Science.gov

Sample records for energy resources 2007-2008

  1. South Carolina Commission on Higher Education Mission Resource Requirements (MRR), FY 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Mission Resource Requirement (MRR) represents the level of funding necessary for an institution given its mission, size, and complexity of programs, based on regional and national norms, and the amount of the previous year's appropriation. This document is the MRR for the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education for Fiscal Year 2007-2008.…

  2. Council on Library and Information Resources: Annual Report, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This annual report of the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) contains an overview of activities of the Council between July 1, 2007 and June 30, 2008. These include programs, advisory groups, grants and contracts, and financial statements. It also includes a list of staff, a letter from the chairperson Paula Kaufman, and a message…

  3. ARL Supplementary Statistics, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Les, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents statistics on how Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries spend money on electronic resources. This report indicates that 109 ARL libraries purchased 32,329,187 electronic books. In 2007-2008, there was a median of 28,319 acquisitions of electronic books by ARL libraries (this includes one institution that…

  4. Recruiting Trends, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2007-2008. This year's report is based on 994 respondents, including 84 K-12 school districts. The researchers focused attention on growing companies, based on lists from Forbes and Inc. magazines, and as a result, they have more small and medium-size employers represented this year. The sample…

  5. ARL Statistics 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Bland, Les, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    "ARL Statistics 2007-2008" is the latest in a series of annual publications that describe collections, staffing, expenditures, and service activities for the 123 members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL). Of these, 113 are university libraries; the remaining 10 are public, governmental, and nonprofit research libraries. Data reported…

  6. ARL Annual Salary Survey 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp; Young, Mar, Comp.; Barber, Jason, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    The "ARL Annual Salary Survey 2007-2008" reports salary data for all professional staff working in Association of Research Libraries (ARL) libraries. It is the most comprehensive and thorough guide to current salaries in large U.S. and Canadian academic and research libraries, and is a valuable management and research tool. Data for 9,983…

  7. ARL Academic Health Sciences Library Statistics, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Bland, Les, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents data that describe collections, expenditures, personnel, and services in 64 medical libraries at Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member institutions throughout North America. In 2007-2008, the reporting health sciences libraries held a median of 240,955 volumes, spent a total of $240,019,298, and employed 2,304…

  8. Southeastern Wisconsin School District Rankings, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Forum, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This brochure displays the following data for seven counties in southeastern Wisconsin for the 2007-2008 school year: (1) Total operations expenditures; (2) Property tax revenue; (3) Total enrollment; (4) One-year change in enrollment; (5) Minority enrollment; (6) Free or reduced lunch; (7) Graduation rate; (8) 3rd, 4th, 8th and 10th grade…

  9. ARL Academic Law Library Statistics, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Bland, Les, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents results of the 2007-2008 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Law Library Statistics Questionnaire. Of 113 ARL university libraries, 74 responded to the survey. Results for each library are presented in the following data tables: (1) collections (2-parts), including volumes in library, volumes added, monographs purchased,…

  10. Handbook of Procedures for the Graduation Program 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Ministry of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This 2007-2008 manual, "Handbook of Procedures for the Graduation Program," has been approved by the British Columbia Minister of Education on July 18, 2007 for the purpose of setting out graduation requirements. The handbook outlines procedures for efficiently sharing student data between schools and the Ministry of Education, and answers…

  11. WMO Role In The International Polar Year 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarukhanian, E.

    2004-12-01

    The Fourteenth World Meteorological Congress in May 2003 had approved the idea of holding an International Polar Year in 2007-2008. The ICSU Executive Board in February 2004 decided to establish an IPY in 2007-2008 and invited WMO to jointly sponsor the IPY. In June 2004, ICSU and WMO agreed to act as cosponsors for the IPY. WMO contributions to the IPY would be focused on the areas of activities that are closely related to five themes of IPY Science Plan. One of the most important areas is the enhancement of observing components in Polar Regions. It includes re-activation of existing or establishing of new meteorological stations, increase the number of drifting buoys, ships and aircraft in Polar Regions. The existing satellites and new operational satellites with observational capabilities for Polar Regions will be used. In the atmospheric research area WMO plans to enhance integrated monitoring of the ozone layer, using ground-based optical remote sensing instrumentation and ozone sondes aircraft and satellites. It is also planned to intensify integrated measurement and modelling of the transport of greenhouse gases and aerosols. The period of IPY will overlap with the timeframe of Global Atmosphere Research Programme /(THORPEX/) carried out by WMO. Its implementation in Polar Regions is considered as part of IPY that would increase knowledge of global to regional influences on the initiation, evolution and predictability of high-impact weather, and contribute to the design and demonstration of interactive forecast system that allow information to flow between users, numerical modellers, data assimilation system and observations to maximize forecast skill and enhance the utility of forecasts. In the area of climate assessment WMO is intended to participate in the development of an IPY data management plan and coordinate establishment of a database of historical polar climate and related data, investigate teleconnections between polar regions and the lower

  12. Geoeffectiveness of Stream Interaction Regions during 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Garcia, Elsa; Aguilar-Rodriguez, Ernesto; Ontiveros, Veronica

    2016-07-01

    The Stream Interaction Regions (SIRs) are generated in the interplanetary medium when a fast solar wind stream overtakes a slower one. If these large-scale phenomena interact with the Earth's magnetosphere they can give rise to geomagnetic storms (GSs). In this study we analyze the degree of geoeffectiveness of 20 events that were generated by SIRs. The events were observed during the 2007-2008 period that comprising the extended downward phase of solar cycle 23. The degree of geoeffectivity is measured using magnetic indices from different latitudes: PCN (Polar cap north), PCS (polar cap south), AA (antipodal amplitude), AE (Auroral Electrojet), Kp (estimated global index) and Dst (Disturbance storm time). We discuss some results on the correlation of these magnetic indices with the characteristics of shocks associated with the SIRs observed by STEREO-A/B, WIND and ACE spacecraft. All the 20 SIRs events generated GSs with Dst values in ranging from -86 nT up to -12 nT. Moreover, 6 out of the 20 events presented storm sudden commencement (SSC). We also discuss on the characteristics of the SIR-associated shocks and the intensity of the GSs.

  13. The Development of Interconnection Standards in Six States In 2007-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, Jason B.

    2008-05-01

    This paper discusses the process of developing standards for the interconnection of photovoltaic systems and other generators under ten megawatts to the electric grid. State utility commission rulemakings in 2007-2008 in Florida, New Mexico, North Carolina, Maryland, Illinois and Utah provide the basis for analysis of what is and should be considered in the development of standards, and how the process can be improved. State interconnection standards vary substantially, and many utilities have discretion to establish additional or different requirements, creating literally hundreds of sets of rules. This lack of uniformity imposes a significant cost on project developers and installers to track and comply with applicable rules. As well, burdensome provisions and uncertain costs and timelines present formidable barriers to entry, which advocates have limited resources to challenge. For a better process, the author proposes: establishing federal standards as a baseline, involving solar advocates, and developing a utility cost-recovery mechanism.

  14. Energy resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A statistical analysis of the availability of fossil fuels for energy and non-energy production is presented. The cumulative requirements for petroleum, natural gas, and coal are discussed. Alternate forms of energy are described and the advantages and limitations are analyzed. Emphasis is placed on solar energy availability and methods for conversion. The Federal energy research and development funding for energy sources is tabulated.

  15. Flavonoid Values for USDA Survey Foods and Beverages 2007-2008: Provisional Flavonoid Addendum, FNDDS 4.1 and Flavonoid Intake Data, WWEIA, NHANES 2007-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This release of the Flavonoid Values for Survey Foods and Beverages 2007-2008 makes possible, for the first time, calculation of flavonoid intakes based on all foods and beverages reported in national surveys. This release has two components. The first component is an addendum to USDA’s Food and N...

  16. Rehabilitate Newsome Creek Watershed, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bransford, Stephanie

    2009-05-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridgetop approach. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Newsome Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1997. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through road decommissioning and culvert replacement. Starting in FY 2001 and continuing into the present, a major stream restoration effort on the mainstem of Newsome Creek has been pursued. From completing a watershed assessment to a feasibility study of 4 miles of mainstem rehabilitation to carrying that forward into NEPA and a final design, we will begin the effort of restoring the mainstem channel of Newsome Creek to provide spawning and rearing habitat for anadromous and resident fish species. Roads have been surveyed and prioritized for removal or improvement as well as culverts being prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed.

  17. International Polar Year 2007/2008 - snapshots from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezek, K.

    2003-04-01

    Satellite observations are revolutionizing our ability to observe the poles and polar processes. No other technology developed since the IGY of 1957 provides the high-resolution, continental-scale, frequent-repeat, and all-weather observations available from spaceborne sensors. The utility of that technology is evidenced by associated scientific advances including measurements of long term trends in polar sea ice cover and extent, the realization that the polar ice sheets can change dramatically at decade or less time scales, and the quantification of relationships between processes at the poles and at mid and equatorial latitudes. There are many examples of successful spaceborne observations from pole to pole for scientific, commercial and governmental purposes. These successes encourage the use of the capabilities and consequently, the competition for access to resources from the international constellation of satellites becomes increasingly more intense. Frequently, this means that there are only limited opportunities for conducting large-scale projects that consume a significant fraction of system capabilities for some dedicated period of time. An example of a large-scale coordinated effort is the Radarsat Antarctic Mapping Project that required months of dedicated satellite and ground support time to achieve its objective of obtaining near instantaneous 'snapshots' of Antarctica to serve as gauges for measuring future changes. Large-scale coordinated-experiments will continue to be important for polar scientists seeking to understand the role of polar processes in climate change. These future missions will be further enhanced if complementary observations and data analysis from different satellite sensors can be coordinated (for example IceSAT laser altimeter observations of ice sheet surface topography with EnviSAT SAR observation of ice sheet motion). That coordination is challenging in part because of resource allocation issues and in part because space

  18. International Polar Year 2007/2008 - A Snapshot from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noltimier, K.; Jezek, K.; Box, J.

    2002-12-01

    Satellite observations are revolutionizing our ability to observe the poles and polar processes. No other technology developed since the IGY of 1957 provides the high-resolution, continental-scale, frequent-repeat, and all-weather observations available from spaceborne sensors. The utility of that technology is evidenced by associated scientific advances including measurements of long term trends in polar sea ice cover and extent, the realization that the polar ice sheets can change dramatically at decade or less time scales, and the quantification of relationships between processes at the poles and at mid and equatorial latitudes. There are many examples of successful spaceborne observations from pole to pole for scientific, commercial and governmental purposes. These successes encourage the use of the capabilities and consequently, the competition for access to resources from the international constellation of satellites becomes increasingly more intense. Frequently, this means that there are only limited opportunities for conducting large-scale projects that consume a significant fraction of system capabilities for some dedicated period of time. An example of a large-scale coordinated effort is the Radarsat Antarctic Mapping Project that required months of dedicated satellite and ground support time to achieve its objective of obtaining near instantaneous 'snapshots' of Antarctica to serve as gauges for measuring future changes. Large-scale coordinated-experiments will continue to be important for polar scientists seeking to understand the role of polar processes in climate change. These future missions will be further enhanced if complementary observations and data analysis from different satellite sensors can be coordinated (for example IceSAT laser altimeter observations of ice sheet surface topography with EnviSAT SAR observation of ice sheet motion). That coordination is challenging in part because of resource allocation issues and in part because space

  19. World energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerici, A.; Alimonti, G.

    2015-08-01

    As energy is the main "fuel" for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC) has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER) 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  20. Establishing the Baseline Height and Weight Status of New Hampshire Head Start Children, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaney, David D.; Flynn, Regina T.; Martin, Nancy R.; Anderson, Ludmila

    2010-01-01

    We report on a standardized survey of height and weight status of children attending the New Hampshire Head Start Program during the 2007-2008 school year. Baseline prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity are needed for obesity prevention activities and intervention. We selected a random one-stage cluster sample and screened 629 children…

  1. 2007-2008 What We Eat In America, NHANES Tables 1-36

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food Surveys Research Group of the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center has analyzed dietary data from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 and released 36 summary data tables for the current 2-year survey release. The tab...

  2. Annual Report: Discipline, Crime, and Violence, School Year 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Code of Virginia" requires school divisions statewide to submit data to the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) on incidents of discipline, crime, and violence (DCV). School divisions began reporting such data in 1991. This annual report focuses primarily on DCV data submitted for school year 2007-2008, with selected comparisons to prior…

  3. International Rules for Precollege Science Research: Guidelines for Science and Engineering Fairs, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Service, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication presents changes and modifications for 2007-2008 to the "International Rules for Precollege Science Research: Guidelines for Science and Engineering Fairs." It is written to guide fair directors, teachers, scientists, parents, and adult volunteers as they pursue their work of encouraging students to explore and investigate their…

  4. 2007/2008 Employer Satisfaction Survey Employers of Alberta High School Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2007/2008 Employer Satisfaction Survey was commissioned by Alberta Education and Alberta Advanced Education and Technology. Data collection for the survey was conducted by CCI Research Inc. between December 1st, 2007 and January 11th, 2008. The objective of the survey was to assess employer satisfaction with recent graduates from Alberta's…

  5. Facing Race: Illinois Legislative Report Card on Racial Equity, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morita, Josina; Keleher, Terry

    2008-01-01

    This publication reviews 56 bills introduced in the 95th General Assembly that, if signed into law by the Governor, would have the most direct positive and negative impacts on communities of color. The "2007-2008 Illinois Legislative Report Card on Racial Equity" evaluates the Governor and legislators on their responses to these initiatives.…

  6. What We Eat In America, NHANES 2007-2008: Documentation and Data Files

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New nationwide dietary intake data were collected in What We Eat In America (WWEIA), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 2007-2008 and are now available for public use. Two days of dietary intake data are included for most participants. The dietary interview data ...

  7. 7 CFR 982.255 - Free and restricted percentages-2007-2008 marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Free and Restricted Percentages § 982.255 Free and... merchantable hazelnuts for the 2007-2008 marketing year shall be 8.1863 and 91.8137 percent, respectively. (b) On May 1, 2008, the final free and restricted percentages for merchantable hazelnuts for the...

  8. 7 CFR 982.255 - Free and restricted percentages-2007-2008 marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Free and Restricted Percentages § 982.255 Free and... merchantable hazelnuts for the 2007-2008 marketing year shall be 8.1863 and 91.8137 percent, respectively. (b) On May 1, 2008, the final free and restricted percentages for merchantable hazelnuts for the...

  9. 7 CFR 982.255 - Free and restricted percentages-2007-2008 marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Free and Restricted Percentages § 982.255 Free and... merchantable hazelnuts for the 2007-2008 marketing year shall be 8.1863 and 91.8137 percent, respectively. (b) On May 1, 2008, the final free and restricted percentages for merchantable hazelnuts for the...

  10. 7 CFR 982.255 - Free and restricted percentages-2007-2008 marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Free and Restricted Percentages § 982.255 Free and... merchantable hazelnuts for the 2007-2008 marketing year shall be 8.1863 and 91.8137 percent, respectively. (b) On May 1, 2008, the final free and restricted percentages for merchantable hazelnuts for the...

  11. 7 CFR 982.255 - Free and restricted percentages-2007-2008 marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Free and Restricted Percentages § 982.255 Free and... merchantable hazelnuts for the 2007-2008 marketing year shall be 8.1863 and 91.8137 percent, respectively. (b) On May 1, 2008, the final free and restricted percentages for merchantable hazelnuts for the...

  12. Save Energy Now Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides information resources to industrial energy users and partnering organizations to help the nation’s industrial sector save energy and improve productivity.

  13. The International Polar Year 2007-2008: a Preliminary Overview of Proposed Research Activities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, I.; Beland, M.; Members, J.

    2005-05-01

    The International Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY 2007-2008), co-sponsored by the International Council for Science and the World Meteorological Organization, will be an intensive and internationally coordinated campaign of high quality research and observations in the polar regions. It will have an interdisciplinary emphasis, with active inclusion of the social sciences as well as natural science. The IPY 2007-2008 is intended to lay the foundation for major scientific advances in knowledge and understanding of the polar regions and their role in the functioning of the planet. IPY 2007-2008 will address six broad research themes. These are the present environmental status of the polar regions; change in the polar regions; the links and interactions between polar regions and the rest of the globe; frontiers of science in the polar regions; the polar regions as a unique vantage point to observe processes from the interior of the Earth, to the Sun and the cosmos beyond; and the culture, history, and sociology of human societies in polar regions. Details of the IPY science plan and its implementation are available in the IPY Framework document at www.ipy.org, A large number of proposals for potential IPY activities were received in January 2005 in response to a preliminary call for "Expressions of Intent". Those projects meeting the IPY criteria have been identified and are presently being developed more fully and, where appropriate, consolidated into larger projects. This presentation will provide an outline of the major scientific initiatives that are developing under the IPY 2007-2008 vision. Opportunities for participation in the developing IPY projects will be noted, as will those projects seeking additional input from new collaborators.

  14. A New Phase of Exploration and Understanding: Planning for The International Polar Year - 2007/2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.; Rapley, C.; Elfring, C.; Allison, I.; Bindschadler, R.; Chown, S.; Duhaime, G.; Kotlyakov, V.; Orheim, O.; Zhang, Z.; Kuhn, M.; Schalke, H.; Pandey, P.; Petersen, H. K.; Casassa, G.

    2003-12-01

    Planning is underway to hold an International Polar Year in 2007-2008. IPY 2007-2008 stands to be a significant research opportunity to further our understanding of polar regions and polar processes. The International Polar Year has the potential to capture the public's imagination and convey the crucial role that the polar regions play in global systems. IPY 2007-2008 is envisioned to be an intense, international campaign of coordinated polar observations and analysis, which will be bipolar in focus, multidisciplinary in scope, and truly international in participation. The vision is for many nations to work together to gain holistic insights into planetary processes, targeted at exploring and increasing our understanding of the poles and their roles in the global system. The concept of an International Polar Year 2007 - 2008 has been endorsed and advanced by a broad range of global and polar research groups. Earlier this year, the International Council for Science (ICSU) formed an International Polar Year Planning Group (IPY-PG) which met for the first time at the end of July. The Planning Group discussed ways to create an open process that encourages broad input from the international community. The Planning Group began to describe the desired goals of IPY 2007-2008, which should address compelling science issues through multi-national programs, enable scientific programs which would not otherwise occur, attract and develop the next generation of polar scientists, and engage the public. The Planning Group has identified three overarching themes that we hope can serve as the foundation for IPY 2007-2008: Exploring the Earth's Icy Domains, Decoding the Role of the Poles in Global Change Understanding Polar Processes. The Planning Group envisions focused research activities under each of these major themes. For example, a program to explore the sub-ice environment of East Antarctica would fit under the theme Exploring the Earth's Icy Domains, a program of Integrated

  15. L'apparizione di Marte 2007-2008: il volto mutevole del pianeta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanga, P.

    2010-02-01

    Results of visual observations and CCD imaging of Mars during the 2007-2008 are presented. The aspect of the planet was greatly influenced by an encircling dust storm starting in June 2007. The atmosphere remained dusty for several months, lowering the contrast of albedo markings. The albedo spots themselves have been modified on a large scale, producing the most relevant surface changes of the last apparitions.

  16. An Energy Resource List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VocEd, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Selected energy resource information, from both federal and private sources, is listed under funding, general information and assistance, recycling, solar, transportation, utilities, and wind power. Books, pamphlets, films, journals, newsletters, and other materials are included. (MF)

  17. Energy and resource consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The present and projected energy requirements for the United States are discussed. The energy consumption and demand sectors are divided into the categories: residential and commercial, transportation, and industrial and electrical generation (utilities). All sectors except electrical generation use varying amounts of fossile fuel resources for non-energy purposes. The highest percentage of non-energy use by sector is industrial with 71.3 percent. The household and commercial sector uses 28.4 percent, and transportation about 0.3 percent. Graphs are developed to project fossil fuel demands for non-energy purposes and the perdentage of the total fossil fuel used for non-energy needs.

  18. Role of the Polar Research Board in Facilitating Planning for IPY 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfring, C.

    2003-12-01

    IPY 2007-2008 has the potential to be a valuable burst of scientific activity that adds to our understanding of polar regions and their role in the global system, and it stands to engage a new generation of scientists and the public in an exciting way. IPY 2007-2008 will be truly international and broadly multidisciplinary. But how is something of this scale planned and implemented? Where are the opportunities for input from the science community? How do we reconcile the differences in the American system of supporting science with approaches used in other nations, when attempting to work jointly? How can the large, diverse polar science community be satisfied that IPY reflects their priorities, given the necessity of making choices about how to focus IPY activities? The National Academy of Sciences played a key role in organizing the International Geophysical Year in 1957-1958. In this mode, the Polar Research Board, a unit of the National Academies (which includes the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine), is attempting to play a role in facilitating IPY 2007-2007 planning. The Polar Research Board is a nongovernmental body composed of volunteers from the polar science community. Its mission is to promote excellence in polar science and provide advice to agencies and the nation on issues of importance in the Arctic, Antarctic, and cold regions in general. The PRB represents US interests in two international nongovernmental polar science organizations - the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC). The PRB's status as an independent body gives it a special role in organizing IPY 2007-2008 at both the national and international levels. At the national level, it has attempted to provide opportunities for dialog on what US scientists would like IPY to be, and to have a relatively open process so that bottom-up ideas can be considered. At the

  19. In situ Observations of CIRs on STEREO, Wind, and ACE During 2007 - 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, G. M.; Desai, M. I.; Mall, U.; Korth, A.; Bucik, R.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Simunac, K. D.

    2009-05-01

    During the 2007 and 2008 solar minimum period, STEREO, Wind, and ACE observed numerous Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) over spatial separations that began with all the spacecraft close to Earth, through STEREO separation angles of ˜ 80 degrees in the fall of 2008. Over 35 CIR events were of sufficient intensity to allow measurement of He and heavy ion spectra using the IMPACT/SIT, EPACT/STEP and ACE/ULEIS instruments on STEREO, Wind, and ACE, respectively. In addition to differences between the spacecraft expected on the basis of simple corotation, we observed several events where there were markedly different time-intensity profiles from one spacecraft to the next. By comparing the energetic particle intensities and spectral shapes along with solar wind speed we examine the extent to which these differences are due to temporal evolution of the CIR or due to variations in connection to a relatively stable interaction region. Comparing CIRs in the 1996 - 1997 solar minimum period vs. 2007 - 2008, we find that the 2007 - 2008 period had many more CIRs, reflecting the presence of more high-speed solar wind streams, whereas 1997 had almost no CIR activity.

  20. Energy Education Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence.

    To help fill the needs of Rhode Island teachers for useful energy education materials, the Dissemination Services Unit of this state's Department of Education has compiled this resource guide. The entries in this document are available either from ERIC or from the Dissemination Services Unit; Ed numbers are given for ERIC documents. For all…

  1. Science Communication during the International Polar Year 2007-2008: Successes and Recommendations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, D. J.; Ipy Education, Outreach; Communication Committee

    2010-12-01

    This IPY (International Polar Year 2007-2008) represented one of the largest international scientific research efforts ever undertaken. It stimulated the active engagement of thousands of teachers, students, and citizens around the globe through international collaboration and cooperation, careful cultivation of a global community of enthusiastic professional science communicators and educators, and creative use of free technologies. From music performances in Alaska to tree planting in Malaysia, hundreds of events and activities around the world demonstrated the public enthusiasm and the broad impact of IPY. This paper describes the core concepts and tangible activities developed and implemented by the IPY international Education, Outreach, and Communication (EOC) Committee and community and the International Programme Office (IPO) between March 2006 and December 2009. We present methods and accomplishments and address two questions: 1) How did these activities come about? 2) How do the ideas, tools, experiences, and successes from this IPY apply more broadly to science communication?

  2. Uses of Formal and Informal Assessments of English Language Learners in a Language Experience Class, School Year 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Joel R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper will compare the uses of selected formal and informal assessments of English language learners (ELLs) in the Language Experience class [TRANSLANGEXP7(&8)-008] at Kimball Middle School, Illinois School District U-46, Elgin, Illinois, during school year 2007- 2008. See figure 1 (page 14) for a graphic display of these assessments and…

  3. Examination of Case Law (2007-2008) regarding Autism Spectrum Disorder and Violations of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Doris Adams

    2009-01-01

    Ninety-nine court cases from the "LexisNexis" database regarding students, ages 3-21, with various forms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) were examined for the years 2007-2008. Procedural and substantive violations to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the provision of a Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) were…

  4. NASA Battery Working Group - 2007-2008: Battery Task Summary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This presentation provides a summary of the 2007-2008 NASA Battery Working Group efforts completed in support of the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC). The effort covered a series of pro-active tasks that address the following: Binding Procurements -- guidelines related to requirements for the battery system that should be considered at the time of contract award Wet Life of Ni-H2 Batteries -- issues/strategies for effective storage and impact of long-term storage on performance and life Generic Guidelines for Lithium-ion Safety, Handling and Qualification -- Standardized approaches developed and risk assessments (1) Lithium-ion Performance Assessment -- survey of manufacturers and capabilities to meet mission needs. Guidelines document generated (2) Conditions Required for using Pouch Cells in Aerospace Missions -- focus on corrosion, thermal excursions and long-term performance issues. Document defining requirements to maintain performance and life (3) High Voltage Risk Assessment -- focus on safety and abuse tolerance of battery module assemblies. Recommendations of features required for safe implementation (4) Procedure for Determination of Safe Charge Rates -- evaluation of various cell chemistries and recommendation of safe operating regimes for specific cell designs

  5. Multifractal analysis of Asian markets during 2007-2008 financial crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Rashid; Mohammad, Salim M.

    2015-02-01

    2007-2008 US financial crisis adversely affected the stock markets all over the world. Asian markets also came under pressure and were differently affected. As markets under stress could reveal features that remain hidden under normal conditions, we use MF-DFA technique to investigate the multifractal structure of the US and seven Asian stock markets during the crisis period. The overall period of study, from 01 July 2002 to 31 December 2013, is divided into three sub-periods: pre-crisis period, crisis period and post-crisis period. We find during the crisis period markets of the US, Japan, Hong Kong, S. Korea and Indonesia show very strong non-linearity for positive values of the moment q. We calculate the singularity spectra, f(α) for the three sub-periods for all markets. During the crisis period, we observe that the peaks of the f(α) spectra shift to lower values of α and markets of the US, Japan, Hong Kong, Korea and Indonesia exhibit increased long range correlations of large fluctuations in index returns. We also study the impact of the crisis on the power law exponent in the tail region of the cumulative return distribution and find that by excluding the crisis period from the overall data sets, the tail exponent increases across all markets.

  6. Unconventional Energy Resources: 2015 Review

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Energy Minerals Division

    2015-12-15

    This paper includes 10 summaries for energy resource commodities including coal and unconventional resources, and an analysis of energy economics and technology prepared by committees of the Energy Minerals Division of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Unconventional energy resources, as used in this report, are those energy resources that do not occur in discrete oil or gas reservoirs held in structural or stratigraphic traps in sedimentary basins. Such resources include coalbed methane, oil shale, U and Th deposits and associated rare earth elements of industrial interest, geothermal, gas shale and liquids, tight gas sands, gas hydrates, and bitumen and heavy oil. Current U.S. and global research and development activities are summarized for each unconventional energy resource commodity in the topical sections of this report, followed by analysis of unconventional energy economics and technology.

  7. Health Effects of Energy Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, William; Tatu, Calin; Pavlovic, Nikola; Bunnell, Joseph; Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark; Stout, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Energy resources (coal, oil, and natural gas) are among the cornerstones of modern industrial society. The exploitation of these resources, however, is not without costs. Energy materials may contain harmful chemical substances that, if mobilized into air, water, or soil, can adversely impact human health and environmental quality. In order to address the issue of human exposure to toxic substances derived from energy resources, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program developed a project entitled 'Impacts of Energy Resources on Human Health and Environmental Quality.' The project is intended to provide policymakers and the public with the scientific information needed to weigh the human health and environmental consequences of meeting our energy needs. This fact sheet discusses several areas where the USGS Energy Resources Program is making scientific advances in this endeavor.

  8. Unconventional Energy Resources: 2013 Review

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Energy Minerals Division

    2013-11-30

    This report contains nine unconventional energy resource commodity summaries and an analysis of energy economics prepared by committees of the Energy Minerals Division of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Unconventional energy resources, as used in this report, are those energy resources that do not occur in discrete oil or gas reservoirs held in structural or stratigraphic traps in sedimentary basins. These resources include coal, coalbed methane, gas hydrates, tight-gas sands, gas shale and shale oil, geothermal resources, oil sands, oil shale, and U and Th resources and associated rare earth elements of industrial interest. Current U.S. and global research and development activities are summarized for each unconventional energy commodity in the topical sections of this report.

  9. Arctic Energy Resources: Energy Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryc, George

    1984-04-01

    Arctic Energy Resources is a volume of 26 papers recording the proceedings of the Comite' Arctique International Conference, held at the Veritas Centre, Oslo, Norway, September 22-24, 1982. This was the fourth of a series of meetings on the Arctic organized by the Comite', an organization established in the Principality of Monaco with the active support of H.S.H. Prince Rainer III. The fourth Conference was opened by H.R.H. Crown Prins Harald of Norway, a noble beginning for a noble objective.The North Polar Region has drawn world attention recently because of several large hydrocarbon and other mineral discoveries and because of major political and environmental actions in the North American Arctic. Since 1923 when Naval Petroleum Reserve number 4 (NPR-4) was established, northern Alaska has been considered a major petroleum province. It was first explored systematically with modern techniques from 1943 to 1953. In 1958, Alaska became a state, and both federal and state lands in northern Alaska were available for private exploration. Building on the knowledge base provided by the Pet-4 program and its spinoff research laboratory at Barrow, industry explored the area east of NPR-4 and discovered the largest hydrocarbon accumulation (9.6 bbl crude oil and 26 Tcf (trillion cubic feet) gas) in North America at Prudhoe Bay. Concerns for environmental impacts, including oil spills, led to the passing of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1969. In 1970, over 9 million acres were set aside, now known as the Arctic National Wildlife Range, and in 1971 the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act was passed by the U.S. Congress. The Arab oil embargo of 1973 heightened the energy crisis and changed the economic basis for further exploration in the Arctic. The convergence of these events dramatically changed the balance of power and the pace of activity in the North American Arctic.

  10. The IPY 2007-2008 data legacy - creating open data from IPY publications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driemel, A.; Grobe, H.; Diepenbroek, M.; Grüttemeier, H.; Schumacher, S.; Sieger, R.

    2015-09-01

    The International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008 was a synchronized effort to simultaneously collect data from polar regions. Being the fourth in a series of IPYs, the demand for interdisciplinarity and new data products was high. However, despite all the research done on land, people, ocean, ice and atmosphere and the large amount of data collected, no central archive or portal was created for IPY data. In order to improve the availability and visibility of IPY data, a concerted effort between PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth and Environmental Science, the International Council for Science (ICSU) World Data System (WDS), and the International Council for Scientific and Technical Information (ICSTI) was undertaken to extract data resulting from IPY publications for long-term preservation. Overall, 1380 IPY-related references were collected. Of these, only 450 contained accessible data. All data were extracted, quality checked, annotated with metadata and uploaded to PANGAEA. The 450 articles dealt with a multitude of IPY topics - plankton biomass, water chemistry, ice thickness, whale sightings, Inuit health, alien species introductions by travellers or tundra biomass change, to mention just a few. Both the Arctic and the Antarctic were investigated in the articles, and all realms (land, people, ocean, ice and atmosphere) and a wide range of countries were covered. The data compilation can now be found with the identifier http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.150150, and individual parts can be searched using the PANGAEA search engine (http://www.pangaea.de) and adding "+project:ipy". With this effort, we hope to improve the visibility, accessibility and long-term storage of IPY data for future research and new data products.

  11. IPY 2007-2008 data legacy - a ong story cut short

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driemel, A.; Grobe, H.; Diepenbroek, M.; Grüttemeier, H.; Schumacher, S.; Sieger, R.

    2015-06-01

    The International Polar Year 2007-2008 was a synchronized effort to simultaneously collect data from polar regions. Being the fourth in a row of IPYs, the demand for interdisciplinarity and new data products was high. However, despite of all the research done on land, people, ocean, ice and atmosphere and the large amount of data collected, no central archive or portal was created for IPY data. In order to address these issues, a concerted effort between PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth and Environmental Science, the ICSU World Data System (WDS), and the International Council for Scientific and Technical Information (ICSTI) was undertaken to extract data resulting from IPY publications for long-term preservation. 1380 IPY-related references were collected. Out of these, only 450 contained accessible data. All data was extracted, quality checked, annotated with metadata and uploaded to PANGAEA. The 450 articles dealt with a multitude of IPY topics - plankton biomass, water chemistry, ice thickness, whale sightings, Inuit health, alien species introductions by travelers or tundra biomass change - to mention just a few. Both, the Arctic and the Antarctic were investigated in the articles, and all realms (land, people, ocean, ice and atmosphere) and a wide range of countries were covered. The data compilation can now be found with the identifier doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.150150 and individually searched for using the PANGAEA search engine (www.pangaea.de) and adding "+project:ipy". With this effort, we hope to improve the visibility, accessibility and long-term storage of IPY data for future research and new data products.

  12. Civil unrest and birthweight: an exploratory analysis of the 2007/2008 Kenyan Crisis.

    PubMed

    Bell, Suzanne; Prata, Ndola; Lahiff, Maureen; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2012-05-01

    For decades, Africa has been plagued by political and ethnic conflict, the health ramifications of which are often not investigated. A crisis occurred recently in Kenya following the 2007 presidential election. Ethnic violence ensued, targeting the incumbent President Kibaki's Kikuyu people. The violence occurred primarily in Nairobi and the Rift Valley of Kenya. We sought to examine the association between exposure to the 2007/2008 Kenyan Crisis and birthweight. Using the 2008/2009 Kenyan Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS), we compared birthweights of infants in utero or not yet conceived during the 15 months after the political turmoil following the 2007 presidential election (exposed) to those who were born before the crisis (unexposed). There were 663 "exposed" and 687 "unexposed" infants. Multivariate regression was used. We examined the possibility of two-way and three-way interactions between exposure status, ethnicity (Kikuyu versus non-Kikuyu), and region (violent region versus not). Overall, exposure to the Kenyan Crisis was associated with lower birthweight. Kikuyu women living in a violent region who were exposed during their 2nd trimester had the greatest difference in birthweight in comparison to all unexposed infants: 564.4g lower (95% CI 285.1, 843.6). Infants of Kikuyu exposed during the 2nd trimester and living in a violent region weighed 603.6g less (95% CI 333.6, 873.6) than Kikuyu infants born during the unexposed period. Political unrest may have implications for the birthweight of infants, particularly among targeted populations. Given the adverse sequelae associated with lowered birthweight, these results suggest that particular attention should be paid to pregnant women and targeted ethnic groups following such events. PMID:22410269

  13. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Juveniles, 2007-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Sandford, Benjamin P.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2009-07-09

    This report provides results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior and survival of wild juvenile spring/summer Chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. Data reported is from detections of PIT tagged fish during late summer 2007 through mid-2008. Fish were tagged in summer 2007 by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in Idaho and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) in Oregon. Our analyses include migration behavior and estimated survival of fish at instream PIT-tag monitors and arrival timing and estimated survival to Lower Granite Dam. Principal results from tagging and interrogation during 2007-2008 are: (1) In July and August 2007, we PIT tagged and released 7,390 wild Chinook salmon parr in 12 Idaho streams or sample areas. (2) Overall observed mortality from collection, handling, tagging, and after a 24-hour holding period was 1.4%. (3) Of the 2,524 Chinook salmon parr PIT tagged and released in Valley Creek in summer 2007, 218 (8.6%) were detected at two instream PIT-tag monitoring systems in lower Valley Creek from late summer 2007 to the following spring 2008. Of these, 71.6% were detected in late summer/fall, 11.9% in winter, and 16.5% in spring. Estimated parr-to-smolt survival to Lower Granite Dam was 15.5% for the late summer/fall group, 48.0% for the winter group, and 58.5% for the spring group. Based on detections at downstream dams, the overall efficiency of VC1 (upper) or VC2 (lower) Valley Creek monitors for detecting these fish was 21.1%. Using this VC1 or VC2 efficiency, an estimated 40.8% of all summer-tagged parr survived to move out of Valley Creek, and their estimated survival from that point to Lower Granite Dam was 26.5%. Overall estimated parr-to-smolt survival for all summer-tagged parr from this stream at the dam was 12.1%. Development and improvement of instream PIT-tag monitoring systems continued throughout 2007 and 2008. (4) Testing of PIT-tag antennas in lower Big Creek during 2007-2008

  14. Energy and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Bent

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the feasibility of utilizing continuous sources of of energy, particularly solar and wind energy. Outlines an energy plan for Denmark, which would supply all of Denmark's energy needs by the year 2050. (MLH)

  15. Nonconventional energy resources. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Pryde, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    Worldwide energy problems suggest that unconventional energy sources will contribute an increasing share of energy supplies. The chapters of this book present a rationale for developing unconventional resources, but they also look at the practical aspects of environmental, social, and economic impacts assocated with their development. The introduction reviews several possible scenarios, then gives an overview of the contributions that can be made by renewable, semi-renewable, nondepletable, and nonrenewable energy resources. It stresses the importance of conversion efficiency and net energy, both local and global environmental issues, and economics. A separate abstract was prepared for 10 chapters selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).

  16. Unconventional Energy Resources: 2011 Review

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration: American Association of Petroleum Geologists

    2011-12-15

    This report contains nine unconventional energy resource commodity summaries prepared by committees of the Energy Minerals Division (EMD) of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Unconventional energy resources, as used in this report, are those energy resources that do not occur in discrete oil or gas reservoirs held in structural or stratigraphic traps in sedimentary basins. These resources include coal, coalbed methane, gas hydrates, tight gas sands, gas shale and shale oil, geothermal resources, oil sands, oil shale, and uranium resources. Current U.S. and global research and development activities are summarized for each unconventional energy commodity in the topical sections of this report. Coal and uranium are expected to supply a significant portion of the world's energy mix in coming years. Coalbed methane continues to supply about 9% of the U.S. gas production and exploration is expanding in other countries. Recently, natural gas produced from shale and low-permeability (tight) sandstone has made a significant contribution to the energy supply of the United States and is an increasing target for exploration around the world. In addition, oil from shale and heavy oil from sandstone are a new exploration focus in many areas (including the Green River area of Wyoming and northern Alberta). In recent years, research in the areas of geothermal energy sources and gas hydrates has continued to advance. Reviews of the current research and the stages of development of these unconventional energy resources are described in the various sections of this report.

  17. Gravity wave activity during stratospheric sudden warmings in the 2007-2008 Northern Hemisphere winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling; Alexander, M. Joan

    2009-09-01

    We use temperature retrievals from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC)/Formosa Satellite Mission 3 (FORMOSAT-3) and Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) radio occultation profiles and independent temperature retrievals from the EOS satellite High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) and Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) aboard the TIMED satellite to investigate stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) events and the accompanying gravity wave (GW) temperature amplitudes in the 2007-2008 Northern Hemisphere winter. We identify four SSW events (including a major one) occurring from late January to late February in 2008. We detect enhanced GW amplitudes in the stratosphere and subdued GW amplitudes in the lower mesosphere during the warming events. The timing of GW enhancement/suppression and warming/cooling events was generally close (within a couple days). We also find that stratospheric GW amplitudes were generally larger at the polar vortex edge and smaller in the vortex core and outside of the vortex and that stratospheric GW amplitudes were generally small over the North Pacific. Using a simplified GW dispersion relation and a GW ray-tracing experiment, we demonstrate that the enhanced GW amplitudes in the stratosphere during SSWs could be explained largely by GW propagation considerations. The existence of GW critical levels (the level at which the background wind is the same as the GW phase speed) near the stratopause during SSWs would block propagation of GWs into the mesosphere and thus could lead to the observed subdued GW activity in the lower mesosphere. Since this is the first study to analyze the COSMIC and CHAMP GPS temperature retrievals up to 60 km in altitude, we compare the GPS analysis with those from HIRDLS and SABER measurements. We find that the temporal variability of zonal mean temperatures derived from the GPS data is

  18. Western Energy Corridor -- Energy Resource Report

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie Roberts; Michael Hagood

    2011-06-01

    The world is facing significant growth in energy demand over the next several decades. Strategic in meeting this demand are the world-class energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S., informally referred to as the Western Energy Corridor (WEC). The fossil energy resources in this region are rivaled only in a very few places in the world, and the proven uranium reserves are among the world's largest. Also concentrated in this region are renewable resources contributing to wind power, hydro power, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Substantial existing and planned energy infrastructure, including refineries, pipelines, electrical transmission lines, and rail lines provide access to these resources.

  19. Afghanistan's energy and natural resources

    SciTech Connect

    Balcome-Rawding, R.; Porter, K.C.

    1989-10-01

    This study provides a resource perspective from which to better plan the necessary steps toward the viable reconstruction and economic development of post war Afghanistan. The vast availability of natural resources affords the opportunity to formulate a framework upon which Afghanistan can grow and prosper in the future. The paper includes the following sections: Historical Overview: Thwarted Opportunities; Natural Resources: A Survey of Possibilities; The Future: Post War Rehabilitation and Reconstruction; and Conclusions: Future Energy Sources.

  20. World nonrenewable conventional energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, J.D.

    1984-04-02

    Up-to-date estimates are given for world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the nonrenewable energy resources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, bitumens, shale oil, and uranium oxide. Life indices for world fossil fuels are also presented for several annual growth rates. Nonconventional gas and oil are not included. 2 figures, 4 tables.

  1. A New Phase of Exploration and Understanding: Planning for The International Polar Year - 2007/2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapley, C.; Bell, R.

    2004-05-01

    Planning is underway for an International Polar Year in 2007-2008. (IPY 2007/8) which will be a significant research opportunity to further our understanding of polar regions and polar processes. The International Polar Year has the potential to capture the public's imagination and convey the crucial role that the polar regions play in global systems. IPY 2007/8 will be an international programme of coordinated, interdisciplinary, scientific research in the Earth's polar regions to explore new frontiers, to increase our ability to detect changes at the Earth's poles and to deepen our understanding of polar processes and their global linkages. A crucial component of the IPY 2007/8 will be to attract and develop the next generation of polar scientists, engineers and leaders and to capture the interest of the public and decision-makers. The vision is for many nations to work together to gain holistic insights into planetary processes, targeted at exploring and increasing our understanding of the poles and their role in the global system. The concept of an International Polar Year 2007/8 has been endorsed and advanced by a broad range of global and polar research groups both internationally and nationally. To date 18 nations have formed national committees who are coordinating IPY activities nationally. The International Council for Science (ICSU) formed an International Polar Year Planning Group (IPY-PG) to stimulate, encourage and organize a debate on the International Polar Year 2007/8, formulate a set of objectives and develop a high level Science Plan. The Planning Group has sought input from the international science community and to date has received 138 ideas from over 22 nations. This input from the international community covers both poles, global processes and a diverse spectrum of disciplines. To date the input from the science community has identified key questions and proposed projects within the three major themes proposed by the ICSU IPY Planning Group

  2. Energy Information Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaddy, Carol T., Ed.; Wells, Kathy, Ed.

    This document was published with the small energy user in mind--the student writing a term paper, the homemaker seeking tips on cutting utility bills, the elderly, farmers, small business owners, factory managers, and Arkansans in all walks of life. Although the volume contains a significant selection of books, magazines, films, and organizations…

  3. Biomass energies: resources, links, constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Smil, V.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: radiation and photosynthesis; primary production and biomass; resources; wood for energy; silviculture; requirements and effects; crop residues; residues for energy conversion; sugar crops and grain; cassava; fuel crops; aquatic plants; freshwater plants; ocean algae; animal wastes; Chinese biogas generation; and ecodisasters.

