a systems model framework capable of predicting individual component

  1. The Recovery of Energy from Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Zeland L.; And Others

    This study unit advocates the use of biomass conversion techniques with municipal solid wastes as a viable action for energy development. The unit includes: (1) an introductory section (providing a unit overview and supportive statements for biomass conversion; (2) a historical review of energy use from wastes; (3) a section on design and…

  2. Space Station Freedom regenerative water recovery system configuration selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reysa, R.; Edwards, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) must recover water from various waste water sources to reduce 90 day water resupply demands for a four/eight person crew. The water recovery system options considered are summarized together with system configuration merits and demerits, resource advantages and disadvantages, and water quality considerations used to select the SSF water recovery system.

  3. The heat recovery with heat transfer methods from solar photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özakın, A. N.; Karsli, S.; Kaya, F.; Güllüce, H.

    2016-04-01

    Although there are many fluctuations in energy prices, they seems like rising day by day. Thus energy recovery systems have increasingly trend. Photovoltaic systems converts solar radiation directly into electrical energy thanks to semiconductors. But due to the nature of semiconductors, whole of solar energy cannot turn into electrical energy and the remaining energy turns into waste heat. The aim of this research is evaluate this waste heat energy by air cooling system. So, the energy efficiency of the system will be increased using appropriate heat transfer technologies such as fin, turbulator etc.

  4. Direct condensation refrigerant recovery and restoration system

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, D.C.H.

    1992-03-10

    This patent describes a refrigerant recovery and purification system for removing gaseous refrigerant from a disabled refrigeration unit, cleaning the refrigerant of contaminants, and converting the gaseous refrigerant to a liquid state for storage. It comprises a low pressure inlet section; a high pressure storage section; the low pressure inlet section comprising: an oil and refrigerant gas separator, including a separated oil removal means, first conduit means for connecting an inlet of the separator to the disabled refrigerant unit, a slack-sided accumulator, second conduit means connecting the separator to the slack-sided accumulator, a reclaim condenser, third conduit means connecting the separator and the reclaim condenser in series, an evaporator coil in the reclaim condenser connectable to a conventional operating refrigeration system for receiving a liquid refrigerant under pressure for expansion therein, the evaporator coil forming a condensing surface for condensing the refrigerant gas at near atmospheric pressure in the condenser, a liquid receiver, a reclaimed refrigerant storage tank, fourth conduit means further connecting the liquid receiver in series with the reclaim condenser, downstream thereof, means between the reclaim condenser and the liquid receiver.

  5. Thermal energy storage for industrial waste heat recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, H. W.; Kedl, R. J.; Duscha, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The potential is examined for waste heat recovery and reuse through thermal energy storage in five specific industrial categories: (1) primary aluminum, (2) cement, (3) food processing, (4) paper and pulp, and (5) iron and steel. Preliminary results from Phase 1 feasibility studies suggest energy savings through fossil fuel displacement approaching 0.1 quad/yr in the 1985 period. Early implementation of recovery technologies with minimal development appears likely in the food processing and paper and pulp industries; development of the other three categories, though equally desirable, will probably require a greater investment in time and dollars.

  6. R&D Energy Recovery Linac at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, Vladimir; Beavis, D.; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Drees, K.A.; Ganetis, G.; Gamble, Michael; Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.R.; Hershcovitch, A.; Hseuh, H.C.; Jain, A.K.; Kayran, A.; Kewisch, Jorg; Lambiase, R.F.; Lederle, D.L.; Mahler, G.J.; McIntyre, G.; Meng, W.; Nehring, T.C.; Oerter, B.; Pai, C.; Pate, D.; Phillips, Daniel; Pozdeyev, Eduard; Rao, Triveni; Reich, J.; Roser, Thomas; Russo, T.; Smith, K.; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Weiss, D.; Williams, N.W.W.; Yip, Kin; Zaltsman, A.; Bluem, Hans; Cole, Michael; Favale, Anthony; Holmes, D.; Rathke, John; Schultheiss, Tom; Delayen, Jean; Funk, L.; Phillips, H.; Preble, Joseph

    2008-07-01

    Collider Accelerator Department at BNL is in the final stages of developing the 20-MeV R&D energy recovery linac with super-conducting 2.5 MeV RF gun and single-mode super-conducting 5-cell RF linac. This unique facility aims to address many outstanding questions relevant for high current (up to 0.5 A of average current), high brightness energy-recovery linacs with novel Zigzag-type merger. We present the performance of the R&D ERL elements and detailed commissioning plan.

  7. The Wheelabrator Falls story -- Integrated recycling, highly efficient energy recovery: An update two years later

    SciTech Connect

    Felago, R.T.; Anderson, R.L.; Scanlon, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    Wheelabrator Environmental Systems Inc., based in Hampton, New Hampshire, has developed America`s first privately initiated, totally integrated Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) with a commercial trash-to-energy facility in Falls Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania. The MRF is successfully recovering and marketing a variety of recycled products, while demonstrating that waste-to-energy and recycling are compatible and can be successfully integrated at a single site. The energy recovery plant and the MRF have completed one year of operation, giving adequate time to evaluate the impact of project innovations. These innovations will have a significant impact on how future projects, including waste-to-energy, wastewater and biosolids processing, will be developed. The energy recovery facility is capable of processing 1,600 tons per day of municipal solid waste from the Bucks County area.

  8. Filtration techniques used by the textile industry for recovery of dyes, chemicals and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    The continued increase in the cost of chemicals energy and water makes their recovery more important today than it was 20 years ago when ultrafiltration and hyperfiltration were first introduced to the textile industry. While the filtration techniques have only been used at a few installations, these plants have been able to save enough to pay for the recovery process in one to two years. One key to having a successful recovery operation is to have good automatic control of the process. This can drastically improve the economics of the textile process as well as minimizing the cost of the recovery system. The recovery of PVA, indigo, caustic and preparation chemicals will be presented.

  9. Neutral beamline with improved ion-energy recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Dagenhart, W.K.; Haselton, H.H.; Stirling, W.L.; Whealton, J.H.

    1981-04-13

    A neutral beamline generator with unneutralized ion energy recovery is provided which enhances the energy recovery of the full energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer cell of the beamline. The unneutralized full energy ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected from the beam path and the electrons in the cell are blocked by a magnetic field applied transverse to the beamline in the cell exit region. The ions, which are generated at essentially ground potential and accelerated through the neutralizer cell by a negative acceleration voltage, are collected at ground potential. A neutralizer cell exit end region is provided which allows the magnetic and electric fields acting on the exiting ions to be closely coupled. As a result, the fractional energy ions exiting the cell with the full energy ions are reflected back into the gas cell. Thus, the fractional energy ions do not detract from the energy recovery efficiency of full energy ions exiting the cell which can reach the ground potential interior surfaces of the beamline housing.

  10. Use of incomplete energy recovery for the energy compression of large energy spread charged particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Douglas, David R.; Benson, Stephen V.

    2007-01-23

    A method of energy recovery for RF-base linear charged particle accelerators that allows energy recovery without large relative momentum spread of the particle beam involving first accelerating a waveform particle beam having a crest and a centroid with an injection energy E.sub.o with the centroid of the particle beam at a phase offset f.sub.o from the crest of the accelerating waveform to an energy E.sub.full and then recovering the beam energy centroid a phase f.sub.o+Df relative to the crest of the waveform particle beam such that (E.sub.full-E.sub.o)(1+cos(f.sub.o+Df))>dE/2 wherein dE=the full energy spread, dE/2=the full energy half spread and Df=the wave form phase distance.

  11. Photocathodes for the energy recovery linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, T; Burrill, A; Chang, X Y; Smedley, J; Nishitani, T; Garcia, C Hernandez; Poelker, M; Seddon, E; Hannon, F E; Sinclair, C K; Lewellen, J; Feldman, D

    2005-03-19

    This paper presents an overview of existing and emerging technologies on electron sources that can service various Energy Recovering Linacs under consideration. Photocathodes that can deliver average currents from 1 mA to 1 A, the pros and cons associated with these cathodes are addressed. Status of emerging technologies such as secondary emitters, cesiated dispenser cathodes, field and photon assisted field emitters and super lattice photocathodes are also reviewed.

  12. PHOTOCATHODES FOR THE ENERGY RECOVERY LINACS.

    SciTech Connect

    RAO, T.; BURRILL, A.; CHANG, X.Y.; SMEDLEY, J.; ET AL.

    2005-03-19

    This paper presents an overview of existing and emerging technologies on electron sources that can service various Energy Recovering Linacs under consideration. Photocathodes that can deliver average currents from 1 mA to 1 A, the pros and cons associated with these cathodes are addressed. Status of emerging technologies such as secondary emitters, cesiated dispenser cathodes, field and photon assisted field emitters and super lattice photocathodes are also reviewed.

  13. Photocathodes for the energy recovery linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, T.; Burrill, A.; Chang, X. Y.; Smedley, J.; Nishitani, T.; Hernandez Garcia, C.; Poelker, M.; Seddon, E.; Hannon, F. E.; Sinclair, C. K.; Lewellen, J.; Feldman, D.

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of existing and emerging technologies on electron sources that can service various energy recovering linacs under consideration. Photocathodes that can deliver average currents from 1 mA to 1 A, the pros and cons associated with these cathodes are addressed. Status of emerging technologies such as secondary emitters, cesiated dispenser cathodes, field and photon assisted field emitters and super lattice photocathodes are also reviewed.

  14. Wind energy can power a strong recovery.

    PubMed

    Bode, Denise

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. wind industry is a dynamic one that pumps billions of dollars into our economy each year. Wind has gone mainstream and today is the most affordable near-term carbon-free energy source. The U.S. industry experienced a nearly 70 percent increase in total jobs last year-well-paying, family-supporting jobs. But new wind farms now find it hard to secure financing. Thus, the economic stimulus package moving through Congress is critical. PMID:19608519

  15. An industrial application of the JPL ACTS with energy recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.; Wilson, G. E.; Schroepfer, T. W.

    1980-01-01

    The JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) uses sewage solids derived from municipal wastewater treatment systems as a source of organic material for powdered activated carbons (PAC). The PAC is used for the COD removal from wastewater and as a filter aid in the recovery of additional sewage solids.

  16. Hydrogen recovery from extraterrestrial materials using microwave energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, D. S.; Vaniman, D. T.; Anderson, J. L.; Clinard, F. W., Jr.; Feber, R. C., Jr.; Frost, H. M.; Meek, T. T.; Wallace, T. C.

    The feasibility of recovering hydrogen from extraterrestrial materials (lunar and Martian soils, asteroids) using microwave energy is presented. Reasons for harvesting and origins and locations of hydrogen are reviewed. Problems of hydrogen recovery are discussed in terms of hydrogen release characteristics and microwave coupling to insulating materials. From results of studies of hydrogen diffusivities (oxides, glasses) and tritium release (oxides) as well as studies of microwave coupling to ilmenite, alkali basalt and ceramic oxides it is concluded that using microwave heating in hydrogen recovery from extraterrestrial materials could be the basis for a workable process.

  17. Shale-oil-recovery systems incorporating ore beneficiation. Final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, M.A.; Klumpar, I.V.; Peterson, C.R.; Ring, T.A.

    1982-10-01

    This study analyzed the recovery of oil from oil shale by use of proposed systems which incorporate beneficiation of the shale ore (that is concentration of the kerogen before the oil-recovery step). The objective was to identify systems which could be more attractive than conventional surface retorting of ore. No experimental work was carried out. The systems analyzed consisted of beneficiation methods which could increase kerogen concentrations by at least four-fold. Potentially attractive low-enrichment methods such as density separation were not examined. The technical alternatives considered were bounded by the secondary crusher as input and raw shale oil as output. A sequence of ball milling, froth flotation, and retorting concentrate is not attractive for Western shales compared to conventional ore retorting; transporting the concentrate to another location for retorting reduces air emissions in the ore region but cost reduction is questionable. The high capital and energy cost s results largely from the ball milling step which is very inefficient. Major improvements in comminution seem achievable through research and such improvements, plus confirmation of other assumptions, could make high-enrichment beneficiation competitive with conventional processing. 27 figures, 23 tables.

  18. Preventing Delayed Voltage Recovery with Voltage-Regulating Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, Sarina; Li, Fangxing; Li, Huijuan; Xu, Yan; Kueck, John D; Rizy, D Tom

    2009-01-01

    With the large use of residential air conditioner (A/C) motors during the summer peaks, the potential of motor stalling events have increased in the recent years. The stalled motor loads have been found to be the most important cause of delayed voltage recovery following severe system disturbances, such as a subtransmission fault. The proper modeling of the stalled motors is a very important factor in identifying the effect of these motors in voltage recovery after the fault. This paper presents a methodology for modeling the stalled low inertia induction motors based on a sample utility system and a small primary distribution circuit. The prevention of the stalling of motors plays an important role in maintaining the voltage profile of the system after system disturbances. Distributed Energy Resource (DER) is used to prevent the motor stalling events so that the delayed voltage recovery of the system may be avoided.

  19. An energy recovery electron linac-on-ring collider

    SciTech Connect

    Merminga, L.; Krafft, G.A.; Lebedev, V.A.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    2000-09-14

    We present the design of high-luminosity electron-proton/ion colliders in which the electrons are produced by an Energy Recovering Linac (ERL). Electron-proton/ion colliders with center of mass energies between 14 GeV and 100 GeV (protons) or 63 GeV/A (ions) and luminosities at the 10{sup 33}(per nucleon) level have been proposed recently as a means for studying hadronic structure. The linac-on-ring option presents significant advantages with respect to: (1) spin manipulations (2) reduction of the synchrotron radiation load in the detectors (3) a wide range of continuous energy variability. Rf power and beam dump considerations require that the electron linac recover the beam energy. Based on extrapolations from actual measurements and calculations, energy recovery is expected to be feasible at currents of a few hundred mA and multi-GeV energies. Luminosity projections for the linac-ring scenario based on fundamental limitations are presented. The feasibility of an energy recovery electron linac-on-proton ring collider is investigated and four conceptual point designs are shown corresponding to electron to proton energies of: 3 GeV on 15 GeV, 5 GeV on 50 GeV and 10 GeV on 250 GeV, and for gold ions with 100 GeV/A. The last two designs assume that the protons or ions are stored in the existing RHIC accelerator. Accelerator physics issues relevant to proton rings and energy recovery linacs are discussed and a list of required R and D for the realization of such a design is presented.

  20. Flip-Flop Recovery System for sounding rocket payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The design, development, and testing of the Flip-Flop Recovery System, which protects sensitive forward-mounted instruments from ground impact during sounding rocket payload recovery operations, are discussed. The system was originally developed to reduce the impact damage to the expensive gold-plated forward-mounted spectrometers in two existing Taurus-Orion rocket payloads. The concept of the recovery system is simple: the payload is flipped over end-for-end at a predetermined time just after parachute deployment, thus minimizing the risk of damage to the sensitive forward portion of the payload from ground impact.

  1. Heat Recovery and Energy Conservation in Petroleum Refining.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, William Gale

    1990-01-01

    The focus of the analysis presented here is improved recovery (and use) of waste heat at existing petroleum refineries. The major energy-conservation opportunities associated with waste heat are systematically examined both physically and in terms of cost. The opportunities at the Study Refinery are systematically examined in detail. The presentation begins with an overview of the processes carried out in contemporary petroleum refineries including discussion of typical energy use. There follows a brief thermodynamic description of refinery energy flows with an emphasis on heat and on energy-efficiency analysis. The heart of the thesis is Chapters 3-5 describing heat recovery opportunities involving, respectively: extraction and use of heat from combustion gases being discharged through stacks, the exchange of heat between product streams, and uses for low-temperature waste heat. In Chapter 6, a unifying economic concept is introduced (with details in the Appendix): a "supply curve" for saved energy. This describes the potential rate of energy savings in barrels of oil-equivalent per year (in analogy with production capacity of oil or gas fields), as a function of the cost of saved energy in dollars per barrel (in analogy with the production cost of energy). The nature of the distribution is, of course, for the cost of saved energy to increase with increasing energy savings. In this chapter, estimates are presented for the energy conservation opportunities other than waste heat at the Study Refinery. All the opportunities are then summarized in a single supply curve. The extraordinary result in a cost-effective opportunity to reduce refinery energy use by some 26% at 1984 prices. This translates into roughly a 1 energy-cost reduction per 42-gallon barrel of petroleum input. Of course, investments are required; the net benefit would be about 1.5 cents per gallon of product. This would be a major benefit in relation to typical refinery earnings. The concluding

  2. R and D energy recovery LINAC at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko,V.N.; Beavis, D.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Burrill, A.; Calaga, R.; Cameron, P.; Chang, X.; Drees, A.; Ganetis, G.; Gassner, D.; Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.; Hershcovitch, A.; Hseuh, H-C.; Jain, A.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Lambiase, R.; Lederle, D.; Mahler, G.; McIntyre, G.; Meng, W.; Nehring, T.; Oerter, B.; Pai, C.; Pate, D.; Phillips, D.; Pozdeyev, E.; Rao, T.; Reich, J.; Roser, T.; Russo, T.; Smith, K.; Tuozzolo, J.; Weiss, D.; Williams, N.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Favale, A.; Bluem, H.; Cole, M.; Holmes, D.; Rathke, J.; Schultheiss, T.; Todd, A.; Delayen, J.; Funk, L.; Phillips, L.; Preble, J.

    2008-06-23

    Collider Accelerator Department at BNL is in the final stages of developing the 20-MeV R and D energy recovery linac with super-conducting 2.5 MeV RF gun and single-mode super-conducting 5-cell RF linac. This unique facility aims to address many outstanding questions relevant for high current (up to 0.5 A of average current), high brightness energy-recovery linacs with novel ZigZag-type merger. Recent development in the R and D ERL plans include gun and 5-cell cavity (G5) test and possibility of using R and D ERL for proof-of-principle test of Coherent Electron Cooling at RHIC.

  3. Optics and beam transport in energy recovery linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffstaetter, Georg H.; Litvinenko, Vladimir; Owen, Hywel

    2006-02-01

    Here, we report on the working group "Optics and Beam Transport" of the 2005 Energy-Recovery-Linac Workshop. This workshop also had working groups on "Electron Guns and Injector Designs", "Superconducting RF and RF Control", and "Synchronization and Diagnostics/Instrumentation". Here, we are concerned with the many different ERL proposals that international laboratories have been working on. Subjects of concern are optics, accelerator design and modeling, stability requirements, designs of the merger that connects the conventional injector linac with the Energy Recovery Linac, longitudinal phase space manipulations to produce short pulses, beam dynamics and limitations by beam instabilities, and computational aspects of space-charge and synchrotron radiation effects. A coarse grain overview is given and reference is made to more detailed articles that were presented in this working group. Subjects are identified where collaborations should be encouraged and areas of future R&D are prioritized.

  4. A Thermoelectric Waste-Heat-Recovery System for Portland Cement Rotary Kilns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qi; Li, Peng; Cai, Lanlan; Zhou, Pingwang; Tang, Di; Zhai, Pengcheng; Zhang, Qingjie

    2015-06-01

    Portland cement is produced by one of the most energy-intensive industrial processes. Energy consumption in the manufacture of Portland cement is approximately 110-120 kWh ton-1. The cement rotary kiln is the crucial equipment used for cement production. Approximately 10-15% of the energy consumed in production of the cement clinker is directly dissipated into the atmosphere through the external surface of the rotary kiln. Innovative technology for energy conservation is urgently needed by the cement industry. In this paper we propose a novel thermoelectric waste-heat-recovery system to reduce heat losses from cement rotary kilns. This system is configured as an array of thermoelectric generation units arranged longitudinally on a secondary shell coaxial with the rotary kiln. A mathematical model was developed for estimation of the performance of waste heat recovery. Discussions mainly focus on electricity generation and energy saving, taking a Φ4.8 × 72 m cement rotary kiln as an example. Results show that the Bi2Te3-PbTe hybrid thermoelectric waste-heat-recovery system can generate approximately 211 kW electrical power while saving 3283 kW energy. Compared with the kiln without the thermoelectric recovery system, the kiln with the system can recover more than 32.85% of the energy that used to be lost as waste heat through the kiln surface.

  5. An Energy Recovery Electron Linac On Ring Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolitsa Merminga; Geoffrey Krafft; Valeri Lebedev; Ilan Ben-Zvi

    2001-09-01

    Electron-proton/ion colliders with center of mass energies between 14 GeV and 100 GeV (protons) or 63 GeV/A (ions) and luminosities at the 10{sup 33} (per nucleon) level have been proposed recently as a means for studying hadronic structure. Electron beam polarization appears to be crucial for many of the experiments. Two accelerator design scenarios have been examined in detail: colliding rings and recirculating linac-on-ring. Although the linac-on-ring scenario is not as well developed as the ring-ring scenario, comparable luminosities appear feasible. The linac-on-ring option presents significant advantages with respect to: (1) spin manipulations; (2) reduction of the synchrotron radiation load in the detectors; (3) a wide range of continuous energy variability. Rf power and beam dump considerations require that the electron linac recover the beam energy. This technology has been demonstrated at Jefferson Lab's IR FEL with cw current up to 5 mA and beam energy up to 50 MeV. Based on extrapolations from actual measurements and calculations, energy recovery is expected to be feasible at higher currents (a few hundred mA) and higher energies (a few GeV) as well. The report begins with a brief overview of Jefferson Lab's experience with energy recovery and summarize its benefits. Luminosity projections for the linac-ring scenario based on fundamental limitations are presented next. The feasibility of an energy recovery electron linac-on-proton ring collider is investigated and four conceptual point designs are shown corresponding to electron to proton energies of: 3 GeV on 15 GeV, 5 GeV on 50 GeV and 10 GeV on 250 GeV, and for gold ions with 100 GeV/A. The last two designs assume that the protons or ions are stored in the existing RHIC accelerator. Accelerator physics issues relevant to proton rings and energy recovery linacs are discussed next and a list of required R and D for the realization of such a design is presented.

  6. Tracking studies in eRHIC energy-recovery recirculator

    SciTech Connect

    Meot, F.; Brooks, S.; Ptitsyn, V.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.

    2015-07-13

    Beam and polarization tracking studies in eRHIC energy recovery electron recirculator are presented, based on a very preliminary design of the FFAG lattice. These simulations provide examples of some of the beam and spin optics aspects of the linear FFAG lattice concept and its application in eRHIC, they provide code benchmarking for synchrotron radiation and spin diffusion in addition, and pave the way towards end-to-end 6-D(phasespace)+3D(spin) tracking simulations.

  7. Proposal of bypass in heat recovery system with sucking air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siažik, Ján; Malcho, Milan; Rezničák, Štefan

    2016-06-01

    Waste heat is utilized in a wide variety of technologies for a number of reasons. But the significant one such reason is use of the energy contained for example in waste water or waste heat that would otherwise left unused. Other considerable reason it is also reduces primary costs to operate the technology. The article deals with the arrangement section of the unit in heat recovery systems where the entry of waste gases into defluorinastion device. The technologies re-use heat often use the bypass. Bypass fulfill their duty in equipment failures, for example heat exchanger where it is not possible to stop the operationimmediately and the hot combustion gases can flow bypass without interrupting operation.

  8. Energy recovery by production of fuel from citrus wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wesley Clark, C.

    1982-05-01

    A study to determine how much energy can be recovered from a Florida citrus processing plant was conducted. The production of ethyl alcohol in particular was examined as it is thought to represent the greatest potential for immediate energy recovery. Three-fourths of the energy expended to produce, harvest, process and market a box of fruit was recoverable using existing technology, i.e. 78,500 Btu/ box of fruit recoverable from a total energy expenditure of 107,800 Btu/ box of fruit. Aside from the actual cost benefits of recovering energy in the form of ethanol, the food processor is also helping to reduce the foreign-oil imports by the blending of ethyl alcohol with unleaded gasoline to form gasohol.

  9. Recovery

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video discusses the recovery events that occur in high-power rocketry and the various devices used in safely recovering the rocket. The video includes a discussion of black powder and ejection...

  10. Economic Recovery Act of 1981 and tax policies for commercial solar-energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D. E.

    1981-12-01

    Key tax policies relevant to commercial solar energy applications are outlined. Included are certain changes in depreciation rules and small business federal income tax percentages that were part of the recently enacted Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981. Also, the regulations for business investment and energy tax credits are explained. An example of the effects of the new depreciation schedule on a solar industrial process heat system is given.

  11. Wind tunnel pressurization and recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pejack, Edwin R.; Meick, Joseph; Ahmad, Adnan; Lateh, Nordin; Sadeq, Omar

    1988-01-01

    The high density, low toxicity characteristics of refrigerant-12 (dichlorofluoromethane) make it an ideal gas for wind tunnel testing. Present limitations on R-12 emissions, set to slow the rate of ozone deterioration, pose a difficult problem in recovery and handling of large quantities of R-12. This preliminary design is a possible solution to the problem of R-12 handling in wind tunnel testing. The design incorporates cold temperature condensation with secondary purification of the R-12/air mixture by adsorption. Also discussed is the use of Freon-22 as a suitable refrigerant for the 12 foot wind tunnel.

  12. OPERATIONAL ASPECTS OF HIGH POWER ENERGY RECOVERY LINACS

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Benson; David Douglas; Pavel Evtushenko; Kevin Jordan; George Neil; Paul Powers

    2006-08-21

    We have been operating a high-power energy-recovery linac (ERL) at Jefferson Lab for several years. In the process we have learned quite a bit about both technical and physics limitations in high power ERLs. Several groups are now considering new ERLs that greatly increase either the energy, the current or both. We will present some of our findings on what to consider when designing, building, and operating a high power ERL. Our remarks for this paper are limited to lattice design and setup, magnets, vacuum chamber design, diagnostics, and beam stability.

  13. [Recovery].

    PubMed

    Estingoy, Pierrette; Gilliot, Élodie; Parisot, Clément

    2015-01-01

    The historical fatalism of the impossibility of recovering from psychosis eased from the 1970s with the shaping of the idea of a possible recovery. Recovery is today the objective for the patient and caregivers. The key to achieving this lies in the encounter with Others. A collective approach, on the level of the institution, must be established. The aim is to create opportunities for the patient to express their doubts and feelings. PMID:26363659

  14. Wall-plug efficiency and beam dynamics in free-electron lasers using energy recovery linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Sprangle, P.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Penano, J.; Hafizi, B.

    2010-08-01

    In a high average power free-electron laser (FEL) the wall-plug efficiency is of critical importance in determining the size, complexity, and cost of the overall system. The wall-plug efficiency for the FEL oscillator and amplifier (uniform and tapered wiggler) is strongly dependent on the energy recovery process. A theoretical model for electron beam dynamics in the energy recovery linac is derived and applied to the acceleration and deceleration of nano-Coulomb electron bunches for a tapered FEL amplifier. For the tapered amplifier, the spent electron beam exiting the wiggler consists of trapped and untrapped electrons. Decelerating these two populations using different phases of the radio-frequency wave in the recovery process enhances wall-plug efficiency. For the parameters considered here, the wall-plug efficiency for the tapered amplifier can be {approx}10% using this approach.

  15. Wind energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  16. Special Report "The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and the Department of Energy"

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) was signed into law on February 17, 2009, as a way to jumpstart the U.S. economy, create or save millions of jobs, spur technological advances in science and health, and invest in the Nation's energy future. This national effort will require an unprecedented level of transparency and accountability to ensure that U.S. citizens know where their tax dollars are going and how they are being spent. As part of the Recovery Act, the Department of Energy will receive more than $38 billion to support a number of science, energy, and environmental initiatives. Additionally, the Department's authority to make or guarantee energy-related loans has increased to about $127 billion. The Department plans to disburse the vast majority of the funds it receives through grants, cooperative agreements, contracts, and other financial instruments. The supplemental funding provided to the Department of Energy under the Recovery Act dwarfs the Department's annual budget of about $27 billion. The infusion of these funds and the corresponding increase in effort required to ensure that they are properly controlled and disbursed in a timely manner will, without doubt, strain existing resources. It will also have an equally challenging impact on the inherent risks associated with operating the Department's sizable portfolio of missions and activities and, this is complicated by the fact that, in many respects, the Recovery Act requirements represent a fundamental transformation of the Department's mission. If these challenges are to be met successfully, all levels of the Department's structure and its many constituents, including the existing contractor community; the national laboratory system; state and local governments; community action groups and literally thousands of other contract, grant, loan and cooperative agreement recipients throughout the Nation will have to strengthen existing or design new controls to safeguard

  17. Approaches to resource recovery in controlled ecological life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.; Wydeven, T.

    1994-01-01

    Recovery of resources from waste streams in a space habitat is essential to minimize the resupply burden and achieve self sufficiency. The ultimate goal of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) is to achieve the greatest practical level of mass recycle and provide self sufficiency and safety for humans. Several mission scenarios leading to the ultimate application could employ CELSS component technologies or subsystems with initial emphasis on recycle of the largest mass components of the waste stream. Candidate physical/chemical and biological processes for resource recovery from liquid and solid waste streams are discussed and the current fundamental recovery potentials are estimated.

  18. Paralysis recovery in humans and model systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, V. Reggie; Roy, Roland R.

    2002-01-01

    Considerable evidence now demonstrates that extensive functional and anatomical reorganization following spinal cord injury occurs in centers of the brain that have some input into spinal motor pools. This is very encouraging, given the accumulating evidence that new connections formed across spinal lesions may not be initially functionally useful. The second area of advancement in the field of paralysis recovery is in the development of effective interventions to counter axonal growth inhibition. A third area of significant progress is the development of robotic devices to quantify the performance level of motor tasks following spinal cord injury and to 'teach' the spinal cord to step and stand. Advances are being made with robotic devices for mice, rats and humans.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A SORBENT DISTRIBUTION AND RECOVERY SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the design, fabrication, and test of a prototype system for the recovery of spilled oil from the surface of river, estuarine, and harbor waters. The system utilizes an open cell polyurethane foam in small cubes to absorb the floating oil. The system is highl...

  20. Cost analysis of water recovery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1972-01-01

    Cost and performance data from Gemini, Skylab, and other aerospace and biotechnology programs were analyzed to identify major cost elements required to establish cost estimating relationships for advanced life support subsystems for long range planning in support of earth orbital programs. Cost analysis are presented for five leading water reclamation systems; (1) RITE waste management-water system;(2) reverse osmosis system;(3) multifiltration system;(4) vapor compression system; and(5) closed air evaporation system with electrolytic pretreatment.

  1. Design manual. [High temperature heat pump for heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, T.E.; Chancellor, P.D.; Dyer, D.F.; Maples, G.

    1980-01-01

    The design and performance of a waste heat recovery system which utilizes a high temperature heat pump and which is intended for use in those industries incorporating indirect drying processes are described. It is estimated that use of this heat recovery system in the paper, pulp, and textile industries in the US could save 3.9 x 10/sup 14/ Btu/yr. Information is included on over all and component design for the heat pump system, comparison of prime movers for powering the compressor, control equipment, and system economics. (LCL)

  2. High rate copper and energy recovery in microbial fuel cells

    PubMed Central

    Rodenas Motos, Pau; ter Heijne, Annemiek; van der Weijden, Renata; Saakes, Michel; Buisman, Cees J. N.; Sleutels, Tom H. J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are a novel, promising technology for the recovery of metals. The prerequisite for upscaling from laboratory to industrial size is that high current and high power densities can be produced. In this study we report the recovery of copper from a copper sulfate stream (2 g L-1 Cu2+) using a laboratory scale BES at high rate. To achieve this, we used a novel cell configuration to reduce the internal voltage losses of the system. At the anode, electroactive microorganisms produce electrons at the surface of an electrode, which generates a stable cell voltage of 485 mV when combined with a cathode where copper is reduced. In this system, a maximum current density of 23 A m-2 in combination with a power density of 5.5 W m-2 was produced. XRD analysis confirmed 99% purity in copper of copper deposited onto cathode surface. Analysis of voltage losses showed that at the highest current, most voltage losses occurred at the cathode, and membrane, while anode losses had the lowest contribution to the total voltage loss. These results encourage further development of BESs for bioelectrochemical metal recovery. PMID:26150802

  3. Chemical systems for improved oil recovery: Phase behavior, oil recovery, and mobility control studies

    SciTech Connect

    Llave, F.; Gall, B.; Gao, H., Scott, L., Cook, I.

    1995-09-01

    Selected surfactant systems containing a series of ethoxylated nonionic surfactants in combination with an anionic surfactant system have been studied to evaluate phase behavior as well as oil recovery potential. These experiments were conducted to evaluate possible improved phase behavior and overall oil recovery potential of mixed surfactant systems over a broad range of conditions. Both polyacrylamide polymers and Xanthan biopolymers were evaluated. Studies were initiated to use a chemical flooding simulation program, UTCHEM, to simulate oil recovery for laboratory and field applications and evaluate its use to simulate oil saturation distributions obtained in CT-monitoring of oil recovery experiments. The phase behavior studies focused on evaluating the effect of anionic-nonionic surfactant proportion on overall phase behavior. Two distinct transition behaviors were observed, depending on the dominant surfactant in the overall system. The first type of transition corresponded to more conventional behavior attributed to nonionic-dominant surfactant systems. This behavior is manifested by an oil-water-surfactant system that inverts from a water-external (highly conducting) microemulsion to an oil-external (nonconducting) one, as a function of temperature. The latter type which inverts in an opposite manner can be attributed to the separation of the anionic-nonionic mixtures into water- and oil-soluble surfactants. Both types of transition behavior can still be used to identify relative proximity to optimal areas. Determining these transition ranges provided more insight on how the behavior of these surfactant mixtures was affected by altering component proportions. Efforts to optimize the chemical system for oil displacement experiments were also undertaken. Phase behavior studies with systems formulated with biopolymer in solution were conducted.

  4. Environmental Control and Life Support System, Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Water Recovery System (WRS) racks. The MSFC's ECLSS Group overseas much of the development of the hardware that will allow a constant supply of clean water for four to six crewmembers aboard the ISS. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters, including water obtained from the Space Shuttle's fuel cells, crewmember urine, used shower, handwash and oral hygiene water cabin humidity condensate, and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) wastes. The WRS is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA, which removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. Product water quality is monitored primarily through conductivity measurements. Unacceptable water is sent back through the WPA for reprocessing. Clean water is sent to a storage tank. The water must meet stringent purity standards before consumption by the crew. The UPA provided by the MSFC and the WRA is provided by the prime contractor, Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) from Cornecticut.

