Science.gov

Sample records for energy resources 2007-2008

  1. South Carolina Commission on Higher Education Mission Resource Requirements (MRR), FY 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Mission Resource Requirement (MRR) represents the level of funding necessary for an institution given its mission, size, and complexity of programs, based on regional and national norms, and the amount of the previous year's appropriation. This document is the MRR for the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education for Fiscal Year 2007-2008.…

  2. Council on Library and Information Resources: Annual Report, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This annual report of the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) contains an overview of activities of the Council between July 1, 2007 and June 30, 2008. These include programs, advisory groups, grants and contracts, and financial statements. It also includes a list of staff, a letter from the chairperson Paula Kaufman, and a message…

  3. ARL Supplementary Statistics, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Les, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents statistics on how Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries spend money on electronic resources. This report indicates that 109 ARL libraries purchased 32,329,187 electronic books. In 2007-2008, there was a median of 28,319 acquisitions of electronic books by ARL libraries (this includes one institution that…

  4. Recruiting Trends, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2007-2008. This year's report is based on 994 respondents, including 84 K-12 school districts. The researchers focused attention on growing companies, based on lists from Forbes and Inc. magazines, and as a result, they have more small and medium-size employers represented this year. The sample…

  5. ARL Statistics 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Bland, Les, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    "ARL Statistics 2007-2008" is the latest in a series of annual publications that describe collections, staffing, expenditures, and service activities for the 123 members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL). Of these, 113 are university libraries; the remaining 10 are public, governmental, and nonprofit research libraries. Data reported…

  6. ARL Annual Salary Survey 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp; Young, Mar, Comp.; Barber, Jason, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    The "ARL Annual Salary Survey 2007-2008" reports salary data for all professional staff working in Association of Research Libraries (ARL) libraries. It is the most comprehensive and thorough guide to current salaries in large U.S. and Canadian academic and research libraries, and is a valuable management and research tool. Data for 9,983…

  7. ARL Academic Health Sciences Library Statistics, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Bland, Les, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents data that describe collections, expenditures, personnel, and services in 64 medical libraries at Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member institutions throughout North America. In 2007-2008, the reporting health sciences libraries held a median of 240,955 volumes, spent a total of $240,019,298, and employed 2,304…

  8. Southeastern Wisconsin School District Rankings, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Forum, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This brochure displays the following data for seven counties in southeastern Wisconsin for the 2007-2008 school year: (1) Total operations expenditures; (2) Property tax revenue; (3) Total enrollment; (4) One-year change in enrollment; (5) Minority enrollment; (6) Free or reduced lunch; (7) Graduation rate; (8) 3rd, 4th, 8th and 10th grade…

  9. Handbook of Procedures for the Graduation Program 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Ministry of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This 2007-2008 manual, "Handbook of Procedures for the Graduation Program," has been approved by the British Columbia Minister of Education on July 18, 2007 for the purpose of setting out graduation requirements. The handbook outlines procedures for efficiently sharing student data between schools and the Ministry of Education, and answers…

  10. ARL Academic Law Library Statistics, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Bland, Les, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents results of the 2007-2008 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Law Library Statistics Questionnaire. Of 113 ARL university libraries, 74 responded to the survey. Results for each library are presented in the following data tables: (1) collections (2-parts), including volumes in library, volumes added, monographs purchased,…

  11. WMO Role In The International Polar Year 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarukhanian, E.

    2004-12-01

    The Fourteenth World Meteorological Congress in May 2003 had approved the idea of holding an International Polar Year in 2007-2008. The ICSU Executive Board in February 2004 decided to establish an IPY in 2007-2008 and invited WMO to jointly sponsor the IPY. In June 2004, ICSU and WMO agreed to act as cosponsors for the IPY. WMO contributions to the IPY would be focused on the areas of activities that are closely related to five themes of IPY Science Plan. One of the most important areas is the enhancement of observing components in Polar Regions. It includes re-activation of existing or establishing of new meteorological stations, increase the number of drifting buoys, ships and aircraft in Polar Regions. The existing satellites and new operational satellites with observational capabilities for Polar Regions will be used. In the atmospheric research area WMO plans to enhance integrated monitoring of the ozone layer, using ground-based optical remote sensing instrumentation and ozone sondes aircraft and satellites. It is also planned to intensify integrated measurement and modelling of the transport of greenhouse gases and aerosols. The period of IPY will overlap with the timeframe of Global Atmosphere Research Programme /(THORPEX/) carried out by WMO. Its implementation in Polar Regions is considered as part of IPY that would increase knowledge of global to regional influences on the initiation, evolution and predictability of high-impact weather, and contribute to the design and demonstration of interactive forecast system that allow information to flow between users, numerical modellers, data assimilation system and observations to maximize forecast skill and enhance the utility of forecasts. In the area of climate assessment WMO is intended to participate in the development of an IPY data management plan and coordinate establishment of a database of historical polar climate and related data, investigate teleconnections between polar regions and the lower

  12. Geoeffectiveness of Stream Interaction Regions during 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Garcia, Elsa; Aguilar-Rodriguez, Ernesto; Ontiveros, Veronica

    2016-07-01

    The Stream Interaction Regions (SIRs) are generated in the interplanetary medium when a fast solar wind stream overtakes a slower one. If these large-scale phenomena interact with the Earth's magnetosphere they can give rise to geomagnetic storms (GSs). In this study we analyze the degree of geoeffectiveness of 20 events that were generated by SIRs. The events were observed during the 2007-2008 period that comprising the extended downward phase of solar cycle 23. The degree of geoeffectivity is measured using magnetic indices from different latitudes: PCN (Polar cap north), PCS (polar cap south), AA (antipodal amplitude), AE (Auroral Electrojet), Kp (estimated global index) and Dst (Disturbance storm time). We discuss some results on the correlation of these magnetic indices with the characteristics of shocks associated with the SIRs observed by STEREO-A/B, WIND and ACE spacecraft. All the 20 SIRs events generated GSs with Dst values in ranging from -86 nT up to -12 nT. Moreover, 6 out of the 20 events presented storm sudden commencement (SSC). We also discuss on the characteristics of the SIR-associated shocks and the intensity of the GSs.

  13. The Development of Interconnection Standards in Six States In 2007-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, Jason B.

    2008-05-01

    This paper discusses the process of developing standards for the interconnection of photovoltaic systems and other generators under ten megawatts to the electric grid. State utility commission rulemakings in 2007-2008 in Florida, New Mexico, North Carolina, Maryland, Illinois and Utah provide the basis for analysis of what is and should be considered in the development of standards, and how the process can be improved. State interconnection standards vary substantially, and many utilities have discretion to establish additional or different requirements, creating literally hundreds of sets of rules. This lack of uniformity imposes a significant cost on project developers and installers to track and comply with applicable rules. As well, burdensome provisions and uncertain costs and timelines present formidable barriers to entry, which advocates have limited resources to challenge. For a better process, the author proposes: establishing federal standards as a baseline, involving solar advocates, and developing a utility cost-recovery mechanism.

  14. Energy resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A statistical analysis of the availability of fossil fuels for energy and non-energy production is presented. The cumulative requirements for petroleum, natural gas, and coal are discussed. Alternate forms of energy are described and the advantages and limitations are analyzed. Emphasis is placed on solar energy availability and methods for conversion. The Federal energy research and development funding for energy sources is tabulated.

  15. Flavonoid Values for USDA Survey Foods and Beverages 2007-2008: Provisional Flavonoid Addendum, FNDDS 4.1 and Flavonoid Intake Data, WWEIA, NHANES 2007-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This release of the Flavonoid Values for Survey Foods and Beverages 2007-2008 makes possible, for the first time, calculation of flavonoid intakes based on all foods and beverages reported in national surveys. This release has two components. The first component is an addendum to USDA’s Food and N...

  16. Rehabilitate Newsome Creek Watershed, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bransford, Stephanie

    2009-05-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridgetop approach. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Newsome Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1997. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through road decommissioning and culvert replacement. Starting in FY 2001 and continuing into the present, a major stream restoration effort on the mainstem of Newsome Creek has been pursued. From completing a watershed assessment to a feasibility study of 4 miles of mainstem rehabilitation to carrying that forward into NEPA and a final design, we will begin the effort of restoring the mainstem channel of Newsome Creek to provide spawning and rearing habitat for anadromous and resident fish species. Roads have been surveyed and prioritized for removal or improvement as well as culverts being prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed.

  17. International Polar Year 2007/2008 - snapshots from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezek, K.

    2003-04-01

    Satellite observations are revolutionizing our ability to observe the poles and polar processes. No other technology developed since the IGY of 1957 provides the high-resolution, continental-scale, frequent-repeat, and all-weather observations available from spaceborne sensors. The utility of that technology is evidenced by associated scientific advances including measurements of long term trends in polar sea ice cover and extent, the realization that the polar ice sheets can change dramatically at decade or less time scales, and the quantification of relationships between processes at the poles and at mid and equatorial latitudes. There are many examples of successful spaceborne observations from pole to pole for scientific, commercial and governmental purposes. These successes encourage the use of the capabilities and consequently, the competition for access to resources from the international constellation of satellites becomes increasingly more intense. Frequently, this means that there are only limited opportunities for conducting large-scale projects that consume a significant fraction of system capabilities for some dedicated period of time. An example of a large-scale coordinated effort is the Radarsat Antarctic Mapping Project that required months of dedicated satellite and ground support time to achieve its objective of obtaining near instantaneous 'snapshots' of Antarctica to serve as gauges for measuring future changes. Large-scale coordinated-experiments will continue to be important for polar scientists seeking to understand the role of polar processes in climate change. These future missions will be further enhanced if complementary observations and data analysis from different satellite sensors can be coordinated (for example IceSAT laser altimeter observations of ice sheet surface topography with EnviSAT SAR observation of ice sheet motion). That coordination is challenging in part because of resource allocation issues and in part because space

  18. International Polar Year 2007/2008 - A Snapshot from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noltimier, K.; Jezek, K.; Box, J.

    2002-12-01

    Satellite observations are revolutionizing our ability to observe the poles and polar processes. No other technology developed since the IGY of 1957 provides the high-resolution, continental-scale, frequent-repeat, and all-weather observations available from spaceborne sensors. The utility of that technology is evidenced by associated scientific advances including measurements of long term trends in polar sea ice cover and extent, the realization that the polar ice sheets can change dramatically at decade or less time scales, and the quantification of relationships between processes at the poles and at mid and equatorial latitudes. There are many examples of successful spaceborne observations from pole to pole for scientific, commercial and governmental purposes. These successes encourage the use of the capabilities and consequently, the competition for access to resources from the international constellation of satellites becomes increasingly more intense. Frequently, this means that there are only limited opportunities for conducting large-scale projects that consume a significant fraction of system capabilities for some dedicated period of time. An example of a large-scale coordinated effort is the Radarsat Antarctic Mapping Project that required months of dedicated satellite and ground support time to achieve its objective of obtaining near instantaneous 'snapshots' of Antarctica to serve as gauges for measuring future changes. Large-scale coordinated-experiments will continue to be important for polar scientists seeking to understand the role of polar processes in climate change. These future missions will be further enhanced if complementary observations and data analysis from different satellite sensors can be coordinated (for example IceSAT laser altimeter observations of ice sheet surface topography with EnviSAT SAR observation of ice sheet motion). That coordination is challenging in part because of resource allocation issues and in part because space

  19. World energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerici, A.; Alimonti, G.

    2015-08-01

    As energy is the main "fuel" for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC) has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER) 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  20. International Rules for Precollege Science Research: Guidelines for Science and Engineering Fairs, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Service, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication presents changes and modifications for 2007-2008 to the "International Rules for Precollege Science Research: Guidelines for Science and Engineering Fairs." It is written to guide fair directors, teachers, scientists, parents, and adult volunteers as they pursue their work of encouraging students to explore and investigate their…

  1. 2007/2008 Employer Satisfaction Survey Employers of Alberta High School Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2007/2008 Employer Satisfaction Survey was commissioned by Alberta Education and Alberta Advanced Education and Technology. Data collection for the survey was conducted by CCI Research Inc. between December 1st, 2007 and January 11th, 2008. The objective of the survey was to assess employer satisfaction with recent graduates from Alberta's…

  2. Facing Race: Illinois Legislative Report Card on Racial Equity, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morita, Josina; Keleher, Terry

    2008-01-01

    This publication reviews 56 bills introduced in the 95th General Assembly that, if signed into law by the Governor, would have the most direct positive and negative impacts on communities of color. The "2007-2008 Illinois Legislative Report Card on Racial Equity" evaluates the Governor and legislators on their responses to these initiatives.…

  3. What We Eat In America, NHANES 2007-2008: Documentation and Data Files

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New nationwide dietary intake data were collected in What We Eat In America (WWEIA), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 2007-2008 and are now available for public use. Two days of dietary intake data are included for most participants. The dietary interview data ...

  4. Establishing the Baseline Height and Weight Status of New Hampshire Head Start Children, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaney, David D.; Flynn, Regina T.; Martin, Nancy R.; Anderson, Ludmila

    2010-01-01

    We report on a standardized survey of height and weight status of children attending the New Hampshire Head Start Program during the 2007-2008 school year. Baseline prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity are needed for obesity prevention activities and intervention. We selected a random one-stage cluster sample and screened 629 children…

  5. 2007-2008 What We Eat In America, NHANES Tables 1-36

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food Surveys Research Group of the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center has analyzed dietary data from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 and released 36 summary data tables for the current 2-year survey release. The tab...

  6. Annual Report: Discipline, Crime, and Violence, School Year 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Code of Virginia" requires school divisions statewide to submit data to the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) on incidents of discipline, crime, and violence (DCV). School divisions began reporting such data in 1991. This annual report focuses primarily on DCV data submitted for school year 2007-2008, with selected comparisons to prior…

  7. 7 CFR 982.255 - Free and restricted percentages-2007-2008 marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Free and Restricted Percentages § 982.255 Free and... merchantable hazelnuts for the 2007-2008 marketing year shall be 8.1863 and 91.8137 percent, respectively. (b) On May 1, 2008, the final free and restricted percentages for merchantable hazelnuts for the...

  8. 7 CFR 982.255 - Free and restricted percentages-2007-2008 marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Free and Restricted Percentages § 982.255 Free and... merchantable hazelnuts for the 2007-2008 marketing year shall be 8.1863 and 91.8137 percent, respectively. (b) On May 1, 2008, the final free and restricted percentages for merchantable hazelnuts for the...

  9. 7 CFR 982.255 - Free and restricted percentages-2007-2008 marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Free and Restricted Percentages § 982.255 Free and... merchantable hazelnuts for the 2007-2008 marketing year shall be 8.1863 and 91.8137 percent, respectively. (b) On May 1, 2008, the final free and restricted percentages for merchantable hazelnuts for the...

  10. 7 CFR 982.255 - Free and restricted percentages-2007-2008 marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Free and Restricted Percentages § 982.255 Free and... merchantable hazelnuts for the 2007-2008 marketing year shall be 8.1863 and 91.8137 percent, respectively. (b) On May 1, 2008, the final free and restricted percentages for merchantable hazelnuts for the...

  11. 7 CFR 982.255 - Free and restricted percentages-2007-2008 marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Free and Restricted Percentages § 982.255 Free and... merchantable hazelnuts for the 2007-2008 marketing year shall be 8.1863 and 91.8137 percent, respectively. (b) On May 1, 2008, the final free and restricted percentages for merchantable hazelnuts for the...

  12. The International Polar Year 2007-2008: a Preliminary Overview of Proposed Research Activities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, I.; Beland, M.; Members, J.

    2005-05-01

    The International Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY 2007-2008), co-sponsored by the International Council for Science and the World Meteorological Organization, will be an intensive and internationally coordinated campaign of high quality research and observations in the polar regions. It will have an interdisciplinary emphasis, with active inclusion of the social sciences as well as natural science. The IPY 2007-2008 is intended to lay the foundation for major scientific advances in knowledge and understanding of the polar regions and their role in the functioning of the planet. IPY 2007-2008 will address six broad research themes. These are the present environmental status of the polar regions; change in the polar regions; the links and interactions between polar regions and the rest of the globe; frontiers of science in the polar regions; the polar regions as a unique vantage point to observe processes from the interior of the Earth, to the Sun and the cosmos beyond; and the culture, history, and sociology of human societies in polar regions. Details of the IPY science plan and its implementation are available in the IPY Framework document at www.ipy.org, A large number of proposals for potential IPY activities were received in January 2005 in response to a preliminary call for "Expressions of Intent". Those projects meeting the IPY criteria have been identified and are presently being developed more fully and, where appropriate, consolidated into larger projects. This presentation will provide an outline of the major scientific initiatives that are developing under the IPY 2007-2008 vision. Opportunities for participation in the developing IPY projects will be noted, as will those projects seeking additional input from new collaborators.

  13. Save Energy Now Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides information resources to industrial energy users and partnering organizations to help the nation’s industrial sector save energy and improve productivity.

  14. A New Phase of Exploration and Understanding: Planning for The International Polar Year - 2007/2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.; Rapley, C.; Elfring, C.; Allison, I.; Bindschadler, R.; Chown, S.; Duhaime, G.; Kotlyakov, V.; Orheim, O.; Zhang, Z.; Kuhn, M.; Schalke, H.; Pandey, P.; Petersen, H. K.; Casassa, G.

    2003-12-01

    Planning is underway to hold an International Polar Year in 2007-2008. IPY 2007-2008 stands to be a significant research opportunity to further our understanding of polar regions and polar processes. The International Polar Year has the potential to capture the public's imagination and convey the crucial role that the polar regions play in global systems. IPY 2007-2008 is envisioned to be an intense, international campaign of coordinated polar observations and analysis, which will be bipolar in focus, multidisciplinary in scope, and truly international in participation. The vision is for many nations to work together to gain holistic insights into planetary processes, targeted at exploring and increasing our understanding of the poles and their roles in the global system. The concept of an International Polar Year 2007 - 2008 has been endorsed and advanced by a broad range of global and polar research groups. Earlier this year, the International Council for Science (ICSU) formed an International Polar Year Planning Group (IPY-PG) which met for the first time at the end of July. The Planning Group discussed ways to create an open process that encourages broad input from the international community. The Planning Group began to describe the desired goals of IPY 2007-2008, which should address compelling science issues through multi-national programs, enable scientific programs which would not otherwise occur, attract and develop the next generation of polar scientists, and engage the public. The Planning Group has identified three overarching themes that we hope can serve as the foundation for IPY 2007-2008: Exploring the Earth's Icy Domains, Decoding the Role of the Poles in Global Change Understanding Polar Processes. The Planning Group envisions focused research activities under each of these major themes. For example, a program to explore the sub-ice environment of East Antarctica would fit under the theme Exploring the Earth's Icy Domains, a program of Integrated

  15. L'apparizione di Marte 2007-2008: il volto mutevole del pianeta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanga, P.

    2010-02-01

    Results of visual observations and CCD imaging of Mars during the 2007-2008 are presented. The aspect of the planet was greatly influenced by an encircling dust storm starting in June 2007. The atmosphere remained dusty for several months, lowering the contrast of albedo markings. The albedo spots themselves have been modified on a large scale, producing the most relevant surface changes of the last apparitions.

  16. An Energy Resource List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VocEd, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Selected energy resource information, from both federal and private sources, is listed under funding, general information and assistance, recycling, solar, transportation, utilities, and wind power. Books, pamphlets, films, journals, newsletters, and other materials are included. (MF)

  17. Role of the Polar Research Board in Facilitating Planning for IPY 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfring, C.

    2003-12-01

    IPY 2007-2008 has the potential to be a valuable burst of scientific activity that adds to our understanding of polar regions and their role in the global system, and it stands to engage a new generation of scientists and the public in an exciting way. IPY 2007-2008 will be truly international and broadly multidisciplinary. But how is something of this scale planned and implemented? Where are the opportunities for input from the science community? How do we reconcile the differences in the American system of supporting science with approaches used in other nations, when attempting to work jointly? How can the large, diverse polar science community be satisfied that IPY reflects their priorities, given the necessity of making choices about how to focus IPY activities? The National Academy of Sciences played a key role in organizing the International Geophysical Year in 1957-1958. In this mode, the Polar Research Board, a unit of the National Academies (which includes the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine), is attempting to play a role in facilitating IPY 2007-2007 planning. The Polar Research Board is a nongovernmental body composed of volunteers from the polar science community. Its mission is to promote excellence in polar science and provide advice to agencies and the nation on issues of importance in the Arctic, Antarctic, and cold regions in general. The PRB represents US interests in two international nongovernmental polar science organizations - the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC). The PRB's status as an independent body gives it a special role in organizing IPY 2007-2008 at both the national and international levels. At the national level, it has attempted to provide opportunities for dialog on what US scientists would like IPY to be, and to have a relatively open process so that bottom-up ideas can be considered. At the

  18. Energy and resource consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The present and projected energy requirements for the United States are discussed. The energy consumption and demand sectors are divided into the categories: residential and commercial, transportation, and industrial and electrical generation (utilities). All sectors except electrical generation use varying amounts of fossile fuel resources for non-energy purposes. The highest percentage of non-energy use by sector is industrial with 71.3 percent. The household and commercial sector uses 28.4 percent, and transportation about 0.3 percent. Graphs are developed to project fossil fuel demands for non-energy purposes and the perdentage of the total fossil fuel used for non-energy needs.

  19. In situ Observations of CIRs on STEREO, Wind, and ACE During 2007 - 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, G. M.; Desai, M. I.; Mall, U.; Korth, A.; Bucik, R.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Simunac, K. D.

    2009-05-01

    During the 2007 and 2008 solar minimum period, STEREO, Wind, and ACE observed numerous Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) over spatial separations that began with all the spacecraft close to Earth, through STEREO separation angles of ˜ 80 degrees in the fall of 2008. Over 35 CIR events were of sufficient intensity to allow measurement of He and heavy ion spectra using the IMPACT/SIT, EPACT/STEP and ACE/ULEIS instruments on STEREO, Wind, and ACE, respectively. In addition to differences between the spacecraft expected on the basis of simple corotation, we observed several events where there were markedly different time-intensity profiles from one spacecraft to the next. By comparing the energetic particle intensities and spectral shapes along with solar wind speed we examine the extent to which these differences are due to temporal evolution of the CIR or due to variations in connection to a relatively stable interaction region. Comparing CIRs in the 1996 - 1997 solar minimum period vs. 2007 - 2008, we find that the 2007 - 2008 period had many more CIRs, reflecting the presence of more high-speed solar wind streams, whereas 1997 had almost no CIR activity.

  20. Energy Education Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence.

    To help fill the needs of Rhode Island teachers for useful energy education materials, the Dissemination Services Unit of this state's Department of Education has compiled this resource guide. The entries in this document are available either from ERIC or from the Dissemination Services Unit; Ed numbers are given for ERIC documents. For all…

  1. Science Communication during the International Polar Year 2007-2008: Successes and Recommendations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, D. J.; Ipy Education, Outreach; Communication Committee

    2010-12-01

    This IPY (International Polar Year 2007-2008) represented one of the largest international scientific research efforts ever undertaken. It stimulated the active engagement of thousands of teachers, students, and citizens around the globe through international collaboration and cooperation, careful cultivation of a global community of enthusiastic professional science communicators and educators, and creative use of free technologies. From music performances in Alaska to tree planting in Malaysia, hundreds of events and activities around the world demonstrated the public enthusiasm and the broad impact of IPY. This paper describes the core concepts and tangible activities developed and implemented by the IPY international Education, Outreach, and Communication (EOC) Committee and community and the International Programme Office (IPO) between March 2006 and December 2009. We present methods and accomplishments and address two questions: 1) How did these activities come about? 2) How do the ideas, tools, experiences, and successes from this IPY apply more broadly to science communication?

  2. Uses of Formal and Informal Assessments of English Language Learners in a Language Experience Class, School Year 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Joel R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper will compare the uses of selected formal and informal assessments of English language learners (ELLs) in the Language Experience class [TRANSLANGEXP7(&8)-008] at Kimball Middle School, Illinois School District U-46, Elgin, Illinois, during school year 2007- 2008. See figure 1 (page 14) for a graphic display of these assessments and…

  3. Examination of Case Law (2007-2008) regarding Autism Spectrum Disorder and Violations of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Doris Adams

    2009-01-01

    Ninety-nine court cases from the "LexisNexis" database regarding students, ages 3-21, with various forms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) were examined for the years 2007-2008. Procedural and substantive violations to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the provision of a Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) were…

  4. NASA Battery Working Group - 2007-2008: Battery Task Summary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This presentation provides a summary of the 2007-2008 NASA Battery Working Group efforts completed in support of the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC). The effort covered a series of pro-active tasks that address the following: Binding Procurements -- guidelines related to requirements for the battery system that should be considered at the time of contract award Wet Life of Ni-H2 Batteries -- issues/strategies for effective storage and impact of long-term storage on performance and life Generic Guidelines for Lithium-ion Safety, Handling and Qualification -- Standardized approaches developed and risk assessments (1) Lithium-ion Performance Assessment -- survey of manufacturers and capabilities to meet mission needs. Guidelines document generated (2) Conditions Required for using Pouch Cells in Aerospace Missions -- focus on corrosion, thermal excursions and long-term performance issues. Document defining requirements to maintain performance and life (3) High Voltage Risk Assessment -- focus on safety and abuse tolerance of battery module assemblies. Recommendations of features required for safe implementation (4) Procedure for Determination of Safe Charge Rates -- evaluation of various cell chemistries and recommendation of safe operating regimes for specific cell designs

  5. Multifractal analysis of Asian markets during 2007-2008 financial crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Rashid; Mohammad, Salim M.