  4. Energy resources and global development

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Chow; Raymond J. Kopp; Paul R. Portney

    2003-11-15

    In order to address the economic and environmental consequences of our global energy system, we consider the availability and consumption of energy resources. Problems arise from our dependence on combustible fuels, the environmental risks associated with their extraction, and the environmental damage caused by their emissions. Yet no primary energy source, be it renewable or nonrenewable, is free of environmental or economic limitations. As developed and developing economies continue to grow, conversion to and adoption of environmentally benign energy technology will depend on political and economic realities. 33 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Energy resources and global development.

    PubMed

    Chow, Jeffrey; Kopp, Raymond J; Portney, Paul R

    2003-11-28

    In order to address the economic and environmental consequences of our global energy system, we consider the availability and consumption of energy resources. Problems arise from our dependence on combustible fuels, the environmental risks associated with their extraction, and the environmental damage caused by their emissions. Yet no primary energy source, be it renewable or nonrenewable, is free of environmental or economic limitations. As developed and developing economies continue to grow, conversion to and adoption of environmentally benign energy technology will depend on political and economic realities. PMID:14645838

  6. Climate and offshore energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twitchell, P. F.

    1980-12-01

    A conference discussed the relationship of climate to the world's offshore energy resources. The conference focused upon such areas as the impact of oil resources upon the economies of developed and developing countries, the importance of providing climatic data in sufficient time to meet users' needs, and the hazards and financial burdens associated with the development of offshore oil reserves. One of the important achievements of the confidence was the establishment of better communications between the users of environmental data and those charged with producing predictions.

  7. Determinants of exposure to secondhand smoke among Vietnamese adults: California Vietnamese Adult Tobacco Use Survey, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Webber, Whitney L; van Erp, Brianna; Stoddard, Pamela; Tsoh, Janice Y

    2014-01-01

    Because smoking rates are high among Vietnamese men, we used data from the 2007-2008 California Vietnamese Adult Tobacco Use Survey to estimate secondhand smoke exposure and associated risk factors among Vietnamese nonsmokers. Thirty percent of nonsmokers were exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home, 8% at work, 52% in bars, and 67% on a college campus. At home, odds of SHS exposure were greater for women than for men and for adults aged less than 40 years than for older adults. Odds of SHS exposure were higher for former smokers at work (among employed men) and among men when in bars. Future interventions should consider sex, age, and smoking history in efforts to prevent SHS exposure among Vietnamese adults. PMID:24831285

  8. Activity of telavancin and comparator antimicrobial agents tested against Staphylococcus spp. isolated from hospitalised patients in Europe (2007-2008).

    PubMed

    Mendes, Rodrigo E; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N

    2010-10-01

    The activity of telavancin was evaluated against Staphylococcus spp. collected from European hospitals as part of an international surveillance study (2007-2008). A total of 7534 staphylococcal clinical isolates [5726 Staphylococcus aureus and 1808 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS)] were included. Isolates were tested for susceptibility according to reference methods and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were interpreted based on Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2010 and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) 2009 criteria. Telavancin breakpoints approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were applied. Telavancin activity was evaluated against meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) displaying several antibiogram resistance patterns, including multidrug-resistant isolates. Telavancin was active against S. aureus [MIC(50/90) values (MICs for 50% and 90% of the isolates, respectively)=0.12/0.25mg/L; 100.0% susceptible] and CoNS (MIC(50/90)=0.12/0.25mg/L), inhibiting all isolates at < or =0.5mg/L. Similar results were observed when S. aureus were stratified by year or country of origin (MIC(50/90)=0.12/0.25mg/L). When MRSA isolates were clustered according to 48 different resistance patterns, telavancin showed consistent MIC(90) values (0.25mg/L) regardless of multidrug resistance. Amongst CoNS, telavancin was slightly more active against Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis and Staphylococcus xylosus (MIC(50)=0.12 mg/L) compared with Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Staphylococcus warneri (MIC(50)=0.25mg/L). Overall, telavancin exhibited MIC(90) results two- to eight-fold lower than comparators (daptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, vancomycin and linezolid). Based upon MIC(90) values, telavancin demonstrated potent in vitro activity against a contemporary (2007-2008) collection of Staphylococcus spp

  9. Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Trudel, Marc; Tucker, Strahan; Morris, John

    2009-03-09

    Historically, salmon stocks from the Columbia River and Snake River formed one of the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of North America. However, salmon and steelhead returns sharply declined during the 1980s and 1990s to reach nearly 1 million fish. Although several factors may be responsible for the decline of Columbia River salmon and steelhead, there is increasing evidence that these drastic declines were primarily attributable to persistently unfavorable ocean conditions. Hence, an understanding of the effects of ocean conditions on salmon production is required to forecast the return of salmon to the Columbia River basin and to assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as flow regulation on salmon resources in this system. The Canadian Program on High Seas Salmon has been collecting juvenile salmon and oceanographic data off the west coast of British Columbia and Southeast Alaska since 1998 to assess the effects of ocean conditions on the distribution, migration, growth, and survival of Pacific salmon. Here, we present a summary of the work conducted as part of the Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study during the 2008 fiscal year and compare these results with those obtained from previous years. The working hypothesis of this research is that fast growth enhances the marine survival of salmon, either because fast growing fish quickly reach a size that is sufficient to successfully avoid predators, or because they accumulate enough energy reserves to better survive their first winter at sea, a period generally considered critical in the life cycle of salmon. Sea surface temperature decreased from FY05 to FY08, whereas, the summer biomass of phytoplankton increased steadily off the west coast of Vancouver Island from FY05 to FY08. As in FY07, zooplankton biomass was generally above average off the west coast of Vancouver Island in FY08. Interestingly, phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass were higher in FY08 than was expected from the observed

  10. Energy for lunar resource exploitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1992-01-01

    Humanity stands at the threshold of exploiting the known lunar resources that have opened up with the access to space. America's role in the future exploitation of space, and specifically of lunar resources, may well determine the level of achievement in technology development and global economic competition. Space activities during the coming decades will significantly influence the events on Earth. The 'shifting of history's tectonic plates' is a process that will be hastened by the increasingly insistent demands for higher living standards of the exponentially growing global population. Key to the achievement of a peaceful world in the 21st century, will be the development of a mix of energy resources at a societally acceptable and affordable cost within a realistic planning horizon. This must be the theme for the globally applicable energy sources that are compatible with the Earth's ecology. It is in this context that lunar resources development should be a primary goal for science missions to the Moon, and for establishing an expanding human presence. The economic viability and commercial business potential of mining, extracting, manufacturing, and transporting lunar resource based materials to Earth, Earth orbits, and to undertake macroengineering projects on the Moon remains to be demonstrated. These extensive activities will be supportive of the realization of the potential of space energy sources for use on Earth. These may include generating electricity for use on Earth based on beaming power from Earth orbits and from the Moon to the Earth, and for the production of helium 3 as a fuel for advanced fusion reactors.

  11. Protect and Restore Red River Watershed, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bransford, Stephanie

    2009-05-04

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Red River Watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2001. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through road decommissioning and culvert replacement. From completing a watershed assessment to two NEPA efforts and a final stream restoration design, we will begin the effort of restoring the mainstem channel of Red River to provide spawning and rearing habitat for anadromous and resident fish species. Roads have been surveyed and prioritized for removal or improvement as well as culverts being prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Another major, and extremely, important component of this project is the Red River Meadow Conservation Easement. We have begun the process of pursuing a conservation easement on approximately 270 acres of prime meadow habitat (Red River runs through this meadow and is prime spawning and rearing habitat).

  12. Auctions for coastal energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Robert M.

    It is becoming increasingly common to allocate public resources to the private sector for the purpose of developing these resources. One of the earliest uses of auctions in the U.S. for allocating rights to public resources was in the offshore oil and gas industry. The U.S. Federal government, through the Department of Interior (DOI), has used auctions to allocate development rights to offshore oil and gas resources to the private sector since the 1950's. Since then many things have changed. Oil and gas markets have gone through boom and bust cycles, giant technological advances in extraction and assessment have taken place, and alternative energy based in the coastal zone is now in demand in markets as well. There has been an enormous amount of research into the drivers of bidder behavior in auctions and optimal auction design in the last 60 years as well. Throughout all of this, the DOI has continued to use basically the same exact auction design to allocate oil and gas leases. The U.S. offshore oil and gas resources sold by the Department of Interior have accounted for more than $65 billion in revenue since the program started. These offshore resources are an important source of government revenue and national wealth. Additionally, the expansion of the energy sector offshore has enormous potential for electricity generation in the U.S., estimated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory as approaching 54 gigawatts by 2030 (U.S. Department of Energy, 2008). Taken together, the DOI controls access to a large part of the future of energy in the U.S. The research herein assesses the auction formats used to allocate both fossil fuels and renewable resources on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). The first manuscript looks at the current method used by the DOI to allocate oil and gas leases on the OCS, and is primarily interested in how bidders behave in this environment. Using latent class estimation techniques to separate distinct bidding behavior in a laboratory

  13. Snacking patterns of U.S. adults: What We Eat In America, 2007-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goals of this study were to track changes in snacking frequency over time, determine whether snacking is associated with food energy intake and weight status, identify foods and beverages that make the largest contributions to calories consumed at snacks, and measure the contribution of snacks t...

  14. Renewable Energy Resources in Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdy, R.

    2010-12-01

    The energy sector in Lebanon plays an important role in the overall development of the country, especially that it suffers from many serious problems. The fact that Lebanon is among the few countries that are not endowed with fossil fuels in the Middle East made this sector cause one third of the national debt in Lebanon. Despite the large government investments in the power sector, demand still exceeds supply and Lebanon frequently goes through black out in peak demand times or has to resort to importing electricity from Syria. The Energy production sector has dramatic environmental and economical impacts in the form of emitted gasses and environment sabotage, accordingly, it is imperative that renewable energy (RE) be looked at as an alternative energy source. Officials at the Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) and Lebanese Electricity (EDL) have repeatedly expressed their support to renewable energy utilization. So far, only very few renewable energy applications can be observed over the country. Major efforts are still needed to overcome this situation and promote the use of renewable energy. These efforts are the shared responsibility of the government, EDL, NGO's and educational and research centers. Additionally, some efforts are being made by some international organizations such as UNDP, ESCWA, EC and other donor agencies operating in Lebanon. This work reviews the status of Energy in Lebanon, the installed RE projects, and the potential projects. It also reviews the stakeholders in the field of RE in Lebanon Conclusion In considering the best R.E. alternative, it is important to consider all potential R.E. sources, their costs, market availability, suitability for the selected location, significance of the energy produced and return on investment. Several RE resources in Lebanon have been investigated; Tides and waves energy is limited and not suitable two tentative sites for geothermal energy are available but not used. Biomass resources badly affect the

  15. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; George, R.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; Scott, G.; McCarthy, E.

    2001-03-06

    This report contains the results of a wind resource analysis and mapping study for the Philippine archipelago. The study's objective was to identify potential wind resource areas and quantify the value of those resources within those areas. The wind resource maps and other wind resource characteristic information will be used to identify prospective areas for wind-energy applications.

  16. Surveillance of air-travel-related tuberculosis incidents, England and Wales: 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, I; Welfare, R; Moore, J; Watson, J M

    2008-06-01

    The potential spread of tuberculosis (TB) from infectious passengers during air travel has recently received increasing attention in the media and from public health authorities. We reviewed all air travel-related tuberculosis incidents reported to the Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections between January 2007 and February 2008 in England and Wales and investigated the effectiveness of contact investigation. Incidents involving air travel were defined according to the World Health Organization's guidelines on TB and Air Travel. We collected data on the index case, the incident and the outcome of contact investigation where available. We identified 24 incidents involving 39 flights. The median flight duration was 8.9 hours (inter-quartile range (IQR) 8 to 11.7). Most flights (36) were from or to a high burden country and 19 of the 24 incidents reported had a smear-positive index case. Two index cases had multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. In 17 incidents, no further investigation could be undertaken due to the lack of passenger information. In the remaining seven incidents, the quality of contact information obtained was variable. No further cases of TB infection or disease were identified. This study suggests that the process of investigating passenger contacts of a TB infected individual travelling by air is complicated and usually unsuccessful without dedicated resources and availability of high-quality contact information from airlines. Further research into the effectiveness of contact investigation in this setting is needed. PMID:18761951

  17. Enhancing the Environmental Legacy of the International Polar Year 2007- 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tin, T.; Roura, R.; Perrault, M.

    2006-12-01

    The International Geophysical Year (IGY) left a legacy of peace and international cooperation in the form of the 1959 Antarctic Treaty. Since the IGY, the 1991 Protocol of Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed and entered into force. The Protocol establishes that the protection of the environment and the wilderness values of Antarctica "shall be fundamental considerations in the planning and conduct of all activities in the Antarctic Treaty area". Fifty years on, the IPY 2007-08 can, in turn, leave behind a positive environmental legacy - where the sharing of facilities and logistics are encouraged, the human footprint in Antarctica is minimized and a future generation of environmentally aware scientists, logisticians and visitors is fostered. Based on an analysis of all Expressions of Interest submitted to the IPY, we found that about three-quarters of IPY's Antarctic projects plan to have fieldwork components. About one-third of these field projects expect to leave physical infrastructure in Antarctica. A number of projects plan to develop large-scale infrastructure, such as stations and observatories, in hitherto pristine areas. Fewer than one percent of Antarctic field projects address the issue of their environmental legacy: four projects indicated that the site will be cleaned up or the equipment will be removed at the end of the project; two projects indicated that their results may be useful for the management of the Antarctic environment, e.g., in the control of invasive species or setting up of marine protected areas. With the goal of increasing the environmental awareness of Antarctic field scientists, our contribution will review current research on the impacts of human activities science, tourism, exploitation of marine resources and global climate change - on the Antarctic environment. A preliminary analysis of the cumulative impacts of IPY activities will be presented. Case studies of scientific projects in Antarctica with a

  18. Changes in mean intake of fatty acids and intake of saturated and trans fats from potatoes: NHANES 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A

    2015-05-01

    Studies have shown that higher than usual intakes of trans fatty acids (TFAs) have adverse effects on blood lipids. Because of this, in 2006 the US FDA mandated labeling of TFAs on food packages. The food and restaurant industries, including the potato industry, reformulated their foods to reduce or eliminate partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and TFAs. Before mandatory labeling, grain-based desserts, yeast breads, and French-fried potatoes (FFPs) were the top sources of TFAs in the food supply; by 2007, potato food manufacturers and quick-service restaurants had reduced or eliminated TFAs without increasing saturated fatty acids (SFAs). FFPs are no longer a source of TFAs in the food supply. This study examined energy and fatty acid intake among children aged 6-11 y, adolescents aged 12-18 y, and adults aged ≥19 y across 3 time periods by using data from the NHANES 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010. On average, intakes of total energy, total fat, SFAs, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) decreased significantly between 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 among children and adolescents; however, the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) did not change. Among adults, intakes of total fat, SFAs, and MUFAs decreased; however, total energy and PUFA intake did not change. On the day of the 2009-2010 survey, ∼13% of children and 10% of adolescents reported consuming fried FFPs, whereas <7% of adults reported consumption of fried FFPs. Intakes of SFAs and TFAs from fried FFPs decreased significantly between 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 among children, adolescents, and adults. This study confirms that intake of TFAs from FFPs is trivial. PMID:25979511

  19. IPY 2007-2008 and Scientists, Science Organisations, and the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, D. J.

    2006-12-01

    feel the impact of IPY. IPY does not fit within any single science organisation, even one so vast as AGU. A true international IPY community will exist beyond existing organisational systems, and a full multidisciplinary IPY assembly will occur in partnership with but separate from existing events. IPY will stimulate and produce new data models and infrastructure that will allow future polar researchers and polar residents to access, share and explore gravitational, genomic, and Gwich'in information. IPY will also necessarily stir up murky issues between scientific research and the environment, including how mega-science programmes should reduce their own environmental impact and how science conducts its assessments of global environmental problems when its partners include commercial energy companies and when its information products might encourage expanded extractive activities. This IPY will inevitably produce an organisational, data and environmental legacy that will impact science and scientists of the future. The public will expect quick answers from IPY, to questions not necessarily of our choosing. We can expect that they will enjoy a wide array of films and programmes and books on polar themes. We will have failed if the global public does not also gain an improved understanding of polar science and of the global consequences of climate change, and an enhanced appreciation of the creativity, challenges, pleasures and disappointments of science and of the energies and enthusiasms of scientists.

  20. Effects of Traditional and Nontraditional Forms of Parental Involvement on School-Level Achievement Outcome: An HLM Study Using SASS 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Jianping; Washington, Alandra L.; Bierlein Palmer, Louann; Xia, Jiangang

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined parental involvement's (PI) impact on school performance. The hierarchical linear modeling method was applied to national Schools and Staffing Survey 2007-2008 data. They found that PI variables explained significant variance for the outcomes of (a) meeting adequate yearly progress (AYP) and (b) being free from sanctions.…

  1. A Study of Support Services in Schools and Their Relationship with School Effectiveness in American Public Schools: Findings from the School and Staffing Survey (Sass) 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Diane J.

    2012-01-01

    This study inquires into support services in schools and their relationship to school effectiveness by using data from the National Center for Education Statistics 2007-2008 School and Staffing Survey (SASS). Students' ability to learn is impacted by their physical and mental health. It is more difficult to measure the influence of…

  2. Philippines Wind Energy Resource Atlas Development

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.

    2000-11-29

    This paper describes the creation of a comprehensive wind energy resource atlas for the Philippines. The atlas was created to facilitate the rapid identification of good wind resource areas and understanding of the salient wind characteristics. Detailed wind resource maps were generated for the entire country using an advanced wind mapping technique and innovative assessment methods recently developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  3. Modeling renewable energy resources in integrated resource planning

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, D.; Neil, C.; Taylor, A.

    1994-06-01

    Including renewable energy resources in integrated resource planning (IRP) requires that utility planning models properly consider the relevant attributes of the different renewable resources in addition to conventional supply-side and demand-side options. Otherwise, a utility`s resource plan is unlikely to have an appropriate balance of the various resource options. The current trend toward regulatory set-asides for renewable resources is motivated in part by the perception that the capabilities of current utility planning models are inadequate with regard to renewable resources. Adequate modeling capabilities and utility planning practices are a necessary prerequisite to the long-term penetration of renewable resources into the electric utility industry`s resource mix. This report presents a review of utility planning models conducted for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The review examines the capabilities of utility planning models to address key issues in the choice between renewable resources and other options. The purpose of this review is to provide a basis for identifying high priority areas for advancing the state of the art.

  4. University Student Conceptual Resources for Understanding Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabo, Hannah C.; Goodhew, Lisa M.; Robertson, Amy D.

    2016-01-01

    We report some of the common, prevalent conceptual resources that students used to reason about energy, based on our analysis of written responses to questions given to 807 introductory physics students. These resources include, for example, associating forms of energy with indicators, relating forces and energy, and representing energy…

  5. Ground and shipboard measurements of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury over the Yellow Sea region during 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Duc Luong; Kim, Jin Young; Shim, Shang-Gyoo; Zhang, Xiao-Shan

    2011-01-01

    The first ever shipboard measurements of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) over the Yellow Sea were carried out. Ground measurements were also performed at background and urban sites surrounding the Yellow Sea during 2007-2008. The GEM mean concentrations obtained from ground measurements at Ningbo, Chengshantou, and Deokjeok, and from shipboard measurements for the routes of Incheon-Qingdao, Incheon-Weihai, and Incheon-Jeju were 3.79 ± 1.29, 2.07 ± 0.91, 1.79 ± 0.80, 1.82 ± 0.51, 2.03 ± 0.66, and 2.43 ± 0.59 ng m -3, respectively. Compared with the GEM background concentration in the northern hemisphere, the slightly higher GEM regional background concentration of 2.08 ± 0.85 ng m -3 over the Yellow Sea region, based on shipboard measurements and ground measurements at background sites, gave implications for the impact of anthropogenic mercury sources surrounding the Yellow Sea. Shipboard measurements over the Yellow Sea showed a decrease of mercury concentration compared with aircraft measurements during ACE-ASIA campaign in 2001, though it was still generally higher than those from other seas or oceans around the world. The contrasting patterns in seasonal and diurnal variations of GEM concentration between background and urban sites were apparent due to the influence of different sources; for example, natural sources, such as vegetative and foliar emissions in background area, and local anthropogenic sources, such as coal combustion in urban area. The significantly elevated GEM concentrations at Deokjeok, a Korean background site, during the spring of 2008 were attributed to the long-range transport from the southern part of Liaoning province, one of the heaviest mercury-polluted areas in China.

  6. OBS records of Whale vocalizations from Lucky-strike segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge during 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, A.; Rai, A.; Singh, S. C.; Crawford, W. C.; Escartin, J.; Cannat, M.

    2009-12-01

    Passive seismic experiments to study seismicity require a long term deployment of ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs). These instruments also record a large amount of non-seismogenic signals such as movement of large ships, air-gun shots, and marine mammal vocalizations. We report a bi-product of our passive seismic experiment (BBMOMAR) conducted around the Lucky-strike hydrothermal field of the slow-spreading mid-Atlantic ridge. Five multi-component ocean-bottom seismometers (recording two horizontal, one vertical and one pressure channel) were deployed during 2007-2008. During 13 months of deployment, abundant vocalizations of marine mammals have been recorded by all the five equipments. By analyzing the frequency content of data and their pattern of occurrence, we conclude that these low-frequency vocalizations (~20-40 Hz) typically corresponds to blue and fin-whales. These signals if not identified, could be mis-interpreted as underwater seismic/hydrothermal activity. Our data show an increase in the number of vocalizations recorded during the winter season relative to the summer. As part of the seismic monitoring of the Lucky-strike site, we anticipate to extend this study to the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 periods, after the recovery and deployment of the array during the BATHYLUCK09 cruise. Long-term and continuous records of calls of marine mammals provide valuable information that could be used to identify the species, study their seasonal behaviour and their migration paths. Our study suggestes that passive experiments such as ocean-bottom seismometers deployed at key locations, could provide useful secondary infromation about oceanic species besides recording seismicity, which is otherwise not possible without harming or interfering with their activity.

  7. Occurrence and intake of deoxynivalenol in cereal-based products marketed in Korea during 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Ok, H E; Chang, H-J; Choi, S-W; Cho, T Y; Oh, K S; Chun, H S

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) was investigated in 514 cereal-based products (corn-based, n = 125; barley-based, n = 96; wheat-based, n = 94; rice-based, n = 199) marketed in Korea during 2007-2008, and estimates of DON intake were determined. Samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet light (UV) detection after immunoaffinity clean-up. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) were 2.2 and 5.6 µg kg(-1), respectively. Recoveries and repeatability expressed as coefficients of variation (CV) were 82.3-100% and 2.4-15.3% in beer, bread and dried corn. The incidences and mean levels of DON were 56% and 68.9 µg kg(-1) for corn-based products, 49% and 24.1 µg kg(-1) for wheat-based products, 43% and 7.5 µg kg(-1) for barley-based products, and 16% and 3.4 µg kg(-1) for rice-based products, respectively. The estimated daily intake of DON from the consumption of rice-based, wheat-based, barley-based and corn-based products were 0.0038 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1), 0.0032 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1), 0.0015 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1) and 0.0002 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. These values represent 0.38%, 0.32%, 0.25% and 0.01% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 1 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1). These results indicate that rice-based products are major contributors to DON exposure in Korea, even though the current exposure level is unlikely to cause adverse health effects. PMID:24785178

  8. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the WHO Western Pacific and South East Asian regions, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Tapsall, J W; Limnios, E A; Abu Bakar, Hjh Mahani Hj; Darussalam, Brunei; Ping, Yin Yue; Buadromo, E M; Kumar, P; Singh, S; Lo, J; Bala, M; Risbud, A; Deguchi, T; Tanaka, M; Watanabe, Y; Lee, K; Chong, Y; Noikaseumsy, S; Phouthavane, T; Sam, I-Ching; Tundev, O; Lwin, K M; Eh, P H; Goarant, C; Goursaud, R; Bathgate, T; Brokenshire, M; Latorre, L; Velemu, E; Carlos, C; Leano, S; Telan, E O; Goh, S S; Koh, S T; Ngan, C; Tan, A L; Mananwatte, S; Piyanoot, N; Lokpichat, S; Sirivongranson, P; Fakahau, M; Sitanilei, H; Hung, Le Van

    2010-03-01

    Long-term surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been conducted in the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (WPR) to optimise antibiotic treatment of gonococcal disease since 1992. In 2007 and 2008, this Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (GASP) was enhanced by the inclusion of data from the South East Asian Region (SEAR) and recruitment of additional centres within the WPR. Approximately 17,450 N. gonorrhoeae were examined for their susceptibility to one or more antibiotics used for the treatment of gonorrhoea by external quality controlled methods in 24 reporting centres in 20 countries and/or jurisdictions. A high proportion of penicillin and/or quinolone resistance was again detected amongst isolates tested in North Asia and the WHO SEAR, but much lower rates of penicillin resistance and little quinolone resistance was present in most of the Pacific Island countries. The proportion of gonococci reported as 'resistant', 'less susceptible' or 'non-susceptible' gonococci to the third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic ceftriaxone lay in a wide range, but no major changes were evident in cephalosporin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) patterns in 2007-2008. Altered cephalosporin susceptibility was associated with treatment failures following therapy with oral third-generation cephalosporins. There is a need for revision and clarification of some of the in vitro criteria that are currently used to categorise the clinical importance of gonococci with different ceftriaxone and oral cephalosporin MIC levels. The number of instances of spectinomycin resistance remained low. A high proportion of strains tested continued to exhibit a form of plasmid mediated high level resistance to tetracyclines. The continuing emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant gonococci in and from the WHO WPR and SEAR supports the need for gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveillance programs such as GASP to be

  9. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Juveniles, 2007-2008 Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Sandford, Benjamin P.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2009-05-26

    This report provides results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior and survival of wild juvenile spring/summer Chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. Data reported is from detections of PIT tagged fish during late summer 2007 through mid-2008. Fish were tagged in summer 2007 by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in Idaho and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) in Oregon. Our analyses include migration behavior and estimated survival of fish at instream PIT-tag monitors and arrival timing and estimated survival to Lower Granite Dam. Principal results from tagging and interrogation during 2007-2008 are listed below: (1) In July and August 2007, we PIT tagged and released 7,390 wild Chinook salmon parr in 12 Idaho streams or sample areas. (2) Overall observed mortality from collection, handling, tagging, and after a 24-hour holding period was 1.4%. (3) Of the 2,524 Chinook salmon parr PIT tagged and released in Valley Creek in summer 2007, 218 (8.6%) were detected at two instream PIT-tag monitoring systems in lower Valley Creek from late summer 2007 to the following spring 2008. Of these, 71.6% were detected in late summer/fall, 11.9% in winter, and 16.5% in spring. Estimated parr-to-smolt survival to Lower Granite Dam was 15.5% for the late summer/fall group, 48.0% for the winter group, and 58.5% for the spring group. Based on detections at downstream dams, the overall efficiency of VC1 (upper) or VC2 (lower) Valley Creek monitors for detecting these fish was 21.1%. Using this VC1 or VC2 efficiency, an estimated 40.8% of all summer-tagged parr survived to move out of Valley Creek, and their estimated survival from that point to Lower Granite Dam was 26.5%. Overall estimated parr-to-smolt survival for all summer-tagged parr from this stream at the dam was 12.1%. Development and improvement of instream PIT-tag monitoring systems continued throughout 2007 and 2008. (4) Testing of PIT-tag antennas in lower Big Creek during

  10. University student conceptual resources for understanding energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabo, Hannah C.; Goodhew, Lisa M.; Robertson, Amy D.

    2016-06-01

    We report some of the common, prevalent conceptual resources that students used to reason about energy, based on our analysis of written responses to questions given to 807 introductory physics students. These resources include, for example, associating forms of energy with indicators, relating forces and energy, and representing energy quantitatively. This research responds to a need for large-scale, resources-oriented research on students' conceptual understanding and has the potential to support the development of an underexplored dimension of pedagogical content knowledge-knowledge of student resources for understanding energy. Our aim is to promote instructor take-up of the resources theory of knowledge, and we suggest a number of ways in which instructors might capitalize on the resources we report.

  11. Energy Education: A Catalog of Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Atmospheric Science Research Center.

    This list of energy resource materials is broken down into five categories: (1) general resources; (2) electricity; (3) nuclear and fossil fuels; (4) conservation; and (5) future fuels. (An added feature for New York residents is a concluding list of resources available gratis from New York electric companies). Materials cited include audiovisual…

  12. Magma mixing and forced exsolution of CO2 during the explosive 2007-2008 eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosshard-Stadlin, Sonja A.; Mattsson, Hannes B.; Keller, Jörg

    2014-09-01

    Oldoinyo Lengai is probably most famous for being the only active volcano on Earth which is erupting natrocarbonatitic magma. However, the mildly explosive natrocarbonatitic activity is alternating with highly explosive, nephelinitic eruptions of which the most recent episode occurred in September 2007 (and lasted until April 2008). Here we present petrographic observations, mineral chemistry as well as major- and trace element analyses of samples covering the evolution of the eruption with time. In the early phases of the eruption, the phenocryst assemblages are dominated by the carbonate minerals nyerereite and gregoryite, but as the eruption progresses the mineralogy becomes dominated by silicate minerals like nepheline, pyroxene, garnet, alumoåkermanite, combeite and wollastonite. The observed major- and trace element variations during the 2007-2008 eruption indicate mixing between a natrocarbonatitic magma and a combeite-wollastonite-bearing nephelinitic magma (CWN), with higher portions of natrocarbonatite in the early stages of the eruption. Euhedral and uncorroded clinopyroxene crystals are abundant in the late 2007 deposits but quickly start to break-down and corrode as the eruption continues, indicating that the natrocarbonatite and the CWN are not in fact conjugate magmas derived from a single magma reservoir, but must have evolved separately in the crust from the point of immiscibility. When these magmas interact beneath the volcano, a hybrid silicate magma forms (where clinopyroxene is no longer stable) and the composition of this hybrid causes the overall solubility of CO2 in the system to decrease drastically. This results in rapid exsolution of CO2 (g) which is allowed to expand during ascent, and we conclude that this is most likely the reason behind the unexpected vigor in the explosive eruptions of Oldoinyo Lengai. This massive release of CO2 during ascent may also explain the petrographic features of the pyroclasts as these are dominated by

  13. Energy crisis: resources or decisions. [Pamphlet

    SciTech Connect

    Yasinsky, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    The no-growth philosophy has contributed to a decade of debate and indecision over which domestic energy programs the US should pursue. This attitude has eroded faith in the ability of technology to bring future energy security and has crippled our decision-making process. The US has abundant energy resources of coal and nuclear power, and is developing efficient new energy technologies that can help us shift away from foreign oil dependency. A decision to use these resources to substitute for imported oil, coupled with strong domestic economic growth and conservation, can move us closer to energy independence.

  14. Teachers Environmental Resource Unit: Energy and Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemiss, Clair W.

    Problems associated with energy production and power are studied in this teacher's guide to better understand the impact of man's energy production on the environment, how he consumes energy, and in what quantities. The resource unit is intended to provide the teacher with basic information that will aid classroom review of these problems. Topics…

  15. Energy Crisis: Resource Guide for Energy Conservation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Don; McDuffie, Claudia

    This publication is a resource guide to energy education and conservation materials and organizations. The stated purpose of this guide is to make teachers and other interested citizens of Oregon aware of some of the resources and sources of information on energy conservation education that are available in Oregon and in the United States and…

  16. Introduction of the 2007-2008 JOGMEC/NRCan/Aurora Mallik Gas Hydrate Production Research Program, NWT, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Dallimore, S. R.; Numasawa, M.; Yasuda, M.; Fujii, T.; Fujii, K.; Wright, J.; Nixon, F.

    2007-12-01

    prolonged testing planned in the near future. The authors acknowledge the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21), the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and NRCan for the support and funding. The Mallik 2002 program was undertaken jointly by JNOC, NRCan, GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), the United State Geological Survey (USGS), the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the India Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MOPNG)-Gas Authority of India (GAIL), and the BP-Chevron Texaco Mackenzie Delta Joint Venture.

  17. ENCORE: Energy Conservation Resources for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Dept. of Industrial Education.

    This publication contains the energy education materials for middle schools from project ENCORE (Energy Conservation Resources for Education). These modules were originally field tested in Texas schools during the 1976-77 academic year. The revised materials in this publication are organized into four major units and thirteen chapters. The…

  18. Energy and other non-renewable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Anticipated U.S. demands for non-renewable energy and mineral resources exceed domestic supplies essential for economic growth. For the long term changes necessary in the energy supply and demand gap, new technologies and substitute materials as well as legislation and socio-economic strategies are elaborated.

  19. Enhanced distributed energy resource system

    DOEpatents

    Atcitty, Stanley; Clark, Nancy H.; Boyes, John D.; Ranade, Satishkumar J.

    2007-07-03

    A power transmission system including a direct current power source electrically connected to a conversion device for converting direct current into alternating current, a conversion device connected to a power distribution system through a junction, an energy storage device capable of producing direct current connected to a converter, where the converter, such as an insulated gate bipolar transistor, converts direct current from an energy storage device into alternating current and supplies the current to the junction and subsequently to the power distribution system. A microprocessor controller, connected to a sampling and feedback module and the converter, determines when the current load is higher than a set threshold value, requiring triggering of the converter to supply supplemental current to the power transmission system.

  20. ‘Antarctic biology in the 21st century - Advances in, and beyond the international polar year 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddart, Michael

    2010-08-01

    The International Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY) has provided an opportunity for biology to show itself as an important part of Antarctic science in a manner in which it was not seen during earlier Polar Years. Of the 15 endorsed biological projects in Antarctica, 7 included more than 20 scientists and could be deemed truly international. Four were conducted in the marine environment, and one each in the fields of biological invasions, microbial ecology, and terrestrial ecology, and one was SCAR’s over-arching ‘Evolution and Biodiversity in the Antarctic’. The marine projects have left a robust legacy of data for future research into the consequences of environmental change, and into future decisions about marine protected areas. Studies on introductions of exotic organisms reveal an ever-present threat to the warmer parts of the high-latitude Southern Ocean, or parts which might become warmer with climate change. Studies on microbial ecology reveal great complexity of ecosystems with high numbers of unknown species. Terrestrial research has shown how vulnerable the Antarctic is to accidental introductions, and how productive the soils can be under changed climate conditions. Antarctic biology has come-of-age during IPY 2007-2008 and the campaign has set the scene for future research.

  1. Federal Energy Resources Modernization Coordinating Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.B.

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the broad range of activities that are focused on meeting the President's Executive Order on Federal Energy Management promulgated to meet energy savings goals and encourage more efficient management of all federal energy resources. These activities are reported semiannually under the auspices of the Federal Energy Resource Modernization (FERM) Coordinating Committee, and as such include activities undertaken from April 1, 1992, through September 30, 1992. The activities reported are classified into four major categories: (1) technology-base support, which includes development of processes, software, metering and monitoring equipment and strategies, and other tools for federal energy managers to better understand and characterize their energy resources; (2) federal energy systems testing and monitoring; (3) federal energy systems revitalization projects at federal installations in cooperation with the utilities serving the sites; and (4) energy supply, distribution and end-use conservation assessment for federal agencies and/or facilities. Lighting systems and air conditioning projects at federal facilities, especially military bases are updated.

  2. Energy resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theobald, P.K.; Schweinfurth, Stanley P.; Duncan, Donald Cave

    1972-01-01

    Estimates are made of United States resources of coal, petroleum liquids, natural gas, uranium, geothermal energy, and oil from oil shale. The estimates, compiled by specialists of the U.S. Geological Survey, are generally made on geologic projections of favorable rocks and on anticipated frequency of the energy resource in the favorable rocks. Accuracy of the estimates probably ranges from 20 to 50 percent for identified-recoverable resources to about an order of magnitude for undiscovered-submarginal resources. The total coal resource base in the United States is estimated to be about 3,200 billion tons, of which 200-390 billion tons can be considered in the category identified and recoverable. More than 70 percent of current production comes from the Appalachian basin where the resource base, better known than for the United States as a whole, is about 330 billion tons, of which 22 billion tons is identified and recoverable. Coals containing less than 1 percent sulfur are the premium coals. These are abundant in the western coal fields, but in the Appalachian basin the resource base for low-sulfur coal is estimated to be only a little more than 100 billion tons, of which 12 billion tons is identified and recoverable. Of the many estimates of petroleum liquids and natural-gas resources, those of the U.S. Geological Survey are the largest because, in general, our estimates include the largest proportion of favorable ground for exploration. We estimate the total resource base for petroleum liquids to be about 2,900 billion barrels, of which 52 billion barrels is identified and recoverable. Of the total resource base, some 600 billion barrels is in Alaska or offshore from Alaska, 1,500 billion barrels is offshore from the United States, and 1,300 billion barrels is onshore in the conterminous United States. Identified-recoverable resources of petroleum liquids corresponding to these geographic units are 11, 6, and 36 billion barrels, respectively. The total natural

  3. 76 FR 8723 - Minnesota Energy Resources Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Minnesota Energy Resources Corporation; Notice of Application Take notice that on February 1, 2011, Minnesota Energy Resources Corporation (MERC), 2665 145th Street...

  4. Redesigning Today's Schools to Build a Stronger Tomorrow: The Massachusetts Expanded Learning Time Initiative 2007-2008 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts 2020, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Our children deserve an education that fully prepares them for the future--success in college, the workforce and a healthy, fulfilled life. The Massachusetts Expanded Learning Time (ELT) Initiative is redesigning and expanding the school schedule to offer children new learning and enrichment opportunities. With state resources, participating…

  5. Coordinated Collaboration between Heterogeneous Distributed Energy Resources

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Abdollahy, Shahin; Lavrova, Olga; Mammoli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    A power distribution feeder, where a heterogeneous set of distributed energy resources is deployed, is examined by simulation. The energy resources include PV, battery storage, natural gas GenSet, fuel cells, and active thermal storage for commercial buildings. The resource scenario considered is one that may exist in a not too distant future. Two cases of interaction between different resources are examined. One interaction involves a GenSet used to partially offset the duty cycle of a smoothing battery connected to a large PV system. The other example involves the coordination of twenty thermal storage devices, each associated with a commercial building.more » Storage devices are intended to provide maximum benefit to the building, but it is shown that this can have a deleterious effect on the overall system, unless the action of the individual storage devices is coordinated. A network based approach is also introduced to calculate some type of effectiveness metric to all available resources which take part in coordinated operation. The main finding is that it is possible to achieve synergy between DERs on a system; however this required a unified strategy to coordinate the action of all devices in a decentralized way.« less

  6. Upper-ocean hydrography of the Nordic Seas during the International Polar Year (2007-2008) as observed by instrumented seals and Argo floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isachsen, Pål E.; Sørlie, Signe R.; Mauritzen, Cecilie; Lydersen, Christian; Dodd, Paul; Kovacs, Kit M.

    2014-11-01

    Following indications of recent warming trends in the Nordic Seas, we have studied the hydrography of these marginal seas from the summer of 2007 until the fall of 2008, using observations gathered by instrumented seals and Argo floats. The combined dataset shows that the upper ocean was indeed both warmer and saltier over much of the Nordic Seas in 2007-2008 compared to the average ocean state for the period 1956-2006 (based on the World Ocean Atlas 2009). There are also indications that the surface Polar Waters of the East Greenland Current were colder and fresher than the climatology, though the quality of the climatology is questionable for this region given the low number of historical observations. Dynamic height calculations suggest that the observed hydrographic changes were associated with enhanced northward upper-ocean thermal wind transport in the east and possibly also enhanced southward transport in the west.

  7. A synopsis of oncology and oncology-related papers published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Brennan, P A; Shekar, K; McLeod, N; Puxeddu, R; Cascarini, L

    2009-10-01

    This paper provides a summary of the 95 papers related to oncology that were published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (BJOMS) during 2007-2008. They include full length articles on clinical studies, radiology, basic science, and reconstruction in oral, and head and neck cancer. The journal also publishes technical notes and short communications. It encompasses the whole remit of the specialty and it is encouraging that authors choose to submit their work to BJOMS, but to improve the quality and status of the journal, we need to increase the ratio of full length articles to other submissions. Reviews of other subspecialties will be published in due course. PMID:19665266

  8. Rayleigh Lidar Network Observations and Analysis of the Evolution of the Arctic Middle Atmosphere during the IPY Winter 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, R. L.; Harvey, V. L.; Thurairajah, B.; Atkinson, D. E.; Larsen, C. J.; Baumgarten, G.; Fiedler, J.; Firanski, B. J.; Gerding, M.; Hoeffner, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Luebken, F.; Mizutani, K.; Pan, W.; Sica, R. J.; Strawbridge, K. B.

    2008-12-01

    A network of five Rayleigh lidars (i.e., Kuehlungsborn, Germany (54N, 12E), Chatanika, USA (65N, 147W), Kangerlussuaq, Greenland (67N, 51W), Andoya, Norway (69N, 16E), and Eureka, Canada (80N, 86W)) has been used to measure middle atmosphere temperature profiles through the 2007-2008 winter and spring. These measurements are being made as part of the project Pan-Arctic Studies of the Coupled Tropospheric, Stratospheric and Mesospheric Circulation as part of the Fourth International Polar Year (IPY-4). This project is a component of the two full IPY proposals; International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA) and The Structure and Evolution of the Polar Stratosphere and Mesosphere and Links to the Troposphere during IPY (SPARC-IPY). The lidar network is part of the Arctic Observing Network (AON). The resolution and distribution of these lidar measurements provides the basis for a pan-Arctic perspective of the middle atmosphere circulation. We combine these lidar data with satellite observations and meteorological re-analyses to study the structure, evolution, and variability of the Arctic stratospheric vortex and Aleutian anticyclone. In this study we present the evolution of the Arctic middle atmosphere during the winter of 2007-2008. We highlight a stratospheric warming event that occurred during 20-26 February 2008. During this week the vortex was disrupted by the Aleutian anticyclone, then split at higher altitudes, and eventually reformed. The lidar measurements show that the altitude and temperature of the stratopause vary considerably (10 km, 30 K) from night-to-night and that the observed temperature structure often differs from that reported by the standard climatologies (e.g., SPARC). We discuss the observations in terms of the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH).

  9. On the scaling laws derived from ice beacon trajectories in the southern Beaufort Sea during the International Polar Year - Circumpolar Flaw Lead study, 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukovich, J. V.; Babb, D. G.; Barber, D. G.