  5. Enhancing low-grade thermal energy recovery in a thermally regenerative ammonia battery using elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; LaBarge, Nicole; Yang, Wulin; Liu, Jia; Logan, Bruce E

    2015-03-01

    A thermally regenerative ammonia battery (TRAB) is a new approach for converting low-grade thermal energy into electricity by using an ammonia electrolyte and copper electrodes. TRAB operation at 72 °C produced a power density of 236 ± 8 Wm(-2), with a linear decrease in power to 95 ± 5 Wm(-2) at 23 °C. The improved power at higher temperatures was due to reduced electrode overpotentials and more favorable thermodynamics for the anode reaction (copper oxidation). The energy density varied with temperature and discharge rates, with a maximum of 650 Wh m(-3) at a discharge energy efficiency of 54% and a temperature of 37 °C. The energy efficiency calculated with chemical process simulation software indicated a Carnot-based efficiency of up to 13% and an overall thermal energy recovery of 0.5%. It should be possible to substantially improve these energy recoveries through optimization of electrolyte concentrations and by using improved ion-selective membranes and energy recovery systems such as heat exchangers. PMID:25684619

  6. Analysis and design of energy recovery snubbers for switched reluctance motor drives

    SciTech Connect

    Gharpure, V.S.; Krishnan, R.; Lee, S.

    1994-12-31

    Snubber studies for switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives are nonexistent even though the power converter topologies are unique and do not fall under the category of inverter topologies applicable to AC motor drives. The importance of the snubbers does not come into the picture until either the power rating of the converter is high and in the multi-kW range or the switching frequency requirement is in the 20 kHz range. Such requirements are coming to the fore in many product development applications such as extruders, general purpose drives, integral starter generators for aircraft, electric vehicles, high speed spindles and centrifuges, etc. This paper is concerned with extending the Undeland snubber configuration to the two-switches per phase power converter topology of the SRM drive including the energy recovery feature. The energy recovery snubbers are then analyzed in terms of the various modes of operation encountered in the converter. A design procedure for the energy recovery snubbers is developed. The design procedure and the operation of the proposed snubber configuration in the SRM drive are experimentally verified with a laboratory prototype SRM drive. The impact of the proposed snubber on the power converter efficiency and its comparison with conventional snubber based systems, such as RCDs, is evaluated to assess the advantages of the proposed energy recovery snubber. 10 refs.

  7. Maximizing Number of Passes in Recirculating Energy Recovery Linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogacz, S. Alex

    2016-03-01

    The next generation of high energy recirculating linear accelerators (RLAs) will rely on the energy recovery (ER) process for their extreme high current operation. Here, we discuss optimum design of multi-pass linac optics for an RLA based on a large scale superconducting linac. Initial strategy used in the design of 60 GeV, 6 pass RLA for the LHeC, has been extended to 10 passes for the proposed CEBAF ER experiment. The presented optimization scheme addresses overall beam transport performance, as well as specific beam dynamics issues, such as, beam stability due to collective effects. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under contract DE-AC05-06OR23177.

  8. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices; Energy Recovery in Laboratory Facilities (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    devices and systems can substantially reduce heating and cooling energy required for conditioning spaces in laboratories. Heating and cooling systems can be downsized when energy recovery is used because these systems reduce peak heating and cooling requirements. Heating and cooling systems can also be downsized by capturing heat generated in high-load spaces and transferring it to spaces requiring reheat. There are many opportunities for energy recovery in laboratories. This guide includes descriptions of several air-to-air energy recovery devices and methods, such as using enthalpy wheels (Figure 1), heat pipes, or run-around loops in new construction. These devices generally recover energy from exhaust air. This recovered energy is used to precondition supply air during both cooling and heating modes of operation. In addition to air-to-air energy recovery options, this guide includes a description of a water-to-water heat recovery system that collects heat from high-load spaces and transfers it to spaces that require reheat. While air-to-air recovery devices provide significant energy reduction, in some laboratory facilities the amount of energy available in the exhaust air exceeds the pre-heat and pre-cooling needed to maintain supply air conditions. During these periods of time, controls typically reduce the energy recovery capacity to match the reduced load. If the energy recovered in the exhaust is not needed then it is rejected from the facility. By using a water-to-water recovery system, it is possible to significantly reduce overall building energy use by reusing heating or cooling energy generated in the building before it is rejected to the outdoors. Laboratory managers are encouraged to perform a life-cycle cost analysis of an energy-recovery technology to determine the feasibility of its application in their laboratory. Usually, the shortest payback periods occur when the heating and cooling load reduction provided by an energy recovery system allows the

  9. Energy-recovery linac project at Cornell University.

    PubMed

    Bilderback, Donald H; Bazarov, I V; Finkelstein, K; Gruner, S M; Padamsee, H S; Sinclair, C K; Shen, Q; Talman, R; Tigner, M; Krafft, G A; Merminga, L

    2003-09-01

    There is considerable interest in using superconducting electron linacs with energy recovery as synchrotron radiation sources. Such energy recovery linacs (ERLs) would open new regimes of X-ray science because they are capable of producing ultra-brilliant X-ray beams [>5 x 10(22) photons s(-1) (0.1% bandwidth)(-1) mm(-2) mrad(-2) at 10 keV], maintaining a very small source size ( approximately 3 micro m r.m.s.) suitable for micro X-ray beams, and making very intense fast ( approximately 100 fs) X-ray pulses. Each of these characteristics would permit the execution of experiments that are not feasible with existing synchrotron sources. Many technical issues must be satisfactorily resolved before the potential of a full-scale ERL can be realised, including the generation of high average current (10 to 100 mA), high-brightness electron beams (0.015 to 0.15 nm rad emittances, respectively); acceleration of these beams to energies of 5-7 GeV without unacceptable emittance degradation; stable and efficient operation of superconducting linear accelerators at very high gradients etc. Cornell University, in collaboration with Jefferson Laboratory, has proposed to resolve these issues by the construction of a 100 MeV, 100 mA prototype ERL. The intention is to then utilize the information that is learned from the prototype to propose the construction of a full-scale ERL light source. PMID:12944617

  10. Mechanical Energy Recovery during Walking in Patients with Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dipaola, Mariangela; Pavan, Esteban E.; Cattaneo, Andrea; Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Pezzoli, Gianni; Cavallari, Paolo; Frigo, Carlo A.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms of mechanical energy recovery during gait have been thoroughly investigated in healthy subjects, but never described in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). The aim of this study was to investigate whether such mechanisms are preserved in PD patients despite an altered pattern of locomotion. We consecutively enrolled 23 PD patients (mean age 64±9 years) with bilateral symptoms (H&Y ≥II) if able to walk unassisted in medication-off condition (overnight suspension of all dopaminergic drugs). Ten healthy subjects (mean age 62±3 years) walked both at their ‘preferred’ and ‘slow’ speeds, to match the whole range of PD velocities. Kinematic data were recorded by means of an optoelectronic motion analyzer. For each stride we computed spatio-temporal parameters, time-course and range of motion (ROM) of hip, knee and ankle joint angles. We also measured kinetic (Wk), potential (Wp), total (WtotCM) energy variations and the energy recovery index (ER). Along with PD progression, we found a significant correlation of WtotCM and Wp with knee ROM and in particular with knee extension in terminal stance phase. Wk and ER were instead mainly related to gait velocity. In PD subjects, the reduction of knee ROM significantly diminished both Wp and WtotCM. Rehabilitation treatments should possibly integrate passive and active mobilization of knee to prevent a reduction of gait-related energetic components. PMID:27258183

  11. Mechanical Energy Recovery during Walking in Patients with Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Dipaola, Mariangela; Pavan, Esteban E; Cattaneo, Andrea; Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Pezzoli, Gianni; Cavallari, Paolo; Frigo, Carlo A; Isaias, Ioannis U

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms of mechanical energy recovery during gait have been thoroughly investigated in healthy subjects, but never described in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). The aim of this study was to investigate whether such mechanisms are preserved in PD patients despite an altered pattern of locomotion. We consecutively enrolled 23 PD patients (mean age 64±9 years) with bilateral symptoms (H&Y ≥II) if able to walk unassisted in medication-off condition (overnight suspension of all dopaminergic drugs). Ten healthy subjects (mean age 62±3 years) walked both at their 'preferred' and 'slow' speeds, to match the whole range of PD velocities. Kinematic data were recorded by means of an optoelectronic motion analyzer. For each stride we computed spatio-temporal parameters, time-course and range of motion (ROM) of hip, knee and ankle joint angles. We also measured kinetic (Wk), potential (Wp), total (WtotCM) energy variations and the energy recovery index (ER). Along with PD progression, we found a significant correlation of WtotCM and Wp with knee ROM and in particular with knee extension in terminal stance phase. Wk and ER were instead mainly related to gait velocity. In PD subjects, the reduction of knee ROM significantly diminished both Wp and WtotCM. Rehabilitation treatments should possibly integrate passive and active mobilization of knee to prevent a reduction of gait-related energetic components. PMID:27258183

  12. Rollback-recovery techniques and architectural support for multiprocessor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang Chungyang.

    1991-01-01

    The author proposes efficient and robust fault diagnosis and rollback-recovery techniques to enhance system availability as well as performance in both distributed-memory and shared-bus shared-memory multiprocessor systems. Architectural support for the proposed rollback-recovery technique in a bus-based shared-memory multiprocessor system is also investigated to adaptively fine tune the proposed rollback-recovery technique in this type of system. A comparison of the performance of the proposed techniques with other existing techniques is made, a topic on which little quantitative information is available in the literature. New diagnosis concepts are introduced to show that the author's diagnosis technique yields higher diagnosis coverage and facilitates the performance evaluation of various fault-diagnosis techniques.

  13. AMPERE AVERAGE CURRENT PHOTOINJECTOR AND ENERGY RECOVERY LINAC.

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI,I.; BURRILL,A.; CALAGA,R.; ET AL.

    2004-08-17

    High-power Free-Electron Lasers were made possible by advances in superconducting linac operated in an energy-recovery mode. In order to get to much higher power levels, say a fraction of a megawatt average power, many technological barriers are yet to be broken. We describe work on CW, high-current and high-brightness electron beams. This will include a description of a superconducting, laser-photocathode RF gun employing a new secondary-emission multiplying cathode, an accelerator cavity, both capable of producing of the order of one ampere average current and plans for an ERL based on these units.

  14. Recovery from central nervous system changes following volatile substance misuse.

    PubMed

    Dingwall, Kylie M; Cairney, Sheree

    2011-01-01

    This review examines cognitive, neurological, and neuroanatomical recovery associated with abstinence from volatile substance misuse (VSM). Articles describing functional or structural brain changes longitudinally or cross-sectional reports comparing current and abstinent users were identified and reviewed. A significant lack of empirical studies investigating central nervous system recovery following VSM was noted. The few case reports and group studies identified indicated that cognitive and neurological impairments appear to follow a progression of decline and progression of recovery model, with the severity of impairment related to the duration and severity of misuse, blood lead levels among leaded petrol misusers, and the duration of abstinence for recovery. By contrast, severe neurological impairment known as lead encephalopathy from sniffing leaded petrol occurred as more catastrophic or abrupt damage to cerebellar processes that may never fully recover. Neuroanatomical damage may not recover even with prolonged abstinence. PMID:21609150

  15. Optimally efficient swimming in hyper-redundant mechanisms: control, design, and energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Wiens, A J; Nahon, M

    2012-12-01

    Hyper-redundant mechanisms (HRMs), also known as snake-like robots, are highly adaptable during locomotion on land. Researchers are currently working to extend their capabilities to aquatic environments through biomimetic undulatory propulsion. In addition to increasing the versatility of the system, truly biomimetic swimming could also provide excellent locomotion efficiency. Unfortunately, the complexity of the system precludes the development of a functional solution to achieve this. To explore this problem, a rapid optimization process is used to generate efficient HRM swimming gaits. The low computational cost of the approach allows for multiple optimizations over a broad range of system conditions. By observing how these conditions affect optimal kinematics, a number of new insights are developed regarding undulatory swimming in robotic systems. Two key conditions are varied within the study, swimming speed and energy recovery. It is found that the swimmer mimics the speed control behaviour of natural fish and that energy recovery drastically increases the system's efficiency. Remarkably, this efficiency increase is accompanied by a distinct change in swimming kinematics. With energy recovery, the swimmer converges to a clearly anguilliform gait, without, it tends towards the carangiform mode. PMID:23135166

  16. Status of the Regenerative ECLS Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Donald Layne

    2010-01-01

    The regenerative Water Recovery System (WRS) has completed its first full year of operation on the International Space Station (ISS). The major assemblies included in this system are the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2010, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  17. 36. VIEW EAST OF WASTE HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM IN BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. VIEW EAST OF WASTE HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM IN BUILDING 43A; THIS WAS PART OF A SYSTEM WHICH PROVIDED HOT WATER FOR OFFICE AND FACTORY BUILDING HEATING IN THE WEST PLANT; NOTE FACTORY WHISTLE TIMER ON TOP OF HEAT EXCHANGER - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  18. Mineral nutrient recovery from pyrolysis systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioenergy crops such as high-energy sorghum (HES), bioenergy rice, corn stover, and switchgrass can be thermo-chemically converted by pyrolysis to produce bio-oil, synthesis gas from non-condensable gases, and biochar. The biochar fraction can be recycled back to the production field to improve soil...

  19. System tradeoffs in siting a solar photovoltaic material recovery infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Goe, Michele; Gaustad, Gabrielle; Tomaszewski, Brian

    2015-09-01

    The consumption and disposal of rare and hazardous metals contained in electronics and emerging technologies such as photovoltaics increases the material complexity of the municipal waste stream. Developing effective waste policies and material recovery systems is required to inhibit landfilling of valuable and finite resources. This work developed a siting and waste infrastructure configuration model to inform the management and recovery of end-of-life photovoltaics. This model solves the siting and waste location-allocation problem for a New York State case study by combining multi-criteria decision methods with spatial tools, however this methodology is generalizable to any geographic area. For the case study, the results indicate that PV installations are spatially statistically significant (i.e., clustered). At least 9 sites, which are co-located with landfills and current MRFs, were 'highly' suitable for siting according to our criteria. After combining criteria in an average weighted sum, 86% of the study area was deemed unsuitable for siting while less than 5% is characterized as highly suitable. This method implicitly prioritized social and environmental concerns and therefore, these concerns accounted for the majority of siting decisions. As we increased the priority of economic criteria, the likelihood of siting near ecologically sensitive areas such as coastline or socially vulnerable areas such as urban centers increased. The sensitivity of infrastructure configurations to land use and waste policy are analyzed. The location allocation model results suggest current tip fees are insufficient to avoid landfilling of photovoltaics. Scenarios where tip fees were increased showed model results where facilities decide to adopt limited recycling technologies that bypass compositionally complex materials; a result with strong implications for global PV installations as well as other waste streams. We suggest a multi-pronged approach that lowers technology cost

  20. Power recovery system for coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Horton, Joel R.

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for minimizing energy required to inject reactant such as coal-oil slurry into a reaction vessel, using high pressure effluent from the latter to displace the reactant from a containment vessel into the reaction vessel with assistance of low pressure pump. Effluent is degassed in the containment vessel, and a heel of the degassed effluent is maintained between incoming effluent and reactant in the containment vessel.

  1. Disaster recovery plan for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.E.

    1998-09-29

    The BMS production implementation will be complete by October 1, 1998 and the server environment will be comprised of two types of platforms. The PassPort Supply and the PeopleSoft Financials will reside on LNIX servers and the PeopleSoft Human Resources and Payroll will reside on Microsoft NT servers. Because of the wide scope and the requirements of the COTS products to run in various environments backup and recovery responsibilities are divided between two groups in Technical Operations. The Central Computer Systems Management group provides support for the LTNIX/NT Backup Data Center, and the Network Infrastructure Systems group provides support for the NT Application Server Backup outside the Data Center. The disaster recovery process is dependent on a good backup and recovery process. Information and integrated system data for determining the disaster recovery process is identified from the Fluor Daniel Hanford (FDH) Risk Assessment Plan, Contingency Plan, and Backup and Recovery Plan, and Backup Form for HANDI 2000 BMS.

  2. Process Control for Precipitation Prevention in Space Water Recovery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargusingh, Miriam; Callahan, Michael R.; Muirhead, Dean

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, rotary distillation systems have been actively pursued by NASA as one of the technologies for water recovery from wastewater primarily comprised of human urine. A specific area of interest is the prevention of the formation of solids that could clog fluid lines and damage rotating equipment. To mitigate the formation of solids, operational constraints are in place that limits such that the concentration of key precipitating ions in the wastewater brine are below the theoretical threshold. This control in effected by limiting the amount of water recovered such that the risk of reaching the precipitation threshold is within acceptable limits. The water recovery limit is based on an empirically derived worst case wastewater composition. During the batch process, water recovery is estimated by monitoring the throughput of the system. NASA Johnson Space Center is working on means of enhancing the process controls to increase water recovery. Options include more precise prediction of the precipitation threshold. To this end, JSC is developing a means of more accurately measuring the constituent of the brine and/or wastewater. Another means would be to more accurately monitor the throughput of the system. In spring of 2015, testing will be performed to test strategies for optimizing water recovery without increasing the risk of solids formation in the brine.

  3. Geothermal energy for the increased recovery of copper by flotation enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The possible use of geothermal energy (a) to speed the recovery of copper from ore flotation and/or leaching of flotation tailings and (b) to utilize geothermal brines to replace valuable fresh water in copper flotation operations was evaluated. Geothermal energy could be used to enhance copper and molybdenum recovery in mineral flotation by increasing the kinetics of the flotation process. In another approach, geothermal energy could be used to heat the leaching solution which might permit greater copper recovery using the same residence time in a tailings leach facility. Since there is no restriction on the temperature of the leaching fluid, revenues generated from the additional copper recovered would be greater for tailings leach operations than for other types of leach operations (for example, dump leaching operation) for which temperature restrictions exist. The estimated increase in total revenues resulting from two percent increase copper recovery in a 50,000 tons ore/day plant was estimated to be over $2,000,000 annually. It would require an estimated geothermal investment of about $2,130,000 for a geothermal well and pumping system. Thus, the capital investment would be paid out in about one year. Furthermore, considerable savings of fresh waters and process equipment are possible if the geothermal waters can be used directly in the mine-mill operations, which is believed to be practical.

  4. Energy recovery from solid waste. [production engineering model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, C.; Huang, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    A recent group study on the problem of solid waste disposal provided a decision making model for a community to use in determining the future for its solid waste. The model is a combination of the following factors: technology, legal, social, political, economic and environmental. An assessment of local or community needs determines what form of energy recovery is desirable. A market for low pressure steam or hot water would direct a community to recover energy from solid waste by incineration to generate steam. A fuel gas could be produced by a process known as pyrolysis if there is a local market for a low heating value gaseous fuel. Solid waste can also be used directly as a fuel supplemental to coal in a steam generator. An evaluation of these various processes is made.

  5. Ampere Average Current Photoinjector and Energy Recovery Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Ilan Ben-Zvi; A. Burrill; R. Calaga; P. Cameron; X. Chang; D. Gassner; H. Hahn; A. Hershcovitch; H.C. Hseuh; P. Johnson; D. Kayran; J. Kewisch; R. Lambiase; Vladimir N. Litvinenko; G. McIntyre; A. Nicoletti; J. Rank; T. Roser; J. Scaduto; K. Smith; T. Srinivasan-Rao; K.-C. Wu; A. Zaltsman; Y. Zhao; H. Bluem; A. Burger; Mike Cole; A. Favale; D. Holmes; John Rathke; Tom Schultheiss; A. Todd; J. Delayen; W. Funk; L. Phillips; Joe Preble

    2004-08-01

    High-power Free-Electron Lasers were made possible by advances in superconducting linac operated in an energy-recovery mode, as demonstrated by the spectacular success of the Jefferson Laboratory IR-Demo. In order to get to much higher power levels, say a fraction of a megawatt average power, many technological barriers are yet to be broken. BNL's Collider-Accelerator Department is pursuing some of these technologies for a different application, that of electron cooling of high-energy hadron beams. I will describe work on CW, high-current and high-brightness electron beams. This will include a description of a superconducting, laser-photocathode RF gun employing a new secondary-emission multiplying cathode and an accelerator cavity, both capable of producing of the order of one ampere average current.

  6. Discussion of and reply to ``Thermoselect: Energy and raw material recovery through thermal chemical transformation in a closed-loop system``

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, J.W.; Stahlberg, R.; Runyon, D.J.

    1995-11-01

    Publication of this paper by Rudi Stahlberg and David J. Runyon has made the public aware of the perfect system which would take garbage in, and produce several streams of valuable by-products while emitting little, if any, pollution streams. Prototype testing of the system was done at Fondotoce, Italy. However, the paper gives the impression that perhaps not all of the suggested processing is a part of the present prototype operation, if this is the case, the reader should be clearly informed as to which of the suggested by-product processing systems is presently operational, and which are thought to be possible. Comments are also made concerning pollution control equipment and the disposition of heavy metals. This article also contains the original authors` reply to the comments.

  7. Electrocaloric cooling: The importance of electric-energy recovery and heat regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaznik, U.; Vrabelj, M.; Kutnjak, Z.; Malič, B.; Poredoš, A.; Kitanovski, A.

    2015-09-01

    Here we explore the effect of electric-energy recovery and heat regeneration on the energy efficiency of an electrocaloric-cooling system. Furthermore, the influence of the polarization-electric field hysteresis on the energy efficiency of the system is analysed. For the purposes of the analysis, the properties of (1 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-x PbTiO3 (PMN-100xPT) with x = 0, x=0.1 , and x=0.35 are characterized. We show that if no heat is regenerated, even small irreversibilities in the electric circuit used to recover the electric energy can cause a significant drop in the achievable energy efficiency. On the other hand, when a heat regeneration process is considered and a realistic value for the degree of electric-energy recovery equal to 80% is assumed, the limit for the energy efficiency of a system employing PMN ceramics is estimated to be equal to 81% of the efficiency of a Carnot heat pump.

  8. Optimization-based methodology for the development of wastewater facilities for energy and nutrient recovery.

    PubMed

    Puchongkawarin, C; Gomez-Mont, C; Stuckey, D C; Chachuat, B

    2015-12-01

    A paradigm shift is currently underway from an attitude that considers wastewater streams as a waste to be treated, to a proactive interest in recovering materials and energy from these streams. This paper is concerned with the development and application of a systematic, model-based methodology for the development of wastewater resource recovery systems that are both economically attractive and sustainable. With the array of available treatment and recovery options growing steadily, a superstructure modeling approach based on rigorous mathematical optimization appears to be a natural approach for tackling these problems. The development of reliable, yet simple, performance and cost models is a key issue with this approach in order to allow for a reliable solution based on global optimization. We argue that commercial wastewater simulators can be used to derive such models, and we illustrate this approach with a simple resource recovery system. The results show that the proposed methodology is computationally tractable, thereby supporting its application as a decision support system for selection of promising resource recovery systems whose development is worth pursuing. PMID:25262948

  9. Natural analogs for enhanced heat recovery from geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, Dennis L.

    1996-01-24

    High-temperature hydrothermal systems are physically and chemically zoned with depth. The energy input is from a magmatic zone, intruded by igneous bodies, that may also contribute variable amounts of magmatic fluid to the system. The heat source is directly overlain by a section of rocks, that due to their elevated temperature, respond to stress in a ductile fashion. The ductile zone is, in turn, overlain by a section of rocks that respond to stress in a brittle fashion, where water is able to circulate through fractures (the geothermal reservoir) and will be termed the hydrothermal circulation zone. Ancient and modern high-temperature geothermal systems show a predictable sequence of evolutionary events affecting these stratified zones. Metamorphic core complexes are uplifts, formed in highly extended terrains, that expose fossil brittle-ductile transition zones. Formerly ductile rocks have had brittle fractures superimposed on them, and meteoric hydrothermal systems are associated with the brittle fracturing. Porphyry copper deposits typically evolve from magmatic to meteoric hydrothermal systems. At the Larderello geothermal system, the brittle- ductile transition has been mapped using reflection seismology, and the zone has been penetrated by the San Pompeo 2 well where temperatures >420°C were encountered. Although neo-granitic dikes have been penetrated by drilling in the Larderello area, the brittle- ductile transition is largely above the inferred plutonic heat source. In the Geysers system, in contrast, the present steam system has been superimposed on young plutonic rocks and the inferred brittle-ductile transition is present at a depth of about 4.7 km within the plutonic rocks. As hydrothermal reservoirs are depleted, or surface facilities are restricted by environmental considerations, interest will turn to the deeper portions of known systems. Japan already has an aggressive program to develop Deep-seated and Magma-Ambient resources. This program, as

  10. Impacts of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act on energy supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnes, S. A.; Copenhaver, E. D.; Weeter, D. W.; Calzonetti, F. J.; Tevepaugh, C. W.; Parzyck, D. C.

    1980-10-01

    The signficant characteristics of the waste streams of representative technologies of different energy supply alternatives are reported, including coal combustion and conversion, solar, geothermal, oil sands, oil shales, and petroleum refining. The overall relationship of RCRA and energy issues was examined, with special emphasis on how RCRA's hazardous waste provisions impact with these technologies. The issues addressed were: the magnitude of energy related waste; public and private sector responses to RCRA and energy waste problems; the relationship of RCRA to other environmental and public health protection policies; the effect of RCRA on the deployment of energy supply; the role of reuse, recovery, and utilization of energy waste; and possible health and environmental effects associated with solid or hazardous wastes of various energy supply systems.

  11. Spacecraft Parachute Recovery System Testing from a Failure Rate Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    Spacecraft parachute recovery systems, especially those with a parachute cluster, require testing to identify and reduce failures. This is especially important when the spacecraft in question is human-rated. Due to the recent effort to make spaceflight affordable, the importance of determining a minimum requirement for testing has increased. The number of tests required to achieve a mature design, with a relatively constant failure rate, can be estimated from a review of previous complex spacecraft recovery systems. Examination of the Apollo parachute testing and the Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster recovery chute system operation will clarify at which point in those programs the system reached maturity. This examination will also clarify the risks inherent in not performing a sufficient number of tests prior to operation with humans on-board. When looking at complex parachute systems used in spaceflight landing systems, a pattern begins to emerge regarding the need for a minimum amount of testing required to wring out the failure modes and reduce the failure rate of the parachute system to an acceptable level for human spaceflight. Not only a sufficient number of system level testing, but also the ability to update the design as failure modes are found is required to drive the failure rate of the system down to an acceptable level. In addition, sufficient data and images are necessary to identify incipient failure modes or to identify failure causes when a system failure occurs. In order to demonstrate the need for sufficient system level testing prior to an acceptable failure rate, the Apollo Earth Landing System (ELS) test program and the Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Recovery System failure history will be examined, as well as some experiences in the Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System will be noted.

  12. Analysis of recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage: a Rayleigh-based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schout, Gilian; Drijver, Benno; Gutierrez-Neri, Mariene; Schotting, Ruud

    2013-10-01

    High-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) is an important technique for energy conservation. A controlling factor for the economic feasibility of HT-ATES is the recovery efficiency. Due to the effects of density-driven flow (free convection), HT-ATES systems applied in permeable aquifers typically have lower recovery efficiencies than conventional (low-temperature) ATES systems. For a reliable estimation of the recovery efficiency it is, therefore, important to take the effect of density-driven flow into account. A numerical evaluation of the prime factors influencing the recovery efficiency of HT-ATES systems is presented. Sensitivity runs evaluating the effects of aquifer properties, as well as operational variables, were performed to deduce the most important factors that control the recovery efficiency. A correlation was found between the dimensionless Rayleigh number (a measure of the relative strength of free convection) and the calculated recovery efficiencies. Based on a modified Rayleigh number, two simple analytical solutions are proposed to calculate the recovery efficiency, each one covering a different range of aquifer thicknesses. The analytical solutions accurately reproduce all numerically modeled scenarios with an average error of less than 3 %. The proposed method can be of practical use when considering or designing an HT-ATES system.

  13. Impact of sludge thickening on energy recovery from anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Puchajda, B; Oleszkiewicz, J

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents energy balances for various digestion systems, which include single mesophilic digestion, single thermophilic digestion, two-stage thermophilic-mesophilic digestion system and systems at elevated solids content in sludge. On the basis of a sludge flow containing 30 tons TS/day (equivalent to a 100 ML/d WWTP plant) it was shown that a two-stage thermophilic-mesophilic digestion system generated more available energy than single mesophilic digestion and single thermophilic digestion systems. Sludge thickening offered the greatest amount of available energy; however that energy surplus was offset by the cost of thickening. After the cost of thickening was converted into equivalent energy units it was shown that the price of energy is important in calculation of equivalent energy units related to operation of the thickening plant. Sludge thickening may be beneficial from energy view point compared to conventional mesophilic digestion when price of energy exceeds dollars 0.08 CAN kW-hr. PMID:18309218

  14. Design, Development & Flight Testing Of The U.S. Army 4200 sq ft Parafoil Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Thomas W.; Fox, Roy

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the design, development and flight testing of the U.S. Army 4200 ft(sup 2) parafoil recovery system built under NASA Contract NAS9-00076. The 4200 ft(sup 2) parafoil described herein was a potential candidate to fulfill the U.S. Army requirement for a 10,000 lb useable payload precision guided recovery system. Design heritage as well as specific features, like lower surface inlets, confluence fitting, upper surface energy modulator design, deployment bag design and 60 ft diameter Ringslot drogue will be discussed. Initial flight test results, ground testing of various components to verify design margin and configuration changes will also be discussed. The 4200 ft(sup 2) parafoil recovery system completed three flight tests during 2003 at payload weights of over 15,000 lbs.

  15. INNOVATIVE RINSE-AND-RECOVERY SYSTEM FOR METAL FINISHING PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the feasibility of a rinse-and-recovery system that can be installed in almost any metal finishing line and does not harm the environment because no plating solution exits to the sewer. Most toxic pollutants from metal finishing operations are associated wit...

  16. Orion Landing and Recovery Systems Development - Government Contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Machin, Ricardo A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's work in development of landing and recovery systems for the Orion space craft. It includes a review of the available tools and skills that assist in analyzing the aerodynamic decelerators. There is a description of the work that is being done on the Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) parachutes that will be used with the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)

  17. Driving forces for import of waste for energy recovery in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Mattias; Sahlin, Jenny; Ekvall, Tomas; Sundberg, Johan

    2005-02-01

    Between 1996 and 2002, the Swedish import of so-called yellow waste for energy recovery increased. The import mainly consisted of separated wood waste and mixes of used wood and paper and/or plastics that was combusted in district heat production plants (DHPPs). Some mixed waste was imported to waste incineration plants for energy recovery (10% of the import of yellow waste for energy recovery in 2002). The import came primarily from Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Denmark and Finland. We identified six underlying driving forces for this recent increase of imported waste which are outlined and their interactive issues discussed. --The energy system infrastructure, which enables high energy recovery in Sweden. --The energy taxation, where high Swedish taxes on fossil fuels make relatively expensive solid biofuels the main alternative for base load production of district heat. --The quality of the waste-derived fuels, which has been higher in the exporting countries than in Sweden. --The bans on landfilling within Europe and the shortage of waste treatment capacity. --Taxes on waste management in Europe. --Gate fee differences between exporting countries and Sweden. In the future, the overall strength of these driving forces will probably be weakened. A Swedish tax on waste incineration is being investigated. In other European countries, the ambition to reach the Kyoto targets and increase the renewable electricity production could improve the competitiveness of waste-derived fuels in comparison with fossil fuels. Swedish DHPPs using waste-derived fuels will experience higher costs after the Waste Incineration Directive is fully implemented. The uncertainty about European waste generation and treatment capacity, however, might have a large influence on the future gate fees and thus also on the yellow waste import into Sweden. PMID:15751390

  18. Neuroplasticity. Key to recovery after central nervous system injury.

    PubMed Central

    Dobkin, B H

    1993-01-01

    After an injury to the central nervous system, physical and cognitive impairments and disabilities often abate. These gains may be partly mediated by mechanisms that allow reorganizing of the structure and function within gray and white matter. The potential to enhance neurologic recovery by manipulating the brain and spinal cord must now be considered in clinical practice. Today's rehabilitation routines may not encourage maximum recovery. Indeed, some commonly used physical and pharmacologic methods could inhibit the restoration of motor activities such as walking. On the other hand, therapies that use our expanding knowledge of neuroplasticity could lead to better results for patients. PMID:8351906

  19. Level of satiety: In vitro energy metabolism in brain during hypophagic and hyperphagic body weight recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Kasser, T.R.; Harris, R.B.; Martin, R.J. )

    1989-12-01

    Rates of in vitro glucose and fatty acid oxidation were examined in four brain sites during hypophagic and hyperphagic recovery of normal body weight. Rats were fed 40, 100, or 160% of normal intake, via gastric intubation, for 3 wk. Another group of rats was starved until body weight loss was equivalent to weight loss in 40%-fed rats. Groups of rats were killed at the conclusion of tube feeding or fasting and at specific periods during recovery of body weight. Brain sites examined were the ventrolateral hypothalamus (VLH), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), a caudal brain stem site encompassing the area postrema-nucleus of the solitary tract (AP-NTS), and cortex. During recovery, rats previously fed 160% of normal intake (anorectic) maintained low rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation and were hypophagic until most excess fat was depleted. Conversely, rats previously fed 40% of normal intake (hungry) maintained high rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation and were hyperphagic until most deficient fat was repleted. Rats previously starved maintained high rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation during hyperphagic recovery, although levels of VLH fatty acid oxidation and food intake were initially low on refeeding. Rates of glucose oxidation in the brain sites examined did not relate well to energy balance status and the needed adjustments in food intake. The results indicated that the level of glucose oxidation in the VLH and AP-NTS responded to the level of energy immediately coming into the system (food intake).