    2015-02-01

    2007-2008 US financial crisis adversely affected the stock markets all over the world. Asian markets also came under pressure and were differently affected. As markets under stress could reveal features that remain hidden under normal conditions, we use MF-DFA technique to investigate the multifractal structure of the US and seven Asian stock markets during the crisis period. The overall period of study, from 01 July 2002 to 31 December 2013, is divided into three sub-periods: pre-crisis period, crisis period and post-crisis period. We find during the crisis period markets of the US, Japan, Hong Kong, S. Korea and Indonesia show very strong non-linearity for positive values of the moment q. We calculate the singularity spectra, f(α) for the three sub-periods for all markets. During the crisis period, we observe that the peaks of the f(α) spectra shift to lower values of α and markets of the US, Japan, Hong Kong, Korea and Indonesia exhibit increased long range correlations of large fluctuations in index returns. We also study the impact of the crisis on the power law exponent in the tail region of the cumulative return distribution and find that by excluding the crisis period from the overall data sets, the tail exponent increases across all markets.

  6. Unconventional Energy Resources: 2015 Review

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Energy Minerals Division

    2015-12-15

    This paper includes 10 summaries for energy resource commodities including coal and unconventional resources, and an analysis of energy economics and technology prepared by committees of the Energy Minerals Division of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Unconventional energy resources, as used in this report, are those energy resources that do not occur in discrete oil or gas reservoirs held in structural or stratigraphic traps in sedimentary basins. Such resources include coalbed methane, oil shale, U and Th deposits and associated rare earth elements of industrial interest, geothermal, gas shale and liquids, tight gas sands, gas hydrates, and bitumen and heavy oil. Current U.S. and global research and development activities are summarized for each unconventional energy resource commodity in the topical sections of this report, followed by analysis of unconventional energy economics and technology.

  7. Health Effects of Energy Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, William; Tatu, Calin; Pavlovic, Nikola; Bunnell, Joseph; Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark; Stout, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Energy resources (coal, oil, and natural gas) are among the cornerstones of modern industrial society. The exploitation of these resources, however, is not without costs. Energy materials may contain harmful chemical substances that, if mobilized into air, water, or soil, can adversely impact human health and environmental quality. In order to address the issue of human exposure to toxic substances derived from energy resources, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program developed a project entitled 'Impacts of Energy Resources on Human Health and Environmental Quality.' The project is intended to provide policymakers and the public with the scientific information needed to weigh the human health and environmental consequences of meeting our energy needs. This fact sheet discusses several areas where the USGS Energy Resources Program is making scientific advances in this endeavor.

  8. Unconventional Energy Resources: 2013 Review

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Energy Minerals Division

    2013-11-30

    This report contains nine unconventional energy resource commodity summaries and an analysis of energy economics prepared by committees of the Energy Minerals Division of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Unconventional energy resources, as used in this report, are those energy resources that do not occur in discrete oil or gas reservoirs held in structural or stratigraphic traps in sedimentary basins. These resources include coal, coalbed methane, gas hydrates, tight-gas sands, gas shale and shale oil, geothermal resources, oil sands, oil shale, and U and Th resources and associated rare earth elements of industrial interest. Current U.S. and global research and development activities are summarized for each unconventional energy commodity in the topical sections of this report.

  9. The IPY 2007-2008 data legacy - creating open data from IPY publications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driemel, A.; Grobe, H.; Diepenbroek, M.; Grüttemeier, H.; Schumacher, S.; Sieger, R.

    2015-09-01

    The International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008 was a synchronized effort to simultaneously collect data from polar regions. Being the fourth in a series of IPYs, the demand for interdisciplinarity and new data products was high. However, despite all the research done on land, people, ocean, ice and atmosphere and the large amount of data collected, no central archive or portal was created for IPY data. In order to improve the availability and visibility of IPY data, a concerted effort between PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth and Environmental Science, the International Council for Science (ICSU) World Data System (WDS), and the International Council for Scientific and Technical Information (ICSTI) was undertaken to extract data resulting from IPY publications for long-term preservation. Overall, 1380 IPY-related references were collected. Of these, only 450 contained accessible data. All data were extracted, quality checked, annotated with metadata and uploaded to PANGAEA. The 450 articles dealt with a multitude of IPY topics - plankton biomass, water chemistry, ice thickness, whale sightings, Inuit health, alien species introductions by travellers or tundra biomass change, to mention just a few. Both the Arctic and the Antarctic were investigated in the articles, and all realms (land, people, ocean, ice and atmosphere) and a wide range of countries were covered. The data compilation can now be found with the identifier http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.150150, and individual parts can be searched using the PANGAEA search engine (http://www.pangaea.de) and adding "+project:ipy". With this effort, we hope to improve the visibility, accessibility and long-term storage of IPY data for future research and new data products.

  10. IPY 2007-2008 data legacy - a ong story cut short

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driemel, A.; Grobe, H.; Diepenbroek, M.; Grüttemeier, H.; Schumacher, S.; Sieger, R.

    2015-06-01

    The International Polar Year 2007-2008 was a synchronized effort to simultaneously collect data from polar regions. Being the fourth in a row of IPYs, the demand for interdisciplinarity and new data products was high. However, despite of all the research done on land, people, ocean, ice and atmosphere and the large amount of data collected, no central archive or portal was created for IPY data. In order to address these issues, a concerted effort between PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth and Environmental Science, the ICSU World Data System (WDS), and the International Council for Scientific and Technical Information (ICSTI) was undertaken to extract data resulting from IPY publications for long-term preservation. 1380 IPY-related references were collected. Out of these, only 450 contained accessible data. All data was extracted, quality checked, annotated with metadata and uploaded to PANGAEA. The 450 articles dealt with a multitude of IPY topics - plankton biomass, water chemistry, ice thickness, whale sightings, Inuit health, alien species introductions by travelers or tundra biomass change - to mention just a few. Both, the Arctic and the Antarctic were investigated in the articles, and all realms (land, people, ocean, ice and atmosphere) and a wide range of countries were covered. The data compilation can now be found with the identifier doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.150150 and individually searched for using the PANGAEA search engine (www.pangaea.de) and adding "+project:ipy". With this effort, we hope to improve the visibility, accessibility and long-term storage of IPY data for future research and new data products.

  11. Civil unrest and birthweight: an exploratory analysis of the 2007/2008 Kenyan Crisis.

    PubMed

    Bell, Suzanne; Prata, Ndola; Lahiff, Maureen; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2012-05-01

    For decades, Africa has been plagued by political and ethnic conflict, the health ramifications of which are often not investigated. A crisis occurred recently in Kenya following the 2007 presidential election. Ethnic violence ensued, targeting the incumbent President Kibaki's Kikuyu people. The violence occurred primarily in Nairobi and the Rift Valley of Kenya. We sought to examine the association between exposure to the 2007/2008 Kenyan Crisis and birthweight. Using the 2008/2009 Kenyan Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS), we compared birthweights of infants in utero or not yet conceived during the 15 months after the political turmoil following the 2007 presidential election (exposed) to those who were born before the crisis (unexposed). There were 663 "exposed" and 687 "unexposed" infants. Multivariate regression was used. We examined the possibility of two-way and three-way interactions between exposure status, ethnicity (Kikuyu versus non-Kikuyu), and region (violent region versus not). Overall, exposure to the Kenyan Crisis was associated with lower birthweight. Kikuyu women living in a violent region who were exposed during their 2nd trimester had the greatest difference in birthweight in comparison to all unexposed infants: 564.4g lower (95% CI 285.1, 843.6). Infants of Kikuyu exposed during the 2nd trimester and living in a violent region weighed 603.6g less (95% CI 333.6, 873.6) than Kikuyu infants born during the unexposed period. Political unrest may have implications for the birthweight of infants, particularly among targeted populations. Given the adverse sequelae associated with lowered birthweight, these results suggest that particular attention should be paid to pregnant women and targeted ethnic groups following such events. PMID:22410269

  12. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Juveniles, 2007-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Sandford, Benjamin P.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2009-07-09

    This report provides results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior and survival of wild juvenile spring/summer Chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. Data reported is from detections of PIT tagged fish during late summer 2007 through mid-2008. Fish were tagged in summer 2007 by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in Idaho and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) in Oregon. Our analyses include migration behavior and estimated survival of fish at instream PIT-tag monitors and arrival timing and estimated survival to Lower Granite Dam. Principal results from tagging and interrogation during 2007-2008 are: (1) In July and August 2007, we PIT tagged and released 7,390 wild Chinook salmon parr in 12 Idaho streams or sample areas. (2) Overall observed mortality from collection, handling, tagging, and after a 24-hour holding period was 1.4%. (3) Of the 2,524 Chinook salmon parr PIT tagged and released in Valley Creek in summer 2007, 218 (8.6%) were detected at two instream PIT-tag monitoring systems in lower Valley Creek from late summer 2007 to the following spring 2008. Of these, 71.6% were detected in late summer/fall, 11.9% in winter, and 16.5% in spring. Estimated parr-to-smolt survival to Lower Granite Dam was 15.5% for the late summer/fall group, 48.0% for the winter group, and 58.5% for the spring group. Based on detections at downstream dams, the overall efficiency of VC1 (upper) or VC2 (lower) Valley Creek monitors for detecting these fish was 21.1%. Using this VC1 or VC2 efficiency, an estimated 40.8% of all summer-tagged parr survived to move out of Valley Creek, and their estimated survival from that point to Lower Granite Dam was 26.5%. Overall estimated parr-to-smolt survival for all summer-tagged parr from this stream at the dam was 12.1%. Development and improvement of instream PIT-tag monitoring systems continued throughout 2007 and 2008. (4) Testing of PIT-tag antennas in lower Big Creek during 2007-2008

  13. Arctic Energy Resources: Energy Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryc, George

    1984-04-01

    Arctic Energy Resources is a volume of 26 papers recording the proceedings of the Comite' Arctique International Conference, held at the Veritas Centre, Oslo, Norway, September 22-24, 1982. This was the fourth of a series of meetings on the Arctic organized by the Comite', an organization established in the Principality of Monaco with the active support of H.S.H. Prince Rainer III. The fourth Conference was opened by H.R.H. Crown Prins Harald of Norway, a noble beginning for a noble objective.The North Polar Region has drawn world attention recently because of several large hydrocarbon and other mineral discoveries and because of major political and environmental actions in the North American Arctic. Since 1923 when Naval Petroleum Reserve number 4 (NPR-4) was established, northern Alaska has been considered a major petroleum province. It was first explored systematically with modern techniques from 1943 to 1953. In 1958, Alaska became a state, and both federal and state lands in northern Alaska were available for private exploration. Building on the knowledge base provided by the Pet-4 program and its spinoff research laboratory at Barrow, industry explored the area east of NPR-4 and discovered the largest hydrocarbon accumulation (9.6 bbl crude oil and 26 Tcf (trillion cubic feet) gas) in North America at Prudhoe Bay. Concerns for environmental impacts, including oil spills, led to the passing of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1969. In 1970, over 9 million acres were set aside, now known as the Arctic National Wildlife Range, and in 1971 the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act was passed by the U.S. Congress. The Arab oil embargo of 1973 heightened the energy crisis and changed the economic basis for further exploration in the Arctic. The convergence of these events dramatically changed the balance of power and the pace of activity in the North American Arctic.

  14. Energy and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Bent

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the feasibility of utilizing continuous sources of of energy, particularly solar and wind energy. Outlines an energy plan for Denmark, which would supply all of Denmark's energy needs by the year 2050. (MLH)

  15. Gravity wave activity during stratospheric sudden warmings in the 2007-2008 Northern Hemisphere winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling; Alexander, M. Joan

    2009-09-01

    We use temperature retrievals from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC)/Formosa Satellite Mission 3 (FORMOSAT-3) and Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) radio occultation profiles and independent temperature retrievals from the EOS satellite High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) and Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) aboard the TIMED satellite to investigate stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) events and the accompanying gravity wave (GW) temperature amplitudes in the 2007-2008 Northern Hemisphere winter. We identify four SSW events (including a major one) occurring from late January to late February in 2008. We detect enhanced GW amplitudes in the stratosphere and subdued GW amplitudes in the lower mesosphere during the warming events. The timing of GW enhancement/suppression and warming/cooling events was generally close (within a couple days). We also find that stratospheric GW amplitudes were generally larger at the polar vortex edge and smaller in the vortex core and outside of the vortex and that stratospheric GW amplitudes were generally small over the North Pacific. Using a simplified GW dispersion relation and a GW ray-tracing experiment, we demonstrate that the enhanced GW amplitudes in the stratosphere during SSWs could be explained largely by GW propagation considerations. The existence of GW critical levels (the level at which the background wind is the same as the GW phase speed) near the stratopause during SSWs would block propagation of GWs into the mesosphere and thus could lead to the observed subdued GW activity in the lower mesosphere. Since this is the first study to analyze the COSMIC and CHAMP GPS temperature retrievals up to 60 km in altitude, we compare the GPS analysis with those from HIRDLS and SABER measurements. We find that the temporal variability of zonal mean temperatures derived from the GPS data is

  16. Nonconventional energy resources. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Pryde, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    Worldwide energy problems suggest that unconventional energy sources will contribute an increasing share of energy supplies. The chapters of this book present a rationale for developing unconventional resources, but they also look at the practical aspects of environmental, social, and economic impacts assocated with their development. The introduction reviews several possible scenarios, then gives an overview of the contributions that can be made by renewable, semi-renewable, nondepletable, and nonrenewable energy resources. It stresses the importance of conversion efficiency and net energy, both local and global environmental issues, and economics. A separate abstract was prepared for 10 chapters selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).

  17. Unconventional Energy Resources: 2011 Review

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration: American Association of Petroleum Geologists

    2011-12-15

    This report contains nine unconventional energy resource commodity summaries prepared by committees of the Energy Minerals Division (EMD) of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Unconventional energy resources, as used in this report, are those energy resources that do not occur in discrete oil or gas reservoirs held in structural or stratigraphic traps in sedimentary basins. These resources include coal, coalbed methane, gas hydrates, tight gas sands, gas shale and shale oil, geothermal resources, oil sands, oil shale, and uranium resources. Current U.S. and global research and development activities are summarized for each unconventional energy commodity in the topical sections of this report. Coal and uranium are expected to supply a significant portion of the world's energy mix in coming years. Coalbed methane continues to supply about 9% of the U.S. gas production and exploration is expanding in other countries. Recently, natural gas produced from shale and low-permeability (tight) sandstone has made a significant contribution to the energy supply of the United States and is an increasing target for exploration around the world. In addition, oil from shale and heavy oil from sandstone are a new exploration focus in many areas (including the Green River area of Wyoming and northern Alberta). In recent years, research in the areas of geothermal energy sources and gas hydrates has continued to advance. Reviews of the current research and the stages of development of these unconventional energy resources are described in the various sections of this report.

  18. Western Energy Corridor -- Energy Resource Report

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie Roberts; Michael Hagood

    2011-06-01

    The world is facing significant growth in energy demand over the next several decades. Strategic in meeting this demand are the world-class energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S., informally referred to as the Western Energy Corridor (WEC). The fossil energy resources in this region are rivaled only in a very few places in the world, and the proven uranium reserves are among the world's largest. Also concentrated in this region are renewable resources contributing to wind power, hydro power, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Substantial existing and planned energy infrastructure, including refineries, pipelines, electrical transmission lines, and rail lines provide access to these resources.

  19. Afghanistan's energy and natural resources

    SciTech Connect

    Balcome-Rawding, R.; Porter, K.C.

    1989-10-01

    This study provides a resource perspective from which to better plan the necessary steps toward the viable reconstruction and economic development of post war Afghanistan. The vast availability of natural resources affords the opportunity to formulate a framework upon which Afghanistan can grow and prosper in the future. The paper includes the following sections: Historical Overview: Thwarted Opportunities; Natural Resources: A Survey of Possibilities; The Future: Post War Rehabilitation and Reconstruction; and Conclusions: Future Energy Sources.

  20. A New Phase of Exploration and Understanding: Planning for The International Polar Year - 2007/2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapley, C.; Bell, R.

    2004-05-01

    Planning is underway for an International Polar Year in 2007-2008. (IPY 2007/8) which will be a significant research opportunity to further our understanding of polar regions and polar processes. The International Polar Year has the potential to capture the public's imagination and convey the crucial role that the polar regions play in global systems. IPY 2007/8 will be an international programme of coordinated, interdisciplinary, scientific research in the Earth's polar regions to explore new frontiers, to increase our ability to detect changes at the Earth's poles and to deepen our understanding of polar processes and their global linkages. A crucial component of the IPY 2007/8 will be to attract and develop the next generation of polar scientists, engineers and leaders and to capture the interest of the public and decision-makers. The vision is for many nations to work together to gain holistic insights into planetary processes, targeted at exploring and increasing our understanding of the poles and their role in the global system. The concept of an International Polar Year 2007/8 has been endorsed and advanced by a broad range of global and polar research groups both internationally and nationally. To date 18 nations have formed national committees who are coordinating IPY activities nationally. The International Council for Science (ICSU) formed an International Polar Year Planning Group (IPY-PG) to stimulate, encourage and organize a debate on the International Polar Year 2007/8, formulate a set of objectives and develop a high level Science Plan. The Planning Group has sought input from the international science community and to date has received 138 ideas from over 22 nations. This input from the international community covers both poles, global processes and a diverse spectrum of disciplines. To date the input from the science community has identified key questions and proposed projects within the three major themes proposed by the ICSU IPY Planning Group

  1. World nonrenewable conventional energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, J.D.

    1984-04-02

    Up-to-date estimates are given for world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the nonrenewable energy resources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, bitumens, shale oil, and uranium oxide. Life indices for world fossil fuels are also presented for several annual growth rates. Nonconventional gas and oil are not included. 2 figures, 4 tables.

  2. Biomass energies: resources, links, constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Smil, V.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: radiation and photosynthesis; primary production and biomass; resources; wood for energy; silviculture; requirements and effects; crop residues; residues for energy conversion; sugar crops and grain; cassava; fuel crops; aquatic plants; freshwater plants; ocean algae; animal wastes; Chinese biogas generation; and ecodisasters.

  3. Energy Information Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaddy, Carol T., Ed.; Wells, Kathy, Ed.

    This document was published with the small energy user in mind--the student writing a term paper, the homemaker seeking tips on cutting utility bills, the elderly, farmers, small business owners, factory managers, and Arkansans in all walks of life. Although the volume contains a significant selection of books, magazines, films, and organizations…

  4. Energy resources and global development

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Chow; Raymond J. Kopp; Paul R. Portney

    2003-11-15

    In order to address the economic and environmental consequences of our global energy system, we consider the availability and consumption of energy resources. Problems arise from our dependence on combustible fuels, the environmental risks associated with their extraction, and the environmental damage caused by their emissions. Yet no primary energy source, be it renewable or nonrenewable, is free of environmental or economic limitations. As developed and developing economies continue to grow, conversion to and adoption of environmentally benign energy technology will depend on political and economic realities. 33 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Energy resources and global development.

    PubMed

    Chow, Jeffrey; Kopp, Raymond J; Portney, Paul R

    2003-11-28

    In order to address the economic and environmental consequences of our global energy system, we consider the availability and consumption of energy resources. Problems arise from our dependence on combustible fuels, the environmental risks associated with their extraction, and the environmental damage caused by their emissions. Yet no primary energy source, be it renewable or nonrenewable, is free of environmental or economic limitations. As developed and developing economies continue to grow, conversion to and adoption of environmentally benign energy technology will depend on political and economic realities. PMID:14645838

  6. Determinants of exposure to secondhand smoke among Vietnamese adults: California Vietnamese Adult Tobacco Use Survey, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Webber, Whitney L; van Erp, Brianna; Stoddard, Pamela; Tsoh, Janice Y

    2014-01-01

    Because smoking rates are high among Vietnamese men, we used data from the 2007-2008 California Vietnamese Adult Tobacco Use Survey to estimate secondhand smoke exposure and associated risk factors among Vietnamese nonsmokers. Thirty percent of nonsmokers were exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home, 8% at work, 52% in bars, and 67% on a college campus. At home, odds of SHS exposure were greater for women than for men and for adults aged less than 40 years than for older adults. Odds of SHS exposure were higher for former smokers at work (among employed men) and among men when in bars. Future interventions should consider sex, age, and smoking history in efforts to prevent SHS exposure among Vietnamese adults. PMID:24831285

  7. Climate and offshore energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twitchell, P. F.

    1980-12-01

    A conference discussed the relationship of climate to the world's offshore energy resources. The conference focused upon such areas as the impact of oil resources upon the economies of developed and developing countries, the importance of providing climatic data in sufficient time to meet users' needs, and the hazards and financial burdens associated with the development of offshore oil reserves. One of the important achievements of the confidence was the establishment of better communications between the users of environmental data and those charged with producing predictions.

  8. Activity of telavancin and comparator antimicrobial agents tested against Staphylococcus spp. isolated from hospitalised patients in Europe (2007-2008).

    PubMed

    Mendes, Rodrigo E; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N

    2010-10-01

    The activity of telavancin was evaluated against Staphylococcus spp. collected from European hospitals as part of an international surveillance study (2007-2008). A total of 7534 staphylococcal clinical isolates [5726 Staphylococcus aureus and 1808 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS)] were included. Isolates were tested for susceptibility according to reference methods and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were interpreted based on Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2010 and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) 2009 criteria. Telavancin breakpoints approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were applied. Telavancin activity was evaluated against meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) displaying several antibiogram resistance patterns, including multidrug-resistant isolates. Telavancin was active against S. aureus [MIC(50/90) values (MICs for 50% and 90% of the isolates, respectively)=0.12/0.25mg/L; 100.0% susceptible] and CoNS (MIC(50/90)=0.12/0.25mg/L), inhibiting all isolates at < or =0.5mg/L. Similar results were observed when S. aureus were stratified by year or country of origin (MIC(50/90)=0.12/0.25mg/L). When MRSA isolates were clustered according to 48 different resistance patterns, telavancin showed consistent MIC(90) values (0.25mg/L) regardless of multidrug resistance. Amongst CoNS, telavancin was slightly more active against Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis and Staphylococcus xylosus (MIC(50)=0.12 mg/L) compared with Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Staphylococcus warneri (MIC(50)=0.25mg/L). Overall, telavancin exhibited MIC(90) results two- to eight-fold lower than comparators (daptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, vancomycin and linezolid). Based upon MIC(90) values, telavancin demonstrated potent in vitro activity against a contemporary (2007-2008) collection of Staphylococcus spp

  9. Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Trudel, Marc; Tucker, Strahan; Morris, John

    2009-03-09

    Historically, salmon stocks from the Columbia River and Snake River formed one of the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of North America. However, salmon and steelhead returns sharply declined during the 1980s and 1990s to reach nearly 1 million fish. Although several factors may be responsible for the decline of Columbia River salmon and steelhead, there is increasing evidence that these drastic declines were primarily attributable to persistently unfavorable ocean conditions. Hence, an understanding of the effects of ocean conditions on salmon production is required to forecast the return of salmon to the Columbia River basin and to assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as flow regulation on salmon resources in this system. The Canadian Program on High Seas Salmon has been collecting juvenile salmon and oceanographic data off the west coast of British Columbia and Southeast Alaska since 1998 to assess the effects of ocean conditions on the distribution, migration, growth, and survival of Pacific salmon. Here, we present a summary of the work conducted as part of the Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study during the 2008 fiscal year and compare these results with those obtained from previous years. The working hypothesis of this research is that fast growth enhances the marine survival of salmon, either because fast growing fish quickly reach a size that is sufficient to successfully avoid predators, or because they accumulate enough energy reserves to better survive their first winter at sea, a period generally considered critical in the life cycle of salmon. Sea surface temperature decreased from FY05 to FY08, whereas, the summer biomass of phytoplankton increased steadily off the west coast of Vancouver Island from FY05 to FY08. As in FY07, zooplankton biomass was generally above average off the west coast of Vancouver Island in FY08. Interestingly, phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass were higher in FY08 than was expected from the observed

  10. Protect and Restore Red River Watershed, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bransford, Stephanie

    2009-05-04

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Red River Watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2001. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through road decommissioning and culvert replacement. From completing a watershed assessment to two NEPA efforts and a final stream restoration design, we will begin the effort of restoring the mainstem channel of Red River to provide spawning and rearing habitat for anadromous and resident fish species. Roads have been surveyed and prioritized for removal or improvement as well as culverts being prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Another major, and extremely, important component of this project is the Red River Meadow Conservation Easement. We have begun the process of pursuing a conservation easement on approximately 270 acres of prime meadow habitat (Red River runs through this meadow and is prime spawning and rearing habitat).