    2011-09-01

    Sea ice motion is an important element in mass balance calculations, ice thermodynamic modeling, ice management plans for industry, and ecosystems studies. In the historical literature, sea ice motion in the Beaufort Sea was characterized by a predominantly anticyclonic motion during winter months, with episodic reversals to cyclonic activity during summer. However, recent studies have shown an increase in cyclonic activity throughout the annual cycle. In this paper we examine circulation in the Beaufort Sea based on the trajectories of 22 ice beacons launched in the Franklin Bay area during the International Polar Year - Circumpolar Flaw Lead (IPY-CFL) study during an over-wintering experiment in 2007-2008. Dispersion characteristics of ice motion show that absolute zonal dispersion follows a t2 scaling law characteristic of advection associated with Beaufort Gyre circulation, whereas absolute meridional dispersion follows a scaling law of t5/4 characteristic of floaters and dispersion in 2-D turbulence. Temporal autocorrelations of ice velocity fluctuations highlight definitive timescales with values of 1.2 (0.7) days in the zonal (meridional) direction. Near-Gaussian behavior is reflected in higher-order moments for ice velocity fluctuation probability density functions (pdfs). Non-Gaussian behavior for absolute displacement pdfs indicates spatial heterogeneity in the ice motion fields. Atmospheric forcing of sea ice is explored through analysis of daily North American Regional Reanalysis and in situ wind data, where it is shown that ice in the CFL study region travels with an average speed of approximately 0.2% and an average angle of 51.5° to the right of the surface winds during the 2007-2008 winter. The results from this analysis further demonstrate seasonality in ice drift to wind ratios and angles that corresponds to stress buoy data indicative of increases in internal ice stress and connectivity due to consolidation of the seasonal ice zone to the coast

  10. Alaska Energy Inventory Project: Consolidating Alaska's Energy Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, K.; Clough, J.; Swenson, R.; Crimp, P.; Hanson, D.; Parker, P.

    2007-12-01

    Alaska has considerable energy resources distributed throughout the state including conventional oil, gas, and coal, and unconventional coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass. While much of the known large oil and gas resources are concentrated on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet regions, the other potential sources of energy are dispersed across a varied landscape from frozen tundra to coastal settings. Despite the presence of these potential energy sources, rural Alaska is mostly dependent upon diesel fuel for both electrical power generation and space heating needs. At considerable cost, large quantities of diesel fuel are transported to more than 150 roadless communities by barge or airplane and stored in large bulk fuel tank farms for winter months when electricity and heat are at peak demands. Recent increases in the price of oil have severely impacted the price of energy throughout Alaska, and especially hard hit are rural communities and remote mines that are off the road system and isolated from integrated electrical power grids. Even though the state has significant conventional gas resources in restricted areas, few communities are located near enough to these resources to directly use natural gas to meet their energy needs. To address this problem, the Alaska Energy Inventory project will (1) inventory and compile all available Alaska energy resource data suitable for electrical power generation and space heating needs including natural gas, coal, coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass and (2) identify locations or regions where the most economic energy resource or combination of energy resources can be developed to meet local needs. This data will be accessible through a user-friendly web-based interactive map, based on the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Land Records Information Section's (LRIS) Alaska Mapper, Google Earth, and Terrago Technologies' Geo

  11. Energy resources - cornucopia or empty barrel?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    Over the last 25 yr, considerable debate has continued about the future supply of fossil fuel. On one side are those who believe we are rapidly depleting resources and that the resulting shortages will have a profound impact on society. On the other side are those who see no impending crisis because long-term trends are for cheaper prices despite rising production. The concepts of resources and reserves have historically created considerable misunderstanding in the minds of many nongeologists. Hubbert-type predictions of energy production assume that there is a finite supply of energy that is measurable; however, estimates of resources and reserves are inventories of the amounts of a fossil fuel perceived to be available over some future period of time. As those resources/reserves are depleted over time, additional amounts of fossil fuels are inventoried. Throughout most of this century, for example, crude oil reserves in the United States have represented a 10-14-yr supply. For the last 50 yr, resource crude oil estimates have represented about a 60-70-yr supply for the United States. Division of reserve or resource estimates by current or projected annual consumption therefore is circular in reasoning and can lead to highly erroneous conclusions. Production histories of fossil fuels are driven more by demand than by the geologic abundance of the resource. Examination of some energy resources with well-documented histories leads to two conceptual models that relate production to price. The closed-market model assumes that there is only one source of energy available. Although the price initially may fall because of economies of scale long term, prices rise as the energy source is depleted and it becomes progressively more expensive to extract. By contrast, the open-market model assumes that there is a variety of available energy sources and that competition among them leads to long-term stable or falling prices. At the moment, the United States and the world

  12. Energy resource management for energy-intensive manufacturing industries

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, C.W.; Levangie, J.

    1981-10-01

    A program to introduce energy resource management into an energy-intensive manufacturing industry is presented. The food industry (SIC No. 20) was chosen and 20 companies were selected for interviews, but thirteen were actually visited. The methodology for this program is detailed. Reasons for choosing the food industry are described. The substance of the information gained and the principal conclusions drawn from the interviews are given. Results of the model Energy Resource Management Plan applied to three companies are compiled at length. Strategies for dissemination of the information gained are described. (MCW)

  13. Groundwater level and specific conductance monitoring at Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, Onslow County, North Carolina, 2007-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, monitored water-resources conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne, Peedee, and Black Creek aquifers in Onslow County, North Carolina, from November 2007 through September 2008. To comply with North Carolina Central Coastal Plain Capacity Use Area regulations, large-volume water suppliers in Onslow County must reduce their dependency on the Black Creek aquifer as a water-supply source and have, instead, proposed using the Castle Hayne aquifer as an alternative water-supply source. The Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, uses water obtained from the unregulated surficial and Castle Hayne aquifers for drinking-water supply. Water-level data were collected and field measurements of physical properties were made at 19 wells at 8 locations spanning the Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune. These wells were instrumented with near real-time monitoring equipment to collect hourly measurements of water level. Additionally, specific conductance and water temperature were measured hourly in 16 of the 19 wells. Graphs are presented relating altitude of groundwater level to water temperature and specific conductance measurements collected during the study, and the relative vertical gradients between aquifers are discussed. The period-of-record normal (25th to 75th percentile) monthly mean groundwater levels at two well clusters were compared to median monthly mean groundwater levels at these same well clusters for 2008 to determine groundwater-resources conditions. In 2008, water levels were below normal in the 3 wells at one of the well clusters and were normal in 4 wells at the other cluster.

  14. 77 FR 43592 - System Energy Resources, Inc.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ..., 2012, System Energy Resources, Inc. (System Energy Resources), submitted a supplement to its petition... supplement, System Energy Resources supplements its March 28 petition to provide additional information and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  15. Energy Resources and the Next Fifty Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landon, S. M.

    2002-05-01

    At this time, approximately 85 percent of the energy needs of the United States are supplied by fossil fuels. Crude oil currently supports transportation, generally as gasoline or jet fuel. The United States is importing roughly 60 percent of the crude oil we are now using and our domestic refining capacity is declining. Coal is providing more than 56 percent of the nation's electricity, although the use of natural gas as a fuel for electricity generation has been increasing. Natural gas, with today's technology, is considered a cleaner fuel as we continue to move toward decarbonization. The next logical phase in this historical progress will probably be the transition to pure hydrogen as an energy source, chiefly as a fuel for fuel cells. The initial source of hydrogen will probably be natural gas, given the existing infrastructure for natural gas, its cost, and its availability. Demand for natural gas is expected to peak in approximately 2050. But in the transition to an affordable, efficient, reliable, market-driven, carbon-free energy economy, substantial demand will still exist for coal and crude oil, even as these energy fuels are phased out. A massive requirement will exist for natural gas as the transition fuel since renewables will probably continue to supply only about 10 percent of our nation's electricity demand. The implied demand for coal and oil in the U. S. and the World can readily be met with existing known or probable resources; the challenge will be in assuring supplies that are secure, priced reasonably, and made ever cleaner. The implied demand for natural gas, however, exceeds the currently estimated resource base both in the U. S. and globally. For example, the currently estimated remaining resource of natural gas in the U. S. is about 2,000 TCF. The implied demand for natural gas in a methane economy, during the transition to a non-fossil source of hydrogen, is on the order of 3,000 to 4,000 TCF, half again to twice currently estimated

  16. Characterization of Suspended-Sediment Loading to and from John Redmond Reservoir, East-Central Kansas, 2007-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Casey J.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2008-01-01

    Storage capacity in John Redmond Reservoir is being lost to sedimentation more rapidly than in other federal impoundments in Kansas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, initiated a study to characterize suspended-sediment loading to and from John Redmond Reservoir from February 21, 2007, through February 21, 2008. Turbidity sensors were installed at two U.S. Geological Survey stream gages upstream (Neosho River near Americus and the Cottonwood River near Plymouth) and one stream gage downstream (Neosho River at Burlington) from the reservoir to compute continuous, real-time (15-minute) measurements of suspended-sediment concentration and loading. About 1,120,000 tons of suspended-sediment were transported to, and 100,700 tons were transported from John Redmond Reservoir during the study period. Dependent on the bulk density of sediment stored in the reservoir, 5.0 to 1.4 percent of the storage in the John Redmond conservation pool was lost during the study period, with an average deposition of 3.4 to 1.0 inches. Nearly all (98-99 percent) of the incoming sediment load was transported during 9 storms which occurred 25 to 27 percent of the time. The largest storm during the study period (peak-flow recurrence interval of about 4.6-4.9 years) transported about 37 percent of the sediment load to the reservoir. Suspended-sediment yield from the unregulated drainage area upstream from the Neosho River near Americus was 530 tons per square mile, compared to 400 tons per square mile upstream from the Cottonwood River near Plymouth. Comparison of historical (1964-78) to current (2007) sediment loading estimates indicate statistically insignificant (99 percent) decrease in sediment loading at the Neosho River at Burlington. Ninety-percent confidence intervals of streamflow-derived estimates of total sediment load were 7 to 21 times larger than turbidity-derived estimates. Results from this study can be used by natural resource

  17. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2007-05-01

    The era of publicly mandated GHG emissions restrictions inthe United States has begun with recent legislation in California andseven northeastern states. Commercial and industrial buildings canimprove the carbon-efficiency of end-use energy consumption by installingtechnologies such as on-site cogeneration of electricity and useful heatin combined heat and power systems, thermally-activated cooling, solarelectric and thermal equipment, and energy storage -- collectively termeddistributed energy resources (DER). This research examines a collectionof buildings in California, the Northeast, and the southern United Statesto demonstrate the effects of regional characteristics such as the carbonintensity of central electricity grid, the climate-driven demand forspace heating and cooling, and the availability of solar insolation. Theresults illustrate that the magnitude of a realistic carbon tax ($100/tC)is too small to incent significant carbon-reducing effects oneconomically optimal DER adoption. In large part, this is because costreduction and carbon reduction objectives are roughly aligned, even inthe absence of a carbon tax.

  18. Visualizing Energy Resources Dynamically on Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar, Mallikarjun; Stovall, John P.; Sorokine, Alexandre; Bhaduri, Budhendra L.; King, Jr., Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    For the North American hurricane season, in partnership with the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and working with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, we have developed a capability that helps visualize the status of the electric transmission system infrastructure. The capability toolkit, called VERDE - Visualizing Energy Resources Dynamically on Earth, takes advantage of the Google Earth platform to display spatiotemporally informed power grid and related data. Custom libraries describe the electrical transmission network in the Eastern United States and the dynamic status of each transmission line. Standard Google Earth layers provide additional spatial context. In addition to live status, VERDE provides a framework and mechanism to ingest and intuitively present predictive models, data from different sources, and response needs.

  19. Investigating Urban Eighth-Grade Students' Knowledge of Energy Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated urban eighth-grade students' knowledge of energy resources and associated issues including energy acquisition, energy generation, storage and transport, and energy consumption and conservation. A 39 multiple-choice-item energy resources knowledge assessment was completed by 1043 eighth-grade students in urban schools in two…

  20. Future petroleum energy resources of the world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    and gas endowment estimates. Whereas petroleum resources in the world appear to be significant, certain countries such as the United States may run into import deficits, particularly oil imports from Mexico and natural gas from both Canada and Mexico. The new assessment has been used as the reference supply case in energy supply models by the International Energy Agency and the Energy Information Agency of the Department of Energy. Climate energy modeling groups such as those at Stanford University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and others have also used USGS estimates in global climate models. Many of these models using the USGS estimates converge on potential oil shortfalls in 2036-2040. However, recent articles using the USGS (2000) estimates suggest peaking of oil in 2020-2035 and peaking of non-OPEC (Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries) oil in 2015-2020. Such a short time framework places greater emphasis on a transition to increased use of natural gas; i.e., a methane economy. Natural gas in turn may experience similar supply concerns in the 2050-2060 time frame according to some authors. Coal resources are considerable and provide significant petroleum potential either by extracting natural gas from them, by directly converting them into petroleum products, or by utilizing them to generate electricity, thereby reducing natural gas and oil requirements by fuel substitution. Non-conventional oil and gas are quite common in petroleum provinces of the world and represent a significant resources yet to be fully studied and developed. Seventeen non-conventional AU including coal-bed methane, basin-center gas, continuous oil, and gas hydrate occurrences have been preliminarily identified for future assessment. Initial efforts to assess heavy oil deposits and other non-conventional oil and gas deposits also are under way.

  1. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 9. The Southwest Region

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, R.L.; Norman, G.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-11-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in Nevada and California. Background on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted is presented. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. An introduction and outline to the descriptions of the wind resource given for each state are given. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed.

  2. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 4. The Northeast region

    SciTech Connect

    Pickering, K.E.; Vilardo, J.M.; Schakenbach, J.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled in this chapter into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. An introduction and outline are provided for in the descriptions of the wind resource given for each state. Assessments for individual states are presented. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters.

  3. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 10. Alaska region

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, J.L.; Wentink, T. Jr.; Becker, R. Jr.; Comiskey, A.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-12-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each subregion of Alaska. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a state scale is given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each subregion are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the Alaska wind energy resource. An outline to the descriptions of the wind resource given for each subregion is included. Assessments for individual subregions are presented as separate chapters. The subregion wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the Alaska wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the subregion chapters.

  4. Smart Operations in Distributed Energy Resources System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Li; Jie, Shu; Zhang-XianYong; Qing, Zhou

    Smart grid capabilities are being proposed to help solve the challenges concerning system operations due to that the trade-offs between energy and environmental needs will be constantly negotiated while a reliable supply of electricity needs even greater assurance in case of that threats of disruption have risen. This paper mainly explores models for distributed energy resources system (DG, storage, and load),and also reviews the evolving nature of electricity markets to deal with this complexity and a change of emphasis on signals from these markets to affect power system control. Smart grid capabilities will also impact reliable operations, while cyber security issues must be solved as a culture change that influences all system design, implementation, and maintenance. Lastly, the paper explores significant questions for further research and the need for a simulation environment that supports such investigation and informs deployments to mitigate operational issues as they arise.

  5. Assessment of chemical coexposure patterns based upon phthalate biomonitoring data within the 2007/2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hua; Chen, Min; Kransler, Kevin M; Zaleski, Rosemary T

    2015-01-01

    As regulatory initiatives increasingly call for an understanding of the cumulative risks from chemical mixtures, evaluating exposure data from large biomonitoring programs, which may inform these cumulative risk assessments, will improve the understanding of occurrence and patterns of coexposures. Here we have analyzed the urinary metabolite data for six phthalates (di-butyl phthalate; di-isobutyl phthalate; butyl-benzyl phthalate; bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; di-isononyl phthalate; and di-isodecyl phthalate) in the 2007/2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data set. For the total data set (N=2604), the co-occurrence of multiple phthalates at the upper percentile of exposure was infrequent. There were no individuals in the NHANES sample who were exposed to >95th percentiles for all six phthalates. For 75% of individuals, none of the six phthalates were above the 95th percentile of their respective exposure distributions. These data suggest that high exposure to multiple phthalates is infrequent in the NHANES population. This analysis solely focused on the pattern of contribution of individual phthalates to total exposure. It did not address the pattern of contribution to potential risk. The approach presented could potentially be used to provide insight into understanding the coexposure patterns for other chemicals. PMID:24756100

  6. Changing patterns of spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China between 1999-2001 and 2007-2008: assessing progress toward eradication after the World Bank Loan Project.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Can; Cohen, Ted; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-01-01

    We compared changes in the spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China at the conclusion of and six years following the end of the World Bank Loan Project (WBLP), the control strategy of which was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy. Parasitological data were obtained through standardized surveys conducted in 1999-2001 and again in 2007-2008. Two alternate spatial cluster methods were used to identify spatial clusters of cases: Anselin's Local Moran's I test and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. Substantial reductions in the burden of schistosomiasis were found after the end of the WBLP, but the spatial extent of schistosomiasis was not reduced across the study area. Spatial clusters continued to occur in three regions: Chengdu Plain, Yangtze River Valley, and Lancang River Valley during the two periods, and regularly involved five counties. These findings suggest that despite impressive reductions in burden, the hilly and mountainous regions of Southwest China remain at risk of schistosome re-emergence. Our results help to highlight specific locations where integrated control programs can focus to speed the elimination of schistosomiasis in China. PMID:24394217

  7. The optical and physical properties of atmospheric aerosols over the Indian Antarctic stations during southern hemispheric summer of the International Polar Year 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaubey, Jai Prakash; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Babu, S. Suresh; Nair, Vijayakumar S.

    2011-01-01

    The properties of background aerosols and their dependence on meteorological, geographical and human influence are examined using measured spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), total mass concentration (MT) and derived number size distribution (NSD) over two distinct coastal locations of Antarctica; Maitri (70° S, 12° E, 123 m m.s.l.) and Larsemann Hills (LH; 69° S, 77° E, 48 m m.s.l.) during southern hemispheric summer of 2007-2008 as a part of the 27th Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA) during International Polar Year (IPY). Our investigations showed comparable values for the mean columnar AOD at 500 nm over Maitri (0.034±0.005) and LH (0.032±0.006) indicating good spatial homogeneity in the columnar aerosol properties over the coastal Antarctica. Estimation of Angstrom exponent α showed accumulation mode dominance at Maitri (α~1.2±0.3) and coarse mode dominance at LH (0.7±0.2). On the other hand, mass concentration (MT) of ambient aerosols showed relatively high values (≈8.25±2.87 μg m-3) at Maitri in comparison to LH (6.03±1.33 μg m-3).

  8. Prevalence of internal parasites in beef cows in the United States: Results of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's (NAHMS) beef study, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Stromberg, Bert E; Gasbarre, Louis C; Ballweber, Lora R; Dargatz, David A; Rodriguez, Judith M; Kopral, Christine A; Zarlenga, Dante S

    2015-10-01

    During the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Animal Health Monitoring System's (NAHMS) 2007-2008 beef study, 567 producers from 24 US States were offered the opportunity to collect fecal samples from weaned beef calves and have them evaluated for the presence of parasite eggs (Phase 1). Participating producers were provided with instructions and materials for sample collection. Up to 20 fresh fecal samples were collected from each of the 99 participating operations. Fresh fecal samples were submitted to one of 3 randomly assigned laboratories for evaluation. Upon arrival at the laboratories, all samples were processed for the enumeration of strongyle, Nematodirus, and Trichuris eggs using the modified Wisconsin technique. The presence or absence of coccidian oocysts and tapeworm eggs was also noted. In submissions where the strongyle eggs per gram exceeded 30, aliquots from 2 to 6 animals were pooled for DNA extraction. Extracted DNA was subjected to genus level polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification for the presence of Ostertagia, Cooperia, Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, and Trichostrongylus. In this study, 85.6% of the samples had strongyle type, Nematodirus, and Trichuris eggs. Among the samples evaluated, 91% had Cooperia, 79% Ostertagia, 53% Haemonchus, 38% Oesophagostomum, 18% Nematodirus, 7% Trichuris, and 3% Trichostrongylus. The prevalence of coccidia and tapeworm eggs was 59.9% and 13.7%, respectively. PMID:26424909

  9. Assessment of chemical coexposure patterns based upon phthalate biomonitoring data within the 2007/2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hua; Chen, Min; Kransler, Kevin M; Zaleski, Rosemary T

    2015-05-01

    As regulatory initiatives increasingly call for an understanding of the cumulative risks from chemical mixtures, evaluating exposure data from large biomonitoring programs, which may inform these cumulative risk assessments, will improve the understanding of occurrence and patterns of coexposures. Here we have analyzed the urinary metabolite data for six phthalates (di-butyl phthalate; di-isobutyl phthalate; butyl-benzyl phthalate; bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; di-isononyl phthalate; and di-isodecyl phthalate) in the 2007/2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data set. For the total data set (N=2604), the co-occurrence of multiple phthalates at the upper percentile of exposure was infrequent. There were no individuals in the NHANES sample who were exposed to >95th percentiles for all six phthalates. For 75% of individuals, none of the six phthalates were above the 95th percentile of their respective exposure distributions. These data suggest that high exposure to multiple phthalates is infrequent in the NHANES population. This analysis solely focused on the pattern of contribution of individual phthalates to total exposure. It did not address the pattern of contribution to potential risk. The approach presented could potentially be used to provide insight into understanding the coexposure patterns for other chemicals. PMID:24756100

  10. Michigan's energy resources: a geological perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Kalliokoski, J.

    1981-11-01

    In recent years, Michigan's main energy source has been oil, followed by gas and coal, respectively. Very little energy is derived from hydro or nuclear plants. Michigan's oil production has grown rapidly to slightly less than 35 million bbl/yr against a consumption of 200 million bbl/yr. In other words, Michigan is producing one-fifth of its needs from in-state reserves. Oil resources are quoted at 300 to 2700 million bbl. The major recent oil and gas production has been from the Silurian Pinnacle Reefs. Gas is recovered from similar geologic reservoirs as oil. In 1980, gas production was 0.150 trillion cu ft against an annual consumption of 0.08 trillion cu ft, or ca. one-fifth of the state's annual needs. Gas resources have been estimated at 1.8 to 10.9 trillion cu ft. Michigan can expect to maintain its 20% level of self-sufficiency from oil for the next 10 yr and from gas for the next 30 yr.

  11. Energy: hydrocarbon fuels and chemical resources

    SciTech Connect

    Rider, D.K.

    1981-01-01

    The term energy dilemma is more meaningful than energy crisis because it suggests a predicament where the US's alternative solutions are equally unsatisfactory. The production of synthetic fuels from coal, oil shale, and tar sands faces the inherent problems of (1) water consumption and pollution, (2) health hazards in mining and combustion, (3) transportation and manpower, and (4) waste disposal. Biomass conversion technology must compete with food production for arable land; moreover, large-scale biomass cultivation would require large amounts of phosphorus - one of the least plentiful, most essential nonrenewable resources. The US has not yet conceived a solution to its energy dilemma, particularly in regard to liquid fuels. To solve this dilemma, the US must (1) reduce consumption of oil and gas, (2) allocate fossil fuels to uses that have no suitable substitute (petrochemicals, transportation, and domestic space conditioning and water heating), (3) limit the construction of new power plants that use oil and gas, (4) produce synthetic fuels while mitigating the effects of their development, (5) solve the social and environmental problems that hamper coal combustion and nuclear waste disposal, and (6) apply solar energy where it is economical.

  12. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 5: the East Central Region

    SciTech Connect

    Brode, R.; Stoner, R.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters. States include Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

  13. 75 FR 3461 - Minnesota Energy Resources Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Minnesota Energy Resources Corporation; Notice of Filing January 13, 2010. Take notice that on December 29, 2009, Minnesota Energy Resources Corporation (MERC) filed to...

  14. The selfish brain: competition for energy resources.

    PubMed

    Peters, A; Schweiger, U; Pellerin, L; Hubold, C; Oltmanns, K M; Conrad, M; Schultes, B; Born, J; Fehm, H L

    2004-04-01

    The brain occupies a special hierarchical position in the organism. It is separated from the general circulation by the blood-brain barrier, has high energy consumption and a low energy storage capacity, uses only specific substrates, and it can record information from the peripheral organs and control them. Here we present a new paradigm for the regulation of energy supply within the organism. The brain gives priority to regulating its own adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration. In that postulate, the peripheral energy supply is only of secondary importance. The brain has two possibilities to ensure its energy supply: allocation or intake of nutrients. The term 'allocation' refers to the allocation of energy resources between the brain and the periphery. Neocortex and the limbic-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) system control the allocation and intake. In order to keep the energy concentrations constant, the following mechanisms are available to the brain: (1) high and low-affinity ATP-sensitive potassium channels measure the ATP concentration in neurons of the neocortex and generate a 'glutamate command' signal. This signal affects the brain ATP concentration by locally (via astrocytes) stimulating glucose uptake across the blood-brain barrier and by systemically (via the LHPA system) inhibiting glucose uptake into the muscular and adipose tissue. (2) High-affinity mineralocorticoid and low-affinity glucocorticoid receptors determine the state of balance, i.e. the setpoint, of the LHPA system. This setpoint can permanently and pathologically be displaced by extreme stress situations (chronic metabolic and psychological stress, traumatization, etc.), by starvation, exercise, infectious diseases, hormones, drugs, substances of abuse, or chemicals disrupting the endocrine system. Disorders in the 'energy on demand' process or the LHPA-system can influence the allocation of energy and in so doing alter the body mass of the organism. In summary, the presented

  15. Water Resources Management for Shale Energy Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoxtheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons, especially natural gas, from shale formations has been facilitated by advents in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies. Shale energy resources are very promising as an abundant energy source, though environmental challenges exist with their development, including potential adverse impacts to water quality. The well drilling and construction process itself has the potential to impact groundwater quality, however if proper protocols are followed and well integrity is established then impacts such as methane migration or drilling fluids releases can be minimized. Once a shale well has been drilled and hydraulically fractured, approximately 10-50% of the volume of injected fluids (flowback fluids) may flow out of the well initially with continued generation of fluids (produced fluids) throughout the well's productive life. Produced fluid TDS concentrations often exceed 200,000 mg/L, with elevated levels of strontium (Sr), bromide (Br), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), barium (Ba), chloride (Cl), radionuclides originating from the shale formation as well as fracturing additives. Storing, managing and properly disposisng of these fluids is critical to ensure water resources are not impacted by unintended releases. The most recent data in Pennsylvania suggests an estimated 85% of the produced fluids were being recycled for hydraulic fracturing operations, while many other states reuse less than 50% of these fluids and rely moreso on underground injection wells for disposal. Over the last few years there has been a shift to reuse more produced fluids during well fracturing operations in shale plays around the U.S., which has a combination of economic, regulatory, environmental, and technological drivers. The reuse of water is cost-competitive with sourcing of fresh water and disposal of flowback, especially when considering the costs of advanced treatment to or disposal well injection and lessens

  16. Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of large gas hydrate accumulations in terrestrial permafrost regions of the Arctic and beneath the sea along the outer continental margins of the world's oceans has heightened interest in gas hydrates as a possible energy resource. However, significant to potentially insurmountable technical issues must be resolved before gas hydrates can be considered a viable option for affordable supplies of natural gas. The combined information from Arctic gas hydrate studies shows that, in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors, known as bottom-simulating reflectors, that have been mapped at depths below the sea floor ranging from about 100 to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Disagreements over fundamental issues such as the volume of gas stored within delineated gas hydrate accumulations and the concentration of gas hydrates within hydrate-bearing strata have demonstrated that we know little about gas hydrates. Recently, however, several countries, including Japan, India, and the United States, have launched ambitious national projects to further examine the resource potential of gas hydrates. These projects may help answer key questions dealing with the properties of gas hydrate reservoirs, the design of production systems, and, most important, the costs and economics of gas hydrate production.

  17. Dynamic Voltage Regulation Using Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yan; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Fangxing; Kueck, John D

    2007-01-01

    Many distributed energy resources (DE) are near load centres and equipped with power electronics converters to interface with the grid, therefore it is feasible for DE to provide ancillary services such as voltage regulation, nonactive power compensation, and power factor correction. A synchronous condenser and a microturbine with an inverter interface are implemented in parallel in a distribution system to regulate the local voltage. Voltage control schemes of the inverter and the synchronous condenser are developed. The experimental results show that both the inverter and the synchronous condenser can regulate the local voltage instantaneously, while the dynamic response of the inverter is faster than the synchronous condenser; and that integrated voltage regulation (multiple DE perform voltage regulation) can increase the voltage regulation capability, increase the lifetime of the equipment, and reduce the capital and operation costs.

  18. The U.S. Geological Survey Energy Resources Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    The United States uses tremendous amounts of geologic energy resources. In 2004 alone, the United States consumed more than 7.4 billion barrels of oil, 21.9 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.1 billion short tons of coal. Forecasts indicate the Nation's need for energy resources will continue to grow, raising several questions: How much domestic and foreign petroleum resources are available to meet the growing energy demands of the Nation and world? Does the United States have coal deposits of sufficient quantity and quality to meet demand over the next century? What other geologic energy resources can be added to the U.S. energy mix? How do the occurrence and use of energy resources affect environmental quality and human health? Unbiased information from robust scientific studies is needed for sound energy policy and resource management decisions addressing these issues. The U.S. Geological Survey Energy Resources Program provides impartial, scientifically robust information to advance the understanding of geologically based energy resources including: petroleum (oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids), coal, gas hydrates, geothermal resources, oil shale, oil sands, uranium, and heavy oil and natural bitumen. This information can be used to contribute to plans for a secure energy future and to facilitate evaluation and responsible use of resources.

  19. Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... palate - resources Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - ...

  20. Distributed Energy Resources Market Diffusion Model

    SciTech Connect

    Maribu, Karl Magnus; Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui,Afzal S.

    2006-06-16

    Distributed generation (DG) technologies, such as gas-fired reciprocating engines and microturbines, have been found to be economically beneficial in meeting commercial-sector electrical, heating, and cooling loads. Even though the electric-only efficiency of DG is lower than that offered by traditional central stations, combined heat and power (CHP) applications using recovered heat can make the overall system energy efficiency of distributed energy resources (DER) greater. From a policy perspective, however, it would be useful to have good estimates of penetration rates of DER under various economic and regulatory scenarios. In order to examine the extent to which DER systems may be adopted at a national level, we model the diffusion of DER in the US commercial building sector under different technical research and technology outreach scenarios. In this context, technology market diffusion is assumed to depend on the system's economic attractiveness and the developer's knowledge about the technology. The latter can be spread both by word-of-mouth and by public outreach programs. To account for regional differences in energy markets and climates, as well as the economic potential for different building types, optimal DER systems are found for several building types and regions. Technology diffusion is then predicted via two scenarios: a baseline scenario and a program scenario, in which more research improves DER performance and stronger technology outreach programs increase DER knowledge. The results depict a large and diverse market where both optimal installed capacity and profitability vary significantly across regions and building types. According to the technology diffusion model, the West region will take the lead in DER installations mainly due to high electricity prices, followed by a later adoption in the Northeast and Midwest regions. Since the DER market is in an early stage, both technology research and outreach programs have the potential to increase

  1. Trends in antifungal drug susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates obtained through population-based surveillance in South Africa in 2002-2003 and 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Govender, Nelesh P; Patel, Jaymati; van Wyk, Marelize; Chiller, Tom M; Lockhart, Shawn R

    2011-06-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common cause of meningitis among adult South Africans with HIV infection/AIDS. Widespread use of fluconazole for treatment of cryptococcal meningitis and other HIV-associated opportunistic fungal infections in South Africa may lead to the emergence of isolates with reduced fluconazole susceptibility. MIC testing using a reference broth microdilution method was used to determine if isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole or amphotericin B had emerged among cases of incident disease. Incident isolates were tested from two surveillance periods (2002-2003 and 2007-2008) when population-based surveillance was conducted in Gauteng Province, South Africa. These isolates were also tested for susceptibility to flucytosine, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole. Serially collected isolate pairs from cases at several large South African hospitals were also tested for susceptibility to fluconazole. Of the 487 incident isolates tested, only 3 (0.6%) demonstrated a fluconazole MIC of ≥ 16 μg/ml; all of these isolates were from 2002-2003. All incident isolates were inhibited by very low concentrations of amphotericin B and exhibited very low MICs to voriconazole and posaconazole. Of 67 cases with serially collected isolate pairs, only 1 case was detected where the isolate collected more than 30 days later had a fluconazole MIC value significantly higher than the MIC of the corresponding incident isolate. Although routine antifungal susceptibility testing of incident isolates is not currently recommended in clinical settings, it is still clearly important for public health to periodically monitor for the emergence of resistance. PMID:21444707

  2. Fundamental changes in the activity of the natrocarbonatite volcano Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. II. Eruptive behaviour during the 2007-2008 explosive eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervyn, Matthieu; Ernst, Gerald G. J.; Keller, Jörg; Vaughan, R. Greg; Klaudius, Jurgis; Pradal, Evelyne; Belton, Frederic; Mattsson, Hannes B.; Mbede, Evelyne; Jacobs, Patric

    2010-10-01

    On September 4, 2007, after 25 years of effusive natrocarbonatite eruptions, the eruptive activity of Oldoinyo Lengai (OL), N Tanzania, changed abruptly to episodic explosive eruptions. This transition was preceded by a voluminous lava eruption in March 2006, a year of quiescence, resumption of natrocarbonatite eruptions in June 2007, and a volcano-tectonic earthquake swarm in July 2007. Despite the lack of ground-based monitoring, the evolution in OL eruption dynamics is documented based on the available field observations, ASTER and MODIS satellite images, and almost-daily photos provided by local pilots. Satellite data enabled identification of a phase of voluminous lava effusion in the 2 weeks prior to the onset of explosive eruptions. After the onset, the activity varied from 100 m high ash jets to 2-15 km high violent, steady or unsteady, eruption columns dispersing ash to 100 km distance. The explosive eruptions built up a ˜400 m wide, ˜75 m high intra-crater pyroclastic cone. Time series data for eruption column height show distinct peaks at the end of September 2007 and February 2008, the latter being associated with the first pyroclastic flows to be documented at OL. Chemical analyses of the erupted products, presented in a companion paper (Keller et al. 2010), show that the 2007-2008 explosive eruptions are associated with an undersaturated carbonated silicate melt. This new phase of explosive eruptions provides constraints on the factors causing the transition from natrocarbonatite effusive eruptions to explosive eruptions of carbonated nephelinite magma, observed repetitively in the last 100 years at OL.

  3. Fundamental changes in the activity of the natrocarbonatite volcano Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. I. New magma composition during the 2007-2008 explosive eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Jörg; Klaudius, Jurgis; Kervyn, Matthieu; Ernst, Gerald G. J.; Mattsson, Hannes B.

    2010-10-01

    With a paroxysmal ash eruption on 4 September 2007 and the highly explosive activity continuing in 2008, Oldoinyo Lengai (OL) has dramatically changed its behavior, crater morphology, and magma composition after 25 years of quiet extrusion of fluid natrocarbonatite lava. This explosive activity resembles the explosive phases of 1917, 1940-1941, and 1966-1967, which were characterized by mixed ashes with dominantly nephelinitic and natrocarbonatitic components. Ash and lapilli from the 2007-2008 explosive phase were collected on the slopes of OL as well as on the active cinder cone, which now occupies the entire north crater having buried completely all earlier natrocarbonatite features. The lapilli and ash samples comprise nepheline, wollastonite, combeite, Na-åkermanite, Ti-andradite, resorbed pyroxene and Fe-Ti oxides, and a Na-Ca carbonate phase with high but varying phosphorus contents which is similar, but not identical, to the common gregoryite phenocrysts in natrocarbonatite. Lapilli from the active cone best characterize the erupted material as carbonated combeite-wollastonite-melilite nephelinite. The juvenile components represent a fundamentally new magma composition for OL, containing 25-30 wt.% SiO2, with 7-11 wt.% CO2, high alkalies (Na2O 15-19%, K2O 4-5%), and trace-element signatures reminiscent of natrocarbonatite enrichments. These data define an intermediate composition between natrocarbonatite and nephelinite, with about one third natrocarbonatite and two thirds nephelinite component. The data are consistent with a model in which the carbonated silicate magma has evolved from the common combeite-wollastonite nephelinite (CWN) of OL by enrichment of CO2 and alkalies and is close to the liquid immiscible separation of natrocarbonatite from carbonated nephelinite. Material ejected in April/May 2008 indicates reversion to a more common CWN composition.

  4. An analysis of data collected from the 2007--2008 Tennessee state report card and the variables related to science test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamons, Julia W.

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) Achievement reading scores, school district per-pupil expenditures, school size, percentage of students qualifying for free and reduced-priced meals, and attendance were related to science TCAP test scores from the 2007-2008 school year. The data were gathered from an analysis of mean standardized test scores in reading and science of 8th graders in 67 school systems comprising 181 schools located throughout Tennessee. One hundred eighty-one schools configured grades 6 through 8 were used in this study. Only 177 schools had reported attendance available on the Tennessee Department of Education website. Pearson correlations were performed between the 8th mean grade science TCAP scores and 8th grade mean reading scores, per-pupil expenditure, school size, attendance, and the percentage of students qualifying for free and reduced-priced meals. Independent-samples t tests were conducted to evaluate whether 8th grade mean science TCAP scores and 8th grade mean reading scores varied depending on whether the school per-pupil expenditure was above or below the state average of $8,345. Independent-samples t test were also conducted to evaluate whether 8th grade mean science TCAP scores and 8th grade mean reading scores varied depending on whether the school attendance percentage was above or below the state goal of 93%. The school characteristic with the strongest association with the mean 8th grade science TCAP scores as computed by Pearson's correlation is the mean 8th grade reading TCAP scores. The values can be ranked as follows: mean 8th grade reading scores (.92) > percentage of students qualifying for free and reduced meals (-.84) > per-pupil expenditure (-.62) > attendance (.60) > school size (.23).

  5. Trends in Antifungal Drug Susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans Isolates Obtained through Population-Based Surveillance in South Africa in 2002-2003 and 2007-2008

    PubMed Central

    Govender, Nelesh P.; Patel, Jaymati; van Wyk, Marelize; Chiller, Tom M.; Lockhart, Shawn R.

    2011-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common cause of meningitis among adult South Africans with HIV infection/AIDS. Widespread use of fluconazole for treatment of cryptococcal meningitis and other HIV-associated opportunistic fungal infections in South Africa may lead to the emergence of isolates with reduced fluconazole susceptibility. MIC testing using a reference broth microdilution method was used to determine if isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole or amphotericin B had emerged among cases of incident disease. Incident isolates were tested from two surveillance periods (2002-2003 and 2007-2008) when population-based surveillance was conducted in Gauteng Province, South Africa. These isolates were also tested for susceptibility to flucytosine, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole. Serially collected isolate pairs from cases at several large South African hospitals were also tested for susceptibility to fluconazole. Of the 487 incident isolates tested, only 3 (0.6%) demonstrated a fluconazole MIC of ≥16 μg/ml; all of these isolates were from 2002-2003. All incident isolates were inhibited by very low concentrations of amphotericin B and exhibited very low MICs to voriconazole and posaconazole. Of 67 cases with serially collected isolate pairs, only 1 case was detected where the isolate collected more than 30 days later had a fluconazole MIC value significantly higher than the MIC of the corresponding incident isolate. Although routine antifungal susceptibility testing of incident isolates is not currently recommended in clinical settings, it is still clearly important for public health to periodically monitor for the emergence of resistance. PMID:21444707

  6. Integrated assessment of dispersed energy resources deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, Chris; Blanco, Raquel; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Kawaan, Cornelia P.; Osborn, Julie G.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2000-06-01

    The goal of this work is to create an integrated framework for forecasting the adoption of distributed energy resources (DER), both by electricity customers and by the various institutions within the industry itself, and for evaluating the effect of this adoption on the power system, particularly on the overall reliability and quality of electrical service to the end user. This effort and follow on contributions are intended to anticipate and explore possible patterns of DER deployment, thereby guiding technical work on microgrids towards the key technical problems. An early example of this process addressed is the question of possible DER adopting customer disconnection. A deployment scenario in which many customers disconnect from their distribution company (disco) entirely leads to a quite different set of technical problems than a scenario in which customers self generate a significant share or all of their on-site electricity requirements and additionally buy and sell energy and ancillary services (AS) locally and/or into wider markets. The exploratory work in this study suggests that the economics under which customers disconnect entirely are unlikely.

  7. Resource Letter PSEn-1: Physics and society: Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Art

    2007-04-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the physics-related literature about energy-and-society. Journal articles, books, and websites are cited for the following topics: general references, textbooks, other pedagogical resources, population growth, fossil fuels, global warming, nuclear power, side effects of nuclear power, fusion power, renewable resources (including hydroelectric, biofuels, wind, photovoltaics, direct solar, geothermal, hydrogen, and energy storage), energy efficiency, and transportation efficiency.

  8. Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - resources Gastrointestinal disorders - resources Hearing impairment - resources ...

  9. Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M.; Penev, M.; Heimiller, D.

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the energy resources required to produce 4-10 million metric tonnes of domestic, low-carbon hydrogen in order to fuel approximately 20-50 million fuel cell electric vehicles. These projected energy resource requirements are compared to current consumption levels, projected 2040 business as usual consumptions levels, and projected 2040 consumption levels within a carbonconstrained future for the following energy resources: coal (assuming carbon capture and storage), natural gas, nuclear (uranium), biomass, wind (on- and offshore), and solar (photovoltaics and concentrating solar power). The analysis framework builds upon previous analysis results estimating hydrogen production potentials and drawing comparisons with economy-wide resource production projections

  10. Adolescent Crash Rates and School Start Times in Two Central Virginia Counties, 2009-2011: A Follow-up Study to a Southeastern Virginia Study, 2007-2008

    PubMed Central

    Vorona, Robert Daniel; Szklo-Coxe, Mariana; Lamichhane, Rajan; Ware, J. Catesby; McNallen, Ann; Leszczyszyn, David

    2014-01-01

    Virginia study, 2007-2008. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(11):1169-1177. PMID:25325600

  11. Renewable Energy Resources in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Michael J.; Thomas, M. Pugh

    1990-01-01

    This paper defines renewable energy and outlines possible sources of this energy. Supplies, and ethics are considered. The position of renewable energy sources in the energy policy of Great Britain are discussed. (CW)

  12. Resource Recovery. Energy and Environment. Teacher's Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Smith and Hills, Inc., Jacksonville, FL.

    Designed to assist students in understanding solid waste resource recovery, this teaching aid package aims to get students involved in practical activities that require participation, observation, and interpretation. Provided in this package are definitions, methods, causes and effects, costs, and benefits of resource recovery presented in the…

  13. Community Design for Optimal Energy and Resource Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilenky, Stephen; And Others

    Presented is a study which investigated the energy and resource dynamics of a semi-autonomous domestic system for 30 people. The investigation is organized on three levels: (1) developing a preliminary design and design parameters; (2) development and quantification of the energy and resource dynamics; and (3) designing a model to extrapolate…

  14. The Final Report: 1975 Energy Resource Alternatives Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radtke, Mark L.; And Others

    This publication describes the projects entered in the Energy Resource Alternatives competition in 1975. Teams of engineering students were given a year to develop non-conventional or alternative energy systems that produced useful energy outputs. Besides an overview of energy sources and uses and discussions of the competitions development, the…

  15. Geothermal resource requirements for an energy self-sufficient spaceport

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, P.; Fioravanti, M.; Duchane, D.; Vaughan, A.