  20. Sieving wastewater--cellulose recovery, economic and energy evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ruiken, C J; Breuer, G; Klaversma, E; Santiago, T; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2013-01-01

    Application of fine-mesh sieves (<0.35 mm) as pretreatment for municipal biological wastewater treatment gives an opportunity to recover resources and increase sustainability of wastewater treatment processes. Sieves are traditionally used for single stage mechanical treatment (typical mesh of 0.35 mm) or in combination with an MBR (typical mesh >0.7 mm). When sieves with a mesh of 0.35 mm are used on raw sewage we observed that cellulose fibres mainly originating from toilet paper are removed efficiently from the influent with a high recovery and purity. The application of sieves as pretreatment for conventional activated sludge processes has been evaluated based on pilot plant research at three WWTPs in the Netherlands. With sieving applied to the dry weather flow only the overall energy usage of the WWTP including sludge treatment can be decreased by at least 40% with a payback time of 7 years. PMID:23121895

  1. Recovery opportunities for metals and energy from sewage sludges.

    PubMed

    Mulchandani, Anjali; Westerhoff, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Limitations on current wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) biological processes and solids disposal options present opportunities to implement novel technologies that convert WWTPs into resource recovery facilities. This review considered replacing or augmenting extensive dewatering, anaerobic digestion, and off-site disposal with new thermo-chemical and liquid extraction processes. These technologies may better recover energy and metals while inactivating pathogens and destroying organic pollutants. Because limited direct comparisons between different sludge types exist in the literature for hydrothermal liquefaction, this study augments the findings with experimental data. These experiments demonstrated 50% reduction in sludge mass, with 30% of liquefaction products converted to bio-oil and most metals sequestered within a small mass of solid bio-char residue. Finally, each technology's contribution to the three sustainability pillars is investigated. Although limiting hazardous materials reintroduction to the environment may increase economic cost of sludge treatment, it is balanced by cleaner environment and valuable resource benefits for society. PMID:27034156

  2. Ion collector design for an energy recovery test proposal with the negative ion source NIO1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Variale, V.; Cavenago, M.; Agostinetti, P.; Sonato, P.; Zanotto, L.

    2016-02-01

    Commercial viability of thermonuclear fusion power plants depends also on minimizing the recirculation power used to operate the reactor. The neutral beam injector (NBI) remains one of the most important method for plasma heating and control. For the future fusion power plant project DEMO, a NBI wall plug efficiency at least of 0.45 is required, while efficiency of present NBI project is about 0.25. The D- beam from a negative ion source is partially neutralized by a gas cell, which leaves more than 40% of energy in residual beams (D- and D+), so that an ion beam energy recovery system can significantly contribute to optimize efficiency. Recently, the test negative ion source NIO1 (60 keV, 9 beamlets with 15 mA H- each) has been designed and built at RFX (Padua) for negative ion production efficiency and the beam quality optimization. In this paper, a study proposal to use the NIO1 source also for a beam energy recovery test experiment is presented and a preliminary design of a negative ion beam collector with simulations of beam energy recovery is discussed.

  3. Ion collector design for an energy recovery test proposal with the negative ion source NIO1.

    PubMed

    Variale, V; Cavenago, M; Agostinetti, P; Sonato, P; Zanotto, L

    2016-02-01

    Commercial viability of thermonuclear fusion power plants depends also on minimizing the recirculation power used to operate the reactor. The neutral beam injector (NBI) remains one of the most important method for plasma heating and control. For the future fusion power plant project DEMO, a NBI wall plug efficiency at least of 0.45 is required, while efficiency of present NBI project is about 0.25. The D(-) beam from a negative ion source is partially neutralized by a gas cell, which leaves more than 40% of energy in residual beams (D(-) and D(+)), so that an ion beam energy recovery system can significantly contribute to optimize efficiency. Recently, the test negative ion source NIO1 (60 keV, 9 beamlets with 15 mA H(-) each) has been designed and built at RFX (Padua) for negative ion production efficiency and the beam quality optimization. In this paper, a study proposal to use the NIO1 source also for a beam energy recovery test experiment is presented and a preliminary design of a negative ion beam collector with simulations of beam energy recovery is discussed. PMID:26932033

  4. Energy Systems Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    PRESTO, a COSMIC program, handles energy system specifications and predicts design efficiency of cogeneration systems. These systems allow a company to use excess energy produced to generate electricity. PRESTO is utilized by the Energy Systems Division of Thermo Electron Corporation in the custom design of cogeneration systems.

  5. Remanufacturing control in multistage systems with stochastic recovery rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, Hasan K.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2004-12-01

    Remanufacturing operations involved with highly uncertain recovery rate of used products, subassemblies and parts that complicate the planning and control of the process. In this paper, we develop a comprehensive procedure that determines the optimal input quantities at each stage of the remanufacturing operations in which recovery rates at each stage of the process are stochastic. We model the remanufacturing system as an open queueing network and use the decomposition principle and expansion methodology to analyze it. Each station in the system is subject to breakdown and has a finite buffer capacity. Repair times, breakdown times and service times follow exponential distributions. Optimization is done on the system"s expected total cost using a dynamic programming (DP) algorithm. A numerical example is presented to show the applicability of the model.

  6. Differential current measurement in the BNL energy recovery linac test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Peter

    2006-02-01

    An energy recovery linac (ERL) test facility is presently under construction at BNL [V.N. Litvinenko, et al., High current energy recovery linac at BNL, PAC, 2005; I. Ben-Zvi, et al., Extremely high current, high brightness energy recovery linac, PAC, 2005]. The goal of this test facility is to demonstrate CW operation with an average beam current greater than 100 mA, and with greater than 99.95% efficiency of current recovery. This facility will serve as a test bed for the novel high current CW photo-cathode [A. Burrill, et al., Multi-alkali photocathode development at BNL, PAC, 2005; A. Murray, et al., State-of-the-art electron guns and injector designs for energy recovery linacs, PAC, 2005], the superconducting RF cavity with HOM dampers [R. Calaga, et al., High current superconducting cavities at RHIC, EPAC, 2004; R. Calaga, et al., in: Proceedings of the 11th workshop on RF superconductivity, Lubeck, Germany, 2003], and the lattice [D. Kayran, V. Litvinenko, Novel method of emittance preservation in ERL merging system in presence of strong space charge forces, PAC, 2005; D. Kayran, et al., Optics for high brightness and high current ERL project at BNL, PAC, 2005] and feedback systems needed to insure the specified beam parameters. It is an important stepping stone for electron cooling in RHIC [I. Ben-Zvi, et al., Electron cooling of RHIC, PAC, 2005], and essential to meet the luminosity specifications of RHICII [T. Hallman, et al., RHICII/eRHIC white paper, available at http://www.bnl.gov/henp/docs/NSAC_RHICII-eRHIC_2-15-03.pdf]. The expertise and experience gained in this effort might also extend forward into a 10-20 GeV ERL for the electron-ion collider eRHIC [ http://www.agsrhichome.bnl.gov/eRHIC/, Appendix A, The linac-ring option, 2005]. We report here on the use of a technique of differential current measurement to monitor the efficiency of current recovery in the test facility, and investigate the possibility of using such a monitor in the machine

  7. Capacitive energy storage and recovery for synchrotron magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Koseki, K.

    2014-06-15

    Feasibility studies on capacitive energy storage and recovery in the main-ring synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex were conducted by circuit simulation. The estimated load fluctuation was 96 MVA in total for dipole magnets, which is likely to induce a serious disturbance in the main grid. It was found that the energy stored in the magnets after the excitation period can be recovered to the storage capacitor by controlling the voltage across the energy-storage capacitor using a pulse-width-modulation converter and reused in the next operational cycle. It was also found that the power fluctuation in the main grid can be reduced to 12 MVA. An experimental evaluation of an aluminum metalized film capacitor revealed that capacitance loss was induced by a fluctuating voltage applied to the storage capacitor when applying the proposed method. The capacitance loss was induced by corona discharge around the edges of segmented electrodes of a self-healing capacitor. The use of aluminum-zinc alloy was evaluated as a countermeasure to mitigate the effect induced by the corona discharge. For a zinc content of 8%, which was optimized experimentally, a capacitor with a sufficient life time expectancy of 20 years and a working potential gradient of 250 V/μm was developed.

  8. Exhaust energy recovery and generator for use with an engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, H.

    1987-09-22

    An exhaust energy recovery and generator device for a thermally insulative engine having an exhaust passage and an output shaft is described. The device comprises: (a) a first exhaust turbine disposed in the exhaust passage of the thermally insulative engine and rotatable by the energy of an exhaust gas discharged from the thermally insulative engine. The first exhaust turbine has a wheel and a wheel shaft; (b) a generator having a rotor shaft coupled coaxially with the wheel shaft of the first exhaust turbine; (c) a converter operatively connected to the generator for converting alternating current into direct current; (d) an inverter operatively connected to the converter for converting direct current into alternating current; (e) a motor having a rotatable shaft and drivable by the generator via the converter and the inverter; (f) means connecting the rotatable shaft of the motor to the output shaft of the thermally insulative engine. The energy of the exhaust gas recovered by the first exhaust turbine can be fed back to the output shaft of the thermally insulative engine through the generator, the converter, the inverter and the motor; (g) a body of silicon steel fitted over the rotor shaft of the generator; and (h) a stator coil, having a winding, for passing an armature current which is 90/sup 0/ advanced in phase through the winding to generate a no-load induced electromotive force, the generator thereby serving as a reluctance generator.

  9. Status of the Regenerative ECLSS Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Donald Layne

    2009-01-01

    NASA has completed the delivery of the regenerative Water Recovery System (WRS) for the International Space Station (ISS). The major assemblies included in this system are the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the final effort to deliver the hardware to the Kennedy Space Center for launch on STS-126, the on-orbit status as of April 2009, and describes some of the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  10. FERROUS METALS RECOVERY AT RECOVERY 1, NEW ORLEANS: PERFORMANCE OF THE MODIFIED SYSTEM. TEST NO. 4.05 AND TEST NO. 4.09, RECOVERY 1, NEW ORLEANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents two series of samplings and the monitoring of enery consumption and shredder hammer wear of the upgraded ferrous recovery system that produces a light ferrous product from the processing of municipal refuse at the New Orleans resource recovery project. A ser...

  11. Metals removal and recovery in bioelectrochemical systems: A review.

    PubMed

    Nancharaiah, Y V; Venkata Mohan, S; Lens, P N L

    2015-11-01

    Metal laden wastes and contamination pose a threat to ecosystem well being and human health. Metal containing waste streams are also a valuable resource for recovery of precious and scarce elements. Although biological methods are inexpensive and effective for treating metal wastewaters and in situ bioremediation of metal(loid) contamination, little progress has been made towards metal(loid) recovery. Bioelectrochemical systems are emerging as a new technology platform for removal and recovery of metal ions from metallurgical wastes, process streams and wastewaters. Biodegradation of organic matter by electroactive biofilms at the anode has been successfully coupled to cathodic reduction of metal ions. Until now, leaching of Co(II) from LiCoO2 particles, and removal of metal ions i.e. Co(III/II), Cr(VI), Cu(II), Hg(II), Ag(I), Se(IV), and Cd(II) from aqueous solutions has been demonstrated. This article reviews the state of art research of bioelectrochemical systems for removal and recovery of metal(loid) ions and pertaining removal mechanisms. PMID:26116446

  12. Energy Control Systems: Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The installation of proper control systems is estimated as saving up to 25 percent of the energy used in schools. Other potential energy-saving areas are transmission (heat loss or gain through walls, especially ceilings); internal load (heat from students, lights, and machinery); ventilation; and equipment maintenance. (Author/MLF)

  13. Case studies of sewage treatment with recovery of energy from methane

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.A.; Webster, N.; Wander, J.

    1993-06-30

    In the Southeast, there are about 3,000 wastewater plants with a capacity of over one million gallons per day. Under this study, operating data and available financial information on a variety of technologies for large and small plans was documented for ten facilities. Studies were done on wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with design capacities ranging from 9.5--120 million gallons per day. All of these WWTPs recover the gas produced in their anaerobic digesters and use at least part of it as fuel for boilers and/or internal combustion engines. The engines power generators, blowers, or pumps, and most are equipped with heat recovery systems. Based on the historical data provided by the participants in this study and from the authors` own technical analysis, methane recovery and utilization systems appear to be cost effective, although the degree of cost effectiveness varies widely. The types of energy recovery systems are not uniform among all the participants so that the cases in this limited survey are not precisely comparable to each other. Also, reliance on historical data and cost information generated from portions of total plant operations and estimates makes it difficult to complete analysis of specific variables. The fact remains, however, that regardless of the individual type(s) of digester gas energy recovery system in use, data from seven of the ten participants reflected annual savings ranging from $67,200 to more than $700,000. Further, Wander Associates current analysis reflects that nine of the ten realized annual savings ranging from $5,000 to more than $600,000.

  14. Status of the Regenerative ECLSS Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagdigian, Robert M.; Carter, D. Layne; Bedard, John

    2007-01-01

    NASA is developing a regenerative water recovery system (WRS) for deployment on the International Space Station (ISS), The major assemblies included in this system are the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The WPA has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International (HSSSI), Inc., while the UPA has been developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Test and verification activities have been completed for the system and planning for launch and on-orbit activation is underway. This paper summarizes the status as of April 2007 and describes some of the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  15. Concepts and Applications of Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs)

    SciTech Connect

    Gruner, Sol M.

    2004-05-12

    Energy Recovery Linacs are being explored as next generation synchrotron light sources. The fundamental x-ray beam properties from storage ring sources, such as the source size, brilliance, and pulse duration are limited by the dynamic equilibrium characteristic of the magnetic lattice that is the storage ring. Importantly, the characteristic equilibration time is long, involving thousands of orbits around the ring. Advances in laser-driven photoelectron sources allow the generation of electron bunches with superior properties for synchrotron radiation. ERLs preserve these properties by acceleration with a superconducting linac, followed by transport through a return loop hosting insertion devices, similar to that of a 3rd generation storage ring. The loop returns bunches to the linac 180 deg. out of accelerating phase for deceleration through the linac and disposal. Thus, the electron beam energy is recycled back into the linac RF field for acceleration of new bunches and the equilibrium degradation of bunches never occurs. The superior projected properties of ERLs beams include extraordinary brilliance and small source size, with concomitant high transverse coherence, x-ray pulse durations down to {approx}100 femtoseconds, and flexibility of operation. ERL projects are summarized. ERLs will be capable of hosting practically all experiments now being carried out at storage rings while also enabling new types of experiments.

  16. Cogeneration energy-recovery facility feasibility study: environmental rport

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-01

    Analyses are given of the impacts on the broad environment that will result from the construction and operation of the Nashville Electric Service Cogeneration Energy Recovery facility (NES CERF). Analyses are presented for water, waste-water, air and solid waste environmental impacts, as well as safety, health and socioeconomic considerations. The environmental, safety, health and socioeconomic impacts of the project will be minimal particularly when the positive secondary energy and landfill impacts are considered. All legal and administrative demands resulting from the proposed construction have and will be met. The time frame required to obtain necessary environmental permits will not require an extension of the construction schedule set up for the project. Based on the analysis, the following recommendations can be made: owner should monitor the CERF environmental responses and output as necessary in order to keep all environmental, safety, health and socioeconomic impacts at satisfactory levels; owner management should remain abreast of legislative developments in the areas of water, air and solid waste, in order to anticipate any necessary changes in procedures and operations; and frameworks should be set up to insure and maintain employee safety and operational training at peak levels.

  17. Final Report, Materials for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems, Tasks 3 and 4 Materials for Heat Recovery in Recovery Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, James R.; Kish, Joseph R.; Singh, Preet M.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Yuan, Jerry; Gorog, J. Peter; Frederick, Laurie A.; Jette, Francois R.; Meisner, Roberta A.; Singbeil, Douglas L.

    2007-12-31

    The DOE-funded project on materials for industrial heat recovery systems included four research tasks: materials for aluminum melting furnace recuperator tubes, materials and operational changes to prevent cracking and corrosion of the co-extruded tubes that form primary air ports in black liquor recovery boilers, the cause of and means to prevent corrosion of carbon steel tubes in the mid-furnace area of recovery boilers, and materials and operational changes to prevent corrosion and cracking of recovery boiler superheater tubes. Results from studies on the latter two topics are given in this report while separate reports on results for the first two tasks have already been published. Accelerated, localized corrosion has been observed in the mid-furnace area of kraft recovery boilers. This corrosion of the carbon steel waterwall tubes is typically observed in the vicinity of the upper level of air ports where the stainless clad co-extruded wall tubes used in the lower portion of the boiler are welded to the carbon steel tubes that extend from this transition point or “cut line” to the top of the boiler. Corrosion patterns generally vary from one boiler to another depending on boiler design and operating parameters, but the corrosion is almost always found within a few meters of the cut line and often much closer than that. This localized corrosion results in tube wall thinning that can reach the level where the integrity of the tube is at risk. Collection and analysis of gas samples from various areas near the waterwall surface showed reducing and sulfidizing gases were present in the areas where corrosion was accelerated. However, collection of samples from the same areas at intervals over a two year period showed the gaseous environment in the mid-furnace section can cycle between oxidizing and reducing conditions. These fluctuations are thought to be due to gas flow instabilities and they result in an unstable or a less protective scale on the carbon steel

  18. Safety implications of onboard refueling vapor recovery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-06-01

    The safety implications of requiring onboard refueling vapor recovery systems on gasoline powered passenger cars, light trucks and heavy duty vehicles are evaluated. Special attention is given to the analysis of the design considerations for a safe onboard system and other measures necessary to insure that the design considerations incorporated are capable of providing a high level of in-use fuel system integrity. Concerns over the potential safety implications of onboard systems were raised. These concerns can be grouped into 4 areas. These include requirements to pass the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration safety test, the effects of tampering and system defects, refueling operations, and in-use fuel system safety. All of these concerns are presented as well as design considerations for a safe system. In use fuel system safety is also presented as well as cost and leadtime considerations for implementing a safe system.

  19. Harnessing Geothermal Energy from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, M. O.; Randolph, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Recent geotechnical research shows that geothermal heat can be efficiently mined by circulating CO2 through naturally permeable, porous rock formations. This method, called CO2 Plume Geothermal (CPG), targets the same geologic reservoirs that are suitable for deep saline aquifer CO2 sequestration or enhanced oil recovery (EOR). While previous investigations have focused on CO2-based heat mining from saline aquifers, here we present new research that is primarily concerned with EOR reservoirs, specifically those using a CO2 flood. EOR operations provide excellent opportunities for economically-favorable geothermal energy recovery, assuming subsurface temperatures are sufficient, because the majority of costly infrastructure (i.e., wells) is in place. Moreover, the subsurface characteristics that make a site suitable for hydrocarbon recovery -- at least moderate reservoir permeability and porosity, and a low-permeability capping feature -- help ensure that fluid can be circulated for heat extraction and that CO2 will be contained. However, heat extraction from the CO2 + water/brine + hydrocarbon EOR production stream is challenging, requiring fluid separation and multiple binary and/or direct power systems (depending on site-specific fluid composition and conditions). We discuss several scenarios, encompassing multiple power system configurations, for harnessing geothermal energy from CO2 EOR operations. In addition, we present preliminary numerical modeling results for net power production from such EOR operations -- accounting for wide variation in produced fluid temperature, pressure, and composition -- and consider the economic implications of power sales for EOR sites.

  20. A regenerable carbon dioxide removal and oxygen recovery system for the Japanese experiment module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuji, K.; Hirao, M.; Satoh, S.

    The Japanese Space Station Program is now under Phase B study by the National Space Development Agency of Japan in participation with the U.S. Space Station Program. A Japanese Space Station participation will be a dedicated pressurized module to be attached to the U.S. Space Station, and is called Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). Astronaut scientists will conduct various experimental operations there. Thus an environment control and life support system is required. Regenerable carbon dioxide removal and collection technique as well as oxygen recovery technique has been studied and investigated for several years. A regenerable carbon dioxide removal subsystem using steam desorbed solid amine and an oxygen recovery subsystem using Sabatier methane cracking have a good possibility for the application to the Japanese Experiment Module. Basic performance characteristics of the carbon dioxide removal and oxygen recovery subsystem are presented according to the results of a fundamental performance test program. The trace contaminant removal process is also investigated and discussed. The solvent recovery plant for the regeneration of various industrial solvents, such as hydrocarbons, alcohols and so on, utilizes the multi-bed solvent adsorption and steam desorption process, which is very similar to the carbon dioxide removal subsystem. Therefore, to develop essential components including adsorption tank (bed), condensor, process controller and energy saving system, the technology obtained from the experience to construct solvent recovery plant can be easily and effectively applicable to the carbon dioxide removal subsystem. The energy saving efficiency is evaluated for blower power reduction, steam reduction and waste heat utilization technique. According to the above background, the entire environment control and life support system for the Japanese Experiment Module including the carbon dioxide removal and oxygen recovery subsystem is evaluated and proposed.

  1. Performance investigation of a cogeneration plant with the efficient and compact heat recovery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myat, Aung; Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Young-Deuk; Choon, Ng Kim

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the performance investigation of a cogeneration plant equipped with an efficient waste heat recovery system. The proposed cogeneration system produces four types of useful energy namely: (i) electricity, (ii) steam, (iii) cooling and (iv) dehumidification. The proposed plant comprises a Capstone C30 micro-turbine which generates 24 kW of electricity, a compact and efficient waste heat recovery system and a host of waste heat activated devices namely (i) a steam generator, (ii) an absorption chiller, (iii) an adsorption chiller and (iv) a multi-bed desiccant dehumidifier. The numerical analysis for the host of waste heat recovery system and thermally activated devices using FORTRAN power station linked to powerful IMSL library is performed to investigate the performance of the overall system. A set of experiments, both part load and full load, of micro-turbine is conducted to examine the electricity generation and the exhaust gas temperature. It is observed that energy utilization factor (EUF) could achieve as high as 70% while Fuel Energy Saving Ratio (FESR) is found to be 28%.

  2. Development of a condenser for the dual catalyst water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinikas, P.; Rasouli, F.; Rabadi, N.

    1983-01-01

    Conceptual evaporation/condensation systems suitable for integration with the catalytic water recovery method were evaluated. The primary requirements for each concept were its capability to operate under zero-gravity conditions, condense recovered water from a vapor-noncondensable gas mixture, and integrate with the catalytic system. Specific energy requirements were estimated for concepts meeting the primary requirements, and the concept most suitable for integration with the catalytic system was proposed. A three-man rate condenser capable of integration with the proposed system, condensing water vapor in presence of noncondensables and transferring the heat of condensation to feed urine was designed, fabricated, and tested. It was treated with steam/air mixtures at atmospheric and elevated pressures and integrated with an actual catalytic water recovery system. The condenser has a condensation efficiency exceeding 90% and heat transfer rate of approximately 85% of theoretical value at coolant temperature ranging from 7 to 80 deg C.

  3. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - The State Energy Program and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-01

    To help the nation weather the ongoing economic downturn and meet key energy goals, the State Energy Program (SEP) will invest $3.1 billion from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) for additional grants. These grants do not require matching state funds.

  4. Systems analysis for the development of small resource recovery systems. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Crnkovich, P G; Helmstetter, A J

    1980-10-01

    In response to the increasing need for small-scale solid waste processing facilities, the US DOE contracted with Systems Technology Corporation (SYSTECH) to identify the technologies that should be developed to make such facilities attractive to and viable for small municipalities with solid waste between 50 and 250 tons per day (TPD). In addition to identifying candidate technologies, SYSTECH applied a set of criteria to them to determine those that could best satisfy the existing market conditions. The criteria included costs of the alternative landfill disposal, material and energy prices, developmental status of the technology, and environmental impact of the systems. The system types studied included those with mechanical separation, thermal and thermochemical energy recovery, and bioconversion processes. For these studies, the performance of each system was simulated by a mathematical model. After the systems were evaluated, the most promising were analyzed to determine which components and operating parameters had the greatest impact on system viability. Accordingly, the research and development (R and D) needs to advance the state-of-the-art for small-scale solid waste processing facilities were identified. The study results are documented in four volumes: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Description of Solid Waste Modular Simulator; (3) Research and Development Needs; and (4) System Performance Data.

  5. Energy Systems Laboratory Groundbreaking

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, David; Otter, C.L.; Simpson, Mike; Rogers, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    INL recently broke ground for a research facility that will house research programs for bioenergy, advanced battery systems, and new hybrid energy systems that integrate renewable, fossil and nuclear energy sources. Here's video from the groundbreaking ceremony for INL's new Energy Systems Laboratory. You can learn more about CAES research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  6. Energy Systems Laboratory Groundbreaking

    ScienceCinema

    Hill, David; Otter, C.L.; Simpson, Mike; Rogers, J.W.;

    2013-05-28

    INL recently broke ground for a research facility that will house research programs for bioenergy, advanced battery systems, and new hybrid energy systems that integrate renewable, fossil and nuclear energy sources. Here's video from the groundbreaking ceremony for INL's new Energy Systems Laboratory. You can learn more about CAES research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  7. Resource recovery from landfill leachate using bioelectrochemical systems: Opportunities, challenges, and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Iskander, Syeed Md; Brazil, Brian; Novak, John T; He, Zhen

    2016-02-01

    Landfill leachate has recently been investigated as a substrate for bioelectrochemical systems (BES) for electricity generation. While BES treatment of leachate is effective, the unique feature of bioelectricity generation in BES creates opportunities for resource recovery from leachate. The organic compounds in leachate can be directly converted to electrical energy through microbial interaction with solid electron acceptors/donors. Nutrient such as ammonia can be recovered via ammonium migration driven by electricity generation and ammonium conversion to ammonia in a high-pH condition that is a result of cathode reduction reaction. Metals in leachate may also be recovered, but the recovery is affected by their concentrations and values. Through integrating membrane process, especially forward osmosis, BES can recover high-quality water from leachate for applications in landscaping, agricultural irrigation or direct discharge. This review paper discusses the opportunities, challenges, and perspectives of resource recovery from landfill leachate by using BES. PMID:26681364

  8. Sequential recovery of copper and nickel from wastewater without net energy input.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wen-Fang; Fang, Xiao-Wen; Xu, Meng-Xi; Liu, Xiao-He; Wang, Yun-Hai

    2015-01-01

    A novel bioelectrochemical system (BES) was designed to recover copper and nickel from wastewater sequentially. The BES has two chambers separated by a bipolar membrane and two cathodes. Firstly, the copper ions were reduced on a graphite cathode with electricity output, and then with an additional bias-potential applied, the nickel ions were recovered sequentially on a copper sheet with electricity input. In this design, nickel and copper can be recovered and separated sequentially on two cathodes. By adjusting the molar ratio of copper and nickel ions to 2.99:1 in wastewater, 1.40 mmol Cu²⁺ could be recovered with 143.78 J electricity outputs, while 50.68 J electricity was input for 0.32 mmol nickel reduction. The total energy output of copper recovery was far more than the electricity input of nickel reduction. The present technology provides a potential method for heavy metal ion separation and recovery. PMID:25768223

  9. Development of a High Latent Effectiveness Energy Recovery Ventilator with Integration into Rooftop Package Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory M. Dobbs; Norberto O. Lemcoff; Frederick J. Cogswell; Jeffrey T. Benolt

    2006-03-01

    This Final Report covers the Cooperative Program carried out to design and optimize an enhanced flat-plate energy recovery ventilator and integrate it into a packaged unitary (rooftop) air conditioning unit. The project objective was to optimize the design of a flat plate energy recovery ventilator (ERV) core that compares favorably to flat plate air-to-air heat exchanger cores on the market and to cost wise to small enthalpy wheel devices. The benefits of an integrated unit incorporating an enhanced ERV core and a downsized heating/cooling unit were characterized and the design of an integrated unit considering performance and cost was optimized. Phase I was to develop and optimize the design of a membrane based heat exchanger core. Phase II was the creation and observation of a system integrated demonstrator unit consisting of the Enhanced Energy Recovery Ventilator (EERV) developed in Phase I coupled to a standard Carrier 50HJ rooftop packaged unitary air conditioning unit. Phase III was the optimization of the system prior to commercialization based on the knowledge gained in Phase II. To assure that the designs chosen have the possibility of meeting cost objectives, a preliminary manufacturability and production cost study was performed by the Center for Automation Technologies at RPI. Phase I also included a preliminary design for the integrated unit to be further developed in Phase II. This was to assure that the physical design of the heat exchanger designed in Phase I would be acceptable for use in Phase II. An extensive modeling program was performed by the Center for Building Performance & Diagnostics of CMU. Using EnergyPlus as the software, a typical office building with multiple system configurations in multiple climatic zones in the US was simulated. The performance of energy recovery technologies in packaged rooftop HVAC equipment was evaluated. The experimental program carried out in Phases II and III consisted of fabricating and testing a

  10. Continuous wave energy recovery operation of an XFEL

    SciTech Connect

    Jacek Sekutowicz; S. A. Bogacz; D. Douglas; Peter Kneisel; G. P. Williams; M. Ferrario; L. Serafini; I. Ben-Zvi; J. Rose; T. Srinivasan-Rao; W.-D. Mueller; B. Petersen; D. Proch; S.Simrock; P. Colestock; J. B. Rosenzweig

    2003-12-01

    Commissioning of two large coherent light facilities at SLAC and DESY should begin in 2008 and in 2011 respectively. In this paper we look further into the future, hoping to answer, in a very preliminary way, two questions. First: ''What will the next generation of XFEL facilities look like?'' Believing that superconducting technology offers advantages such as high quality beams with highly populated bunches, the possibility of energy recovery and higher overall efficiency than warm technology, we focus this preliminary study on the superconducting option. From this belief the second question arises: ''What modifications in superconducting technology and in the machine design are needed, as compared to the present DESY XFEL, and what kind of R&D program should be proposed to arrive in the next few years at a technically feasible solution with even higher brilliance and increased overall conversion of AC power to photon beam power?'' In this paper we will very often refer to and profit from the DESY XFEL design, acknowledging its many technically innovative solutions.

  11. Proposed continuous wave energy recovery operation of an XFEL

    SciTech Connect

    J. Sekutowicz; S. A. Bogacz; D. Douglas; P. Kneisel; G. P. Williams; M. Ferrario; L. Serafini; I. Ben-Zvi; J. Rose; J. Smedley; T. Srinivasan-Rao; W.-D. Moeller; B. Petersen; D. Proch; S. Simrock; P. Colestock; J. B. Rosenzweig

    2004-05-01

    Commissioning of two large coherent light facilities at SLAC and DESY should begin in 2008 and in 2011 respectively. In this paper we look further into the future, hoping to answer, in a very preliminary way, two questions. First: ''What will the next generation of XFEL facilities look like?'' Believing that superconducting technology offers advantages such as high quality beams with highly populated bunches, the possibility of energy recovery and higher overall efficiency than warm technology, we focus this preliminary study on the superconducting option. From this belief the second question arises: ''What modifications in superconducting technology and in the machine design are needed, as compared to the present DESY XFEL, and what kind of R&D program should be proposed to arrive in the next few years at a technically feasible solution with even higher brilliance and increased overall conversion of AC power to photon beam power?'' In this paper we will very often refer to and profit from the DESY XFEL design, acknowledging its many technically innovative solutions.

  12. Evaluation of energy recovery and CO{sub 2} reduction potential in Japan through integrated waste and utility management

    SciTech Connect

    Horio, M.; Shigeto, S. Shiga, M.

    2009-07-15

    This paper examines the potential of integrated waste and utility power management over the mid-term planning horizon in Japan. Energy recovery and CO{sub 2} emission reduction were estimated under two situations: (1) energy recovery efforts within the current waste management/power generation framework and (2) integrated waste management with sewage treatment systems and electric power industries. Scenario simulation results showed that under the current policy framework it is not feasible to achieve large energy recovery and CO{sub 2} emission reduction, while the integrated waste management scenarios show the potential of large energy recovery which is equivalent to about an 18 million t-CO{sub 2} emission reduction. The utilization of dry wastes for power generation at existing fossil power stations is significant in achieving the result. We also consider the effects of the 'CO{sub 2} emission per GW generated' for electric power generation on the total CO{sub 2} emission reduction because it varies by country and assumptions selected. Although this research did not include an economic analysis, based on estimated CO{sub 2} emissions and energy recovery, the integrated scenarios indicate a large potential in countries that have high dependence of fossil power generation and relatively low power generation efficiency.

  13. Evaluation of energy recovery and CO2 reduction potential in Japan through integrated waste and utility management.

    PubMed

    Horio, M; Shigeto, S; Shiga, M

    2009-07-01

    This paper examines the potential of integrated waste and utility power management over the mid-term planning horizon in Japan. Energy recovery and CO(2) emission reduction were estimated under two situations: (1) energy recovery efforts within the current waste management/power generation framework and (2) integrated waste management with sewage treatment systems and electric power industries. Scenario simulation results showed that under the current policy framework it is not feasible to achieve large energy recovery and CO(2) emission reduction, while the integrated waste management scenarios show the potential of large energy recovery which is equivalent to about an 18 million t-CO(2) emission reduction. The utilization of dry wastes for power generation at existing fossil power stations is significant in achieving the result. We also consider the effects of the 'CO(2) emission per GW generated' for electric power generation on the total CO(2) emission reduction because it varies by country and assumptions selected. Although this research did not include an economic analysis, based on estimated CO(2) emissions and energy recovery, the integrated scenarios indicate a large potential in countries that have high dependence of fossil power generation and relatively low power generation efficiency. PMID:19272763

  14. Performance Assessment of the Exploration Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter. D. Layne; Tabb, David; Perry, Jay

    2008-01-01

    A new water recovery system architecture designed to fulfill the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Space Exploration Policy has been tested at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This water recovery system architecture evolved from the current state-of-the-art system developed for the International Space Station (ISS). Through novel integration of proven technologies for air and water purification, this system promises to elevate existing system optimization. The novel aspect of the system is twofold. First, volatile organic compounds (VOC) are removed from the cabin air via catalytic oxidation in the vapor phase, prior to their absorption into the aqueous phase. Second, vapor compression distillation (VCD) technology processes the condensate and hygiene waste streams in addition to the urine waste stream. Oxidation kinetics dictate that removing VOCs from the vapor phase is more efficient. Treating the various waste streams by VCD reduces the load on the expendable ion exchange and adsorption media which follows, as well as the aqueous-phase catalytic oxidation process further downstream. This paper documents the results of testing this new architecture.