  11. Energy for lunar resource exploitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1992-01-01

    Humanity stands at the threshold of exploiting the known lunar resources that have opened up with the access to space. America's role in the future exploitation of space, and specifically of lunar resources, may well determine the level of achievement in technology development and global economic competition. Space activities during the coming decades will significantly influence the events on Earth. The 'shifting of history's tectonic plates' is a process that will be hastened by the increasingly insistent demands for higher living standards of the exponentially growing global population. Key to the achievement of a peaceful world in the 21st century, will be the development of a mix of energy resources at a societally acceptable and affordable cost within a realistic planning horizon. This must be the theme for the globally applicable energy sources that are compatible with the Earth's ecology. It is in this context that lunar resources development should be a primary goal for science missions to the Moon, and for establishing an expanding human presence. The economic viability and commercial business potential of mining, extracting, manufacturing, and transporting lunar resource based materials to Earth, Earth orbits, and to undertake macroengineering projects on the Moon remains to be demonstrated. These extensive activities will be supportive of the realization of the potential of space energy sources for use on Earth. These may include generating electricity for use on Earth based on beaming power from Earth orbits and from the Moon to the Earth, and for the production of helium 3 as a fuel for advanced fusion reactors.

  12. Snacking patterns of U.S. adults: What We Eat In America, 2007-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goals of this study were to track changes in snacking frequency over time, determine whether snacking is associated with food energy intake and weight status, identify foods and beverages that make the largest contributions to calories consumed at snacks, and measure the contribution of snacks t...

  13. Auctions for coastal energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Robert M.

    It is becoming increasingly common to allocate public resources to the private sector for the purpose of developing these resources. One of the earliest uses of auctions in the U.S. for allocating rights to public resources was in the offshore oil and gas industry. The U.S. Federal government, through the Department of Interior (DOI), has used auctions to allocate development rights to offshore oil and gas resources to the private sector since the 1950's. Since then many things have changed. Oil and gas markets have gone through boom and bust cycles, giant technological advances in extraction and assessment have taken place, and alternative energy based in the coastal zone is now in demand in markets as well. There has been an enormous amount of research into the drivers of bidder behavior in auctions and optimal auction design in the last 60 years as well. Throughout all of this, the DOI has continued to use basically the same exact auction design to allocate oil and gas leases. The U.S. offshore oil and gas resources sold by the Department of Interior have accounted for more than $65 billion in revenue since the program started. These offshore resources are an important source of government revenue and national wealth. Additionally, the expansion of the energy sector offshore has enormous potential for electricity generation in the U.S., estimated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory as approaching 54 gigawatts by 2030 (U.S. Department of Energy, 2008). Taken together, the DOI controls access to a large part of the future of energy in the U.S. The research herein assesses the auction formats used to allocate both fossil fuels and renewable resources on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). The first manuscript looks at the current method used by the DOI to allocate oil and gas leases on the OCS, and is primarily interested in how bidders behave in this environment. Using latent class estimation techniques to separate distinct bidding behavior in a laboratory

  14. Surveillance of air-travel-related tuberculosis incidents, England and Wales: 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, I; Welfare, R; Moore, J; Watson, J M

    2008-06-01

    The potential spread of tuberculosis (TB) from infectious passengers during air travel has recently received increasing attention in the media and from public health authorities. We reviewed all air travel-related tuberculosis incidents reported to the Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections between January 2007 and February 2008 in England and Wales and investigated the effectiveness of contact investigation. Incidents involving air travel were defined according to the World Health Organization's guidelines on TB and Air Travel. We collected data on the index case, the incident and the outcome of contact investigation where available. We identified 24 incidents involving 39 flights. The median flight duration was 8.9 hours (inter-quartile range (IQR) 8 to 11.7). Most flights (36) were from or to a high burden country and 19 of the 24 incidents reported had a smear-positive index case. Two index cases had multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. In 17 incidents, no further investigation could be undertaken due to the lack of passenger information. In the remaining seven incidents, the quality of contact information obtained was variable. No further cases of TB infection or disease were identified. This study suggests that the process of investigating passenger contacts of a TB infected individual travelling by air is complicated and usually unsuccessful without dedicated resources and availability of high-quality contact information from airlines. Further research into the effectiveness of contact investigation in this setting is needed. PMID:18761951

  15. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; George, R.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; Scott, G.; McCarthy, E.

    2001-03-06

    This report contains the results of a wind resource analysis and mapping study for the Philippine archipelago. The study's objective was to identify potential wind resource areas and quantify the value of those resources within those areas. The wind resource maps and other wind resource characteristic information will be used to identify prospective areas for wind-energy applications.

  16. Renewable Energy Resources in Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdy, R.

    2010-12-01

    The energy sector in Lebanon plays an important role in the overall development of the country, especially that it suffers from many serious problems. The fact that Lebanon is among the few countries that are not endowed with fossil fuels in the Middle East made this sector cause one third of the national debt in Lebanon. Despite the large government investments in the power sector, demand still exceeds supply and Lebanon frequently goes through black out in peak demand times or has to resort to importing electricity from Syria. The Energy production sector has dramatic environmental and economical impacts in the form of emitted gasses and environment sabotage, accordingly, it is imperative that renewable energy (RE) be looked at as an alternative energy source. Officials at the Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) and Lebanese Electricity (EDL) have repeatedly expressed their support to renewable energy utilization. So far, only very few renewable energy applications can be observed over the country. Major efforts are still needed to overcome this situation and promote the use of renewable energy. These efforts are the shared responsibility of the government, EDL, NGO's and educational and research centers. Additionally, some efforts are being made by some international organizations such as UNDP, ESCWA, EC and other donor agencies operating in Lebanon. This work reviews the status of Energy in Lebanon, the installed RE projects, and the potential projects. It also reviews the stakeholders in the field of RE in Lebanon Conclusion In considering the best R.E. alternative, it is important to consider all potential R.E. sources, their costs, market availability, suitability for the selected location, significance of the energy produced and return on investment. Several RE resources in Lebanon have been investigated; Tides and waves energy is limited and not suitable two tentative sites for geothermal energy are available but not used. Biomass resources badly affect the

  17. Enhancing the Environmental Legacy of the International Polar Year 2007- 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tin, T.; Roura, R.; Perrault, M.

    2006-12-01

    The International Geophysical Year (IGY) left a legacy of peace and international cooperation in the form of the 1959 Antarctic Treaty. Since the IGY, the 1991 Protocol of Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed and entered into force. The Protocol establishes that the protection of the environment and the wilderness values of Antarctica "shall be fundamental considerations in the planning and conduct of all activities in the Antarctic Treaty area". Fifty years on, the IPY 2007-08 can, in turn, leave behind a positive environmental legacy - where the sharing of facilities and logistics are encouraged, the human footprint in Antarctica is minimized and a future generation of environmentally aware scientists, logisticians and visitors is fostered. Based on an analysis of all Expressions of Interest submitted to the IPY, we found that about three-quarters of IPY's Antarctic projects plan to have fieldwork components. About one-third of these field projects expect to leave physical infrastructure in Antarctica. A number of projects plan to develop large-scale infrastructure, such as stations and observatories, in hitherto pristine areas. Fewer than one percent of Antarctic field projects address the issue of their environmental legacy: four projects indicated that the site will be cleaned up or the equipment will be removed at the end of the project; two projects indicated that their results may be useful for the management of the Antarctic environment, e.g., in the control of invasive species or setting up of marine protected areas. With the goal of increasing the environmental awareness of Antarctic field scientists, our contribution will review current research on the impacts of human activities science, tourism, exploitation of marine resources and global climate change - on the Antarctic environment. A preliminary analysis of the cumulative impacts of IPY activities will be presented. Case studies of scientific projects in Antarctica with a

  18. Changes in mean intake of fatty acids and intake of saturated and trans fats from potatoes: NHANES 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A

    2015-05-01

    Studies have shown that higher than usual intakes of trans fatty acids (TFAs) have adverse effects on blood lipids. Because of this, in 2006 the US FDA mandated labeling of TFAs on food packages. The food and restaurant industries, including the potato industry, reformulated their foods to reduce or eliminate partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and TFAs. Before mandatory labeling, grain-based desserts, yeast breads, and French-fried potatoes (FFPs) were the top sources of TFAs in the food supply; by 2007, potato food manufacturers and quick-service restaurants had reduced or eliminated TFAs without increasing saturated fatty acids (SFAs). FFPs are no longer a source of TFAs in the food supply. This study examined energy and fatty acid intake among children aged 6-11 y, adolescents aged 12-18 y, and adults aged ≥19 y across 3 time periods by using data from the NHANES 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010. On average, intakes of total energy, total fat, SFAs, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) decreased significantly between 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 among children and adolescents; however, the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) did not change. Among adults, intakes of total fat, SFAs, and MUFAs decreased; however, total energy and PUFA intake did not change. On the day of the 2009-2010 survey, ∼13% of children and 10% of adolescents reported consuming fried FFPs, whereas <7% of adults reported consumption of fried FFPs. Intakes of SFAs and TFAs from fried FFPs decreased significantly between 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 among children, adolescents, and adults. This study confirms that intake of TFAs from FFPs is trivial. PMID:25979511

  19. IPY 2007-2008 and Scientists, Science Organisations, and the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, D. J.

    2006-12-01

    feel the impact of IPY. IPY does not fit within any single science organisation, even one so vast as AGU. A true international IPY community will exist beyond existing organisational systems, and a full multidisciplinary IPY assembly will occur in partnership with but separate from existing events. IPY will stimulate and produce new data models and infrastructure that will allow future polar researchers and polar residents to access, share and explore gravitational, genomic, and Gwich'in information. IPY will also necessarily stir up murky issues between scientific research and the environment, including how mega-science programmes should reduce their own environmental impact and how science conducts its assessments of global environmental problems when its partners include commercial energy companies and when its information products might encourage expanded extractive activities. This IPY will inevitably produce an organisational, data and environmental legacy that will impact science and scientists of the future. The public will expect quick answers from IPY, to questions not necessarily of our choosing. We can expect that they will enjoy a wide array of films and programmes and books on polar themes. We will have failed if the global public does not also gain an improved understanding of polar science and of the global consequences of climate change, and an enhanced appreciation of the creativity, challenges, pleasures and disappointments of science and of the energies and enthusiasms of scientists.

  20. Effects of Traditional and Nontraditional Forms of Parental Involvement on School-Level Achievement Outcome: An HLM Study Using SASS 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Jianping; Washington, Alandra L.; Bierlein Palmer, Louann; Xia, Jiangang

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined parental involvement's (PI) impact on school performance. The hierarchical linear modeling method was applied to national Schools and Staffing Survey 2007-2008 data. They found that PI variables explained significant variance for the outcomes of (a) meeting adequate yearly progress (AYP) and (b) being free from sanctions.…

  1. A Study of Support Services in Schools and Their Relationship with School Effectiveness in American Public Schools: Findings from the School and Staffing Survey (Sass) 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Diane J.

    2012-01-01

    This study inquires into support services in schools and their relationship to school effectiveness by using data from the National Center for Education Statistics 2007-2008 School and Staffing Survey (SASS). Students' ability to learn is impacted by their physical and mental health. It is more difficult to measure the influence of…

  2. Philippines Wind Energy Resource Atlas Development

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.

    2000-11-29

    This paper describes the creation of a comprehensive wind energy resource atlas for the Philippines. The atlas was created to facilitate the rapid identification of good wind resource areas and understanding of the salient wind characteristics. Detailed wind resource maps were generated for the entire country using an advanced wind mapping technique and innovative assessment methods recently developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  3. Modeling renewable energy resources in integrated resource planning

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, D.; Neil, C.; Taylor, A.

    1994-06-01

    Including renewable energy resources in integrated resource planning (IRP) requires that utility planning models properly consider the relevant attributes of the different renewable resources in addition to conventional supply-side and demand-side options. Otherwise, a utility`s resource plan is unlikely to have an appropriate balance of the various resource options. The current trend toward regulatory set-asides for renewable resources is motivated in part by the perception that the capabilities of current utility planning models are inadequate with regard to renewable resources. Adequate modeling capabilities and utility planning practices are a necessary prerequisite to the long-term penetration of renewable resources into the electric utility industry`s resource mix. This report presents a review of utility planning models conducted for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The review examines the capabilities of utility planning models to address key issues in the choice between renewable resources and other options. The purpose of this review is to provide a basis for identifying high priority areas for advancing the state of the art.

  4. Ground and shipboard measurements of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury over the Yellow Sea region during 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Duc Luong; Kim, Jin Young; Shim, Shang-Gyoo; Zhang, Xiao-Shan

    2011-01-01

    The first ever shipboard measurements of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) over the Yellow Sea were carried out. Ground measurements were also performed at background and urban sites surrounding the Yellow Sea during 2007-2008. The GEM mean concentrations obtained from ground measurements at Ningbo, Chengshantou, and Deokjeok, and from shipboard measurements for the routes of Incheon-Qingdao, Incheon-Weihai, and Incheon-Jeju were 3.79 ± 1.29, 2.07 ± 0.91, 1.79 ± 0.80, 1.82 ± 0.51, 2.03 ± 0.66, and 2.43 ± 0.59 ng m -3, respectively. Compared with the GEM background concentration in the northern hemisphere, the slightly higher GEM regional background concentration of 2.08 ± 0.85 ng m -3 over the Yellow Sea region, based on shipboard measurements and ground measurements at background sites, gave implications for the impact of anthropogenic mercury sources surrounding the Yellow Sea. Shipboard measurements over the Yellow Sea showed a decrease of mercury concentration compared with aircraft measurements during ACE-ASIA campaign in 2001, though it was still generally higher than those from other seas or oceans around the world. The contrasting patterns in seasonal and diurnal variations of GEM concentration between background and urban sites were apparent due to the influence of different sources; for example, natural sources, such as vegetative and foliar emissions in background area, and local anthropogenic sources, such as coal combustion in urban area. The significantly elevated GEM concentrations at Deokjeok, a Korean background site, during the spring of 2008 were attributed to the long-range transport from the southern part of Liaoning province, one of the heaviest mercury-polluted areas in China.

  5. Occurrence and intake of deoxynivalenol in cereal-based products marketed in Korea during 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Ok, H E; Chang, H-J; Choi, S-W; Cho, T Y; Oh, K S; Chun, H S

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) was investigated in 514 cereal-based products (corn-based, n = 125; barley-based, n = 96; wheat-based, n = 94; rice-based, n = 199) marketed in Korea during 2007-2008, and estimates of DON intake were determined. Samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet light (UV) detection after immunoaffinity clean-up. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) were 2.2 and 5.6 µg kg(-1), respectively. Recoveries and repeatability expressed as coefficients of variation (CV) were 82.3-100% and 2.4-15.3% in beer, bread and dried corn. The incidences and mean levels of DON were 56% and 68.9 µg kg(-1) for corn-based products, 49% and 24.1 µg kg(-1) for wheat-based products, 43% and 7.5 µg kg(-1) for barley-based products, and 16% and 3.4 µg kg(-1) for rice-based products, respectively. The estimated daily intake of DON from the consumption of rice-based, wheat-based, barley-based and corn-based products were 0.0038 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1), 0.0032 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1), 0.0015 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1) and 0.0002 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. These values represent 0.38%, 0.32%, 0.25% and 0.01% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 1 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1). These results indicate that rice-based products are major contributors to DON exposure in Korea, even though the current exposure level is unlikely to cause adverse health effects. PMID:24785178

  6. OBS records of Whale vocalizations from Lucky-strike segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge during 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, A.; Rai, A.; Singh, S. C.; Crawford, W. C.; Escartin, J.; Cannat, M.

    2009-12-01

    Passive seismic experiments to study seismicity require a long term deployment of ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs). These instruments also record a large amount of non-seismogenic signals such as movement of large ships, air-gun shots, and marine mammal vocalizations. We report a bi-product of our passive seismic experiment (BBMOMAR) conducted around the Lucky-strike hydrothermal field of the slow-spreading mid-Atlantic ridge. Five multi-component ocean-bottom seismometers (recording two horizontal, one vertical and one pressure channel) were deployed during 2007-2008. During 13 months of deployment, abundant vocalizations of marine mammals have been recorded by all the five equipments. By analyzing the frequency content of data and their pattern of occurrence, we conclude that these low-frequency vocalizations (~20-40 Hz) typically corresponds to blue and fin-whales. These signals if not identified, could be mis-interpreted as underwater seismic/hydrothermal activity. Our data show an increase in the number of vocalizations recorded during the winter season relative to the summer. As part of the seismic monitoring of the Lucky-strike site, we anticipate to extend this study to the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 periods, after the recovery and deployment of the array during the BATHYLUCK09 cruise. Long-term and continuous records of calls of marine mammals provide valuable information that could be used to identify the species, study their seasonal behaviour and their migration paths. Our study suggestes that passive experiments such as ocean-bottom seismometers deployed at key locations, could provide useful secondary infromation about oceanic species besides recording seismicity, which is otherwise not possible without harming or interfering with their activity.

  7. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the WHO Western Pacific and South East Asian regions, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Tapsall, J W; Limnios, E A; Abu Bakar, Hjh Mahani Hj; Darussalam, Brunei; Ping, Yin Yue; Buadromo, E M; Kumar, P; Singh, S; Lo, J; Bala, M; Risbud, A; Deguchi, T; Tanaka, M; Watanabe, Y; Lee, K; Chong, Y; Noikaseumsy, S; Phouthavane, T; Sam, I-Ching; Tundev, O; Lwin, K M; Eh, P H; Goarant, C; Goursaud, R; Bathgate, T; Brokenshire, M; Latorre, L; Velemu, E; Carlos, C; Leano, S; Telan, E O; Goh, S S; Koh, S T; Ngan, C; Tan, A L; Mananwatte, S; Piyanoot, N; Lokpichat, S; Sirivongranson, P; Fakahau, M; Sitanilei, H; Hung, Le Van

    2010-03-01

    Long-term surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been conducted in the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (WPR) to optimise antibiotic treatment of gonococcal disease since 1992. In 2007 and 2008, this Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (GASP) was enhanced by the inclusion of data from the South East Asian Region (SEAR) and recruitment of additional centres within the WPR. Approximately 17,450 N. gonorrhoeae were examined for their susceptibility to one or more antibiotics used for the treatment of gonorrhoea by external quality controlled methods in 24 reporting centres in 20 countries and/or jurisdictions. A high proportion of penicillin and/or quinolone resistance was again detected amongst isolates tested in North Asia and the WHO SEAR, but much lower rates of penicillin resistance and little quinolone resistance was present in most of the Pacific Island countries. The proportion of gonococci reported as 'resistant', 'less susceptible' or 'non-susceptible' gonococci to the third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic ceftriaxone lay in a wide range, but no major changes were evident in cephalosporin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) patterns in 2007-2008. Altered cephalosporin susceptibility was associated with treatment failures following therapy with oral third-generation cephalosporins. There is a need for revision and clarification of some of the in vitro criteria that are currently used to categorise the clinical importance of gonococci with different ceftriaxone and oral cephalosporin MIC levels. The number of instances of spectinomycin resistance remained low. A high proportion of strains tested continued to exhibit a form of plasmid mediated high level resistance to tetracyclines. The continuing emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant gonococci in and from the WHO WPR and SEAR supports the need for gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveillance programs such as GASP to be

  8. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Juveniles, 2007-2008 Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Sandford, Benjamin P.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2009-05-26

    This report provides results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior and survival of wild juvenile spring/summer Chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. Data reported is from detections of PIT tagged fish during late summer 2007 through mid-2008. Fish were tagged in summer 2007 by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in Idaho and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) in Oregon. Our analyses include migration behavior and estimated survival of fish at instream PIT-tag monitors and arrival timing and estimated survival to Lower Granite Dam. Principal results from tagging and interrogation during 2007-2008 are listed below: (1) In July and August 2007, we PIT tagged and released 7,390 wild Chinook salmon parr in 12 Idaho streams or sample areas. (2) Overall observed mortality from collection, handling, tagging, and after a 24-hour holding period was 1.4%. (3) Of the 2,524 Chinook salmon parr PIT tagged and released in Valley Creek in summer 2007, 218 (8.6%) were detected at two instream PIT-tag monitoring systems in lower Valley Creek from late summer 2007 to the following spring 2008. Of these, 71.6% were detected in late summer/fall, 11.9% in winter, and 16.5% in spring. Estimated parr-to-smolt survival to Lower Granite Dam was 15.5% for the late summer/fall group, 48.0% for the winter group, and 58.5% for the spring group. Based on detections at downstream dams, the overall efficiency of VC1 (upper) or VC2 (lower) Valley Creek monitors for detecting these fish was 21.1%. Using this VC1 or VC2 efficiency, an estimated 40.8% of all summer-tagged parr survived to move out of Valley Creek, and their estimated survival from that point to Lower Granite Dam was 26.5%. Overall estimated parr-to-smolt survival for all summer-tagged parr from this stream at the dam was 12.1%. Development and improvement of instream PIT-tag monitoring systems continued throughout 2007 and 2008. (4) Testing of PIT-tag antennas in lower Big Creek during

  9. University Student Conceptual Resources for Understanding Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabo, Hannah C.; Goodhew, Lisa M.; Robertson, Amy D.

    2016-01-01

    We report some of the common, prevalent conceptual resources that students used to reason about energy, based on our analysis of written responses to questions given to 807 introductory physics students. These resources include, for example, associating forms of energy with indicators, relating forces and energy, and representing energy…

  10. University student conceptual resources for understanding energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabo, Hannah C.; Goodhew, Lisa M.; Robertson, Amy D.

    2016-06-01

    We report some of the common, prevalent conceptual resources that students used to reason about energy, based on our analysis of written responses to questions given to 807 introductory physics students. These resources include, for example, associating forms of energy with indicators, relating forces and energy, and representing energy quantitatively. This research responds to a need for large-scale, resources-oriented research on students' conceptual understanding and has the potential to support the development of an underexplored dimension of pedagogical content knowledge-knowledge of student resources for understanding energy. Our aim is to promote instructor take-up of the resources theory of knowledge, and we suggest a number of ways in which instructors might capitalize on the resources we report.

  11. Energy Education: A Catalog of Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Atmospheric Science Research Center.

    This list of energy resource materials is broken down into five categories: (1) general resources; (2) electricity; (3) nuclear and fossil fuels; (4) conservation; and (5) future fuels. (An added feature for New York residents is a concluding list of resources available gratis from New York electric companies). Materials cited include audiovisual…

  12. Magma mixing and forced exsolution of CO2 during the explosive 2007-2008 eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosshard-Stadlin, Sonja A.; Mattsson, Hannes B.; Keller, Jörg

    2014-09-01

    Oldoinyo Lengai is probably most famous for being the only active volcano on Earth which is erupting natrocarbonatitic magma. However, the mildly explosive natrocarbonatitic activity is alternating with highly explosive, nephelinitic eruptions of which the most recent episode occurred in September 2007 (and lasted until April 2008). Here we present petrographic observations, mineral chemistry as well as major- and trace element analyses of samples covering the evolution of the eruption with time. In the early phases of the eruption, the phenocryst assemblages are dominated by the carbonate minerals nyerereite and gregoryite, but as the eruption progresses the mineralogy becomes dominated by silicate minerals like nepheline, pyroxene, garnet, alumoåkermanite, combeite and wollastonite. The observed major- and trace element variations during the 2007-2008 eruption indicate mixing between a natrocarbonatitic magma and a combeite-wollastonite-bearing nephelinitic magma (CWN), with higher portions of natrocarbonatite in the early stages of the eruption. Euhedral and uncorroded clinopyroxene crystals are abundant in the late 2007 deposits but quickly start to break-down and corrode as the eruption continues, indicating that the natrocarbonatite and the CWN are not in fact conjugate magmas derived from a single magma reservoir, but must have evolved separately in the crust from the point of immiscibility. When these magmas interact beneath the volcano, a hybrid silicate magma forms (where clinopyroxene is no longer stable) and the composition of this hybrid causes the overall solubility of CO2 in the system to decrease drastically. This results in rapid exsolution of CO2 (g) which is allowed to expand during ascent, and we conclude that this is most likely the reason behind the unexpected vigor in the explosive eruptions of Oldoinyo Lengai. This massive release of CO2 during ascent may also explain the petrographic features of the pyroclasts as these are dominated by

  13. Energy crisis: resources or decisions. [Pamphlet

    SciTech Connect

    Yasinsky, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    The no-growth philosophy has contributed to a decade of debate and indecision over which domestic energy programs the US should pursue. This attitude has eroded faith in the ability of technology to bring future energy security and has crippled our decision-making process. The US has abundant energy resources of coal and nuclear power, and is developing efficient new energy technologies that can help us shift away from foreign oil dependency. A decision to use these resources to substitute for imported oil, coupled with strong domestic economic growth and conservation, can move us closer to energy independence.

  14. Teachers Environmental Resource Unit: Energy and Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemiss, Clair W.

    Problems associated with energy production and power are studied in this teacher's guide to better understand the impact of man's energy production on the environment, how he consumes energy, and in what quantities. The resource unit is intended to provide the teacher with basic information that will aid classroom review of these problems. Topics…

  15. Introduction of the 2007-2008 JOGMEC/NRCan/Aurora Mallik Gas Hydrate Production Research Program, NWT, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Dallimore, S. R.; Numasawa, M.; Yasuda, M.; Fujii, T.; Fujii, K.; Wright, J.; Nixon, F.