    1997-01-01

    Geothermal resources in the southwestern United States provide an opportunity for development of isolated spaceports with local energy self-sufficiency. Geothermal resources can provide both thermal energy and electrical energy for the spaceport facility infrastructure and production of hydrogen fuel for the space vehicles. In contrast to hydrothermal resources by which electric power is generated for sale to utilities, hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resources are more wide-spread and can be more readily developed at desired spaceport locations. This paper reviews a dynamic model used to quantify the HDR resources requirements for a generic spaceport and estimate the necessary reservoir size and heat extraction rate. The paper reviews the distribution of HDR resources in southern California and southern New Mexico, two regions where a first developmental spaceport is likely to be located. Finally, the paper discusses the design of a HDR facility for the generic spaceport and estimates the cost of the locally produced power.

  16. State Energy Alternatives: Alternative Energy Resources by State

    DOE Data Explorer

    This U.S. map provides state by state information on incentives and laws related to alternative fuels and advanced vehicles. Discover what's available in each state for innovation grants, infrastructure grants, and production grants and who to contact. Find out how many alternative refueling stations are available in each state and where they are. Tennessee, for example, in 2009, has 114 alternative refueling stations: 36 biodiesel, 1 electrical, 29 ethanol, 4 natural gas, and 44 propane. There are also 5 Truck Stop Electrification (TSE) sites in Tennessee. Users can also find out from this map interface the contacts for Clean Cities in a state, information about renewable energy projects and activities in each state, fuel prices across a state, and biomass potential resources and current production in each state.

  17. Wind Power: An Emerging Energy Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F.

    2010-01-01

    One may ask the question, What is energy? Typically the first answers that come to mind are oil, coal, and natural gas or nuclear energy. Most human activities require some form of energy consumption. This may be the energy produced by the food that one eats or the gasoline that is used in cars, trucks, buses, and other vehicles. One cannot ignore…

  18. Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, L.; Hedman, B.; Knowles, D.; Freedman, S. I.; Woods, R.; Schweizer, T.

    2003-11-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is directing substantial programs in the development and encouragement of new energy technologies. Among them are renewable energy and distributed energy resource technologies. As part of its ongoing effort to document the status and potential of these technologies, DOE EERE directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to lead an effort to develop and publish Distributed Energy Technology Characterizations (TCs) that would provide both the department and energy community with a consistent and objective set of cost and performance data in prospective electric-power generation applications in the United States. Toward that goal, DOE/EERE - joined by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) - published the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations in December 1997.As a follow-up, DOE EERE - joined by the Gas Research Institute - is now publishing this document, Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations.

  19. A GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY RESOURCES: NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resources (POWER) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Chandler, W.; Hoell, J. M.; Westberg, D.; Whitlock, C. H.

    2010-12-01

    NASA's POWER project, or the Prediction of the Worldwide Energy Resources project, synthesizes and analyzes data on a global scale. The products of the project find valuable applications in the solar and wind energy sectors of the renewable energy industries. The primary source data for the POWER project are NASA's World Climate Research Project (WCRP)/Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project (Release 3.0) and the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) assimilation model (V 4.0.3). Users of the POWER products access the data through NASA's Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE, Version 6.0) website (http://power.larc.nasa.gov). Over 200 parameters are available to the users. The spatial resolution is 1 degree by 1 degree now and will be finer later. The data covers from July 1983 to December 2007, a time-span of 24.5 years, and are provided as 3-hourly, daily and monthly means. As of now, there have been over 18 million web hits and over 4 million data file downloads. The POWER products have been systematically validated against ground-based measurements, and in particular, data from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) archive, and also against the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). Parameters such as minimum, maximum, daily mean temperature and dew points, relative humidity and surface pressure are validated against the National Climate Data Center (NCDC) data. SSE feeds data directly into Decision Support Systems including RETScreen International clean energy project analysis software that is written in 36 languages and has greater than 260,000 users worldwide.

  20. Energy and Resource Efficiency of Laser Cutting Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellens, Karel; Rodrigues, Goncalo Costa; Dewulf, Wim; Duflou, Joost R.

    Due to increasing energy and resource costs at the one hand and upcoming regulations on energy and resource efficiency at the other, a growing interest of machine tool builders in the environmental performance of their machine tools can be observed today. The last decade, academic as well as industrial research groups started to assess the environmental aspects of discrete part manufacturing processes and indicated a significant potential for improvement [1]. This paper provides an overview of the environmental performance (energy and resource efficiency) of different types of laser cutting systems and derived performance improving strategies.

  1. Women: Tapping a New Resource for Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Action Now, New York, NY.

    In 1973 the Arab oil embargo triggered what has come to be known as the "energy crisis." In 1974, Consumer Action Now (CAN) decided to devote its full efforts to the grave issues of energy and to look for options that would preserve our choices as a new energy era is entered. Any transition to a more energy-efficient society depends on a massive…

  2. Energy Awareness Resource Unit for Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Richard S.; Myers, Harriet B.

    This instructional package suggests objectives, activities, and evaluation methods for use in an elementary school minicourse on energy. Objectives are to help students become aware of the present energy situation and to make more intelligent energy-related decisions in the future. Activities involve language arts, science, math, social studies,…

  3. Resource Letter SE-1: Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniels, D. K.; Throop, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    This is one of a series of Resource Letters on different topics intended to guide college physicists, astronomers, and other scientists to some of the literature and other teaching aids that may help improve course contents in specified fields. (Author/CP)

  4. World nonrenewable conventional energy resources as of December 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, J.

    1985-05-27

    In this report, up-to-date estimates are presented for world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the nonrenewable energy resources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, bitumens, shale oil, and uranium oxide. Life indices for world fossil fuels are also presented for several annual growth rates. Nonconventional gas and oil resources, such as those that exist in formations of very low permeability, are not included. 2 figures, 4 tables.

  5. World nonrenewable conventional energy resources as of December 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-21

    In this report, up-to-date estimates are presented for world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the nonrenewable energy resources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, bitumens, shale oil, and uranium oxide. Life indices for world fossil fuels are also presented for several annual growth rates. Nonconventional gas and oil resources, such as those that exist in formations of very low permeability, are not included. 2 figures, 5 tables.

  6. Energy Education Resources: Kindergarten through 12th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Information Administration (DOE), Washington, DC.

    This resource guide provides students, educators, and other information users with a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related educational materials. The 163 organizations listed are each related to the subject fields of coal, electricity, energy efficiency/energy conservation, the environment, geosciences/earth sciences, natural…

  7. New Mexico energy research resource registry. Researchers and facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Human resources and facilities in New Mexico available for application to energy research and development are listed. Information regarding individuals with expertise in the environmental, socio-economic, legal, and management and planning areas of the energy effort is included as well as those scientists, engineers, and technicians involved directly in energy research and development.

  8. Wind Energy Resource Assessment of the Caribbean and Central America

    SciTech Connect

    DL Elliott; CI Aspliden; GL Gower; CG Holladay, MN Schwartz

    1987-04-01

    A wind energy resource assessment of the Caribbean and Central America has identified many areas with good to outstanding wind resource potential for wind turbine applications. Annual average wind resource maps and summary tables have been developed for 35 island/country areas throughout the Caribbean and Central America region. The wind resource maps highlight the locations of major resource areas and provide estimates of the wind energy resource potential for typical well-exposed sites in these areas. The average energy in the wind flowing in the layer near the ground is expressed as a wind power class: the greater the average wind energy, the higher the wind power class. The summary tables that are included with each of the 35 island/country wind energy maps provide information on the frequency distribution of the wind speeds (expressed as estimates of the Weibull shape factor, k) and seasonal variations in the wind resource for the major wind resource areas identified on the maps. A new wind power class legend has been developed for relating the wind power classes to values of mean wind power density, mean wind speed, and Weibull k. Guidelines are presented on how to adjust these values to various heights above ground for different roughness and terrain characteristics. Information evaluated in preparing the assessment included existing meteorological data from airports and other weather stations, and from ships and buoys in offshore and coastal areas. In addition, new data from recent measurement sites established for wind energy siting studies were obtained for a few areas of the Caribbean. Other types of information evaluated in the assessment were climatological data and maps on winds aloft, surface pressure, air flow, and topography. The various data were screened and evaluated for their usefulness in preparing the wind resource assessment. Much of the surface data from airports and other land-based weather stations were determined to be from sheltered

  9. Idaho Energy Conservation Resource Guide for Industrial Arts Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lee; And Others

    This resource guide was prepared to assist teachers in incorporating energy concerns within the school curriculum. It is intended to provide a basic framework of objectives for different subject areas and to provide examples of activities for teaching towards the stated objectives. Resources are listed to aid the teacher in developing additional…

  10. DOE's Tribal Energy Program Offers Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas C. MacCourt, Chair, Indian Law Practice, Ater Wynne LLP

    2010-06-01

    This handbook is an accessible reference for those who are new to tribal energy project development or who seek a refresher on key development issues as they navigate the project development process. Building upon the wealth of feedback and experiences shared by tribal and other participants in tribal energy workshops conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, it is designed to provide tribal leaders, tribal economic and energy enterprises, and those supporting them with a general overview of the renewable energy project development process. It includes information on how to structure a renewable energy project transaction to protect tribal interests, with an emphasis on joint project development efforts undertaken with nontribal parties; a general overview of key energy development agreements, including power sale agreements, transmission and interconnection agreements, and land leases; and a detailed discussion of ways tribes can finance renewable energy projects, the sources of funding or financing that may be available, the types of investors that may be available, and federal tax incentives for renewable energy projects. The guide also includes a glossary of some of the most commonly used technical terms.

  11. Biomass resource potential using energy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Martin, S.A.

    1993-09-01

    Biomass energy crops can provide a significant and environmentally beneficial source of renewable energy feedstocks for the future. They can revitalize the agricultural sector of the US economy by providing profitable uses for marginal cropland. Energy crops include fast-growing trees, perennial grasses, and annual grasses, all capable of collecting solar energy and storing it as cellulosic compounds for several months to several years. Once solar energy is thus captured, it can be converted by means of currently available technologies to a wide variety of energy products such as electricity, heat, liquid transportation fuels, and gases. Experimental results from field trials have generated optimism that selected and improved energy crops, established on cropland with moderate limitations for crop production, have the potential for producing high yields. Both trees and grasses, under very good growing conditions, have produced average annual yields of 20 to 40 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1}. Sorghum has shown especially high yields in the Midwest. Hybrids between sugar cane and its wild relatives, called energy cane, have yielded as much as 50 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} in Florida. These experimental results demonstrate that some species have the genetic potential for very rapid growth rates. New wood energy crop systems developed by the Department of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program offer, at a minimum, a 100% increase in biomass production rates over the 2 to 4 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} of dry leafless woody biomass produced by most natural forest systems. Experimental data indicate that short rotation wood crops established on cropland with moderate limitations are capable of producing biomass yields of 8--20 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} with a present average about 11 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} on typical cropland sites.

  12. Parametric analysis of lunar resources for space energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    The possible use of lunar resource in the construction of solar power satellites (SPS) to provide energy for use on earth is discussed. The space transportation and operational aspects of the SPS program are compared to other energy concepts. Cost/benefit analysis are used to study the advantages of using lunar oxygen for the SPS program and producing helium-3 on the moon. Options for lunar surface power are considered and the economic benefits of using lunar resources are examined.

  13. Identifying productive resources in secondary school students' discourse about energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrer, Benedikt

    A growing program of research in science education acknowledges the beginnings of disciplinary reasoning in students' ideas and seeks to inform instruction that responds productively to these disciplinary progenitors in the moment to foster their development into sophisticated scientific practice. This dissertation examines secondary school students' ideas about energy for progenitors of disciplinary knowledge and practice. Previously, researchers argued that students' ideas about energy were constrained by stable and coherent conceptual structures that conflicted with an assumed unified scientific conception and therefore needed to be replaced. These researchers did not attend to the productive elements in students' ideas about energy. To analyze the disciplinary substance in students' ideas, a theoretical perspective was developed that extends Hammer and colleagues' resources framework. This elaboration allows for the identification of disciplinary productive resources---i.e., appropriately activated declarative and procedural pieces of knowledge---in individual students' utterances as well as in the interactions of multiple learners engaged in group learning activities. Using this framework, original interview transcripts from one of the most influential studies of students' ideas about energy (Watts, 1983. Some alternative views of energy. Physics Education, 18/5, 213-217) were analyzed. Disciplinary productive resources regarding the ontology of energy, indicators for energy, and mechanistic reasoning about energy were found to be activated by interviewed students. These valuable aspects were not recognized by the original author. An interpretive analysis of video recorded student-centered discourse in rural Maine middle schools was carried out to find cases of resource activation in classroom discussions. Several cases of disciplinary productive resources regarding the nature of energy and its forms as well as the construction of a mechanistic energy story

  14. Energy Resources Inventory for Connecticut Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talcott Mountain Science Center, Avon, CT.

    This guide has been organized under several headings: (1) Background Materials; (2) Energy Curricula; (3) Economics of Energy; (4) Todays Fuels; and (5) Future Fuels. Each section contains listings of instructional materials and their sources which are appropriate to the section's topic. In addition to the topical sections, additional sections…

  15. Building America - Resources for Energy Efficient Homes

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-19

    Building America publications help builders achieve whole-house energy savings in five major climate zones. Using the recommendation and process improvements outlined in the Best Practices Series handbooks, builders can re-engineer their designs to improve energy performance and quality. Case studies for new and existing homes provide results from actual projects.

  16. Southface Energy and Environmental Resource Center

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.J.

    1997-03-01

    This article describes the residential office building of an Atlanta research and educational organization. The building is a state-of-the-art demonstration building for renewable energy and energy-efficient technologies, including passive solar design, high performance windows, solar electric shingles, solar water heater, office daylighting, photovoltaic outdoor lighting.

  17. Demand Response Resources for Energy and Ancillary Services (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, M.

    2014-04-01

    Demand response (DR) resources present a potentially important source of grid flexibility particularly on future systems with high penetrations of variable wind an solar power generation. However, DR in grid models is limited by data availability and modeling complexity. This presentation focuses on the co-optimization of DR resources to provide energy and ancillary services in a production cost model of the Colorado test system. We assume each DR resource can provide energy services by either shedding load or shifting its use between different times, as well as operating

  18. Geothermal Energy: Evaluation of a Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockemuehl, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    This article suggests the use of geothermal energy for producing electricity, using as an example the development at Wairakei, New Zealand. Other geothermal areas are identified, and economic and environmental co sts of additional development are explored. (Author/AV)

  19. Energy Guide: A Directory of Information Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemis, Virginia; And Others

    This guide is a collection of various information sources pertaining to energy. The chapters separate references according to the type of material (instructional aids, texts, periodicals, reference materials), or the issuing organization (non-government organizations, government services, courses, programs, centers, and research projects). One…

  20. Resources for Teaching about Energy in the Social Studies Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Robin; Stone, Kim

    1992-01-01

    Lists instructional resources for use by social studies teachers in teaching about energy. Includes curriculum materials, videotapes, organizations, government agencies, and industry trade associations that can provide information. Suggests items on energy conservation, global warming, ecology, nuclear power, fossil fuels, oil spills, and…

  1. Toward a Regional Geography of Renewable Electrical Energy Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryde, Philip R.

    It is postulated that many types of renewable energy resources, like fossil fuels, are amenable to regional availability analysis. Among these are hydropower, geothermal, ocean temperature gradient, wind, and direct solar energy. A review of the spatial attributes of each of these types reveals areas of the United States that contain comparative…

  2. The selfish brain: competition for energy resources.

    PubMed

    Fehm, H L; Kern, W; Peters, A

    2006-01-01

    Although the brain constitutes only 2% of the body mass, its metabolism accounts for 50% of total body glucose utilization. This delicate situation is aggravated by the fact that the brain depends on glucose as energy substrate. Thus, the contour of a major problem becomes evident: how can the brain maintain constant fluxes of large amounts of glucose to itself in the presence of powerful competitors as fat and muscle tissue. Activity of cortical neurons generates an "energy on demand" signal which eventually mediates the uptake of glucose from brain capillaries. Because energy stores in the circulation (equivalent to ca. 5 g glucose) are also limited, a second signal is required termed "energy on request"; this signal is responsible for the activation of allocation processes. The term "allocation" refers to the activation of the "behavior control column" by an input from the hippocampus-amygdala system. As far as eating behavior is concerned the behavior control column consists of the ventral medial hypothalamus (VMH) and periventricular nucleus (PVN). The PVN represents the central nucleus of the brain's stress systems, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Activation of the sympatico-adrenal system inhibits glucose uptake by peripheral tissues by inhibiting insulin release and inducing insulin resistance and increases hepatic glucose production. With an inadequate "energy on request" signal neuroglucopenia would be the consequence. A decrease in brain glucose can activate glucose-sensitive neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) with the release of orexigenic peptides which stimulate food intake. If the energy supply of the brain depends on activation of the LH rather than on increased allocation to the brain, an increase in body weight is evitable. An increase in fat mass will generate feedback signals as leptin and insulin, which activate the arcuate nucleus. Activation of arcuate nucleus in turn will

  3. Water Efficient Energy Production for Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect

    GTO

    2015-06-01

    Water consumption in geothermal energy development occurs at several stages along the life cycle of the plant, during construction of the wells, piping, and plant; during hydroshearing and testing of the reservoir (for EGS); and during operation of the plant. These stages are highlighted in the illustration above. For more information about actual water use during these stages, please see the back of this sheet..

  4. WESTERN ENERGY RESOURCES AND THE ENVIRONMENT: GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geothermal energy--from subsurface heat sources created by the underlying geologic configuration of the earth--is addressed, from an environmental research and development perspective. The report covers various geothermal energy systems, which serve as present or potential energy...

  5. Wind Energy Resource Assessment for Airborne Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodrow, A.

    2015-12-01

    Google, through its Makani project, is developing a new type of wind energy conversion device called an energy kite. Using a tethered airfoil flying in vertical loops, energy kites access stronger, more consistent wind resources at altitudes between 100-500m AGL. By eliminating mass and cost of the tower, nacelle, and gearbox of a conventional wind turbine, and by increasing the capacity factor of energy generation, energy kites promise to significantly reduce the levelized cost of wind energy. The focus of this presentation will be on the approach Makani has taken to characterize the wind resource at 100-500m, where far less study has taken place compared to the atmosphere accessed by conventional wind turbines.

  6. Energy Resources Performance Report, FY 1991 and FY 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-07-01

    Once the Federal Columbia River Power System provided all the power our customers needed and surplus energy, which we sold to others. However, we planned for the time when the surplus would disappear. With our customers, we developed centralized, region-wide conservation programs to conserve energy and build the knowledge and ability to save more energy when needed. We began to look at conservation as a resource, comparing it with supply-side alternatives. Much was accomplished. In Bonneville`s service area in the 1980s, our customers acquired 300 average megawatts (aMW) of conservation savings. How? By weatherizing about 240,000 homes, by making aluminum plants, other industrial plants and commercial buildings more efficient, and also by encouraging states to adopt energy-efficient building codes. Now, our energy surplus is gone. Our customers need energy, and in a hurry. While we plan how much energy will be needed, when and by which customers, we must concurrently accelerate our efforts to acquire resources. Our 1990 Resource Program launched a strategy to do just that, starting in 1991 and 1992, with continuing activities in 1993--1995. The goals and plans of the 1990 Resource Program are still being implemented.

  7. Wind as a renewable energy resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawsey, R. A.; Ferraro, R. J.

    1988-12-01

    A description of the United States wind energy technology status, a discussion of recent milestones achieved in wind power, and a call for action in order for competitive wind systems to become practical in an international marketplace is presented in this report. An immediate opportunity to initiate a joint venture project with the government, equipment developers, equipment manufacturers, utilities, and the Electric Power Research Institute is described. The key technical areas of materials technology for reduced airfoil fatigue, airfoil design for optimum new-site performance, and power electronics for variable-speed wind turbines are highlighted.

  8. Geothermal energy: a proven resource with costly potential

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The commercial use of geothermal energy to generate electricity has been spreading across the country since the California Geyser site was developed in 1960. Petroleum companies see geothermal power generation as a way to broaden their own base. The binary-cycle technology to use hydrothermal resources will be ready by 1985. Power generation from geothermal heat will be costly even though the resource itself is free and renewable; but the economics will improve as fossil-fuel prices increase. (DCK)

  9. Utilization of secondary energy resources at Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Combine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermolaev, V. N.; Klyuvgant, V. I.

    1982-12-01

    Savings obtained by the use of secondary thermal and energy resources at Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Combine during the period of the 10th five year plan are reviewed. These savings were obtained by fuller utilization of these resources, e.g., fuel from the use of blast furnace and coke oven gases and steam from boiler utilizers and evaporative cooling systems. The savings achieved were substantial.

  10. World nonrenewable conventional energy resources as of Dec. 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, J.D.

    1983-02-14

    Up-to-date estimates are presented for world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the non-renewable energy resources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, bitumens, shale oil, and uranium oxide. Life indices for world fossil fuels are also presented for several annual growth rates. Nonconventional gas and oil, such as exist in formations of very low permeability, are not included. 2 figures, 4 tables.

  11. BUILDING TRIBAL CAPABILITIES IN ENERGY RESOURCE TRIBES

    SciTech Connect

    Mary Lopez

    2003-04-01

    The CERT Tribal Internship Program is part of the education and training opportunities provided by CERT to accelerate the development of American Indian technical professionals available to serve Tribes and expand the pool of these professionals. Tribes are severely impacted by the inadequate number of Indian professionals available to serve and facilitate Tribal participation and support of the energy future of Tribes,and subsequently the energy future of the nation. By providing interns with hands-on work experience in their field of study two goals are accomplished: (1) the intern is provided opportunities for professional enhancement; and (2) The pool of Indian professionals available to meet the needs of Tribal government and Tribal communities in general is increased. As of January 17, 2003, Lance M Wyatt successfully completed his internship with the Interagency Working Group on Environmental Justice on the Task Force that specifically focuses their work on Tribal nations. While working as an intern with the National Transportation Program, Albuquerque operations, Jacqueline Agnew received an offer to work for the Alaska Native Health Board in Anchorage, Alaska. This was an opportunity that Ms. Agnew did not feel she could afford to forego and she left her internship position in February 2003. At present, CERT is in the process of finding another qualified individual to replace the internship position vacated by Ms. Agnew. Mr. Wyatt's and Ms. Agnew's final comments are given.

  12. Energy education resources: Kindergarten through 12th grade

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Energy Education Resources: Kindergarten Through 12th Grade is published by the National Energy Information Center (NEIC) a service of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to provide students, educators, and other information users, a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related educational materials. Each entry includes the address, telephone number, and description of the organization and the energy-related materials available. Most of the entries also include Internet (Web) and electronic mail (E-Mail) addresses. Each entry is followed by a number, which is referenced in the subject index in the back of this book.

  13. Pyramid Resource Center-Green Energy Center

    SciTech Connect

    Flory, Paul, D.

    2011-09-02

    There are currently over 3,500 USA/Canadian landfills listed by the EPA/EC and like numbers in Europe that are producing methane-rich landfill gas (LFG). This gas is typically made up of 50-percent methane (CH4), 35-percent carbon dioxide (CO2), and 2 to 25% nitrogen and oxygen (N2 & O2), plus dozens of dilute contaminants. LFG is classified as a renewable fuel, because it is generated via biological decay of municipal solid waste, a constant byproduct of human activity. To date, most LFG has been allowed to escape into the atmosphere. On account of its high CH4 content, LFG may contribute to climate change, as CH4 is one of the most harmful greenhouse gases with 21 times the global warming potential of CO2. Of the landfills that collect LFG, most simply flare it. In the past decade, some landfills have begun to use LFG for electricity generation or for direct combustion as low Btu gas. Very few landfills upgrade LFG to high Btu gas. A patented CO2 WashTM process developed by Acrion Technologies Inc., and licensed to Firm Green Inc. shows promise as an economically and environmentally sustainable process to recover energy and prevent pollution from landfills. The CO2 WashTM has already been proven at lab-scale. It upgrades LFG, which consists of 50% methane (CH4) + 35% carbon dioxide (CO2) + 2 to 25% nitrogen + oxygen (N2+O2), 1 to 2% water vapor, and dozens of contaminants (which total a few hundred to a few thousand parts per million). CH4, which by itself has an energy content of 1,012 British thermal units (Btu) per standard cubic foot (SCF), is the only component in LFG that contributes to its energy content, which is therefore about 400-550 Btu/SCF. Accordingly, raw LFG is usually referred to as medium-Btu gas. To be salable, it is necessary to remove essentially all the components besides CH4, while keeping the vast majority of the revenue producing CH4. This is high-Btu gas, yielding 850 to 1,000 Btu/SCF. The CO2 WashTM process upgrades LFG to about 930 Btu

  14. Applying International Standards for Hydrokinetic Energy Resource Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    The extraction of hydrokinetic energy is the conversion of the kinetic energy of moving water into another more useful form of energy, frequently electricity. This water motion may be in the form of waves, tides, ocean currents or river flows. In addition to the development of the technology, the successful extraction of hydrokinetic energy requires a better understanding of physical, environmental and social aspects of the resource and their interactions with the technology. To assist with the development of the hydrokinetic industry as a whole, much work over the past decade has been completed developing international technical standards which can be used by the full range of stakeholders in the hydrokinetic industry. To support the design of projects for tidal energy extraction, a new International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Specification (TS) has recently been published outlining a standardized methodology for performing resource assessments. In addition, presently work is ongoing on producing another TS for performing resource assessments on in-stream river projects. While the specific technology for extracting the energy from tidal and river flows may be similar, the methodologies for performing the respective resource assessments is quite different due to the differing nature of the physical processes involved. This presentation will discuss both the tidal and in-stream river methodologies, highlighting their respective key aspects. In addition, a case study illustrating the use of the published tidal TS will be presented.

  15. 78 FR 72878 - Integration of Variable Energy Resources; Notice Of Filing Procedures for Order No. 764...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Integration of Variable Energy Resources; Notice Of Filing Procedures for... to compliance obligations in Integration of Variable Energy Resources, Order No. 764, FERC...

  16. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Information Resources Catalogue. A collection of energy efficiency and renewable energy information resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    NREL's first annual Information Resources Catalogue is intended to inform anyone interested in energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies of NREL's outreach activities, including publications and services. For ease of use, all entries are categorized by subject. The catalogue is separated into six main sections. The first section lists and describes services that are available through NREL and how they may be accessed. The second section contains a list of documents that are published by NREL on a regular or periodic basis. The third section highlights NREL's series publications written for specific audiences and presenting a wide range of subjects. NREL's General Interest Publications constitute the fourth section of the catalogue and are written for nontechnical audiences. Descriptions are provided for these publications. The fifth section contains Technical Reports that detail research and development projects. The section on Conference Papers/Journal Articles/Book Chapters makes up the sixth and final section of the catalogue.

  17. World nonrenewable conventional energy resources as of December 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, J.D.

    1984-04-02

    Energy analysts present year-end 1982 estimates for world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the non-renewable convectional energy resources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, bitumens, shale oil, and uranium oxide. Life indices for world fossil fuels are also given for several annual growth rates. The world's proved and currently recoverable natural gas reserves amount to 2649-3250 trillion CF; the estimated total remaining recoverable is 6693-7462 TCF. In 1982, 54 TCF of gas was produced for a cumulative production of 1320 TCF (not counting vented or flared gas).

  18. The Energy Education Bibliography. An Annotated Bibliography of Key Resources for Energy and Conservation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherner, Sharon; And Others

    The annotated bibliography lists approximately 180 energy and conservation education resources. The bibliography is intended to aid K-12 classroom teachers and curriculum developers identify key resources as they develop and implement energy education programs. Sample topics in the works listed deal with the story of natural gas, living with…

  19. Effective management of combined renewable energy resources in Tajikistan.

    PubMed

    Karimov, Khasan S; Akhmedov, Khakim M; Abid, Muhammad; Petrov, Georgiy N

    2013-09-01

    Water is needed mostly in summer time for irrigation and in winter time for generation of electric power. This results in conflicts between downstream countries that utilize water mostly for irrigation and those upstream countries, which use water for generation of electric power. At present Uzbekistan is blocking railway connection that is going to Tajikistan to interfere to transportation of the equipment and materials for construction of Rogun hydropower plant. In order to avoid conflicts between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan a number of measures for the utilization of water resources of the trans-boundary Rivers Amu-Darya and Sir-Darya are discussed. In addition, utilization of water with the supplement of wind and solar energy projects for proper and efficient management of water resources in Central Asia; export-import exchanges of electric energy in summer and winter time between neighboring countries; development of small hydropower project, modern irrigation system in main water consuming countries and large water reservoir hydropower projects for control of water resources for hydropower and irrigation are also discussed. It is also concluded that an effective management of water resources can be achieved by signing Water treaty between upstream and downstream countries, first of all between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. In this paper management of water as renewable energy resource in Tajikistan and Central Asian Republics are presented. PMID:23800621

  20. Review of Test Facilities for Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    AKHIL,ABBAS ALI; MARNAY,CHRIS; KIPMAN,TIMOTHY

    2003-05-01

    Since initiating research on integration of distributed energy resources (DER) in 1999, the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) has been actively assessing and reviewing existing DER test facilities for possible demonstrations of advanced DER system integration concepts. This report is a compendium of information collected by the CERTS team on DER test facilities during this period.

  1. Geothermal Energy: Resource and Utilization. A Teaching Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Van Thanh

    The search for new energy resources as alternatives to fossil fuels have generated new interest in the heat of the earth itself. New geothermal areas with a variety of characteristics are being explored, as are new ways of extracting work from naturally heated steam and hot water. Some of this effort is discussed in this three-part module. Five…

  2. Estimating Renewable Energy Resources of Russia: Goals and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiseleva, S.; Rafikova, J.; Shakun, V.

    2012-10-01

    During the last several years in some regions of Russian Federation one can observe a growing interest in renewable energy projects motivated by a necessity to have stable, affordable and autonomous energy sources. Besides, there has been an advance in legal initiatives designed to regulate the development of renewable energy sources in Russia. Some governmental regulations having for an object to stimulate this area, have already been accepted. The regulation contains the target value parameters of the output volume of the electric energy output volumes with the use of renewable energy sources (except hydroelectric power plants with the established capacity exceeding 25 MW. The work shows the results of resource estimating wind, solar, biomass energy resources for Russia, using GIS methods, which allow one to provide more exact predictions for the energy development, and therefore to prove investments and to pass to working out the equipment design of energy plants based on renewable energy sources. Current matters are relating to opportunities and perspectives of renewable sector in Russia.

  3. Satellite earth observations for energy resource development and environmental management

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, F.B. )

    1990-06-01

    Global change and growing needs for energy and other resources and their impact on the environment will be major international issues for the 1990s. Advanced international satellite earth observation systems during the 1990s will include systems for Japan (JERS, ADEOS), France (SPOT), Canada (Radarsat), Europe (ERS), India (IRS), and the U.S. (Landsat, NOAA, and N-POP). NASA's proposed advanced Earth Observing System (EOS/N-POP) will provide extensive satellite earth observations for resource development and global change studies for better environmental management. These satellites will produce tremendous volumes of digital electro-optical, microwave, and radar data creating a massive database for basic scientific and applied research for geology, agriculture, oceanography, meteorology, and environmental sciences. Database management and data access are major NASA and international issues under current review. Use of earth observations in energy and mineral resource exploration and development has become established during the last 20 years and will continue to expand with new information derived from these new satellite systems. US government environment global change research is being coordinated by the new interagency Committee on Earth Sciences (C.E.S.). The Geosat Committee, supported by resource industries who contribute to man's environmental impact and have a major stake in the C.E.S. research plan, is working with the C.E.S. to establish industry-government-academia linkages for research in the broad global resource and environmental studies from space.

  4. An assessment of solar energy as a national energy resource

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, P.; Woodward, W.; Cherry, W. E.; Morse, F. H.; Herwig, L. O.

    1972-01-01

    The applications are discussed of solar energy for thermal energy for buildings; chemical and biological conversion of organic materials to liquid, solid, and gaseous fuels; and the generation of electricity. It is concluded that if solar development programs are successful, building heating for public use is possible within 5 years, building cooling in 6 to 10 years, synthetic fuels from organic materials in 5 to 8 years, and electricity production in 10 to 15 years.

  5. Resource management tools based on renewable energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Boghrat, Pedram; Pradhan, Ranjit; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    Renewable energy is an important source of power for unattended sensors (ground, sea, air), tagging systems, and other remote platforms for Homeland Security and Homeland Defense. Also, Command, Control, Communication, and Intelligence (C3I) systems and technologies often require renewable energy sources for information assurance (IA), in general, and anti-tampering (AT), in particular. However, various geophysical and environmental conditions determine different types of energy harvesting: solar, thermal, vibration, acoustic, hydraulic, wind, and others. Among them, solar energy is usually preferable, but, both a solar habitat and the necessity for night operation can create a need for other types of renewable energy. In this paper, we introduce figures of merit (FoMs) for evaluating preferences of specific energy sources, as resource management tools, based on geophysical conditions. Also, Battery Systemic Modeling is discussed.

  6. Effects of Distributed Energy Resources on Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR)

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Ruchi; Tuffner, Francis K.; Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.

    2011-10-10

    Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) is one of the cheapest technologies which can be intelligently leveraged to provide considerable energy savings. The addition of renewables in the form of distributed resources can affect the entire power system, but more importantly, affects the traditional substation control schemes at the distribution level. This paper looks at the effect on energy consumption, peak load reduction, and voltage profile changes due to the addition of distributed generation in a distribution feeder using combinations of volt var control. An IEEE 13-node system is used to simulate the various cases. Energy savings and peak load reduction for different simulation scenarios are compared.

  7. Energy and other resource conservation within urbanizing areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Peter G.

    1982-05-01

    The reported research seeks to answer several questions regarding energy conservation within urbanizing areas. As a practical matter, to what extent can dependence upon exhaustible resources be reduced? Can these reductions be achieved without severely impairing social well-being and environmental quality? And, what seem to be the prevailing institutional constraints limiting energy conservation within urbanizing areas? The study area was the proposed “downtown” of The Woodlands, a new town north of Houston, Texas. Two plans were developed for this area. In one, no particular attempt was made to conserve energy (conventional plan), while in the other, energy conservation was a primary consideration (conservation plan). For both plans, estimates were made of energy consumption within buildings, in the transportation sector, and in the actual production of building materials themselves (embodied energy). In addition, economic and environmental analyses were performed, including investigation of other resource issues such as water supply, solid waste disposal, stormwater management, and atmospheric emissions. Alternative on-site power systems were also investigated. Within the bounds of economic feasibility and development practicality, it was found that application of energy-conserving methods could yield annual energy savings of as much as 23%, and reduce dependence on prime fuels by 30%. Adverse economic effects on consumers were found to be minimal and environmental quality could be sustained. The major institutional constraints appeared to be those associated with traditional property ownership and with the use of common property resources. The resistance to change of everyday practices in land development and building industries also seemed to constrain potential applications.

  8. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) Vermont Highlight (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    Case study on Vermont's innovative strategy for helping low-income families save energy through its Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) program. The DOE Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) granted Vermont to give its weatherization clients access to solar energy systems and one-on-one assistance from energy efficiency coaches to help clients achieve meaningful and long-lasting reductions in their energy bills. Vermont-SERC is administered by the Vermont Office of Economic Opportunity and is carried out by five local weatherization agencies. The purpose of the program is to identify technologies and new approaches-in this case, solar energy and energy efficiency coaches-that can improve weatherization services to low-income clients. The program selects households that have previously received weatherization services. This has several advantages. First, the clients already understand how weatherization works and are willing to strive for additional energy savings. Second, the weatherization agencies are working with clients who have previously had weatherization and therefore have complete energy usage data from utility bills collected during the first energy upgrade installation. This allows the agencies to select the best potential candidates for solar energy. Agencies have existing knowledge of the homes and can pre-screen them for potential structural problems or lack of south-facing exposure.

  9. National Renewable Energy Laboratory information resources catalogue. A collection of energy efficiency and renewable energy information resources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-31

    NREL`s first annual Information Resources Catalogue is intended to inform anyone interested in energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies of NREL`s outreach activities, including publications and services. For ease of use, all entries are categorized by subject. The catalogue is separated into six main sections. The first section lists and describes services that are available through NREL and how they may be assessed. The second section contains a list of documents that are published by NREL on a regular or periodic basis. The third section highlights NREL`s series publications written for specific audiences and presenting a wide range of subjects. NREL`s General Interest Publications constitute the fourth section of the catalogue and are written for nontechnical audiences. Descriptions are provided for these publications. The fifth section contains Technical Reports that detail research and development projects. The section on Conference Papers/Journal Articles/Book Chapters makes up the sixth and final section of the catalogue.

  10. Multi-objective optimal dispatch of distributed energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longe, Ayomide

    This thesis is composed of two papers which investigate the optimal dispatch for distributed energy resources. In the first paper, an economic dispatch problem for a community microgrid is studied. In this microgrid, each agent pursues an economic dispatch for its personal resources. In addition, each agent is capable of trading electricity with other agents through a local energy market. In this paper, a simple market structure is introduced as a framework for energy trades in a small community microgrid such as the Solar Village. It was found that both sellers and buyers benefited by participating in this market. In the second paper, Semidefinite Programming (SDP) for convex relaxation of power flow equations is used for optimal active and reactive dispatch for Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Various objective functions including voltage regulation, reduced transmission line power losses, and minimized reactive power charges for a microgrid are introduced. Combinations of these goals are attained by solving a multiobjective optimization for the proposed ORPD problem. Also, both centralized and distributed versions of this optimal dispatch are investigated. It was found that SDP made the optimal dispatch faster and distributed solution allowed for scalability.

  11. Simulating and validating coastal gradients in wind energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahmann, Andrea; Floors, Rogier; Karagali, Ioanna; Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Simon, Elliot; Courtney, Michael; Badger, Merete; Peña, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    The experimental campaign of the RUNE (Reducing Uncertainty of Near-shore wind resource Estimates) project took place on the western coast of Denmark during the winter 2015-2016. The campaign used onshore scanning lidar technology combined with ocean and satellite information and produced a unique dataset to study the transition in boundary layer dynamics across the coastal zone. The RUNE project aims at reducing the uncertainty of near-shore wind resource estimates produced by mesoscale modeling. With this in mind, simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were performed to identify the sensitivity in the coastal gradients of wind energy resources to various model parameters and model inputs. Among these: model horizontal grid spacing and the planetary boundary layer and surface-layer scheme. We report on the differences amongst these simulations and preliminary results on the comparison of the model simulations with the RUNE observations of lidar and satellite measurements and near coastal tall mast.

  12. Energy resources of the developing countries and some priority markets for the use of solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siddiqi, T. A.; Hein, G. F.

    1977-01-01

    Energy consumption for the developed and non-developed world is expressed as a function of GNP. An almost straight-line graph results when energy consumption statistics are treated in this manner. The richest countries consume the most energy, and the poorest countries the least. It therefore follows that greater energy production in the developing countries (leading to greater energy consumption) will contribute to their economic growth. Energy resources in the developing countries are compared, including: solid fossil fuels, crude oil, natural gas, oil shale, and uranium. Mention is also made of the potential of renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric power, in the underdeveloped world; and it is these resources which offer the greatest possibilities for economic improvement if the money is forthcoming, i.e., from the world bank, to fund the necessary technology.

  13. Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources using Model Predictive Control

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Shuai; Samaan, Nader A.; Butler-Purry, Karen

    2012-07-22

    In an isolated power system (rural microgrid), Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) such as renewable energy resources (wind, solar), energy storage and demand response can be used to complement fossil fueled generators. The uncertainty and variability due to high penetration of wind makes reliable system operations and controls challenging. In this paper, an optimal control strategy is proposed to coordinate energy storage and diesel generators to maximize wind penetration while maintaining system economics and normal operation. The problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem with the goals of minimizing fuel costs and changes in power output of diesel generators, minimizing costs associated with low battery life of energy storage and maintaining system frequency at the nominal operating value. Two control modes are considered for controlling the energy storage to compensate either net load variability or wind variability. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve the aforementioned problem and the performance is compared to an open-loop look-ahead dispatch problem. Simulation studies using high and low wind profiles, as well as, different MPC prediction horizons demonstrate the efficacy of the closed-loop MPC in compensating for uncertainties in wind and demand.

  14. Distributed energy resources at naval base ventura county building 1512

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Owen C.; Marnay, Chris

    2004-10-01

    This paper reports the findings of a preliminary assessment of the cost effectiveness of distributed energy resources at Naval Base Ventura County (NBVC) Building 1512. This study was conducted in response to the base's request for design assistance to the Federal Energy Management Program. Given the current tariff structure there are two main decisions facing NBVC: whether to install distributed energy resources (DER), or whether to continue the direct access energy supply contract. At the current effective rate, given assumptions about the performance and structure of building energy loads and available generating technology characteristics, the results of this study indicate that if the building installed a 600 kW DER system with absorption cooling and heat capabilities chosen by cost minimization, the energy cost savings would be about 14 percent, or $55,000 per year. However, under current conditions, this study also suggests that significant savings could be obtained if Building 1 512 changed from the direct access contract to a SCE TOU-8 (Southern California Edison time of use tariff number 8) rate without installing a DER system. At current SCE TOU-8 tariffs, the potential savings from installation of a DER system would be about 4 percent, or $15,000 per year.

  15. Teaching About Energy. Vol. 2. Units 1 and 2 of the Energy 80 Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enterprise for Education, Santa Monica, CA.

    This document is the second of a three-volume teacher resource book for use with the Energy 80 energy education program. The program is designed to enhance students' understanding of energy, either through supplements to traditional courses, such as mathematics, science, social studies, or homemaking, or by developing a mini-course or…

  16. Teaching About Energy. Vol. 3. Units 3 through 8 of the Energy 80 Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enterprise for Education, Santa Monica, CA.

    This document is the third of a three-volume teacher resource book for use with the Energy 80 energy education program. The program is designed to enhance students' understanding of energy, either through supplements to traditional courses, such as mathematics, science, social studies, or homemaking, or by developing a mini-course or…

  17. ERG--Energy Resources Game: Simulation Gaming of Regional Energy Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lyle P.; Laessig, Robert E.

    1973-01-01

    ERG--the Energy Resources Game--is a computer based game which explores questions regarding regional energy supply and demand, such as population and economic growth goals; acceptable levels of dependence on imported energy; and acceptable levels of environmental impact. (JA)

  18. A Guide for Vocational Energy Education: Resources, Key People, Classroom Materials. Oregon Vocational Energy Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Vocational Association, Gervais.

    Intended as a resource tool for integrating energy and conservation education into the vocational skills areas, this resource guide consists of listings of instructional and technical materials pertaining to 14 vocational curriculum areas. These areas are agriculture, agriculture/agribusiness, architecture, automotive, business, construction,…

  19. Resource file: practical publications for energy management, edition III

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The Resource File is an in-depth bibliography of 166 practical and action-oriented energy conservation publications and materials. It is a reference tool, designed for Federal, state, and local energy managers or people who are asked to recommend how-to conservation guides to the public. Each listing describes a publication's intended audience and provides a summary of its contents. Included are operations and maintenance manuals, life-cycle costing handbooks, home insulation manuals, films on fuel-saving driving techniques, and courses devoted exclusively to home weatherization. 166 items.