  15. Space shuttle solid rocket booster recovery system definition, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The performance requirements, preliminary designs, and development program plans for an airborne recovery system for the space shuttle solid rocket booster are discussed. The analyses performed during the study phase of the program are presented. The basic considerations which established the system configuration are defined. A Monte Carlo statistical technique using random sampling of the probability distribution for the critical water impact parameters was used to determine the failure probability of each solid rocket booster component as functions of impact velocity and component strength capability.

  16. Solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An improved solar energy collection system, having enhanced energy collection and conversion capabilities, is delineated. The system is characterized by a plurality of receivers suspended above a heliostat field comprising a multiplicity of reflector surfaces, each being adapted to direct a concentrated beam of solar energy to illuminate a target surface for a given receiver. A magnitude of efficiency, suitable for effectively competing with systems employed in collecting and converting energy extracted from fossil fuels, is indicated.

  17. Hybrid community energy systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Karvelas, D. E.; Energy Systems

    2000-01-01

    The availability of efficient, economical, and reliable energy supplies can help attract industry and commercial businesses to a municipality or a region. Efficient use of energy can also improve the air quality and reduce pollution. Therefore, municipalities should explore and encourage the development and implementation of efficient energy systems. Integrated hybrid energy systems can be designed to meet the total energy requirements of large and small communities. These systems can yield significant energy and cost savings when compared with independent systems serving individual units or when compared with the conventional practice of buying power from a utility and producing thermal energy on-site. To maximize energy and cost savings, the design engineer should look beyond the conventional when designing such systems.

  18. Evaluation of an integrated continuous stirred microbial electrochemical reactor: Wastewater treatment, energy recovery and microbial community.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiman; Qu, Youpeng; Li, Da; Zhou, Xiangtong; Feng, Yujie

    2015-11-01

    A continuous stirred microbial electrochemical reactor (CSMER) was developed by integrating anaerobic digestion (AD) and microbial electrochemical system (MES). The system was capable of treating high strength artificial wastewater and simultaneously recovering electric and methane energy. Maximum power density of 583±9, 562±7, 533±10 and 572±6 mW m(-2) were obtained by each cell in a four-independent circuit mode operation at an OLR of 12 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). COD removal and energy recovery efficiency were 87.1% and 32.1%, which were 1.6 and 2.5 times higher than that of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Larger amount of Deltaproteobacteria (5.3%) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens (47%) can account for the better performance of CSMER, since syntrophic associations among them provided more degradation pathways compared to the CSTR. Results demonstrate the CSMER holds great promise for efficient wastewater treatment and energy recovery. PMID:26094049

  19. Energy recovery from solid waste. Volume 2: Technical report. [pyrolysis and biodegradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. J.; Dalton, C.

    1975-01-01

    A systems analysis of energy recovery from solid waste demonstrates the feasibility of several current processes for converting solid waste to an energy form. The social, legal, environmental, and political factors are considered in depth with recommendations made in regard to new legislation and policy. Biodegradation and thermal decomposition are the two areas of disposal that are considered with emphasis on thermal decomposition. A technical and economic evaluation of a number of available and developing energy-recovery processes is given. Based on present technical capabilities, use of prepared solid waste as a fuel supplemental to coal seems to be the most economic process by which to recover energy from solid waste. Markets are considered in detail with suggestions given for improving market conditions and for developing market stability. A decision procedure is given to aid a community in deciding on its options in dealing with solid waste, and a new pyrolysis process is suggested. An application of the methods of this study are applied to Houston, Texas.

  20. Ultralow frequency acoustic bandgap and vibration energy recovery in tetragonal folding beam phononic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Nansha; Wu, Jiu Hui; Yu, Lie; Hou, Hong

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates ultralow frequency acoustic properties and energy recovery of tetragonal folding beam phononic crystal (TFBPC) and its complementary structure. The dispersion curve relationships, transmission spectra and displacement fields of the eigenmodes are studied with FEA in detail. Compared with the traditional three layer phononic crystal (PC) structure, this structure proposed in this paper not only unfold bandgaps (BGs) in lower frequency range (below 300 Hz), but also has lighter weight because of beam structural cracks. We analyze the relevant physical mechanism behind this phenomenon, and discuss the effects of the tetragonal folding beam geometric parameters on band structure maps. FEM proves that the multi-cell structures with different arrangements have different acoustic BGs when compared with single cell structure. Harmonic frequency response and piezoelectric properties of TFBPC are specifically analyzed. The results confirm that this structure does have the recovery ability for low frequency vibration energy in environment. These conclusions in this paper could be indispensable to PC practical applications such as BG tuning and could be applied in portable devices, wireless sensor, micro-electro mechanical systems which can recycle energy from vibration environment as its own energy supply.

  1. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Lightweight Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Dean; Runkle, Roy E.

    1995-01-01

    The cancellation of the Advanced Solid Rocket Booster Project and the earth-to-orbit payload requirements for the Space Station dictated that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) look at performance enhancements from all Space Transportation System (STS) elements (Orbiter Project, Space Shuttle Main Engine Project, External Tank Project, Solid Rocket Motor Project, & Solid Rocket Booster Project). The manifest for launching of Space Station components indicated that an additional 12-13000 pound lift capability was required on 10 missions and 15-20,000 pound additional lift capability is required on two missions. Trade studies conducted by all STS elements indicate that by deleting the parachute Recovery System (and associated hardware) from the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBS) and going to a lightweight External Tank (ET) the 20,000 pound additional lift capability can be realized for the two missions. The deletion of the parachute Recovery System means the loss of four SRBs and this option is two expensive (loss of reusable hardware) to be used on the other 10 Space Station missions. Accordingly, each STS element looked at potential methods of weight savings, increased performance, etc. As the SRB and ET projects are non-propulsive (i.e. does not have launch thrust elements) their only contribution to overall payload enhancement can be achieved by the saving of weight while maintaining adequate safety factors and margins. The enhancement factor for the SRB project is 1:10. That is for each 10 pounds saved on the two SRBS; approximately 1 additional pound of payload in the orbiter bay can be placed into orbit. The SRB project decided early that the SRB recovery system was a prime candidate for weight reduction as it was designed in the early 1970s and weight optimization had never been a primary criteria.

  2. Robotic Mirror Therapy System for Functional Recovery of Hemiplegic Arms.

    PubMed

    Beom, Jaewon; Koh, Sukgyu; Nam, Hyung Seok; Kim, Wonshik; Kim, Yoonjae; Seo, Han Gil; Oh, Byung-Mo; Chung, Sun Gun; Kim, Sungwan

    2016-01-01

    Mirror therapy has been performed as effective occupational therapy in a clinical setting for functional recovery of a hemiplegic arm after stroke. It is conducted by eliciting an illusion through use of a mirror as if the hemiplegic arm is moving in real-time while moving the healthy arm. It can facilitate brain neuroplasticity through activation of the sensorimotor cortex. However, conventional mirror therapy has a critical limitation in that the hemiplegic arm is not actually moving. Thus, we developed a real-time 2-axis mirror robot system as a simple add-on module for conventional mirror therapy using a closed feedback mechanism, which enables real-time movement of the hemiplegic arm. We used 3 Attitude and Heading Reference System sensors, 2 brushless DC motors for elbow and wrist joints, and exoskeletal frames. In a feasibility study on 6 healthy subjects, robotic mirror therapy was safe and feasible. We further selected tasks useful for activities of daily living training through feedback from rehabilitation doctors. A chronic stroke patient showed improvement in the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale and elbow flexor spasticity after a 2-week application of the mirror robot system. Robotic mirror therapy may enhance proprioceptive input to the sensory cortex, which is considered to be important in neuroplasticity and functional recovery of hemiplegic arms. The mirror robot system presented herein can be easily developed and utilized effectively to advance occupational therapy. PMID:27583794

  3. Piloted Simulation of a Model-Predictive Automated Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, James (Yuan); Litt, Jonathan; Sowers, T. Shane; Owens, A. Karl; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes a model-predictive automatic recovery system for aircraft on the verge of a loss-of-control situation. The system determines when it must intervene to prevent an imminent accident, resulting from a poor approach. It estimates the altitude loss that would result from a go-around maneuver at the current flight condition. If the loss is projected to violate a minimum altitude threshold, the maneuver is automatically triggered. The system deactivates to allow landing once several criteria are met. Piloted flight simulator evaluation showed the system to provide effective envelope protection during extremely unsafe landing attempts. The results demonstrate how flight and propulsion control can be integrated to recover control of the vehicle automatically and prevent a potential catastrophe.

  4. Brine and gas recovery from geopressured systems. I. Parametric calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, S.K.; Riney, T.D.

    1984-02-01

    A series of parametric calculations was run with the S-CUBED geopressured-geothermal simulator MUSHRM to assess the effects of important formation, fluid and well parameters on brine and gas recovery from geopressured reservoir systems. The specific parameters considered are formation permeability, pore-fluid salinity, temperature and gas content, well radius and location with respect to reservoir boundaries, desired flow rate, and possible shale recharge. It was found that the total brine and gas recovered (as a fraction of the resource in situ) were most sensitive to formation permeability, pore-fluid gas content, and shale recharge.

  5. The global energy system.

    PubMed

    Häfele, W; Sassin, W

    1979-05-01

    A global energy system is conceptualized and analyzed, the energy distributor sub-system of the worldwide supranational system. Its many interconnections are examined and traced back to their source to determine the major elements of this global energy system. Long-term trends are emphasized. The analysis begins with a discussion of the local systems that resulted from the deployment of technology in the mid-nineteenth century, continues with a description of the global system based on oil that has existed for the past two decades, and ends with a scenario implying that an energy transition will occur in the future in which use of coal, nuclear, and solar energy will predominate. A major problem for the future will be the management of this energy transition. The optimal use of global resources and the efficient management of this transition will require a stable and persistent global order. PMID:464990

  6. Recent advances in nutrient removal and recovery in biological and bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Nancharaiah, Y V; Venkata Mohan, S; Lens, P N L

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorous are key pollutants in wastewater to be removed and recovered for sustainable development. Traditionally, nitrogen removal is practiced through energy intensive biological nitrification and denitrification entailing a major cost in wastewater treatment. Recent innovations in nitrogen removal aim at reducing energy requirements and recovering ammonium nitrogen. Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) are promising for recovering ammonium nitrogen from nitrogen rich waste streams (urine, digester liquor, swine liquor, and landfill leachate) profitably. Phosphorus is removed from the wastewater in the form of polyphosphate granules by polyphosphate accumulating organisms. Alternatively, phosphorous is removed/recovered as Fe-P or struvite through chemical precipitation (iron or magnesium dosing). In this article, recent advances in nutrients removal from wastewater coupled to recovery are presented by applying a waste biorefinery concept. Potential capabilities of BES in recovering nitrogen and phosphorous are reviewed to spur future investigations towards development of nutrient recovery biotechnologies. PMID:27053446

  7. Application of fuel cells with heat recovery for integrated utility systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, V.; King, J. M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of fuel cell powerplants with heat recovery for use in an integrated utility system. Such a design provides for a low pollution, noise-free, highly efficient integrated utility. Use of the waste heat from the fuel cell powerplant in an integrated utility system for the village center complex of a new community results in a reduction in resource consumption of 42 percent compared to conventional methods. In addition, the system has the potential of operating on fuels produced from waste materials (pyrolysis and digester gases); this would provide further reduction in energy consumption.

  8. Understanding Ammonium Transport in Bioelectrochemical Systems towards its Recovery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Qin, Mohan; Luo, Shuai; He, Zhen; Qiao, Rui

    2016-01-01

    We report an integrated experimental and simulation study of ammonia recovery using microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). The transport of various species during the batch-mode operation of an MEC was examined experimentally and the results were used to validate the mathematical model for such an operation. It was found that, while the generated electrical current through the system tends to acidify (or basify) the anolyte (or catholyte), their effects are buffered by a cascade of chemical groups such as the NH3/NH4(+) group, leading to relatively stable pH values in both anolyte and catholyte. The transport of NH4(+) ions accounts for ~90% of the total current, thus quantitatively confirming that the NH4(+) ions serve as effective proton shuttles during MEC operations. Analysis further indicated that, because of the Donnan equilibrium at cation exchange membrane-anolyte/catholyte interfaces, the Na(+) ion in the anolyte actually facilitates the transport of NH4(+) ions during the early stage of a batch cycle and they compete with the NH4(+) ions weakly at later time. These insights, along with a new and simple method for predicting the strength of ammonia diffusion from the catholyte toward the anolyte, will help effective design and operation of bioeletrochemical system-based ammonia recovery systems. PMID:26935791

  9. Space Capsule Recovery Orbit Determination System and Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vighnesam, N. V.; Sonney, A.; Soni, P. K.

    2008-08-01

    Space Capsule Recovery (SRE), a small satellite, completely recoverable capsule was launched by the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C7) from the Indian spaceport Sriharikota on 10th January 2007 at 04:09UT along with Indian Remore Sensing Satellite CARTOSAT-2 and two micro satellites namely Nano- Peheunsat and Lapantubsat. The satellite was put into an almost nominal orbit of (630 X 638)km with an inclination of 97.94deg. The main objective of the SRE missions was to conduct microgravity experiment, de- orbit and recover it in Indian waters. The spacecraft was de-boosted after the payload operations in the micro- gravity environment. This was achieved in two steps. SRE was first placed from the injected circular orbit to Repetitive Elliptical Orbit (REO) and subsequently de- boosted for reentry and recovery. This paper describes the S-band based orbit determination system for SRE and its performance during different phases of the mission. Comparison of the inertial navigation system (INS) and nominal orbit with the achieved/estimated orbit was made. Orbit determination system was executed successfully through out the mission. Relatively large residues were observed in measurements during OD process due to continuous thruster activity through out the mission.

  10. Understanding Ammonium Transport in Bioelectrochemical Systems towards its Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Qin, Mohan; Luo, Shuai; He, Zhen; Qiao, Rui

    2016-03-01

    We report an integrated experimental and simulation study of ammonia recovery using microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). The transport of various species during the batch-mode operation of an MEC was examined experimentally and the results were used to validate the mathematical model for such an operation. It was found that, while the generated electrical current through the system tends to acidify (or basify) the anolyte (or catholyte), their effects are buffered by a cascade of chemical groups such as the NH3/NH4+ group, leading to relatively stable pH values in both anolyte and catholyte. The transport of NH4+ ions accounts for ~90% of the total current, thus quantitatively confirming that the NH4+ ions serve as effective proton shuttles during MEC operations. Analysis further indicated that, because of the Donnan equilibrium at cation exchange membrane-anolyte/catholyte interfaces, the Na+ ion in the anolyte actually facilitates the transport of NH4+ ions during the early stage of a batch cycle and they compete with the NH4+ ions weakly at later time. These insights, along with a new and simple method for predicting the strength of ammonia diffusion from the catholyte toward the anolyte, will help effective design and operation of bioeletrochemical system-based ammonia recovery systems.

  11. Understanding Ammonium Transport in Bioelectrochemical Systems towards its Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Qin, Mohan; Luo, Shuai; He, Zhen; Qiao, Rui

    2016-01-01

    We report an integrated experimental and simulation study of ammonia recovery using microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). The transport of various species during the batch-mode operation of an MEC was examined experimentally and the results were used to validate the mathematical model for such an operation. It was found that, while the generated electrical current through the system tends to acidify (or basify) the anolyte (or catholyte), their effects are buffered by a cascade of chemical groups such as the NH3/NH4+ group, leading to relatively stable pH values in both anolyte and catholyte. The transport of NH4+ ions accounts for ~90% of the total current, thus quantitatively confirming that the NH4+ ions serve as effective proton shuttles during MEC operations. Analysis further indicated that, because of the Donnan equilibrium at cation exchange membrane-anolyte/catholyte interfaces, the Na+ ion in the anolyte actually facilitates the transport of NH4+ ions during the early stage of a batch cycle and they compete with the NH4+ ions weakly at later time. These insights, along with a new and simple method for predicting the strength of ammonia diffusion from the catholyte toward the anolyte, will help effective design and operation of bioeletrochemical system-based ammonia recovery systems. PMID:26935791

  12. System study on partial gasification combined cycle with CO{sub 2} recovery - article no. 051801

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y.J.; Jin, H.G.; Lin, R.M.; Han, W.

    2008-09-15

    S partial gasification combined cycle with CO{sub 2} recovery is proposed in this paper. Partial gasification adopts cascade conversion of the composition of coal. Active composition of coal is simply gasified, while inactive composition, that is char, is burnt in a boiler. Oxy-fuel combustion of syngas produces only CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, so the CO{sub 2} can be separated through cooling the working fluid. This decreases the amount of energy consumption to separate CO{sub 2} compared with conventional methods. The novel system integrates the above two key technologies by injecting steam from a steam turbine into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine to combine the Rankine cycle with the Brayton cycle. The thermal efficiency of this system will be higher based on the cascade utilization of energy level. Compared with the conventional integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), the compressor of the gas turbine, heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and gasifier are substituted for a pump, reheater, and partial gasifier, so the system is simplified. Furthermore, the novel system is investigated by means of energy-utilization diagram methodology and provides a simple analysis of their economic and environmental performance. As a result, the thermal efficiency of this system may be expected to be 45%, with CO{sub 2} recovery of 41.2%, which is 1.5-3.5% higher than that of an IGCC system. At the same time, the total investment cost of the new system is about 16% lower than that of an IGCC. The comparison between the partial gasification technology and the IGCC technology is based on the two representative cases to identify the specific feature of the proposed system.

  13. Evaluation of normalized energy recovery (NER) in microbial fuel cells affected by reactor dimensions and substrates.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Li; Ge, Zheng; Kelly, Patrick; Zhang, Fei; He, Zhen

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study is to provide an initial evaluation of normalized energy recovery (NER - a new parameter for presenting energy performance) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) through investigation of the effects of reactor dimensions and anode substrates. Although the larger-size MFCs generally have lower maximum power densities, their maximum NER is comparable to that of the smaller MFCs at the same anolyte flow rate. The mixed messages obtained from the MFC size tests suggest that MFCs can be further scaled up without decreasing energy recovery under certain conditions. The low-strength substrates seem to be more suitable for MFC treatment of wastewater, in terms of both energy recovery and organic removal. However, because the MFCs could not achieve the maximum NER and the maximum organic removal efficiency at the same time, one must determine a major goal for MFCs treating wastewater between energy recovery and contaminant removal. PMID:24534787

  14. Landfill gas recovery system and method with pressure symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Zison, S.W.; Roqueta, A.

    1984-09-04

    In a landfill gas recovery system, the breakthrough danger is minimized, and the system efficiency is improved, by providing pressure-equalizing low-impedance gas paths such as aggregate-filled symmetry trenches positioned within the landfill and surrounding, at least partially, the primary collection zone. The symmetry trenches may be connected to the system's low-pressure source to serve as secondary collectors. A sensing trench positioned within the landfill along the periphery of the collector's zone of influence can be used to monitor the collector pressure and to automatically maintain it at a safe level. The sensing trench can also serve as a secondary equalizing path in heterogeneous landfills. Hot spots may advantageously be tapped by auxiliary collectors whose pressure level bears a predetermined proportional relationship to the primary collector pressure.

  15. Energy loss process analysis for radiation degradation and immediate recovery of amorphous silicon alloy solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Shin-ichiro; Beernink, Kevin; Ohshima, Takeshi

    2015-06-01

    Performance degradation of a-Si/a-SiGe/a-SiGe triple-junction solar cells due to irradiation of silicon ions, electrons, and protons are investigated using an in-situ current-voltage measurement system. The performance recovery immediately after irradiation is also investigated. Significant recovery is always observed independent of radiation species and temperature. It is shown that the characteristic time, which is obtained by analyzing the short-circuit current annealing behavior, is an important parameter for practical applications in space. In addition, the radiation degradation mechanism is discussed by analyzing the energy loss process of incident particles (ionizing energy loss: IEL, and non-ionizing energy loss: NIEL) and their relative damage factors. It is determined that ionizing dose is the primarily parameter for electron degradation whereas displacement damage dose is the primarily parameter for proton degradation. This is because the ratio of NIEL to IEL in the case of electrons is small enough to be ignored the damage due to NIEL although the defect creation ratio of NIEL is much larger than that of IEL in the cases of both protons and electrons. The impact of “radiation quality effect” has to be considered to understand the degradation due to Si ion irradiation.

  16. Air pollution control and heat recovery system for industrial ovens

    SciTech Connect

    Jamaluddin, A.A.

    1980-12-30

    A system of air pollution control and heat recovery is provided for an arrangement of industrial ovens, especially for drum manufacture. A plurality of paint bake ovens of various capacities, lengths and heat input are provided for multi-stage processing in the manufacture of drums and lids therefor. A supply of high temperature water is provided for multi-stage cleaning and rinsing in the manufacturing operation. The combined exhaust from the oven is preheated in a heat exchanger and then all of the combustible components are burnt off by passing through the flames of an incinerator grid burner. The effluent from the burner first passes through the heat exchanger to preheat said oven exhaust gases and then through hot water coils to provide all of the necessary hot water for the system. High pressure hot water (275/sup 0/) is provided in this heat exchange operation. The hot gasses from the last heat exchanger, completely free of combustible contaminates, are mixed with fresh air to supply hot air for the dryers used in the process. There is a substantially complete recovery of heat and the gasses discharged to atmosphere meet air quality standards.

  17. The development and testing of the HISAC parachute recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Behr, V.L.

    1989-01-01

    The High Speed Airdrop Container (HISAC) is currently being developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Army. The 825 lb HISAC will be delivered from altitudes as low as 200 ft above ground level and speeds as high as Mach 0.95. The parachute recovery system must produce an impact velocity less than 40 fps, an impact angle greater than 70 deg from horizontal and a maximum deceleration less than 30 g's. Candidates for main parachutes to be used in the recovery systems have included a cluster of three 21-ft-dia ribbon parachutes, a cluster of two 22-ft-dia ringslot cargo parachutes, a single high strength 35-ft-dia T-10 canopy, and a cluster of three standard 35-ft-dia T-10 parachutes. Results from airdrop and ground tests indicate that the use of a reefed and staged drogue in conjunction with a cluster of three standard unreefed T-10 personnel parachutes provides the best combined turnover and impact velocity characteristics. Initial deployment of the drogue parachute is produced by an aerodynamically deployed tailplate which produces no appreciable carriage drag. Results from ground tests indicate that reliable deployment of the tailplate is achievable through the use of aerodynamic drag surfaces which are deployed shortly after the HISAC is released from the carriage aircraft. 5 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. Opportunities for Fundamental University-Based Research in Energy and Resource Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoback, M. D.; Hitzman, M.; Tester, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    In this talk we present, from a university perspective, a few examples of fundamental research needs related to improved energy and resource recovery. One example of such a research need is related to the fact that it is not widely recognized that meeting domestic and worldwide energy needs with renewables such as wind and solar will be materials intensive. If widely deployed, the elements required by renewable technologies will be needed in significant quantities and shortage of these "energy critical elements" could significantly inhibit the adoption of otherwise game changing energy technologies. It is imperative to better understand the geology, metallurgy, and mining engineering of critical mineral deposits if we are to sustainably develop these new technologies. Unfortunately, there is currently no consensus among federal and state agencies, the national and international mining industry, the public, and the U.S. academic community regarding the importance of economic geology in the context of securing sufficient energy critical elements to undertake large-scale renewable energy development. Another option for transitioning away from our current hydrocarbon-based energy system to non-carbon based sources, is geothermal energy - from both conventional hydrothermal resources and enhanced or engineered geothermal systems (EGS). Although geothermal energy is currently used for both electric and non-electric applications worldwide from conventional hydrothermal resources and in ground source heat pumps, most of the emphasis in the US has been generating electricity. To this end, there is a need for research, development and demonstration in five important areas - estimating the magnitude and distribution of recoverable geothermal resources, establishing requirements for extracting and utilizing energy from EGS reservoirs the including drilling, reservoir design and stimulation, exploring end use options for district heating, electricity generation and co

  19. Environmental evaluation of the electric and cogenerative configurations for the energy recovery of the Turin municipal solid waste incineration plant.

    PubMed

    Panepinto, Deborah; Genon, Giuseppe

    2014-06-18

    Given the desirability of reducing fossil fuel consumption, together with the increasing production of combustible solid wastes, there is clearly a need for waste treatment systems that achieve both volume reduction and energy recovery. Direct incineration method is one such system. The aim of this work was to analyze the municipal solid waste incineration plant currently under construction in the province of Turin (Piedmont, North Italy), especially the potential for energy recovery, and the consequent environmental effects. We analyzed two kinds of energy recovery: electric energy (electrical configuration) only, and both electric and thermal energy (cogenerative configuration), in this case with a different connection hypothesis to the district heating network. After we had evaluated the potential of the incinerator and considered local demographic, energy and urban planning effects, we assumed different possible connections to the district heating network. We computed the local and global environmental balances based on the characteristics of the flue gas emitted from the stack, taking into consideration the emissions avoided by the substituted sources. The global-scale results provided relevant information on the carbon dioxide emissions parameter. The results on the local scale were used as reference values for the implementation of a Gaussian model (Aermod) that allows evaluation of the actual concentration of the pollutants released into the atmosphere. The main results obtained highlight the high energy efficiency of the combined production of heat and electricity, and the opportunity to minimize the environmental impact by including cogeneration in a district heating scheme. PMID:24942837

  20. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of ITP fact sheet about installing Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces. For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical limit, the spent combustion gases are removed from the furnace via a flue or stack. At this point, these gases still hold considerable thermal energy. In many systems, this is the greatest single heat loss. The energy efficiency can often be increased by using waste heat gas recovery systems to capture and use some of the energy in the flue gas. For natural gas-based systems, the amount of heat contained in the flue gases as a percentage of the heat input in a heating system can be estimated by using Figure 1. Exhaust gas loss or waste heat depends on flue gas temperature and its mass flow, or in practical terms, excess air resulting from combustion air supply and air leakage into the furnace. The excess air can be estimated by measuring oxygen percentage in the flue gases.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY IMPACTS OF MATERIAL RECOVERY FACILITIES - A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities (MRFS) conducted under the Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program. he MITE Program is sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protecti...

  2. Phronesis, a diagnosis and recovery tool for system administrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haen, C.; Barra, V.; Bonaccorsi, E.; Neufeld, N.

    2014-06-01

    The LHCb experiment relies on the Online system, which includes a very large and heterogeneous computing cluster. Ensuring the proper behavior of the different tasks running on the more than 2000 servers represents a huge workload for the small operator team and is a 24/7 task. At CHEP 2012, we presented a prototype of a framework that we designed in order to support the experts. The main objective is to provide them with steadily improving diagnosis and recovery solutions in case of misbehavior of a service, without having to modify the original applications. Our framework is based on adapted principles of the Autonomic Computing model, on Reinforcement Learning algorithms, as well as innovative concepts such as Shared Experience. While the submission at CHEP 2012 showed the validity of our prototype on simulations, we here present an implementation with improved algorithms and manipulation tools, and report on the experience gained with running it in the LHCb Online system.

  3. Development of a Water Recovery System Resource Tracking Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Stambaugh, Imelda; Sargusingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah; Moore, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A simulation model has been developed to track water resources in an exploration vehicle using Regenerative Life Support (RLS) systems. The Resource Tracking Model (RTM) integrates the functions of all the vehicle components that affect the processing and recovery of water during simulated missions. The approach used in developing the RTM enables its use as part of a complete vehicle simulation for real time mission studies. Performance data for the components in the RTM is focused on water processing. The data provided to the model has been based on the most recent information available regarding the technology of the component. This paper will describe the process of defining the RLS system to be modeled, the way the modeling environment was selected, and how the model has been implemented. Results showing how the RLS components exchange water are provided in a set of test cases.

  4. Waterflood control system for maximizing total oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Patzek, Tadeusz Wiktor; Silin, Dimitriy Borisovic; De, Asoke Kumar

    2005-06-07

    A control system and method for determining optimal fluid injection pressure is based upon a model of a growing hydrofracture due to waterflood injection pressure. This model is used to develop a control system optimizing the injection pressure by using a prescribed injection goal coupled with the historical times, pressures, and volume of injected fluid at a single well. In this control method, the historical data is used to derive two major flow components: the transitional component, where cumulative injection volume is scaled as the square root of time, and a steady-state breakthrough component, which scales linearly with respect to time. These components provide diagnostic information and allow for the prevention of rapid fracture growth and associated massive water break through that is an important part of a successful waterflood, thereby extending the life of both injection and associated production wells in waterflood secondary oil recovery operations.

  5. Waterflood control system for maximizing total oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Patzek, Tadeusz Wiktor; Silin, Dimitriy Borisovich; De, Asoke Kumar

    2007-07-24

    A control system and method for determining optimal fluid injection pressure is based upon a model of a growing hydrofracture due to waterflood injection pressure. This model is used to develop a control system optimizing the injection pressure by using a prescribed injection goal coupled with the historical times, pressures, and volume of injected fluid at a single well. In this control method, the historical data is used to derive two major flow components: the transitional component, where cumulative injection volume is scaled as the square root of time, and a steady-state breakthrough component, which scales linearly with respect to time. These components provide diagnostic information and allow for the prevention of rapid fracture growth and associated massive water break through that is an important part of a successful waterflood, thereby extending the life of both injection and associated production wells in waterflood secondary oil recovery operations.

  6. Development of a Water Recovery System Resource Tracking Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Stambaugh, Imelda; Sarguishm, Miriam; Shull, Sarah; Moore, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A simulation model has been developed to track water resources in an exploration vehicle using regenerative life support (RLS) systems. The model integrates the functions of all the vehicle components that affect the processing and recovery of water during simulated missions. The approach used in developing the model results in the RTM being a part of of a complete vehicle simulation that can be used in real time mission studies. Performance data for the variety of components in the RTM is focused on water processing and has been defined based on the most recent information available for the technology of the component. This paper will describe the process of defining the RLS system to be modeled and then the way the modeling environment was selected and how the model has been implemented. Results showing how the variety of RLS components exchange water are provided in a set of test cases.

  7. THERMOELECTRICAL ENERGY RECOVERY FROM THE EXHAUST OF A LIGHT TRUCK

    SciTech Connect

    Karri, M; Thacher, E; Helenbrook, B; Compeau, M; Kushch, A; Elsner, N; Bhatti, M; O' Brien, J; Stabler, F

    2003-08-24

    A team formed by Clarkson University is engaged in a project to design, build, model, test, and develop a plan to commercialize a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system for recovering energy from the exhaust of light trucks and passenger cars. Clarkson University is responsible for project management, vehicle interface design, system modeling, and commercialization plan. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (sub-contractor to Clarkson) is responsible for TEG design and construction. Delphi Corporation is responsible for testing services and engineering consultation and General Motors Corporation is responsible for providing the test vehicle and information about its systems. Funds were supplied by a grant from the Transportation Research Program of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), through Joseph R. Wagner. Members of the team and John Fairbanks (Project Manager, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology). Currently, the design of TEG has been completed and initial construction of the TEG has been initiated by Hi-Z. The TEG system consists of heat exchangers, thermoelectric modules and a power conditioning unit. The heat source for the TEG is the exhaust gas from the engine and the heat sink is the engine coolant. A model has been developed to simulate the performance of the TEG under varying operating conditions. Preliminary results from the model predict that up to 330 watts can be generated by the TEG which would increase fuel economy by 5 percent. This number could possibly increase to 20 percent with quantum-well technology. To assess the performance of the TEG and improve the accuracy of the modeling, experimental testing will be performed at Delphi Corporation. A preliminary experimental test plan is given. To determine the economic and commercial viability, a business study has been conducted and results from the study showing potential areas for TEG commercialization are discussed.

  8. Development of the Next Generation Type Water Recovery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Tachihara, Satoru; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Ueoka, Terumi; Soejima, Fujito; Teranishi, Hiromitsu

    According to NASA, an astronaut living on the International Space Station (ISS) requires approximately 7 kg of water per day. This includes 2 kg of drinking water as well as sanitary fresh water for hand washing, gargling, etc. This water is carried to the space station from the earth, so when more people are staying on the space station, or staying for a longer period of time, the cost of transporting water increases. Accordingly, water is a valuable commodity, and restrictions are applied to such activities as brushing teeth, washing hair, and washing clothes. The life of an astronaut in space is not necessarily a healthy one. JAXA has experience in the research of water recovery systems. Today, utilizing knowledge learned through experiences living on the space station and space shuttles, and taking advantage of the development of new materials for device construction, it is possible to construct a new water recovery system. Therefore, JAXA and New Medican Tech Corporation (NMT) have created a system for collaborative development. Based on the technologies of both companies, we are proceeding to develop the next generation of water recovery devices in order to contribute to safe, comfortable, and healthy daily life for astronauts in space. The goal of this development is to achieve a water purification system based on reverse osmosis (RO) membranes that can perform the following functions. • Preprocessing that removes ammonia and breaks down organic matter contained in urine. • Post-processing that adds minerals and sterilizes the water. • Online TOC measurement for monitoring water quality. • Functions for measuring harmful substances. The RO membrane is an ultra-low-pressure type membrane with a 0.0001 micron (0.1 nanometer) pore size and an operating pressure of 0.4 to 0.6 MPa. During processing with the RO membrane, nearly all of the minerals contained in the cleaned water are removed, resulting in water that is near the quality of deionized water

  9. Heat recovery and the economizer for HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anantapantula, V.S. . Alco Controls Div.); Sauer, H.J. Jr. )

    1994-11-01

    This articles examines why a combined heat reclaim/economizer system with priority to heat reclaim operation is most likely to result in the least annual total HVAC energy. PC-based, hour-by-hour simulation programs evaluate annual HVAC energy requirements when using combined operation of heat reclaim and economizer cycle, while giving priority to operation of either one. These simulation programs also enable the design engineer to select the most viable heat reclaim and/or economizer system for any given type of HVAC system serving the building internal load level, building geographical location and other building/system variables.