    2007-12-01

    prolonged testing planned in the near future. The authors acknowledge the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21), the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and NRCan for the support and funding. The Mallik 2002 program was undertaken jointly by JNOC, NRCan, GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), the United State Geological Survey (USGS), the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the India Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MOPNG)-Gas Authority of India (GAIL), and the BP-Chevron Texaco Mackenzie Delta Joint Venture.

  16. Energy Crisis: Resource Guide for Energy Conservation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Don; McDuffie, Claudia

    This publication is a resource guide to energy education and conservation materials and organizations. The stated purpose of this guide is to make teachers and other interested citizens of Oregon aware of some of the resources and sources of information on energy conservation education that are available in Oregon and in the United States and…

  17. ENCORE: Energy Conservation Resources for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Dept. of Industrial Education.

    This publication contains the energy education materials for middle schools from project ENCORE (Energy Conservation Resources for Education). These modules were originally field tested in Texas schools during the 1976-77 academic year. The revised materials in this publication are organized into four major units and thirteen chapters. The…

  18. Energy and other non-renewable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Anticipated U.S. demands for non-renewable energy and mineral resources exceed domestic supplies essential for economic growth. For the long term changes necessary in the energy supply and demand gap, new technologies and substitute materials as well as legislation and socio-economic strategies are elaborated.

  19. ‘Antarctic biology in the 21st century - Advances in, and beyond the international polar year 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddart, Michael

    2010-08-01

    The International Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY) has provided an opportunity for biology to show itself as an important part of Antarctic science in a manner in which it was not seen during earlier Polar Years. Of the 15 endorsed biological projects in Antarctica, 7 included more than 20 scientists and could be deemed truly international. Four were conducted in the marine environment, and one each in the fields of biological invasions, microbial ecology, and terrestrial ecology, and one was SCAR’s over-arching ‘Evolution and Biodiversity in the Antarctic’. The marine projects have left a robust legacy of data for future research into the consequences of environmental change, and into future decisions about marine protected areas. Studies on introductions of exotic organisms reveal an ever-present threat to the warmer parts of the high-latitude Southern Ocean, or parts which might become warmer with climate change. Studies on microbial ecology reveal great complexity of ecosystems with high numbers of unknown species. Terrestrial research has shown how vulnerable the Antarctic is to accidental introductions, and how productive the soils can be under changed climate conditions. Antarctic biology has come-of-age during IPY 2007-2008 and the campaign has set the scene for future research.

  20. Enhanced distributed energy resource system

    DOEpatents

    Atcitty, Stanley; Clark, Nancy H.; Boyes, John D.; Ranade, Satishkumar J.

    2007-07-03

    A power transmission system including a direct current power source electrically connected to a conversion device for converting direct current into alternating current, a conversion device connected to a power distribution system through a junction, an energy storage device capable of producing direct current connected to a converter, where the converter, such as an insulated gate bipolar transistor, converts direct current from an energy storage device into alternating current and supplies the current to the junction and subsequently to the power distribution system. A microprocessor controller, connected to a sampling and feedback module and the converter, determines when the current load is higher than a set threshold value, requiring triggering of the converter to supply supplemental current to the power transmission system.

  1. Federal Energy Resources Modernization Coordinating Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.B.

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the broad range of activities that are focused on meeting the President's Executive Order on Federal Energy Management promulgated to meet energy savings goals and encourage more efficient management of all federal energy resources. These activities are reported semiannually under the auspices of the Federal Energy Resource Modernization (FERM) Coordinating Committee, and as such include activities undertaken from April 1, 1992, through September 30, 1992. The activities reported are classified into four major categories: (1) technology-base support, which includes development of processes, software, metering and monitoring equipment and strategies, and other tools for federal energy managers to better understand and characterize their energy resources; (2) federal energy systems testing and monitoring; (3) federal energy systems revitalization projects at federal installations in cooperation with the utilities serving the sites; and (4) energy supply, distribution and end-use conservation assessment for federal agencies and/or facilities. Lighting systems and air conditioning projects at federal facilities, especially military bases are updated.

  2. Energy resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theobald, P.K.; Schweinfurth, Stanley P.; Duncan, Donald Cave

    1972-01-01

    Estimates are made of United States resources of coal, petroleum liquids, natural gas, uranium, geothermal energy, and oil from oil shale. The estimates, compiled by specialists of the U.S. Geological Survey, are generally made on geologic projections of favorable rocks and on anticipated frequency of the energy resource in the favorable rocks. Accuracy of the estimates probably ranges from 20 to 50 percent for identified-recoverable resources to about an order of magnitude for undiscovered-submarginal resources. The total coal resource base in the United States is estimated to be about 3,200 billion tons, of which 200-390 billion tons can be considered in the category identified and recoverable. More than 70 percent of current production comes from the Appalachian basin where the resource base, better known than for the United States as a whole, is about 330 billion tons, of which 22 billion tons is identified and recoverable. Coals containing less than 1 percent sulfur are the premium coals. These are abundant in the western coal fields, but in the Appalachian basin the resource base for low-sulfur coal is estimated to be only a little more than 100 billion tons, of which 12 billion tons is identified and recoverable. Of the many estimates of petroleum liquids and natural-gas resources, those of the U.S. Geological Survey are the largest because, in general, our estimates include the largest proportion of favorable ground for exploration. We estimate the total resource base for petroleum liquids to be about 2,900 billion barrels, of which 52 billion barrels is identified and recoverable. Of the total resource base, some 600 billion barrels is in Alaska or offshore from Alaska, 1,500 billion barrels is offshore from the United States, and 1,300 billion barrels is onshore in the conterminous United States. Identified-recoverable resources of petroleum liquids corresponding to these geographic units are 11, 6, and 36 billion barrels, respectively. The total natural

  3. 76 FR 8723 - Minnesota Energy Resources Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Minnesota Energy Resources Corporation; Notice of Application Take notice that on February 1, 2011, Minnesota Energy Resources Corporation (MERC), 2665 145th Street...

  4. Redesigning Today's Schools to Build a Stronger Tomorrow: The Massachusetts Expanded Learning Time Initiative 2007-2008 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts 2020, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Our children deserve an education that fully prepares them for the future--success in college, the workforce and a healthy, fulfilled life. The Massachusetts Expanded Learning Time (ELT) Initiative is redesigning and expanding the school schedule to offer children new learning and enrichment opportunities. With state resources, participating…

  5. Upper-ocean hydrography of the Nordic Seas during the International Polar Year (2007-2008) as observed by instrumented seals and Argo floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isachsen, Pål E.; Sørlie, Signe R.; Mauritzen, Cecilie; Lydersen, Christian; Dodd, Paul; Kovacs, Kit M.

    2014-11-01

    Following indications of recent warming trends in the Nordic Seas, we have studied the hydrography of these marginal seas from the summer of 2007 until the fall of 2008, using observations gathered by instrumented seals and Argo floats. The combined dataset shows that the upper ocean was indeed both warmer and saltier over much of the Nordic Seas in 2007-2008 compared to the average ocean state for the period 1956-2006 (based on the World Ocean Atlas 2009). There are also indications that the surface Polar Waters of the East Greenland Current were colder and fresher than the climatology, though the quality of the climatology is questionable for this region given the low number of historical observations. Dynamic height calculations suggest that the observed hydrographic changes were associated with enhanced northward upper-ocean thermal wind transport in the east and possibly also enhanced southward transport in the west.

  6. A synopsis of oncology and oncology-related papers published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Brennan, P A; Shekar, K; McLeod, N; Puxeddu, R; Cascarini, L

    2009-10-01

    This paper provides a summary of the 95 papers related to oncology that were published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (BJOMS) during 2007-2008. They include full length articles on clinical studies, radiology, basic science, and reconstruction in oral, and head and neck cancer. The journal also publishes technical notes and short communications. It encompasses the whole remit of the specialty and it is encouraging that authors choose to submit their work to BJOMS, but to improve the quality and status of the journal, we need to increase the ratio of full length articles to other submissions. Reviews of other subspecialties will be published in due course. PMID:19665266

  7. Rayleigh Lidar Network Observations and Analysis of the Evolution of the Arctic Middle Atmosphere during the IPY Winter 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, R. L.; Harvey, V. L.; Thurairajah, B.; Atkinson, D. E.; Larsen, C. J.; Baumgarten, G.; Fiedler, J.; Firanski, B. J.; Gerding, M.; Hoeffner, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Luebken, F.; Mizutani, K.; Pan, W.; Sica, R. J.; Strawbridge, K. B.

    2008-12-01

    A network of five Rayleigh lidars (i.e., Kuehlungsborn, Germany (54N, 12E), Chatanika, USA (65N, 147W), Kangerlussuaq, Greenland (67N, 51W), Andoya, Norway (69N, 16E), and Eureka, Canada (80N, 86W)) has been used to measure middle atmosphere temperature profiles through the 2007-2008 winter and spring. These measurements are being made as part of the project Pan-Arctic Studies of the Coupled Tropospheric, Stratospheric and Mesospheric Circulation as part of the Fourth International Polar Year (IPY-4). This project is a component of the two full IPY proposals; International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA) and The Structure and Evolution of the Polar Stratosphere and Mesosphere and Links to the Troposphere during IPY (SPARC-IPY). The lidar network is part of the Arctic Observing Network (AON). The resolution and distribution of these lidar measurements provides the basis for a pan-Arctic perspective of the middle atmosphere circulation. We combine these lidar data with satellite observations and meteorological re-analyses to study the structure, evolution, and variability of the Arctic stratospheric vortex and Aleutian anticyclone. In this study we present the evolution of the Arctic middle atmosphere during the winter of 2007-2008. We highlight a stratospheric warming event that occurred during 20-26 February 2008. During this week the vortex was disrupted by the Aleutian anticyclone, then split at higher altitudes, and eventually reformed. The lidar measurements show that the altitude and temperature of the stratopause vary considerably (10 km, 30 K) from night-to-night and that the observed temperature structure often differs from that reported by the standard climatologies (e.g., SPARC). We discuss the observations in terms of the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH).

  8. On the scaling laws derived from ice beacon trajectories in the southern Beaufort Sea during the International Polar Year - Circumpolar Flaw Lead study, 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukovich, J. V.; Babb, D. G.; Barber, D. G.

    2011-09-01

    Sea ice motion is an important element in mass balance calculations, ice thermodynamic modeling, ice management plans for industry, and ecosystems studies. In the historical literature, sea ice motion in the Beaufort Sea was characterized by a predominantly anticyclonic motion during winter months, with episodic reversals to cyclonic activity during summer. However, recent studies have shown an increase in cyclonic activity throughout the annual cycle. In this paper we examine circulation in the Beaufort Sea based on the trajectories of 22 ice beacons launched in the Franklin Bay area during the International Polar Year - Circumpolar Flaw Lead (IPY-CFL) study during an over-wintering experiment in 2007-2008. Dispersion characteristics of ice motion show that absolute zonal dispersion follows a t2 scaling law characteristic of advection associated with Beaufort Gyre circulation, whereas absolute meridional dispersion follows a scaling law of t5/4 characteristic of floaters and dispersion in 2-D turbulence. Temporal autocorrelations of ice velocity fluctuations highlight definitive timescales with values of 1.2 (0.7) days in the zonal (meridional) direction. Near-Gaussian behavior is reflected in higher-order moments for ice velocity fluctuation probability density functions (pdfs). Non-Gaussian behavior for absolute displacement pdfs indicates spatial heterogeneity in the ice motion fields. Atmospheric forcing of sea ice is explored through analysis of daily North American Regional Reanalysis and in situ wind data, where it is shown that ice in the CFL study region travels with an average speed of approximately 0.2% and an average angle of 51.5° to the right of the surface winds during the 2007-2008 winter. The results from this analysis further demonstrate seasonality in ice drift to wind ratios and angles that corresponds to stress buoy data indicative of increases in internal ice stress and connectivity due to consolidation of the seasonal ice zone to the coast

  9. Coordinated Collaboration between Heterogeneous Distributed Energy Resources

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Abdollahy, Shahin; Lavrova, Olga; Mammoli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    A power distribution feeder, where a heterogeneous set of distributed energy resources is deployed, is examined by simulation. The energy resources include PV, battery storage, natural gas GenSet, fuel cells, and active thermal storage for commercial buildings. The resource scenario considered is one that may exist in a not too distant future. Two cases of interaction between different resources are examined. One interaction involves a GenSet used to partially offset the duty cycle of a smoothing battery connected to a large PV system. The other example involves the coordination of twenty thermal storage devices, each associated with a commercial building.more » Storage devices are intended to provide maximum benefit to the building, but it is shown that this can have a deleterious effect on the overall system, unless the action of the individual storage devices is coordinated. A network based approach is also introduced to calculate some type of effectiveness metric to all available resources which take part in coordinated operation. The main finding is that it is possible to achieve synergy between DERs on a system; however this required a unified strategy to coordinate the action of all devices in a decentralized way.« less

  10. Alaska Energy Inventory Project: Consolidating Alaska's Energy Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, K.; Clough, J.; Swenson, R.; Crimp, P.; Hanson, D.; Parker, P.

    2007-12-01

    Alaska has considerable energy resources distributed throughout the state including conventional oil, gas, and coal, and unconventional coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass. While much of the known large oil and gas resources are concentrated on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet regions, the other potential sources of energy are dispersed across a varied landscape from frozen tundra to coastal settings. Despite the presence of these potential energy sources, rural Alaska is mostly dependent upon diesel fuel for both electrical power generation and space heating needs. At considerable cost, large quantities of diesel fuel are transported to more than 150 roadless communities by barge or airplane and stored in large bulk fuel tank farms for winter months when electricity and heat are at peak demands. Recent increases in the price of oil have severely impacted the price of energy throughout Alaska, and especially hard hit are rural communities and remote mines that are off the road system and isolated from integrated electrical power grids. Even though the state has significant conventional gas resources in restricted areas, few communities are located near enough to these resources to directly use natural gas to meet their energy needs. To address this problem, the Alaska Energy Inventory project will (1) inventory and compile all available Alaska energy resource data suitable for electrical power generation and space heating needs including natural gas, coal, coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass and (2) identify locations or regions where the most economic energy resource or combination of energy resources can be developed to meet local needs. This data will be accessible through a user-friendly web-based interactive map, based on the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Land Records Information Section's (LRIS) Alaska Mapper, Google Earth, and Terrago Technologies' Geo

  11. Energy resources - cornucopia or empty barrel?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    Over the last 25 yr, considerable debate has continued about the future supply of fossil fuel. On one side are those who believe we are rapidly depleting resources and that the resulting shortages will have a profound impact on society. On the other side are those who see no impending crisis because long-term trends are for cheaper prices despite rising production. The concepts of resources and reserves have historically created considerable misunderstanding in the minds of many nongeologists. Hubbert-type predictions of energy production assume that there is a finite supply of energy that is measurable; however, estimates of resources and reserves are inventories of the amounts of a fossil fuel perceived to be available over some future period of time. As those resources/reserves are depleted over time, additional amounts of fossil fuels are inventoried. Throughout most of this century, for example, crude oil reserves in the United States have represented a 10-14-yr supply. For the last 50 yr, resource crude oil estimates have represented about a 60-70-yr supply for the United States. Division of reserve or resource estimates by current or projected annual consumption therefore is circular in reasoning and can lead to highly erroneous conclusions. Production histories of fossil fuels are driven more by demand than by the geologic abundance of the resource. Examination of some energy resources with well-documented histories leads to two conceptual models that relate production to price. The closed-market model assumes that there is only one source of energy available. Although the price initially may fall because of economies of scale long term, prices rise as the energy source is depleted and it becomes progressively more expensive to extract. By contrast, the open-market model assumes that there is a variety of available energy sources and that competition among them leads to long-term stable or falling prices. At the moment, the United States and the world

  12. Groundwater level and specific conductance monitoring at Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, Onslow County, North Carolina, 2007-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, monitored water-resources conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne, Peedee, and Black Creek aquifers in Onslow County, North Carolina, from November 2007 through September 2008. To comply with North Carolina Central Coastal Plain Capacity Use Area regulations, large-volume water suppliers in Onslow County must reduce their dependency on the Black Creek aquifer as a water-supply source and have, instead, proposed using the Castle Hayne aquifer as an alternative water-supply source. The Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, uses water obtained from the unregulated surficial and Castle Hayne aquifers for drinking-water supply. Water-level data were collected and field measurements of physical properties were made at 19 wells at 8 locations spanning the Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune. These wells were instrumented with near real-time monitoring equipment to collect hourly measurements of water level. Additionally, specific conductance and water temperature were measured hourly in 16 of the 19 wells. Graphs are presented relating altitude of groundwater level to water temperature and specific conductance measurements collected during the study, and the relative vertical gradients between aquifers are discussed. The period-of-record normal (25th to 75th percentile) monthly mean groundwater levels at two well clusters were compared to median monthly mean groundwater levels at these same well clusters for 2008 to determine groundwater-resources conditions. In 2008, water levels were below normal in the 3 wells at one of the well clusters and were normal in 4 wells at the other cluster.

  13. Energy resource management for energy-intensive manufacturing industries

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, C.W.; Levangie, J.

    1981-10-01

    A program to introduce energy resource management into an energy-intensive manufacturing industry is presented. The food industry (SIC No. 20) was chosen and 20 companies were selected for interviews, but thirteen were actually visited. The methodology for this program is detailed. Reasons for choosing the food industry are described. The substance of the information gained and the principal conclusions drawn from the interviews are given. Results of the model Energy Resource Management Plan applied to three companies are compiled at length. Strategies for dissemination of the information gained are described. (MCW)

  14. 77 FR 43592 - System Energy Resources, Inc.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ..., 2012, System Energy Resources, Inc. (System Energy Resources), submitted a supplement to its petition... supplement, System Energy Resources supplements its March 28 petition to provide additional information and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  15. Characterization of Suspended-Sediment Loading to and from John Redmond Reservoir, East-Central Kansas, 2007-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Casey J.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2008-01-01

    Storage capacity in John Redmond Reservoir is being lost to sedimentation more rapidly than in other federal impoundments in Kansas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, initiated a study to characterize suspended-sediment loading to and from John Redmond Reservoir from February 21, 2007, through February 21, 2008. Turbidity sensors were installed at two U.S. Geological Survey stream gages upstream (Neosho River near Americus and the Cottonwood River near Plymouth) and one stream gage downstream (Neosho River at Burlington) from the reservoir to compute continuous, real-time (15-minute) measurements of suspended-sediment concentration and loading. About 1,120,000 tons of suspended-sediment were transported to, and 100,700 tons were transported from John Redmond Reservoir during the study period. Dependent on the bulk density of sediment stored in the reservoir, 5.0 to 1.4 percent of the storage in the John Redmond conservation pool was lost during the study period, with an average deposition of 3.4 to 1.0 inches. Nearly all (98-99 percent) of the incoming sediment load was transported during 9 storms which occurred 25 to 27 percent of the time. The largest storm during the study period (peak-flow recurrence interval of about 4.6-4.9 years) transported about 37 percent of the sediment load to the reservoir. Suspended-sediment yield from the unregulated drainage area upstream from the Neosho River near Americus was 530 tons per square mile, compared to 400 tons per square mile upstream from the Cottonwood River near Plymouth. Comparison of historical (1964-78) to current (2007) sediment loading estimates indicate statistically insignificant (99 percent) decrease in sediment loading at the Neosho River at Burlington. Ninety-percent confidence intervals of streamflow-derived estimates of total sediment load were 7 to 21 times larger than turbidity-derived estimates. Results from this study can be used by natural resource

  16. Energy Resources and the Next Fifty Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landon, S. M.

    2002-05-01

    At this time, approximately 85 percent of the energy needs of the United States are supplied by fossil fuels. Crude oil currently supports transportation, generally as gasoline or jet fuel. The United States is importing roughly 60 percent of the crude oil we are now using and our domestic refining capacity is declining. Coal is providing more than 56 percent of the nation's electricity, although the use of natural gas as a fuel for electricity generation has been increasing. Natural gas, with today's technology, is considered a cleaner fuel as we continue to move toward decarbonization. The next logical phase in this historical progress will probably be the transition to pure hydrogen as an energy source, chiefly as a fuel for fuel cells. The initial source of hydrogen will probably be natural gas, given the existing infrastructure for natural gas, its cost, and its availability. Demand for natural gas is expected to peak in approximately 2050. But in the transition to an affordable, efficient, reliable, market-driven, carbon-free energy economy, substantial demand will still exist for coal and crude oil, even as these energy fuels are phased out. A massive requirement will exist for natural gas as the transition fuel since renewables will probably continue to supply only about 10 percent of our nation's electricity demand. The implied demand for coal and oil in the U. S. and the World can readily be met with existing known or probable resources; the challenge will be in assuring supplies that are secure, priced reasonably, and made ever cleaner. The implied demand for natural gas, however, exceeds the currently estimated resource base both in the U. S. and globally. For example, the currently estimated remaining resource of natural gas in the U. S. is about 2,000 TCF. The implied demand for natural gas in a methane economy, during the transition to a non-fossil source of hydrogen, is on the order of 3,000 to 4,000 TCF, half again to twice currently estimated

  17. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2007-05-01

    The era of publicly mandated GHG emissions restrictions inthe United States has begun with recent legislation in California andseven northeastern states. Commercial and industrial buildings canimprove the carbon-efficiency of end-use energy consumption by installingtechnologies such as on-site cogeneration of electricity and useful heatin combined heat and power systems, thermally-activated cooling, solarelectric and thermal equipment, and energy storage -- collectively termeddistributed energy resources (DER). This research examines a collectionof buildings in California, the Northeast, and the southern United Statesto demonstrate the effects of regional characteristics such as the carbonintensity of central electricity grid, the climate-driven demand forspace heating and cooling, and the availability of solar insolation. Theresults illustrate that the magnitude of a realistic carbon tax ($100/tC)is too small to incent significant carbon-reducing effects oneconomically optimal DER adoption. In large part, this is because costreduction and carbon reduction objectives are roughly aligned, even inthe absence of a carbon tax.

  18. Visualizing Energy Resources Dynamically on Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar, Mallikarjun; Stovall, John P.; Sorokine, Alexandre; Bhaduri, Budhendra L.; King, Jr., Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    For the North American hurricane season, in partnership with the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and working with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, we have developed a capability that helps visualize the status of the electric transmission system infrastructure. The capability toolkit, called VERDE - Visualizing Energy Resources Dynamically on Earth, takes advantage of the Google Earth platform to display spatiotemporally informed power grid and related data. Custom libraries describe the electrical transmission network in the Eastern United States and the dynamic status of each transmission line. Standard Google Earth layers provide additional spatial context. In addition to live status, VERDE provides a framework and mechanism to ingest and intuitively present predictive models, data from different sources, and response needs.

  19. Investigating Urban Eighth-Grade Students' Knowledge of Energy Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated urban eighth-grade students' knowledge of energy resources and associated issues including energy acquisition, energy generation, storage and transport, and energy consumption and conservation. A 39 multiple-choice-item energy resources knowledge assessment was completed by 1043 eighth-grade students in urban schools in two…

  20. The optical and physical properties of atmospheric aerosols over the Indian Antarctic stations during southern hemispheric summer of the International Polar Year 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaubey, Jai Prakash; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Babu, S. Suresh; Nair, Vijayakumar S.

    2011-01-01

    The properties of background aerosols and their dependence on meteorological, geographical and human influence are examined using measured spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), total mass concentration (MT) and derived number size distribution (NSD) over two distinct coastal locations of Antarctica; Maitri (70° S, 12° E, 123 m m.s.l.) and Larsemann Hills (LH; 69° S, 77° E, 48 m m.s.l.) during southern hemispheric summer of 2007-2008 as a part of the 27th Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA) during International Polar Year (IPY). Our investigations showed comparable values for the mean columnar AOD at 500 nm over Maitri (0.034±0.005) and LH (0.032±0.006) indicating good spatial homogeneity in the columnar aerosol properties over the coastal Antarctica. Estimation of Angstrom exponent α showed accumulation mode dominance at Maitri (α~1.2±0.3) and coarse mode dominance at LH (0.7±0.2). On the other hand, mass concentration (MT) of ambient aerosols showed relatively high values (≈8.25±2.87 μg m-3) at Maitri in comparison to LH (6.03±1.33 μg m-3).