  20. Multi-objective generation scheduling with hybrid energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, Manas

    In economic dispatch (ED) of electric power generation, the committed generating units are scheduled to meet the load demand at minimum operating cost with satisfying all unit and system equality and inequality constraints. Generation of electricity from the fossil fuel releases several contaminants into the atmosphere. So the economic dispatch objective can no longer be considered alone due to the environmental concerns that arise from the emissions produced by fossil fueled electric power plants. This research is proposing the concept of environmental/economic generation scheduling with traditional and renewable energy sources. Environmental/economic dispatch (EED) is a multi-objective problem with conflicting objectives since emission minimization is conflicting with fuel cost minimization. Production and consumption of fossil fuel and nuclear energy are closely related to environmental degradation. This causes negative effects to human health and the quality of life. Depletion of the fossil fuel resources will also be challenging for the presently employed energy systems to cope with future energy requirements. On the other hand, renewable energy sources such as hydro and wind are abundant, inexhaustible and widely available. These sources use native resources and have the capacity to meet the present and the future energy demands of the world with almost nil emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The costs of fossil fuel and renewable energy are also heading in opposite directions. The economic policies needed to support the widespread and sustainable markets for renewable energy sources are rapidly evolving. The contribution of this research centers on solving the economic dispatch problem of a system with hybrid energy resources under environmental restrictions. It suggests an effective solution of renewable energy to the existing fossil fueled and nuclear electric utilities for the cheaper and cleaner production of electricity with hourly

  1. Geology and mineral and energy resources, Roswell Resource Area, New Mexico; an interactive computer presentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tidball, Ronald R.; Bartsch-Winkler, S. B.

    1995-01-01

    This Compact Disc-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM) contains a program illustrating the geology and mineral and energy resources of the Roswell Resource Area, an administrative unit of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management in east-central New Mexico. The program enables the user to access information on the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mining history, metallic and industrial mineral commodities, hydrocarbons, and assessments of the area. The program was created with the display software, SuperCard, version 1.5, by Aldus. The program will run only on a Macintosh personal computer. This CD-ROM was produced in accordance with Macintosh HFS standards. The program was developed on a Macintosh II-series computer with system 7.0.1. The program is a compiled, executable form that is nonproprietary and does not require the presence of the SuperCard software.

  2. Collaborative Behaviors among Special Education Resource Specialists, General Education Teachers, and Their Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polhemus, Constance E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to describe to what extent seven collaborative behaviors were demonstrated by general education teachers assigned students with disabilities, special education Resource Specialists, and the principals in selected California elementary schools that met their 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 English language arts annual…

  3. Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource.

    PubMed

    Field, Christopher B; Campbell, J Elliott; Lobell, David B

    2008-02-01

    Increased production of biomass for energy has the potential to offset substantial use of fossil fuels, but it also has the potential to threaten conservation areas, pollute water resources and decrease food security. The net effect of biomass energy agriculture on climate could be either cooling or warming, depending on the crop, the technology for converting biomass into useable energy, and the difference in carbon stocks and reflectance of solar radiation between the biomass crop and the pre-existing vegetation. The area with the greatest potential for yielding biomass energy that reduces net warming and avoids competition with food production is land that was previously used for agriculture or pasture but that has been abandoned and not converted to forest or urban areas. At the global scale, potential above-ground plant growth on these abandoned lands has an energy content representing approximately 5% of world primary energy consumption in 2006. The global potential for biomass energy production is large in absolute terms, but it is not enough to replace more than a few percent of current fossil fuel usage. Increasing biomass energy production beyond this level would probably reduce food security and exacerbate forcing of climate change. PMID:18215439

  4. A strategy for mineral and energy resource independence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    Data acquired by Landsats 1, 2, and 3, are beginning to provide the information on which an improved mineral and energy resource exploration strategy can be based. Landsat 4 is expected to augment this capability with its higher resolution (30 m) and additional spectral bands in the Thematic Mapper (TM) designed specifically to discriminate clay minerals associated with mineral alteration. In addition, a new global magnetic anomaly map, derived from the recent Magsat mission, has recently been compiled by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and others. Preliminary, extremely small-scale renditions of this map indicate that global coverage is nearly complete and that the map will improve upon a previous one derived from Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO) data. Digital processing of the Landsat image data and Magsat geophysical data can be used to create three-dimensional stereoscopic models for which Landsat images provide surface reference to deep structural anomalies. Comparative studies of national Landsat lineament maps, Magsat stereoscopic models, and metallogenic information derived from the Computerized Resources Information Bank (CRIB) inventory of U.S. mineral resources, provide a way of identifying and selecting exploration areas that have mineral resource potential. Landsat images and computer-compatible tapes can provide new and better mosaics and also provide the capability for a closer look at promising sites. ?? 1983.

  5. Nonregenerative natural resources in a sustainable system of energy supply.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Alex M; Hamacher, Thomas

    2012-03-12

    Following the lead of the European Union in introducing binding measures to promote the use of regenerative energy forms, it is not unreasonable to assume that the global demand for combustible raw materials for energy generation will be reduced considerably in the second half of this century. This will not only have a favourable effect on the CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere, but will also help preserve fossil fuels-important as raw materials in the chemical industry-for future generations. Nevertheless, associated with the concomitant massive shift to regenerative energy forms, there will be a strong demand for other exhaustible raw materials, in particular metals, some of which are already regarded as scarce. After reviewing the debate on mineral depletion between "cornucopians" and "pessimists", we discuss the meaning of mineral "scarcity", particularly in the geochemical sense, and mineral "exhaustion". The expected drastic increase in demand for mineral resources caused by demographic and societal pressures, that is, due to the increase in in-use stock, is emphasised. Whilst not discussing the issue of "strong" versus "weak" sustainability in detail, we conclude that regenerative energy systems-like nearly all resource-consuming systems in our society-do not necessarily satisfy generally accepted sustainability criteria. In this regard, we discuss some current examples, namely, lithium and cobalt for batteries, rare earth-based permanent magnets for wind turbines, cadmium and tellurium for solar cells and copper for electrical power distribution. PMID:22351622

  6. Deep geothermal resources and energy: Current research and developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, A.; Milsch, H.; Hahne, B.; van Wees, J. D.; Bruhn, D.

    2012-04-01

    Energy from deep geothermal resources plays an increasing role in many European countries in their efforts to increase the proportion of renewables in their energy portfolio. Deep geothermal heat and electric power have a high load factor, are sustainable and environmentally friendly. However, the safe, sustainable, and economic development of deep geothermal resources, also in less favourable regions, faces a number of issues requiring substantial research efforts: (1) The probability of finding an unknown geothermal reservoir has to be improved. (2) Drilling methods have to be better adapted and developed to the specific needs of geothermal development. (3) The assessment of the geothermal potential should provide more reliable and clear guidelines for the development. (4) Stimulation methods for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) have to be refined to increase the success rate and reduce the risk associated with induced seismicity. (5) Operation and maintenance in aggressive geothermal environments require specific solutions for corrosion and scaling problems. (6) Last but not least, emerging activities to harness energy from supercritical reservoirs would make significant progress with qualified input from research. In particular, sedimentary basins like e.g. the North German and Polish Basin, the Pannonian Basin, the Po Valley, the Bavarian Molasse Basin or the Upper Rhine Graben have a high geothermal potential, even if geothermal gradients are moderate. We will highlight projects that aim at optimizing exploration, characterization, and modeling prior to drilling and at a better understanding of physical, hydraulic and chemical processes during operation of a geothermal power plant. This includes geophysical, geological and geochemical investigations regarding potential geothermal reservoirs in sedimentary basins, as well as modelling of geothermally relevant reservoir parameters that influence the potential performance and long-term behavior of a future

  7. Remote renewable energy resources; Long-distance high voltage interconnections

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J. )

    1992-06-01

    This paper discusses international perspectives on remote energy made possible by high-voltage interconnections. It will discuss large-scale conversion, transfer, and utilization of renewable energy as a strategy to counter environmental problems caused by the combustion of fossil fuels. Potential development of huge renewable hydro resources in Africa, South America, North America, Eastern Siberia, Australia, and South East China, as well as potential development of geothermal and solar energy sources, will also be discussed. These include the proposed 30 GW Inga hydro power complex in Zaire, Central Africa, along the Congo River, where power will be exported to Southern Europe over a distance of 7000 Km, in Columbia with electrical ties through Central America linking South America with the electricity demand in North America, and developments in Siberia linked by cable across the Bering Strait to Alaska, Quebec to New England, Manitoba to midwest United States, Iceland to the United Kingdom, and in the Persian Gulf States.

  8. Geothermal energy resource assessment of parts of Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, E.M.; Turner, D.L.; Kienle, J.

    1982-08-01

    The central Seward Peninsula was the subject of a geological, geophysical and geochemical reconnaissance survey during a 30-day period in the summer of 1980. The survey was designed to investigate the geothermal energy resource potential of this region of Alaska. A continental rift system model was proposed to explain many of the Late Tertiary-to-Quaternary topographic, structural, volcanic and geothermal features of the region. Geologic evidence for the model includes normal faults, extensive fields of young alkalic basalts, alignment of volcanic vents, graben valleys and other features consistent with a rift system active from late Miocene time to the present. Five traverses crossing segments of the proposed rift system were run to look for evidence of structure and geothermal resources not evident from surface manifestation. Gravity, helium and mercury soil concentrations were measured along the traverses. Seismic, resistivity, and VLF studies are presented.

  9. Wave energy resource assessment based on satellite observations around Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribal, Agustinus; Zieger, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    A preliminary assessment of wave energy resource around Indonesian's ocean has been carried out by means of analyzing satellite observations. The wave energy flux or wave power can be approximated using parameterized sea states. Wave power scales with significant wave height, characteristic wave period and water depth. In this approach, the significant wave heights were obtained from ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) data which have been calibrated. However, as the characteristic wave period is rarely specified and therefore must be estimated from other variables when information about the wave spectra is unknown. Here, the characteristic wave period was calculated with an empirical model that utilizes altimeter estimates of wave height and backscatter coefficient originally proposed. For the Indonesian region, wave power energy is calculated over two periods of one year each and was compared with the results from global hindcast carried out with a recent release of wave model WAVEWATCH III. We found that, the most promising wave power energy regions around the Indonesian archipelago are located in the south of Java island and the south west of Sumatera island. In these locations, about 20 - 30 kW/m (90th percentile: 30-50 kW/m, 99th percentile: 40-60 kW/m) wave power energy on average has been found around south of Java island during 2010. Similar results have been found during 2011 at the same locations. Some small areas which are located around north of Irian Jaya (West Papua) are also very promising and need further investigation to determine its capacity as a wave energy resource.

  10. Modeling of customer adoption of distributed energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, Chris; Chard, Joseph S.; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Lipman, Timothy; Moezzi, Mithra M.; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2001-08-01

    This report describes work completed for the California Energy Commission (CEC) on the continued development and application of the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). This work was performed at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) between July 2000 and June 2001 under the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Distributed Energy Resources Integration (DERI) project. Our research on distributed energy resources (DER) builds on the concept of the microgrid ({mu}Grid), a semiautonomous grouping of electricity-generating sources and end-use sinks that are placed and operated for the benefit of its members. Although a {mu}Grid can operate independent of the macrogrid (the utility power network), the {mu}Grid is usually interconnected, purchasing energy and ancillary services from the macrogrid. Groups of customers can be aggregated into {mu}Grids by pooling their electrical and other loads, and the most cost-effective combination of generation resources for a particular {mu}Grid can be found. In this study, DER-CAM, an economic model of customer DER adoption implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) optimization software is used, to find the cost-minimizing combination of on-site generation customers (individual businesses and a {mu}Grid) in a specified test year. DER-CAM's objective is to minimize the cost of supplying electricity to a specific customer by optimizing the installation of distributed generation and the self-generation of part or all of its electricity. Currently, the model only considers electrical loads, but combined heat and power (CHP) analysis capability is being developed under the second year of CEC funding. The key accomplishments of this year's work were the acquisition of increasingly accurate data on DER technologies, including the development of methods for forecasting cost reductions for these technologies, and the creation of a credible

  11. Non-energy resources, Connecticut and Rhode Island coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neff, N.F.; Lewis, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    Cores collected from Long Island Sound, Connecticut, were used to establish control on the geologic framework of the area. Lithologic and stratigraphic analyses verified the presence of the following units: (1) Cretaceous coastal plain, (2) Pleistocene glacial till, (3) late Pleistocene glacial lake, (4) late Pleistocene glacial outwash, and (5) Holocene fluvial, estuarine and marine deposits. Cores collected in Block Island Sound, Rhode Island, were obtained from inferred, relict shoreline features and were analyzed for heavy mineral content. Concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 3.4%; no significant downcore changes were found. The results indicated that surficial sediments in areas of high-velocity tidal flow yield greater amounts of heavy minerals than do inferred placer deposits. During the second phase of the program of study, Connecticut and Rhode Island pooled resources to develop a study plan for the comprehensive quantification of all non-energy resources in the adjacent waters of the states. A literature and data survey was conducted to assess the occurrence, extent, and accessibility of these resources. Sand and gravel and heavy minerals were found in concentrations offering potential for resource exploitation. Constraints on exploitation include (1) water depth restrictions for the protection of shellfish beds and public beaches, (2) fishing activities, (3) military, commercial, and fishing vessel traffic, (4) seafloor cable routes and (5) dump sites. Deposits composed of Pleistocene glacial sediments and/or Holocene marine sediments in regions of little or no user conflict were identified as sites potentially suitable for resource exploitation. The study plan stated additional data needs (geophysical profiling and vibracore sampling) at these sites. Subsequent to these recommendations, high-resolution seismic profiles and sidescan sonographs were obtained from these sites. Seismic stratigraphic analyses confirm the presence of extensive deposits of

  12. Hawaii energy strategy project 3: Renewable energy resource assessment and development program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    RLA Consulting (RLA) has been retained by the State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT) to conduct a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment and Development Program. This three-phase program is part of the Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES), which is a multi-faceted program intended to produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. The purpose of Phase 1 of the project, Development of a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment Plan, is to better define the most promising potential renewable energy projects and to establish the most suitable locations for project development in the state. In order to accomplish this goal, RLA has identified constraints and requirements for renewable energy projects from six different renewable energy resources: wind, solar, biomass, hydro, wave, and ocean thermal. These criteria were applied to areas with sufficient resource for commercial development and the results of Phase 1 are lists of projects with the most promising development potential for each of the technologies under consideration. Consideration of geothermal energy was added to this investigation under a separate contract with DBEDT. In addition to the project lists, a monitoring plan was developed with recommended locations and a data collection methodology for obtaining additional wind and solar data. This report summarizes the results of Phase 1. 11 figs., 22 tabs.

  13. Strategies for Energy Efficient Resource Management of Hybrid Programming Models

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dong; Supinski, Bronis de; Schulz, Martin; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios S; Cameron, Kirk W.

    2013-01-01

    Many scientific applications are programmed using hybrid programming models that use both message-passing and shared-memory, due to the increasing prevalence of large-scale systems with multicore, multisocket nodes. Previous work has shown that energy efficiency can be improved using software-controlled execution schemes that consider both the programming model and the power-aware execution capabilities of the system. However, such approaches have focused on identifying optimal resource utilization for one programming model, either shared-memory or message-passing, in isolation. The potential solution space, thus the challenge, increases substantially when optimizing hybrid models since the possible resource configurations increase exponentially. Nonetheless, with the accelerating adoption of hybrid programming models, we increasingly need improved energy efficiency in hybrid parallel applications on large-scale systems. In this work, we present new software-controlled execution schemes that consider the effects of dynamic concurrency throttling (DCT) and dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) in the context of hybrid programming models. Specifically, we present predictive models and novel algorithms based on statistical analysis that anticipate application power and time requirements under different concurrency and frequency configurations. We apply our models and methods to the NPB MZ benchmarks and selected applications from the ASC Sequoia codes. Overall, we achieve substantial energy savings (8.74% on average and up to 13.8%) with some performance gain (up to 7.5%) or negligible performance loss.

  14. 25 CFR 162.520 - Who owns the energy resource information obtained under the WEEL?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Weels § 162.520 Who owns the energy resource information obtained under the WEEL? (a) The WEEL must specify the ownership of any energy... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who owns the energy resource information obtained...

  15. 25 CFR 162.520 - Who owns the energy resource information obtained under the WEEL?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Weels § 162.520 Who owns the energy resource information obtained under the WEEL? (a) The WEEL must specify the ownership of any energy... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who owns the energy resource information obtained...

  16. Evaluation of the impact of SO₂ and NO₂ emissions on the ambient air-quality in the Çan-Bayramiç region of northwest Turkey during 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Ozkurt, Nesimi; Sari, Deniz; Akalin, Nuray; Hilmioglu, Bilgin

    2013-07-01

    The characterization and assessment of air-quality in this region are essential steps for the implementation of the "Clean Air Action Plan" as this is set by the Turkish Regulation on Ambient Air-Quality Assessment and Management. This study area intends to shed a light on use of modeling tools as an alternative method for the assessment of local atmospheric pollution and the determination of the importance of local emissions. This modeling approach can be also used for the consistent geographic representation of air-quality concentration as well as for assessing the future air-quality condition after the implementation of emission reduction measures in a certain area. With this article we evaluate the impact of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions on the ambient air-quality in the Çan-Bayramiç region of Turkey. The emission rates of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide were calculated by using the CALPUFF model. The concentration of these pollutants had also been monitored at ten air-quality locations during 2007-2008 in the research area. The measured data were also utilized for testing the model performance. Results showed that the air-quality in this important rural region of Turkey can be evaluated effectively by using the current numerical modeling system. PMID:23602979

  17. Parallel Harmony Search Based Distributed Energy Resource Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Ceylan, Oguzhan; Liu, Guodong; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a harmony search based parallel optimization algorithm to minimize voltage deviations in three phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems and to maximize active power outputs of distributed energy resources (DR). The main contribution is to reduce the adverse impacts on voltage profile during a day as photovoltaics (PVs) output or electrical vehicles (EVs) charging changes throughout a day. The IEEE 123- bus distribution test system is modified by adding DRs and EVs under different load profiles. The simulation results show that by using parallel computing techniques, heuristic methods may be used as an alternative optimization tool in electrical power distribution systems operation.

  18. Space resources. Volume 2: Energy, power, and transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Mary Fae (Editor); Mckay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael B. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This volume of the Space Resources report covers a number of technical and policy issues concerning the energy and power to carry out advanced space missions and the means of transportation to get to the sites of those missions. Discussed in the first half of this volume are the technologies which might be used to provide power and a variety of ways to convert power from one form to another, store it, move it wherever it is needed, and use it. In the second half of this volume, various kinds of transportation, including both interplanetary and surface systems, are discussed.

  19. Distribution System Voltage Regulation by Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Ceylan, Oguzhan; Liu, Guodong; Xu, Yan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a control method to regulate voltages in 3 phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems. A constrained optimization problem to minimize voltage deviations and maximize distributed energy resource (DER) active power output is solved by harmony search algorithm. IEEE 13 Bus Distribution Test System was modified to test three different cases: a) only voltage regulator controlled system b) only DER controlled system and c) both voltage regulator and DER controlled system. The simulation results show that systems with both voltage regulators and DER control provide better voltage profile.

  20. 76 FR 34684 - Offshore Renewable Energy; Public Meeting on Information Needs for Resource Assessment and Design...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Offshore Renewable Energy; Public Meeting on Information Needs for Resource Assessment and Design Conditions AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... meteorological and oceanographic information to support cost-effective deployment of offshore renewable...

  1. Energy Efficiency in Western Utility Resource Plans: Impacts onRegional Resources Assessment and Support for WGA Policies

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, Nicole; Goldman, Charles; Schlegal, Jeff

    2006-08-01

    In the aftermath of the consumer price shocks and short-term power shortages of the 2000-01 electricity crisis, policymakers and regulators in Western states are placing increased emphasis on integrated resource planning (IRP), resource adequacy and assessment and a diversified portfolio of resources to meet the needs of electricity consumers. In some states, this has led to a resurgence in state and utility commitments to energy efficiency. Increasing interest in acquiring energy efficiency as a power-system resource is also driven by the desire to dampen high growth rates in electricity demand in some Western states, rapid increases in natural gas prices, concerns about the environmental impacts of electricity generation (e.g. water consumption by power plants, air quality), and the potential of energy efficiency to provide utility bill savings for households and businesses (WGA CDEAC 2006). Recognizing the cost-competitiveness and environmental benefits of energy efficiency, the Western Governor's Association (WGA) has set a high priority for energy efficiency, establishing a goal of reducing projected electricity demand by 20% across the West by 2020 in a policy resolution on Clean and Diversified Energy for the West (WGA 2004). Nationally, the need for improved tracking of demand-side resources in load forecasting is formalized in the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC)'s recently adopted reliability standards, which utilities and regional reliability organizations will need to comply with (NERC 2005a and 2005b). In this study, we examine the treatment of energy efficiency in recent resource plans issued by fourteen investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in the Western United States and Canada. The goals of this study are to: (1) summarize energy-efficiency resources as represented in a large sample of recent resource plans prepared by Western utilities and identify key issues; (2) evaluate the extent to which the information provided in current

  2. A prefeasibility study of energy resource options in Hainan, China

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.; Russell, M. |; Barron, W.F.; LaRocco, P.; Shen, Z.

    1992-10-01

    This study identifies a strategy that (1) provides future energy services for Hainan in the least environmentally degrading way, (2) eliminates the need to build significant amounts of new fossil-fueled, electric generating capacity, saving capital to invest in other development projects, (3) lowers the cost that Hainan households and businesses will pay to light their homes and run their industries, (4) reduces the future coal import bill, and (5) improves the prospects for export industries. implementing this strategy will promote economic development and growth in Hainan, improve the standard of living, and preserve to the greatest extent possible Hainan`s rich environmental resource base, a key requirement for its tourist industry. The focus of this strategy is to adapt proven policies and techniques for producing and using energy more efficiently to existing conditions in Hainan. This Report applies the principles of integrated resource planning (IRP) and the experiences in other countries to outline a strategy for the Province. The experience is that fuel consumption can be reduced without lessening the ability of consumers, industry, and the government to obtain the energy services that higher use of fuel would otherwise bring. Further, those energy services can be provided with less capital investment than would be necessary if traditional practices were followed. Both of these results have obvious and important development and environmental benefits. In short, consumers have more money available to buy other things; production costs are lowered, improving the ability of firms to compete in international markets; and more capital is available to invest in new machinery and equipment that produces goods and services to use in Hainan or to export to other countries.

  3. A prefeasibility study of energy resource options in Hainan, China

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.; Russell, M. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN ); Barron, W.F. ); LaRocco, P. ); Shen, Z. )

    1992-10-01

    This study identifies a strategy that (1) provides future energy services for Hainan in the least environmentally degrading way, (2) eliminates the need to build significant amounts of new fossil-fueled, electric generating capacity, saving capital to invest in other development projects, (3) lowers the cost that Hainan households and businesses will pay to light their homes and run their industries, (4) reduces the future coal import bill, and (5) improves the prospects for export industries. implementing this strategy will promote economic development and growth in Hainan, improve the standard of living, and preserve to the greatest extent possible Hainan's rich environmental resource base, a key requirement for its tourist industry. The focus of this strategy is to adapt proven policies and techniques for producing and using energy more efficiently to existing conditions in Hainan. This Report applies the principles of integrated resource planning (IRP) and the experiences in other countries to outline a strategy for the Province. The experience is that fuel consumption can be reduced without lessening the ability of consumers, industry, and the government to obtain the energy services that higher use of fuel would otherwise bring. Further, those energy services can be provided with less capital investment than would be necessary if traditional practices were followed. Both of these results have obvious and important development and environmental benefits. In short, consumers have more money available to buy other things; production costs are lowered, improving the ability of firms to compete in international markets; and more capital is available to invest in new machinery and equipment that produces goods and services to use in Hainan or to export to other countries.

  4. Information resources for US Department of Energy pollution prevention programs

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.L.; Snowden-Swan, L.J.; Butner, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) pollution prevention efforts being conducted under the aegis of DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked with evaluating pollution prevention information resources. The goal of this activity was to improve the effectiveness of DOE`s pollution prevention activities through improved information flow, both within the complex, and more specifically, between DOE and other organizations that share similar pollution prevention challenges. This report presents our findings with respect to the role of information collection and dissemination within the complex, opportunities for teaming from successes of the private sector, and specific information needs of the DOE pollution prevention community. These findings were derived from a series of interviews with pollution prevention coordinators from across the DOE complex, review of DOE site and facility pollution prevention plans, and workshops with DOE information users as well as an information resources workshop that brought together information specialists from private industry, non-profit organizations, as well as state and regional pollution prevention assistance programs.

  5. Water energy resources of the United States with emphasis on low head/low power resources

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Douglas G.; Cherry, Shane J.; Reeves, Kelly S.; Lee, Randy D.; Carroll, Gregory R.; Sommers, Garold L.; Verdin, Kristine L.

    2004-04-01

    Analytical assessments of the water energy resources in the 20 hydrologic regions of the United States were performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models and geographic information system tools. The principal focus of the study was on low head (less than 30 ft)/low power (less than 1 MW) resources in each region. The assessments were made by estimating the power potential of all the stream segments in a region, which averaged 2 miles in length. These calculations were performed using hydrography and hydraulic heads that were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Elevation Derivatives for National Applications dataset and stream flow predictions from a regression equation or equations developed specifically for the region. Stream segments excluded from development and developed hydropower were accounted for to produce an estimate of total available power potential. The total available power potential was subdivided into high power (1 MW or more), high head (30 ft or more)/low power, and low head/low power total potentials. The low head/low power potential was further divided to obtain the fractions of this potential corresponding to the operating envelopes of three classes of hydropower technologies: conventional turbines, unconventional systems, and microhydro (less than 100 kW). Summing information for all the regions provided total power potential in various power classes for the entire United States. Distribution maps show the location and concentrations of the various classes of low power potential. No aspect of the feasibility of developing these potential resources was evaluated. Results for each of the 20 hydrologic regions are presented in Appendix A, and similar presentations for each of the 50 states are made in Appendix B.

  6. Department of Energy Resource Assessment Program 5-year plan, FY 1991--FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Resource Assessment Program produces scientific descriptions and assessments of the nation's renewable energy resources, such as solar energy. Information about the resources --- for example, how solar energy varies with location and climate --- is required to develop energy conversion technologies, design and site systems, and forecast the systems' performance. With information about resource availability and renewable energy system performance, DOE can assess the potential for renewable energy to contribute to the nation's energy supply as part of the long-term national energy strategy. This 5-year plan for fiscal years (FY) 1991 through 1995 gives the strategy to produce solar radiation resource characterizations and assessments under the DOE project at SERI. It is consistent with the mini-multiyear plan for resource assessment prepared by DOE in 1989 and incorporates the comments received at a project overview held in April 1990 at DOE Headquarters. 7 figs.

  7. Role for Distributed Energy Resources (DER) in the Digital Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Key, Thomas S

    2007-11-01

    A large, and growing, part of the Nation's economy either serves or depends upon the information technology industry. These high-tech or "digital" enterprises are characterized by a dependence on electronic devices, need for completely reliable power supply, and intolerance to any power quality problems. In some cases these enterprises are densely populated with electronic loads and have very high energy usage per square foot. Serving these enterprises presents both electric power and equipment cooling challenges. Traditional electric utilities are often hard-pressed to deliver power that meets the stringent requirements of digital customers, and the economic and social consequences of a service quality or reliability problem can be large. New energy delivery and control options must be developed to effectively serve a digital economy. This report explores how distributed energy resources, partnerships between utility and customer to share the responsibility for service quality, innovative facility designs, higher energy efficiencies and waste-heat utilization can be coupled to meet the needs of a growing digital economy.

  8. 75 FR 36128 - Green Energy Resources, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... COMMISSION Green Energy Resources, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading June 22, 2010. It appears to the... securities of Green Energy Resources, Inc. (``Green Energy'') because of questions regarding the accuracy of statements by Green Energy in press releases concerning, among other things, the company's involvement in...

  9. 78 FR 43876 - AmerenEnergy Resources Generating Company v. Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AmerenEnergy Resources Generating Company v. Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on July 5, 2013, AmerenEnergy Resources...

  10. Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management

    SciTech Connect

    A. David Lester

    2008-10-17

    The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.

  11. Hawaii Energy Strategy: Program guide. [Contains special sections on analytical energy forecasting, renewable energy resource assessment, demand-side energy management, energy vulnerability assessment, and energy strategy integration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The Hawaii Energy Strategy program, or HES, is a set of seven projects which will produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. It will include a comprehensive energy vulnerability assessment with recommended courses of action to decrease Hawaii's energy vulnerability and to better prepare for an effective response to any energy emergency or supply disruption. The seven projects are designed to increase understanding of Hawaii's energy situation and to produce recommendations to achieve the State energy objectives of: Dependable, efficient, and economical state-wide energy systems capable of supporting the needs of the people, and increased energy self-sufficiency. The seven projects under the Hawaii Energy Strategy program include: Project 1: Develop Analytical Energy Forecasting Model for the State of Hawaii. Project 2: Fossil Energy Review and Analysis. Project 3: Renewable Energy Resource Assessment and Development Program. Project 4: Demand-Side Management Program. Project 5: Transportation Energy Strategy. Project 6: Energy Vulnerability Assessment Report and Contingency Planning. Project 7: Energy Strategy Integration and Evaluation System.

  12. State Energy Efficiency Resource Standards: Design, Status, and Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, D.; Zinaman, O.

    2014-05-01

    An energy efficiency resource standard (EERS) is a policy that requires utilities or other entities to achieve a specified amount of energy savings through customer energy efficiency programs within a specified timeframe. EERSs may apply to electricity usage, natural gas usage, or both. This paper provides an overview of the key design features of EERSs for electricity, reviews the variation in design of EERSs across states, and provides an estimate of the amount of savings required by currently specified EERSs in each state. As of December, 2013, 23 states have active and binding EERSs for electricity. We estimate that state EERSs will require annual electricity savings of approximately 8-11% of total projected demand by 2020 in states with EERSs, however the level of savings targeted by the policies varies significantly across states. In addition to the variation in targeted savings, the design of EERSs varies significantly across states leading to differences in the suite of incentives created by the policy, the flexibility of compliance with the policy, the balance of benefits and costs of the policy between producers and consumers, and the certainty with which the policy will drive long-term savings.

  13. ENERGY: Selected Resource Materials for Developing Energy Education/Conservation Programs. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Jonathan M.; Worthington, Barry K.

    This annotated bibliography presents resource materials for energy education programs. The materials are listed by the agency from which they are available. The agencies are alphabetized and, for each agency, a mailing address is given. Fifty given agencies are included, many of which have several references listed under them. For each reference,…

  14. Mineral and Energy Resources of the Roswell Resource Area, East-Central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartsch-Winkler, Susan B., (Edited By); Donatich, Alessandro J.

    1995-01-01

    The sedimentary formations of the Roswell Resource Area have significant mineral and energy resources. Some of the pre-Pennsylvanian sequences in the Northwestern Shelf of the Permian Basin are oil and gas reservoirs, and Pennsylvanian rocks in Tucumcari Basin are reservoirs of oil and gas as well as source rocks for oil and gas in Triassic rocks. Pre-Permian rocks also contain minor deposits of uranium and vanadium, limestone, and gases. Hydrocarbon reservoirs in Permian rocks include associated gases such as carbon dioxide, helium, and nitrogen. Permian rocks are mineralized adjacent to the Lincoln County porphyry belt, and include deposits of copper, uranium, manganese, iron, polymetallic veins, and Mississippi-Valley-type lead-zinc. Industrial minerals in Permian rocks include fluorite, barite, potash, halite, polyhalite, gypsum, anhydrite, sulfur, limestone, dolomite, brine deposits (iodine and bromine), aggregate (sand), and dimension stone. Doubly terminated quartz crystals, called 'Pecos diamonds' and collected as mineral specimens, occur in Permian rocks along the Pecos River. Mesozoic sedimentary rocks are hosts for copper, uranium, and small quantities of gold-silver-tellurium veins, as well as significant deposits of oil and gas, carbon dioxide, asphalt, coal, and dimension stone. Mesozoic rocks contain limited amounts of limestone, gypsum, petrified wood, and clay. Tertiary rocks host ore deposits commonly associated with intrusive rocks, including platinum-group elements, iron skarns, manganese, uranium and vanadium, molybdenum, polymetallic vein deposits, gold-silver-tellurium veins, and thorium-rare-earth veins. Museum-quality quartz crystals are associated with Tertiary intrusive rocks. Industrial minerals in Tertiary rocks include fluorite, vein- and bedded-barite, caliche, limestone, and aggregate. Tertiary and Quaternary sediments host important placer deposits of gold and titanium, and occurrences of silver and uranium. Important industrial

  15. Geothermal resources and energy complex use in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalova, V.

    2009-04-01

    Geothermal energy use is the perspective way to clean sustainable development of the world. Russia has rich high and low temperature geothermal resources and makes good steps in their use. In Russia the geothermal resources are used predominantly for heat supply both heating of several cities and settlements on Northern Caucasus and Kamchatka with a total number of the population 500000. Besides in some regions of country the deep heat is used for greenhouses of common area 465000 m2. Most active the hydrothermal resources are used in Krasnodar territory, Dagestan and on Kamchatka. The approximately half of extracted resources is applied for heat supply of habitation and industrial puttings, third - to a heating of greenhouses, and about 13 % - for industrial processes. Besides the thermal waters are used approximately on 150 health resorts and 40 factories on bottling mineral water. The most perspective direction of usage of low temperature geothermal resources is the use of heat pumps. This way is optimal for many regions of Russia - in its European part, on Ural and others. The electricity is generated by some geothermal power plants (GeoPP) only in the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands. At present three stations work in Kamchatka: Pauzhetka GeoPP (11MW e installed capacity) and two Severo-Mutnovka GeoPP ( 12 and 50 MWe). Moreover, another GeoPP of 100 MVe is now under preparation in the same place. Two small GeoPP are in operation in Kuril's Kunashir Isl, and Iturup Isl, with installed capacity of 2,б MWe and 6 MWe respectively. There are two possible uses of geothermal resources depending on structure and properties of thermal waters: heat/power and mineral extraction. The heat/power direction is preferable for low mineralized waters when valuable components in industrial concentration are absent, and the general mineralization does not interfere with normal operation of system. When high potential geothermal waters are characterized by the high

  16. Summary of the mineral- and energy-resource endowment, BLM roswell resource area, east-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Sutphin, D.M.; Ball, M.M.; Korzeb, S.L.; Kness, R.F.; Dutchover, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    In this summary of two comprehensive resource reports produced by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, we discuss the mineral- and energyresource endowment of the 14-millon-acre Roswell Resource Area, New Mexico, managed by the Bureau of Land Management. The Bureau and Survey reports result from separate studies that are compilations of published and unpublished data and integrate new findings on the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral, industrial, and energy commodities, and resources for the seven-county area. The reports have been used by the Bureau of Land Management in preparation of the Roswell Resource Area Resource Management Plan, and will have future use in nationwide mineral- and energy-resource inventories and assessments, as reference and training documents, and as public-information tools. In the Roswell Resource Area, many metals, industrial mineral commodities, and energy resources are being, or have been, produced or prospected. These include metals and high-technology materials, such as copper, gold, silver, thorium, uranium and/or vanadium, rare-earth element minerals, iron, manganese, tungsten, lead, zinc, and molybdenum; industrial mineral resources, including barite, limestone/dolomite, caliche, clay, fluorspar, gypsum, scoria, aggregate, and sand and gravel; and fuels and associated resources, such as oil, gas, tar sand and heavy oil, coal, and gases associated with hydrocarbons. Other commodities that have yet to be identified in economic concentrations include potash, halite, polyhalite, anhydrite, sulfur, feldspar, building stone and decorative rock, brines, various gases associated with oil and gas exploration, and carbon dioxide. ?? 1993 Oxford University Press.

  17. Solar energy resources at South region of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinicius Fiorin, Daniel; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Ramos Martins, Fernando; Bueno Pereira, Enio; Ceconi, Marcio; Brackmann, Rodrigo; Guarnieri, Ricardo André

    The Center for Weather Forecast and Climate Studies at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research, Ministry of Science and Technology - CPTEC/INP-MCT, have installed throughout Brazilian territory several sites to acquired solar irradiation data used to assess the renewable energy potential of Brazil as part of SONDA project (www.cptec.inpe.br/sonda/). One of ground sites is located at the Southern Space Observatory-SSO/CRS/CIE/INPE-MCT, (29o S; 53o W), in São Martinho da Serra, RS, South of Brazil, where diffuse and global solar a irradiation are measured by CM 22 and CM21 Pyrhanometers), direct solar radiation are measured by Pyrheliometer NIP and opaque and thin cloudiness fractions were esteemed by a Total Sky Imager TSI-440 (YES, Inc). Our concern is with the fact that the current world energy scenery, characterized by petroleum sources exhaustion and environmental concerns, point out to the use of clean and renewable energy sources such as the solar energy. This work aims to the evaluation of the solar energy resource by using stochastic models relating the cloud cover fraction and solar radiation parameters such as diffuse-to-direct-beam ratio (DDB), diffuse-toglobal solar irradiation ratio (K), diffuse-to-TOA irradiation ratio (KD ), and global-to-TOA irradiation ratio (KT ), measured with the SONDA Project, where TOA is the total irradiation that reach the atmosphere. Only data collected for zenithal solar angle (SZA) lesser than 75 deg for the period between September/2005 to September/2007 were used. The ground data were averaged for fifteen minutes intervals in order to reduce the influence of high frequency variability of cloud cover. It was observed low correlation (around 0.55) among the diffuse to TOA irradiation ratio and cloud cover. Better correlation (about 0.94) were obtained for K parameter. The statistic deviations RMSE (23-28%) and MBE (0.3-5%) were calculated to validate and compare the models performance. The results showed more

  18. 75 FR 16173 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements... Energy and Economic Development (IEED), in the Office of the Assistant Secretary--Indian Affairs, is submitting the information collection titled ``Tribal Energy Resource Agreements (TERAs)'' to the Office...

  19. 78 FR 1854 - Minnesota Energy Resources Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Minnesota Energy Resources Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on January 2, 2013, Minnesota Energy Resources Corporation (MERC) filed a rate... the Minnesota Public Utilities Commission, as more fully detailed in the petition. Any person...

  20. Job satisfaction in relation to energy resource consciousness and perceptions of energy utilization in selected Illinois manufacturing firms

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, T.S.

    1986-01-01

    This study was developed through a synthesis and review of literature and research related to the current status of job satisfaction, energy resources, and perceptions of how energy is utilized in the manufacturing work environment. This synthesis and review revolved around several proven contributing factors of job satisfaction, such as age, education, and challenge from work itself. Quality of work life programs and their components are discussed in relation to their impact on job satisfaction. The nature of energy resource utilization is traced back through history with an emphasis on the limitations of current resources and options for the future. The review highlights the current debate over what should be the future path of energy resource development. The concept of satisfaction of human needs is reviewed and related to job satisfaction and energy resources. The purpose of this research study was to contribute to the understanding of how perceptions of energy resources relate to job satisfaction. Results of the study indicated that there were no significant differences between an individual's energy resource consciousness and perceptions of energy utilization in the work place, energy resource consciousness and job satisfaction, and job satisfaction and perceptions of energy utilization in the workplace.

  1. Advanced Communication and Control Solutions of Distributed Energy Resources (DER)

    SciTech Connect

    Asgeirsson, Haukur; Seguin, Richard; Sherding, Cameron; de Bruet, Andre, G.; Broadwater, Robert; Dilek, Murat

    2007-01-10

    This report covers work performed in Phase II of a two phase project whose objective was to demonstrate the aggregation of multiple Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and to offer them into the energy market. The Phase I work (DE-FC36-03CH11161) created an integrated, but distributed, system and procedures to monitor and control multiple DERs from numerous manufacturers connected to the electric distribution system. Procedures were created which protect the distribution network and personnel that may be working on the network. Using the web as the communication medium for control and monitoring of the DERs, the integration of information and security was accomplished through the use of industry standard protocols such as secure SSL,VPN and ICCP. The primary objective of Phase II was to develop the procedures for marketing the power of the Phase I aggregated DERs in the energy market, increase the number of DER units, and implement the marketing procedures (interface with ISOs) for the DER generated power. The team partnered with the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO), the local ISO, to address the energy market and demonstrate the economic dispatch of DERs in response to market signals. The selection of standards-based communication technologies offers the ability of the system to be deployed and integrated with other utilities’ resources. With the use of a data historian technology to facilitate the aggregation, the developed algorithms and procedures can be verified, audited, and modified. The team has demonstrated monitoring and control of multiple DERs as outlined in phase I report including procedures to perform these operations in a secure and safe manner. In Phase II, additional DER units were added. We also expanded on our phase I work to enhance communication security and to develop the market model of having DERs, both customer and utility owned, participate in the energy market. We are proposing a two-part DER energy market model--a utility

  2. NETL's Energy Data Exchange (EDX) - a coordination, collaboration, and data resource discovery platform for energy science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, K.; Rowan, C.; Rager, D.; Dehlin, M.; Baker, D. V.; McIntyre, D.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-organizational research teams working jointly on projects often encounter problems with discovery, access to relevant existing resources, and data sharing due to large file sizes, inappropriate file formats, or other inefficient options that make collaboration difficult. The Energy Data eXchange (EDX) from Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is an evolving online research environment designed to overcome these challenges in support of DOE's fossil energy goals while offering improved access to data driven products of fossil energy R&D such as datasets, tools, and web applications. In 2011, development of NETL's Energy Data eXchange (EDX) was initiated and offers i) a means for better preserving of NETL's research and development products for future access and re-use, ii) efficient, discoverable access to authoritative, relevant, external resources, and iii) an improved approach and tools to support secure, private collaboration and coordination between multi-organizational teams to meet DOE mission and goals. EDX presently supports fossil energy and SubTER Crosscut research activities, with an ever-growing user base. EDX is built on a heavily customized instance of the open source platform, Comprehensive Knowledge Archive Network (CKAN). EDX connects users to externally relevant data and tools through connecting to external data repositories built on different platforms and other CKAN platforms (e.g. Data.gov). EDX does not download and repost data or tools that already have an online presence. This leads to redundancy and even error. If a relevant resource already has an online instance, is hosted by another online entity, EDX will point users to that external host either using web services, inventorying URLs and other methods. EDX offers users the ability to leverage private-secure capabilities custom built into the system. The team is presently working on version 3 of EDX which will incorporate big data analytical

  3. Resource Evaluation and Energy Production Estimate for a Tidal Energy Conversion Installation using Acoustic Flow Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Ian; Baldwin, Ken; Wosnik, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The ``Living Bridge'' project plans to install a tidal turbine at Memorial Bridge in the Piscataqua River at Portsmouth, NH. A spatio-temporal tidal energy resource assessment was performed using long term bottom-deployed Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers ADCP. Two locations were evaluated: at the planned deployment location and mid-channel. The goal was to determine the amount of available kinetic energy that can be converted into usable electrical energy on the bridge. Changes in available kinetic energy with ebb/flood and spring/neap tidal cycles and electrical energy demand were analyzed. A system model is used to calculate the net energy savings using various tidal generator and battery bank configurations. Differences in the tidal characteristics between the two measurement locations are highlighted. Different resource evaluation methodologies were also analyzed, e.g., using a representative ADCP ``bin'' vs. a more refined, turbine-geometry-specific methodology, and using static bin height vs. bin height that move w.r.t. the free surface throughout a tidal cycle (representative of a bottom-fixed or floating turbine deployment, respectively). ADCP operating frequencies and bin sizes affect the standard deviation of measurements, and measurement uncertainties are evaluated. Supported by NSF-IIP grant 1430260.