  10. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: preliminary feasibility evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications. PMID:24656467

  11. Smart energy management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Aniruddha; Singh, Jugdutt

    2010-04-01

    Peak and average energy usage in domestic and industrial environments is growing rapidly and absence of detailed energy consumption metrics is making systematic reduction of energy usage very difficult. Smart energy management system aims at providing a cost-effective solution for managing soaring energy consumption and its impact on green house gas emissions and climate change. The solution is based on seamless integration of existing wired and wireless communication technologies combined with smart context-aware software which offers a complete solution for automation of energy measurement and device control. The persuasive software presents users with easy-to-assimilate visual cues identifying problem areas and time periods and encourages a behavioural change to conserve energy. The system allows analysis of real-time/statistical consumption data with the ability to drill down into detailed analysis of power consumption, CO2 emissions and cost. The system generates intelligent projections and suggests potential methods (e.g. reducing standby, tuning heating/cooling temperature, etc.) of reducing energy consumption. The user interface is accessible using web enabled devices such as PDAs, PCs, etc. or using SMS, email, and instant messaging. Successful real-world trial of the system has demonstrated the potential to save 20 to 30% energy consumption on an average. Low cost of deployment and the ability to easily manage consumption from various web enabled devices offers gives this system a high penetration and impact capability offering a sustainable solution to act on climate change today.

  12. Parachute/flotation bag recovery system for a large RV nose cone

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, W.M.

    1980-03-01

    This report describes the design and development of a single-stage recovery system consisting of a 6-ft dia guide surface parachute with a 3.5 ft/sup 3/ ram-air-filled flotation bag for ocean recovery of a 120-lb nose cone. Recovery procedures start with jettisoning a portion of the initial reentry mass before deploying the parachute.

  13. Analysis of energy recovery potential using innovative technologies of waste gasification.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Lidia; Carnevale, Ennio; Corti, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, two alternative thermo-chemical processes for waste treatment were analysed: high temperature gasification and gasification associated to plasma process. The two processes were analysed from the thermodynamic point of view, trying to reconstruct two simplified models, using appropriate simulation tools and some support data from existing/planned plants, able to predict the energy recovery performances by process application. In order to carry out a comparative analysis, the same waste stream input was considered as input to the two models and the generated results were compared. The performances were compared with those that can be obtained from conventional combustion with energy recovery process by means of steam turbine cycle. Results are reported in terms of energy recovery performance indicators as overall energy efficiency, specific energy production per unit of mass of entering waste, primary energy source savings, specific carbon dioxide production. PMID:21889326

  14. Assessing the environmental sustainability of energy recovery from municipal solid waste in the UK.

    PubMed

    Jeswani, H K; Azapagic, A

    2016-04-01

    Even though landfilling of waste is the least favourable option in the waste management hierarchy, the majority of municipal solid waste (MSW) in many countries is still landfilled. This represents waste of valuable resources and could lead to higher environmental impacts compared to energy recovered by incineration, even if the landfill gas is recovered. Using life cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool, this paper aims to find out which of the following two options for MSW disposal is more environmentally sustainable: incineration or recovery of biogas from landfills, each producing either electricity or co-generating heat and electricity. The systems are compared on a life cycle basis for two functional units: 'disposal of 1 tonne of MSW' and 'generation of 1 kWh of electricity'. The results indicate that, if both systems are credited for their respective recovered energy and recyclable materials, energy from incineration has much lower impacts than from landfill biogas across all impact categories, except for human toxicity. The impacts of incineration co-generating heat and electricity are negative for nine out of 11 categories as the avoided impacts for the recovered energy and materials are higher than those caused by incineration. By improving the recovery rate of biogas, some impacts of landfilling, such as global warming, depletion of fossil resources, acidification and photochemical smog, would be significantly reduced. However, most impacts of the landfill gas would still be higher than the impacts of incineration, except for global warming and human toxicity. The analysis on the basis of net electricity produced shows that the LCA impacts of electricity from incineration are several times lower in comparison to the impacts of electricity from landfill biogas. Electricity from incineration has significantly lower global warming and several other impacts than electricity from coal and oil but has higher impacts than electricity from natural gas or UK grid. At

  15. Potential for nutrient recovery and biogas production from blackwater, food waste and greywater in urban source control systems.

    PubMed

    Kjerstadius, H; Haghighatafshar, S; Davidsson, Å

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, the focus on waste and wastewater treatment systems has shifted towards increased recovery of energy and nutrients. Separation of urban food waste (FW) and domestic wastewaters using source control systems could aid this increase; however, their effect on overall sustainability is unknown. To obtain indicators for sustainability assessments, five urban systems for collection, transport, treatment and nutrient recovery from blackwater, greywater and FW were investigated using data from implementations in Sweden or northern Europe. The systems were evaluated against their potential for biogas production and nutrient recovery by the use of mass balances for organic material, nutrients and metals over the system components. The resulting indicators are presented in units suitable for use in future sustainability studies or life-cycle assessment of urban waste and wastewater systems. The indicators show that source control systems have the potential to increase biogas production by more than 70% compared with a conventional system and give a high recovery of phosphorus and nitrogen as biofertilizer. The total potential increase in gross energy equivalence for source control systems was 20-100%; the greatest increase shown is for vacuum-based systems. PMID:25608932

  16. An expert system for screening enhanced oil recovery methods

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W.J. ); Luger, G.F. . Dept. of Computer Science); Bretz, R.E.; Osowski, J.J. . Dept. of Petroleum Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how a small expert system can be written with inexpensive shells (CLIPS and EXSHELL) and run on inexpensive personal computers. CLIPS is a forward-chaining rule-based system written in the C language. Rules are entered in a LISP-like format. EXSHELL is a backward-chaining rule-based system written in the PROLOG language. These shells were used to write a small expert system, an expert assistant, which is used to help petroleum engineers screen possible enhanced oil recovery candidate processes. Though the final candidate process is selected on the basis of an economic evaluation, the expert assistant greatly reduces the amount of work involved. The system selects the optimal collection of paths to the solutions and is easily updated as new data become available. This paper also demonstrates the utility and ease of use of these inexpensive shells, compares the approach used by each, and demonstrates the relative advantages of forward-chaining versus backward-chaining for this problem. 11 refs.

  17. LCA of local strategies for energy recovery from waste in England, applied to a large municipal flow.

    PubMed

    Tunesi, Simonetta

    2011-03-01

    An intense waste management (WM) planning activity is currently undergoing in England to build the infrastructure necessary to treat residual wastes, increase recycling levels and the recovery of energy from waste. From the analyses of local WM strategic and planning documents we have identified the emerging of three different energy recovery strategies: established combustion of residual waste; pre-treatment of residual waste and energy recovery from Solid Recovered Fuel in a dedicated plant, usually assumed to be a gasifier; pre-treatment of residual waste and reliance on the market to accept the 'fuel from waste' so produced. Each energy recovery strategy will result in a different solution in terms of the technology selected; moreover, on the basis of the favoured solution, the total number, scale and location of thermal treatment plants built in England will dramatically change. To support the evaluation and comparison of these three WM strategy in terms of global environmental impacts, energy recovery possibilities and performance with respect to changing 'fuel from waste' market conditions, the LCA comparison of eight alternative WM scenarios for a real case study dealing with a large flow of municipal wastes was performed with the modelling tool WRATE. The large flow of waste modelled allowed to formulate and assess realistic alternative WM scenarios and to design infrastructural systems which are likely to correspond to those submitted for approval to the local authorities. The results show that all alternative scenarios contribute to saving abiotic resources and reducing global warming potential. Particularly relevant to the current English debate, the performance of a scenario was shown to depend not from the thermal treatment technology but from a combination of parameters, among which most relevant are the efficiency of energy recovery processes (both electricity and heat) and the calorific value of residual waste and pre-treated material. The

  18. LCA of local strategies for energy recovery from waste in England, applied to a large municipal flow

    SciTech Connect

    Tunesi, Simonetta

    2011-03-15

    An intense waste management (WM) planning activity is currently undergoing in England to build the infrastructure necessary to treat residual wastes, increase recycling levels and the recovery of energy from waste. From the analyses of local WM strategic and planning documents we have identified the emerging of three different energy recovery strategies: established combustion of residual waste; pre-treatment of residual waste and energy recovery from Solid Recovered Fuel in a dedicated plant, usually assumed to be a gasifier; pre-treatment of residual waste and reliance on the market to accept the 'fuel from waste' so produced. Each energy recovery strategy will result in a different solution in terms of the technology selected; moreover, on the basis of the favoured solution, the total number, scale and location of thermal treatment plants built in England will dramatically change. To support the evaluation and comparison of these three WM strategy in terms of global environmental impacts, energy recovery possibilities and performance with respect to changing 'fuel from waste' market conditions, the LCA comparison of eight alternative WM scenarios for a real case study dealing with a large flow of municipal wastes was performed with the modelling tool WRATE. The large flow of waste modelled allowed to formulate and assess realistic alternative WM scenarios and to design infrastructural systems which are likely to correspond to those submitted for approval to the local authorities. The results show that all alternative scenarios contribute to saving abiotic resources and reducing global warming potential. Particularly relevant to the current English debate, the performance of a scenario was shown to depend not from the thermal treatment technology but from a combination of parameters, among which most relevant are the efficiency of energy recovery processes (both electricity and heat) and the calorific value of residual waste and pre-treated material. The

  19. A disaster recovery system featuring uncertainty visualization and distributed infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grewe, L.; Krishnagiri, S.; Cristobal, J.

    2007-04-01

    This paper will present the use and implementation of uncertainty visualization in a disaster recovery tool called DiRecT. DirecT is an emergency response system that couples the visualization mechanism with a distributed computing architecture for a more reliable, failsafe infrastructure. The uncertainty visualization cues help provide the means of determining the priority of assigning resources to the entities by taking into account various factors such as their identity, location, and health. With DiRecT the incident commander would be able to quickly assess the current scenario and make critical and informed decisions. An important part of DiRect is its distributed, real-time infrastructure which supports capture, storage and delivery of data from various sources in the field. DiRect also supports personnel communication through an instant memoing feature.

  20. Recovery of an isolated coral reef system following severe disturbance.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, James P; Smith, Luke D; Heyward, Andrew J; Baird, Andrew H; Pratchett, Morgan S

    2013-04-01

    Coral reef recovery from major disturbance is hypothesized to depend on the arrival of propagules from nearby undisturbed reefs. Therefore, reefs isolated by distance or current patterns are thought to be highly vulnerable to catastrophic disturbance. We found that on an isolated reef system in north Western Australia, coral cover increased from 9% to 44% within 12 years of a coral bleaching event, despite a 94% reduction in larval supply for 6 years after the bleaching. The initial increase in coral cover was the result of high rates of growth and survival of remnant colonies, followed by a rapid increase in juvenile recruitment as colonies matured. We show that isolated reefs can recover from major disturbance, and that the benefits of their isolation from chronic anthropogenic pressures can outweigh the costs of limited connectivity. PMID:23559247

  1. Automotive energy management system

    SciTech Connect

    Shiber, S.

    1980-09-23

    A hydromechanical/hydrostatic automotive energy management system is described that is comprised of two hydraulic units, the system adapted to provide: an efficient, continuously variable optimal transmission ratio, an intermittent optimal engine operation in city traffic and regenerative braking, thereby, the system is able to reduce a car's fuel consumption by as much as one half while improving drivability.

  2. Lithium recovery from brine using a λ-MnO2/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seoni; Lee, Jaehan; Kang, Jin Soo; Jo, Kyusik; Kim, Seonghwan; Sung, Yung-Eun; Yoon, Jeyong

    2015-04-01

    Lithium is one of the most important elements in various fields including energy storage, medicine manufacturing and the glass industry, and demands for lithium are constantly increasing these days. The lime soda evaporation process using brine lake water is the major extraction method for lithium, but this process is not only inefficient and time-consuming but also causes a few environmental problems. Electrochemical recovery processes of lithium ions have been proposed recently, but the better idea for the silver negative electrodes used in these systems is required to reduce its cost or increase long term stability. Here, we report an electrochemical lithium recovery method based on a λ-MnO2/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor system. In this system, lithium ions and counter anions are effectively captured at each electrode with low energy consumption in a salt solution containing various cationic species or simulated Salar de Atacama brine lake water in Chile. Furthermore, we designed this system as a flow process for practical applications. By experimental analyses, we confirmed that this system has high selectivity and long-term stability, with its performance being retained even after repetitive captures and releases of lithium ions. PMID:25681679

  3. Systems analysis for the development of small resource recovery systems: description of solid waste modular simulator. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Crnkovich, P G; Helmstetter, A J

    1980-10-01

    The technologies that should be developed to make small-scale solid waste processing facilities attractive and viable for small municipalities with solid waste between 50 and 250 tons per day are identified. The resource recovery systems investigated were divided into three categories: mechanical separation, thermal and thermochemical energy recovery, and bioconversion processes. This report describes the Solid Waste Modular Simulator (SWIMS), a computer program for simulating the performance of solid waste processing/resource recovery systems. The current program data enables the simulation of systems with design throughput rates of 100 and 200 TPD of solid waste. Systems with larger throughput capacities can also be simulated by supplying the program with their performance data. The main line of this program is basicaly an accounting routine which totals the costs, revenues, and mass balances for all components in a simulated waste processing line. In addition, the main line controls the input of all information required to execute the program and the output of the resultant system performance data. (MCW)

  4. Pressurized Oxidative Recovery of Energy from Biomass Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    M. Misra

    2007-06-10

    This study was conducted to evaluate the technical feasibility of using pressurized oxyfuel, the ThermoEnergy Integrated Power System (TIPS), to recover energy from biomass. The study was focused on two fronts—computer simulation of the TIPS plant and corrosion testing to determine the best materials of construction for the critical heat exchanger components of the process. The goals were to demonstrate that a successful strategy of applying the TIPS process to wood waste could be achieved. To fully investigate the technical and economic benefits of using TIPS, it was necessary to model a conventional air-fired biomass power plant for comparison purposes. The TIPS process recovers and utilizes the latent heat of vaporization of water entrained in the fuel or produced during combustion. This latent heat energy is unavailable in the ambient processes. An average composition of wood waste based on data from the Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, and the South was used for the study. The high moisture content of wood waste is a major advantage of the TIPS process. The process can utilize the higher heating value of the fuel by condensing most of the water vapor in the flue gas and making the flue gas a useful source of heat. This is a considerable thermal efficiency gain over conventional power plants which use the lower heating value of the fuel. The elevated pressure also allows TIPS the option of recovering CO2 at near ambient temperatures with high purity oxygen used in combustion. Unlike ambient pressure processes which need high energy multi-stage CO2 compression to supply pipeline quality product, TIPS is able to simply pump the CO2 liquid using very little auxiliary power. In this study, a 15.0 MWe net biomass power plant was modeled, and when a CO2 pump was included it only used 0.1 MWe auxiliary power. The need for refrigeration is eliminated at such pressures resulting in significant energy, capital, and operating and maintenance savings. Since wood

  5. GRACE Time-Variable Gravity Field Recovery Using an Improved Energy Balance Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Kun

    Earth's gravity is continuously varying with respect to time due primarily to mass transports within the Earth system and external gravitational forcing. A new formalism based on energy conservation principle for time-variable gravity field recovery using satellite gravimetry has been developed and yields more accurate estimation of in-situ geopotential difference observables using K-Band Ranging (KBR) measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) twin-satellite mission. The new approach can preserve more time-variable gravity information sensed by KBR range-rate measurements and reduce orbit error as compared to previous energy balance studies. Results based on analysis of more than 10 years of GRACE data indicate that the estimated geopotential differences agree well with the predicted values from official Level 2 solutions: with much higher correlation of 0.9, as compared to 0.5-0.8 reported by previous energy balance studies. This study demonstrates that the new approach is more flexible for both global and regional temporal gravity recovery, leading to the first independent GRACE monthly solution series based on energy conservation principle, which is comparable to the results from different approach. The developed formalism is applicable to the general case of low-low satellite-to-satellite radiometric or laser interferometric tracking measurements, such as GRACE Follow-on or other Next Generation Gravity Field missions, for efficient retrieval and studies of Earth's mass transport evolutions. The regional gravity analysis over Greenland reveals that a substantially higher temporal resolution is achievable at 10 or 11-day interval from GRACE data, as compared to the official monthly solutions, but without the compromise of spatial resolution, nor the need to use regularization or post-processing. Studies of the terrestrial and ground water storage change over North China Plain show high correlation in sub-monthly scale, among the 11

  6. The top ten concerns about recovery encountered in mental health system transformation.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Larry; O'Connell, Maria; Tondora, Janis; Styron, Thomas; Kangas, Karen

    2006-05-01

    The notion of "recovery" has recently taken center stage in guiding mental health policy and practice. However, it is not yet clear what the term means and what is to be entailed in transforming the nation's mental health system to promote it. The authors discuss the various meanings of recovery as applied to mental illness and list the top ten concerns encountered in efforts to articulate and implement recovery-oriented care. These concerns include the following: recovery is old news, recovery-oriented care adds to the burden of already stretched providers, recovery involves cure, recovery happens to very few people, recovery represents an irresponsible fad, recovery happens only after and as a result of active treatment, recovery-oriented care is implemented only through the addition of new resources, recovery-oriented care is neither reimbursable nor evidence based, recovery-oriented care devalues the role of professional intervention, and recovery-oriented care increases providers' exposure to risk and liability. These concerns are addressed through discussion of the two over-arching challenges that they pose, namely the issues of resources and risk. PMID:16675756

  7. Ethanol fermentation from molasses at high temperature by thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 and energy assessment for recovery.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Diptarka; Ghosh, Prasenjit; Ghosh, Debashish; Suman, Sunil Kumar; Khan, Rashmi; Agrawal, Deepti; Adhikari, Dilip K

    2014-10-01

    High temperature ethanol fermentation from sugarcane molasses B using thermophilic Crabtree-positive yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 was carried out in batch bioreactor system. Strain was found to have a maximum specific ethanol productivity of 0.688 g/g/h with 92 % theoretical ethanol yield. Aeration and initial sugar concentration were tuning parameters to regulate metabolic pathways of the strain for either cell mass or higher ethanol production during growth with an optimum sugar to cell ratio 33:1 requisite for fermentation. An assessment of ethanol recovery from fermentation broth via simulation study illustrated that distillation-based conventional recovery was significantly better in terms of energy efficiency and overall mass recovery in comparison to coupled solvent extraction-azeotropic distillation technique for the same. PMID:24682264

  8. A Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, Thomas E; Wagner, Robert M; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Curran, Scott; Nafziger, Eric J

    2010-01-01

    In order to achieve proposed fuel economy requirements, engines must make better use of the available fuel energy. Regardless of how efficient the engine is, there will still be a significant fraction of the fuel energy that is rejected in the exhaust and coolant streams. One viable technology for recovering this waste heat is an Organic Rankine Cycle. This cycle heats a working fluid using these heat streams and expands the fluid through a turbine to produce shaft power. The present work was the development of such a system applied to a light duty diesel engine. This lab demonstration was designed to maximize the peak brake thermal efficiency of the engine, and the combined system achieved an efficiency of 44.4%. The design of the system is discussed, as are the experimental performance results. The system potential at typical operating conditions was evaluated to determine the practicality of installing such a system in a vehicle.

  9. Audit Report on "Management Controls over the Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - Louisiana State Energy Program"

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-01

    The Department of Energy's (Department) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) provides grants to states, territories and the District of Columbia (states) to support their energy priorities through the State Energy Program (SEP). Federal funding is based on a grant formula that considers the population and energy consumption in each state, and amounted to $25 million for Fiscal Year (FY) 2009. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) expanded the SEP by authorizing an additional $3.1 billion to states using the existing grant formula. EERE made grant awards to states after reviewing plans that summarize the activities states will undertake to achieve SEP Recovery Act objectives, including preserving and creating jobs; saving energy; increasing renewable energy sources; and, reducing greenhouse gas emissions. EERE program guidance emphasizes that states are responsible for administering SEP within each state, and requires each state to implement internal controls over the use of Recovery Act funds. The State of Louisiana received $71.6 million in SEP Recovery Act funds; a 164-fold increase over its FY 2009 SEP grant of $437,000. As part of the Office of Inspector General's strategy for reviewing the Department's implementation of the Recovery Act, we initiated this review to determine whether the Louisiana State Energy Office had internal controls in place to efficiently and effectively administer Recovery Act funds provided for its SEP program. Louisiana developed a strategy for SEP Recovery Act funding that focused on improving energy efficiency in state buildings, housing and small businesses; increasing Energy Star appliance rebates; and, expanding the use of alternative fuels and renewable energy. Due to a statewide hiring freeze, Louisiana outsourced management of the majority of its projects ($63.3 million) to one general contractor. Louisiana plans to internally manage one project, Education and Outreach ($2

  10. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: Preliminary feasibility evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The aim is to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a solar greenhouse. • The system allows the exploitation of heat available from OFMSW aerobic process. • Another aim is to face the problem of OFMSW treatment, in particular food waste. • Energy and mass balances are presented for a case study. - Abstract: In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications.

  11. Hydrogeophysical methods for analyzing aquifer storage and recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Minsley, B.J.; Ajo-Franklin, J.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Morgan, F.D.

    2009-12-01

    Hydrogeophysical methods are presented that support the siting and monitoring of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) systems. These methods are presented as numerical simulations in the context of a proposed ASR experiment in Kuwait, although the techniques are applicable to numerous ASR projects. Bulk geophysical properties are calculated directly from ASR flow and solute transport simulations using standard petrophysical relationships and are used to simulate the dynamic geophysical response to ASR. This strategy provides a quantitative framework for determining site-specific geophysical methods and data acquisition geometries that can provide the most useful information about the ASR implementation. An axisymmetric, coupled fluid flow and solute transport model simulates injection, storage, and withdrawal of fresh water (salinity {approx}500 ppm) into the Dammam aquifer, a tertiary carbonate formation with native salinity approximately 6000 ppm. Sensitivity of the flow simulations to the correlation length of aquifer heterogeneity, aquifer dispersivity, and hydraulic permeability of the confining layer are investigated. The geophysical response using electrical resistivity, time-domain electromagnetic (TEM), and seismic methods is computed at regular intervals during the ASR simulation to investigate the sensitivity of these different techniques to changes in subsurface properties. For the electrical and electromagnetic methods, fluid electric conductivity is derived from the modeled salinity and is combined with an assumed porosity model to compute a bulk electrical resistivity structure. The seismic response is computed from the porosity model and changes in effective stress due to fluid pressure variations during injection/recovery, while changes in fluid properties are introduced through Gassmann fluid substitution.

  12. Recovery of freshwater from wastewater: upgrading process configurations to maximize energy recovery and minimize residuals.

    PubMed

    Scherson, Yaniv D; Criddle, Craig S

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of conventional and novel wastewater treatment configurations reveals large differences in energy consumed or produced and solids generated per cubic meter of domestic wastewater treated. Complete aerobic BOD removal consumes 0.45 kWh and produces 153 g of solids, whereas complete anaerobic treatment produces 0.25 kWh and 80 g of solids. Emerging technologies, that include short-circuit nitrogen removal (SHARON, CANON with Anammox, CANDO) and mainstream anaerobic digestion, can potentially remove both BOD and nitrogen with an energy surplus of 0.17 kWh and production of 95 g of solids. Heat from biogas combustion can completely dry the solids, and these solids can be converted to syngas without imported energy. Syngas combustion can produce ∼ 0.1 kWh with an inorganic residue of just 10 g. If salt is removed, freshwater can be recovered with net production of electrical energy from methane (0.03-0.13 kWh) and syngas (∼ 0.1 kWh) and an inorganic residue of ∼ 0.1-0.3 kg as brine. Current seawater desalination requires 3-4 kWh (thermodynamic limit of 1 kWh) and results in an inorganic residue of ∼ 35 kg as brine. PMID:24963949

  13. Analysis of energy recovery potential using innovative technologies of waste gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, Lidia; Carnevale, Ennio; Corti, Andrea

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy recovery from waste by gasification was simulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two processes: high temperature gasification and gasification associated to plasma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two types of feeding waste: Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) and pulper residues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different configurations for the energy cycles were considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison with performances from conventional Waste-to-Energy process. - Abstract: In this paper, two alternative thermo-chemical processes for waste treatment were analysed: high temperature gasification and gasification associated to plasma process. The two processes were analysed from the thermodynamic point of view, trying to reconstruct two simplified models, using appropriate simulation tools and some support data from existing/planned plants, able to predict the energy recovery performances by process application. In order to carry out a comparative analysis, the same waste stream input was considered as input to the two models and the generated results were compared. The performances were compared with those that can be obtained from conventional combustion with energy recovery process by means of steam turbine cycle. Results are reported in terms of energy recovery performance indicators as overall energy efficiency, specific energy production per unit of mass of entering waste, primary energy source savings, specific carbon dioxide production.

  14. Integrated agricultural energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. M.

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of this program is to show New England farmers and other New England energy users how they can use alternative energy sources to reduce their energy cost and dependency on conventional sources. The project demonstrates alternative energy technologies in solar, alcohol and methane. Dissemination is planned through tours to be conducted by the Worcester County Extension Service. Most of these goals were completed as planned. A few things have yet to be completed. The solar panels and solar hot water tanks have to be installed. The fermenter's agitating and cooling system have to be secured inside the fermenter. Once these items are complete tours will begin early in the spring.

  15. Solar Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  16. Living Systems Energy Module

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-26

    The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

  17. Energy and Environmental Systems Division's publications publications 1968-1982

    SciTech Connect

    1982-03-01

    Books, journal articles, conference papers, and technical reports produced by the Energy and Environmental Systems Division of Argonne National Laboratory are listed in this bibliography. Subjects covered are energy resources (recovery and use); energy-efficient technology; electric utilities, and environments. (MCW)

  18. 40 CFR 35.928-3 - Implementation of the industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Implementation of the industrial cost...-Clean Water Act § 35.928-3 Implementation of the industrial cost recovery system. (a) When a grantee's industrial cost recovery system is approved, implementation of the approved system shall become a...

  19. 40 CFR 35.928-3 - Implementation of the industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Implementation of the industrial cost...-Clean Water Act § 35.928-3 Implementation of the industrial cost recovery system. (a) When a grantee's industrial cost recovery system is approved, implementation of the approved system shall become a...

  20. 40 CFR 35.928-3 - Implementation of the industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Implementation of the industrial cost...-Clean Water Act § 35.928-3 Implementation of the industrial cost recovery system. (a) When a grantee's industrial cost recovery system is approved, implementation of the approved system shall become a...

  1. 40 CFR 35.928-3 - Implementation of the industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Implementation of the industrial cost...-Clean Water Act § 35.928-3 Implementation of the industrial cost recovery system. (a) When a grantee's industrial cost recovery system is approved, implementation of the approved system shall become a...

  2. 40 CFR 35.928-3 - Implementation of the industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Implementation of the industrial cost...-Clean Water Act § 35.928-3 Implementation of the industrial cost recovery system. (a) When a grantee's industrial cost recovery system is approved, implementation of the approved system shall become a...

  3. Memory management and compiler support for rapid recovery from failures in computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuchs, W. K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes recent developments in the use of memory management and compiler technology to support rapid recovery from failures in computer systems. The techniques described include cache coherence protocols for user transparent checkpointing in multiprocessor systems, compiler-based checkpoint placement, compiler-based code modification for multiple instruction retry, and forward recovery in distributed systems utilizing optimistic execution.

  4. Status report of a new recovery parachute system for the F111 aircraft crew escape module

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    A new recovery parachute system for the F111 aircraft crew escape module has been designed. Six proof-of-design tests were conducted to determine if it is feasible to meet the requirements for a replacement recovery parachute system. The design of the proposed system is presented and the results of the tests discussed.

  5. Polymer filtration systems for dilute metal ion recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Jarvinen, G.D.

    1998-12-01

    Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a metal recovery system that meets the global treatment demands for all kinds of industrial and metal-processing streams. The Polymer Filtration (PF) System--a process that is easily operated and robust--offers metal-finishing businesses a convenient and inexpensive way to recover and recycle metal ions in-house, thus reducing materials costs, waste removal costs, and industrial liability. As a valuable economic and environmental asset, the PF System has been named a winner of a 1995 R and D 100 Award. These awards are presented annually by R and D Magazine to the one hundred most significant technical innovations of the year. The PF System is based on the use of water-soluble metal-binding polymers and on advanced ultrafiltration membranes. Customers for this technology will receive new soluble polymers, especially formulated for their waste stream, and the complete PF processing unit: a reaction reservoir, pumps, plumbing, controls, and the advanced ultrafiltration membranes, all in a skid mounted frame. Metal-bearing waste water is treated in the reaction reservoir, where the polymer binds with the metal ions under balanced acid/base conditions. The reservoir fluid is then pumped through the ultrafiltration system--a cartridge packed with ultrafiltration membranes shaped in hollow fibers. As the fluid travels inside the fiber, water and other small molecules--simple salts such as calcium and sodium, for example--pass through the porous membrane walls of the fibers and are discharged through the outlet as permeate. The polymer-bound metal, which is too large to pass through the pores, is both purified and concentrated inside the hollow fibers and is returned to the fluid reservoir for further waste water treatment.

  6. Systems analysis for the development of small resource recovery systems: system performance data. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Crnkovich, P G; Helmstetter, A J

    1980-10-01

    The technologies that should be developed to make small-scale solid waste processing facilities attractive and viable for small municipalities with solid waste between 50 and 250 tons per day are identified. The resource recovery systems investigated were divided into three categories: thermal processng, mechanical separation, and biological processing. Thermal processing systems investigated are: excess-air incineration; starved-air incineration/gasification; and pyrolysis (indirect heating). Mechanical processing systems investigated are: coarse refuse derived fuel; materials separation; dust refuse derived fuel; densified refuse derived fuel; and fine refuse derived fuel. Mechanical processing components investigated include: receiving module; primary size reduction module; combustible separation module; refuse derived fuel preparation module; fuel densification; fuel storage module; ferrous separation; and building and facilities. Pretreatment processes and principle methods of bioconversion of MSW dealing with biological processing are investigated. (MCW)

  7. PROCEEDING OF WORKSHOP ON PHOTO-INJECTOR FOR ENERGY RECOVERY LINAC.

    SciTech Connect

    WANG,X.J.

    2001-01-22

    Workshop on Photo-injectors for Energy Recovery Linac was held at National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) on January 22 and 23, 2001. Fifty people attended the workshop; they came from three countries, representing universities, industries and national laboratories. This is the first workshop ever held on photo-injectors for CW operation, and for the first time, both DC and RF photo-injectors were discussed at the workshop. Workshop covered almost all major issues of photo-injectors, photocathode, laser system, vacuum, DC, 433 MHz/B-factory cavities based RF gun, 1.3 GHz RF gun and beam instrumentation. High quantum efficiency and long live time photocathode is the issue discussed during the workshop. Four working group leaders have done great jobs summarizing the workshop discussion, and identifying the major issues for future R and D.

  8. A CW normal-conductive RF gun for free electron laser and energy recovery linac applications

    SciTech Connect

    Baptiste, Kenneth; Corlett, John; Kwiatkowski, Slawomir; Lidia, Steven; Qiang, Ji; Sannibale, Fernando; Sonnad, Kiran; Staples, John; Virostek, Steven; Wells, Russell

    2008-10-08

    Currently proposed energy recovery linac and high average power free electron laser projects require electron beam sources that can generate up to {approx} 1 nC bunch charges with less than 1 mmmrad normalized emittance at high repetition rates (greater than {approx} 1 MHz). Proposed sources are based around either high voltage DC or microwave RF guns, each with its particular set of technological limits and system complications. We propose an approach for a gun fully based on mature RF and mechanical technology that greatly diminishes many of such complications. The concepts for such a source as well as the present RF and mechanical design are described. Simulations that demonstrate the beam quality preservation and transport capability of an injector scheme based on such a gun are also presented.

  9. Use of Multipass Recirculation and Energy Recovery In CW SRF X-FEL Driver Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, David; Akers, Walt; Benson, Stephen V.; Biallas, George; Blackburn, Keith; Boyce, James; Bullard, Donald; Coleman, James; Dickover, Cody; Ellingsworth, Forrest; Evtushenko, Pavel; Fisk, Sally; Gould, Christopher; Gubeli, Joseph; Hannon, Fay; Hardy, David; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Jordan, Kevin; Klopf, John; Kortze, J.; Legg, Robert; Li, Rui; Marchlik, Matthew; Moore, Steven W.; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Sexton, Daniel; Shin, Ilkyoung; Shinn, Michelle D.; Tennant, Christopher; Terzic, Balsa; Walker, Richard; Williams, Gwyn P.; Wilson, G.; Zhang, Shukui

    2010-08-01

    We discuss the use of multipass recirculation and energy recovery in CW SRF drivers for short wavelength FELs. Benefits include cost management (through reduced system footprint, required RF and SRF hardware, and associated infrastructure - including high power beam dumps and cryogenic systems), ease in radiation control (low drive beam exhaust energy), ability to accelerate and deliver multiple beams of differing energy to multiple FELs, and opportunity for seamless integration of multistage bunch length compression into the longitudinal matching scenario. Issues include all those associated with ERLs compounded by the challenge of generating and preserving the CW electron drive beam brightness required by short wavelength FELs. We thus consider the impact of space charge, BBU and other environmental wakes and impedances, ISR and CSR, potential for microbunching, intra-beam and beam-residual gas scattering, ion effects, RF transients, and halo, as well as the effect of traditional design, fabrication, installation and operational errors (lattice aberrations, alignment, powering, field quality). Context for the discussion is provided by JLAMP, the proposed VUV/X-ray upgrade to the existing Jefferson Lab FEL.

  10. Improvement of bioelectrochemical property and energy recovery by acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenzong; Cai, Weiwei; Ma, Anzhou; Ren, Ge; Li, Zhiling; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Wang, Aijie

    2015-06-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) has been extensively studied as a cell-cell communication system, where small chemical signal molecules (acylhomoserine lactones, AHLs) can regulate the bacterial communications in bioelectrochemical systems via chemical signaling and electric signaling. In this study, electrochemical activity of bio-anode is substantially promoted by adding two kinds of AHLs with different chain length at the stage of community formation in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). Hydrogen yield increase is observed by adding of two chain length AHLs, 3-oxo-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone (3OC6-HSL) and 3-oxo-dodecanoyl homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL). A higher MEC current is acquired with addition of 3OC6-HSL than 3OC12-HSL at a fixed voltage of 0.8 V (vs. SHE). The highest yield is up to 3.8 ± 0.2 mol H2 mol-1 acetate at 10 μM 3OC6-HSL, which is increased 29% over control MECs. Evaluated on applied voltage, energy efficiency is increased to 171.6 ± 21.3% with short chain AHL, however, no significant improvement is performed on energy efficiency and coulombic efficiency with long-chain AHL. The study shows that bioelectrochemical characteristics of MECs varied on the chain length of AHL signal molecules and short-chain AHLs have a more positive effect on electron transfer and energy recovery in MECs.