  1. Assessment of chemical coexposure patterns based upon phthalate biomonitoring data within the 2007/2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hua; Chen, Min; Kransler, Kevin M; Zaleski, Rosemary T

    2015-01-01

    As regulatory initiatives increasingly call for an understanding of the cumulative risks from chemical mixtures, evaluating exposure data from large biomonitoring programs, which may inform these cumulative risk assessments, will improve the understanding of occurrence and patterns of coexposures. Here we have analyzed the urinary metabolite data for six phthalates (di-butyl phthalate; di-isobutyl phthalate; butyl-benzyl phthalate; bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; di-isononyl phthalate; and di-isodecyl phthalate) in the 2007/2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data set. For the total data set (N=2604), the co-occurrence of multiple phthalates at the upper percentile of exposure was infrequent. There were no individuals in the NHANES sample who were exposed to >95th percentiles for all six phthalates. For 75% of individuals, none of the six phthalates were above the 95th percentile of their respective exposure distributions. These data suggest that high exposure to multiple phthalates is infrequent in the NHANES population. This analysis solely focused on the pattern of contribution of individual phthalates to total exposure. It did not address the pattern of contribution to potential risk. The approach presented could potentially be used to provide insight into understanding the coexposure patterns for other chemicals. PMID:24756100

  2. Changing patterns of spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China between 1999-2001 and 2007-2008: assessing progress toward eradication after the World Bank Loan Project.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Can; Cohen, Ted; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-01-01

    We compared changes in the spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China at the conclusion of and six years following the end of the World Bank Loan Project (WBLP), the control strategy of which was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy. Parasitological data were obtained through standardized surveys conducted in 1999-2001 and again in 2007-2008. Two alternate spatial cluster methods were used to identify spatial clusters of cases: Anselin's Local Moran's I test and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. Substantial reductions in the burden of schistosomiasis were found after the end of the WBLP, but the spatial extent of schistosomiasis was not reduced across the study area. Spatial clusters continued to occur in three regions: Chengdu Plain, Yangtze River Valley, and Lancang River Valley during the two periods, and regularly involved five counties. These findings suggest that despite impressive reductions in burden, the hilly and mountainous regions of Southwest China remain at risk of schistosome re-emergence. Our results help to highlight specific locations where integrated control programs can focus to speed the elimination of schistosomiasis in China. PMID:24394217

  3. Prevalence of internal parasites in beef cows in the United States: Results of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's (NAHMS) beef study, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Stromberg, Bert E; Gasbarre, Louis C; Ballweber, Lora R; Dargatz, David A; Rodriguez, Judith M; Kopral, Christine A; Zarlenga, Dante S

    2015-10-01

    During the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Animal Health Monitoring System's (NAHMS) 2007-2008 beef study, 567 producers from 24 US States were offered the opportunity to collect fecal samples from weaned beef calves and have them evaluated for the presence of parasite eggs (Phase 1). Participating producers were provided with instructions and materials for sample collection. Up to 20 fresh fecal samples were collected from each of the 99 participating operations. Fresh fecal samples were submitted to one of 3 randomly assigned laboratories for evaluation. Upon arrival at the laboratories, all samples were processed for the enumeration of strongyle, Nematodirus, and Trichuris eggs using the modified Wisconsin technique. The presence or absence of coccidian oocysts and tapeworm eggs was also noted. In submissions where the strongyle eggs per gram exceeded 30, aliquots from 2 to 6 animals were pooled for DNA extraction. Extracted DNA was subjected to genus level polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification for the presence of Ostertagia, Cooperia, Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, and Trichostrongylus. In this study, 85.6% of the samples had strongyle type, Nematodirus, and Trichuris eggs. Among the samples evaluated, 91% had Cooperia, 79% Ostertagia, 53% Haemonchus, 38% Oesophagostomum, 18% Nematodirus, 7% Trichuris, and 3% Trichostrongylus. The prevalence of coccidia and tapeworm eggs was 59.9% and 13.7%, respectively. PMID:26424909

  4. Assessment of chemical coexposure patterns based upon phthalate biomonitoring data within the 2007/2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hua; Chen, Min; Kransler, Kevin M; Zaleski, Rosemary T

    2015-05-01

    As regulatory initiatives increasingly call for an understanding of the cumulative risks from chemical mixtures, evaluating exposure data from large biomonitoring programs, which may inform these cumulative risk assessments, will improve the understanding of occurrence and patterns of coexposures. Here we have analyzed the urinary metabolite data for six phthalates (di-butyl phthalate; di-isobutyl phthalate; butyl-benzyl phthalate; bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; di-isononyl phthalate; and di-isodecyl phthalate) in the 2007/2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data set. For the total data set (N=2604), the co-occurrence of multiple phthalates at the upper percentile of exposure was infrequent. There were no individuals in the NHANES sample who were exposed to >95th percentiles for all six phthalates. For 75% of individuals, none of the six phthalates were above the 95th percentile of their respective exposure distributions. These data suggest that high exposure to multiple phthalates is infrequent in the NHANES population. This analysis solely focused on the pattern of contribution of individual phthalates to total exposure. It did not address the pattern of contribution to potential risk. The approach presented could potentially be used to provide insight into understanding the coexposure patterns for other chemicals. PMID:24756100

  5. Future petroleum energy resources of the world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    and gas endowment estimates. Whereas petroleum resources in the world appear to be significant, certain countries such as the United States may run into import deficits, particularly oil imports from Mexico and natural gas from both Canada and Mexico. The new assessment has been used as the reference supply case in energy supply models by the International Energy Agency and the Energy Information Agency of the Department of Energy. Climate energy modeling groups such as those at Stanford University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and others have also used USGS estimates in global climate models. Many of these models using the USGS estimates converge on potential oil shortfalls in 2036-2040. However, recent articles using the USGS (2000) estimates suggest peaking of oil in 2020-2035 and peaking of non-OPEC (Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries) oil in 2015-2020. Such a short time framework places greater emphasis on a transition to increased use of natural gas; i.e., a methane economy. Natural gas in turn may experience similar supply concerns in the 2050-2060 time frame according to some authors. Coal resources are considerable and provide significant petroleum potential either by extracting natural gas from them, by directly converting them into petroleum products, or by utilizing them to generate electricity, thereby reducing natural gas and oil requirements by fuel substitution. Non-conventional oil and gas are quite common in petroleum provinces of the world and represent a significant resources yet to be fully studied and developed. Seventeen non-conventional AU including coal-bed methane, basin-center gas, continuous oil, and gas hydrate occurrences have been preliminarily identified for future assessment. Initial efforts to assess heavy oil deposits and other non-conventional oil and gas deposits also are under way.

  6. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 9. The Southwest Region

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, R.L.; Norman, G.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-11-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in Nevada and California. Background on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted is presented. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. An introduction and outline to the descriptions of the wind resource given for each state are given. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed.

  7. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 4. The Northeast region

    SciTech Connect

    Pickering, K.E.; Vilardo, J.M.; Schakenbach, J.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled in this chapter into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. An introduction and outline are provided for in the descriptions of the wind resource given for each state. Assessments for individual states are presented. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters.

  8. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 10. Alaska region

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, J.L.; Wentink, T. Jr.; Becker, R. Jr.; Comiskey, A.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-12-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each subregion of Alaska. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a state scale is given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each subregion are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the Alaska wind energy resource. An outline to the descriptions of the wind resource given for each subregion is included. Assessments for individual subregions are presented as separate chapters. The subregion wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the Alaska wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the subregion chapters.

  9. Smart Operations in Distributed Energy Resources System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Li; Jie, Shu; Zhang-XianYong; Qing, Zhou

    Smart grid capabilities are being proposed to help solve the challenges concerning system operations due to that the trade-offs between energy and environmental needs will be constantly negotiated while a reliable supply of electricity needs even greater assurance in case of that threats of disruption have risen. This paper mainly explores models for distributed energy resources system (DG, storage, and load),and also reviews the evolving nature of electricity markets to deal with this complexity and a change of emphasis on signals from these markets to affect power system control. Smart grid capabilities will also impact reliable operations, while cyber security issues must be solved as a culture change that influences all system design, implementation, and maintenance. Lastly, the paper explores significant questions for further research and the need for a simulation environment that supports such investigation and informs deployments to mitigate operational issues as they arise.

  10. Michigan's energy resources: a geological perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Kalliokoski, J.

    1981-11-01

    In recent years, Michigan's main energy source has been oil, followed by gas and coal, respectively. Very little energy is derived from hydro or nuclear plants. Michigan's oil production has grown rapidly to slightly less than 35 million bbl/yr against a consumption of 200 million bbl/yr. In other words, Michigan is producing one-fifth of its needs from in-state reserves. Oil resources are quoted at 300 to 2700 million bbl. The major recent oil and gas production has been from the Silurian Pinnacle Reefs. Gas is recovered from similar geologic reservoirs as oil. In 1980, gas production was 0.150 trillion cu ft against an annual consumption of 0.08 trillion cu ft, or ca. one-fifth of the state's annual needs. Gas resources have been estimated at 1.8 to 10.9 trillion cu ft. Michigan can expect to maintain its 20% level of self-sufficiency from oil for the next 10 yr and from gas for the next 30 yr.

  11. Energy: hydrocarbon fuels and chemical resources

    SciTech Connect

    Rider, D.K.

    1981-01-01

    The term energy dilemma is more meaningful than energy crisis because it suggests a predicament where the US's alternative solutions are equally unsatisfactory. The production of synthetic fuels from coal, oil shale, and tar sands faces the inherent problems of (1) water consumption and pollution, (2) health hazards in mining and combustion, (3) transportation and manpower, and (4) waste disposal. Biomass conversion technology must compete with food production for arable land; moreover, large-scale biomass cultivation would require large amounts of phosphorus - one of the least plentiful, most essential nonrenewable resources. The US has not yet conceived a solution to its energy dilemma, particularly in regard to liquid fuels. To solve this dilemma, the US must (1) reduce consumption of oil and gas, (2) allocate fossil fuels to uses that have no suitable substitute (petrochemicals, transportation, and domestic space conditioning and water heating), (3) limit the construction of new power plants that use oil and gas, (4) produce synthetic fuels while mitigating the effects of their development, (5) solve the social and environmental problems that hamper coal combustion and nuclear waste disposal, and (6) apply solar energy where it is economical.

  12. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 5: the East Central Region

    SciTech Connect

    Brode, R.; Stoner, R.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters. States include Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

  13. Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... palate - resources Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - ...

  14. 75 FR 3461 - Minnesota Energy Resources Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Minnesota Energy Resources Corporation; Notice of Filing January 13, 2010. Take notice that on December 29, 2009, Minnesota Energy Resources Corporation (MERC) filed to...

  15. Water Resources Management for Shale Energy Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoxtheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons, especially natural gas, from shale formations has been facilitated by advents in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies. Shale energy resources are very promising as an abundant energy source, though environmental challenges exist with their development, including potential adverse impacts to water quality. The well drilling and construction process itself has the potential to impact groundwater quality, however if proper protocols are followed and well integrity is established then impacts such as methane migration or drilling fluids releases can be minimized. Once a shale well has been drilled and hydraulically fractured, approximately 10-50% of the volume of injected fluids (flowback fluids) may flow out of the well initially with continued generation of fluids (produced fluids) throughout the well's productive life. Produced fluid TDS concentrations often exceed 200,000 mg/L, with elevated levels of strontium (Sr), bromide (Br), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), barium (Ba), chloride (Cl), radionuclides originating from the shale formation as well as fracturing additives. Storing, managing and properly disposisng of these fluids is critical to ensure water resources are not impacted by unintended releases. The most recent data in Pennsylvania suggests an estimated 85% of the produced fluids were being recycled for hydraulic fracturing operations, while many other states reuse less than 50% of these fluids and rely moreso on underground injection wells for disposal. Over the last few years there has been a shift to reuse more produced fluids during well fracturing operations in shale plays around the U.S., which has a combination of economic, regulatory, environmental, and technological drivers. The reuse of water is cost-competitive with sourcing of fresh water and disposal of flowback, especially when considering the costs of advanced treatment to or disposal well injection and lessens

  16. The selfish brain: competition for energy resources.

    PubMed

    Peters, A; Schweiger, U; Pellerin, L; Hubold, C; Oltmanns, K M; Conrad, M; Schultes, B; Born, J; Fehm, H L

    2004-04-01

    The brain occupies a special hierarchical position in the organism. It is separated from the general circulation by the blood-brain barrier, has high energy consumption and a low energy storage capacity, uses only specific substrates, and it can record information from the peripheral organs and control them. Here we present a new paradigm for the regulation of energy supply within the organism. The brain gives priority to regulating its own adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration. In that postulate, the peripheral energy supply is only of secondary importance. The brain has two possibilities to ensure its energy supply: allocation or intake of nutrients. The term 'allocation' refers to the allocation of energy resources between the brain and the periphery. Neocortex and the limbic-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) system control the allocation and intake. In order to keep the energy concentrations constant, the following mechanisms are available to the brain: (1) high and low-affinity ATP-sensitive potassium channels measure the ATP concentration in neurons of the neocortex and generate a 'glutamate command' signal. This signal affects the brain ATP concentration by locally (via astrocytes) stimulating glucose uptake across the blood-brain barrier and by systemically (via the LHPA system) inhibiting glucose uptake into the muscular and adipose tissue. (2) High-affinity mineralocorticoid and low-affinity glucocorticoid receptors determine the state of balance, i.e. the setpoint, of the LHPA system. This setpoint can permanently and pathologically be displaced by extreme stress situations (chronic metabolic and psychological stress, traumatization, etc.), by starvation, exercise, infectious diseases, hormones, drugs, substances of abuse, or chemicals disrupting the endocrine system. Disorders in the 'energy on demand' process or the LHPA-system can influence the allocation of energy and in so doing alter the body mass of the organism. In summary, the presented

  17. Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of large gas hydrate accumulations in terrestrial permafrost regions of the Arctic and beneath the sea along the outer continental margins of the world's oceans has heightened interest in gas hydrates as a possible energy resource. However, significant to potentially insurmountable technical issues must be resolved before gas hydrates can be considered a viable option for affordable supplies of natural gas. The combined information from Arctic gas hydrate studies shows that, in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors, known as bottom-simulating reflectors, that have been mapped at depths below the sea floor ranging from about 100 to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Disagreements over fundamental issues such as the volume of gas stored within delineated gas hydrate accumulations and the concentration of gas hydrates within hydrate-bearing strata have demonstrated that we know little about gas hydrates. Recently, however, several countries, including Japan, India, and the United States, have launched ambitious national projects to further examine the resource potential of gas hydrates. These projects may help answer key questions dealing with the properties of gas hydrate reservoirs, the design of production systems, and, most important, the costs and economics of gas hydrate production.

  18. Trends in antifungal drug susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates obtained through population-based surveillance in South Africa in 2002-2003 and 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Govender, Nelesh P; Patel, Jaymati; van Wyk, Marelize; Chiller, Tom M; Lockhart, Shawn R

    2011-06-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common cause of meningitis among adult South Africans with HIV infection/AIDS. Widespread use of fluconazole for treatment of cryptococcal meningitis and other HIV-associated opportunistic fungal infections in South Africa may lead to the emergence of isolates with reduced fluconazole susceptibility. MIC testing using a reference broth microdilution method was used to determine if isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole or amphotericin B had emerged among cases of incident disease. Incident isolates were tested from two surveillance periods (2002-2003 and 2007-2008) when population-based surveillance was conducted in Gauteng Province, South Africa. These isolates were also tested for susceptibility to flucytosine, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole. Serially collected isolate pairs from cases at several large South African hospitals were also tested for susceptibility to fluconazole. Of the 487 incident isolates tested, only 3 (0.6%) demonstrated a fluconazole MIC of ≥ 16 μg/ml; all of these isolates were from 2002-2003. All incident isolates were inhibited by very low concentrations of amphotericin B and exhibited very low MICs to voriconazole and posaconazole. Of 67 cases with serially collected isolate pairs, only 1 case was detected where the isolate collected more than 30 days later had a fluconazole MIC value significantly higher than the MIC of the corresponding incident isolate. Although routine antifungal susceptibility testing of incident isolates is not currently recommended in clinical settings, it is still clearly important for public health to periodically monitor for the emergence of resistance. PMID:21444707

  19. Fundamental changes in the activity of the natrocarbonatite volcano Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. II. Eruptive behaviour during the 2007-2008 explosive eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervyn, Matthieu; Ernst, Gerald G. J.; Keller, Jörg; Vaughan, R. Greg; Klaudius, Jurgis; Pradal, Evelyne; Belton, Frederic; Mattsson, Hannes B.; Mbede, Evelyne; Jacobs, Patric

    2010-10-01

    On September 4, 2007, after 25 years of effusive natrocarbonatite eruptions, the eruptive activity of Oldoinyo Lengai (OL), N Tanzania, changed abruptly to episodic explosive eruptions. This transition was preceded by a voluminous lava eruption in March 2006, a year of quiescence, resumption of natrocarbonatite eruptions in June 2007, and a volcano-tectonic earthquake swarm in July 2007. Despite the lack of ground-based monitoring, the evolution in OL eruption dynamics is documented based on the available field observations, ASTER and MODIS satellite images, and almost-daily photos provided by local pilots. Satellite data enabled identification of a phase of voluminous lava effusion in the 2 weeks prior to the onset of explosive eruptions. After the onset, the activity varied from 100 m high ash jets to 2-15 km high violent, steady or unsteady, eruption columns dispersing ash to 100 km distance. The explosive eruptions built up a ˜400 m wide, ˜75 m high intra-crater pyroclastic cone. Time series data for eruption column height show distinct peaks at the end of September 2007 and February 2008, the latter being associated with the first pyroclastic flows to be documented at OL. Chemical analyses of the erupted products, presented in a companion paper (Keller et al. 2010), show that the 2007-2008 explosive eruptions are associated with an undersaturated carbonated silicate melt. This new phase of explosive eruptions provides constraints on the factors causing the transition from natrocarbonatite effusive eruptions to explosive eruptions of carbonated nephelinite magma, observed repetitively in the last 100 years at OL.

  20. Fundamental changes in the activity of the natrocarbonatite volcano Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. I. New magma composition during the 2007-2008 explosive eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Jörg; Klaudius, Jurgis; Kervyn, Matthieu; Ernst, Gerald G. J.; Mattsson, Hannes B.

    2010-10-01

    With a paroxysmal ash eruption on 4 September 2007 and the highly explosive activity continuing in 2008, Oldoinyo Lengai (OL) has dramatically changed its behavior, crater morphology, and magma composition after 25 years of quiet extrusion of fluid natrocarbonatite lava. This explosive activity resembles the explosive phases of 1917, 1940-1941, and 1966-1967, which were characterized by mixed ashes with dominantly nephelinitic and natrocarbonatitic components. Ash and lapilli from the 2007-2008 explosive phase were collected on the slopes of OL as well as on the active cinder cone, which now occupies the entire north crater having buried completely all earlier natrocarbonatite features. The lapilli and ash samples comprise nepheline, wollastonite, combeite, Na-åkermanite, Ti-andradite, resorbed pyroxene and Fe-Ti oxides, and a Na-Ca carbonate phase with high but varying phosphorus contents which is similar, but not identical, to the common gregoryite phenocrysts in natrocarbonatite. Lapilli from the active cone best characterize the erupted material as carbonated combeite-wollastonite-melilite nephelinite. The juvenile components represent a fundamentally new magma composition for OL, containing 25-30 wt.% SiO2, with 7-11 wt.% CO2, high alkalies (Na2O 15-19%, K2O 4-5%), and trace-element signatures reminiscent of natrocarbonatite enrichments. These data define an intermediate composition between natrocarbonatite and nephelinite, with about one third natrocarbonatite and two thirds nephelinite component. The data are consistent with a model in which the carbonated silicate magma has evolved from the common combeite-wollastonite nephelinite (CWN) of OL by enrichment of CO2 and alkalies and is close to the liquid immiscible separation of natrocarbonatite from carbonated nephelinite. Material ejected in April/May 2008 indicates reversion to a more common CWN composition.

  1. An analysis of data collected from the 2007--2008 Tennessee state report card and the variables related to science test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamons, Julia W.

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) Achievement reading scores, school district per-pupil expenditures, school size, percentage of students qualifying for free and reduced-priced meals, and attendance were related to science TCAP test scores from the 2007-2008 school year. The data were gathered from an analysis of mean standardized test scores in reading and science of 8th graders in 67 school systems comprising 181 schools located throughout Tennessee. One hundred eighty-one schools configured grades 6 through 8 were used in this study. Only 177 schools had reported attendance available on the Tennessee Department of Education website. Pearson correlations were performed between the 8th mean grade science TCAP scores and 8th grade mean reading scores, per-pupil expenditure, school size, attendance, and the percentage of students qualifying for free and reduced-priced meals. Independent-samples t tests were conducted to evaluate whether 8th grade mean science TCAP scores and 8th grade mean reading scores varied depending on whether the school per-pupil expenditure was above or below the state average of $8,345. Independent-samples t test were also conducted to evaluate whether 8th grade mean science TCAP scores and 8th grade mean reading scores varied depending on whether the school attendance percentage was above or below the state goal of 93%. The school characteristic with the strongest association with the mean 8th grade science TCAP scores as computed by Pearson's correlation is the mean 8th grade reading TCAP scores. The values can be ranked as follows: mean 8th grade reading scores (.92) > percentage of students qualifying for free and reduced meals (-.84) > per-pupil expenditure (-.62) > attendance (.60) > school size (.23).

  2. Trends in Antifungal Drug Susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans Isolates Obtained through Population-Based Surveillance in South Africa in 2002-2003 and 2007-2008

    PubMed Central

    Govender, Nelesh P.; Patel, Jaymati; van Wyk, Marelize; Chiller, Tom M.; Lockhart, Shawn R.

    2011-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common cause of meningitis among adult South Africans with HIV infection/AIDS. Widespread use of fluconazole for treatment of cryptococcal meningitis and other HIV-associated opportunistic fungal infections in South Africa may lead to the emergence of isolates with reduced fluconazole susceptibility. MIC testing using a reference broth microdilution method was used to determine if isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole or amphotericin B had emerged among cases of incident disease. Incident isolates were tested from two surveillance periods (2002-2003 and 2007-2008) when population-based surveillance was conducted in Gauteng Province, South Africa. These isolates were also tested for susceptibility to flucytosine, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole. Serially collected isolate pairs from cases at several large South African hospitals were also tested for susceptibility to fluconazole. Of the 487 incident isolates tested, only 3 (0.6%) demonstrated a fluconazole MIC of ≥16 μg/ml; all of these isolates were from 2002-2003. All incident isolates were inhibited by very low concentrations of amphotericin B and exhibited very low MICs to voriconazole and posaconazole. Of 67 cases with serially collected isolate pairs, only 1 case was detected where the isolate collected more than 30 days later had a fluconazole MIC value significantly higher than the MIC of the corresponding incident isolate. Although routine antifungal susceptibility testing of incident isolates is not currently recommended in clinical settings, it is still clearly important for public health to periodically monitor for the emergence of resistance. PMID:21444707

  3. Dynamic Voltage Regulation Using Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yan; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Fangxing; Kueck, John D

    2007-01-01

    Many distributed energy resources (DE) are near load centres and equipped with power electronics converters to interface with the grid, therefore it is feasible for DE to provide ancillary services such as voltage regulation, nonactive power compensation, and power factor correction. A synchronous condenser and a microturbine with an inverter interface are implemented in parallel in a distribution system to regulate the local voltage. Voltage control schemes of the inverter and the synchronous condenser are developed. The experimental results show that both the inverter and the synchronous condenser can regulate the local voltage instantaneously, while the dynamic response of the inverter is faster than the synchronous condenser; and that integrated voltage regulation (multiple DE perform voltage regulation) can increase the voltage regulation capability, increase the lifetime of the equipment, and reduce the capital and operation costs.

  4. The U.S. Geological Survey Energy Resources Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    The United States uses tremendous amounts of geologic energy resources. In 2004 alone, the United States consumed more than 7.4 billion barrels of oil, 21.9 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.1 billion short tons of coal. Forecasts indicate the Nation's need for energy resources will continue to grow, raising several questions: How much domestic and foreign petroleum resources are available to meet the growing energy demands of the Nation and world? Does the United States have coal deposits of sufficient quantity and quality to meet demand over the next century? What other geologic energy resources can be added to the U.S. energy mix? How do the occurrence and use of energy resources affect environmental quality and human health? Unbiased information from robust scientific studies is needed for sound energy policy and resource management decisions addressing these issues. The U.S. Geological Survey Energy Resources Program provides impartial, scientifically robust information to advance the understanding of geologically based energy resources including: petroleum (oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids), coal, gas hydrates, geothermal resources, oil shale, oil sands, uranium, and heavy oil and natural bitumen. This information can be used to contribute to plans for a secure energy future and to facilitate evaluation and responsible use of resources.

  5. Distributed Energy Resources Market Diffusion Model

    SciTech Connect

    Maribu, Karl Magnus; Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui,Afzal S.

    2006-06-16

    Distributed generation (DG) technologies, such as gas-fired reciprocating engines and microturbines, have been found to be economically beneficial in meeting commercial-sector electrical, heating, and cooling loads. Even though the electric-only efficiency of DG is lower than that offered by traditional central stations, combined heat and power (CHP) applications using recovered heat can make the overall system energy efficiency of distributed energy resources (DER) greater. From a policy perspective, however, it would be useful to have good estimates of penetration rates of DER under various economic and regulatory scenarios. In order to examine the extent to which DER systems may be adopted at a national level, we model the diffusion of DER in the US commercial building sector under different technical research and technology outreach scenarios. In this context, technology market diffusion is assumed to depend on the system's economic attractiveness and the developer's knowledge about the technology. The latter can be spread both by word-of-mouth and by public outreach programs. To account for regional differences in energy markets and climates, as well as the economic potential for different building types, optimal DER systems are found for several building types and regions. Technology diffusion is then predicted via two scenarios: a baseline scenario and a program scenario, in which more research improves DER performance and stronger technology outreach programs increase DER knowledge. The results depict a large and diverse market where both optimal installed capacity and profitability vary significantly across regions and building types. According to the technology diffusion model, the West region will take the lead in DER installations mainly due to high electricity prices, followed by a later adoption in the Northeast and Midwest regions. Since the DER market is in an early stage, both technology research and outreach programs have the potential to increase

  6. Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - resources Gastrointestinal disorders - resources Hearing impairment - resources ...