  4. Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Oil shale deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolela, Ahmed

    2006-10-01

    The energy crisis affects all countries in the world. Considering the price scenarios, many countries in Africa have begun to explore various energy resources. Ethiopia is one of the countries that depend upon imported petroleum products. To overcome this problem, geological studies suggest a significant occurrence of oil shale deposits in Ethiopia. The Inter-Trappean oil shale-bearing sediments are widely distributed on the South-Western Plateau of Ethiopia in the Delbi-Moye, Lalo-Sapo, Sola, Gojeb-Chida and Yayu Basins. The oil shale-bearing sediments were deposited in fluviatile and lacustrine environments. The oil shales contain mixtures of algal, herbaceous and higher plant taxa. They are dominated by algal-derived liptinite with minor amounts of vitrinite and inertinite. The algal remains belong to Botryococcus and Pediastrum. Laboratory results confirm that the Ethiopian oil shales are dominated by long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and have a low sulphur content. Type-II and Type-I kerogen dominated the studied oil shales. Type-II and Type-I are good source rocks for oil and gas generation. Hydrogen index versus Tmax value plots indicated that most of the oil shale samples fall within the immature-early mature stage for hydrocarbon generation, consistent with the Ro values that range from 0.3% to 0.64%. Pyrolysis data of the oil shales sensu stricto indicate excellent source rocks with up to 61.2% TOC values. Calorific value ranges from 400 to 6165 cal/g. Palynological studies confirmed that the oil shale-bearing sediments of Ethiopia range from Eocene to Miocene in age. A total of about 253,000,000 ton of oil shale is registered in the country. Oil shale deposits in Ethiopia can be used for production of oil and gas.

  5. An atlas of the wave energy resource in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Pontes, M.T.; Athanassoulis, G.A.; Barstow, S.; Cavaleri, L.; Holmes, B.; Mollison, D.; Oliveira-Pires, H.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an Atlas of the European offshore wave energy resource that is being developed within the scope of an European project. It will be mainly based on wave estimates produced by the numerical wind-wave model WAM that is in routine operation at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, UK. This model was chosen after a preliminary verification of two models again buoy data for a one-year period. Wave measurements will be used for the Norwegian Sea and the North Sea. The Atlas will be produced as a user-friendly software package for MS-DOS microcomputers permitting fast retrieval of information as well as saving and printing of statistics and maps. The Atlas will include annual and seasonal statistics of significant wave height, mean and peak period, mean direction and wave power levels (global values as well as directional distributions). These data will be both presented as tables, graphs and as geographic maps.

  6. Geothermal energy resource investigations at Mt. Spurr, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.L.; Wescott, E.M.

    1986-12-01

    Spurr volcano is a composite Quaternary cone of largely andesitic composition located on the west side of Cook Inlet about 80 miles west of Anchorage and about 40 miles from the Beluga electrical transmission line. Geologic mapping (Plate 1-1) shows that the present summit depression was produced by a Mt. St. Helens-type sector collapse, rather than by a caldera collapse. Geochronologic and previous tephrachronologic studies show that there has been an active magmatic system at Spurr volcano during the late Pleistocene-to-Holocene time interval that is of critical interest for geothermal energy resource assessment. Major effort was devoted to geochemical and geophysical surveys of the accessible area south of Mt. Spurr, in addition to geologic mapping and geochronologic studies. Many coincident mercury and helium anomalies were found, suggesting the presence of geothermal systems at depth. Extremely large electrical self-potential anomalies were also found, together with extensive zones of low resistivity discovered by our controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric survey. The juxtaposition of all of these different types of anomalies at certain areas on the south slope of Crater Peak indicates the presence of a geothermal system which should be accessible by drilling to about 2000 ft depth. It is also evident that there is a strong volcanic hazard to be evaluated in considering any development on the south side of Mt. Spurr. This hazardous situation may require angle drilling of production wells from safer areas and placement of power generation facilities at a considerable distance from hazardous areas.

  7. US nonrenewable energy resources as of December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, J.D.

    1980-06-09

    The remaining recoverable fossil fuels are estimated and summarized in four tables, namely: (1) conventional natural gas resources; (2) conventional crude oil resources; (3) summary of all nonrenewable resources, based on publications of agencies reporting in (1) and (2); and (4) life of US fossil-fuel resources at various demand growth rates. No claim is made for the accuracy of disputed oil estimates. Both proved reserves and the estimated total resources which remain and are economically recoverable are reported. Future studies may include the potential resources of peat, Eastern oil shale, and others. Fossil fuels in the US could last from 31 to 107 years, depending on the annual growth rate of demand. (DCK)

  8. ACCIDENTS AND UNSCHEDULED EVENTS ASSOCIATED WITH NON-NUCLEAR ENERGY RESOURCES AND TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accidents and unscheduled events associated with non-nuclear energy resources and technology are identified for each step in the energy cycle. Both natural and anthropogenic causes of accidents or unscheduled events are considered. Data concerning these accidents are summarized. ...

  9. Wind Energy Resource Assessment on Alaska Native Lands in Cordova Region of Prince William Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Whissel, John C.; Piche, Matthew

    2015-06-29

    The Native Village of Eyak (NVE) has been monitoring wind resources around Cordova, Alaska in order to determine whether there is a role for wind energy to play in the city’s energy scheme, which is now supplies entirely by two run-of-the-river hydro plants and diesel generators. These data are reported in Appendices A and B. Because the hydro resources decline during winter months, and wind resources increase, wind is perhaps an ideal counterpart to round out Cordova’s renewable energy supply. The results of this effort suggests that this is the case, and that developing wind resources makes sense for our small, isolated community.

  10. Energy Efficiency as a Preferred Resource: Evidence from Utility Resource Plans in the Western United States and Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, Nichole; Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Schlegel, Jeff

    2008-09-15

    This article examines the future role of energy efficiency as a resource in the Western United States and Canada, as envisioned in the most recent resource plans issued by 16 utilities, representing about 60percent of the region's load. Utility and third-party administered energy efficiency programs proposed by 15 utilities over a ten-year horizon would save almost 19,000 GWh annually, about 5.2percent of forecast load. There are clear regional trends in the aggressiveness of proposed energy savings. California's investor-owned utilities (IOUs) had the most aggressive savings targets, followed by IOUs in the Pacific Northwest, and the lowest savings were proposed by utilities in Inland West states and by two public utilities on the West coast. The adoption of multiple, aggressive policies targeting energy efficiency and climate change appear to produce sizeable energy efficiency commitments. Certain specific policies, such as mandated energy savings goals for California's IOUs and energy efficiency provisions in Nevada's Renewable Portfolio Standard had a direct impact on the level of energy savings included in the resource plans. Other policies, such as revenue decoupling and shareholder incentives, and voluntary or legislatively mandated greenhouse gas emission reduction policies, may have also impacted utilities' energy efficiency commitments, though the effects of these policies are not easily measured. Despite progress among the utilities in our sample, more aggressive energy efficiency strategies that include high-efficiency standards for additional appliances and equipment, tighter building codes for new construction and renovation, as well as more comprehensive ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs are likely to be necessary to achieve a region-wide goal of meeting 20percent of electricity demand with efficiency in 2020.

  11. 78 FR 78466 - Meeting of the Regional Energy Resource Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... priorities among competing objectives and values. Notice of this meeting is given under the Federal Advisory... concerning TVA's Integrated Resource Planning process, focusing on TVA's business objectives including rates... balancing of TVA's business objectives during Integrated Resource Planning. The RERC will hear opinions...

  12. Solar Energy Technology: A Curriculum Planning and Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas-Gordon, Sandy L.; Spetz, Sally H.

    This curriculum resource guide, one of seven developed by the State of Illinois to present information on new and emerging curricula existing in the nation, can be used as a basis for local educators to determine the resources needed to offer solar technology curricula and to initiate curriculum development at the local level. Chapters 1 and 2…

  13. Resource Letter AFHEP-1: Accelerators for the Future of High-Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, William A.

    2012-02-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to literature concerning the development of accelerators for the future of high-energy physics. Research articles, books, and Internet resources are cited for the following topics: motivation for future accelerators, present accelerators for high-energy physics, possible future machine, and laboratory and collaboration websites.

  14. Awareness and Misconceptions of High School Students about Renewable Energy Resources and Applications: Turkey Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortop, Hasan Said

    2012-01-01

    Turkey is the one of the countries in the world which has potential of renewable energy resource because of its geographical position. However, being usage of renewable energy resources and applications (RERAs) is low, it shows that awareness and consciousness of RERAs is very low too. Education must play a key role in growing out of an energy…

  15. The Effect of Distributed Energy Resource Competition with Central Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, SW

    2003-12-10

    Distributed Energy Resource (DER) has been touted as a clean and efficient way to generate electricity at end-use sites, potentially allowing the exhaust heat to be put to good use as well. However, despite its environmental acceptability compared to many other types of generation, it has faced some disapproval because it may displace other, cleaner generation technologies. The end result could be more pollution than if the DER were not deployed. On the other hand, the DER may be competing against older power plants. If the DER is built then these other plants may be retired sooner, reducing their emissions. Or it may be that DER does not directly compete against either new or old plant capacity at the decision-maker level, and increased DER simply reduces the amount of time various plants operate. The key factor is what gets displaced if DER is added. For every kWh made by DER a kWh (or more with losses) of other production is not made. If enough DER is created, some power plants will get retired or not get built so not only their production but their capacity is displaced. Various characteristics of the power system in a region will influence how DER impacts the operation of the grid. The growth in demand in the region may influence whether new plants are postponed or old plants retired. The generation mix, including the fuel types, efficiencies, and emission characteristics of the plants in the region will factor into the overall competition. And public policies such as ease of new construction, emissions regulations, and fuel availability will also come into consideration.

  16. Characterization of U. S. energy resources and reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of the best available estimates of the total domestic energy potential within the United States. The array of energy sources include those appropriate for power generation, liquid fuels, and direct heat applications. The energy sources examined are: geothermal energy, solar energy, biomass energy, wind energy, shale oil, coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat, uranium, and hydropower. 37 refs., 7 figs., 59 tabs.

  17. Interactive energy atlas for Colorado and New Mexico: an online resource for decisionmakers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Natasha B.; Ignizio, Drew A.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Latysh, Natalie; Matherne, Ann Marie; Linard, Joshua I.; Leib, Kenneth J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the western United States, increased demand for energy is driving the rapid development of nonrenewable and renewable energy resources. Resource managers must balance the benefits of energy development with the potential consequences for ecological resources and ecosystem services. To facilitate access to geospatial data related to energy resources, energy infrastructure, and natural resources that may be affected by energy development, the U.S. Geological Survey has developed an online Interactive Energy Atlas (Energy Atlas) for Colorado and New Mexico. The Energy Atlas is designed to meet the needs of varied users who seek information about energy in the western United States. The Energy Atlas has two primary capabilities: a geographic information system (GIS) data viewer and an interactive map gallery. The GIS data viewer allows users to preview and download GIS data related to energy potential and development in Colorado and New Mexico. The interactive map gallery contains a collection of maps that compile and summarize thematically related data layers in a user-friendly format. The maps are dynamic, allowing users to explore data at different resolutions and obtain information about the features being displayed. The Energy Atlas also includes an interactive decision-support tool, which allows users to explore the potential consequences of energy development for species that vary in their sensitivity to disturbance.

  18. Interactive energy atlas for Colorado and New Mexico: an online resource for decisionmakers and the public

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, N.B.; Babel, N.; Diffendorfer, J.; Ignizio, D.; Hawkins, S.; Latysh, N.; Leib, K.; Linard, J.; Matherne, A.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the western United States, increased demand for energy is driving the rapid development of oil, gas (including shale gas and coal-bed methane), and uranium, as well as renewable energy resources such as geothermal, solar, and wind. Much of the development in the West is occurring on public lands, including those under Federal and State jurisdictions. In Colorado and New Mexico, these public lands make up about 40 percent of the land area. Both states benefit from the revenue generated by energy production, but resource managers and other decisionmakers must balance the benefits of energy development with the potential consequences for ecosystems, recreation, and other resources. Although a substantial amount of geospatial data on existing energy development and energy potential is available, much of this information is not readily accessible to natural resource decisionmakers, policymakers, or the public. Furthermore, the data often exist in varied formats, requiring considerable processing before these datasets can be used to evaluate tradeoffs among resources, compare development alternatives, or quantify cumulative impacts. To allow for a comprehensive evaluation among different energy types, an interdisciplinary team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists has developed an online Interactive Energy Atlas for Colorado and New Mexico. The Energy and Environment in the Rocky Mountain Area (EERMA) interdisciplinary team includes investigators from several USGS science centers1. The purpose of the EERMA Interactive Energy Atlas is to facilitate access to geospatial data related to energy resources, energy infrastructure, and natural resources that may be affected by energy development. The Atlas is designed to meet the needs of various users, including GIS analysts, resource managers, policymakers, and the public, who seek information about energy in the western United States. Currently, the Atlas has two primary capabilities, a GIS data viewer and an

  19. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John; MacDonald, Ian

    1980-01-01

    Presents a guide to resources on television drama available to teachers for classroom use in television curriculum. Lists American and British television drama videorecordings of both series and individual presentations and offers a bibliography of "one-off" single fiction plays produced for British television. (JMF)

  20. Petroleum and the Environment: Teaching about Petroleum and the Future of Energy Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Travis; Camphire, Geoffrey

    2005-01-01

    Students live in a world that is powered by petroleum and other energy resources to an unsurpassed degree. The United States today consumes more than 24% of all the energy used in the world--and about 60% of this energy is provided by petroleum (oil and natural gas). The availability of abundant, inexpensive energy is the main reason that the…

  1. DR Resources for Energy and Ancillary Services in the West (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, M.; Kiliccote, S.

    2014-04-01

    Demand response (DR) resources present a potentially important source of grid flexibility however, DR in grid models is limited by data availability and modeling complexity. This presentation focuses on the co-optimization of DR resources to provide energy and ancillary services in a production cost model of the Colorado "test system". We assume each DR resource can provide energy services by either shedding load or shifting its use between different times, as well as operating reserves: frequency regulation, contingency reserve, and flexibility (or ramping) reserve. There are significant variations in the availabilities of different types of DR resources, which affect both the operational savings as well as the revenue for each DR resource. The results presented include the system-wide avoided fuel and generator start-up costs as well as the composite revenue for each DR resource by energy and operating reserves.

  2. Market Design Simulations with Variable Energy Resources (VERs) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.

    2011-06-01

    Presented at the FERC Technical Conference, 29 June 2011, Washington, D.C. This presentation describes NREL research regarding variable generation resources, operating reserves, unit commitment, economic dispatch, and introduces a new and novel modeling tool called 'FESTIV.'

  3. Tidal Energy Conversion Installation at an Estuarine Bridge Site: Resource Evaluation and Energy Production Estimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosnik, M.; Gagnon, I.; Baldwin, K.; Bell, E.

    2015-12-01

    The "Living Bridge" project aims to create a self-diagnosing, self-reporting "smart bridge" powered by a local renewable energy source, tidal energy - transforming Memorial Bridge, a vertical lift bridge over the tidal Piscataqua River connecting Portsmouth, NH and Kittery, ME, into a living laboratory for researchers, engineers, scientists, and the community. The Living Bridge project includes the installation of a tidal turbine at the Memorial Bridge. The energy converted by the turbine will power structural health monitoring, environmental and underwater instrumentation. Utilizing locally available tidal energy can make bridge operation more sustainable, can "harden" transportation infrastructure against prolonged grid outages and can demonstrate a prototype of an "estuarine bridge of the future". A spatio-temporal tidal energy resource assessment was performed using long term bottom-deployed Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) at two locations: near the planned deployment location in 2013-14 for 123 days and mid-channel in 2007 for 35 days. Data were evaluated to determine the amount of available kinetic energy that can be converted into usable electrical energy on the bridge. Changes in available kinetic energy with ebb/flood and spring/neap tidal cycles and electrical energy demand were analyzed. The target deployment site exhibited significantly more energetic ebb tides than flood tides, which can be explained by the local bathymetry of the tidal estuary. A system model is used to calculate the net energy savings using various tidal generator and battery bank configurations. Different resource evaluation methodologies were also analyzed, e.g., using a representative ADCP "bin" vs. a more refined, turbine-geometry-specific methodology, and using static bin height vs. bin height that move w.r.t. the free surface throughout a tidal cycle (representative of a bottom-fixed or floating turbine deployment, respectively). ADCP operating frequencies and bin

  4. Control and Size Energy Storage for Managing Energy balance of Variable Generation Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Xinda; Lu, Ning; Jin, Chunlian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents control algorithms and sizing strategies for using energy storage to manage energy balance for variable generation resources. The control objective is to minimize the hourly generation imbalance between the actual and the scheduled generation of the wind farm. Three control algorithms are compared: tracking power imbalance, post-compensation, and pre-compensation. Measurement data from a wind farm located in South-central Washington State are used in the study. The results show that tracking power imbalance yields the best performance by keeping the hourly energy imbalances zero. However, the energy storage system (ESS) will be significantly oversized. Post-compensation reduces power rating of the ESS but the hourly imbalance may not be kept as zero when large and long-lasting energy imbalances occur. A linear regression forecasting algorithm is developed for the pre-compensation algorithm to pre-charge or pre-discharge the ESS based on predicted energy imbalances. The performance comparison shows that the pre-compensation method significantly reduces the size of the ESS while maintaining satisfactory performance.

  5. The difference between energy consumption and energy cost: Modelling energy tariff structures for water resource recovery facilities.

    PubMed

    Aymerich, I; Rieger, L; Sobhani, R; Rosso, D; Corominas, Ll

    2015-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of incorporating more realistic energy cost models (based on current energy tariff structures) into existing water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) process models when evaluating technologies and cost-saving control strategies. In this paper, we first introduce a systematic framework to model energy usage at WRRFs and a generalized structure to describe energy tariffs including the most common billing terms. Secondly, this paper introduces a detailed energy cost model based on a Spanish energy tariff structure coupled with a WRRF process model to evaluate several control strategies and provide insights into the selection of the contracted power structure. The results for a 1-year evaluation on a 115,000 population-equivalent WRRF showed monthly cost differences ranging from 7 to 30% when comparing the detailed energy cost model to an average energy price. The evaluation of different aeration control strategies also showed that using average energy prices and neglecting energy tariff structures may lead to biased conclusions when selecting operating strategies or comparing technologies or equipment. The proposed framework demonstrated that for cost minimization, control strategies should be paired with a specific optimal contracted power. Hence, the design of operational and control strategies must take into account the local energy tariff. PMID:26048700

  6. 25 CFR 224.64 - How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... new TERA covering the authority for the development of another energy resource it wishes to assume... different types of energy resources? 224.64 Section 224.64 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS TRIBAL ENERGY RESOURCE AGREEMENTS UNDER THE INDIAN TRIBAL...

  7. 25 CFR 224.64 - How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... new TERA covering the authority for the development of another energy resource it wishes to assume... different types of energy resources? 224.64 Section 224.64 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS TRIBAL ENERGY RESOURCE AGREEMENTS UNDER THE INDIAN TRIBAL...

  8. 25 CFR 224.64 - How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... new TERA covering the authority for the development of another energy resource it wishes to assume... different types of energy resources? 224.64 Section 224.64 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS TRIBAL ENERGY RESOURCE AGREEMENTS UNDER THE INDIAN TRIBAL...

  9. 25 CFR 224.64 - How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... new TERA covering the authority for the development of another energy resource it wishes to assume... different types of energy resources? 224.64 Section 224.64 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS TRIBAL ENERGY RESOURCE AGREEMENTS UNDER THE INDIAN TRIBAL...

  10. The xerolithic geothermal (``hot dry rock``) energy resource of the United States: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Nunz, G.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents revised estimates, based upon the most current geothermal gradient data, of the xerolithic geothermal (``hot dry rock`` or HDR) energy resources of the United States. State-by-state tabular listings are provided of the HDR energy resource base, the accessible resource base, and the potentially useful resource base. The latter further subdivided into components with potential for electricity generation, process heat, and space heat. Comparisons are made with present estimates of fossil fuel reserves. A full-sized geothermal gradient contour map is provided as a supplement in a pocket inside the back cover of the report.

  11. Recent wind resource characterization activities at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D L; Schwartz, M N

    1997-07-01

    The wind resource characterization team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working to improve the characterization of the wind resource in many key regions of the world. Tasks undertaken in the past year include: updates to the comprehensive meteorological and geographic data bases used in resource assessments in the US and abroad; development and validation of an automated wind resource mapping procedure; support in producing wind forecasting tools useful to utilities involved in wind energy generation; continued support for recently established wind measurement and assessment programs in the US.

  12. Cost of wind energy: comparing distant wind resources to local resources in the midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Hoppock, David C; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2010-11-15

    The best wind sites in the United States are often located far from electricity demand centers and lack transmission access. Local sites that have lower quality wind resources but do not require as much power transmission capacity are an alternative to distant wind resources. In this paper, we explore the trade-offs between developing new wind generation at local sites and installing wind farms at remote sites. We first examine the general relationship between the high capital costs required for local wind development and the relatively lower capital costs required to install a wind farm capable of generating the same electrical output at a remote site,with the results representing the maximum amount an investor should be willing to pay for transmission access. We suggest that this analysis can be used as a first step in comparing potential wind resources to meet a state renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To illustrate, we compare the cost of local wind (∼50 km from the load) to the cost of distant wind requiring new transmission (∼550-750 km from the load) to meet the Illinois RPS. We find that local, lower capacity factor wind sites are the lowest cost option for meeting the Illinois RPS if new long distance transmission is required to access distant, higher capacity factor wind resources. If higher capacity wind sites can be connected to the existing grid at minimal cost, in many cases they will have lower costs. PMID:20931984

  13. Status of fossil energy resources: A global perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Balat, M.

    2007-07-01

    This article deals with recently status of global fossil energy sources. Fossil energy sources have been split into three categories: oil,coal, and natural gas. Fossil fuels are highly efficient and cheap. Currently oil is the fastest primary energy source in the world (39% of world energy consumption). Coal will be a major source of energy for the world for the foreseeable future (24% of world energy consumption). In 2030, coal covers 45% of world energy needs. Natural gas is expected to be the fastest growing component of world energy consumption (23% of world energy consumption). Fossil fuel extraction and conversion to usable energy has several environmental impacts. They could be a major contributor to global warming and greenhouse gases and a cause of acid rain; therefore, expensive air pollution controls are required.

  14. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 7. The south central region

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.L.; Graves, L.F.; Sprankle, A.C.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    This atlas of the south central region combines seven collections of wind resource data: one for the region, and one for each of the six states (Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas). At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than that provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  15. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 2. The North Central Region

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The North Central atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the North Central region (Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and that data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and international wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  16. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 3. Great Lakes Region

    SciTech Connect

    Paton, D.L.; Bass, A.; Smith, D.G.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The Great Lakes Region atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data, one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the Great Lakes region: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin. At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than in the regional discussion and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations over several time scales in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and of hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  17. Wind energy resource atlas: Volume 6. The Southeast region

    SciTech Connect

    Zabransky, J.; Vilardo, J.M.; Schakenbach, J.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Southeast atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the Southeast region (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  18. Geophysical characterization of mineral and energy resources at Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Langenheim, V.E.; Oliver, H.W.; Hoover, D.B.

    1991-12-31

    This report was prepared for the Yucca Mountain Project (Department of Energy) as part of the study of the mineral and energy resource potential of the site (Activity 8.3.1.9.2.1.5) under the Human Interference part of the program. Most of the 1991 geophysical scoping activities in the Mineral Resources Study were involved with the acquisition and evaluation of existing data. This report presents an overview of how geophysical data (existing and planned) will aid in the evaluation of the potential for mineral and energy resource potential at Yucca Mountain and vicinity.

  19. Energy Education Curriculum Resource. Energy Education Workshop: Energy Sources of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Michael

    This guide is designed to provide teachers with suggestions and assistance in equiping children as advocates of energy stewardship. It is divided into six discussion sections and one section dedicated to specific energy activities presented as curriculum guides for: (1) intermediate science, (2) high school science, (3) intermediate social…

  20. Annual Report: Unconventional Fossil Energy Resource Program (30 September 2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Soong, Yee; Guthrie, George

    2014-03-11

    Yee Soong, Technical Coordinator, George Guthrie, Focus Area Lead, UFER Annual Report, NETL-TRS-UFER-2013, NETL Technical Report Series, U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA, 2013, p 14.

  1. CONFRRM Solar Energy Resource Data: Data from the Cooperative Network for Renewable Resource Measurements

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Cooperative Network for Renewable Resource Measurements (CONFRRM) is a cooperative effort between NREL and other agencies to conduct long-term solar radiation and wind measurements at selected locations in the United States. CONFRRM expands the geographic coverage of measurement locations and provides high quality data for determining site-specific resources, as well as data for the validation and testing of models to predict available resources based on meteorological or satellite data. Twelve sites are currently active in the CONFRRM network. CONFRRM complements and provides additional geographic coverage to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) Integrated Surface Irradiance Study (ISIS) network. Solar data elements measured and reported by the CONFRRM sites include global horizontal irradiance (GHI), direct normal irradiance (DNI), diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI), and global horizontal irradiance measured with a LI-COR pyranometer. Meteorological data include air temperature, relative humidity, pressure, wind speed, wind direction and peak wind speed. Data logger temperature and battery voltage may also be reported. Prior to January 1, 1996, five CONFRRM sites together with South Caroline State College in Orangeburg, South Carolina, made up the Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network, located in the Southeastern United States. In January 1997 the HBCU sites became part of CONFRRM.

  2. Towards Designing an Integrated Earth Observation System for the Provision of Solar Energy Resource and Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackouse, Paul W., Jr.; Renne, D.; Beyer, H.-G.; Wald, L.; Meyers, R.; Perez, R.; Suri, M.

    2006-01-01

    The GEOSS strategic plan specifically targets the area of improved energy resource management due to the importance of these to the economic and social viability of every nation of the world. With the world s increasing demand for energy resources, the need for new alternative energy resources grows. This paper overviews a new initiative within the International Energy Agency that addresses needs to better manage and develop solar energy resources worldwide. The goal is to provide the solar energy industry, the electricity sector, governments, and renewable energy organizations and institutions with the most suitable and accurate information of the solar radiation resources at the Earth's surface in easily-accessible formats and understandable quality metrics. The scope of solar resource assessment information includes historic data sets and currently derived data products using satellite imagery and other means. Thus, this new task will address the needs of the solar energy sector while at the same time will serve as a model that satisfies GEOSS objectives and goals.

  3. Energy education resources. Kindergarten through 12th grade

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-17

    This publication is the result of a study undertaken by the National Energy Information Center (NEIC), a service of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to provide its customers with a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related educational materials for students and educators. The list is updated once a year.

  4. 75 FR 75335 - Integration of Variable Energy Resources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ..., 2009 Wind Technologies Market Report 3-5 (2010), available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/windandhydro/pdfs/2009_wind_technologies_market_report.pdf . \\32\\ Div. of Energy Market Oversight, Fed. Energy Regulatory Comm'n, 2009 State of the Markets Report (2010), available at...

  5. Energy education resources: Kindergarten through 12th grade

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, P.

    1992-12-01

    This publication is the result of a study undertaken by the National Energy Information Center (NEIC), a service of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to provide its customers with a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related education materials for primary and secondary students and educators. The list is updated once a year.

  6. Ephedra and Energy Drinks on College Campuses. Infofacts/Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapner, Daniel Ari

    2008-01-01

    The February 2003 death of Baltimore Orioles pitcher Steve Bechler, who according to the coroner's report died after taking ephedrine alkaloids (ephedra), has garnered national attention for the topic of nutritional supplements and energy drinks. Energy drinks and energy-enhancing pills, diet aids, muscle-enlargers, and other supplements fall…

  7. Role of nuclear energy to a future society of shortage of energy resources and global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shinzo

    2010-03-01

    Human society entered into the society of large energy consumption since the industrial revolution and consumes more than 10 billion tons of oil equivalent energy a year in the world in the present time, in which over 80% is provided by fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Total energy consumption is foreseen to increase year by year from now on due to significant economical and population growth in the developing countries such as China and India. However, fossil fuel resources are limited with conventional crude oil estimated to last about 40 years, and it is said that the peak oil production time has come now. On the other hand, global warming due to green house gases (GHG) emissions, especially carbon dioxide, has become a serious issue. Nuclear energy plays an important role as means to resolve energy security and global warming issues. Four hundred twenty-nine nuclear power plants are operating world widely producing 16% of the total electric power with total plant capacity of 386 GWe without emission of CO 2 as of 2006. It is estimated that another 250 GWe nuclear power is needed to keep the same level contribution of electricity generation in 2030. On the other hand, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) developed the very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) named high temperature gas-cooled engineering test reactor (HTTR) and carbon free hydrogen production process (IS process). Nuclear energy utilization will surely widen in, not only electricity generation, but also various industries such as steel making, chemical industries, together with hydrogen production for transportation by introduction of HTGRs. The details of development of the HTTR and IS process are also described.

  8. Optimizing Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant reductions of carbon emissions and air quality impacts can be achieved by optimizing municipal solid waste (MSW) as a resource. Materials and discards management were found to contribute ~40% of overall U.S. GHG emissions as a result of materials extraction, transpo...

  9. A National Research Council Evaluation of the Department of Energy's Marine and Hydrokinetic Resource Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickson, D.; Holmes, K. J.; Cooke, D.

    2012-12-01

    Marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) resources are increasingly becoming part of energy regulatory, planning, and marketing activities in the U.S. and elsewhere. In particular, state-based renewable portfolio standards and federal production and investment tax credits have led to an increased interest in the possible deployment of MHK technologies. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-58) directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate the size of the MHK resource base. In order to help DOE prioritize its overall portfolio of future research, increase the understanding of the potential for MHK resource development, and direct MHK device and/or project developers to locations of greatest promise, the DOE Wind and Water Power Program requested that the National Research Council (NRC) provide an evaluation of the detailed assessments being conducted by five individual resource assessment groups. These resource assessment groups were contracted to estimate the amount of extractable energy from wave, tidal, ocean current, ocean thermal energy conversion, and riverine resources. Performing these assessments requires that each resource assessment group estimate the average power density of the resource base, as well as the basic technology characteristics and spatial and temporal constituents that convert power into electricity for that resource. The NRC committee evaluated the methodologies, technologies, and assumptions associated with each of these resource assessments. The committee developed a conceptual framework for delineating the processes used to develop the assessment results requested by the DOE, with definitions of the theoretical, technical, and practical resource to clarify elements of the overall resource assessment process. This allowed the NRC committee to make a comparison of different methods, terminology, and processes among the five resource assessment groups. The committee concluded that the overall approach taken by the wave resource and

  10. Energy: The Ultimate Resource? Resource Papers for College Geography, No. 77-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Earl

    This paper, intended for instructors and students in undergraduate courses in geography and environmental studies, discusses the significance of energy to our life and our life-styles. The document is designed to be used in a variety of ways--as background reading for a mini-conference on energy legislation and the geographic problems that are…

  11. Proceedings of the Conference on Research for the Development of Geothermal Energy Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on the development of geothermal energy resources are presented. The purpose of the conference was to acquaint potential user groups with the Federal and National Science Foundation geothermal programs and the method by which the users and other interested members can participate in the program. Among the subjects discussed are: (1) resources exploration and assessment, (2) environmental, legal, and institutional research, (3) resource utilization projects, and (4) advanced research and technology.

  12. U.S. Department of Energy Workshop Report: Solar Resources and Forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, T.

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes the technical presentations, outlines the core research recommendations, and augments the information of the Solar Resources and Forecasting Workshop held June 20-22, 2011, in Golden, Colorado. The workshop brought together notable specialists in atmospheric science, solar resource assessment, solar energy conversion, and various stakeholders from industry and academia to review recent developments and provide input for planning future research in solar resource characterization, including measurement, modeling, and forecasting.

  13. Nigeria`s rich resources for renewable energies

    SciTech Connect

    Ayankoya, J.O.

    1997-12-31

    It has been observed in Nigeria, that there is a correlation between the standard of living as measured by per capita GNP, and per capita energy consumption. As energy use per capita is tied to the importance of population increase it tends to drop during economic slow down. The per capita energy usage is put at 0.2 kw compared to 10 kw for USA and 4 kw for Europe respectively. Furthermore, analysis shows with the increase in population per year and a 2--5% growth in per capita GNP, require an increase of 5--8% in energy supply per year. The Country derives almost all its energy need from fossil fuels (petroleum, gas and coal), hydropower (the only renewable energy used for generating electricity at present) Wood, Animal, Human power and Wind. With the introduction of solar energy, wind energy, micro hydro power, ocean energy, geothermal energy, biomass conversion, and municipal waste energy, the generating of electricity is bound to take a new turn.

  14. Energy Flow: Flow Charts Illustrating United States Energy Resources and Usage, from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    DOE Data Explorer

    Decision makers have long recognized the importance of visualizing energy and material flows in a way that distinguishes between resources, transformations and services. Research priorities can be defined in terms of changes to the flows, and the consequences of policy or technology shifts can be traced both upstream and downstream. The usefulness of this top-down view is limited by the level of detail that can be conveyed in a single image. We use two techniques to balance information content with readability. First we employe visualization techniques, such as those embodied in the energy Sankey diagram below (Figure 1), to display both qualitative (relative line weight) and quantitative (listed values) information in a reader-friendly package. The second method is to augment static images with dynamic, scalable digital content containing multiple layers (e.g. energy, carbon and economic data). This transitions the audience from that of a passive reader to an active user of the information. When used in conjunction these approaches enable relatively large, interconnected processes to be described and analyzed efficiently. [copied from the description at http://en.openei.org/wiki/LLNL_Energy_Flow_Charts#cite_note-1

  15. Assessment of solar and wind energy resources in Ethiopia. I. Solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, F.; Mulugetta, Y.

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes how data from a variety of sources are merged to present new countrywide maps of the solar energy distribution over Ethiopia. The spatial coverage of stations with radiation data was found to be unsatisfactory for the purpose of a countrywide solar energy assessment exercise. Therefore, radiation had to be predicted from sunshine hours by employing empirical models. Using data from seven stations in Ethiopia, linear and quadratic correlation relationships between monthly mean daily solar radiation and sunshine hours per day have been developed. These regional models show a distinct improvement over previously employed countrywide models. To produce a national solar-energy distribution profile, a spatial extension of the radiation/sunshine relationships had to be carried out. To do this, the intercepts(a) and slopes(b) of each of the seven linear regression equations and another six from previous studies, completed in neighbouring Sudan, Kenya and Yemen, were used to interpolate the corresponding values to areas between them. Subsequent to these procedures, 142 stations providing only sunshine data were assigned their `appropriate` a and b values to estimate the amount of solar radiation received, which was then used to produce annual and monthly solar radiation distribution maps for Ethiopia. The results show that in all regions solar energy is an abundant resource. 19 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Alternative Resources for Curriculum Balance in Nutrition, Economics, Energy, Environmental, Consumer & Citizenship Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harty, Sheila, Comp.

    This annotated directory lists selected informational and educational resources in the subject areas predominant in corporate education efforts. Organized by categories of nutrition, economics, energy, environmental consumer and citizenship education, this list is intended to help provide a balance of resources and perspectives for the classroom…

  17. Satellite Power System (SPS) resource requirements (critical materials, energy and land)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotin, A. D.

    1978-01-01

    The resource impacts of the proposed satellite power system are evaluated. Three classes of resource impacts are considered separately: critical materials, energy, and land use. The analysis focuses on the requirements associated with the annual development of two five-gigawatt satellites and the associated receiving facilities.

  18. 78 FR 37876 - Establishment of Regional Energy Resource Council and Solicitation of Nominations for Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY...: Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). ACTION: Notice of Establishment of the Regional Energy Resource Council and Solicitation of Nominations for Membership. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Tennessee Valley...

  19. Proceedings of the National Conference on Energy Resource Management. Volume 1: Techniques, Procedures and Data Bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumfield, J. O. (Editor); Schiffman, Y. M. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Topics dealing with the integration of remotely sensed data with geographic information system for application in energy resources management are discussed. Associated remote sensing and image analysis techniques are also addressed.

  20. 78 FR 37567 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Development Office (IEED) authorized by OMB Control Number 1076-0167. This information collection expires June... Number: 1076-0167. Title: Tribal Energy Resource Agreements, 25 CFR 224. Brief Description of...

  1. 75 FR 11164 - Integration of Variable Energy Resources; Notice Extending Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Power Administration (BPA) filed a motion requesting an extension of at least fourteen days.\\2\\ \\1\\ Integration of Variable Energy Resources, 130 FERC ] 61,053 (2010). \\2\\ BPA indicates, however, that...

  2. Renewable energy resources in a restructured electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    Galen, P.S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper highlights a conference presentation addressing changes in the residential energy sector in view of the increasing competitiveness of the energy market. Renewable energy characteristics are briefly outlined, and capacity and generation data for non-hydroelectric power in 1994 are listed. A review of critical factors in renewables development and policy responses to market impediments is made. Current market barriers are identified, and proposals for Federal policies are made. 17 tabs., 2 figs.

  3. Federal Energy Resources Modernization Coordinating Committee. Semiannual Report, October 1, 1991 Through March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G B

    1992-07-01

    This report summarizes the broad range of activities supported by Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) and other federal agencies focused on meeting the President`s Executive Order on Federal Energy Management promulgated to meet energy savings goals and encourage more efficient management of all federal energy resources. These activities are reported semiannually under the auspices of the FERM Coordinating Committee, and as such include activities undertaken from October 1, 1991, through March 31, 1992. The activities reported are classified into four major categories: (1) technology-base support, which includes development of processes, software, metering and monitoring equipment and strategies, and other tools for the federal energy manager to better understand and characterize their energy resources; (2) federal energy systems testing and monitoring; (3) federal energy systems modernization projects at federal installations in cooperation with the utilities serving the sites; and (4) energy supply, distribution and end-use conservation assessment for federal agencies and/or facilities.

  4. U.S. Geological Survey Energy and Minerals science strategy: a resource lifecycle approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrero, Richard C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Bills, Donald J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Cordier, Daniel J.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Hein, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.; Nelson, Philip H.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2013-01-01

    The economy, national security, and standard of living of the United States depend heavily on adequate and reliable supplies of energy and mineral resources. Based on population and consumption trends, the Nation’s use of energy and minerals can be expected to grow, driving the demand for ever broader scientific understanding of resource formation, location, and availability. In addition, the increasing importance of environmental stewardship, human health, and sustainable growth places further emphasis on energy and mineral resources research and understanding. Collectively, these trends in resource demand and the interconnectedness among resources will lead to new challenges and, in turn, require cutting- edge science for the next generation of societal decisions. The long and continuing history of U.S. Geological Survey contributions to energy and mineral resources science provide a solid foundation of core capabilities upon which new research directions can grow. This science strategy provides a framework for the coming decade that capitalizes on the growth of core capabilities and leverages their application toward new or emerging challenges in energy and mineral resources research, as reflected in five interrelated goals.

  5. 78 FR 60366 - Meeting of the Regional Energy Resource Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... the Integrated Resource Plan process. ] 3. Public Comments. 4. Council Discussion. The RERC will hear... held at 1:30 p.m. C.D.T. on Wednesday, October 23, 2013. Persons wishing to speak are requested to... 23, 2013, from 8:30 a.m. to 4 p.m. c.d.t. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Tennessee...

  6. Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Resources for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.; Heimiller, D.; Haymes, S.; Musial, W.

    2010-06-01

    This report summarizes the offshore wind resource potential for the contiguous United States and Hawaii as of May 2009. The development of this assessment has evolved over multiple stages as new regional meso-scale assessments became available, new validation data was obtained, and better modeling capabilities were implemented. It is expected that further updates to the current assessment will be made in future reports.

  7. Assessment of regional wind energy resources over the Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobchenko, Anastasiia; Khomenko, Inna

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study has been to provide a preliminary assessment of different regions of the Ukraine. Investigation is based on thirty-minute wind observations collected through an 8-year period (January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2008) for seven airports of the Ukraine. For renewal of vertical profile of the wind direction and speed radiosounding data were used. By applying of the probabilistic analysis techniques to series of wind data and the wind extreme values, yearly, monthly and diurnal variation of wind speed and direction are derived. Based on these results theoretical distribution functions and exceeding probability are found for each airport. The statistic characteristics obtained were compared with the correspondent values provided for 1936-1960 and 1961-1990 periods and site-related temporal changeability is determined. For each period considered assessment of wind resources at 10 meters height is carried out. Since the geostrophic wind are frequently used to calculate the surface wind at heights between 10 and 200 m, in the research the distribution of the geostrophic wind for each airport were determined. Comparative analysis of distribution and statistic characteristics of geostrophic and surface winds are made. The relation between a set of values of the geostrophic wind and a set of values of the surface wind speed was provided for each airport. Using different relationship for variation of wind speed with height wind resources at heights between 10 and 200 were assessed. The results obtained show that with the lapse of the time wind speed and wind resources is decreased half the size. It is reflected general tendencies in the wind speed changeability over the European territory. Places which are most perspective for wind turbine installation are off-shore sites such as Odessa, and sites situated in the Crimea mountain (Simferopol) and the Donetsk ridge (Donetsk). The results derived in the contribution may be used for modeling and mapping wind

  8. Energy Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weedman, Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    Our Nation faces the simultaneous challenges of increasing demand for energy, declining domestic production from existing oil and gas fields, and increasing expectations for environmental protection. The Energy Information Administration (2000) forecasts that worldwide energy consumption will increase 32 percent between 1999 and 2020 because of growth of the world economy. Forecasts indicate that in the same time period, U.S. natural gas consumption will increase 62 percent, petroleum consumption will increase 33 percent, and coal consumption will increase 22 percent. The U.S. Geological Survey provides the objective scientific information our society needs for sound decisions regarding land management, environmental quality, and economic, energy, and strategic policy.