  11. The difference between energy consumption and energy cost: Modelling energy tariff structures for water resource recovery facilities.

    PubMed

    Aymerich, I; Rieger, L; Sobhani, R; Rosso, D; Corominas, Ll

    2015-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of incorporating more realistic energy cost models (based on current energy tariff structures) into existing water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) process models when evaluating technologies and cost-saving control strategies. In this paper, we first introduce a systematic framework to model energy usage at WRRFs and a generalized structure to describe energy tariffs including the most common billing terms. Secondly, this paper introduces a detailed energy cost model based on a Spanish energy tariff structure coupled with a WRRF process model to evaluate several control strategies and provide insights into the selection of the contracted power structure. The results for a 1-year evaluation on a 115,000 population-equivalent WRRF showed monthly cost differences ranging from 7 to 30% when comparing the detailed energy cost model to an average energy price. The evaluation of different aeration control strategies also showed that using average energy prices and neglecting energy tariff structures may lead to biased conclusions when selecting operating strategies or comparing technologies or equipment. The proposed framework demonstrated that for cost minimization, control strategies should be paired with a specific optimal contracted power. Hence, the design of operational and control strategies must take into account the local energy tariff. PMID:26048700

  12. Design, Development and Flight Testing of the U.S. Army 4200 sq ft Parafoil Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Thomas W.; Fox, Roy, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the design, development and flight-testing of the U.S. Army 4200 sq ft parafoil recovery system built under NASA Contract NAS 9-00076. The 4200 f? parafoil described herein was a potential candidate to fulfill the U.S. Army requirement for a 10,000 lb useable payload precision guided recovery system. Design heritage as well as specific features, like lower surface inlets, confluence fitting, upper surface energy modulator design, deployment bag design and 60 ft diameter Ringslot drogue will be discussed. Initial flight test results, ground testing of various components to verify design margin and configuration changes will also be discussed. The 4200 sq ft parafoil recovery system completed three flight tests during 2003 at payload weights of over 15,000 Ibs

  13. Direct energy recovery from primary and secondary sludges by supercritical water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Svanström, M; Modell, M; Tester, J

    2004-01-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) oxidizes organic and biological materials virtually completely to benign products without the need for stack gas scrubbing. Heavy metals are recovered as stabilized solid, along with the sand and clay that is present in the feed. The technology has been under development for twenty years. The major obstacle to commercialization has been developing reactors that are not clogged by inorganic solid deposits. That problem has been solved by using tubular reactors with fluid velocities that are high enough to keep solids in suspension. Recently, system designs have been created that reduce the cost of processing sewage sludges below that of incineration. At 10 wt- % dry solids, sludge can be oxidized with virtually complete recovery of the sludge heating value as hot water or high-pressure steam. Liquid carbon dioxide of high purity can be recovered from the gaseous effluent and excess oxygen can be recovered for recycle. The net effect is to reduce the stack to a harmless vent with minimal flow rate of a clean gas. Complete simulations have been developed using physical property models that accurately simulate the thermodynamic properties of sub- and supercritical water in mixtures with O2, N2, CO2, and organics. Capital and operating cost estimates are given for sewage sludge treatment, which are less costly than incineration. The scenario of direct recovery of energy from sludges has inherent benefits compared to other gasification or liquefaction options. PMID:15259956

  14. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T.

    1998-08-01

    In this progress report (covering the period May 1997--May 1998), the authors summarize results from ongoing technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Generally, the goal of their research is to illuminate possible pathways leading from present hydrogen markets and technologies toward wide scale use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, highlighting important technologies for RD and D. Over the past year they worked on three projects. From May 1997--November 1997, the authors completed an assessment of hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles, as compared to methanol and gasoline. Two other studies were begun in November 1997 and are scheduled for completion in September 1998. The authors are carrying out an assessment of potential supplies and demands for hydrogen energy in the New York City/New Jersey area. The goal of this study is to provide useful data and suggest possible implementation strategies for the New York City/ New Jersey area, as the Hydrogen Program plans demonstrations of hydrogen vehicles and refueling infrastructure. The authors are assessing the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy systems. The goals of this work are (a) to understand the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy system design; (b) to understand the conditions under which CO{sub 2} sequestration might become economically viable; and (c) to understand design issues for future low-CO{sub 2} emitting hydrogen energy systems based on fossil fuels.

  15. An integrated approach to energy recovery from biomass and waste: Anaerobic digestion-gasification-water treatment.

    PubMed

    Milani, M; Montorsi, L; Stefani, M

    2014-07-01

    The article investigates the performance of an integrated system for the energy recovery from biomass and waste based on anaerobic digestion, gasification and water treatment. In the proposed system, the organic fraction of waste of the digestible biomass is fed into an anaerobic digester, while a part of the combustible fraction of the municipal solid waste is gasified. Thus, the obtained biogas and syngas are used as a fuel for running a cogeneration system based on an internal combustion engine to produce electric and thermal power. The waste water produced by the integrated plant is recovered by means of both forward and inverse osmosis. The different processes, as well as the main components of the system, are modelled by means of a lumped and distributed parameter approach and the main outputs of the integrated plant such as the electric and thermal power and the amount of purified water are calculated. Finally, the implementation of the proposed system is evaluated for urban areas with a different number of inhabitants and the relating performance is estimated in terms of the main outputs of the system. PMID:24946772

  16. Jejunal disaccharidases in protein energy malnutrition and recovery.

    PubMed

    Mehra, R; Khambadkone, S M; Jain, M K; Ganapathy, S

    1994-11-01

    The jejunal disaccharidases, sucrase, maltase and lactase, were determined in jejunal biopsies obtained from 43 malnourished children and 10 controls. In the study group, 63% were girls and 93% had severe malnutrition. Lactase activity was significantly reduced in third and fourth degree malnutrition (p < 0.05 and p < 0.005, respectively), but maltase activity was significantly reduced only in the fourth degree malnutrition (p < 0.01). After recovery, maltase and sucrase activities showed a marginally significant increase (p = 0.06), where lactase showed no significant increase (p > 0.05). We conclude that jejunal disaccharidase activity decreases significantly with increasing severity of malnutrition, lactase being the most severely affected and the last to recover. PMID:7896332

  17. Organic-Rankine-cycle systems for waste-heat recovery in refineries and chemical process plants

    SciTech Connect

    Meacher, J.S.

    1981-09-01

    The use of organic Rankine cycles (ORC) for the recovery and conversion of low-temperature waste heat has received considerable attention during recent years. The number of demonstration systems developed and put into service is small, and only a fraction of the possible energy-conserving benefits of the concept have been realized to date. This situation is due partly to the fact that energy costs have only recently risen to the point where such units provide acceptable return on investment. A second contributing factor may be that the design of ORC equipment has not yet responded to the special needs of the dominant market for ORC systems. 2 references, 12 figures, 5 tables.

  18. ETV REPORT AND VERIFICATION STATEMENT; EVALUATION OF LOBO LIQUIDS RINSE WATER RECOVERY SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lobo Liquids Rinse Water Recovery System (Lobo Liquids system) was tested, under actual production conditions, processing metal finishing wastewater, at Gull Industries in Houston, Texas. The verification test evaluated the ability of the ion exchange (IX) treatment system t...

  19. Ocean energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-04-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory is engaged in developing ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems that are to provide synthetic fuels or an energy intensive product such as ammonia or aluminum. The work also includes assessment and design concepts for hybrid plants, such as geothermal-OTEC plants. The laboratory also has a technical advisory role with respect to DOE/DOET's management of the preliminary design activity of an industry team headed by Ocean Thermal Corporation that is designing an OTEC pilot plant that could be built in shallow water off the shore of Oahu, Hawaii. In addition, the Laboratory is now taking part in a program to evaluate and test the pneumatic wave energy conversion system, an ocean energy device consisting of a turbine that is air driven as a result of wave action in a chamber.

  20. Ocean energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Progress is reported on the development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems that will provide synthetic fuels (e.g., methanol), energy-intensive products such as ammonia (for fertilizers and chemicals), and aluminum. The work also includes assessment and design concepts for hybrid plants, such as geothermal-OTEC (GEOTEC) plants. Another effort that began in the spring of 1982 is a technical advisory role to DOE with respect to their management of the conceptual and preliminary design activity of industry teams that are designing a shelf-mounted offshore OTEC pilot plant that could deliver power to Oahu, Hawaii. In addition, a program is underway to evaluate and test the Pneumatic Wave-Energy Conversion System (PWECS), an ocean-energy device consisting of a turbine that is air-driven as a result of wave action in a chamber. The work on the various tasks as of 31 March 1983 is reported.

  1. Reducing Building HVAC Costs with Site-Recovery Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pargeter, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Building owners are caught between two powerful forces--the need to lower energy costs and the need to meet or exceed outdoor air ventilation regulations for occupant health and comfort. Large amounts of energy are wasted each day from commercial, institutional, and government building sites as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)…

  2. Efficiency of energy recovery from municipal solid waste and the resultant effect on the greenhouse gas balance.

    PubMed

    Gohlke, Oliver

    2009-11-01

    Global warming is a focus of political interest and life-cycle assessment of waste management systems reveals that energy recovery from municipal solid waste is a key issue. This paper demonstrates how the greenhouse gas effects of waste treatment processes can be described in a simplified manner by considering energy efficiency indicators. For evaluation to be consistent, it is necessary to use reasonable system boundaries and to take the generation of electricity and the use of heat into account. The new European R1 efficiency criterion will lead to the development and implementation of optimized processes/systems with increased energy efficiency which, in turn, will exert an influence on the greenhouse gas effects of waste management in Europe. Promising technologies are: the increase of steam parameters, reduction of in-plant energy consumption, and the combined use of heat and power. Plants in Brescia and Amsterdam are current examples of good performance with highly efficient electricity generation. Other examples of particularly high heat recovery rates are the energy-from-waste (EfW) plants in Malmö and Gothenburg. To achieve the full potential of greenhouse gas reduction in waste management, it is necessary to avoid landfilling combustible wastes, for example, by means of landfill taxes and by putting incentives in place for increasing the efficiency of EfW systems. PMID:19837705

  3. Recovery Act. Development of a Model Energy Conservation Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-07-05

    The overall objective of this project was to develop an updated model Energy Conservation training program for stationary engineers. This revision to the IUOE National Training Fund’s existing Energy Conservation training curriculum is designed to enable stationary engineers to incorporate essential energy management into routine building operation and maintenance tasks. The curriculum uses a blended learning approach that includes classroom, hands-on, computer simulation and web-based training in addition to a portfolio requirement for a workplace-based learning application. The Energy Conservation training program goal is development of a workforce that can maintain new and existing commercial buildings at optimum energy performance levels. The grant start date was July 6, 2010 and the project continued through September 30, 2012, including a three month non-funded extension.

  4. Advanced Membrane Separation Technologies for Energy Recovery from Industrial Process Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J. R.; Wang, D.; Bischoff, B.; Ciora,; Radhakrishnan, B.; Gorti, S. B.

    2013-01-14

    Recovery of energy from relatively low-temperature waste streams is a goal that has not been achieved on any large scale. Heat exchangers do not operate efficiently with low-temperature streams and thus require such large heat exchanger surface areas that they are not practical. Condensing economizers offer one option for heat recovery from such streams, but they have not been widely implemented by industry. A promising alternative to these heat exchangers and economizers is a prototype ceramic membrane system using transport membrane technology for separation of water vapor and recovery of heat. This system was successfully tested by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) on a natural gas fired boiler where the flue gas is relatively clean and free of contaminants. However, since the tubes of the prototype system were constructed of aluminum oxide, the brittle nature of the tubes limited the robustness of the system and even limited the length of tubes that could be used. In order to improve the robustness of the membrane tubes and make the system more suitable for industrial applications, this project was initiated with the objective of developing a system with materials that would permit the system to function successfully on a larger scale and in contaminated and potentially corrosive industrial environments. This required identifying likely industrial environments and the hazards associated with those environments. Based on the hazardous components in these environments, candidate metallic materials were identified that are expected to have sufficient strength, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance to permit production of longer tubes that could function in the industrial environments identified. Tests were conducted to determine the corrosion resistance of these candidate alloys, and the feasibility of forming these materials into porous substrates was assessed. Once the most promising metallic materials were identified, the ability to form an alumina

  5. Solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector having an extended curved sawtooth-contoured surface covered with a metalized polymeric reflecting material, reflects solar energy to a movably supported collector that is kept at the concentrated line focus reflector primary. The primary reflector may be constructed by a process utilizing well known freeway paving machinery. The solar energy absorber is preferably a fluid transporting pipe. Efficient utilization leading to high temperatures from the reflected solar energy is obtained by cylindrical shaped secondary reflectors that direct off-angle energy to the absorber pipe. A seriatim arrangement of cylindrical secondary reflector stages and spot-forming reflector stages produces a high temperature solar energy collection system of greater efficiency.

  6. Elemental sulfur recovery from desulfurization sorbents in advanced power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dorchak, T.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Turk, B.S.

    1995-12-31

    Regenerable metal oxide sorbents, such as zinc titanate, are being developed to efficiently remove hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gas in advanced power systems. Dilute air regeneration of the sorbents produces a tailgas containing a few percent sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Catalytic reduction of the SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur with a coal gas slipstream using the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) is a leading first-generation technology. Currently the DSRP is undergoing field testing at gasifier sites. The objective of this study is to develop second-generation processes that produce elemental sulfur with limited use of coal gas. Novel approaches that were evaluated to produce elemental sulfur from sulfided sorbents include (1) SO{sub 2} regeneration, (2) substoichiometric oxidation, (3) steam regeneration followed by H{sub 2}S oxidation, and (4) steam-air regeneration. Experimental results at high temperature and high pressure demonstrate that, with simple sorbent modifications, direct regeneration to elemental sulfur is feasible without the use of coal gas.

  7. 40 CFR 35.928-1 - Approval of the industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... industrial cost recovery system, in accordance with 40 CFR part 25. (i) Inconsistent agreements. The grantee... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of the industrial cost...-Clean Water Act § 35.928-1 Approval of the industrial cost recovery system. The Regional...

  8. 40 CFR 35.928 - Requirements for an industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for an industrial cost... Water Act § 35.928 Requirements for an industrial cost recovery system. (a) The Regional Administrator shall approve the grantee's industrial cost recovery system and the grantee shall implement and...

  9. 40 CFR 35.928-1 - Approval of the industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... industrial cost recovery system, in accordance with 40 CFR part 25. (i) Inconsistent agreements. The grantee... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of the industrial cost...-Clean Water Act § 35.928-1 Approval of the industrial cost recovery system. The Regional...

  10. 40 CFR 35.928 - Requirements for an industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements for an industrial cost... Water Act § 35.928 Requirements for an industrial cost recovery system. (a) The Regional Administrator shall approve the grantee's industrial cost recovery system and the grantee shall implement and...

  11. 40 CFR 35.928 - Requirements for an industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for an industrial cost... Water Act § 35.928 Requirements for an industrial cost recovery system. (a) The Regional Administrator shall approve the grantee's industrial cost recovery system and the grantee shall implement and...

  12. 40 CFR 35.928-1 - Approval of the industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... industrial cost recovery system, in accordance with 40 CFR part 25. (i) Inconsistent agreements. The grantee... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of the industrial cost...-Clean Water Act § 35.928-1 Approval of the industrial cost recovery system. The Regional...

  13. 40 CFR 35.928-1 - Approval of the industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... industrial cost recovery system, in accordance with 40 CFR part 25. (i) Inconsistent agreements. The grantee... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of the industrial cost...-Clean Water Act § 35.928-1 Approval of the industrial cost recovery system. The Regional...

  14. 40 CFR 35.928 - Requirements for an industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for an industrial cost... Water Act § 35.928 Requirements for an industrial cost recovery system. (a) The Regional Administrator shall approve the grantee's industrial cost recovery system and the grantee shall implement and...

  15. 40 CFR 35.928 - Requirements for an industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements for an industrial cost... Water Act § 35.928 Requirements for an industrial cost recovery system. (a) The Regional Administrator shall approve the grantee's industrial cost recovery system and the grantee shall implement and...

  16. 40 CFR 35.928-1 - Approval of the industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... industrial cost recovery system, in accordance with 40 CFR part 25. (i) Inconsistent agreements. The grantee... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of the industrial cost...-Clean Water Act § 35.928-1 Approval of the industrial cost recovery system. The Regional...

  17. Low-Quality Natural Gas Sulfur Removal/Recovery System

    SciTech Connect

    Lokhandwala, K.A.; Ringer, M.; Wijams, H.; Baker, R.W.

    1997-10-01

    Natural gas provides more than one-fifth of all the primary energy used in the United States. Much raw gas is `subquality`, that is, it exceeds the pipeline specifications for nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and/or hydrogen sulfide content, and much of this low-quality natural gas cannot be produced economically with present processing technology. Against this background, a number of industry-wide trends are affecting the natural gas industry. Despite the current low price of natural gas, long-term demand is expected to outstrip supply, requiring new gas fields to be developed. Several important consequences will result. First, gas fields not being used because of low-quality products will have to be tapped. In the future, the proportion of the gas supply that must be treated to remove impurities prior to delivery to the pipeline will increase substantially. The extent of treatment required to bring the gas up to specification will also increase. Gas Research Institute studies have shown that a substantial capital investment in facilities is likely to occur over the next decade. The estimated overall investment for all gas processing facilities up to the year 2000 alone is approximates $1.2 Billion, of which acid gas removal and sulfur recovery are a significant part in terms of invested capital. This large market size and the known shortcomings of conventional processing techniques will encourage development and commercialization of newer technologies such as membrane processes. Second, much of today`s gas production is from large, readily accessible fields. As new reserves are exploited, more gas will be produced from smaller fields in remote or offshore locations. The result is an increasing need for technology able to treat small-scale gas streams.

  18. STATUS OF R AND D ENERGY RECOVERY LINAC AT BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY.

    SciTech Connect

    LITVINENKO,V.; BEN-ZVI, I.; ALDUINO, J.M.; BARTON, D.S.; BEAVIS, D.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; ET AL.

    2007-06-25

    In this paper we present status and plans for the 20-MeV R&D energy recovery linac (ERL), which is under construction at Collider Accelerator Department at BNL. The facility is based on high current (up to 0.5 A of average current) super-conducting 2.5 MeV RF gun, single-mode super-conducting 5-cell RF linac and about 20-m long return loop with very flexible lattice. The R&D ERL, which is planned for commissioning in early 2009, aims to address many outstanding questions relevant for high current, high brightness energy recovery linacs.

  19. Energy Recovery from End-of-Life Tyres: Untapped Possibility to Reduce CO2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzene, Ilze; Rochas, Claudio; Blumberga, Dagnija; Rosa, Marika; Erdmanis, Andris

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the possibility to reduce CO2 emissions by energy recovery from waste tyres is discussed. The objective of the study is to analyze the end-of-life tyre market in Latvia, to assess the amount of used tyres available and to calculate the potential reduction of CO2 emissions by energy recovery from tyres in mineral products industry. Calculation results show that an improved collection and combustion of end-of-life tyres in the cement industry can save up to 17% of the present CO2 emissions in the mineral products industry.

  20. Recovery of energy from geothermal brine and other hot water sources

    DOEpatents

    Wahl, III, Edward F.; Boucher, Frederic B.

    1981-01-01

    Process and system for recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources, by direct contact heat exchange between the brine or hot water, and an immiscible working fluid, e.g. a hydrocarbon such as isobutane, in a heat exchange column, the brine or hot water therein flowing countercurrent to the flow of the working fluid. The column can be operated at subcritical, critical or above the critical pressure of the working fluid. Preferably, the column is provided with a plurality of sieve plates, and the heat exchange process and column, e.g. with respect to the design of such plates, number of plates employed, spacing between plates, area thereof, column diameter, and the like, are designed to achieve maximum throughput of brine or hot water and reduction in temperature differential at the respective stages or plates between the brine or hot water and the working fluid, and so minimize lost work and maximize efficiency, and minimize scale deposition from hot water containing fluid including salts, such as brine. Maximum throughput approximates minimum cost of electricity which can be produced by conversion of the recovered thermal energy to electrical energy.

  1. Recovery of Hypersomnia Concurrent With Recovery of an Injured Ascending Reticular Activating System in a Stroke Patient

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung Ho; Lee, Han Do; Chang, Chul Hoon; Jung, Young Jin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report on a stroke patient who showed recovery of hypersomnia concurrent with the recovery of an injured ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), which was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). A 70-year-old female patient underwent coiling of the left ruptured posterior communicating artery after subarachnoid hemorrhage and both extraventricular drainage for management of an intraventricular hemorrhage. At 2 months after onset, when she started rehabilitation, she exhibited intact consciousness, with the full score on the Glasgow Coma Scale: 15. However, she showed severe hypersomnia: she always fell asleep without external stimulation and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (EPS) score was 24 (full score: 24, cut off for hypersomnia: 10). She underwent comprehensive rehabilitative therapy, including neurotropic drugs, physical therapy, and occupational therapy. Her hypersomnia has shown improvement as 14 (3 months after onset), 11 (4 months after onset), 7 (12 months after onset), and 6 (24 months after onset), respectively. On 2-month DTT, narrowing of both lower dorsal and ventral ARASs was observed on both sides: in particular, among 4 neural tracts of the lower ARAS, the right lower ventral ARAS was the narrowest. By contrast, on 24-month DTT, the 4 narrowed neural tracts of both lower dorsal and ventral ARASs were thickened compared with those of 2-month DTT. Recovery of hypersomnia with recovery of an injured lower ARAS on DTT was observed in a stroke patient. Our results suggest that evaluation of the lower ARAS using DTT might be useful for stroke patients with hypersomnia. PMID:26765455

  2. Cities as development drivers: from waste problems to energy recovery and climate change mitigation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Björn H; Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Hansen, Jens Aage; Lehmann, Martin

    2011-10-01

    There is a strong connection between economic growth and development of cities. Economic growth tends to stimulate city growth, and city economies have often shaped innovative environments that in turn support economic growth. Simultaneously, social and environmental problems related to city growth can be serious threats to the realization of the socio-economic contributions that cities can make. However, as a result of considerable diversity of competences combined with interactive learning and innovation, cities may also solve these problems. The 'urban order' may form a platform for innovative problem solving and potential spill-over effects, which may stimulate further economic growth and development. This paper discusses how waste problems of cities can be transformed to become part of new, more sustainable solutions. Two cases are explored: Aalborg in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden. It is shown that the cities have the potential to significantly contribute to a more sustainable development through increased material recycling and energy recovery. Waste prevention may increase this potential. For example, instead of constituting 3% of the total greenhouse gas emission problem, it seems possible for modern European cities to contribute to greenhouse gas emission reduction by 15% through up to date technology and integrated waste management systems for material and energy recovery. Going from being part of the problem to providing solutions; however, is not an easy endeavour. It requires political will and leadership, supportive regulatory frameworks, realistic timetables/roadmaps, and a diverse set of stakeholders that can provide the right creative and innovative mix to make it possible. PMID:21890877

  3. Wind Energy Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    During the 1920s and 1930s, millions of wind energy systems were used on farms and other locations far from utility lines. However, with passage of the Rural Electrification Act in 1939, cheap electricity was brought to rural areas. After that, the use of wind machines dramatically declined. Recently, the rapid rise in fuel prices has led to a…

  4. Recovery of energy and chrome from chrome tannery wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Muralidhara, H.S.; Maggin, B.; Phipps, H.

    1980-05-30

    An evaluation of the technical performance and cost effectiveness of a low temperature pyrolysis process which uses dry leather tanning wastes to provide energy and chrome tanning liquor for reuse in tanneries is presented. Presently, leather waste is disposed of in landfills, resulting not only in a considerable loss of potential energy (estimated to be 0.7 trillion Btus annually), but an even more significant loss of chromium (estimated to be 1.8 million pounds per year). The pyrolysis process is shown to be technically feasible, economically viable, and can alleviate a leather waste management problem that is becoming increasingly more difficult to handle because of more stringent environmental waste disposal requirements. Leather tanneries can save an estimated $7 to $8 million annually by employing this pyrolysis process to conserve energy and chrome in dry tanning wastes.

  5. Study of Hydrogen Recovery Systems for Gas Vented While Refueling Liquid-Hydrogen Fueled Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, C. R.

    1979-01-01

    Methods of capturing and reliquefying the cold hydrogen vapor produced during the fueling of aircraft designed to utilize liquid hydrogen fuel were investigated. An assessment of the most practical, economic, and energy efficient of the hydrogen recovery methods is provided.

  6. Energy systems transformation.

    PubMed

    Dangerman, A T C Jérôme; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2013-02-12

    The contemporary industrial metabolism is not sustainable. Critical problems arise at both the input and the output side of the complex: Although affordable fossil fuels and mineral resources are declining, the waste products of the current production and consumption schemes (especially CO(2) emissions, particulate air pollution, and radioactive residua) cause increasing environmental and social costs. Most challenges are associated with the incumbent energy economy that is unlikely to subsist. However, the crucial question is whether a swift transition to its sustainable alternative, based on renewable sources, can be achieved. The answer requires a deep analysis of the structural conditions responsible for the rigidity of the fossil-nuclear energy system. We argue that the resilience of the fossil-nuclear energy system results mainly from a dynamic lock-in pattern known in operations research as the "Success to the Successful" mode. The present way of generating, distributing, and consuming energy--the largest business on Earth--expands through a combination of factors such as the longevity of pertinent infrastructure, the information technology revolution, the growth of the global population, and even the recent financial crises: Renewable-energy industries evidently suffer more than the conventional-energy industries under recession conditions. Our study tries to elucidate the archetypical traits of the lock-in pattern and to assess the respective importance of the factors involved. In particular, we identify modern corporate law as a crucial system element that thus far has been largely ignored. Our analysis indicates that the rigidity of the existing energy economy would be reduced considerably by the assignment of unlimited liabilities to the shareholders. PMID:23297208

  7. Energy resource recovery facility for Kent and Sussex counties, Delaware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-11-01

    An outline of factors which should be considered in planning a solid waste facility is presented. The following topics are considered: (1) information on the technical findings; (2) existing waste disposal facilities, future systems, and waste characteristics; (3) markets for the waste resources are identified; (4) presents a rational means for site evaluation by assigning numerical values to four principal factors in decision making; (5) the refuse derived fuel system and the modular combustion system is described; (6) risks and implementation issues for the most promising systems are identified.

  8. Improving Biofuels Recovery Processes for Energy Efficiency and Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofuels are made from living or recently living organisms. For example, ethanol can be made from fermented plant materials. Biofuels have a number of important benefits when compared to fossil fuels. Biofuels are produced from renewable energy sources such as agricultural resou...

  9. DECENTRALIZED WASTE TREATMENT AND ENERGY RECOVERY IN KIGALI, RWANDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, there is almost no treatment of wastewater in Kigali, Rwanda. A sustainable and inexpensive alternative to the power and capital intensive needs of traditional centralized wastewater treatment plants is required for Rwanda, an energy and capital poor country. Approp...

  10. HVAC systems and energy conservation in hotels

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect that the design of the basic HVAC has on the relative success of energy conservation efforts in hotels. The unusual nature of a hotel is explained along with the impact that it has on the HVAC system. The paper stresses the practical considerations which must be made by the HVAC system designer when he designs the guest rooms, public areas, back-of-the-house areas, temperature control system, and energy management system. The advantages of providing separate air-handling systems are presented. The benefits of line voltage electric controls for guest room fan coil units are explained. General recommendations for arrangement of ventilation systems and possible opportunities for heat recovery are included.

  11. The short pipe path – safe water, energy & nutrient recovery

    EPA Science Inventory

    The step-by-step refinement of our urban water systems has yielded unsustainable, centralized urban water services in many developed regions of the world. These large systems also provide the wrong role model and promote conservative thinking for the rapidly developing regions of...

  12. Energy storage connection system

    DOEpatents

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  13. 7 CFR 4280.158 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Future recovery. 4280.158 Section 4280.158... General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.158 Future recovery. Future recoveries will be conducted in accordance with § 4287.169 of this chapter....

  14. 7 CFR 4280.158 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Future recovery. 4280.158 Section 4280.158... General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.158 Future recovery. Future recoveries will be conducted in accordance with § 4287.169 of this chapter....

  15. 7 CFR 4280.158 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Future recovery. 4280.158 Section 4280.158... General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.158 Future recovery. Future recoveries will be conducted in accordance with § 4287.169 of this chapter....

  16. Energy systems transformation

    PubMed Central

    Dangerman, A. T. C. Jérôme; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary industrial metabolism is not sustainable. Critical problems arise at both the input and the output side of the complex: Although affordable fossil fuels and mineral resources are declining, the waste products of the current production and consumption schemes (especially CO2 emissions, particulate air pollution, and radioactive residua) cause increasing environmental and social costs. Most challenges are associated with the incumbent energy economy that is unlikely to subsist. However, the crucial question is whether a swift transition to its sustainable alternative, based on renewable sources, can be achieved. The answer requires a deep analysis of the structural conditions responsible for the rigidity of the fossil-nuclear energy system. We argue that the resilience of the fossil-nuclear energy system results mainly from a dynamic lock-in pattern known in operations research as the “Success to the Successful” mode. The present way of generating, distributing, and consuming energy—the largest business on Earth—expands through a combination of factors such as the longevity of pertinent infrastructure, the information technology revolution, the growth of the global population, and even the recent financial crises: Renewable-energy industries evidently suffer more than the conventional-energy industries under recession conditions. Our study tries to elucidate the archetypical traits of the lock-in pattern and to assess the respective importance of the factors involved. In particular, we identify modern corporate law as a crucial system element that thus far has been largely ignored. Our analysis indicates that the rigidity of the existing energy economy would be reduced considerably by the assignment of unlimited liabilities to the shareholders. PMID:23297208

  17. Natural analogs for enhanced heat recovery from geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    High-temperature hydrothermal systems are physically and chemically zoned with depth. The energy input is from a magmatic zone, intruded by igneous bodies, that may also contribute variable amounts of magmatic fluid to the system. The heat source is directly overlain by a section of rocks, that due to their elevated temperature, respond to stress in a ductile fashion. The ductile zone is, in turn, overlain by a section of rocks that respond to stress in a brittle fashion, where water is able to circulate through fractures (the geothermal reservoir) and will be termed the hydrothermal circulation zone. Ancient and modern high-temperature geothermal systems show a predictable sequence of evolutionary events affecting these stratified zones. Metamorphic core complexes are uplifts, formed in highly extended terrains, that expose fossil brittle-ductile transition zones. Formerly ductile rocks have had brittle fractures superimposed on them, and meteoric hydrothermal systems are associated with the brittle fracturing. Porphyry copper deposits typically evolve from magmatic to meteoric hydrothermal systems. At the Larderello geothermal system, the brittle-ductile transition has been mapped using reflection seismology, and the zone has been penetrated by the San Pompeo 2 well where temperatures >420{degrees}C were encountered. Although neo-granitic dikes have been penetrated by drilling in the Larderello area, the brittle-ductile transition is largely above the inferred plutonic heat source. In the Geysers system, in contrast, the present steam system has been superimposed on young plutonic rocks and the inferred brittle-ductile transition is present at a depth of about 4.7 km within the plutonic rocks. As hydrothermal reservoirs are depleted, or surface facilities are restricted by environmental considerations, interest will turn to the deeper portions of known systems. Japan already has an aggressive program to develop Deep-Seated and Magma-Ambient resources.

  18. A Life Cycle Analysis System to Support D and D, Pollution Prevention, and Asset Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, L.; Tonn, B.E.; Yuracko, K.L.

    1999-02-28

    This paper describes a life cycle analysis system (LCAS) developed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) decision-making regarding deactivation and decommissioning (D and D), pollution prevention (P2), and asset recovery, and its deployment to analyze the disposition of facilities and capital assets. Originally developed for use at the Oak Ridge East Tennessee Technology Park, this approach has been refined through application at Ohio Operations Office sites and is now being deployed at a number of DOE sites. Programs such as National Metals Recycle, the D and D Focus Area, P2, and Asset Utilization are successfully using the system to make better decisions resulting in lower cost to the taxpayer and improved environmental quality. The LCAS consists of a user-friendly, cost-effective, and analytically-sound decision-aiding process and a complementary suite of automated tools to handle data administration and multiple criteria life cycle analysis (LCA). LCA is a systematic and comprehensive process for identifying, assessing, and comparing alternatives for D and D, P2, and asset recovery at government sites, and for selecting and documenting a preferred alternative. An LCA includes all of the impacts (benefits and costs) that result from a course of action over the entire period of time affected by the action. The system also includes visualizations that aid communication and help make decision-making transparent. The LCAS has three major components related to data collection, decision alternative assessment, and making the decisions. Each component is discussed in-depth using the example of deployment of the LCAS to support asset recovery.