  7. Integrated assessment of dispersed energy resources deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, Chris; Blanco, Raquel; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Kawaan, Cornelia P.; Osborn, Julie G.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2000-06-01

    The goal of this work is to create an integrated framework for forecasting the adoption of distributed energy resources (DER), both by electricity customers and by the various institutions within the industry itself, and for evaluating the effect of this adoption on the power system, particularly on the overall reliability and quality of electrical service to the end user. This effort and follow on contributions are intended to anticipate and explore possible patterns of DER deployment, thereby guiding technical work on microgrids towards the key technical problems. An early example of this process addressed is the question of possible DER adopting customer disconnection. A deployment scenario in which many customers disconnect from their distribution company (disco) entirely leads to a quite different set of technical problems than a scenario in which customers self generate a significant share or all of their on-site electricity requirements and additionally buy and sell energy and ancillary services (AS) locally and/or into wider markets. The exploratory work in this study suggests that the economics under which customers disconnect entirely are unlikely.

  8. Resource Letter PSEn-1: Physics and society: Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Art

    2007-04-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the physics-related literature about energy-and-society. Journal articles, books, and websites are cited for the following topics: general references, textbooks, other pedagogical resources, population growth, fossil fuels, global warming, nuclear power, side effects of nuclear power, fusion power, renewable resources (including hydroelectric, biofuels, wind, photovoltaics, direct solar, geothermal, hydrogen, and energy storage), energy efficiency, and transportation efficiency.

  9. Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M.; Penev, M.; Heimiller, D.

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the energy resources required to produce 4-10 million metric tonnes of domestic, low-carbon hydrogen in order to fuel approximately 20-50 million fuel cell electric vehicles. These projected energy resource requirements are compared to current consumption levels, projected 2040 business as usual consumptions levels, and projected 2040 consumption levels within a carbonconstrained future for the following energy resources: coal (assuming carbon capture and storage), natural gas, nuclear (uranium), biomass, wind (on- and offshore), and solar (photovoltaics and concentrating solar power). The analysis framework builds upon previous analysis results estimating hydrogen production potentials and drawing comparisons with economy-wide resource production projections

  10. Adolescent Crash Rates and School Start Times in Two Central Virginia Counties, 2009-2011: A Follow-up Study to a Southeastern Virginia Study, 2007-2008

    PubMed Central

    Vorona, Robert Daniel; Szklo-Coxe, Mariana; Lamichhane, Rajan; Ware, J. Catesby; McNallen, Ann; Leszczyszyn, David

    2014-01-01

    Virginia study, 2007-2008. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(11):1169-1177. PMID:25325600

  11. Renewable Energy Resources in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Michael J.; Thomas, M. Pugh

    1990-01-01

    This paper defines renewable energy and outlines possible sources of this energy. Supplies, and ethics are considered. The position of renewable energy sources in the energy policy of Great Britain are discussed. (CW)

  12. Resource Recovery. Energy and Environment. Teacher's Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Smith and Hills, Inc., Jacksonville, FL.

    Designed to assist students in understanding solid waste resource recovery, this teaching aid package aims to get students involved in practical activities that require participation, observation, and interpretation. Provided in this package are definitions, methods, causes and effects, costs, and benefits of resource recovery presented in the…

  13. Community Design for Optimal Energy and Resource Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilenky, Stephen; And Others

    Presented is a study which investigated the energy and resource dynamics of a semi-autonomous domestic system for 30 people. The investigation is organized on three levels: (1) developing a preliminary design and design parameters; (2) development and quantification of the energy and resource dynamics; and (3) designing a model to extrapolate…

  14. Geothermal resource requirements for an energy self-sufficient spaceport

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, P.; Fioravanti, M.; Duchane, D.; Vaughan, A.

    1997-01-01

    Geothermal resources in the southwestern United States provide an opportunity for development of isolated spaceports with local energy self-sufficiency. Geothermal resources can provide both thermal energy and electrical energy for the spaceport facility infrastructure and production of hydrogen fuel for the space vehicles. In contrast to hydrothermal resources by which electric power is generated for sale to utilities, hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resources are more wide-spread and can be more readily developed at desired spaceport locations. This paper reviews a dynamic model used to quantify the HDR resources requirements for a generic spaceport and estimate the necessary reservoir size and heat extraction rate. The paper reviews the distribution of HDR resources in southern California and southern New Mexico, two regions where a first developmental spaceport is likely to be located. Finally, the paper discusses the design of a HDR facility for the generic spaceport and estimates the cost of the locally produced power.

  15. The Final Report: 1975 Energy Resource Alternatives Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radtke, Mark L.; And Others

    This publication describes the projects entered in the Energy Resource Alternatives competition in 1975. Teams of engineering students were given a year to develop non-conventional or alternative energy systems that produced useful energy outputs. Besides an overview of energy sources and uses and discussions of the competitions development, the…

  16. State Energy Alternatives: Alternative Energy Resources by State

    DOE Data Explorer

    This U.S. map provides state by state information on incentives and laws related to alternative fuels and advanced vehicles. Discover what's available in each state for innovation grants, infrastructure grants, and production grants and who to contact. Find out how many alternative refueling stations are available in each state and where they are. Tennessee, for example, in 2009, has 114 alternative refueling stations: 36 biodiesel, 1 electrical, 29 ethanol, 4 natural gas, and 44 propane. There are also 5 Truck Stop Electrification (TSE) sites in Tennessee. Users can also find out from this map interface the contacts for Clean Cities in a state, information about renewable energy projects and activities in each state, fuel prices across a state, and biomass potential resources and current production in each state.

  17. Wind Power: An Emerging Energy Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F.

    2010-01-01

    One may ask the question, What is energy? Typically the first answers that come to mind are oil, coal, and natural gas or nuclear energy. Most human activities require some form of energy consumption. This may be the energy produced by the food that one eats or the gasoline that is used in cars, trucks, buses, and other vehicles. One cannot ignore…

  18. Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, L.; Hedman, B.; Knowles, D.; Freedman, S. I.; Woods, R.; Schweizer, T.

    2003-11-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is directing substantial programs in the development and encouragement of new energy technologies. Among them are renewable energy and distributed energy resource technologies. As part of its ongoing effort to document the status and potential of these technologies, DOE EERE directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to lead an effort to develop and publish Distributed Energy Technology Characterizations (TCs) that would provide both the department and energy community with a consistent and objective set of cost and performance data in prospective electric-power generation applications in the United States. Toward that goal, DOE/EERE - joined by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) - published the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations in December 1997.As a follow-up, DOE EERE - joined by the Gas Research Institute - is now publishing this document, Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations.

  19. A GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY RESOURCES: NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resources (POWER) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Chandler, W.; Hoell, J. M.; Westberg, D.; Whitlock, C. H.

    2010-12-01

    NASA's POWER project, or the Prediction of the Worldwide Energy Resources project, synthesizes and analyzes data on a global scale. The products of the project find valuable applications in the solar and wind energy sectors of the renewable energy industries. The primary source data for the POWER project are NASA's World Climate Research Project (WCRP)/Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project (Release 3.0) and the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) assimilation model (V 4.0.3). Users of the POWER products access the data through NASA's Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE, Version 6.0) website (http://power.larc.nasa.gov). Over 200 parameters are available to the users. The spatial resolution is 1 degree by 1 degree now and will be finer later. The data covers from July 1983 to December 2007, a time-span of 24.5 years, and are provided as 3-hourly, daily and monthly means. As of now, there have been over 18 million web hits and over 4 million data file downloads. The POWER products have been systematically validated against ground-based measurements, and in particular, data from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) archive, and also against the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). Parameters such as minimum, maximum, daily mean temperature and dew points, relative humidity and surface pressure are validated against the National Climate Data Center (NCDC) data. SSE feeds data directly into Decision Support Systems including RETScreen International clean energy project analysis software that is written in 36 languages and has greater than 260,000 users worldwide.

  20. Energy and Resource Efficiency of Laser Cutting Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellens, Karel; Rodrigues, Goncalo Costa; Dewulf, Wim; Duflou, Joost R.

    Due to increasing energy and resource costs at the one hand and upcoming regulations on energy and resource efficiency at the other, a growing interest of machine tool builders in the environmental performance of their machine tools can be observed today. The last decade, academic as well as industrial research groups started to assess the environmental aspects of discrete part manufacturing processes and indicated a significant potential for improvement [1]. This paper provides an overview of the environmental performance (energy and resource efficiency) of different types of laser cutting systems and derived performance improving strategies.

  1. Women: Tapping a New Resource for Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Action Now, New York, NY.

    In 1973 the Arab oil embargo triggered what has come to be known as the "energy crisis." In 1974, Consumer Action Now (CAN) decided to devote its full efforts to the grave issues of energy and to look for options that would preserve our choices as a new energy era is entered. Any transition to a more energy-efficient society depends on a massive…

  2. Resource Letter SE-1: Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniels, D. K.; Throop, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    This is one of a series of Resource Letters on different topics intended to guide college physicists, astronomers, and other scientists to some of the literature and other teaching aids that may help improve course contents in specified fields. (Author/CP)

  3. Energy Awareness Resource Unit for Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Richard S.; Myers, Harriet B.

    This instructional package suggests objectives, activities, and evaluation methods for use in an elementary school minicourse on energy. Objectives are to help students become aware of the present energy situation and to make more intelligent energy-related decisions in the future. Activities involve language arts, science, math, social studies,…

  4. World nonrenewable conventional energy resources as of December 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, J.

    1985-05-27

    In this report, up-to-date estimates are presented for world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the nonrenewable energy resources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, bitumens, shale oil, and uranium oxide. Life indices for world fossil fuels are also presented for several annual growth rates. Nonconventional gas and oil resources, such as those that exist in formations of very low permeability, are not included. 2 figures, 4 tables.

  5. World nonrenewable conventional energy resources as of December 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-21

    In this report, up-to-date estimates are presented for world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the nonrenewable energy resources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, bitumens, shale oil, and uranium oxide. Life indices for world fossil fuels are also presented for several annual growth rates. Nonconventional gas and oil resources, such as those that exist in formations of very low permeability, are not included. 2 figures, 5 tables.

  6. Energy Education Resources: Kindergarten through 12th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Information Administration (DOE), Washington, DC.

    This resource guide provides students, educators, and other information users with a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related educational materials. The 163 organizations listed are each related to the subject fields of coal, electricity, energy efficiency/energy conservation, the environment, geosciences/earth sciences, natural…

  7. New Mexico energy research resource registry. Researchers and facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Human resources and facilities in New Mexico available for application to energy research and development are listed. Information regarding individuals with expertise in the environmental, socio-economic, legal, and management and planning areas of the energy effort is included as well as those scientists, engineers, and technicians involved directly in energy research and development.

  8. Wind Energy Resource Assessment of the Caribbean and Central America

    SciTech Connect

    DL Elliott; CI Aspliden; GL Gower; CG Holladay, MN Schwartz

    1987-04-01

    A wind energy resource assessment of the Caribbean and Central America has identified many areas with good to outstanding wind resource potential for wind turbine applications. Annual average wind resource maps and summary tables have been developed for 35 island/country areas throughout the Caribbean and Central America region. The wind resource maps highlight the locations of major resource areas and provide estimates of the wind energy resource potential for typical well-exposed sites in these areas. The average energy in the wind flowing in the layer near the ground is expressed as a wind power class: the greater the average wind energy, the higher the wind power class. The summary tables that are included with each of the 35 island/country wind energy maps provide information on the frequency distribution of the wind speeds (expressed as estimates of the Weibull shape factor, k) and seasonal variations in the wind resource for the major wind resource areas identified on the maps. A new wind power class legend has been developed for relating the wind power classes to values of mean wind power density, mean wind speed, and Weibull k. Guidelines are presented on how to adjust these values to various heights above ground for different roughness and terrain characteristics. Information evaluated in preparing the assessment included existing meteorological data from airports and other weather stations, and from ships and buoys in offshore and coastal areas. In addition, new data from recent measurement sites established for wind energy siting studies were obtained for a few areas of the Caribbean. Other types of information evaluated in the assessment were climatological data and maps on winds aloft, surface pressure, air flow, and topography. The various data were screened and evaluated for their usefulness in preparing the wind resource assessment. Much of the surface data from airports and other land-based weather stations were determined to be from sheltered

  9. Idaho Energy Conservation Resource Guide for Industrial Arts Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lee; And Others

    This resource guide was prepared to assist teachers in incorporating energy concerns within the school curriculum. It is intended to provide a basic framework of objectives for different subject areas and to provide examples of activities for teaching towards the stated objectives. Resources are listed to aid the teacher in developing additional…

  10. DOE's Tribal Energy Program Offers Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas C. MacCourt, Chair, Indian Law Practice, Ater Wynne LLP

    2010-06-01

    This handbook is an accessible reference for those who are new to tribal energy project development or who seek a refresher on key development issues as they navigate the project development process. Building upon the wealth of feedback and experiences shared by tribal and other participants in tribal energy workshops conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, it is designed to provide tribal leaders, tribal economic and energy enterprises, and those supporting them with a general overview of the renewable energy project development process. It includes information on how to structure a renewable energy project transaction to protect tribal interests, with an emphasis on joint project development efforts undertaken with nontribal parties; a general overview of key energy development agreements, including power sale agreements, transmission and interconnection agreements, and land leases; and a detailed discussion of ways tribes can finance renewable energy projects, the sources of funding or financing that may be available, the types of investors that may be available, and federal tax incentives for renewable energy projects. The guide also includes a glossary of some of the most commonly used technical terms.

  11. Parametric analysis of lunar resources for space energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    The possible use of lunar resource in the construction of solar power satellites (SPS) to provide energy for use on earth is discussed. The space transportation and operational aspects of the SPS program are compared to other energy concepts. Cost/benefit analysis are used to study the advantages of using lunar oxygen for the SPS program and producing helium-3 on the moon. Options for lunar surface power are considered and the economic benefits of using lunar resources are examined.

  12. Identifying productive resources in secondary school students' discourse about energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrer, Benedikt

    A growing program of research in science education acknowledges the beginnings of disciplinary reasoning in students' ideas and seeks to inform instruction that responds productively to these disciplinary progenitors in the moment to foster their development into sophisticated scientific practice. This dissertation examines secondary school students' ideas about energy for progenitors of disciplinary knowledge and practice. Previously, researchers argued that students' ideas about energy were constrained by stable and coherent conceptual structures that conflicted with an assumed unified scientific conception and therefore needed to be replaced. These researchers did not attend to the productive elements in students' ideas about energy. To analyze the disciplinary substance in students' ideas, a theoretical perspective was developed that extends Hammer and colleagues' resources framework. This elaboration allows for the identification of disciplinary productive resources---i.e., appropriately activated declarative and procedural pieces of knowledge---in individual students' utterances as well as in the interactions of multiple learners engaged in group learning activities. Using this framework, original interview transcripts from one of the most influential studies of students' ideas about energy (Watts, 1983. Some alternative views of energy. Physics Education, 18/5, 213-217) were analyzed. Disciplinary productive resources regarding the ontology of energy, indicators for energy, and mechanistic reasoning about energy were found to be activated by interviewed students. These valuable aspects were not recognized by the original author. An interpretive analysis of video recorded student-centered discourse in rural Maine middle schools was carried out to find cases of resource activation in classroom discussions. Several cases of disciplinary productive resources regarding the nature of energy and its forms as well as the construction of a mechanistic energy story

  13. Biomass resource potential using energy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Martin, S.A.

    1993-09-01

    Biomass energy crops can provide a significant and environmentally beneficial source of renewable energy feedstocks for the future. They can revitalize the agricultural sector of the US economy by providing profitable uses for marginal cropland. Energy crops include fast-growing trees, perennial grasses, and annual grasses, all capable of collecting solar energy and storing it as cellulosic compounds for several months to several years. Once solar energy is thus captured, it can be converted by means of currently available technologies to a wide variety of energy products such as electricity, heat, liquid transportation fuels, and gases. Experimental results from field trials have generated optimism that selected and improved energy crops, established on cropland with moderate limitations for crop production, have the potential for producing high yields. Both trees and grasses, under very good growing conditions, have produced average annual yields of 20 to 40 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1}. Sorghum has shown especially high yields in the Midwest. Hybrids between sugar cane and its wild relatives, called energy cane, have yielded as much as 50 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} in Florida. These experimental results demonstrate that some species have the genetic potential for very rapid growth rates. New wood energy crop systems developed by the Department of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program offer, at a minimum, a 100% increase in biomass production rates over the 2 to 4 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} of dry leafless woody biomass produced by most natural forest systems. Experimental data indicate that short rotation wood crops established on cropland with moderate limitations are capable of producing biomass yields of 8--20 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} with a present average about 11 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} on typical cropland sites.

  14. Southface Energy and Environmental Resource Center

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.J.

    1997-03-01

    This article describes the residential office building of an Atlanta research and educational organization. The building is a state-of-the-art demonstration building for renewable energy and energy-efficient technologies, including passive solar design, high performance windows, solar electric shingles, solar water heater, office daylighting, photovoltaic outdoor lighting.

  15. Energy Resources Inventory for Connecticut Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talcott Mountain Science Center, Avon, CT.

    This guide has been organized under several headings: (1) Background Materials; (2) Energy Curricula; (3) Economics of Energy; (4) Todays Fuels; and (5) Future Fuels. Each section contains listings of instructional materials and their sources which are appropriate to the section's topic. In addition to the topical sections, additional sections…

  16. Building America - Resources for Energy Efficient Homes

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-19

    Building America publications help builders achieve whole-house energy savings in five major climate zones. Using the recommendation and process improvements outlined in the Best Practices Series handbooks, builders can re-engineer their designs to improve energy performance and quality. Case studies for new and existing homes provide results from actual projects.

  17. Demand Response Resources for Energy and Ancillary Services (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, M.

    2014-04-01

    Demand response (DR) resources present a potentially important source of grid flexibility particularly on future systems with high penetrations of variable wind an solar power generation. However, DR in grid models is limited by data availability and modeling complexity. This presentation focuses on the co-optimization of DR resources to provide energy and ancillary services in a production cost model of the Colorado test system. We assume each DR resource can provide energy services by either shedding load or shifting its use between different times, as well as operating

  18. Geothermal Energy: Evaluation of a Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockemuehl, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    This article suggests the use of geothermal energy for producing electricity, using as an example the development at Wairakei, New Zealand. Other geothermal areas are identified, and economic and environmental co sts of additional development are explored. (Author/AV)

  19. Resources for Teaching about Energy in the Social Studies Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Robin; Stone, Kim

    1992-01-01

    Lists instructional resources for use by social studies teachers in teaching about energy. Includes curriculum materials, videotapes, organizations, government agencies, and industry trade associations that can provide information. Suggests items on energy conservation, global warming, ecology, nuclear power, fossil fuels, oil spills, and…

  20. Toward a Regional Geography of Renewable Electrical Energy Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryde, Philip R.

    It is postulated that many types of renewable energy resources, like fossil fuels, are amenable to regional availability analysis. Among these are hydropower, geothermal, ocean temperature gradient, wind, and direct solar energy. A review of the spatial attributes of each of these types reveals areas of the United States that contain comparative…

  1. Energy Guide: A Directory of Information Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemis, Virginia; And Others

    This guide is a collection of various information sources pertaining to energy. The chapters separate references according to the type of material (instructional aids, texts, periodicals, reference materials), or the issuing organization (non-government organizations, government services, courses, programs, centers, and research projects). One…

  2. The selfish brain: competition for energy resources.

    PubMed

    Fehm, H L; Kern, W; Peters, A

    2006-01-01

    Although the brain constitutes only 2% of the body mass, its metabolism accounts for 50% of total body glucose utilization. This delicate situation is aggravated by the fact that the brain depends on glucose as energy substrate. Thus, the contour of a major problem becomes evident: how can the brain maintain constant fluxes of large amounts of glucose to itself in the presence of powerful competitors as fat and muscle tissue. Activity of cortical neurons generates an "energy on demand" signal which eventually mediates the uptake of glucose from brain capillaries. Because energy stores in the circulation (equivalent to ca. 5 g glucose) are also limited, a second signal is required termed "energy on request"; this signal is responsible for the activation of allocation processes. The term "allocation" refers to the activation of the "behavior control column" by an input from the hippocampus-amygdala system. As far as eating behavior is concerned the behavior control column consists of the ventral medial hypothalamus (VMH) and periventricular nucleus (PVN). The PVN represents the central nucleus of the brain's stress systems, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Activation of the sympatico-adrenal system inhibits glucose uptake by peripheral tissues by inhibiting insulin release and inducing insulin resistance and increases hepatic glucose production. With an inadequate "energy on request" signal neuroglucopenia would be the consequence. A decrease in brain glucose can activate glucose-sensitive neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) with the release of orexigenic peptides which stimulate food intake. If the energy supply of the brain depends on activation of the LH rather than on increased allocation to the brain, an increase in body weight is evitable. An increase in fat mass will generate feedback signals as leptin and insulin, which activate the arcuate nucleus. Activation of arcuate nucleus in turn will

  3. Water Efficient Energy Production for Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect

    GTO

    2015-06-01

    Water consumption in geothermal energy development occurs at several stages along the life cycle of the plant, during construction of the wells, piping, and plant; during hydroshearing and testing of the reservoir (for EGS); and during operation of the plant. These stages are highlighted in the illustration above. For more information about actual water use during these stages, please see the back of this sheet..

  4. Wind Energy Resource Assessment for Airborne Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodrow, A.

    2015-12-01

    Google, through its Makani project, is developing a new type of wind energy conversion device called an energy kite. Using a tethered airfoil flying in vertical loops, energy kites access stronger, more consistent wind resources at altitudes between 100-500m AGL. By eliminating mass and cost of the tower, nacelle, and gearbox of a conventional wind turbine, and by increasing the capacity factor of energy generation, energy kites promise to significantly reduce the levelized cost of wind energy. The focus of this presentation will be on the approach Makani has taken to characterize the wind resource at 100-500m, where far less study has taken place compared to the atmosphere accessed by conventional wind turbines.

  5. Energy Resources Performance Report, FY 1991 and FY 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-07-01

    Once the Federal Columbia River Power System provided all the power our customers needed and surplus energy, which we sold to others. However, we planned for the time when the surplus would disappear. With our customers, we developed centralized, region-wide conservation programs to conserve energy and build the knowledge and ability to save more energy when needed. We began to look at conservation as a resource, comparing it with supply-side alternatives. Much was accomplished. In Bonneville`s service area in the 1980s, our customers acquired 300 average megawatts (aMW) of conservation savings. How? By weatherizing about 240,000 homes, by making aluminum plants, other industrial plants and commercial buildings more efficient, and also by encouraging states to adopt energy-efficient building codes. Now, our energy surplus is gone. Our customers need energy, and in a hurry. While we plan how much energy will be needed, when and by which customers, we must concurrently accelerate our efforts to acquire resources. Our 1990 Resource Program launched a strategy to do just that, starting in 1991 and 1992, with continuing activities in 1993--1995. The goals and plans of the 1990 Resource Program are still being implemented.

  6. WESTERN ENERGY RESOURCES AND THE ENVIRONMENT: GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geothermal energy--from subsurface heat sources created by the underlying geologic configuration of the earth--is addressed, from an environmental research and development perspective. The report covers various geothermal energy systems, which serve as present or potential energy...

  7. Utilization of secondary energy resources at Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Combine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermolaev, V. N.; Klyuvgant, V. I.

    1982-12-01

    Savings obtained by the use of secondary thermal and energy resources at Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Combine during the period of the 10th five year plan are reviewed. These savings were obtained by fuller utilization of these resources, e.g., fuel from the use of blast furnace and coke oven gases and steam from boiler utilizers and evaporative cooling systems. The savings achieved were substantial.

  8. World nonrenewable conventional energy resources as of Dec. 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, J.D.

    1983-02-14

    Up-to-date estimates are presented for world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the non-renewable energy resources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, bitumens, shale oil, and uranium oxide. Life indices for world fossil fuels are also presented for several annual growth rates. Nonconventional gas and oil, such as exist in formations of very low permeability, are not included. 2 figures, 4 tables.

  9. Geothermal energy: a proven resource with costly potential

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The commercial use of geothermal energy to generate electricity has been spreading across the country since the California Geyser site was developed in 1960. Petroleum companies see geothermal power generation as a way to broaden their own base. The binary-cycle technology to use hydrothermal resources will be ready by 1985. Power generation from geothermal heat will be costly even though the resource itself is free and renewable; but the economics will improve as fossil-fuel prices increase. (DCK)

  10. Wind as a renewable energy resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawsey, R. A.; Ferraro, R. J.

    1988-12-01

    A description of the United States wind energy technology status, a discussion of recent milestones achieved in wind power, and a call for action in order for competitive wind systems to become practical in an international marketplace is presented in this report. An immediate opportunity to initiate a joint venture project with the government, equipment developers, equipment manufacturers, utilities, and the Electric Power Research Institute is described. The key technical areas of materials technology for reduced airfoil fatigue, airfoil design for optimum new-site performance, and power electronics for variable-speed wind turbines are highlighted.