  9. US nonrenewable energy resources as of December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-06

    Six tables summarize estimates made of recoverable the US fossil-fuel resources. Remaining recoverable natural gas at the end of 1980 is estimated at between 930 and 1160 trillion cubic feet. The estimates are then compared on a regional basis. Petroleum estimates also vary, reflecting disagreement over the basic data, ranging from 241 to 362 billion barrels. Estimates are made for natural gas liquids (26.04 to 33.64 billion barrels), coal (282.57 billion tons), and uranium (421,000 to 528,000 tons). The estimates for nonrenewable resources are then combined to give a total of 7.039 quintillion Btu for fossil fuels only and 21.139 if breeder reactors are included with proved and currently recoverable resources. The estimated remaining recoverable figures are 28.55 to 46.16 and 94.16 to 110.77 quintillion Btu, respectively. The life expectancy shows a minimum 10-year remaining ratio in 2012 with a four percent growth rate and a maximum to 2215 with a one percent growth. (DCK)

  10. Evaluation of reed resources in Latvia and analysis of its use for energy production.

    PubMed

    Cubars, Edgars; Noviks, Gotfrids

    2012-04-01

    The increasing demand for energy, limited resources of fossil fuel, as well as pollution of the environment and changes in the global climate have raised more interest about the renewable resources. The use of renewable resources has become a very important partof European Union policy. The aim of the paper was to analyse reed resources in Latvia, its dynamics, volume and quality to produce clean energy. The use of reeds as a renewable energy resource contributes in minimizing fossil fuel consumption. The paper presents the results of a research of reed resources in lakes of Latgale (a region in Latvia). The investigation of reed resources showed that in the region they are scattered and rational usage of them is connected with environmental aspects. The greatest amounts of reed resources are concentrated in the biggest lake in Latvia- Lubana Lake and near to it. Studies showed thatthe reed areas in Lubana Lake and Kvapanu ponds have doubled since 1997 and as a result these water reservoirs are becoming overgrown. Using direct measurement methods and metering from distance, it was stated that the total reed resources of greatest Lake - Lubanas are about 6830 tons year(-1) in area of 734 hectares and are situated in 701 reed blocks. The aggregated reed resources of Latgale region are 18 000 tons year(-1) of dry biomass. The investigation proved that reed resources of the region are sufficient to replace up to 21 thousand tons of different fossil fuels. The physical properties of the reed were measured. Carbon quantity, ash content and structure, moisture content proved that reeds are a profitable fuel for heat energy production. Balanced harvesting of reed gives a positive influence on environment. PMID:23424842

  11. Sex Differences in Attitudes Toward New Energy Resource Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout-Wiegand, Nancy; Trent, Roger B.

    A survey to examine male and female attitudes toward locally proposed energy developments (e.g., coal production, refineries) in an Appalachian community is reported. Four hundred and eighty-five residents were questioned on whether they favor the proposed developments; whether they were currently employed in an energy-related occupation; and…

  12. Energy education resources: Kindergarten through 12th grade

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-24

    This publication provides EIA customers with a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related educational materials for primary and secondary students and educators. The list is updated once a year. The list is only to aid educators and students in locating materials; it is the responsibility of the educators to help their students draw conclusions about energy issues.

  13. Energy, Natural Resources, and the Environment in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Commission for a National Agenda for the Eighties, Washington, DC.

    Presented are the findings of a national panel which investigated the present situation and future policy options regarding energy and the environment. Three sections comprise the report: (1) a chapter dealing with energy supply, consumption, pricing and policy; (2) an analysis of environmental issues such as land use, toxic substances,…

  14. National Energy Education Development (NEED) [Resources Local Participation Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Energy Education Development Project, Reston, VA.

    National Energy Education Development (NEED) is concerned with the dissemination of energy education information, the way children learn best, and the type of citizens students will become. Cooperative learning, where students take responsibility for their own learning and that of others in their group, class, school, and their community, is…

  15. Politics of Japan's energy strategy: resources, diplomacy, security

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    This volume of essays attempts to look into the linkages between international military and trade issues, domestic Japanese politics and bureaucratic structure and the decisions being made about energy demand and supply and the future structure of the Japanese energy sector. Some deeper understanding of the energy scene is crucial to US scholars and policy-makers, because there are several areas of important (and not always friendly) interactions between the U.S. and Japan as regards energy questions. Particularly, informed discussion is needed regarding long-term oil policy and preparation for short-term emergencies, nuclear issues, and R and D cooperation. These, as well as Japan's overall energy and economic policies and national security are addressed in an introductory chapter and six other chapters. A separate abstract was prepared for each chapter.

  16. Geothermal -- The Energy Under Our Feet: Geothermal Resource Estimates for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Green, B. D.; Nix, R. G.

    2006-11-01

    On May 16, 2006, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado hosted a geothermal resources workshop with experts from the geothermal community. The purpose of the workshop was to re-examine domestic geothermal resource estimates. The participating experts were organized into five working groups based on their primary area of expertise in the following types of geothermal resource or application: (1) Hydrothermal, (2) Deep Geothermal Systems, (3) Direct Use, (4) Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHPs), and (5) Co-Produced and Geopressured. The workshop found that the domestic geothermal resource is very large, with significant benefits.

  17. Productive resources in students' ideas about energy: An alternative analysis of Watts' original interview transcripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrer, Benedikt W.; Flood, Virginia J.; Wittmann, Michael C.

    2013-12-01

    For over 30 years, researchers have investigated students’ ideas about energy with the intent of reforming instructional practice. In this pursuit, Watts contributed an influential study with his 1983 paper “Some alternative views of energy” [Phys. Educ. 18, 213 (1983)]. Watts’ “alternative frameworks” continue to be used for categorizing students’ non-normative ideas about energy. Using a resources framework, we propose an alternate analysis of student responses from Watts’ interviews. In our analysis, we show how students’ activated resources about energy are disciplinarily productive. We suggest that fostering seeds of scientific understandings in students’ ideas about energy may play an important role in their development of scientific literacy.

  18. The Value of Seasonal Climate Forecasts in Managing Energy Resources.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown Weiss, Edith

    1982-04-01

    Research and interviews with officials of the United States energy industry and a systems analysis of decision making in a natural gas utility lead to the conclusion that seasonal climate forecasts would only have limited value in fine tuning the management of energy supply, even if the forecasts were more reliable and detailed than at present.On the other hand, reliable forecasts could be useful to state and local governments both as a signal to adopt long-term measures to increase the efficiency of energy use and to initiate short-term measures to reduce energy demand in anticipation of a weather-induced energy crisis.To be useful for these purposes, state governments would need better data on energy demand patterns and available energy supplies, staff competent to interpret climate forecasts, and greater incentive to conserve. The use of seasonal climate forecasts is not likely to be constrained by fear of legal action by those claiming to be injured by a possible incorrect forecast.

  19. USDOE/Russian Ministry of Fuel and Energy joint collaboration for renewable energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Touryan, K.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a joint collaboration between the US and Russia to develop renewable energy resources. There are five main goals of the project. First is to establish Intersolarcenter as a sister organization to NREL for joint R&D activities, and to provide training to the staff. Second is to install demonstration systems in parks and selected locations around Moscow. Third is to install pilot projects: a wind/diesel hybrid system at 21 sites in the northern territories; a 500 kW biomass power plant in the Arkhangelsk Region. Fourth is to assist in the start-up operations of a 2 MW/yr Triple Junction amorphous-Si manufacturing facility in Moscow using US technology. Fifth is to explore the possibilities of financing large-scale wind/hybrid and biomass power systems for the nouthern territories (possibly 900 sites).

  20. Energy resources in southern Africa: a select bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Cavan, A.

    1981-01-01

    The aims, progress, and possibilities involved in Southern Africa's energy development are the subject of this 473-item bibliography. The primary items of information described in this document are relatively recent (1975-81), originate from both indigenous and international sources, and are mostly in English, although a few are in French and Portuguese. The presented information focuses on the African continent, the Southern African region, and the nations of Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The energy source topics include alcohol, coal, gas, oil, solar, uranium, water, wind, and wood; as well as a general energy-development category.

  1. Sugar cane as an energy resource for the Caribbean area

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, J.E.

    1982-09-01

    Sugar cane presents tremendous potential as a renewable energy source for the non-oil-producing, developing countries of the Caribbean basin. The analysis presented here, finds the overall energy balance to be extremely favorable. The economics are also favorable, even though capital investment requirements are high. Potential for improvement, in both the energy balance and the economic aspects, is very great. Such improvement is attainable by the development of new technology, which could be available in the short term and at moderate cost. (Refs. 8).

  2. Energy resource recovery facility for Kent and Sussex counties, Delaware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-11-01

    An outline of factors which should be considered in planning a solid waste facility is presented. The following topics are considered: (1) information on the technical findings; (2) existing waste disposal facilities, future systems, and waste characteristics; (3) markets for the waste resources are identified; (4) presents a rational means for site evaluation by assigning numerical values to four principal factors in decision making; (5) the refuse derived fuel system and the modular combustion system is described; (6) risks and implementation issues for the most promising systems are identified.

  3. Clean Energy: No Longer a Luxury! Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This learning activity provides an overview of the problem of clean energy sources and examination of alternatives. Student activity, quiz with answers, related activities, and nine references are provided. (SK)

  4. Assessment of grid-friendly collective optimization framework for distributed energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Pensini, Alessandro; Robinson, Matthew; Heine, Nicholas; Stadler, Michael; Mammoli, Andrea

    2015-11-04

    Distributed energy resources have the potential to provide services to facilities and buildings at lower cost and environmental impact in comparison to traditional electric-gridonly services. The reduced cost could result from a combination of higher system efficiency and exploitation of electricity tariff structures. Traditionally, electricity tariffs are designed to encourage the use of ‘off peak’ power and discourage the use of ‘onpeak’ power, although recent developments in renewable energy resources and distributed generation systems (such as their increasing levels of penetration and their increased controllability) are resulting in pressures to adopt tariffs of increasing complexity. Independently of the tariff structure, more or less sophisticated methods exist that allow distributed energy resources to take advantage of such tariffs, ranging from simple pre-planned schedules to Software-as-a-Service schedule optimization tools. However, as the penetration of distributed energy resources increases, there is an increasing chance of a ‘tragedy of the commons’ mechanism taking place, where taking advantage of tariffs for local benefit can ultimately result in degradation of service and higher energy costs for all. In this work, we use a scheduling optimization tool, in combination with a power distribution system simulator, to investigate techniques that could mitigate the deleterious effect of ‘selfish’ optimization, so that the high-penetration use of distributed energy resources to reduce operating costs remains advantageous while the quality of service and overall energy cost to the community is not affected.

  5. Global impacts of energy demand on the freshwater resources of nations.

    PubMed

    Holland, Robert Alan; Scott, Kate A; Flörke, Martina; Brown, Gareth; Ewers, Robert M; Farmer, Elizabeth; Kapos, Valerie; Muggeridge, Ann; Scharlemann, Jörn P W; Taylor, Gail; Barrett, John; Eigenbrod, Felix

    2015-12-01

    The growing geographic disconnect between consumption of goods, the extraction and processing of resources, and the environmental impacts associated with production activities makes it crucial to factor global trade into sustainability assessments. Using an empirically validated environmentally extended global trade model, we examine the relationship between two key resources underpinning economies and human well--being-energy and freshwater. A comparison of three energy sectors (petroleum, gas, and electricity) reveals that freshwater consumption associated with gas and electricity production is largely confined within the territorial boundaries where demand originates. This finding contrasts with petroleum, which exhibits a varying ratio of territorial to international freshwater consumption, depending on the origin of demand. For example, although the United States and China have similar demand associated with the petroleum sector, international freshwater consumption is three times higher for the former than the latter. Based on mapping patterns of freshwater consumption associated with energy sectors at subnational scales, our analysis also reveals concordance between pressure on freshwater resources associated with energy production and freshwater scarcity in a number of river basins globally. These energy-driven pressures on freshwater resources in areas distant from the origin of energy demand complicate the design of policy to ensure security of fresh water and energy supply. Although much of the debate around energy is focused on greenhouse gas emissions, our findings highlight the need to consider the full range of consequences of energy production when designing policy. PMID:26627262

  6. Global impacts of energy demand on the freshwater resources of nations

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Robert Alan; Scott, Kate A.; Flörke, Martina; Brown, Gareth; Ewers, Robert M.; Farmer, Elizabeth; Kapos, Valerie; Muggeridge, Ann; Taylor, Gail; Barrett, John; Eigenbrod, Felix

    2015-01-01

    The growing geographic disconnect between consumption of goods, the extraction and processing of resources, and the environmental impacts associated with production activities makes it crucial to factor global trade into sustainability assessments. Using an empirically validated environmentally extended global trade model, we examine the relationship between two key resources underpinning economies and human well-being—energy and freshwater. A comparison of three energy sectors (petroleum, gas, and electricity) reveals that freshwater consumption associated with gas and electricity production is largely confined within the territorial boundaries where demand originates. This finding contrasts with petroleum, which exhibits a varying ratio of territorial to international freshwater consumption, depending on the origin of demand. For example, although the United States and China have similar demand associated with the petroleum sector, international freshwater consumption is three times higher for the former than the latter. Based on mapping patterns of freshwater consumption associated with energy sectors at subnational scales, our analysis also reveals concordance between pressure on freshwater resources associated with energy production and freshwater scarcity in a number of river basins globally. These energy-driven pressures on freshwater resources in areas distant from the origin of energy demand complicate the design of policy to ensure security of fresh water and energy supply. Although much of the debate around energy is focused on greenhouse gas emissions, our findings highlight the need to consider the full range of consequences of energy production when designing policy. PMID:26627262

  7. A framework for quantitative assessment of impacts related to energy and mineral resource development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.; Diffendorfer, James; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Berger, Byron R.; Cook, Troy A.; Gautier, Donald L.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Gerritsen, Margot; Graffy, Elisabeth; Hawkins, Sarah; Johnson, Kathleen; Macknick, Jordan; McMahon, Peter; Modde, Tim; Pierce, Brenda; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Semmens, Darius; Simon, Benjamin; Taylor, Jason; Walton-Day, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Natural resource planning at all scales demands methods for assessing the impacts of resource development and use, and in particular it requires standardized methods that yield robust and unbiased results. Building from existing probabilistic methods for assessing the volumes of energy and mineral resources, we provide an algorithm for consistent, reproducible, quantitative assessment of resource development impacts. The approach combines probabilistic input data with Monte Carlo statistical methods to determine probabilistic outputs that convey the uncertainties inherent in the data. For example, one can utilize our algorithm to combine data from a natural gas resource assessment with maps of sage grouse leks and piñon-juniper woodlands in the same area to estimate possible future habitat impacts due to possible future gas development. As another example: one could combine geochemical data and maps of lynx habitat with data from a mineral deposit assessment in the same area to determine possible future mining impacts on water resources and lynx habitat. The approach can be applied to a broad range of positive and negative resource development impacts, such as water quantity or quality, economic benefits, or air quality, limited only by the availability of necessary input data and quantified relationships among geologic resources, development alternatives, and impacts. The framework enables quantitative evaluation of the trade-offs inherent in resource management decision-making, including cumulative impacts, to address societal concerns and policy aspects of resource development.

  8. Energy Resources Available to the United States, 1985 to 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Earl T.

    1979-01-01

    Our energy growth is slowing down and will level off in the 1990s. Our oil and gas production passed a peak in the early 1970s. Coal is the only fossil fuel capable of increased production. Finding rates for petroleum, natural gas, and uranium are less than half what they were twenty years ago. (Author/BB)

  9. Energy Conservation in Construction Trades. Special Packages: Instructional Resources for Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    Designed for secondary and postsecondary vocational teachers and administrators, this resource package on energy conservation in construction trades contains three sections of information. Section I provides an instructional module (developed by the Wisconsin Vocational Studies Center) on solar energy; the module is organized into seven units:…

  10. FLASTAR: Florida Alliance for Saving Taxes and Energy Resources. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwin, John R.; Parker, Danny S.

    A study of the Florida Public Building Loan Concept pilot program determined its effectiveness in helping to upgrade building energy systems. The pilot program, termed FLASTAR (Florida Alliance for Saving Taxes and Resources), involved the comprehensive metering of an elementary school to demonstrate energy savings potential after retrofitting…

  11. Socio-Cultural Factors and Energy Resource Development in Rural Areas in the West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Stan L.

    Drawing upon and synthesizing social and demographic data (1940-70) from 14 counties in the Rocky Mountain West which are currently facing extensive population growth as the result of large scale energy resource development, a preliminary model of potential sociocultural impact was developed. Including national energy needs and traditional…

  12. Proceedings of the National Conference on Energy Resource Management. Volume 2: Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumfield, J. O. (Editor); Schiffman, Y. M. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Subject areas related to the integration of remotely sensed data with geographic information systems for application in energy resource management are covered. The current trends and advances in the application of these systems to a number of energy concerns are addressed.

  13. Developing Clean Energy Projects on Tribal Lands: Data and Resources for Tribes (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-12-01

    This is a outreach brochure (booklet) for the DOE Office of Indian Energy summarizing the renewable energy technology potential on tribal lands. The booklet features tech potential maps for various technologies, information about the activities of DOE-IE, and resources for Tribes.

  14. 25 CFR 224.64 - How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources? 224.64 Section 224.64 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS TRIBAL ENERGY RESOURCE AGREEMENTS UNDER THE INDIAN TRIBAL ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AND SELF DETERMINATION ACT...

  15. Evaluation Framework and Tools for Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Gumerman, Etan Z.; Bharvirkar, Ranjit R.; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Marnay , Chris

    2003-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 2002 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) forecast anticipates the need for 375 MW of new generating capacity (or about one new power plant) per week for the next 20 years, most of which is forecast to be fueled by natural gas. The Distributed Energy and Electric Reliability Program (DEER) of the Department of Energy (DOE), has set a national goal for DER to capture 20 percent of new electric generation capacity additions by 2020 (Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 2000). Cumulatively, this amounts to about 40 GW of DER capacity additions from 2000-2020. Figure ES-1 below compares the EIA forecast and DEER's assumed goal for new DER by 2020 while applying the same definition of DER to both. This figure illustrates that the EIA forecast is consistent with the overall DEER DER goal. For the purposes of this study, Berkeley Lab needed a target level of small-scale DER penetration upon which to hinge consideration of benefits and costs. Because the AEO2002 forecasted only 3.1 GW of cumulative additions from small-scale DER in the residential and commercial sectors, another approach was needed to estimate the small-scale DER target. The focus here is on small-scale DER technologies under 500 kW. The technology size limit is somewhat arbitrary, but the key results of interest are marginal additional costs and benefits around an assumed level of penetration that existing programs might achieve. Berkeley Lab assumes that small-scale DER has the same growth potential as large scale DER in AEO2002, about 38 GW. This assumption makes the small-scale goal equivalent to 380,000 DER units of average size 100 kW. This report lays out a framework whereby the consequences of meeting this goal might be estimated and tallied up. The framework is built around a list of major benefits and a set of tools that might be applied to estimate them. This study lists some of the major effects of an emerging paradigm shift away from central

  16. Renewable energy development in China: Resource assessment, technology status, and greenhouse gas mitigation potential

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y.; Renne, O.D.; Junfeng, Li

    1996-12-31

    China, which has pursued aggressive policies to encourage economic development, could experience the world`s fastest growth in energy consumption over the next two decades. China has become the third largest energy user in the world since 1990 when primary energy consumption reached 960 million tons of coal equivalent (tce). Energy use is increasing at an annual rate of 6-7% despite severe infrastructure and capital constraints on energy sector development. Energy consumption in China is heavily dominated by coal, and fossil fuels provide up to 95% of all commercial energy use. Coal currently accounts for 77% of total primary energy use; oil, 16%; hydropower, 5%; and natural gas, 2%. Coal is expected to continue providing close to three-quarters of all energy consumed, and the amount of coal used is expected to triple by year 2020. Currently, renewable energy resources (except for hydropower) account for only a fraction of total energy consumption. However, the estimated growth in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as serious local and regional environmental pollution problems caused by combustion of fossil fuels, provides strong arguments for the development of renewable energy resources. Renewable energy potential in China is significantly greater than that indicated by the current level of use. With a clear policy goal and consistent efforts from the Government of China, renewables can play a far larger role in its future energy supply.

  17. Evaluation of the geopressured energy resource of Louisiana and Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1980-01-01

    The economics of extracting either the geothermal energy or natural gas from geopressured aquifers does not look promising. The combined requirements of high well flow rates, long life, and the necessity for close well spacing to minimize the cost of the collection system may be incompatible with the actual characteristics of the reservoirs. These factors place such stringent requirements on the reservoir size, permeability and compressibility that the number of promising production areas may be severely limited.

  18. Fort Lewis electric energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Secrest, T.J.; Currie, J.W.; DeSteese, J.G.; Dirks, J.A.; Marseille, T.J.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Shankle, S.A.

    1991-10-01

    In support of the US DOE Federal Energy Management Program, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations. Fort Lewis, a US Army installation near Tacoma, Washington, was selected as the pilot site for developing this approach. This site was chosen in conjunction with the interests of the Bonneville Power Administration to develop programs for its federal sector customers and the Army Forces Command to develop an in-house program to upgrade the energy efficiency of its installations. This report documents the electricity assessment portion of the approach, providing an estimate of the electricity use baseline and efficiency improvement potential for major sectors and end uses at the Fort. Although the assessment did not identify all possible efficiency improvement opportunities, it is estimated that electricity use can be reduced by at least 20% cost-effectively at the $0.045/kWh marginal cost of electricity in the Pacific Northwest. 12 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Early organic evolution: Implications for mineral and energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Schidlowski, M.

    1992-01-01

    Early Organic Evolution is the proceedings of the ninth Alfred Wegener Conference, the final meeting of IGCP Project 157 held in Germany in 1988. Over the past 15 years, Project 157 has promoted the blending of organic geochemistry, economic geology, and evolutionary biology. This IGCP publication covers a diverse set of topics and truly reflects the interdisciplinary nature of the field of early organic evolution. In the second and largest section, seventeen papers on organic matter in ancient sediments discuss the chemical analysis of early sediments, gas, and oil. The reader is treated to a review of carbon isotope chemistry and a [delta][sup 13]C walk through the past 3.8 billion years, and even deeper yet into the mantle. Following this is a series of papers carefully describing elemental, isotopic, and organic geochemical (particularly biomarker) data from ancient sediments found throughout the earth. This section ends very strongly with the paper by Fowler on the influence of a single alga on Ordovician oils and rocks from Canada. He first gives a detailed account of the considerable chemical and microscopic evidence showing that minimally reworked Gloeocapsomorpha prisca is the main contributor of organic matter to the oil and rock and then goes on to discuss the nature of the organism. In general, this book reviews information presented in other places, but still serves as a good resource for those interested in the evolution of the Earth.

  20. Wind and Solar Energy Resource Assessment for Navy Installations in the Midwestern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmenova, K.; Apling, D.; Higgins, G. J.; Carnes, J.; Smith, C.

    2012-12-01

    A stable supply of energy is critical for sustainable economic development and the ever-increasing demand for energy resources drives the need for alternative weather-driven renewable energy solutions such as solar and wind-generated power. Recognizing the importance of energy as a strategic resource, the Department of the Navy has focused on energy efficient solutions aiming to increase tactical and shore energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Implementing alternative energy solutions will alleviate the Navy installations demands on the National power grid, however transitioning to renewable energy sources is a complex multi-stage process that involves initial investment in resource assessment and feasibility of building solar and wind power systems in Navy's facilities. This study focuses on the wind and solar energy resource assessment for Navy installations in the Midwestern US. We use the dynamically downscaled datasets at 12 km resolution over the Continental US generated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to derive the wind climatology in terms of wind speed, direction, and wind power at 20 m above the surface for 65 Navy facilities. In addition, we derived the transmissivity of the atmosphere, diffuse radiation fraction, cloud cover and seasonal energy potential for a zenith facing surface with unobstructed horizon for each installation location based on the results of a broadband radiative transfer model and our cloud database based on 17-years of GOES data. Our analysis was incorporated in a GIS framework in combination with additional infrastructure data that enabled a synergistic resource assessment based on the combination of climatological and engineering factors.

  1. VIRTUAL HYDROPOWER PROSPECTING: A FOUNDATION FOR WATER ENERGY RESOURCE PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Randy Lee; Sera White; Julie Brizzee; Shane Cherry; Douglas Hall

    2008-06-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the gross power potential of the natural stream water energy resources of the United States was performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models (DEMs) and geographic information system (GIS) tools. Water energy resource sites (stream segments) assessed in the basic resource assessment were further evaluated to identify which can be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of each site was refined to determine its developable hydropower potential using a set of development criteria corresponding to a damless low power (less than 1 MWa) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MWa) project. The methodologies for performing the basic resource assessment and subsequent feasibility assessment are described and the summary results for the nation are presented.

  2. Analysis of requirements for accelerating the development of geothermal energy resources in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    Various resource data are presented showing that geothermal energy has the potential of satisfying a singificant part of California's increasing energy needs. General factors slowing the development of geothermal energy in California are discussed and required actions to accelerate its progress are presented. Finally, scenarios for developing the most promising prospects in the state directed at timely on-line power are given. Specific actions required to realize each of these individual scenarios are identified.

  3. US Department of Energy Office of Codes and Standards resource book

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Codes and Standards has developed this Resource Book to provide a discussion of DOE involvement in building codes and standards; a current and accurate set of descriptions of residential, commercial, and Federal building codes and standards; information on State contacts, State code status, State building construction unit volume, and State needs; and a list of stockholders in the building energy codes and standards arena.

  4. World nonrenewable energy resources. [Based on published estimates of recognized authors and agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, J.D.

    1981-10-26

    Up-to-date estimates are presented for world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the nonrenewable energy resources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, bitumens, shale oil, and uranium oxide. Life indices for world fossil fuels are also presented for several annual growth rates. Nonconventional gas and oil, such as exist in formations of very low permeability, are not included. 4 tables.

  5. A Global Perspective: NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resources (POWER) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Taiping; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Chandler, William S.; Hoell, James M.; Westberg, David; Whitlock, Charles H.

    2007-01-01

    The Prediction of the Worldwide Energy Resources (POWER) Project, initiated under the NASA Science Mission Directorate Applied Science Energy Management Program, synthesizes and analyzes data on a global scale that are invaluable to the renewable energy industries, especially to the solar and wind energy sectors. The POWER project derives its data primarily from NASA's World Climate Research Programme (WCRP)/Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project (Version 2.9) and the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) assimilation model (Version 4). The latest development of the NASA POWER Project and its plans for the future are presented in this paper.

  6. Exploration of Resource and Transmission Expansion Decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Andrew D.; Phadke, Amol A.; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2010-06-10

    The Western Renewable Energy Zone (WREZ) initiative brings together a diverse set of voices to develop data, tools, and a unique forum for coordinating transmission expansion in the Western Interconnection. In this paper we use a new tool developed in the WREZ initiative to evaluate possible renewable resource selection and transmission expansion decisions. We evaluate these decisions under a number of alternative future scenarios centered on meeting 33percent of the annual load in the Western Interconnection with new renewable resources located within WREZ-identified resource hubs. Our analysis finds that wind energy is the largest source of renewable energy procured to meet the 33percent RE target across nearly all scenarios analyzed (38-65percent). Solar energy is almost always the second largest source (14-41percent). We find several load zones where wind energy is the least cost resource under a wide range of sensitivity scenarios. Load zones in the Southwest, on the other hand, are found to switch between wind and solar, and therefore to vary transmission expansion decisions, depending on uncertainties and policies that affect the relative economics of each renewable option. Further, we find that even with total transmission expenditures of $17-34 billion these costs still represent just 10-19percent of the total delivered cost of renewable energy.

  7. Fossil resource and energy security dynamics in conventional and carbon-constrained worlds

    SciTech Connect

    McCollum, David; Bauer, Nico; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kitous, Alban; Riahi, Keywan

    2014-04-01

    Fossil resource endowments and the future development of fossil fuel prices are important factors that will critically influence the nature and direction of the global energy system. In this paper we analyze a multi-model ensemble of long-term energy and emissions scenarios that were developed within the framework of the EMF27 integrated assessment model inter-comparison exercise. The diverse nature of these models highlights large uncertainties in the likely development of fossil resource (coal, oil, and natural gas) consumption, trade, and prices over the course of the twenty-first century and under different climate policy frameworks. We explore and explain some of the differences across scenarios and models and compare the scenario results with fossil resource estimates from the literature. A robust finding across the suite of IAMs is that the cumulative fossil fuel consumption foreseen by the models is well within the bounds of estimated recoverable reserves and resources. Hence, fossil resource constraints are, in and of themselves, unlikely to limit future GHG emissions. Our analysis also shows that climate mitigation policies could lead to a major reallocation of financial flows between regions, in terms of expenditures on fossil fuels and carbon, and can help to alleviate near-term energy security concerns via the reductions in oil imports and increases in energy system diversity they will help to motivate.

  8. Model Predictive Control-based Optimal Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Lian, Jianming; Elizondo, Marcelo A.

    2013-04-03

    Distributed energy resources, such as renewable energy resources (wind, solar), energy storage and demand response, can be used to complement conventional generators. The uncertainty and variability due to high penetration of wind makes reliable system operations and controls challenging, especially in isolated systems. In this paper, an optimal control strategy is proposed to coordinate energy storage and diesel generators to maximize wind penetration while maintaining system economics and normal operation performance. The goals of the optimization problem are to minimize fuel costs and maximize the utilization of wind while considering equipment life of generators and energy storage. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve a look-ahead dispatch optimization problem and the performance is compared to an open loop look-ahead dispatch problem. Simulation studies are performed to demonstrate the efficacy of the closed loop MPC in compensating for uncertainties and variability caused in the system.

  9. Model Predictive Control-based Optimal Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Lian, Jianming; Elizondo, Marcelo A.

    2013-01-07

    Distributed energy resources, such as renewable energy resources (wind, solar), energy storage and demand response, can be used to complement conventional generators. The uncertainty and variability due to high penetration of wind makes reliable system operations and controls challenging, especially in isolated systems. In this paper, an optimal control strategy is proposed to coordinate energy storage and diesel generators to maximize wind penetration while maintaining system economics and normal operation performance. The goals of the optimization problem are to minimize fuel costs and maximize the utilization of wind while considering equipment life of generators and energy storage. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve a look-ahead dispatch optimization problem and the performance is compared to an open loop look-ahead dispatch problem. Simulation studies are performed to demonstrate the efficacy of the closed loop MPC in compensating for uncertainties and variability caused in the system.

  10. Biomass for energy in the European Union - a review of bioenergy resource assessments.

    PubMed

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Felby, Claus

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews recent literature on bioenergy potentials in conjunction with available biomass conversion technologies. The geographical scope is the European Union, which has set a course for long term development of its energy supply from the current dependence on fossil resources to a dominance of renewable resources. A cornerstone in European energy policies and strategies is biomass and bioenergy. The annual demand for biomass for energy is estimated to increase from the current level of 5.7 EJ to 10.0 EJ in 2020. Assessments of bioenergy potentials vary substantially due to methodological inconsistency and assumptions applied by individual authors. Forest biomass, agricultural residues and energy crops constitute the three major sources of biomass for energy, with the latter probably developing into the most important source over the 21st century. Land use and the changes thereof is a key issue in sustainable bioenergy production as land availability is an ultimately limiting factor. PMID:22546368

  11. Challenges for fuel cells as stationary power resource in the evolving energy enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastler, Dan

    The primary market challenges for fuel cells as stationary power resources in evolving energy markets are reviewed. Fuel cell power systems have significant barriers to overcome in their anticipated role as decentralized energy power systems. Market segments for fuel cells include combined heat and power; low-cost energy, premium power; peak shaving; and load management and grid support. Understanding the role and fit of fuel cell systems in evolving energy markets and the highest value applications are a major challenge for developers and government funding organizations. The most likely adopters of fuel cell systems and the challenges facing each adopter in the target market segment are reviewed. Adopters include generation companies, utility distribution companies, retail energy service providers and end-users. Key challenges include: overcoming technology risk; achieving retail competitiveness; understanding high value markets and end-user needs; distribution and service channels; regulatory policy issues; and the integration of these decentralized resources within the electrical distribution system.

  12. Renewable-energy-resource options for the food-processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.; Clark, M.A.; Inaba, L.K.

    1981-09-01

    The food processing industry generates significant quantities of organic process wastes which often require treatment prior to disposal or result in additional expenses for disposal. The food processing industry also requires fuel and electricity to provide the process energy to convert raw materials into finished food products. Depending on the particular process, organic wastes can represent a potential resource for conversion to energy products that can be used for providing process energy or other energy products. This document reports the results of an evaluation of renewable energy resource options for the food processing industry. The options evaluated were direct combustion for providing process heat, fermentation for ethanol production and anaerobic digestion for generation of methane.

  13. Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide - an energy resource perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Burruss; Sean T. Brennan

    2003-03-15

    Most energy used to meet human needs is derived from the combustion of fossil fuels (natural gas, oil, and coal), which releases carbon to the atmosphere, primarily as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}, a greenhouse gas, is increasing, raising concerns that solar heat will be trapped and the average surficial temperature of the Earth will rise in response. Global warming studies predict that climate changes resulting from increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} will adversely affect life on Earth. In the 200 years since the industrial revolution, the world's population has grown from about 800 million to over 6 billion people and the CO{sub 2} content of the atmosphere has risen from about 280 to about 360 parts per million by volume, a 30 percent increase. International concern about potential global climate change has spurred discussions about limiting the amount of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  14. Evaluating Programs That Promote Climate and Energy Education-Meeting Teacher Needs for Online Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynds, S. E.; Buhr, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) Pathway, is a National Science Digital Library (NSDL) Pathways project that was begun in 2010. The main goal of CLEAN is to generate a reviewed collection of educational resources that are aligned with the Essential Principles of Climate Science (EPCS). Another goal of the project is to support a community that will assist students, teachers, and citizens in climate literacy. A complementary program begun in 2010 is the ICEE (Inspiring Climate Education Excellence) program, which is developing online modules and courses designed around the climate literacy principles for use by teachers and other interested citizens. In these projects, we learn about teacher needs through a variety of evaluation mechanisms. The programs use evaluation to assist in the process of providing easy access to high quality climate and energy learning resources that meet classroom requirements. The internal evaluation of the CLEAN program is multidimensional. At the CLEAN resource review camps, teachers and scientists work together in small groups to assess the value of online resources for use in the classroom. The review camps are evaluated using observation and feedback surveys; the resulting evaluation reports provide information to managers to fine-tune future camps. In this way, a model for effective climate resource development meetings has been refined. Evaluation methods used in ICEE and CLEAN include teacher needs assessment surveys, teacher feedback at professional development opportunities, scientist feedback at resource review workshops, and regular analysis of online usage of resources, forums, and education modules. This paper will review the most successful strategies for evaluating the effectiveness of online climate and energy education resources and their use by educators and the general public.

  15. Local government involvement in long term resource planning for community energy systems. Demand side management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    A program was developed to coordinate governmental, research, utility, and business energy savings efforts, and to evaluate future potential actions, based on actual field data obtained during the implementation of Phase I of the State Resource Plan. This has lead to the establishment of a state conservation and energy efficiency fund for the purpose of establishing a DSM Program. By taking a state wide perspective on resource planning, additional savings, including environmental benefits, can be achieved through further conservation and demand management. This effort has already blossomed into a state directive for DSM programs for the natural gas industry.

  16. Local government involvement in long term resource planning for community energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    A program was developed to coordinate governmental, research, utility, and business energy savings efforts, and to evaluate future potential actions, based on actual field data obtained during the implementation of Phase I of the State Resource Plan. This has lead to the establishment of a state conservation and energy efficiency fund for the purpose of establishing a DSM Program. By taking a state wide perspective on resource planning, additional savings, including environmental benefits, can be achieved through further conservation and demand management. This effort has already blossomed into a state directive for DSM programs for the natural gas industry.

  17. Thorium Deposits of the United States - Energy Resources for the Future?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Gillerman, Virginia S.; Armbrustmacher, Theodore J.

    2009-01-01

    Many nations are exploring new ways to meet their growing energy supply needs, with a particular focus upon methods that produce lower carbon dioxide emissions compared to traditional oil, natural gas, and coal power plants. As a result, thorium-based nuclear power has experienced renewed attention as a potential energy source. Thus, it benefits the United States and other countries to identify and evaluate their indigenous thorium resources. This report describes the geology and resources of the principal thorium districts of the United States.

  18. Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources: Appendix C - Validation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Douglas

    2004-04-01

    Analytical assessments of the water energy resources in the 20 hydrologic regions of the United States were performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models and geographic information system tools. The principal focus of the study was on low head (less than 30 ft)/low power (less than 1 MW) resources in each region. The assessments were made by estimating the power potential of all the stream segments in a region, which averaged 2 miles in length. These calculations were performed using hydrography and hydraulic heads that were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Elevation Derivatives for National Applications dataset and stream flow predictions from a regression equation or equations developed specifically for the region. Stream segments excluded from development and developed hydropower were accounted for to produce an estimate of total available power potential. The total available power potential was subdivided into high power (1 MW or more), high head (30 ft or more)/low power, and low head/low power total potentials. The low head/low power potential was further divided to obtain the fractions of this potential corresponding to the operating envelopes of three classes of hydropower technologies: conventional turbines, unconventional systems, and microhydro (less than 100 kW). Summing information for all the regions provided total power potential in various power classes for the entire United States. Distribution maps show the location and concentrations of the various classes of low power potential. No aspect of the feasibility of developing these potential resources was evaluated.

  19. Exploration of Resource and Transmission Expansion Decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Andrew; Phadke, Amol; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-02-16

    Building transmission to reach renewable energy (RE) goals requires coordination among renewable developers, utilities and transmission owners, resource and transmission planners, state and federal regulators, and environmental organizations. The Western Renewable Energy Zone (WREZ) initiative brings together a diverse set of voices to develop data, tools, and a unique forum for coordinating transmission expansion in the Western Interconnection. In this report we use a new tool developed in the WREZ initiative to evaluate possible renewable resource selection and transmission expansion decisions. We evaluate these decisions under a number of alternative future scenarios centered on meeting 33% of the annual load in the Western Interconnection with new renewable resources located within WREZ-identified resource hubs. Of the renewable resources in WREZ resource hubs, and under the assumptions described in this report, our analysis finds that wind energy is the largest source of renewable energy procured to meet the 33% RE target across nearly all scenarios analyzed (38-65%). Solar energy is almost always the second largest source (14-41%). Solar exceeds wind by a small margin only when solar thermal energy is assumed to experience cost reductions relative to all other technologies. Biomass, geothermal, and hydropower are found to represent a smaller portion of the selected resources, largely due to the limited resource quantity of these resources identified within the WREZ-identified hubs (16-23% combined). We find several load zones where wind energy is the least cost resource under a wide range of sensitivity scenarios. Load zones in the Southwest, on the other hand, are found to switch between wind and solar, and therefore to vary transmission expansion decisions, depending on uncertainties and policies that affect the relative economics of each renewable option. Uncertainties and policies that impact bus-bar costs are the most important to evaluate carefully, but

  20. 77 FR 71414 - M&R Energy Resources Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission M&R Energy Resources Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of M&R Energy Resources Corp.'s application for market-based rate authority...://www.ferc.gov . To facilitate electronic service, persons with Internet access who will eFile...

  1. Trends in the development of industrially assimilated renewable energy: the problem of resource restrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizhegorodtsev, R. M.; Ratner, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    An analysis of the dynamics of the development of wind and solar energy and potential resource restrictions of the dissemination of these technologies of energy generation associated with intensive use of rare earth metals and some other mineral resources are presented. The technological prospects of various directions of decisions of the problem of resource restrictions, including escalating of volumes of extraction and production of necessary mineral components, creating substitutes of scarce materials and development of recycling are considered. The bottlenecks of each of the above-mentioned decisions were founded. Conclusions are drawn on the prospects of development of the Russian high-tech sectors of the economy in the context of the most probable decisions of the problem of resource restrictions of wind and solar energy. An increase in extraction and production of rare earth metals and some other materials, stimulation of domestic research and development (R&D) to create the permanent magnets of new types and new technologies of wind-powered generation, and reduction of the resource-demand and technology development of recycling the components of power equipment are the most prospective directions of progress. The innovations in these directions will be in demand on the European, Chinese, and North American markets in the near decades due to the end of the life cycle (approximately 30 years) of wind and solar energy projects started at the turn of the 20th-21st centuries (the beginning of exponential growth in plants). The private investors and relevant regional and federal government agencies can use the qualitative characteristics of the dynamics of industrially assimilated renewable energy to choose the most promising investment orientations in energy projects and selection of the most economically sound development methods of energy and related industries.

  2. Essays on environmental, energy, and natural resource economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan

    My dissertation focuses on examining the interrelationship among the environment, energy and economic development. In the first essay, I explore the effects of increased uncertainty over future output prices, input costs and productivity levels on intertemporal emission permits trading. In a dynamic programming setting, a permit price is a convex function of each of these three sources of uncertainty. Increased uncertainty about future market conditions increases the expected permit price and causes risk-neutral firms to reduce ex ante emissions to smooth marginal abatement costs over time. Empirical analysis shows that increased price volatility induced by electricity market restructuring could explain 8-11% of the allowances banked during Phase I of the U.S. sulfur dioxide trading program. Numerical simulation suggests that high uncertainty may generate substantial initial compliance costs, thereby deterring new entrants and reducing efficiency; sharp emission spikes are also more likely to occur under industry-wide uncertainty shocks. In the second essay, I examine whether electricity restructuring improves the efficiency of U.S. nuclear power generation. Based on the full sample of 73 investor-owned nuclear plants in the United States from 1992 to 1998, I estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal efficiency changes associated with restructuring, at the plant level. Various modeling strategies are presented to deal with the policy endogeneity bias that high cost plants are more likely to be restructured. Overall, I find a strikingly positive relationship between the multiple steps of restructuring and plant operating efficiency. In the third essay, I estimate the economic impact of China's national land conversion program on local farm-dependent economies. The impact of the program on 14 industrial sectors in Gansu provinces are investigated using an input-output model. Due to regulatory restrictions, the agricultural sector cannot automatically expand or shrink

  3. The Fourth R. Resourcefulness in School Energy Conservation. SEED: Schoolhouse Energy Efficiency Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenneco, Inc., Houston, TX.

    An energy audit is a building inspection that, when complete, provides a profile of the building's energy usage. The energy audit determines how energy is used; simple maintenance and operating procedures to conserve energy; and the need, if any, for purchase of new energy saving equipment or modifications to the building. Schoolhouse Energy…

  4. U.S. Solar Resource Maps and Tools from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Solar maps provide monthly average daily total solar resource information on grid cells. The insolation values represent the resource available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal to equal to the latitude of the collector location. [Copied from http://www.nrel.gov/gis/solar.html] Several types of solar maps are made available. The U.S. Solar resource maps show the resource potential for energy from photovoltaics and from concentrating solar power (CSP). Both sets of maps are available in low or high resolution. A dynamic map based on version 2 of PVWATTS calculates electrical energy performance estimates for a grid-connected photovoltaic system. The map of U.S. Solar Measurement Station Locations is also dynamic, showing the spatial distribution of measurement stations across the U.S. that are monitored by programs and agencies such as DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program or NREL's Cooperative Network for Renewable Resource Measurements (CONFRRM). Clicking on a station location will take the user to the website of that station. Finally, static map images providing solar resource information averaged by month are also available.

  5. ENERGY FROM THE WEST: A PROGRESS REPORT OF A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF WESTERN ENERGY RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers a three year technology assessment of the development of six energy resources (coal, geothermal, natural gas, oil, oil shale, and uranium) in eight western states (Arizona, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming) during the period fr...