  19. Energy development and recovery in South Central Wyoming: Soils, vegetation, and productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avirmed, Otgonsuren

    Energy development is expanding rapidly in sagebrush ecosystems of Western North America. This ecosystem is a critical habitat for many obligate wildlife species, and contains substantial soil carbon. Although we have some knowledge about how wildlife species are affected by energy development, there is much that remains to be understood about how energy development affects sagebrush ecosystem structure and function. In my research, I explored 1) how fast sagebrush plant communities recover from oil and gas development; 2) how soil organic matter was impacted by historical oil and gas development; and 3) how oil and gas development and wind development affect ecosystem production. My results showed that some components of the sagebrush plant communities recover in ~ 90 years after oil and gas development, but other components to do not recover at all. Sagebrush density recovered in ~65 years, and both grass and shrub cover recovered to pre-disturbance levels in 30 years. However, there was no indication of any recovery of forbs, nor any trend toward recovery. Since forbs represent a critical component of the biological diversity of sagebrush systems, these results indicate that reclamation activities should target forbs to promote plant diversity in sagebrush ecosystems. Ninety years of oil and gas development had no effect on labile, recalcitrant, or total soil organic matter pools. Site specific conditions such as soils texture and shrub-induced heterogeneity explained substantial variance in soil organic matter pools, but the disturbance from oil and gas development showed no significant impact. While the disturbance had no effect on soil organic matter, it did eliminate the heterogeneity associated with individual shrubs. I found that shrub-induced heterogeneity recovered in about 45 years in loamy sand soils, but in sandy soils, heterogeneity did not recover. On the other hand, the insignificant effect of disturbance on soil organic matter leads us re

  20. The Department of Energy's Energy Integrated Farm System program

    SciTech Connect

    Breckenridge, R.P.; Corrigan, M.K.; Thompson, W.N.; Price, D.R.; Bramwell, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) recently completed a program investigating the feasibility of integrating diverse energy production and energy conservation practices to reduce agriculture's dependence on fossil fuels. The Energy Integrated Farm System (EIFS) program was established in 1980 in response to the hardship imposed on US farmers by high fuel costs and unreliable fuel supplies. Seven farms located in various geographical regions of the US and Puerto Rico participated in the program. Each of these farms developed an energy integrated farm system project that used a unique combination of energy production and energy conservation methods to supply energy to the farm and reduce the farm's dependence on energy produced from nonrenewable sources such as coal and oil. Methods used at these projects included conservation tillage, solar heating, waste heat recovery, methane production from the anaerobic digestion of animal manure, electricity production from biogas, alcohol fuel production, fluidized-bed combustion of crop wastes, and computer-aided conservation irrigation. This paper gives a summarized report of the work done at the seven projects. It presents highlights and results, provides an overview of successes and problems and lists recommendations. 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Energy recovery by the thermal pyrolysis of processed oil shale: An evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hankinson, R.W.; Miller, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Economic recovery of energy from residual carbon on processed oil shales has generated a great deal of interest. The authors present new data and interpretation which show that residual organic carbon content, composition of the retort off-gas and product cut quality are strong functions of retorting conditions.

  2. EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS IN THE RECOVERY OF ENERGY AND MATERIALS FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the report of a study which set out to determine whether priorities in Western Europe with respect to energy and materials recovery from municipal solid waste are the same as those in the United States, which include (a) the use of refuse as a supplementary fuel, (b) pyro...

  3. Energy integrated farm system technical summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Breckenridge, R.P.; Price, D.R.; Sherwood, R.K.; Thompson, W.N.

    1987-03-01

    The Energy Integrated Farm System program was established by the Department of Energy in 1980 in response to the hardship imposed on US farmers by high fuel costs and unreliable fuel supplies. The program investigated the feasibility of integrating energy conservation practices with on-farm energy production to reduce farm energy consumption and make farms more energy self-sufficient. Seven farms located in various geographical regions in the US and Puerto Rico participated in the program. Each of these farms developed an energy integrated farm system project that used a unique combination of energy production and energy conservation methods to supply energy to the farm and reduce the farm's dependence on energy produced from nonrenewable sources such as coal and oil. Methods used at these projects included conservation tillage, solar heating, waste heat recovery, methane digestion, electricity production from biogas, alcohol fuel production, fluidized-bed combustion of crop wastes, and computer-aided conservation irrigation. This report is a summary of the seven technical manuals prepared at the conclusion of the projects. It presents highlights and results, provides an overview of successes and problems, and lists recommendations.

  4. Full-scale design of a fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery system: Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Patch, K.D.; Cole, W.E.; Shimko, M.A.

    1987-01-30

    A major energy loss in industry is the heat content of the flue gases from industrial process heaters. One effective way to utilize the energy is to preheat the combustion air for the process heater. Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery (FBWHR) System is designed to preheat this combustion air using the heat available in dirty flue gas streams. In this system recirculating alumina particles are heated by the flue gas in a raining bed. The hot particles are then removed from the bed and placed in a fluidized bed where they are fluidized by the combustion air. Through this process, the combustion air is preheated. The cooled particles are then returned to the raining bed. Initial development of this concept is for the aluminium smelting industry. In this report, the design of a full-scale FBWHR system is detailed. Specific work consisted of characterizing the host site aluminum smelting furnace chosen to receive the system; completing the system mechanical design; and integrating the system process control and instrumentation.

  5. Thermoelectric energy recovery at ionic-liquid/electrode interface

    SciTech Connect

    Bonetti, Marco; Nakamae, Sawako; Huang, Bo Tao; Wiertel-Gasquet, Cécile; Roger, Michel; Salez, Thomas J.

    2015-06-28

    A thermally chargeable capacitor containing a binary solution of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide in acetonitrile is electrically charged by applying a temperature gradient to two ideally polarisable electrodes. The corresponding thermoelectric coefficient is −1.7 mV/K for platinum foil electrodes and −0.3 mV/K for nanoporous carbon electrodes. Stored electrical energy is extracted by discharging the capacitor through a resistor. The measured capacitance of the electrode/ionic-liquid interface is 5 μF for each platinum electrode while it becomes four orders of magnitude larger, ≈36 mF, for a single nanoporous carbon electrode. Reproducibility of the effect through repeated charging-discharging cycles under a steady-state temperature gradient demonstrates the robustness of the electrical charging process at the liquid/electrode interface. The acceleration of the charging by convective flows is also observed. This offers the possibility to convert waste-heat into electric energy without exchanging electrons between ions and electrodes, in contrast to what occurs in most thermogalvanic cells.

  6. Thermoelectric energy recovery at ionic-liquid/electrode interface.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Marco; Nakamae, Sawako; Huang, Bo Tao; Salez, Thomas J; Wiertel-Gasquet, Cécile; Roger, Michel

    2015-06-28

    A thermally chargeable capacitor containing a binary solution of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide in acetonitrile is electrically charged by applying a temperature gradient to two ideally polarisable electrodes. The corresponding thermoelectric coefficient is -1.7 mV/K for platinum foil electrodes and -0.3 mV/K for nanoporous carbon electrodes. Stored electrical energy is extracted by discharging the capacitor through a resistor. The measured capacitance of the electrode/ionic-liquid interface is 5 μF for each platinum electrode while it becomes four orders of magnitude larger, ≈36 mF, for a single nanoporous carbon electrode. Reproducibility of the effect through repeated charging-discharging cycles under a steady-state temperature gradient demonstrates the robustness of the electrical charging process at the liquid/electrode interface. The acceleration of the charging by convective flows is also observed. This offers the possibility to convert waste-heat into electric energy without exchanging electrons between ions and electrodes, in contrast to what occurs in most thermogalvanic cells. PMID:26133450

  7. Thermoelectric energy recovery at ionic-liquid/electrode interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, Marco; Nakamae, Sawako; Huang, Bo Tao; Salez, Thomas J.; Wiertel-Gasquet, Cécile; Roger, Michel

    2015-06-01

    A thermally chargeable capacitor containing a binary solution of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide in acetonitrile is electrically charged by applying a temperature gradient to two ideally polarisable electrodes. The corresponding thermoelectric coefficient is -1.7 mV/K for platinum foil electrodes and -0.3 mV/K for nanoporous carbon electrodes. Stored electrical energy is extracted by discharging the capacitor through a resistor. The measured capacitance of the electrode/ionic-liquid interface is 5 μF for each platinum electrode while it becomes four orders of magnitude larger, ≈36 mF, for a single nanoporous carbon electrode. Reproducibility of the effect through repeated charging-discharging cycles under a steady-state temperature gradient demonstrates the robustness of the electrical charging process at the liquid/electrode interface. The acceleration of the charging by convective flows is also observed. This offers the possibility to convert waste-heat into electric energy without exchanging electrons between ions and electrodes, in contrast to what occurs in most thermogalvanic cells.

  8. Energy-Efficient Bioalcohol Recovery by Gel Stripping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godbole, Rutvik; Ma, Lan; Hedden, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    Design of energy-efficient processes for recovering butanol and ethanol from dilute fermentations is a key challenge facing the biofuels industry due to the high energy consumption of traditional multi-stage distillation processes. Gel stripping is an alternative purification process by which a dilute alcohol is stripped from the fermentation product by passing it through a packed bed containing particles of a selectively absorbent polymeric gel material. The gel must be selective for the alcohol, while swelling to a reasonable degree in dilute alcohol-water mixtures. To accelerate materials optimization, a combinatorial approach is taken to screen a matrix of copolymer gels having orthogonal gradients in crosslinker concentration and hydrophilicity. Using a combination of swelling in pure solvents, the selectivity and distribution coefficients of alcohols in the gels can be predicted based upon multi-component extensions of Flory-Rehner theory. Predictions can be validated by measuring swelling in water/alcohol mixtures and conducting h HPLC analysis of the external liquid. 95% + removal of butanol from dilute aqueous solutions has been demonstrated, and a mathematical model of the unsteady-state gel stripping process has been developed. NSF CMMI Award 1335082.

  9. Coliforms in aerosols generated by a municipal solid waste recovery system.

    PubMed Central

    Lembke, L L; Kniseley, R N

    1980-01-01

    Airborne total and fecal coliform concentrations averaged 2.1 X 10(3) and 9.9 X 10(2)/m3, respectively, inside an operating solid waste recovery system. Installation of dust control equipment reduced these levels by 50%. Frequency of recovery of coliforms also dropped by 15%. PMID:7447442

  10. Coliforms in aerosols generated by a municipal solid waste recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Lembke, L.L.; Kniseley, R.N.

    1980-11-01

    Airborne total and fecal coliform concentrations averaged 2.1 x 10/sup 3/ and 9.9 x 10/sup 2//m/sup 3/, respectively, inside an operating solid waste recovery system. Installation of dust control equipment reduced these levels by 50%. Frequency of recovery of coliforms also dropped by 15%.

  11. Wind energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  12. Thermodynamic Analysis of Blast Furnace Slag Waste Heat-Recovery System Integrated with Coal Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, W. J.; Li, P.; Lei, W.; Chen, W.; Yu, Q. B.; Wang, K.; Qin, Q.

    2015-05-01

    The blast furnace (BF) slag waste heat was recovered by an integrated system stage by stage, which combined a physical and chemical method. The water and coal gasification reactions were used to recover the heat in the system. Based on the first and second law of thermodynamics, the thermodynamic analysis of the system was carried out by the enthalpy-exergy diagram. The results showed that the concept of the "recovery-temperature countercurrent, energy cascade utilization" was realized by this system to recover and use the high-quality BF slag waste heat. In this system, the high-temperature waste heat was recovered by coal gasification and the relatively low-temperature waste heat was used to produce steam. The system's exergy and thermal recycling efficiency were 52.6% and 75.4%, respectively. The exergy loss of the integrated system was only 620.0 MJ/tslag. Compared with the traditional physical recycling method producing steam, the exergy and thermal efficiencies of the integrated system were improved significantly. Meanwhile, approximately 182.0 m3/tslag syngas was produced by coal gasification. The BF slag waste heat will be used integrally and efficiently by the integrated system. The results provide the theoretical reference for recycling and using the BF slag waste heat.

  13. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E.

    1995-09-01

    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  14. Energy Systems Divisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applewhite, John

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the JSC Energy Systems Divisions work in propulsion. Specific work in LO2/CH4 propulsion, cryogenic propulsion, low thrust propulsion for Free Flyer, robotic and Extra Vehicular Activities, and work on the Morpheus terrestrial free flyer test bed is reviewed. The back-up slides contain a chart with comparisons of LO2/LCH4 with other propellants, and reviewing the advantages especially for spacecraft propulsion.

  15. Energy systems and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) Systems and Applications Group provides decision support services to help industry and government reach sound policy and planning decisions. They identify critical factors that affect the development and commercialization of energy systems. The multidisciplinary IGT team provides economic and financial analyses, technology assessments, feasibility studies, market evaluations, policy analyses, and impact assessments. Their information can be used to plan for diversification, operations, research and development, investment, options identification, and market strategies. The authors cite sample analyses and summarize experience in such areas as pipeline cost estimation. 3 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Energy Integrated Design of Lighting, Heating, and Cooling Systems, and Its Effect on Building Energy Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meckler, Gershon

    Comments on the need for integrated design of lighting, heating, and cooling systems. In order to eliminate the penalty of refrigerating the lighting heat, minimize the building non-usable space, and optimize the total energy input, a "systems approach" is recommended. This system would employ heat-recovery techniques based on the ability of the…

  17. Recovery Act: Waste Energy Project at AK Steel Corporation Middletown

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, Jeffrey

    2012-06-30

    In 2008, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (“Air Products”) began development of a project to beneficially utilize waste blast furnace “topgas” generated in the course of the iron-making process at AK Steel Corporation’s Middletown, Ohio works. In early 2010, Air Products was awarded DOE Assistance Agreement DE-EE002736 to further develop and build the combined-cycle power generation facility. In June 2012, Air Products and AK Steel Corporation terminated work when it was determined that the project would not be economically viable at that time nor in the foreseeable future. The project would have achieved the FOA-0000044 Statement of Project Objectives by demonstrating, at a commercial scale, the technology to capture, treat, and convert blast furnace topgas into electric power and thermal energy.

  18. Extremely High Current, High-Brightness Energy Recovery Linac

    SciTech Connect

    I. Ben-Zvi; D.S. Barton; D.B. Beavis; M. Blaskiewicz; J.M. Brennan; A. Burrill; R. Calaga; P. Cameron; X.Y. Chang; R. Connolly; D.M. Gassner; J.G. Grimes; H. Hahn; A. Hershcovitch; H.-C. Hseuh; P.D.J. Johnson; D. Kayran; J. Kewisch; R.F. Lambiase; V. Litvinenko; G.T. McIntyre; W. Meng; T.C.N. Nehring; T. Nicoletti; B. Oerter; D. Pate; J. Rank; T. Rao; T. Roser; T. Russo; J. Scaduto; Z. Segalov; K. Smith; N.W.W. Williams; K.-C. Wu; V. Yakimenko; K. Yip; A. Zaltsman; Y. Zhao; H. Bluem; A. Burger; M.D. Cole; A.J. Favale; D. Holmes; J. Rathke; T. Schultheiss; A.M.M. Todd; J.R. Delayen; L. W. Funk; P. Kneisel; H.L. Phillips; J.P. Preble

    2005-05-16

    Next generation ERL light-sources, high-energy electron coolers, high-power Free-Electron Lasers, powerful Compton X-ray sources and many other accelerators were made possible by the emerging technology of high-power, high-brightness electron beams. In order to get the anticipated performance level of ampere-class currents, many technological barriers are yet to be broken. BNL's Collider-Accelerator Department is pursuing some of these technologies for its electron cooling of RHIC application, as well as a possible future electron-hadron collider. We will describe work on CW, high-current and high-brightness electron beams. This will include a description of a superconducting, laser-photocathode RF gun and an accelerator cavity capable of producing low emittance (about 1 micron rms normalized) one nano-Coulomb bunches at currents of the order of one ampere average.

  19. Energy recovery and cogeneration from an existing municipal incinerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crego, D. F.; Eller, V. L.; Stephenson, J. W.

    1982-02-01

    An existing 727 TPD incinerator burning mixed municipal refuse was deemed to be a feasible candidate for a cogeneration energy retrofit. It is indicated that equipment and construction of the retrofit will cost $17.6 million or $24,200/rated tonne in 1980 dollars; air pollution control equipment will cost 10.4 million or $14,300/tonne. Furnace temperature and gas samplings along with pilot air pollution control equipment tests were conducted. Refuse was characterized on both wet and dry seasons. Final design is based upon burning 155,000 TPY of refuse from which can be generated, sufficient steam and electricity for inhouse use and an additional amount of 64 million kWh for sale.

  20. Compression Stripping of Flue Gas with Energy Recovery

    DOEpatents

    Ochs, Thomas L.; O'Connor, William K.

    2005-05-31

    A method of remediating and recovering energy from combustion products from a fossil fuel power plant having at least one fossil fuel combustion chamber, at least one compressor, at least one turbine, at least one heat exchanger and a source of oxygen. Combustion products including non-condensable gases such as oxygen and nitrogen and condensable vapors such as water vapor and acid gases such as SOX and NOX and CO2 and pollutants are produced and energy is recovered during the remediation which recycles combustion products and adds oxygen to support combustion. The temperature and/or pressure of the combustion products are changed by cooling through heat exchange with thermodynamic working fluids in the power generation cycle and/or compressing and/or heating and/or expanding the combustion products to a temperature/pressure combination below the dew point of at least some of the condensable vapors to condense liquid having some acid gases dissolved and/or entrained and/or directly condense acid gas vapors from the combustion products and to entrain and/or dissolve some of the pollutants while recovering sensible and/or latent heat from the combustion products through heat exchange between the combustion products and thermodynamic working fluids and/or cooling fluids used in the power generating cycle. Then the CO2, SO2, and H2O poor and oxygen enriched remediation stream is sent to an exhaust and/or an air separation unit and/or a turbine.

  1. Compression stripping of flue gas with energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Ochs, Thomas L.; O'Connor, William K.

    2005-05-31

    A method of remediating and recovering energy from combustion products from a fossil fuel power plant having at least one fossil fuel combustion chamber, at least one compressor, at least one turbine, at least one heat exchanger and a source of oxygen. Combustion products including non-condensable gases such as oxygen and nitrogen and condensable vapors such as water vapor and acid gases such as SO.sub.X and NO.sub.X and CO.sub.2 and pollutants are produced and energy is recovered during the remediation which recycles combustion products and adds oxygen to support combustion. The temperature and/or pressure of the combustion products are changed by cooling through heat exchange with thermodynamic working fluids in the power generation cycle and/or compressing and/or heating and/or expanding the combustion products to a temperature/pressure combination below the dew point of at least some of the condensable vapors to condense liquid having some acid gases dissolved and/or entrained and/or directly condense acid gas vapors from the combustion products and to entrain and/or dissolve some of the pollutants while recovering sensible and/or latent heat from the combustion products through heat exchange between the combustion products and thermodynamic working fluids and/or cooling fluids used in the power generating cycle. Then the CO.sub.2, SO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O poor and oxygen enriched remediation stream is sent to an exhaust and/or an air separation unit and/or a turbine.

  2. Energy Systems Integration Facility Overview

    ScienceCinema

    Arvizu, Dan; Chistensen, Dana; Hannegan, Bryan; Garret, Bobi; Kroposki, Ben; Symko-Davies, Martha; Post, David; Hammond, Steve; Kutscher, Chuck; Wipke, Keith

    2014-06-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is the right tool, at the right time... a first-of-its-kind facility that addresses the challenges of large-scale integration of clean energy technologies into the energy systems that power the nation.

  3. Energy Systems Integration Facility Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Arvizu, Dan; Chistensen, Dana; Hannegan, Bryan; Garret, Bobi; Kroposki, Ben; Symko-Davies, Martha; Post, David; Hammond, Steve; Kutscher, Chuck; Wipke, Keith

    2014-02-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is the right tool, at the right time... a first-of-its-kind facility that addresses the challenges of large-scale integration of clean energy technologies into the energy systems that power the nation.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF BIOSURFACTANT-MEDIATED OIL RECOVERY IN MODEL POROUS SYSTEMS AND COMPUTER SIMULATIONS OF BIOSURFACTANT-MEDIATED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. McInerney; S.K. Maudgalya; R. Knapp; M. Folmsbee

    2004-05-31

    Current technology recovers only one-third to one-half of the oil that is originally present in an oil reservoir. Entrapment of petroleum hydrocarbons by capillary forces is a major factor that limits oil recovery (1, 3, 4). Hydrocarbon displacement can occur if interfacial tension (IFT) between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases is reduced by several orders of magnitude. Microbially-produced biosurfactants may be an economical method to recover residual hydrocarbons since they are effective at low concentrations. Previously, we showed that substantial mobilization of residual hydrocarbon from a model porous system occurs at biosurfactant concentrations made naturally by B. mojavensis strain JF-1 if a polymer and 2,3-butanediol were present (2). In this report, we include data on oil recovery from Berea sandstone experiments along with our previous data from sand pack columns in order to relate biosurfactant concentration to the fraction of oil recovered. We also investigate the effect that the JF-2 biosurfactant has on interfacial tension (IFT). The presence of a co-surfactant, 2,3-butanediol, was shown to improve oil recoveries possibly by changing the optimal salinity concentration of the formulation. The JF-2 biosurfactant lowered IFT by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared to typical values of 28-29 mN/m. Increasing the salinity increased the IFT with or without 2,3-butanediol present. The lowest interfacial tension observed was 0.1 mN/m. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that biosurfactant solutions with concentrations ranging from 10 to 60 mg/l in the presence of 0.1 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1 g/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) recovered 10-40% of the residual oil present in Berea sandstone cores. When PHPA was used alone, about 10% of the residual oil was recovered. Thus, about 10% of the residual oil recovered in these experiments was due to the increase in viscosity of the displacing fluid. Little or no oil was recovered at

  5. Exergy analysis of the Szewalski cycle with a waste heat recovery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Ziółkowski, Paweł; Badur, Janusz

    2015-09-01

    The conversion of a waste heat energy to electricity is now becoming one of the key points to improve the energy efficiency in a process engineering. However, large losses of a low-temperature thermal energy are also present in power engineering. One of such sources of waste heat in power plants are exhaust gases at the outlet of boilers. Through usage of a waste heat regeneration system it is possible to attain a heat rate of approximately 200 MWth, under about 90 °C, for a supercritical power block of 900 MWel fuelled by a lignite. In the article, we propose to use the waste heat to improve thermal efficiency of the Szewalski binary vapour cycle. The Szewalski binary vapour cycle provides steam as the working fluid in a high temperature part of the cycle, while another fluid - organic working fluid - as the working substance substituting conventional steam over the temperature range represented by the low pressure steam expansion. In order to define in detail the efficiency of energy conversion at various stages of the proposed cycle the exergy analysis was performed. The steam cycle for reference conditions, the Szewalski binary vapour cycle as well as the Szewalski hierarchic vapour cycle cooperating with a system of waste heat recovery have been comprised.

  6. SYSTEM FOR DETECTION AND CONTROL OF DEPOSITION IN KRAFT CHEMICAL RECOVERY BOILERS AND MONITORING GLASS FURNACES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Peter Ariessohn

    2003-04-15

    Combustion Specialists, Inc. has just completed a project designed to develop the capability to monitor and control the formation of deposits on the outside of boiler tubes inside an operating kraft recovery furnace. This project, which was carried out in the period from April 1, 2001 to January 31, 2003, was funded by the Department of Energy's Inventions and Innovations program. The primary objectives of the project included the development and demonstration of the ability to produce clear images of deposits throughout the convective sections of operating recovery boilers using newly developed infrared imaging technology, to demonstrate the automated detection and quantification of these deposits using custom designed image processing software developed as part of the project, and to demonstrate the feasibility of all technical elements required for a commercial ''smart'' sootblowing control system based on direct feedback from automated imaging of deposits in real-time. All of the individual tasks have been completed and all objectives have been substantially achieved. Imaging of deposits throughout the convective sections of several recovery boilers has been demonstrated, a design for a combined sootblower/deposit inspection probe has been developed and a detailed heat transfer analysis carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of this design, an improved infrared imager which can be sufficiently miniaturized for this application has been identified, automated deposit detection software has been developed and demonstrated, a detailed design for all the necessary communications and control interfaces has been developed, and a test has been carried out in a glass furnace to demonstrate the applicability of the infrared imaging sensor in that environment. The project was completed on time and within the initial budget. A commercial partner has been identified and further federal funding will be sought to support a project to develop a commercial prototype

  7. Energy impact of cathode drying and solvent recovery during lithium-ion battery manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Nelson, Paul A.; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2016-08-01

    Successful deployment of electric vehicles requires maturity of the manufacturing process to reduce the cost of the lithium ion battery (LIB) pack. Drying the coated cathode layer and subsequent recovery of the solvent for recycle is a vital step in the lithium ion battery manufacturing plant and offers significant potential for cost reduction. A spreadsheet model of the drying and recovery of the solvent, is used to study the energy demand of this step and its contribution towards the cost of the battery pack. The base case scenario indicates that the drying and recovery process imposes an energy demand of ∼10 kWh per kg of the solvent n-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP), and is almost 45 times the heat needed to vaporize the NMP. For a plant producing 100 K battery packs per year for 10 kWh plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV), the energy demand is ∼5900 kW and the process contributes 107 or 3.4% to the cost of the battery pack. The cost of drying and recovery is equivalent to 1.12 per kg of NMP recovered, saving 2.08 per kg in replacement purchase.

  8. Energy-Systems Economic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, J.; Slonski, M. L.; Borden, C. S.

    1982-01-01

    Energy Systems Economic Analysis (ESEA) program is flexible analytical tool for rank ordering of alternative energy systems. Basic ESEA approach derives an estimate of those costs incurred as result of purchasing, installing and operating an energy system. These costs, suitably aggregated into yearly costs over lifetime of system, are divided by expected yearly energy output to determine busbar energy costs. ESEA, developed in 1979, is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

  9. Platforms for energy and nutrient recovery from domestic wastewater: A review.

    PubMed

    Batstone, D J; Hülsen, T; Mehta, C M; Keller, J

    2015-12-01

    Alternative domestic wastewater treatment processes that recover energy and nutrients while achieving acceptable nutrient limits (<5mgNL(-1)) are a key challenge. Major drivers are value and availability of phosphorous, nitrogen, and potassium, and increasing energy costs. The two major platforms that can achieve this are (a) low energy mainline (LEM), with low strength anaerobic treatment, followed by mainline anaerobic nitrogen removal and chemical or adsorptive phosphorous removal and (b) partition-release-recover (PRR), in which carbon and nutrients are partitioned to solids through either heterotrophic or phototrophic microbes, followed by anaerobic digestion of these solids and recovery from the digestate. This paper reviews practical application of these processes, with a focus on energy costs. Compared to conventional processes which require 0.5kWhkL(-1) electricity (500mgCODL(-1) influent concentration), PRR requires only 0.05kWhkL(-1) electricity. LEM offers the possibility to recover 0.1kWhkL(-1) as electricity with net energy generation above 400mgCODL(-1)influent, while PRR becomes energy generating at >650mgCODL(-1). PRR offers the possibility for recovery of nitrogen and other nutrients (including potassium) through assimilative recovery. However, the energetic overhead of this is substantial, requiring 5kWhkgN(-1) as electricity, which compares to ammonia fixation costs. The lower energy costs, and near to market status of LEM treatment make it likely as a recovery platform in the shorter term, while ability to recover other elements such as nitrogen and potassium, as well as enhance favourability on concentrated wastewaters may enhance the desirability of partitioning in the longer term. PMID:25455679

  10. Recovery of Hypersomnia Concurrent With Recovery of an Injured Ascending Reticular Activating System in a Stroke Patient: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sung Ho; Lee, Han Do; Chang, Chul Hoon; Jung, Young Jin

    2016-01-01

    We report on a stroke patient who showed recovery of hypersomnia concurrent with the recovery of an injured ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), which was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT).A 70-year-old female patient underwent coiling of the left ruptured posterior communicating artery after subarachnoid hemorrhage and both extraventricular drainage for management of an intraventricular hemorrhage. At 2 months after onset, when she started rehabilitation, she exhibited intact consciousness, with the full score on the Glasgow Coma Scale: 15. However, she showed severe hypersomnia: she always fell asleep without external stimulation and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (EPS) score was 24 (full score: 24, cut off for hypersomnia: 10). She underwent comprehensive rehabilitative therapy, including neurotropic drugs, physical therapy, and occupational therapy. Her hypersomnia has shown improvement as 14 (3 months after onset), 11 (4 months after onset), 7 (12 months after onset), and 6 (24 months after onset), respectively.On 2-month DTT, narrowing of both lower dorsal and ventral ARASs was observed on both sides: in particular, among 4 neural tracts of the lower ARAS, the right lower ventral ARAS was the narrowest. By contrast, on 24-month DTT, the 4 narrowed neural tracts of both lower dorsal and ventral ARASs were thickened compared with those of 2-month DTT.Recovery of hypersomnia with recovery of an injured lower ARAS on DTT was observed in a stroke patient. Our results suggest that evaluation of the lower ARAS using DTT might be useful for stroke patients with hypersomnia. PMID:26765455

  11. Effects of 1980 technology on weight of a recovery system for a one million pound booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckstrom, C. V.

    1975-01-01

    The effects were evaluated of 1980 technology on the weight of recovery systems capable of decelerating a one-million-pound booster to vertical velocities of 60 or 30 ft/sec at sea level impact. A nominal set of booster staging conditions were assumed and there were no constraints on parachute size, number or type. The effects of new materials that would be available by 1980, the effects of booster attitude during entry, various parachute staging methods, parachute reefing schemes, parachute-retro rocket hybrid systems, and the effects of dividing the booster into separate pieces for recovery were evaluated. It was determined that for the systems considered, a hybrid parachute-retro-rocket recovery system would have the minimum weight. New materials now becoming available for parachute fabrication should result in a 37-percent reduction in hybrid recovery system weight for an impact velocity of 30 fps.

  12. Energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, L.M.

    1985-09-16

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weathproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction and operational with a minimal power draw.

  13. Energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Lawrence M.

    1987-01-01

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weatherproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction, and operational with a minimal power draw.

  14. Energy implications of integrated solid waste management systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Little, R.E.; McClain, G.; Becker, M.; Ligon, P.; Shapiro, K.

    1994-07-01

    This study develops estimates of energy use and recovery from managing municipal solid waste (MSW) under various collection, processing, and disposal scenarios. We estimate use and recovery -- or energy balance -- resulting from MSW management activities such as waste collection, transport, processing, and disposal, as well as indirect use and recovery linked to secondary materials manufacturing using recycled materials. In our analysis, secondary materials manufacturing displaces virgin materials manufacturing for 13 representative products. Energy implications are expressed as coefficients that measure the net energy saving (or use) of displacing products made from virgin versus recycled materials. Using data developed for the 1992 New York City Master Plan as a starting point, we apply our method to an analysis of various collection systems and 30 types of facilities to illustrate bow energy balances shift as management systems are modified. In sum, all four scenarios show a positive energy balance indicating the energy and advantage of integrated systems versus reliance on one or few technology options. That is, energy produced or saved exceeds the energy used to operate the solid waste system. The largest energy use impacts are attributable to processing, including materials separation and composting. Collection and transportation energy are relatively minor contributors. The largest two contributors to net energy savings are waste combustion and energy saved by processing recycled versus virgin materials. An accompanying spatial analysis methodology allocates energy use and recovery to New York City, New York State outside the city, the U.S., and outside the U.S. Our analytical approach is embodied in a spreadsheet model that can be used by energy and solid waste analysts to estimate impacts of management scenarios at the state and substate level.

  15. Zeolite membrane cascade for tritium extraction and recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Borisevich, O.; Demange, D.; Lefebvre, X.; Kind, M.

    2015-03-15

    Membrane separation by zeolite membranes has been proposed as a pre-concentration stage for the tritium extraction from the purge helium of the breeding blanket combined with a final recovery by the catalytic membrane reactor PERMCAT. This fully continuous operation improves the tritium management in fusion machines, minimizing the tritium inventory. For the first time, the permeation measurements for H{sub 2} - He mixtures through a MFI-alumina hollow fibre membrane has been measured for different compositions (0.1 - 20% H{sub 2}) and temperatures. Such a highly permeable membrane, although it shows a limited selectivity, appears attractive for tritium recovery in the blanket. This will imply its operation in a membrane cascade, for which simulation work is ongoing. Mathematically the process is modeled using mass balance equations that can be transformed into the matrix form and solved iteratively assuming a permeate concentration on the first step of iteration, until the separation requirements are fulfilled.

  16. Energy Production Systems. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in energy production systems is one of 15 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  17. Fault recovery for real-time, multi-tasking computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Richard (Inventor); Kelly, Gerald B. (Inventor); Rogers, Randy (Inventor); Stange, Kent A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    System and methods for providing a recoverable real time multi-tasking computer system are disclosed. In one embodiment, a system comprises a real time computing environment, wherein the real time computing environment is adapted to execute one or more applications and wherein each application is time and space partitioned. The system further comprises a fault detection system adapted to detect one or more faults affecting the real time computing environment and a fault recovery system, wherein upon the detection of a fault the fault recovery system is adapted to restore a backup set of state variables.

  18. Recovery of tritium from water

    SciTech Connect

    Sienkiewicz, C.J.; Lentz, J.E. . Mound)

    1988-09-01

    The pilot-scale Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) system developed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Mound facility has evolved into a fully operational tritium recovery system. This has resulted from the evaluation of recent developments in AECL/CRNL hydrophobic exchange catalyst in the CECE system. Data obtained during recent tests led to the design and installation of an aqueous tritium recovery facility. Operation of the Tritium Aqueous Waste Recovery System makes possible the recovery of tritium from low-level tritiated aqueous waste streams.

  19. Recovery of tritium from water

    SciTech Connect

    Sienkiewicz, C.J.; Lentz, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The pilot-scale Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) system developed at the US Department of Energy's Mound facility has evolved into a fully operational tritium recovery system. This has resulted from the evaluation of recent developments in AECL/ORNL hydrophobic exchange catalyst in the CECE system. Data obtained during recent tests led to the design and installation of an aqueous tritium recovery facility. Operation of the Tritium Aqueous Waste Recovery System makes possible the recovery of tritium from low-level tritiated aqueous waste streams. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Bypass valve and coolant flow controls for optimum temperatures in waste heat recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meisner, Gregory P

    2013-10-08

    Implementing an optimized waste heat recovery system includes calculating a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a heat exchanger of a waste heat recovery system, and predicting a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a material flowing through a channel of the waste heat recovery system. Upon determining the rate of change in the temperature of the material is predicted to be higher than the rate of change in the temperature of the heat exchanger, the optimized waste heat recovery system calculates a valve position and timing for the channel that is configurable for achieving a rate of material flow that is determined to produce and maintain a defined threshold temperature of the heat exchanger, and actuates the valve according to the calculated valve position and calculated timing.