  11. BUILDING TRIBAL CAPABILITIES IN ENERGY RESOURCE TRIBES

    SciTech Connect

    Mary Lopez

    2003-04-01

    The CERT Tribal Internship Program is part of the education and training opportunities provided by CERT to accelerate the development of American Indian technical professionals available to serve Tribes and expand the pool of these professionals. Tribes are severely impacted by the inadequate number of Indian professionals available to serve and facilitate Tribal participation and support of the energy future of Tribes,and subsequently the energy future of the nation. By providing interns with hands-on work experience in their field of study two goals are accomplished: (1) the intern is provided opportunities for professional enhancement; and (2) The pool of Indian professionals available to meet the needs of Tribal government and Tribal communities in general is increased. As of January 17, 2003, Lance M Wyatt successfully completed his internship with the Interagency Working Group on Environmental Justice on the Task Force that specifically focuses their work on Tribal nations. While working as an intern with the National Transportation Program, Albuquerque operations, Jacqueline Agnew received an offer to work for the Alaska Native Health Board in Anchorage, Alaska. This was an opportunity that Ms. Agnew did not feel she could afford to forego and she left her internship position in February 2003. At present, CERT is in the process of finding another qualified individual to replace the internship position vacated by Ms. Agnew. Mr. Wyatt's and Ms. Agnew's final comments are given.

  12. Energy education resources: Kindergarten through 12th grade

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Energy Education Resources: Kindergarten Through 12th Grade is published by the National Energy Information Center (NEIC) a service of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to provide students, educators, and other information users, a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related educational materials. Each entry includes the address, telephone number, and description of the organization and the energy-related materials available. Most of the entries also include Internet (Web) and electronic mail (E-Mail) addresses. Each entry is followed by a number, which is referenced in the subject index in the back of this book.

  13. Pyramid Resource Center-Green Energy Center

    SciTech Connect

    Flory, Paul, D.

    2011-09-02

    There are currently over 3,500 USA/Canadian landfills listed by the EPA/EC and like numbers in Europe that are producing methane-rich landfill gas (LFG). This gas is typically made up of 50-percent methane (CH4), 35-percent carbon dioxide (CO2), and 2 to 25% nitrogen and oxygen (N2 & O2), plus dozens of dilute contaminants. LFG is classified as a renewable fuel, because it is generated via biological decay of municipal solid waste, a constant byproduct of human activity. To date, most LFG has been allowed to escape into the atmosphere. On account of its high CH4 content, LFG may contribute to climate change, as CH4 is one of the most harmful greenhouse gases with 21 times the global warming potential of CO2. Of the landfills that collect LFG, most simply flare it. In the past decade, some landfills have begun to use LFG for electricity generation or for direct combustion as low Btu gas. Very few landfills upgrade LFG to high Btu gas. A patented CO2 WashTM process developed by Acrion Technologies Inc., and licensed to Firm Green Inc. shows promise as an economically and environmentally sustainable process to recover energy and prevent pollution from landfills. The CO2 WashTM has already been proven at lab-scale. It upgrades LFG, which consists of 50% methane (CH4) + 35% carbon dioxide (CO2) + 2 to 25% nitrogen + oxygen (N2+O2), 1 to 2% water vapor, and dozens of contaminants (which total a few hundred to a few thousand parts per million). CH4, which by itself has an energy content of 1,012 British thermal units (Btu) per standard cubic foot (SCF), is the only component in LFG that contributes to its energy content, which is therefore about 400-550 Btu/SCF. Accordingly, raw LFG is usually referred to as medium-Btu gas. To be salable, it is necessary to remove essentially all the components besides CH4, while keeping the vast majority of the revenue producing CH4. This is high-Btu gas, yielding 850 to 1,000 Btu/SCF. The CO2 WashTM process upgrades LFG to about 930 Btu

  14. Applying International Standards for Hydrokinetic Energy Resource Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    The extraction of hydrokinetic energy is the conversion of the kinetic energy of moving water into another more useful form of energy, frequently electricity. This water motion may be in the form of waves, tides, ocean currents or river flows. In addition to the development of the technology, the successful extraction of hydrokinetic energy requires a better understanding of physical, environmental and social aspects of the resource and their interactions with the technology. To assist with the development of the hydrokinetic industry as a whole, much work over the past decade has been completed developing international technical standards which can be used by the full range of stakeholders in the hydrokinetic industry. To support the design of projects for tidal energy extraction, a new International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Specification (TS) has recently been published outlining a standardized methodology for performing resource assessments. In addition, presently work is ongoing on producing another TS for performing resource assessments on in-stream river projects. While the specific technology for extracting the energy from tidal and river flows may be similar, the methodologies for performing the respective resource assessments is quite different due to the differing nature of the physical processes involved. This presentation will discuss both the tidal and in-stream river methodologies, highlighting their respective key aspects. In addition, a case study illustrating the use of the published tidal TS will be presented.

  15. 78 FR 72878 - Integration of Variable Energy Resources; Notice Of Filing Procedures for Order No. 764...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Integration of Variable Energy Resources; Notice Of Filing Procedures for... to compliance obligations in Integration of Variable Energy Resources, Order No. 764, FERC...

  16. World nonrenewable conventional energy resources as of December 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, J.D.

    1984-04-02

    Energy analysts present year-end 1982 estimates for world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the non-renewable convectional energy resources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, bitumens, shale oil, and uranium oxide. Life indices for world fossil fuels are also given for several annual growth rates. The world's proved and currently recoverable natural gas reserves amount to 2649-3250 trillion CF; the estimated total remaining recoverable is 6693-7462 TCF. In 1982, 54 TCF of gas was produced for a cumulative production of 1320 TCF (not counting vented or flared gas).

  17. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Information Resources Catalogue. A collection of energy efficiency and renewable energy information resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    NREL's first annual Information Resources Catalogue is intended to inform anyone interested in energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies of NREL's outreach activities, including publications and services. For ease of use, all entries are categorized by subject. The catalogue is separated into six main sections. The first section lists and describes services that are available through NREL and how they may be accessed. The second section contains a list of documents that are published by NREL on a regular or periodic basis. The third section highlights NREL's series publications written for specific audiences and presenting a wide range of subjects. NREL's General Interest Publications constitute the fourth section of the catalogue and are written for nontechnical audiences. Descriptions are provided for these publications. The fifth section contains Technical Reports that detail research and development projects. The section on Conference Papers/Journal Articles/Book Chapters makes up the sixth and final section of the catalogue.

  18. Effective management of combined renewable energy resources in Tajikistan.

    PubMed

    Karimov, Khasan S; Akhmedov, Khakim M; Abid, Muhammad; Petrov, Georgiy N

    2013-09-01

    Water is needed mostly in summer time for irrigation and in winter time for generation of electric power. This results in conflicts between downstream countries that utilize water mostly for irrigation and those upstream countries, which use water for generation of electric power. At present Uzbekistan is blocking railway connection that is going to Tajikistan to interfere to transportation of the equipment and materials for construction of Rogun hydropower plant. In order to avoid conflicts between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan a number of measures for the utilization of water resources of the trans-boundary Rivers Amu-Darya and Sir-Darya are discussed. In addition, utilization of water with the supplement of wind and solar energy projects for proper and efficient management of water resources in Central Asia; export-import exchanges of electric energy in summer and winter time between neighboring countries; development of small hydropower project, modern irrigation system in main water consuming countries and large water reservoir hydropower projects for control of water resources for hydropower and irrigation are also discussed. It is also concluded that an effective management of water resources can be achieved by signing Water treaty between upstream and downstream countries, first of all between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. In this paper management of water as renewable energy resource in Tajikistan and Central Asian Republics are presented. PMID:23800621

  19. The Energy Education Bibliography. An Annotated Bibliography of Key Resources for Energy and Conservation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherner, Sharon; And Others

    The annotated bibliography lists approximately 180 energy and conservation education resources. The bibliography is intended to aid K-12 classroom teachers and curriculum developers identify key resources as they develop and implement energy education programs. Sample topics in the works listed deal with the story of natural gas, living with…

  20. Review of Test Facilities for Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    AKHIL,ABBAS ALI; MARNAY,CHRIS; KIPMAN,TIMOTHY

    2003-05-01

    Since initiating research on integration of distributed energy resources (DER) in 1999, the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) has been actively assessing and reviewing existing DER test facilities for possible demonstrations of advanced DER system integration concepts. This report is a compendium of information collected by the CERTS team on DER test facilities during this period.

  1. Geothermal Energy: Resource and Utilization. A Teaching Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Van Thanh

    The search for new energy resources as alternatives to fossil fuels have generated new interest in the heat of the earth itself. New geothermal areas with a variety of characteristics are being explored, as are new ways of extracting work from naturally heated steam and hot water. Some of this effort is discussed in this three-part module. Five…

  2. Estimating Renewable Energy Resources of Russia: Goals and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiseleva, S.; Rafikova, J.; Shakun, V.

    2012-10-01

    During the last several years in some regions of Russian Federation one can observe a growing interest in renewable energy projects motivated by a necessity to have stable, affordable and autonomous energy sources. Besides, there has been an advance in legal initiatives designed to regulate the development of renewable energy sources in Russia. Some governmental regulations having for an object to stimulate this area, have already been accepted. The regulation contains the target value parameters of the output volume of the electric energy output volumes with the use of renewable energy sources (except hydroelectric power plants with the established capacity exceeding 25 MW. The work shows the results of resource estimating wind, solar, biomass energy resources for Russia, using GIS methods, which allow one to provide more exact predictions for the energy development, and therefore to prove investments and to pass to working out the equipment design of energy plants based on renewable energy sources. Current matters are relating to opportunities and perspectives of renewable sector in Russia.

  3. Satellite earth observations for energy resource development and environmental management

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, F.B. )

    1990-06-01

    Global change and growing needs for energy and other resources and their impact on the environment will be major international issues for the 1990s. Advanced international satellite earth observation systems during the 1990s will include systems for Japan (JERS, ADEOS), France (SPOT), Canada (Radarsat), Europe (ERS), India (IRS), and the U.S. (Landsat, NOAA, and N-POP). NASA's proposed advanced Earth Observing System (EOS/N-POP) will provide extensive satellite earth observations for resource development and global change studies for better environmental management. These satellites will produce tremendous volumes of digital electro-optical, microwave, and radar data creating a massive database for basic scientific and applied research for geology, agriculture, oceanography, meteorology, and environmental sciences. Database management and data access are major NASA and international issues under current review. Use of earth observations in energy and mineral resource exploration and development has become established during the last 20 years and will continue to expand with new information derived from these new satellite systems. US government environment global change research is being coordinated by the new interagency Committee on Earth Sciences (C.E.S.). The Geosat Committee, supported by resource industries who contribute to man's environmental impact and have a major stake in the C.E.S. research plan, is working with the C.E.S. to establish industry-government-academia linkages for research in the broad global resource and environmental studies from space.

  4. Resource management tools based on renewable energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Boghrat, Pedram; Pradhan, Ranjit; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    Renewable energy is an important source of power for unattended sensors (ground, sea, air), tagging systems, and other remote platforms for Homeland Security and Homeland Defense. Also, Command, Control, Communication, and Intelligence (C3I) systems and technologies often require renewable energy sources for information assurance (IA), in general, and anti-tampering (AT), in particular. However, various geophysical and environmental conditions determine different types of energy harvesting: solar, thermal, vibration, acoustic, hydraulic, wind, and others. Among them, solar energy is usually preferable, but, both a solar habitat and the necessity for night operation can create a need for other types of renewable energy. In this paper, we introduce figures of merit (FoMs) for evaluating preferences of specific energy sources, as resource management tools, based on geophysical conditions. Also, Battery Systemic Modeling is discussed.

  5. Effects of Distributed Energy Resources on Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR)

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Ruchi; Tuffner, Francis K.; Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.

    2011-10-10

    Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) is one of the cheapest technologies which can be intelligently leveraged to provide considerable energy savings. The addition of renewables in the form of distributed resources can affect the entire power system, but more importantly, affects the traditional substation control schemes at the distribution level. This paper looks at the effect on energy consumption, peak load reduction, and voltage profile changes due to the addition of distributed generation in a distribution feeder using combinations of volt var control. An IEEE 13-node system is used to simulate the various cases. Energy savings and peak load reduction for different simulation scenarios are compared.

  6. An assessment of solar energy as a national energy resource

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, P.; Woodward, W.; Cherry, W. E.; Morse, F. H.; Herwig, L. O.

    1972-01-01

    The applications are discussed of solar energy for thermal energy for buildings; chemical and biological conversion of organic materials to liquid, solid, and gaseous fuels; and the generation of electricity. It is concluded that if solar development programs are successful, building heating for public use is possible within 5 years, building cooling in 6 to 10 years, synthetic fuels from organic materials in 5 to 8 years, and electricity production in 10 to 15 years.

  7. Energy and other resource conservation within urbanizing areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Peter G.

    1982-05-01

    The reported research seeks to answer several questions regarding energy conservation within urbanizing areas. As a practical matter, to what extent can dependence upon exhaustible resources be reduced? Can these reductions be achieved without severely impairing social well-being and environmental quality? And, what seem to be the prevailing institutional constraints limiting energy conservation within urbanizing areas? The study area was the proposed “downtown” of The Woodlands, a new town north of Houston, Texas. Two plans were developed for this area. In one, no particular attempt was made to conserve energy (conventional plan), while in the other, energy conservation was a primary consideration (conservation plan). For both plans, estimates were made of energy consumption within buildings, in the transportation sector, and in the actual production of building materials themselves (embodied energy). In addition, economic and environmental analyses were performed, including investigation of other resource issues such as water supply, solid waste disposal, stormwater management, and atmospheric emissions. Alternative on-site power systems were also investigated. Within the bounds of economic feasibility and development practicality, it was found that application of energy-conserving methods could yield annual energy savings of as much as 23%, and reduce dependence on prime fuels by 30%. Adverse economic effects on consumers were found to be minimal and environmental quality could be sustained. The major institutional constraints appeared to be those associated with traditional property ownership and with the use of common property resources. The resistance to change of everyday practices in land development and building industries also seemed to constrain potential applications.

  8. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) Vermont Highlight (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    Case study on Vermont's innovative strategy for helping low-income families save energy through its Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) program. The DOE Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) granted Vermont to give its weatherization clients access to solar energy systems and one-on-one assistance from energy efficiency coaches to help clients achieve meaningful and long-lasting reductions in their energy bills. Vermont-SERC is administered by the Vermont Office of Economic Opportunity and is carried out by five local weatherization agencies. The purpose of the program is to identify technologies and new approaches-in this case, solar energy and energy efficiency coaches-that can improve weatherization services to low-income clients. The program selects households that have previously received weatherization services. This has several advantages. First, the clients already understand how weatherization works and are willing to strive for additional energy savings. Second, the weatherization agencies are working with clients who have previously had weatherization and therefore have complete energy usage data from utility bills collected during the first energy upgrade installation. This allows the agencies to select the best potential candidates for solar energy. Agencies have existing knowledge of the homes and can pre-screen them for potential structural problems or lack of south-facing exposure.

  9. Simulating and validating coastal gradients in wind energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahmann, Andrea; Floors, Rogier; Karagali, Ioanna; Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Simon, Elliot; Courtney, Michael; Badger, Merete; Peña, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    The experimental campaign of the RUNE (Reducing Uncertainty of Near-shore wind resource Estimates) project took place on the western coast of Denmark during the winter 2015-2016. The campaign used onshore scanning lidar technology combined with ocean and satellite information and produced a unique dataset to study the transition in boundary layer dynamics across the coastal zone. The RUNE project aims at reducing the uncertainty of near-shore wind resource estimates produced by mesoscale modeling. With this in mind, simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were performed to identify the sensitivity in the coastal gradients of wind energy resources to various model parameters and model inputs. Among these: model horizontal grid spacing and the planetary boundary layer and surface-layer scheme. We report on the differences amongst these simulations and preliminary results on the comparison of the model simulations with the RUNE observations of lidar and satellite measurements and near coastal tall mast.

  10. Multi-objective optimal dispatch of distributed energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longe, Ayomide

    This thesis is composed of two papers which investigate the optimal dispatch for distributed energy resources. In the first paper, an economic dispatch problem for a community microgrid is studied. In this microgrid, each agent pursues an economic dispatch for its personal resources. In addition, each agent is capable of trading electricity with other agents through a local energy market. In this paper, a simple market structure is introduced as a framework for energy trades in a small community microgrid such as the Solar Village. It was found that both sellers and buyers benefited by participating in this market. In the second paper, Semidefinite Programming (SDP) for convex relaxation of power flow equations is used for optimal active and reactive dispatch for Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Various objective functions including voltage regulation, reduced transmission line power losses, and minimized reactive power charges for a microgrid are introduced. Combinations of these goals are attained by solving a multiobjective optimization for the proposed ORPD problem. Also, both centralized and distributed versions of this optimal dispatch are investigated. It was found that SDP made the optimal dispatch faster and distributed solution allowed for scalability.

  11. National Renewable Energy Laboratory information resources catalogue. A collection of energy efficiency and renewable energy information resources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-31

    NREL`s first annual Information Resources Catalogue is intended to inform anyone interested in energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies of NREL`s outreach activities, including publications and services. For ease of use, all entries are categorized by subject. The catalogue is separated into six main sections. The first section lists and describes services that are available through NREL and how they may be assessed. The second section contains a list of documents that are published by NREL on a regular or periodic basis. The third section highlights NREL`s series publications written for specific audiences and presenting a wide range of subjects. NREL`s General Interest Publications constitute the fourth section of the catalogue and are written for nontechnical audiences. Descriptions are provided for these publications. The fifth section contains Technical Reports that detail research and development projects. The section on Conference Papers/Journal Articles/Book Chapters makes up the sixth and final section of the catalogue.

  12. Energy resources of the developing countries and some priority markets for the use of solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siddiqi, T. A.; Hein, G. F.

    1977-01-01

    Energy consumption for the developed and non-developed world is expressed as a function of GNP. An almost straight-line graph results when energy consumption statistics are treated in this manner. The richest countries consume the most energy, and the poorest countries the least. It therefore follows that greater energy production in the developing countries (leading to greater energy consumption) will contribute to their economic growth. Energy resources in the developing countries are compared, including: solid fossil fuels, crude oil, natural gas, oil shale, and uranium. Mention is also made of the potential of renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric power, in the underdeveloped world; and it is these resources which offer the greatest possibilities for economic improvement if the money is forthcoming, i.e., from the world bank, to fund the necessary technology.

  13. Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources using Model Predictive Control

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Shuai; Samaan, Nader A.; Butler-Purry, Karen

    2012-07-22

    In an isolated power system (rural microgrid), Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) such as renewable energy resources (wind, solar), energy storage and demand response can be used to complement fossil fueled generators. The uncertainty and variability due to high penetration of wind makes reliable system operations and controls challenging. In this paper, an optimal control strategy is proposed to coordinate energy storage and diesel generators to maximize wind penetration while maintaining system economics and normal operation. The problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem with the goals of minimizing fuel costs and changes in power output of diesel generators, minimizing costs associated with low battery life of energy storage and maintaining system frequency at the nominal operating value. Two control modes are considered for controlling the energy storage to compensate either net load variability or wind variability. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve the aforementioned problem and the performance is compared to an open-loop look-ahead dispatch problem. Simulation studies using high and low wind profiles, as well as, different MPC prediction horizons demonstrate the efficacy of the closed-loop MPC in compensating for uncertainties in wind and demand.

  14. Distributed energy resources at naval base ventura county building 1512

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Owen C.; Marnay, Chris

    2004-10-01

    This paper reports the findings of a preliminary assessment of the cost effectiveness of distributed energy resources at Naval Base Ventura County (NBVC) Building 1512. This study was conducted in response to the base's request for design assistance to the Federal Energy Management Program. Given the current tariff structure there are two main decisions facing NBVC: whether to install distributed energy resources (DER), or whether to continue the direct access energy supply contract. At the current effective rate, given assumptions about the performance and structure of building energy loads and available generating technology characteristics, the results of this study indicate that if the building installed a 600 kW DER system with absorption cooling and heat capabilities chosen by cost minimization, the energy cost savings would be about 14 percent, or $55,000 per year. However, under current conditions, this study also suggests that significant savings could be obtained if Building 1 512 changed from the direct access contract to a SCE TOU-8 (Southern California Edison time of use tariff number 8) rate without installing a DER system. At current SCE TOU-8 tariffs, the potential savings from installation of a DER system would be about 4 percent, or $15,000 per year.

  15. Collaborative Behaviors among Special Education Resource Specialists, General Education Teachers, and Their Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polhemus, Constance E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to describe to what extent seven collaborative behaviors were demonstrated by general education teachers assigned students with disabilities, special education Resource Specialists, and the principals in selected California elementary schools that met their 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 English language arts annual…

  16. Teaching About Energy. Vol. 2. Units 1 and 2 of the Energy 80 Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enterprise for Education, Santa Monica, CA.

    This document is the second of a three-volume teacher resource book for use with the Energy 80 energy education program. The program is designed to enhance students' understanding of energy, either through supplements to traditional courses, such as mathematics, science, social studies, or homemaking, or by developing a mini-course or…

  17. Teaching About Energy. Vol. 3. Units 3 through 8 of the Energy 80 Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enterprise for Education, Santa Monica, CA.

    This document is the third of a three-volume teacher resource book for use with the Energy 80 energy education program. The program is designed to enhance students' understanding of energy, either through supplements to traditional courses, such as mathematics, science, social studies, or homemaking, or by developing a mini-course or…

  18. ERG--Energy Resources Game: Simulation Gaming of Regional Energy Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lyle P.; Laessig, Robert E.

    1973-01-01

    ERG--the Energy Resources Game--is a computer based game which explores questions regarding regional energy supply and demand, such as population and economic growth goals; acceptable levels of dependence on imported energy; and acceptable levels of environmental impact. (JA)

  19. A Guide for Vocational Energy Education: Resources, Key People, Classroom Materials. Oregon Vocational Energy Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Vocational Association, Gervais.

    Intended as a resource tool for integrating energy and conservation education into the vocational skills areas, this resource guide consists of listings of instructional and technical materials pertaining to 14 vocational curriculum areas. These areas are agriculture, agriculture/agribusiness, architecture, automotive, business, construction,…

  20. Resource file: practical publications for energy management, edition III

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The Resource File is an in-depth bibliography of 166 practical and action-oriented energy conservation publications and materials. It is a reference tool, designed for Federal, state, and local energy managers or people who are asked to recommend how-to conservation guides to the public. Each listing describes a publication's intended audience and provides a summary of its contents. Included are operations and maintenance manuals, life-cycle costing handbooks, home insulation manuals, films on fuel-saving driving techniques, and courses devoted exclusively to home weatherization. 166 items.

  1. Geology and mineral and energy resources, Roswell Resource Area, New Mexico; an interactive computer presentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tidball, Ronald R.; Bartsch-Winkler, S. B.

    1995-01-01

    This Compact Disc-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM) contains a program illustrating the geology and mineral and energy resources of the Roswell Resource Area, an administrative unit of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management in east-central New Mexico. The program enables the user to access information on the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mining history, metallic and industrial mineral commodities, hydrocarbons, and assessments of the area. The program was created with the display software, SuperCard, version 1.5, by Aldus. The program will run only on a Macintosh personal computer. This CD-ROM was produced in accordance with Macintosh HFS standards. The program was developed on a Macintosh II-series computer with system 7.0.1. The program is a compiled, executable form that is nonproprietary and does not require the presence of the SuperCard software.

  2. Multi-objective generation scheduling with hybrid energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, Manas

    In economic dispatch (ED) of electric power generation, the committed generating units are scheduled to meet the load demand at minimum operating cost with satisfying all unit and system equality and inequality constraints. Generation of electricity from the fossil fuel releases several contaminants into the atmosphere. So the economic dispatch objective can no longer be considered alone due to the environmental concerns that arise from the emissions produced by fossil fueled electric power plants. This research is proposing the concept of environmental/economic generation scheduling with traditional and renewable energy sources. Environmental/economic dispatch (EED) is a multi-objective problem with conflicting objectives since emission minimization is conflicting with fuel cost minimization. Production and consumption of fossil fuel and nuclear energy are closely related to environmental degradation. This causes negative effects to human health and the quality of life. Depletion of the fossil fuel resources will also be challenging for the presently employed energy systems to cope with future energy requirements. On the other hand, renewable energy sources such as hydro and wind are abundant, inexhaustible and widely available. These sources use native resources and have the capacity to meet the present and the future energy demands of the world with almost nil emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The costs of fossil fuel and renewable energy are also heading in opposite directions. The economic policies needed to support the widespread and sustainable markets for renewable energy sources are rapidly evolving. The contribution of this research centers on solving the economic dispatch problem of a system with hybrid energy resources under environmental restrictions. It suggests an effective solution of renewable energy to the existing fossil fueled and nuclear electric utilities for the cheaper and cleaner production of electricity with hourly

  3. Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource.