  1. An assessment of climate change impacts on micro-hydropower energy recovery in water supply networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Jennifer; Patil, Sopan; McNabola, Aonghus; Gallagher, John; Coughlan, Paul; Harris, Ian; Packwood, Andrew; Williams, Prysor

    2015-04-01

    Continuity of service of a high quality water supply is vital in sustaining economic and social development. However, water supply and wastewater treatment are highly energy intensive processes and the overall cost of water provision is rising rapidly due to increased energy costs, higher capital investment requirements, and more stringent regulatory compliance in terms of both national and EU legislation. Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC, both Ireland and the UK are required to have 16% and 15% respectively of their electricity generated by renewable sources by 2020. The projected impacts of climate change, population growth and urbanisation will place additional pressures on resources, further increasing future water demand which in turn will lead to higher energy consumption. Therefore, there is a need to achieve greater efficiencies across the water industry. The implementation of micro-hydropower turbines within the water supply network has shown considerable viability for energy recovery. This is achieved by harnessing energy at points of high flow or pressure along the network which can then be utilised on site or alternatively sold to the national grid. Micro-hydropower can provide greater energy security for utilities together with a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. However, potential climate change impacts on water resources in the medium-to-long term currently act as a key barrier to industry confidence as changes in flow and pressure within the network can significantly alter the available energy for recovery. The present study aims to address these uncertainties and quantify the regional and local impacts of climate change on the viability of energy recovery across water infrastructure in Ireland and the UK. Specifically, the research focuses on assessing the potential future effects of climate change on flow rates at multiple pressure reducing valve sites along the water supply network and also in terms of flow at a number of wastewater

  2. The role of elastic energy storage and recovery in downhill and uphill running.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Kristine L; Kram, Rodger; Gottschall, Jinger S

    2012-07-01

    In level running, humans and other animals store and recover elastic energy during each step. What role does elastic energy play during downhill and uphill running? We measured the fluctuations of the mechanical energy of the center of mass (CoM) of 15 human participants running at 3 m s(-1) on the level, downhill and uphill on a force-measuring treadmill mounted at 3, 6 and 9 deg. In level running, nearly symmetrical decreases and increases of the combined gravitational potential and kinetic (GPE+KE) energy of the CoM indicated equal possible elastic energy storage and recovery. However, asymmetrical fluctuations during hill running indicate reduced maximum possible elastic energy storage and return. We analyzed mechanical energy generation and dissipation during level and hill running by quantifying the anatomically estimated elastic energy storage (AEEE) in the arch and Achilles' tendon using peak ground reaction forces and anatomical characteristics. AEEE did not change with grade. At shallow downhill grades, the body must generate mechanical energy, though it dissipates more than it generates. At steeper downhill grades, little to no energy generation is required and only mechanical energy dissipation must occur. The downhill grade at which mechanical energy must no longer be generated occurs at approximately -9 deg, near the metabolically optimal running grade. At shallow uphill grades, mechanical energy must be generated to raise the CoM, and at steeper grades, additional energy must be generated to offset reduced elastic energy storage and return. PMID:22675189

  3. Waste heat recovery systems in the sugar industry: An Indian perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Madnaik, S.D.; Jadhav, M.G.

    1996-04-01

    This article identifies the key role of the sugar industry in the rural development of developing countries. The Indian sugar industry, already second largest among the country`s processing industries, shows even greater potential, according to the Plan Documents (shown in a table). The potential of waste heat in sugar processing plants, which produce white crystal sugar using the double sulphitation clarification process, is estimated at 5757.9 KJ/kg of sugar. Efficient waste heat recovery (WHR) systems could help arrest the trend of increasing production costs. This would help the sugar industry not only in India, but in many other countries as well. The innovative methods suggested and discussed briefly in this article include dehydration of prepared cane, bagasse drying, and juice heating using waste heat. These methods can reduce the cost of energy in sugar production by at least 10% and improve efficiency and productivity.

  4. Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Improvement Project - Replacement of Current Mechanical Seal System with Rope Packing System

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Jessica D.

    2013-05-29

    On January 27, 2010 the City of North Little Rock, Arkansas received notification of the awarding of a Department of Energy (DOE) grant totaling $450,000 in funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) under the Project Title: Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Improvement Project – Automated Intake Clearing Equipment and Materials Management. The purpose of the grant was for improvements to be made at the City’s hydroelectric generating facility located on the Arkansas River. Improvements were to be made through the installation of an intake maintenance device (IMD) and the purchase of a large capacity wood grinder. The wood grinder was purchased in order to receive the tree limbs, tree trunks, and other organic debris that collects at the intake of the plant during high flow. The wood grinder eliminates the periodic burning of the waste material that is cleared from the intake and reduces any additional air pollution to the area. The resulting organic mulch has been made available to the public at no charge. Design discussion and planning began immediately and the wood grinder was purchased in July of 2010 and immediately put to work mulching debris that was gathered regularly from the intake of the facility. The mulch is currently available to the public for free. A large majority of the design process was spent in discussion with the Corps of Engineers to obtain approval for drawings, documents, and permits that were required in order to make changes to the structure of the powerhouse. In April of 2011, the City’s Project Engineer, who had overseen the application, resigned and left the City’s employ. A new Systems Mechanical Engineer was hired and tasked with overseeing the project. The transfer of responsibility led to a re-examination of the original assumptions and research upon which the grant proposal was based. At that point, the project went under review and a trip was booked for July 2011 to visit facilities that currently

  5. PHOTOINJECTED ENERGY RECOVERY LINAC UPGRADE FOR THE NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE.

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI,I.; BABZIEN,M.; BLUM,E.; CASEY,W.; CHANG,X.; GRAVES,W.; HASTINGS,J.; HULBERT,S.; JOHNSON,E.; KAO,C.C.; KRAMER,S.; KRINSKY,S.; MORTAZAVI,P.; MURPHY,J.; OZAKI,S.; PJEROV,S.; PODOBEDOV,B.; RAKOWSKY,G.; ROSE,J.; SHAFTAN,T.; SHEEHY,B.; SIDDONS,D.; SMEDLEY,J.; SRINIVASAN-RAO,T.; TOWNE,N.; WANG,J.M.; WANG,X.; WU,J.; YAKIMENKO,V.; YU,L.H.

    2001-06-18

    We describe a major paradigm shift in the approach to the production of synchrotron radiation This change will considerably improve the scientific capabilities of synchrotron light sources. We introduce plans for an upgrade of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). This upgrade will be based on the Photoinjected Energy Recovering Linac (PERL). This machine emerges from the union of two technologies, the laser-photocathode RF gun (photoinjector) and superconducting linear accelerators with beam energy recovery (Energy Recovering Linac). The upgrade will bring the NSLS users many new insertion device beam lines, brightness greater than 3rd generation lightsource's and ultra-short pulse capabilities, not possible with storage ring light sources.

  6. Factors influencing the life cycle burdens of the recovery of energy from residual municipal waste.

    PubMed

    Burnley, Stephen; Coleman, Terry; Peirce, Adam

    2015-05-01

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to assess a selection of the factors influencing the environmental impacts and benefits of incinerating the fraction of municipal waste remaining after source-separation for reuse, recycling, composting or anaerobic digestion. The factors investigated were the extent of any metal and aggregate recovery from the bottom ash, the thermal efficiency of the process, and the conventional fuel for electricity generation displaced by the power generated. The results demonstrate that incineration has significant advantages over landfill with lower impacts from climate change, resource depletion, acidification, eutrophication human toxicity and aquatic ecotoxicity. To maximise the benefits of energy recovery, metals, particularly aluminium, should be reclaimed from the residual bottom ash and the energy recovery stage of the process should be as efficient as possible. The overall environmental benefits/burdens of energy from waste also strongly depend on the source of the power displaced by the energy from waste, with coal giving the greatest benefits and combined cycle turbines fuelled by natural gas the lowest of those considered. Regardless of the conventional power displaced incineration presents a lower environmental burden than landfill. PMID:25758908

  7. First operation of an FEL in same-cell energy recovery mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neil, G. R.; Benson, S.; Biallas, G.; Bohn, C. L.; Douglas, H. F. Dylla, D.; Evans, R.; Fugitt, J.; Gubeli, J.; Hill, R.; Jordan, K.; Krafft, G.; Li, R.; Merminga, L.; Oepts, D.; Piot, P.; Preble, J.; Shinn, M.; Siggins, T.; Walker, R.; Yunn, B.

    2000-05-01

    The driver for Jefferson Lab's kW-level infrared free-electron laser (FEL) is a superconducting, recirculating accelerator that recovers 75% of the electron-beam power and converts it to radio frequency power. As reported in FEL'98, the accelerator operated "straight-ahead" to deliver 38 MeV, 1.1 mA cw current for lasing at wavelengths in the vicinity of 5 μm. The waste beam was sent directly to a dump, bypassing the recirculation loop. Stable operation at up to 311 W cw was achieved in this mode. The machine has now recirculated cw average current up to 4.7 mA, and has lased cw with energy recovery up to 1720 W output at 3.1 μm. This is the first FEL to ever operate in the "same-cell" energy recovery mode. Energy recovery offers several advantages (reduced RF power and dramatically reduced radio-nuclide production at the dump) and several challenges (potential for instabilities and difficult beam transport due to large energy spreads). Solutions to these challenges will be described. We have observed heating effects in the mirrors which will be described. We will also report on the additional performance measurements of the FEL that have been performed and connect those measurements to standard models.

  8. Recovery Migration After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Spatial Concentration and Intensification in the Migration System.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Katherine J; Fussell, Elizabeth; DeWaard, Jack

    2015-08-01

    Changes in the human migration systems of the Gulf of Mexico coastline counties affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita provide an example of how climate change may affect coastal populations. Crude climate change models predict a mass migration of "climate refugees," but an emerging literature on environmental migration suggests that most migration will be short-distance and short-duration within existing migration systems, with implications for the population recovery of disaster-stricken places. In this research, we derive a series of hypotheses on recovery migration predicting how the migration system of hurricane-affected coastline counties in the Gulf of Mexico was likely to have changed between the pre-disaster and the recovery periods. We test these hypotheses using data from the Internal Revenue Service on annual county-level migration flows, comparing the recovery period migration system (2007-2009) with the pre-disaster period (1999-2004). By observing county-to-county ties and flows, we find that recovery migration was strong: the migration system of the disaster-affected coastline counties became more spatially concentrated, while flows within it intensified and became more urbanized. Our analysis demonstrates how migration systems are likely to be affected by the more intense and frequent storms anticipated by climate change scenarios, with implications for the population recovery of disaster-affected places. PMID:26084982

  9. Recovery Migration after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Spatial Concentration and Intensification in the Migration System

    PubMed Central

    Fussell, Elizabeth; DeWaard, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the human migration systems of Hurricane Katrina- and Rita-affected Gulf of Mexico coastline counties provide an example of how climate change may affect coastal populations. Crude climate change models predict a mass migration of “climate refugees,” but an emerging literature on environmental migration suggests most migration will be short-distance and short-duration within existing migration systems, with implications for the population recovery of disaster-struck places. In this research, we derive a series of hypotheses on recovery migration predicting how the migration system of hurricane-affected coastline counties in the Gulf of Mexico was likely to have changed between the pre-disaster and the recovery periods. We test these hypotheses using data from the Internal Revenue Service on annual county-level migration flows, comparing the recovery period migration system (2007–2009) to the pre-disaster period (1999–2004). By observing county-to-county ties and flows we find that recovery migration was strong, as the migration system of the disaster-affected coastline counties became more spatially concentrated while flows within it intensified and became more urbanized. Our analysis demonstrates how migration systems are likely to be affected by the more intense and frequent storms anticipated by climate change scenarios with implications for the population recovery of disaster-affected places. PMID:26084982

  10. Design Construction and Test Results of a HTS Solenoid For Energy Recovery Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Anerella, M; Ben-Zvi, I; Kayran, D; McIntyre, G; Muratore, J; Plate, S; Sampson, W; Cole, M

    2011-03-28

    An innovative feature of the proposed Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is the use of a solenoid made with High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) with the Superconducting RF cavity. The use of HTS allows solenoid to be placed in close proximity to the cavity and thus provides early focusing of the electron beam. In addition, cryogenic testing at {approx}77 K is simpler and cheaper than 4 K testing. This paper will present the design, construction and test results of this HTS solenoid. The HTS solenoid in the proposed ERL will be situated in the transition region between the superconducting cavity at {approx}4 K and the cryostat at the room temperature. Solenoid inside the cryogenic structure provides an early focusing and hence low emittance beam. The temperature in the transition region will be too high for a conventional low temperature superconductor and resistive heat load from copper coils will be too high on cryogenic system. HTS coils also allow much higher current density and significant reduction in size as compared to copper coils. Hence HTS solenoid provide a unique and technically superior solution. The use of a HTS solenoid with superconducting cavity offers a unique option as it can be placed in a cold to warm transition region to provide early focussing without using additional space. Construction and test results so far are very encouraging for its use in the ERL project.

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of the energy recovery from the aerobic bioconversion of solid urban waste organic fraction.

    PubMed

    Di Maria, Francesco; Benavoli, Manuel; Zoppitelli, Mirco

    2008-01-01

    Waste management is of the utmost importance for many countries and especially for highly developed ones due to its implications on society. In particular, proper treatment before disposal of the solid urban waste organic fraction is one of the main issues that is addressed in waste management. In fact, the organic fraction is particularly reactive and if disposed in sanitary landfills without previous adequate treatment, a large amount of dangerous and polluting gaseous, liquid and solid substances can be produced. Some waste treatment processes can also present an opportunity to produce other by-products like energy, recycled materials and other products with both economic and environmental benefits. In this paper, the aerobic treatment of the organic fraction of solid urban waste, performed in a biocell plant with the possibility of recovering heat for civil or industrial needs, was examined from the thermodynamic point of view. A theoretical model was proposed both for the biological process of the organic fraction, as well as for the heat recovery system. The most significant results are represented and discussed. PMID:17512716

  12. Methanogenic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in subsurface environments remediation, heavy oil formation, and energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Gray, N D; Sherry, A; Hubert, C; Dolfing, J; Head, I M

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are common constituents of surface, shallow, and deep-subsurface environments. Under anaerobic conditions, hydrocarbons can be degraded to methane by methanogenic microbial consortia. This degradation process is widespread in the geosphere. In comparison with other anaerobic processes, methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation is more sustainable over geological time scales because replenishment of an exogenous electron acceptor is not required. As a consequence, this process has been responsible for the formation of the world's vast deposits of heavy oil, which far exceed conventional oil assets such as those found in the Middle East. Methanogenic degradation is also a potentially important component of attenuation in hydrocarbon contamination plumes. Studies of the organisms, syntrophic partnerships, mechanisms, and geochemical signatures associated with methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation have identified common themes and diagnostic markers for this process in the subsurface. These studies have also identified the potential to engineer methanogenic processes to enhance the recovery of energy assets as biogenic methane from residual oils stranded in petroleum systems. PMID:20602990

  13. The Advanced Exploration Systems Water Recovery Project: Innovation on 2 Fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam M.; Neumeyer, Derek; Shull, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    As NASA looks forward to sending humans farther away from Earth, we will have to develop a transportation architecture that is highly reliable and that can sustain life for long durations without the benefit of Earth s proximity for continuous resupply or even operational guidance. NASA has consistently been challenged with performing great feats of innovation, but particularly in this time of economic stress, we are challenged to go farther with less. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) projects were implemented to address both of these needs by not only developing innovative technologies, but by incorporating innovative management styles and processes that foster the needed technical innovation given a small amount of resources. This presentation explains how the AES Water Recovery Project is exhibiting innovation on both fronts; technical and process. The AES Water Recovery Project (WRP) is actively engineering innovative technologies in order to maximize the efficiency of water recovery. The development of reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support (ECLS) is critical to enable long-duration human missions outside of low-Earth orbit. Recycling of life support consumables is necessary to reduce resupply mass and provide for vehicle autonomy. To address this, the WRP is working on a rotary distiller that has shown enhanced performance over the state-of-the-art (SOA). Additionally, the WRP is looking at innovative ways to address issues present in the state-of-the-art (SOA) systems pertaining to toxicity and calcium scale buildup. As an AES project, the WRP has a more streamlined Skunk Works like approach to technology development intended to reduce overhead but achieve a more refined end product. The project has incorporated key partnerships between NASA centers as well as between NASA and industry. A minimal project management style has been implemented such that risks are managed and

  14. Fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery system development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Patch, K.D.; Cole, W.E.

    1988-06-01

    A major energy loss in industry is the heat content of the flue gases from industrial process heaters. One effective way to utilize the energy, which is applicable to all processes, is to preheat the combustion air for the process heater. Although recuperators are available to preheat this air when the flue gases are clean, recuperators to recover the heat from dirty and corrosive flue gases do not exist. The Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery (FBWHR) system is designed to preheat this combustion air using the heat available in dirty flue gas streams. In this system, recirculating alumina particles are heated by the flue gas in a raining bed. The hot particles are then removed from the bed and placed in a fluidized bed where they are fluidized by the combustion air. Through this process, the combustion air is preheated. The cooled particles are then returned to the raining bed. Initial development of this concept is for the aluminum smelting industry. In this final report, the design, development, fabrication, and installation of a full-scale FBWHR system is detailed.

  15. Recovery and Sequestration of CO2 from Stationary Combustion Systems by Photosynthesis of Microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Takashi Nakamura; Miguel Olaizola; Stephen M. Masutani

    2003-11-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 July to 30 September 2003 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch and PSI continued preparation work on direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch started the first full scale carbon sequestration tests with propane combustion gases. Aquasearch started to model the costs associated with biomass harvest from different microalgal strains. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  16. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Takashi Nakamura

    2003-04-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October to 31 December 2002 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on feasibility demonstration of direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection and characterization of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  17. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Takashi Nakamura

    2003-09-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 April to 30 June 2003 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, PSI delivered its coal reactor to Aquasearch. Aquasearch and PSI continued preparation work on direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch started their effort on economic analyses of commercial scale photobioreactor. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  18. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Steven M. Masutani

    2001-08-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 April to 30 June 2001 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on the component optimization work. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii initiated effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  19. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Stephen M. Masutani

    2002-07-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 April to 30 June 2001 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on the component optimization work. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii initiated effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  20. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Stephen M. Masutani

    2002-01-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report is the summary first year report covering the reporting period 1 October 2000 to 30 September 2001 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on the component optimization work. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii initiated effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  1. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO{sub 2} FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect

    Takashi Nakamura

    2004-04-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October to 31 December 2003 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch run first pilot scale production run with coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch started the second full scale carbon sequestration tests with propane combustion gases. Aquasearch also conducted modeling work to study the change in alkalinity in the medium resulting form microalgal photosynthesis and growth. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  2. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Stephen M. Masutani

    2002-12-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 July to 30 September 2002 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on feasibility demonstration of direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection and characterization of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  3. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. T. Nakamura

    2003-05-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 January to 31 March 2003 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, PSI conducted preparation work on direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae and developed a design concept for photobioreactors for biofixation of CO{sub 2} and photovoltaic power generation. Aquasearch continued their effort on characterization of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration and preparation for pilot scale demonstration. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  4. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO{sub 2} FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect

    Takashi Nakamura; Miguel Olaizola; Stephen M. Masutani

    2004-07-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 January to 31 March 2004 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch run first pilot scale production run with coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch started the second full scale carbon sequestration tests with propane combustion gases. Aquasearch also conducted modeling work to study the change in alkalinity in the medium resulting form microalgal photosynthesis and growth. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  5. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Stephen M. Masutani

    2002-10-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 April to 30 June 2002 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on feasibility demonstration of direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection and characterization of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  6. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Stephen M. Masutani

    2002-03-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October to 31 December 2001 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on the component optimization work. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii initiated effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  7. Environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities. A MITE Program evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities (MRFs) conducted under the Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program. The MITE Program is sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency to foster the demonstration and development of innovative technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). This project was also funded by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Material recovery facilities are increasingly being used as one option for managing a significant portion of municipal solid waste (MSW). The owners and operators of these facilities employ a combination of manual and mechanical techniques to separate and sort the recyclable fraction of MSW and to transport the separated materials to recycling facilities.

  8. Studies of multipass beam breakup and energy recovery using the CEBAF injector linac

    SciTech Connect

    Sereno, N.S.; Cardman, L.S.; Krafft, G.A.; Sinclair, C.K.; Bisognano, J.J.

    1993-06-01

    Beam breakup (BBU) instabilities in superconducting linacs are a significant issue due to the potentially high Q values of the cavity higher order modes (HOMs). The CEBAF accelerator, which employs high CW current and 5-pass recirculation through two superconducting linacs, poses unique instability problems. An experimental investigation of multipass BBU along with energy recovery has been completed using a single recirculation through the CEBAF injector linac. Experimental results are compared with computer simulation of multipass BBU.

  9. Optimization of Thermoelectric Components for Automobile Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.

    2015-10-01

    For a typical spark ignition engine approximately 40% of available thermal energy is lost as hot exhaust gas. To improve fuel economy, researchers are currently evaluating technology which exploits exhaust stream thermal power by use of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) that operate on the basis of the Seebeck effect. A 5% improvement in fuel economy, achieved by use of TEG output power, is a stated objective for light-duty trucks and personal automobiles. System modeling of thermoelectric (TE) components requires solution of coupled thermal and electric fluxes through the n and p-type semiconductor legs, given appropriate thermal boundary conditions at the junctions. Such applications have large thermal gradients along the semiconductor legs, and material properties are highly dependent on spatially varying temperature profiles. In this work, one-dimensional heat flux and temperature variations across thermoelectric legs were solved by using an iterative numerical approach to optimize both TE module and TEG designs. Design traits were investigated by assuming use of skutterudite as a thermoelectric material with potential for automotive applications in which exhaust gas and heat exchanger temperatures typically vary from 100°C to over 600°C. Dependence of leg efficiency, thermal fluxes and electric power generation on leg geometry, fill fractions, electric current, thermal boundary conditions, etc., were studied in detail. Optimum leg geometries were computed for a variety of automotive exhaust conditions.

  10. Slot clock recovery in optical PPM communication systems with avalanche photodiode photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Frederic M.; Sun, Xiaoli

    1989-01-01

    Slot timing recovery in a direct-detection optical PPM communication system can be achieved by processing the photodetector output waveform with a nonlinear device whose output forms the input to a phase-locked loop. The choice of a simple transition detector as the nonlinearity is shown to give satisfactory synchronization performance. The rms phase error of the recovered slot clock and the effect of slot timing jitter on the bit error probability were directly measured. The experimental system consisted of an AlGaAs laser diode (wavelength = 834 nm) and a silicon avalanche photodiode photodetector. The system used Q = 4 PPM signaling and operated at a source data rate of 25 Mbits/s. The mathematical model developed to compute the rms phase error of the recovered clock is shown to be in good agreement with results of actual measurements of phase errors. The use of the recovered slot clock in the receiver resulted in no significant degradation in receiver sensitivity compared to a system with perfect slot timing. The system achieved a bit error probability of 10 to the -6th at a received optical signal energy of 55 detected photons per information bit.

  11. Feasibility study of a novel pressure recovery system for CO2-COIL based on chemical absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingwei; Jin, Yuqi; Geng, Zicai; Li, Yongzhao; Zhang, Yuelong; Sang, Fengting

    2015-02-01

    A chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) is an electronic transition, low pressure, high throughput system. The use of this laser demands a suitable pressure recovery system. This paper proposed a novel pressure recovery system based on chemical absorption and the feasibility for COIL with CO2 as buffer gas (CO2-COIL) was investigated. The novel pressure recovery system works by chemisorbing the CO2-COIL effluents into two fixed-beds maintained at initial temperature of around 293-323K. Compared with the cryosorption system for N2-COIL based on physical absorption, the novel chemisorptions based pressure recovery system has a simpler logistics and a shorter run-to-run preparation time. Two kinds of solid chemo-sorbents were designed and synthesized. One was used for chemisorbing the oxidizing gases such as O2 ,Cl2 and I2, another was used for chemisorbing the acidic gas such as CO2. The capacities of the two sorbents were measured to be 3.12 mmol(O2)/g and 3.84 mmol (CO2) /g, respectively. It indicated that the synthesized sorbents could effectively chemosorb the CO2-COIL effluents. Secondly, analog test equipment was set up and used to study the feasibility of the novel pressure recovery system used for CO2-COIL. The test results showed that the novel pressure recovery system could maintain the pressure under 6 Torr for tens seconds under the continuous gas flow. It showed that the novel pressure recovery system for CO2-COIL based on chemical absorption is feasible.

  12. Mental Health Reform at a Systems Level: Widening the Lens on Recovery-Oriented Care

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Sean A; McKenzie, Kwame J; Virdee, Gursharan

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an initial attempt to collate the literature on psychiatric inpatient recovery-based care and, more broadly, to situate the inpatient care sector within a mental health reform dialogue that, to date, has focused almost exclusively on outpatient and community practices. We make the argument that until an evidence base is developed for recovery-oriented practices on hospital wards, the effort to advance recovery-oriented systems will stagnate. Our scoping review was conducted in line with the 2009 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (commonly referred to as PRISMA) guidelines. Among the 27 papers selected for review, most were descriptive or uncontrolled outcome studies. Studies addressing strategies for improving care quality provide some modest evidence for reflective dialogue with former inpatient clients, role play and mentorship, and pairing general training in recovery oriented care with training in specific interventions, such as Illness Management and Recovery. Relative to some other fields of medicine, evidence surrounding the question of recovery-oriented care on psychiatric wards and how it may be implemented is underdeveloped. Attention to mental health reform in hospitals is critical to the emergence of recovery-oriented systems of care and the realization of the mandate set forward in the Mental Health Strategy for Canada. PMID:25007277

  13. Recovery and nonrecovery of the untrained state in an exchange-coupled system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutimoosik, Jaru; Yimnirun, Rattikorn; Setzer, Annette; Esquinazi, Pablo; Stahn, Jochen; Paul, Amitesh

    2015-06-01

    We report depth sensitive investigations of the magnetic interaction between exchange-coupled stacked CoO and ferromagnetic Co bilayers (separated by thick Au layers) as we explore the degree of recovery of the untrained state after the first two field cycles. Such a recovery is expected by field cycling a reorientation field (HRE) along a direction (ΩRE) away from the initial field cooling direction. Measurements as a function of ΩRE and the strength of HRE (along each direction) map the influence of ΩRE on the reversal mechanism in the layers and thereby the degree of recovery. Our results are consistent with the earlier observations in similar systems that was realized with ΩRE=90∘ . We ascribe these partial and/or significant recoveries to the unchanged sense of rotation after initial field cooling of the ferromagnetic magnetization upon each field cycling. Furthermore, in our system, we find that this recovery can be regulated by choosing various other HRE and ΩRE values without changing the rotational sense. The best recipe for recovery is identified for ΩRE=45∘ , that can be achieved partially with HRE=3.0 kOe and remain significant even with HRE=10.0 kOe. In this study we not only understand the fundamental mechanism in the recovery of training, but also instigate its technological prospects by lifting the directional restrictions of the reorientation field.

  14. Energy recovery from municipal waste: a case study for a middle-sized Italian district.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, M; Grosso, M; Rigamonti, L

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the main outcome of research to compare and assess the merits of alternative strategies for energy recovery from municipal solid waste downstream of material recovery for an Italian province. Strategies analysed are based on well-established combustion technologies available at the commercial scale in the Italian market in comparison with an innovative but not yet proven option of refuse derived fuel gasification and subsequent co-combustion of syngas in a combined cycle power plant. The comparison is made using mass and energy balances, environmental assessment and economic analysis. From an energetic point of view, the best strategy is the one based on the refuse derived fuel gasification, which, on the contrary, does not show interesting environmental results. In this perspective, the best results are from strategies based on a dedicated plant, particularly when unsorted residual waste collected downstream of material recovery is used. Finally, from an economic point of view, the strategy with gasification allows the highest revenues from the sale of energy. PMID:17368012

  15. First operation of an FEL in same-cell energy recovery mode

    SciTech Connect

    G.R. Neil; S. Benson; G. Biallas; C.L. Bohn; D. Douglas; H.F. Dylla; R. Evans; J. Fugitt; J. Gubeli; R. Hill; K. Jordan; G. Krafft; R. Li; L. Merminga; D. Oepts; P. Piot; J. Preble; Michelle D. Shinn; T. Siggins; R. Walker; B. Yunn

    1999-09-01

    The driver for Jefferson Lab's kW-level infrared free-electron laser (FEL) is a superconducting, recirculating accelerator that recovers 75% of the electron-beam power and converts it to radio frequency power. As reported in FEL'98, the accelerator operated ''straight-ahead'' to deliver 38 MeV, 1.1 mA cw current for lasing at wavelengths in the vicinity of 5 microns. The waste beam was sent directly to a dump, bypassing the recirculation loop. Stable operation at up to 311 W cw was achieved in this mode. The machine has now recirculated cw average current up to 4.6 mA and has lased cw with energy recovery up to 1,720 W output at 3.1 microns. This is the first FEL to ever operate in the ''same-cell'' energy recovery mode. Energy recovery offers several advantages (reduced RF power and dramatically reduced radio-nuclide production at the dump) and several challenges will be described. The authors have observed heating effects in the mirrors which will be described. They will also report on the additional performance measurements of the FEL that have been performed and connect those measurements to standard models.

  16. Towards global phosphorus security: a systems framework for phosphorus recovery and reuse options.

    PubMed

    Cordell, D; Rosemarin, A; Schröder, J J; Smit, A L

    2011-08-01

    Human intervention in the global phosphorus cycle has mobilised nearly half a billion tonnes of the element from phosphate rock into the hydrosphere over the past half century. The resultant water pollution concerns have been the main driver for sustainable phosphorus use (including phosphorus recovery). However the emerging global challenge of phosphorus scarcity with serious implications for future food security, means phosphorus will also need to be recovered for productive reuse as a fertilizer in food production to replace increasingly scarce and more expensive phosphate rock. Through an integrated and systems framework, this paper examines the full spectrum of sustainable phosphorus recovery and reuse options (from small-scale low-cost to large-scale high-tech), facilitates integrated decision-making and identifies future opportunities and challenges for achieving global phosphorus security. Case studies are provided rather than focusing on a specific technology or process. There is no single solution to achieving a phosphorus-secure future: in addition to increasing phosphorus use efficiency, phosphorus will need to be recovered and reused from all current waste streams throughout the food production and consumption system (from human and animal excreta to food and crop wastes). There is a need for new sustainable policies, partnerships and strategic frameworks to develop renewable phosphorus fertilizer systems for farmers. Further research is also required to determine the most sustainable means in a given context for recovering phosphorus from waste streams and converting the final products into effective fertilizers, accounting for life cycle costs, resource and energy consumption, availability, farmer accessibility and pollution. PMID:21414650

  17. Resolving Key Uncertainties in Subsurface Energy Recovery: One Role of In Situ Experimentation and URLs (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsworth, D.

    2013-12-01

    Significant uncertainties remain and influence the recovery of energy from the subsurface. These uncertainties include the fate and transport of long-lived radioactive wastes that result from the generation of nuclear power and have been the focus of an active network of international underground research laboratories dating back at least 35 years. However, other nascent carbon-free energy technologies including conventional and EGS geothermal methods, carbon-neutral methods such as carbon capture and sequestration and the utilization of reduced-carbon resources such as unconventional gas reservoirs offer significant challenges in their effective deployment. We illustrate the important role that in situ experiments may play in resolving behaviors at extended length- and time-scales for issues related to chemical-mechanical interactions. Significantly, these include the evolution of transport and mechanical characteristics of stress-sensitive fractured media and their influence of the long-term behavior of the system. Importantly, these interests typically relate to either creating reservoirs (hydroshearing in EGS reservoirs, artificial fractures in shales and coals) or maintaining seals at depth where the permeating fluids may include mixed brines, CO2, methane and other hydrocarbons. Critical questions relate to the interaction of these various fluid mixtures and compositions with the fractured substrate. Important needs are in understanding the roles of key processes (transmission, dissolution, precipitation, sorption and dynamic stressing) on the modification of effective stresses and their influence on the evolution of permeability, strength and induced seismicity on the resulting development of either wanted or unwanted fluid pathways. In situ experimentation has already contributed to addressing some crucial issues of these complex interactions at field scale. Important contributions are noted in understanding the fate and transport of long-lived wastes

  18. MONITORING INTEGRATED ENERGY SYSTEMS AT A WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT IN MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A project was undertaken to monitor the performance of an integrated energy system at the Wilton, Maine, wastewater treatment plant. These systems included active and passive solar heating, effluent heat recovery, digester gas generation, air-to-air heat recovery, and electricity...

  19. A spin-recovery parachute system for light general-aviation airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradshaw, C.

    1980-01-01

    A tail mounted spin recovery parachute system was designed and developed for use on light general aviation airplanes. The system was designed for use on typical airplane configurations, including low wing, high wing, single engine and twin engine designs. A mechanically triggered pyrotechnic slug gun is used to forcibly deploy a pilot parachute which extracts a bag that deploys a ring slot spin recovery parachute. The total system weighs 8.2 kg. System design factors included airplane wake effects on parachute deployment, prevention of premature parachute deployment, positive parachute jettison, compact size, low weight, system reliability, and pilot and ground crew safety. Extensive ground tests were conducted to qualify the system. The recovery parachute was used successfully in flight 17 times.

  20. A Low Cost, Self Acting, Liquid Hydrogen Boil-Off Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelfrey, Joy W.; Sharp, Kirk V. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a prototype liquid hydrogen boll-off recovery system. Perform analyses to finalize recovery system cycle, design detail components, fabricate hardware, and conduct sub-component, component, and system level tests leading to the delivery of a prototype system. The design point and off-design analyses identified cycle improvements to increase the robustness of the system by adding a by-pass heat exchanger. Based on the design, analysis, and testing conducted, the recovery system will liquefy 31% of the gaseous boil off from a liquid hydrogen storage tank. All components, including a high speed, miniature turbocompressor, were designed and manufacturing drawings were created. All hardware was fabricated and tests were conducted in air, helium, and hydrogen. Testing validated the design, except for the turbocompressor. A rotor-to-stator clearance issue was discovered as a result of a concentricity tolerance stack-up.