    PubMed

    Field, Christopher B; Campbell, J Elliott; Lobell, David B

    2008-02-01

    Increased production of biomass for energy has the potential to offset substantial use of fossil fuels, but it also has the potential to threaten conservation areas, pollute water resources and decrease food security. The net effect of biomass energy agriculture on climate could be either cooling or warming, depending on the crop, the technology for converting biomass into useable energy, and the difference in carbon stocks and reflectance of solar radiation between the biomass crop and the pre-existing vegetation. The area with the greatest potential for yielding biomass energy that reduces net warming and avoids competition with food production is land that was previously used for agriculture or pasture but that has been abandoned and not converted to forest or urban areas. At the global scale, potential above-ground plant growth on these abandoned lands has an energy content representing approximately 5% of world primary energy consumption in 2006. The global potential for biomass energy production is large in absolute terms, but it is not enough to replace more than a few percent of current fossil fuel usage. Increasing biomass energy production beyond this level would probably reduce food security and exacerbate forcing of climate change. PMID:18215439

  4. A strategy for mineral and energy resource independence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    Data acquired by Landsats 1, 2, and 3, are beginning to provide the information on which an improved mineral and energy resource exploration strategy can be based. Landsat 4 is expected to augment this capability with its higher resolution (30 m) and additional spectral bands in the Thematic Mapper (TM) designed specifically to discriminate clay minerals associated with mineral alteration. In addition, a new global magnetic anomaly map, derived from the recent Magsat mission, has recently been compiled by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and others. Preliminary, extremely small-scale renditions of this map indicate that global coverage is nearly complete and that the map will improve upon a previous one derived from Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO) data. Digital processing of the Landsat image data and Magsat geophysical data can be used to create three-dimensional stereoscopic models for which Landsat images provide surface reference to deep structural anomalies. Comparative studies of national Landsat lineament maps, Magsat stereoscopic models, and metallogenic information derived from the Computerized Resources Information Bank (CRIB) inventory of U.S. mineral resources, provide a way of identifying and selecting exploration areas that have mineral resource potential. Landsat images and computer-compatible tapes can provide new and better mosaics and also provide the capability for a closer look at promising sites. ?? 1983.

  5. Nonregenerative natural resources in a sustainable system of energy supply.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Alex M; Hamacher, Thomas

    2012-03-12

    Following the lead of the European Union in introducing binding measures to promote the use of regenerative energy forms, it is not unreasonable to assume that the global demand for combustible raw materials for energy generation will be reduced considerably in the second half of this century. This will not only have a favourable effect on the CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere, but will also help preserve fossil fuels-important as raw materials in the chemical industry-for future generations. Nevertheless, associated with the concomitant massive shift to regenerative energy forms, there will be a strong demand for other exhaustible raw materials, in particular metals, some of which are already regarded as scarce. After reviewing the debate on mineral depletion between "cornucopians" and "pessimists", we discuss the meaning of mineral "scarcity", particularly in the geochemical sense, and mineral "exhaustion". The expected drastic increase in demand for mineral resources caused by demographic and societal pressures, that is, due to the increase in in-use stock, is emphasised. Whilst not discussing the issue of "strong" versus "weak" sustainability in detail, we conclude that regenerative energy systems-like nearly all resource-consuming systems in our society-do not necessarily satisfy generally accepted sustainability criteria. In this regard, we discuss some current examples, namely, lithium and cobalt for batteries, rare earth-based permanent magnets for wind turbines, cadmium and tellurium for solar cells and copper for electrical power distribution. PMID:22351622

  6. Deep geothermal resources and energy: Current research and developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, A.; Milsch, H.; Hahne, B.; van Wees, J. D.; Bruhn, D.

    2012-04-01

    Energy from deep geothermal resources plays an increasing role in many European countries in their efforts to increase the proportion of renewables in their energy portfolio. Deep geothermal heat and electric power have a high load factor, are sustainable and environmentally friendly. However, the safe, sustainable, and economic development of deep geothermal resources, also in less favourable regions, faces a number of issues requiring substantial research efforts: (1) The probability of finding an unknown geothermal reservoir has to be improved. (2) Drilling methods have to be better adapted and developed to the specific needs of geothermal development. (3) The assessment of the geothermal potential should provide more reliable and clear guidelines for the development. (4) Stimulation methods for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) have to be refined to increase the success rate and reduce the risk associated with induced seismicity. (5) Operation and maintenance in aggressive geothermal environments require specific solutions for corrosion and scaling problems. (6) Last but not least, emerging activities to harness energy from supercritical reservoirs would make significant progress with qualified input from research. In particular, sedimentary basins like e.g. the North German and Polish Basin, the Pannonian Basin, the Po Valley, the Bavarian Molasse Basin or the Upper Rhine Graben have a high geothermal potential, even if geothermal gradients are moderate. We will highlight projects that aim at optimizing exploration, characterization, and modeling prior to drilling and at a better understanding of physical, hydraulic and chemical processes during operation of a geothermal power plant. This includes geophysical, geological and geochemical investigations regarding potential geothermal reservoirs in sedimentary basins, as well as modelling of geothermally relevant reservoir parameters that influence the potential performance and long-term behavior of a future

  7. Remote renewable energy resources; Long-distance high voltage interconnections

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J. )

    1992-06-01

    This paper discusses international perspectives on remote energy made possible by high-voltage interconnections. It will discuss large-scale conversion, transfer, and utilization of renewable energy as a strategy to counter environmental problems caused by the combustion of fossil fuels. Potential development of huge renewable hydro resources in Africa, South America, North America, Eastern Siberia, Australia, and South East China, as well as potential development of geothermal and solar energy sources, will also be discussed. These include the proposed 30 GW Inga hydro power complex in Zaire, Central Africa, along the Congo River, where power will be exported to Southern Europe over a distance of 7000 Km, in Columbia with electrical ties through Central America linking South America with the electricity demand in North America, and developments in Siberia linked by cable across the Bering Strait to Alaska, Quebec to New England, Manitoba to midwest United States, Iceland to the United Kingdom, and in the Persian Gulf States.

  8. Geothermal energy resource assessment of parts of Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, E.M.; Turner, D.L.; Kienle, J.

    1982-08-01

    The central Seward Peninsula was the subject of a geological, geophysical and geochemical reconnaissance survey during a 30-day period in the summer of 1980. The survey was designed to investigate the geothermal energy resource potential of this region of Alaska. A continental rift system model was proposed to explain many of the Late Tertiary-to-Quaternary topographic, structural, volcanic and geothermal features of the region. Geologic evidence for the model includes normal faults, extensive fields of young alkalic basalts, alignment of volcanic vents, graben valleys and other features consistent with a rift system active from late Miocene time to the present. Five traverses crossing segments of the proposed rift system were run to look for evidence of structure and geothermal resources not evident from surface manifestation. Gravity, helium and mercury soil concentrations were measured along the traverses. Seismic, resistivity, and VLF studies are presented.

  9. Wave energy resource assessment based on satellite observations around Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribal, Agustinus; Zieger, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    A preliminary assessment of wave energy resource around Indonesian's ocean has been carried out by means of analyzing satellite observations. The wave energy flux or wave power can be approximated using parameterized sea states. Wave power scales with significant wave height, characteristic wave period and water depth. In this approach, the significant wave heights were obtained from ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) data which have been calibrated. However, as the characteristic wave period is rarely specified and therefore must be estimated from other variables when information about the wave spectra is unknown. Here, the characteristic wave period was calculated with an empirical model that utilizes altimeter estimates of wave height and backscatter coefficient originally proposed. For the Indonesian region, wave power energy is calculated over two periods of one year each and was compared with the results from global hindcast carried out with a recent release of wave model WAVEWATCH III. We found that, the most promising wave power energy regions around the Indonesian archipelago are located in the south of Java island and the south west of Sumatera island. In these locations, about 20 - 30 kW/m (90th percentile: 30-50 kW/m, 99th percentile: 40-60 kW/m) wave power energy on average has been found around south of Java island during 2010. Similar results have been found during 2011 at the same locations. Some small areas which are located around north of Irian Jaya (West Papua) are also very promising and need further investigation to determine its capacity as a wave energy resource.

  10. Modeling of customer adoption of distributed energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, Chris; Chard, Joseph S.; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Lipman, Timothy; Moezzi, Mithra M.; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2001-08-01

    This report describes work completed for the California Energy Commission (CEC) on the continued development and application of the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). This work was performed at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) between July 2000 and June 2001 under the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Distributed Energy Resources Integration (DERI) project. Our research on distributed energy resources (DER) builds on the concept of the microgrid ({mu}Grid), a semiautonomous grouping of electricity-generating sources and end-use sinks that are placed and operated for the benefit of its members. Although a {mu}Grid can operate independent of the macrogrid (the utility power network), the {mu}Grid is usually interconnected, purchasing energy and ancillary services from the macrogrid. Groups of customers can be aggregated into {mu}Grids by pooling their electrical and other loads, and the most cost-effective combination of generation resources for a particular {mu}Grid can be found. In this study, DER-CAM, an economic model of customer DER adoption implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) optimization software is used, to find the cost-minimizing combination of on-site generation customers (individual businesses and a {mu}Grid) in a specified test year. DER-CAM's objective is to minimize the cost of supplying electricity to a specific customer by optimizing the installation of distributed generation and the self-generation of part or all of its electricity. Currently, the model only considers electrical loads, but combined heat and power (CHP) analysis capability is being developed under the second year of CEC funding. The key accomplishments of this year's work were the acquisition of increasingly accurate data on DER technologies, including the development of methods for forecasting cost reductions for these technologies, and the creation of a credible

  11. Evaluation of the impact of SO₂ and NO₂ emissions on the ambient air-quality in the Çan-Bayramiç region of northwest Turkey during 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Ozkurt, Nesimi; Sari, Deniz; Akalin, Nuray; Hilmioglu, Bilgin

    2013-07-01

    The characterization and assessment of air-quality in this region are essential steps for the implementation of the "Clean Air Action Plan" as this is set by the Turkish Regulation on Ambient Air-Quality Assessment and Management. This study area intends to shed a light on use of modeling tools as an alternative method for the assessment of local atmospheric pollution and the determination of the importance of local emissions. This modeling approach can be also used for the consistent geographic representation of air-quality concentration as well as for assessing the future air-quality condition after the implementation of emission reduction measures in a certain area. With this article we evaluate the impact of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions on the ambient air-quality in the Çan-Bayramiç region of Turkey. The emission rates of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide were calculated by using the CALPUFF model. The concentration of these pollutants had also been monitored at ten air-quality locations during 2007-2008 in the research area. The measured data were also utilized for testing the model performance. Results showed that the air-quality in this important rural region of Turkey can be evaluated effectively by using the current numerical modeling system. PMID:23602979

  12. Non-energy resources, Connecticut and Rhode Island coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neff, N.F.; Lewis, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    Cores collected from Long Island Sound, Connecticut, were used to establish control on the geologic framework of the area. Lithologic and stratigraphic analyses verified the presence of the following units: (1) Cretaceous coastal plain, (2) Pleistocene glacial till, (3) late Pleistocene glacial lake, (4) late Pleistocene glacial outwash, and (5) Holocene fluvial, estuarine and marine deposits. Cores collected in Block Island Sound, Rhode Island, were obtained from inferred, relict shoreline features and were analyzed for heavy mineral content. Concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 3.4%; no significant downcore changes were found. The results indicated that surficial sediments in areas of high-velocity tidal flow yield greater amounts of heavy minerals than do inferred placer deposits. During the second phase of the program of study, Connecticut and Rhode Island pooled resources to develop a study plan for the comprehensive quantification of all non-energy resources in the adjacent waters of the states. A literature and data survey was conducted to assess the occurrence, extent, and accessibility of these resources. Sand and gravel and heavy minerals were found in concentrations offering potential for resource exploitation. Constraints on exploitation include (1) water depth restrictions for the protection of shellfish beds and public beaches, (2) fishing activities, (3) military, commercial, and fishing vessel traffic, (4) seafloor cable routes and (5) dump sites. Deposits composed of Pleistocene glacial sediments and/or Holocene marine sediments in regions of little or no user conflict were identified as sites potentially suitable for resource exploitation. The study plan stated additional data needs (geophysical profiling and vibracore sampling) at these sites. Subsequent to these recommendations, high-resolution seismic profiles and sidescan sonographs were obtained from these sites. Seismic stratigraphic analyses confirm the presence of extensive deposits of

  13. 25 CFR 162.520 - Who owns the energy resource information obtained under the WEEL?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Weels § 162.520 Who owns the energy resource information obtained under the WEEL? (a) The WEEL must specify the ownership of any energy... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who owns the energy resource information obtained...

  14. 25 CFR 162.520 - Who owns the energy resource information obtained under the WEEL?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Weels § 162.520 Who owns the energy resource information obtained under the WEEL? (a) The WEEL must specify the ownership of any energy... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who owns the energy resource information obtained...

  15. Strategies for Energy Efficient Resource Management of Hybrid Programming Models

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dong; Supinski, Bronis de; Schulz, Martin; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios S; Cameron, Kirk W.

    2013-01-01

    Many scientific applications are programmed using hybrid programming models that use both message-passing and shared-memory, due to the increasing prevalence of large-scale systems with multicore, multisocket nodes. Previous work has shown that energy efficiency can be improved using software-controlled execution schemes that consider both the programming model and the power-aware execution capabilities of the system. However, such approaches have focused on identifying optimal resource utilization for one programming model, either shared-memory or message-passing, in isolation. The potential solution space, thus the challenge, increases substantially when optimizing hybrid models since the possible resource configurations increase exponentially. Nonetheless, with the accelerating adoption of hybrid programming models, we increasingly need improved energy efficiency in hybrid parallel applications on large-scale systems. In this work, we present new software-controlled execution schemes that consider the effects of dynamic concurrency throttling (DCT) and dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) in the context of hybrid programming models. Specifically, we present predictive models and novel algorithms based on statistical analysis that anticipate application power and time requirements under different concurrency and frequency configurations. We apply our models and methods to the NPB MZ benchmarks and selected applications from the ASC Sequoia codes. Overall, we achieve substantial energy savings (8.74% on average and up to 13.8%) with some performance gain (up to 7.5%) or negligible performance loss.

  16. Hawaii energy strategy project 3: Renewable energy resource assessment and development program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    RLA Consulting (RLA) has been retained by the State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT) to conduct a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment and Development Program. This three-phase program is part of the Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES), which is a multi-faceted program intended to produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. The purpose of Phase 1 of the project, Development of a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment Plan, is to better define the most promising potential renewable energy projects and to establish the most suitable locations for project development in the state. In order to accomplish this goal, RLA has identified constraints and requirements for renewable energy projects from six different renewable energy resources: wind, solar, biomass, hydro, wave, and ocean thermal. These criteria were applied to areas with sufficient resource for commercial development and the results of Phase 1 are lists of projects with the most promising development potential for each of the technologies under consideration. Consideration of geothermal energy was added to this investigation under a separate contract with DBEDT. In addition to the project lists, a monitoring plan was developed with recommended locations and a data collection methodology for obtaining additional wind and solar data. This report summarizes the results of Phase 1. 11 figs., 22 tabs.

  17. Distribution System Voltage Regulation by Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Ceylan, Oguzhan; Liu, Guodong; Xu, Yan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a control method to regulate voltages in 3 phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems. A constrained optimization problem to minimize voltage deviations and maximize distributed energy resource (DER) active power output is solved by harmony search algorithm. IEEE 13 Bus Distribution Test System was modified to test three different cases: a) only voltage regulator controlled system b) only DER controlled system and c) both voltage regulator and DER controlled system. The simulation results show that systems with both voltage regulators and DER control provide better voltage profile.

  18. Parallel Harmony Search Based Distributed Energy Resource Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Ceylan, Oguzhan; Liu, Guodong; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a harmony search based parallel optimization algorithm to minimize voltage deviations in three phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems and to maximize active power outputs of distributed energy resources (DR). The main contribution is to reduce the adverse impacts on voltage profile during a day as photovoltaics (PVs) output or electrical vehicles (EVs) charging changes throughout a day. The IEEE 123- bus distribution test system is modified by adding DRs and EVs under different load profiles. The simulation results show that by using parallel computing techniques, heuristic methods may be used as an alternative optimization tool in electrical power distribution systems operation.

  19. Space resources. Volume 2: Energy, power, and transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Mary Fae (Editor); Mckay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael B. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This volume of the Space Resources report covers a number of technical and policy issues concerning the energy and power to carry out advanced space missions and the means of transportation to get to the sites of those missions. Discussed in the first half of this volume are the technologies which might be used to provide power and a variety of ways to convert power from one form to another, store it, move it wherever it is needed, and use it. In the second half of this volume, various kinds of transportation, including both interplanetary and surface systems, are discussed.

  20. 76 FR 34684 - Offshore Renewable Energy; Public Meeting on Information Needs for Resource Assessment and Design...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Offshore Renewable Energy; Public Meeting on Information Needs for Resource Assessment and Design Conditions AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... meteorological and oceanographic information to support cost-effective deployment of offshore renewable...

  1. Energy Efficiency in Western Utility Resource Plans: Impacts onRegional Resources Assessment and Support for WGA Policies

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, Nicole; Goldman, Charles; Schlegal, Jeff

    2006-08-01

    In the aftermath of the consumer price shocks and short-term power shortages of the 2000-01 electricity crisis, policymakers and regulators in Western states are placing increased emphasis on integrated resource planning (IRP), resource adequacy and assessment and a diversified portfolio of resources to meet the needs of electricity consumers. In some states, this has led to a resurgence in state and utility commitments to energy efficiency. Increasing interest in acquiring energy efficiency as a power-system resource is also driven by the desire to dampen high growth rates in electricity demand in some Western states, rapid increases in natural gas prices, concerns about the environmental impacts of electricity generation (e.g. water consumption by power plants, air quality), and the potential of energy efficiency to provide utility bill savings for households and businesses (WGA CDEAC 2006). Recognizing the cost-competitiveness and environmental benefits of energy efficiency, the Western Governor's Association (WGA) has set a high priority for energy efficiency, establishing a goal of reducing projected electricity demand by 20% across the West by 2020 in a policy resolution on Clean and Diversified Energy for the West (WGA 2004). Nationally, the need for improved tracking of demand-side resources in load forecasting is formalized in the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC)'s recently adopted reliability standards, which utilities and regional reliability organizations will need to comply with (NERC 2005a and 2005b). In this study, we examine the treatment of energy efficiency in recent resource plans issued by fourteen investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in the Western United States and Canada. The goals of this study are to: (1) summarize energy-efficiency resources as represented in a large sample of recent resource plans prepared by Western utilities and identify key issues; (2) evaluate the extent to which the information provided in current

  2. A prefeasibility study of energy resource options in Hainan, China

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.; Russell, M. |; Barron, W.F.; LaRocco, P.; Shen, Z.

    1992-10-01

    This study identifies a strategy that (1) provides future energy services for Hainan in the least environmentally degrading way, (2) eliminates the need to build significant amounts of new fossil-fueled, electric generating capacity, saving capital to invest in other development projects, (3) lowers the cost that Hainan households and businesses will pay to light their homes and run their industries, (4) reduces the future coal import bill, and (5) improves the prospects for export industries. implementing this strategy will promote economic development and growth in Hainan, improve the standard of living, and preserve to the greatest extent possible Hainan`s rich environmental resource base, a key requirement for its tourist industry. The focus of this strategy is to adapt proven policies and techniques for producing and using energy more efficiently to existing conditions in Hainan. This Report applies the principles of integrated resource planning (IRP) and the experiences in other countries to outline a strategy for the Province. The experience is that fuel consumption can be reduced without lessening the ability of consumers, industry, and the government to obtain the energy services that higher use of fuel would otherwise bring. Further, those energy services can be provided with less capital investment than would be necessary if traditional practices were followed. Both of these results have obvious and important development and environmental benefits. In short, consumers have more money available to buy other things; production costs are lowered, improving the ability of firms to compete in international markets; and more capital is available to invest in new machinery and equipment that produces goods and services to use in Hainan or to export to other countries.

  3. A prefeasibility study of energy resource options in Hainan, China

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.; Russell, M. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN ); Barron, W.F. ); LaRocco, P. ); Shen, Z. )

    1992-10-01

    This study identifies a strategy that (1) provides future energy services for Hainan in the least environmentally degrading way, (2) eliminates the need to build significant amounts of new fossil-fueled, electric generating capacity, saving capital to invest in other development projects, (3) lowers the cost that Hainan households and businesses will pay to light their homes and run their industries, (4) reduces the future coal import bill, and (5) improves the prospects for export industries. implementing this strategy will promote economic development and growth in Hainan, improve the standard of living, and preserve to the greatest extent possible Hainan's rich environmental resource base, a key requirement for its tourist industry. The focus of this strategy is to adapt proven policies and techniques for producing and using energy more efficiently to existing conditions in Hainan. This Report applies the principles of integrated resource planning (IRP) and the experiences in other countries to outline a strategy for the Province. The experience is that fuel consumption can be reduced without lessening the ability of consumers, industry, and the government to obtain the energy services that higher use of fuel would otherwise bring. Further, those energy services can be provided with less capital investment than would be necessary if traditional practices were followed. Both of these results have obvious and important development and environmental benefits. In short, consumers have more money available to buy other things; production costs are lowered, improving the ability of firms to compete in international markets; and more capital is available to invest in new machinery and equipment that produces goods and services to use in Hainan or to export to other countries.

  4. Information resources for US Department of Energy pollution prevention programs

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.L.; Snowden-Swan, L.J.; Butner, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) pollution prevention efforts being conducted under the aegis of DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked with evaluating pollution prevention information resources. The goal of this activity was to improve the effectiveness of DOE`s pollution prevention activities through improved information flow, both within the complex, and more specifically, between DOE and other organizations that share similar pollution prevention challenges. This report presents our findings with respect to the role of information collection and dissemination within the complex, opportunities for teaming from successes of the private sector, and specific information needs of the DOE pollution prevention community. These findings were derived from a series of interviews with pollution prevention coordinators from across the DOE complex, review of DOE site and facility pollution prevention plans, and workshops with DOE information users as well as an information resources workshop that brought together information specialists from private industry, non-profit organizations, as well as state and regional pollution prevention assistance programs.

  5. Water energy resources of the United States with emphasis on low head/low power resources

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Douglas G.; Cherry, Shane J.; Reeves, Kelly S.; Lee, Randy D.; Carroll, Gregory R.; Sommers, Garold L.; Verdin, Kristine L.

    2004-04-01

    Analytical assessments of the water energy resources in the 20 hydrologic regions of the United States were performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models and geographic information system tools. The principal focus of the study was on low head (less than 30 ft)/low power (less than 1 MW) resources in each region. The assessments were made by estimating the power potential of all the stream segments in a region, which averaged 2 miles in length. These calculations were performed using hydrography and hydraulic heads that were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Elevation Derivatives for National Applications dataset and stream flow predictions from a regression equation or equations developed specifically for the region. Stream segments excluded from development and developed hydropower were accounted for to produce an estimate of total available power potential. The total available power potential was subdivided into high power (1 MW or more), high head (30 ft or more)/low power, and low head/low power total potentials. The low head/low power potential was further divided to obtain the fractions of this potential corresponding to the operating envelopes of three classes of hydropower technologies: conventional turbines, unconventional systems, and microhydro (less than 100 kW). Summing information for all the regions provided total power potential in various power classes for the entire United States. Distribution maps show the location and concentrations of the various classes of low power potential. No aspect of the feasibility of developing these potential resources was evaluated. Results for each of the 20 hydrologic regions are presented in Appendix A, and similar presentations for each of the 50 states are made in Appendix B.

  6. Department of Energy Resource Assessment Program 5-year plan, FY 1991--FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Resource Assessment Program produces scientific descriptions and assessments of the nation's renewable energy resources, such as solar energy. Information about the resources --- for example, how solar energy varies with location and climate --- is required to develop energy conversion technologies, design and site systems, and forecast the systems' performance. With information about resource availability and renewable energy system performance, DOE can assess the potential for renewable energy to contribute to the nation's energy supply as part of the long-term national energy strategy. This 5-year plan for fiscal years (FY) 1991 through 1995 gives the strategy to produce solar radiation resource characterizations and assessments under the DOE project at SERI. It is consistent with the mini-multiyear plan for resource assessment prepared by DOE in 1989 and incorporates the comments received at a project overview held in April 1990 at DOE Headquarters. 7 figs.

  7. Role for Distributed Energy Resources (DER) in the Digital Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Key, Thomas S

    2007-11-01

    A large, and growing, part of the Nation's economy either serves or depends upon the information technology industry. These high-tech or "digital" enterprises are characterized by a dependence on electronic devices, need for completely reliable power supply, and intolerance to any power quality problems. In some cases these enterprises are densely populated with electronic loads and have very high energy usage per square foot. Serving these enterprises presents both electric power and equipment cooling challenges. Traditional electric utilities are often hard-pressed to deliver power that meets the stringent requirements of digital customers, and the economic and social consequences of a service quality or reliability problem can be large. New energy delivery and control options must be developed to effectively serve a digital economy. This report explores how distributed energy resources, partnerships between utility and customer to share the responsibility for service quality, innovative facility designs, higher energy efficiencies and waste-heat utilization can be coupled to meet the needs of a growing digital economy.

  8. 75 FR 36128 - Green Energy Resources, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... COMMISSION Green Energy Resources, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading June 22, 2010. It appears to the... securities of Green Energy Resources, Inc. (``Green Energy'') because of questions regarding the accuracy of statements by Green Energy in press releases concerning, among other things, the company's involvement in...

  9. 78 FR 43876 - AmerenEnergy Resources Generating Company v. Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AmerenEnergy Resources Generating Company v. Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on July 5, 2013, AmerenEnergy Resources...

  10. Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management

    SciTech Connect

    A. David Lester

    2008-10-17

    The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.