  6. ENERGY FROM THE WEST: A PROGRESS REPORT OF A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF WESTERN ENERGY RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT. VOLUME I. SUMMARY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses development of six energy resources (coal, geothermal, natural gas, oil, oil shale, and uranium) in eight western states (Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming) during the period from the present to the year 20...

  7. Wind Energy Resource Atlas. Volume 11. Hawaii and Pacific Islands Region

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, T.A.; Hori, A.M.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, and assessments of the wind resource in each division of the region. Background on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be inerpreted is presented. An introduction and outline to the descriptions of the wind resource for each division are provided. Assessments for individual divisions are presented as separate chapters. Much of the information in the division chapters is given in graphic or tabular form. The sequences for each chapter are similar, but some presentations used for Hawaii are inappropriate or impractical for presentation with the Pacific Islands. Hawaii chapter figure and tables are cited below and appropriate Pacific Islands figure and table numbers are included in brackets ().

  8. Solar energy and renewable resources in relation to the 11 PURPA standards. Guideline No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    1980-02-01

    On June 20, 1979, the President directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and publish within 120 days a voluntary guideline, applying specifically to solar energy and renewable resources, for the ratemaking and other regulatory policy standards established under Title I of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). On October 12, 1979, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Notice of Proposed Voluntary Guideline and Public Hearings for Solar Energy and Renewable Resources Respecting the Federal Standards Under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) (44 FR 60236, October 18, 1979). This Notice summarizes in the Preamble the public comments DOE received and presents the voluntary guideline in its final form as the Appendix hereto.

  9. Recoverable Resource Estimate of Identified Onshore Geopressured Geothermal Energy in Texas and Louisiana (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, A.; Augustine, C.

    2012-04-01

    Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are characterized by high temperatures and high pressures with correspondingly large quantities of dissolved methane. Due to these characteristics, the reservoirs provide two sources of energy: chemical energy from the recovered methane, and thermal energy from the recovered fluid at temperatures high enough to operate a binary power plant for electricity production. Formations with the greatest potential for recoverable energy are located in the gulf coastal region of Texas and Louisiana where significantly overpressured and hot formations are abundant. This study estimates the total recoverable onshore geopressured geothermal resource for identified sites in Texas and Louisiana. In this study a geopressured geothermal resource is defined as a brine reservoir with fluid temperature greater than 212 degrees F and a pressure gradient greater than 0.7 psi/ft.

  10. Assessment of U.S. Energy Wave Resources: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-328

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, G.

    2012-06-01

    In terms of extractable wave energy resource for our preliminary assessment, the EPRI/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) assumed that 15% of the available resource could be extracted based on societal constraints of a 30% coverage of the coastline with a 50% efficient wave energy absorbing device. EPRI recognizes that much work needs to be done to better define the extractable resource and we have outlined a comprehensive approach to doing this in our proposed scope of work, along with specific steps for refining our estimate of the available wave energy resources.

  11. Pursuing Energy Efficiency as a Hedge against Carbon Regulatory Risks: Current Resource Planning Practices in the West

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

    2008-07-11

    Uncertainty surrounding the nature and timing of future carbon regulations poses a fundamental and far-reaching financial risk for electric utilities and their ratepayers. Long-term resource planning provides a potential framework within which utilities can assess carbon regulatory risk and evaluate options for mitigating exposure to this risk through investments in energy efficiency and other low-carbon resources. In this paper, we examine current resource planning practices related to managing carbon regulatory risk, based on a comparative analysis of the most-recent long-term resource plans filed by fifteen major utilities in the Western U.S. First, we compare the assumptions and methods used by utilities to assess carbon regulatory risk and to evaluate energy efficiency as a risk mitigation option. Although most utilities have made important strides in beginning to address carbon regulatory risk within their resource plan, we also identify a number of opportunities for improvement and offer recommendations for resource planners and state regulators to consider. We also summarize the composition and carbon intensity of the preferred resource portfolios selected by the fifteen Western utilities, highlighting the contribution of energy efficiency and its impact on the carbon intensity of utilities' proposed resource strategies. Energy efficiency and renewables are the dominant low-carbon resources included in utilities' preferred portfolios. Across the fifteen utilities, energy efficiency constitutes anywhere from 6percent to almost 50percent of the preferred portfolio energy resources, and represents 22percent of all incremental resources in aggregate.

  12. Pursuing Energy Efficiency as a Hedge against Carbon Regulatory Risks: Current Resource Planning Practices in the West

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

    2008-08-01

    Uncertainty surrounding the nature and timing of future carbon regulations poses a fundamental and far-reaching financial risk for electric utilities and their ratepayers. Long-term resource planning provides a potential framework within which utilities can assess carbon regulatory risk and evaluate options for mitigating exposure to this risk through investments in energy efficiency and other low-carbon resources. In this paper, we examine current resource planning practices related to managing carbon regulatory risk, based on a comparative analysis of the most-recent long-term resource plans filed by fifteen major utilities in the Western U.S. First, we compare the assumptions and methods used by utilities to assess carbon regulatory risk and to evaluate energy efficiency as a risk mitigation option. Although most utilities have made important strides in beginning to address carbon regulatory risk within their resource plan, we also identify a number of opportunities for improvement and offer recommendations for resource planners and state regulators to consider. We also summarize the composition and carbon intensity of the preferred resource portfolios selected by the fifteen Western utilities, highlighting the contribution of energy efficiency and its impact on the carbon intensity of utilities' proposed resource strategies. Energy efficiency and renewables are the dominant low-carbon resources included in utilities' preferred portfolios. Across the fifteen utilities, energy efficiency constitutes anywhere from 6percent to almost 50percent of the preferred portfolio energy resources, and represents 22percent of all incremental resources in aggregate.

  13. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-08-10

    Markets for renewable energy have historically been motivated primarily by policy efforts, but a less widely recognized driver is poised to also play a major role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Resource planning has re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, the most recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions--primarily coming from wind power--are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. This report examines how twelve western utilities treat renewable energy in their recent resource plans. In aggregate, these utilities supply approximately half of all electricity demand in the western United States. Our purpose is twofold: (1) to highlight the growing importance of utility IRP as a current and future driver of renewable energy, and (2) to identify methodological/modeling issues, and suggest possible improvements to methods used to evaluate renewable energy as a resource option. Here we summarize the key findings of the report, beginning with a discussion of the planned renewable energy additions called for by the twelve utilities, an overview of how these plans incorporated renewables into candidate portfolios, and a review of the specific technology cost and performance assumptions they made, primarily for wind power. We then turn to the utilities' analysis of natural gas price and environmental compliance risks, and examine how the utilities traded off portfolio cost and risk in selecting a preferred portfolio.

  14. An analysis of wind and solar energy resources for the State of Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhusainan, Haya Nasser

    Kuwait is an important producer of oil and gas. Its rapid socio-economic growth has been characterized by increasing population, high rates of urbanization, and substantial industrialization, which is transforming it into a large big energy consumer as well. In addition to urbanization, climatic conditions have played an important function in increasing demand for electricity in Kuwait. Electricity for thermal cooling has become essential in the hot desert climate, and its use has developed rapidly along with the economic development, urbanization, and population growth. This study examines the long-term wind and solar resources over the Kuwait to determine the feasibility of these resources as potential sustainable and renewable energy sources. The ultimate goal of this research is to help identify the potential role of renewable energy in Kuwait. This study will examine the drivers and requirements for the deployment of these energy sources and their possible integration into the electricity generation sector to illustrate how renewable energy can be a suitable resource for power production in Kuwait and to illustrate how they can also be used to provide electricity for the country. For this study, data from sixteen established stations monitored by the meteorological department were analyzed. A solar resource map was developed that identifies the most suitable locations for solar farm development. A range of different relevant variables, including, for example, electric networks, population zones, fuel networks, elevation, water wells, streets, and weather stations, were combined in a geospatial analysis to predict suitable locations for solar farm development and placement. An analysis of recommendations, future energy targets and strategies for renewable energy policy in Kuwait are then conducted. This study was put together to identify issues and opportunities related to renewable energy in the region, since renewable energy technologies are still limited in

  15. Proceedings: Second Annual Pacific Northwest Alternative and Renewable Energy Resources Conference.

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference are published in this volume. The purpose of the conference was to solicit regional cooperation in the promoting of near-term development of such alternative and renewable energy resources in the Pacific Northwest as: cogeneration; biomass; wind; small hydro; solar end-use applications; and geothermal direct heat utilization. Separate abstracts of selected papers were prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  16. Geothermal energy in the United States; Part II, Assessment of resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    Geothermal energy-from heat deep inside the Earth- is a vast potential source of power. This article is the second part of a series on geothermal energy, the first part of which was in volume 8, number 1, of the Earthquake Information Bulletin (January-February 1976). Part 1 of this series described the categories of the geothermal resource base. 

  17. Biomass resources for energy in Ohio: The OH-MARKAL modeling framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakya, Bibhakar

    The latest reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change have indicated that human activities are directly responsible for a significant portion of global warming trends. In response to the growing concerns regarding climate change and efforts to create a sustainable energy future, biomass energy has come to the forefront as a clean and sustainable energy resource. Biomass energy resources are environmentally clean and carbon neutral with net-zero carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, since CO2 is absorbed or sequestered from the atmosphere during the plant growth. Hence, biomass energy mitigates greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions that would otherwise be added to the environment by conventional fossil fuels, such as coal. The use of biomass resources for energy is even more relevant in Ohio, as the power industry is heavily based on coal, providing about 90 percent of the state's total electricity while only 50 percent of electricity comes from coal at the national level. The burning of coal for electricity generation results in substantial GHG emissions and environmental pollution, which are responsible for global warming and acid rain. Ohio is currently one of the top emitters of GHG in the nation. This dissertation research examines the potential use of biomass resources by analyzing key economic, environmental, and policy issues related to the energy needs of Ohio over a long term future (2001-2030). Specifically, the study develops a dynamic linear programming model (OH-MARKAL) to evaluate biomass cofiring as an option in select coal power plants (both existing and new) to generate commercial electricity in Ohio. The OH-MARKAL model is based on the MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) framework. Using extensive data on the power industry and biomass resources of Ohio, the study has developed the first comprehensive power sector model for Ohio. Hence, the model can serve as an effective tool for Ohio's energy planning, since it evaluates economic and environmental

  18. Space technology in the discovery and development of mineral and energy resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, P. D.

    1977-01-01

    Space technology, applied to the discovery and extraction of mineral and energy resources, is summarized. Orbital remote sensing for geological purposes has been widely applied through the use of LANDSAT satellites. These techniques also have been of value for protection against environmental hazards and for a better understanding of crustal structure.

  19. Geothermal energy development in the eastern United States. Papers presented: Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-10-01

    Topic areas covered include: technical assistance (hydrothermal resource application in the eastern United States); GRITS - a computer model for economic evaluation of direct-uses of geothermal energy; geothermal market penetration in the residential sector - capital stock impediments and compensatory incentives; an analysis of benefits and costs of accelerated market penetration by a geothermal community heating system.

  20. Analyzing Energy and Resource Problems: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Mathematical Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Suggests ways in which mathematical models can be presented and developed in the classroom to promote discussion, analysis, and understanding of issues related to energy consumption. Five problems deal with past trends and future projections of availability of a nonrenewable resource, natural gas. (Contains 13 references.) (MDH)

  1. Energy and resource consumption of land-based hatchery systems for finfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The early rearing of most marine species will be land-based because of the need for precise control of the rearing environment. This chapter evaluates the resource and energy requirements of six different types of land-based, hatchery production systems: flow-through with a gravity water supply, flo...

  2. Package of online Teacher Resources for Generate, the EPA Energy Game

    EPA Science Inventory

    These materials will enable teachers to make and utilize their own copy of the energy board game, called Generate, that has been developed in ORD and used in local EPA-RTP STEM outreach. The teacher resource package includes: (1) Webinar presentation for National Science Teach...

  3. Finding a Place for Energy: Siting Coal Conversion Facilities. Resource Publications in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calzonetti, Frank J.; Eckert, Mark S.

    The process of identifying, licensing, and developing energy facility sites for the conversion of coal into more useful forms is the focus of this book, intended for geography students, professors, and researchers. The use of domestic coal resources will ameliorate U.S. dependency on imported fuel. However, because coal is a bulky, dirty fuel…

  4. WORK PLAN FOR COMPLETING A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF WESTERN ENERGY RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a work plan for completing the final phase of a three year technology assessment of the development of six energy resources (coal, geothermal, natural gas, oil, oil shale, and uranium) in eight western states (Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North and South Dakota...

  5. US Department of Energy Integrated Resource Planning Program: Accomplishments and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.L.; Mihlmester, P.E.

    1993-12-17

    The US Department of Energy Integrated Resource Planning Program supports many activities and projects that enhance the process by which utilities assess demand and supply options and, subsequently, evaluate and select resources. The US Department of Energy program coordinates integrated resource planning in risk and regulatory analysis; utility and regional planning; evaluation and verification; information transfer/technological assistance; and demand-side management. Professional staff from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratories collaborate with peers and stakeholders, in particular, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, and conduct research and activities for the US Department of Energy. Twelve integrated resource planning activities and projects are summarized in this report. The summaries reflect the diversity of planning and research activities supported by the Department. The summaries also reflect the high levels of collaboration and teaming that are required by the Program and practiced by the researchers. It is concluded that the Program is achieving its objectives by encouraging innovation and improving planning and decision making. Furthermore, as the Department continues to implement planned improvements in the Program, the Department is effectively positioned to attain its ambitious goals.

  6. Metadata in a Digital Special Library: The Energy and Environmental Information Resources Center in Lafayette, Louisiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Dan

    1999-01-01

    Discusses three kinds of metadata--Dublin Core (DC), MARC21 (formerly USMARC), and Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC)--and how they are used in the Energy & Environmental Information Resources Center (EE-IR Center), a digital special library of text, numeric, and geospatial data in Lafayette, Louisiana. Includes 5 figures. (Contains 48…

  7. FISH RESOURCES AND AQUATIC HABITAT IMPACT ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR THE OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. Its purpose is to provide information on the fish resources, water quality, and aquatic ecology of the Ohio...

  8. Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Paul T; Hagerman, George; Scott, George

    2011-12-01

    This project estimates the naturally available and technically recoverable U.S. wave energy resources, using a 51-month Wavewatch III hindcast database developed especially for this study by National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) National Centers for Environmental Prediction. For total resource estimation, wave power density in terms of kilowatts per meter is aggregated across a unit diameter circle. This approach is fully consistent with accepted global practice and includes the resource made available by the lateral transfer of wave energy along wave crests, which enables wave diffraction to substantially reestablish wave power densities within a few kilometers of a linear array, even for fixed terminator devices. The total available wave energy resource along the U.S. continental shelf edge, based on accumulating unit circle wave power densities, is estimated to be 2,640 TWh/yr, broken down as follows: 590 TWh/yr for the West Coast, 240 TWh/yr for the East Coast, 80 TWh/yr for the Gulf of Mexico, 1570 TWh/yr for Alaska, 130 TWh/yr for Hawaii, and 30 TWh/yr for Puerto Rico. The total recoverable wave energy resource, as constrained by an array capacity packing density of 15 megawatts per kilometer of coastline, with a 100-fold operating range between threshold and maximum operating conditions in terms of input wave power density available to such arrays, yields a total recoverable resource along the U.S. continental shelf edge of 1,170 TWh/yr, broken down as follows: 250 TWh/yr for the West Coast, 160 TWh/yr for the East Coast, 60 TWh/yr for the Gulf of Mexico, 620 TWh/yr for Alaska, 80 TWh/yr for Hawaii, and 20 TWh/yr for Puerto Rico.

  9. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy inWestern Utility Resource Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-09-01

    Markets for renewable electricity have grown significantly in recent years, motivated in part by federal tax incentives and in part by state renewables portfolio standards and renewable energy funds. State renewables portfolio standards, for example, motivated approximately 45% of the 4,300 MW of wind power installed in the U.S. from 2001 through 2004, while renewable energy funds supported an additional 15% of these installations. Despite the importance of these state policies, a less widely recognized driver for renewable energy market growth is poised to also play an important role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Formal resource planning processes have re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions - primarily coming from wind power - are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. The treatment of renewable energy in utility resource plans is not uniform, however. Assumptions about the direct and indirect costs of renewable resources, as well as resource availability, differ, as do approaches to incorporating such resources into the candidate portfolios that are analyzed in utility IRPs. The treatment of natural gas price risk, as well as the risk of future environmental regulations, also varies substantially. How utilities balance expected portfolio cost versus risk in selecting a preferred portfolio also differs. Each of these variables may have a substantial effect on the degree to which renewable energy contributes to the preferred portfolio of each utility IRP. This article

  10. Opportunities for Fundamental University-Based Research in Energy and Resource Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoback, M. D.; Hitzman, M.; Tester, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    In this talk we present, from a university perspective, a few examples of fundamental research needs related to improved energy and resource recovery. One example of such a research need is related to the fact that it is not widely recognized that meeting domestic and worldwide energy needs with renewables such as wind and solar will be materials intensive. If widely deployed, the elements required by renewable technologies will be needed in significant quantities and shortage of these "energy critical elements" could significantly inhibit the adoption of otherwise game changing energy technologies. It is imperative to better understand the geology, metallurgy, and mining engineering of critical mineral deposits if we are to sustainably develop these new technologies. Unfortunately, there is currently no consensus among federal and state agencies, the national and international mining industry, the public, and the U.S. academic community regarding the importance of economic geology in the context of securing sufficient energy critical elements to undertake large-scale renewable energy development. Another option for transitioning away from our current hydrocarbon-based energy system to non-carbon based sources, is geothermal energy - from both conventional hydrothermal resources and enhanced or engineered geothermal systems (EGS). Although geothermal energy is currently used for both electric and non-electric applications worldwide from conventional hydrothermal resources and in ground source heat pumps, most of the emphasis in the US has been generating electricity. To this end, there is a need for research, development and demonstration in five important areas - estimating the magnitude and distribution of recoverable geothermal resources, establishing requirements for extracting and utilizing energy from EGS reservoirs the including drilling, reservoir design and stimulation, exploring end use options for district heating, electricity generation and co

  11. ENERGY FROM THE WEST: ENERGY RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS REPORT. VOLUME VI: GEOTHERMAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the technologies likely to be used for development of geothermal resources in eight western states (Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming). It provides information on input materials and labor requirements, out...

  12. Wilderness designation of Bureau of Land Management lands and impacts on the availability of energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Oakes, E.H.; Voelker, A.H.

    1983-02-01

    In 1964 Congress mandated the establishment of the National Wilderness Preservation System - a collection of federal lands dedicated to the preservation of selected parts of our once vast wilderness. Because wilderness management precludes many traditional land uses, controversy has plagued the efforts of land-management agencies to select and recommend areas for wilderness inclusion. This study examines potential impacts on the supply of energy resources from the possible withdrawal by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) of some part of the 24.3 million acres of public lands now under study for inclusion in the wilderness system. Except for uranium, the energy-resource potential of the total WSA-acreage is low. Wilderness designation of some WSAs is therefore not expected to cause serious impacts on the future availability of energy resources. Because the significance of land withdrawals by the BLM will depend to some extent on the availability of other federal lands for mineral activities, an up-to-date estimate of the current and future status-of-access to western federal lands for mineral activities was prepared. Overall conclusions of the report are that (1) the inclusion of some BLM land in the National Wilderness Preservation System will not interfere with the nation's required supply of energy resources, (2) there is sufficient federal land currently available in the West for mineral activities, (3) the availability of western federal land for mineral activities will increase in the future, (4) the administration should continue to support the major land-review programs, and (5) the administration should accelerate the review process for WSAs in regions that have a high energy-resource potential.

  13. Gulf Stream marine hydrokinetic energy resource characterization off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muglia, M.; He, R.; Lowcher, C.; Bane, J.; Gong, Y.; Taylor, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf Stream off North Carolina has current velocities that approach 3 m/s and an average volume transport of 90 Sv (1 Sv= 106 m3/s) off of Cape Hatteras, making it the most abundant MHK (Marine Hydrokinetic Energy) resource for the state. Resource availability at a specific location depends primarily on the variability in Gulf Stream position, which is least offshore of Cape Hatteras after the stream exits the Florida Straits. Proximity to land and high current velocities in relatively shallow waters on the shelf slope make this an optimal location to quantify the MHK energy resource for NC. 3.5 years of current measurements beginning in August of 2013 from a moored 150 kHz ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) at an optimal location for energy extraction quantify the available energy resource and its variability, and establish the skill of a Mid-Atlantic Bight and South Atlantic Bight Regional Ocean Model in predicting the MHK energy resource. The model agrees well with long-term observed current averages and with weekly to monthly fluctuations in the current speeds. Model and observations over the first 9 months of the ADCP deployment period both averaged 1.15 m/s thirty meters below the surface. The model under estimates observed current speeds for the higher frequency current fluctuations of days to weeks. Comparisons between the model and ADCP observed currents, and velocity derived power density over the entire 3.5 years of observations demonstrate the significant inter-annual variability in power density. Shipboard 300 kHz ADCP cross-stream transects and hourly surface currents measurements off Cape Hatteras from a network of land based HF (high frequency) radars further quantify available MHK energy and assess model skill. Cross-stream transects were made with a vessel-mounted 300 kHz ADCP on a line from the 100-1000m isobaths, and measured currents in the top 100m. These measurements demonstrate the variability in the resource with water depth, and

  14. A programming approach to India's long-run energy resource allocations: A focus on backstop technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, J.

    1990-01-01

    India's hopes for continued long-run industrialization and agricultural modernization rest in part on the availability of alternate technologies to substitute for exhaustible resources such as fossil fuels. The author applies to this question a linear programming technique which is known as the Nordhaus Linear Programming Model (NLP), in which he maximizes a consumer energy welfare objective function subject to constraints on the availability of energy resources and technologies and their costs. Demand-side and supply-side factors are established exogenously. A solution to the long-run intertemporal optimization problem yields a least-cost energy resource use that satisfies consumer demands. The solution reveals how rising prices of exhaustible backstop energy technologies (e.g., nuclear, solar, etc.). Constraints to approximate realistic market conditions are imposed on the model. Here he has generated a vector of market share of backstop technologies and shadow process of fossil fuels under various demand and supply side assumptions. Many of the scenarios indicate the development of sophisticated energy technologies for the continuance of India's economic growth.

  15. A limited assessment and characterization of the solar radiation energy resources in the Caribbean region

    SciTech Connect

    Hulstrom, R.L.

    1988-02-01

    The objective of our work was to produce a preliminary assessment and characterization of the Caribbean region (Barbados, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Jamaica, and Panama) solar radiation energy resources. Such information will be used to estimate the performance of, and identify the most promising applications of, solar heat technologies in the Caribbean region. We expect the solar radiation resources in the Caribbean region to be very location specific. Sunny areas will have an annual direct-beam resource of about 3,000 kWhm/sup /minus 2// and a global solar radiation resource of about 2,500 kWhm/sup /minus 2//. Cloud-covered areas will have annual solar radiation resources of about 1,500 kWhm/sup /minus 2/ for both the direct-beam and the global solar radiation. Monthly levels of solar radiaion will vary markedly, ranging from an average of 9 to 3 kWhm/sup /minus 2//day/sup /minus 1// for the direct-beam and from an average of 7 to 4 kWhm/sup /minus 2//day/sup /minus 1// for the global solar radiation. The Caribbean region is comparable to the Great Plains region of the US, in terms of annual solar radiation resources; however, thorough ''prospecting'' is required to avoid areas having very low amounts of solar radiation.

  16. US East Coast offshore wind energy resources and their relationship to time-varying electricity demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, M. J.; Corcoran, B. A.; Ten Hoeve, J. E.; Jacobson, M. Z.; McIntyre, N.

    2011-12-01

    This study characterizes the annual-mean US East Coast (USEC) offshore wind energy (OWE) resource based on 5 years of skillful, high resolution mesoscale model (WRF-ARW) results at the turbine hub height of 90 m. Model output was validated buoys and offshore towers, which provides insight into the relative errors of forecasting winds in the region. The most suitable locations for OWE are prescribed, based on their wind resource, shallow bathymetry, low hurricane risk, and peak-power generation potential. The offshore region from Maine to Virginia was found to have exceptional overall resource the best wind resource, shallow water, and low hurricane risk. The region east of Long Island, NY to Cape Cod, MA has the best summertime peak resource, due to regional upwelling that often strengthens the sea breeze. Overall, the resource from Maine to Florida out to 200-m depth, using turbine capacity factor cutoffs of 45% and 40% is between 1175-1672 TWh (134-191 GW avg.). Between 30-42% of the electricity demand for the entire US (2009) could be provided using USEC OWE alone and 93-133% of Maine to Florida (2008) demand.

  17. Office of Codes and Standards resource book. Section 1, Building energy codes and standards

    SciTech Connect

    Hattrup, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Codes and Standards has developed this Resource Book to provide: A discussion of DOE involvement in building codes and standards; a current and accurate set of descriptions of residential, commercial, and Federal building codes and standards; information on State contacts, State code status, State building construction unit volume, and State needs; and a list of stakeholders in the building energy codes and standards arena. The Resource Book is considered an evolving document and will be updated occasionally. Users are requested to submit additional data (e.g., more current, widely accepted, and/or documented data) and suggested changes to the address listed below. Please provide sources for all data provided.

  18. 76 FR 36532 - Iberdrola Renewables, Inc., PacifiCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ..., Invenergy Wind North America LLC, Horizon Wind Energy LLC v. Bonneville Power Administration; Notice of... Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North America LLC, and Horizon Wind Energy LLC (Complainants) filed a...

  19. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Melody, Moya; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Brown, Richard

    2010-09-30

    As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities; (2) provides detailed descriptions of resources to consult for each area of opportunity; (3) offers supplementary suggestions and information for the area; and (4) presents illustrative case studies, including analysis of cost-effectiveness.

  20. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 1: Solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The utilization of solar energy to meet the energy needs of the U.S. is discussed. Topics discussed include: availability of solar energy, solar energy collectors, heating for houses and buildings, solar water heater, electric power generation, and ocean thermal power.

  1. Water Energy Resource Data from Idaho National Laboratory's Virtual Hydropower Prospector

    DOE Data Explorer

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hydropower Program is to conduct research and development (R&D) that will improve the technical, societal, and environmental benefits of hydropower and provide cost-competitive technologies that enable the development of new and incremental hydropower capacity, adding diversity to the nation's energy supply. The Virtual Hydropower Prospector is a GIS application to locate and evaluate natural stream water energy resources. In the interactive data map the U.S. is divided into 20 hydrologic regions. The Prospector tool applies an analytical process to determine the gross power potential of these regions and helps users to site potential hydropower projects.

  2. Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?

    PubMed

    Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-08-01

    Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance of a Danish waste refinery solution against state-of-the-art waste technology alternatives (incineration, mechanical-biological treatment (MBT), and landfilling). In total, 252 scenarios were evaluated, including effects from source-segregation, waste composition, and energy conversion pathway efficiencies. Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity production (by 15-40% compared with incineration), albeit at the potential expense of additional toxic emissions to soil. Society's need for the outputs from waste, i.e., energy products (electricity vs transport fuels) and resources (e.g., phosphorus), and the available waste composition were found decisive for the selection of future technologies. On the basis of the results, it is recommended that a narrow focus on GW aspects should be avoided as most waste technologies may allow comparable performance. Rather, other environmental aspects such as resource recovery and toxic emissions should receive attention in the future. PMID:23834059

  3. NOGA Online: a USGS resource for energy GIS data and services

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biewick, Laura R.H.; Gunther, Greg L.

    2003-01-01

    The PowerPoint presentation in this report was given at the BLM Resource Management Tools Conference in Phoenix, Arizona, April, 2003. Some diagrams that appeared in the original presentation have been updated in this report. It informs that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Central Energy Resources Team (CERT) in Denver, Colorado, is providing National Oil and Gas Assessment (NOGA) results online at http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/oilgas/noga/. Available at this site are recently completed assessments of the potential for undiscovered oil and natural gas resources of five priority provinces (Montana Thrust Belt, Powder River Basin, San Juan Basin, Southwestern Wyoming, Uinta-Piceance) to meet the requirements of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 2000 (EPCA 2000). High demand for current assessment results and for the entirely digital, 1995 NOGA results for other provinces, prompted CERT to develop an internet map application using ArcIMS to deliver geologic data to the public. CERT continues to work on assessing oil and natural gas resources of priority basins in the United States; assessment results and GIS layers are made available at this site on an ongoing basis.

  4. Techniques for assessing the wind energy resource in Hawaii and Pacific Islands region

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, T.A.; Hori, A.M.

    1980-08-01

    This report explains the procedures utilized in preparing the Wind Energy Resource Atlas: Hawaii and Pacific Islands Region and contrasts these methods with those used in the other regional assessments. Techniques generally paralleled those of the northwest wind resource assessment. Quality of data bases differed drastically between Hawaii and the Pacific Islands. For example, research data sets constituted a primary data source for Hawaii, but such sets were nonexistent for the Pacific Islands. Forest Service data had minor impact in Hawaii, none in the Pacific Islands. Many Pacific Island anemometers are poorly exposed since limited open spaces exist on small atolls.

  5. An ecological perspective of the energy basis of sustainable Bolivian natural resources: Forests and natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izursa, Jose-Luis

    Bolivia, traditionally known for being a country rich in natural resources, has suffered from a constant exploitation of its natural resources benefiting only small groups in and outside the country. The devastation of natural resources that occurred for many years was of concern to the latest government, rural communities and indigenous groups. As a result, Bolivia has a more sustainability-oriented forest law that has a strong orientation towards the utilization of natural resources at a national level and encompasses a fast-growing forestry industry than in previous years. In this dissertation, the wealth of Bolivia's national system was evaluated using solar emergy. Emergy (spelled with "m") is the sum of all energy of one form needed to develop a flow of energy of another form, over a period of time. The basic idea is that solar energy is our ultimate energy source and by expressing the value of products in solar emergy units, it becomes possible to compare different kinds of energy, allowing to express the value for the natural resources in Emergy Dollars. It was found out that Bolivia relies heavily in its natural resources and that its emergy exchange ratio with its international trading partners changed from 12.2 to 1 in 2001 to 6.2 to 1 in 2005. This means that Bolivia went from export 12.2 emdollars of goods for each 1 it received in 2001 to export 6.2 emdollars of products for each 1 it received in 2005. The study also showed that under forest certification practices less emergy is removed from forests (1.49E+19 sej/yr) compared to the amount of emergy removed (2.36E+19 sej/yr) under traditional uncertified practices, reflecting that forest ecology does better under certification. The "Ecologically-based Development for the Bolivian Industrial Forestry System" (DEBBIF) simulation model constructed during this study, compared four different scenarios: the Reference Scenario, the Increased Export Scenario, the Increased Domestic Use Scenario and the

  6. Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Brodrick, J.R. ); Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A. )

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort's electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils [number sign]2 and [number sign]6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort.

  7. Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort`s electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils {number_sign}2 and {number_sign}6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort.

  8. Modeling of thermal storage systems in MILP distributed energy resource models

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, David; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Gonçalo; Groissböck, Markus; DeForest, Nicholas; Marnay, Chris

    2014-08-04

    Thermal energy storage (TES) and distributed generation technologies, such as combined heat and power (CHP) or photovoltaics (PV), can be used to reduce energy costs and decrease CO2 emissions from buildings by shifting energy consumption to times with less emissions and/or lower energy prices. To determine the feasibility of investing in TES in combination with other distributed energy resources (DER), mixed integer linear programming (MILP) can be used. Such a MILP model is the well-established Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM); however, it currently uses only a simplified TES model to guarantee linearity and short run-times. Loss calculations are based only on the energy contained in the storage. This paper presents a new DER-CAM TES model that allows improved tracking of losses based on ambient and storage temperatures, and compares results with the previous version. A multi-layer TES model is introduced that retains linearity and avoids creating an endogenous optimization problem. The improved model increases the accuracy of the estimated storage losses and enables use of heat pumps for low temperature storage charging. Ultimately,results indicate that the previous model overestimates the attractiveness of TES investments for cases without possibility to invest in heat pumps and underestimates it for some locations when heat pumps are allowed. Despite a variation in optimal technology selection between the two models, the objective function value stays quite stable, illustrating the complexity of optimal DER sizing problems in buildings and microgrids.

  9. 76 FR 78684 - Grant Program To Assess, Evaluate and Promote Development of Tribal Energy and Mineral Resources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... Mineral Resources AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Solicitation of proposals. ] SUMMARY: The Energy and Mineral Development Program (EMDP) provides funding to Indian tribes with the mission goal of assessing, evaluating, and promoting energy and mineral resources on Indian trust lands for...

  10. 78 FR 77155 - Grant Program To Assess, Evaluate, and Promote Development of Tribal Energy and Mineral Resources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... providing copies of detailed proprietary data or reports to any individual, private company or government... energy and mineral resource on Indian land, or a report necessary to develop energy and mineral resources..., including any Alaska Native village or regional or village corporation as defined in or established...

  11. Analysis of the balancing of the wind and solar energy resources in Andalusia (Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Alamillos, F. J.; Pozo-Vazquez, D.; Lara-Fanego, V.; Ruiz-Arias, J. A.; Hernandez-Alvaro, J.; Tova-Pescador, J.

    2010-09-01

    A higher penetration of the renewable energy in the electric system in the future will be conditioned to a reduction of the uncertainty of the yield. A way to obtain this goal is to analyze the balancing between the productions of different sources of renewable energy, trying to combine these productions. In this work we analyze, from a meteorological point of view, the balancing between wind and solar energy resources in Andalusia (southern Iberian Peninsula). To this end, wind speed and global radiation data corresponding to an one year integration of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model were analyzed. Two method of analysis were used: a point correlation analysis and a Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA). Results from these analyses allow obtaining, eventually, areas of local and distributed balancing between the wind and solar energy resources. The analysis was carried out separately for the different seasons of the year. Results showed, overall, a considerable balancing effect between the wind and solar resources in the mountain areas of the interior of the region, along the coast of the central part of the region and, specially, in the coastal area near the Gibraltar strait. Nevertheless, considerable differences were found between the seasons of the year, which may lead to compensating effects. Autumn proved to be the season with the most significant results.

  12. El Jefe: balancing tribal values with business realities. [Council for Energy Resource Tribes and cooperation with state governments

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, R.

    1981-03-01

    Navajo chairman Peter MacDonald is also chairman of the Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) board and its natural leader. When Indians began to assert control over their own resources, MacDonald was among the leaders of the movement. He continues to dominate the situation, speaking publicly for CERT in Washington as well as from the Navajo capital, Window Rock, Az. MacDonald speaks articulately and forcefully in favor of traditional Navajo values; values, he says, are more important than the potential income from Navajo energy resources. Although MacDonald strongly supports development of energy resources, his bargains with energy companies always reflect a commitment to concerns beyond dollars and cents. The western states, with their concentration of energy resources, should share his concerns, MacDonald said in this interview with the Business Journal at his Windor Rock office.

  13. The impacts of climate changes in the renewable energy resources in the Caribbean region

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson III, David J

    2010-02-01

    Assessment of renewable energy resources such as surface solar radiation and wind current has great relevance in the development of local and regional energy policies. This paper examines the variability and availability of these resources as a function of possible climate changes for the Caribbean region. Global climate changes have been reported in the last decades, causing changes in the atmospheric dynamics, which affects the net solar radiation balance at the surface and the wind strength and direction. For this investigation, the future climate changes for the Caribbean are predicted using the parallel climate model (PCM) and it is coupled with the numerical model regional atmospheric modeling system (RAMS) to simulate the solar and wind energy spatial patterns changes for the specific case of the island of Puerto Rico. Numerical results from PCM indicate that the Caribbean basin from 2041 to 2055 will experience a slight decrease in the net surface solar radiation (with respect to the years 1996-2010), which is more pronounced in the western Caribbean sea. Results also indicate that the easterly winds have a tendency to increase in its magnitude, especially from the years 2070 to 2098. The regional model showed that important areas to collect solar energy are located in the eastern side of Puerto Rico, while the more intense wind speed is placed around the coast. A future climate change is expected in the Caribbean that will result in higher energy demands, but both renewable energy sources will have enough intensity to be used in the future as alternative energy resources to mitigate future climate changes.

  14. ENERGY FROM THE WEST: ENERGY RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS REPORT. VOLUME I: INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL SOCIAL CONTROLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the technologies likely to be used for development of coal, oil shale, uranium, oil, natural gas, and geothermal resources in eight western states (Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming). Volume 1 describes the...

  15. ENERGY FROM THE WEST: ENERGY RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS REPORT. VOLUME V: OIL AND NATURAL GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the technologies likely to be used for development of oil and natural gas resources in eight western states (Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming). It provides information on input materials and labor requirem...

  16. Harnessing Potential Evaporation as a Renewable Energy Resource With Water-Saving Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavusoglu, A. H.; Chen, X.; Gentine, P.; Sahin, O.

    2015-12-01

    Water's large latent heat of vaporization makes evaporation a critical component of the energy balance at the Earth's surface. An immense amount of energy drives the hydrological cycle and is an important component of various weather and climate patterns. However, the potential of harnessing evaporation has received little attention as a renewable energy resource compared to wind and solar energy. Here, we investigate the potential of harvesting energy from naturally evaporating water. Using weather data across the contiguous United States and a modified model of potential evaporation, we estimate the power availability, intermittency, and the changes in evaporation rates imposed by energy conversion. Our results indicate that natural evaporation can deliver power densities similar to existing renewable energy platforms and require little to no energy storage to match the varying power demands of urban areas. This model also predicts additional, and substantial, water savings by reducing evaporative losses. These findings suggest that evaporative energy harvesting can address significant challenges with water/energy interactions that could be of interest to the hydrology community.

  17. Fort Irwin integrated resource assessment. Volume 3: Sitewide Energy Project identification for buildings and facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.M.; Dittmer, A.L.; Elliott, D.B.; McMordie, K.L.; Richman, E.E.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Hadley, D.L.

    1995-02-01

    The U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Irwin. This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the FORSCOM Fort Irwin facility located near Barstow, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 16 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative description of each ERO is provided, along with a table detailing information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present valve (NPV) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  18. What balance do countries exhibit between the central human resources: water, energy and food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossak, Julian; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    Sufficient water, food and energy is a precondition for human activities. The water, energy and food nexus states that to some extend, these resources can replace each another: land can be used to produce food or energy crops; water can be used as direct water supply, to produce energy or for irrigation; and energy supports water treatment and agricultural yield. We present an overview of the major components of the trade-off together with a set of indicators and data sources to assess these components. The different indicators of the trade-off are summarized and plotted in a novel way on a triangle, which we discuss in view of the resource availability of different countries. Comparing different countries in view of their balance between water, food and energy will inform the discussion about the transition towards more sustainable societies and highlighting alternative strategies for development. This is important in view of possible synergies between the different sectors and as a tool for better coordinated governance approaches.

  19. Energy baseline and energy efficiency resource opportunities for the Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzucchi, R.P.; Richman, E.E.; Parker, G.B.

    1993-08-01

    This report provides recommendations to improve the energy use efficiency at the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin. The assessment focuses upon the four largest buildings and central heating plant at the facility comprising a total of approximately 287,000 square feet. The analysis is comprehensive in nature, intended primarily to determine what if any energy efficiency improvements are warranted based upon the potential for cost-effective energy savings. Because of this breadth, not all opportunities are developed in detail; however, baseline energy consumption data and energy savings concepts are described to provide a foundation for detailed investigation and project design where warranted.

  20. Wind and solar energy resources on the 'Roof of the World'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandler, Harald; Morche, Thomas; Samimi, Cyrus

    2015-04-01

    The Eastern Pamirs of Tajikistan, often referred to as 'Roof of the World', are an arid high mountain plateau characterized by severe energy poverty that may have great potential for renewable energy resources due to the prevailing natural conditions. The lack of energetic infrastructure makes the region a prime target for decentralized integration of wind and solar power. However, up to date no scientific attempt to assess the regional potential of these resources has been carried out. In this context, it is particularly important to evaluate if wind and solar energy are able to provide enough power to generate thermal energy, as other thermal energy carriers are scarce or unavailable and the existing alternative, local harvest of dwarf shrubs, is unsustainable due to the slow regeneration in this environment. Therefore, this study examines the feasibility of using wind and solar energy as thermal energy sources. Financial frame conditions were set on a maximum amount of five million Euros. This sum provides a realistic scenario as it is based on the current budget of the KfW development bank to finance the modernization of the local hydropower plant in the regions only city, Murghab, with about 1500 households. The basis for resource assessment is data of four climate stations, erected for this purpose in 2012, where wind speed, wind direction, global radiation and temperature are measured at a half hourly interval. These measurements confirm the expectation of a large photovoltaic potential and high panel efficiency with up to 84 percent of extraterrestrial radiation reaching the surface and only 16 hours of temperatures above 25°C were measured in two years at the village stations on average. As these observations are only point measurements, radiation data and the ASTER GDEM was used to train a GIS based solar radiation model to spatially extrapolate incoming radiation. With mean validation errors ranging from 5% in July (minimum) to 15% in December (maximum

  1. Energy Storage for Variable Renewable Energy Resource Integration - A Regional Assessment for the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Jin, Chunlian; Balducci, Patrick J.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Guo, Xinxin; Nguyen, Tony B.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.

    2011-03-20

    This paper addresses the following key questions in the discussion on the integration of renewable energy resources in the Pacific Northwest power grid: a) what will be the future balancing requirement to accommodate a simulated expansion of wind energy resources from 3.3 GW in 2008 to 14.4 GW in 2019 in the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP), and b) what are the most cost effective technological solutions for meeting the balancing requirements in the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP). A life-cycle analysis was performed to assess the least-cost technology option for meeting the new balancing requirement. The technologies considered in this study include conventional turbines (CT), sodium sulfur (NaS) batteries, lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries, pumped hydro energy storage (PH), and demand response (DR). Hybrid concepts that combine 2 or more of the technologies above are also evaluated. This analysis was performed with collaboration by the Bonneville Power Administration and funded by the Energy Storage Systems Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. Current Status and Future Perspective of Nuclear Energy Human Resource Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shinji

    In recent years, expectations for nuclear energy have been increasing in Japan because of its role and responsibility as a key power source, the contribution it can make to a global nuclear renaissance, the need for energy security, and the importance of combating global warming. Ensuring and fostering good human resources is essential if the nuclear industry is to maintain itself and expand its scale. There are obstacles, however, in doing so : a declining birth rate, job-hunting problem, the wave of retirements in 2007, the declining popularity of engineering departments and particularly nuclear-related subjects, a weakening of nuclear education, and deteriorating research facilities and equipment. While nuclear-related academic, industrial and governmental parties share this recognition and are cooperating and collaborating, all organizations are expected similarly to continue their own wholehearted efforts at human resource development.

  3. Assessing regional wind energy resources with biological indicators: A decision-analytic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Katzman, M.T. )

    1989-01-01

    The nation's substantial wind-energy resources are unevenly distributed, with highly profitable sites being relatively rare. The absence of long-term wind speed makes siting of wind-energy conversion systems (WECS) extremely risky. Before investing in precise anemometry, wind prospectors may arrive at a first approximation with biological indicators, which are fairly inexpensive. This article describes an effort at calibrating three characteristics of mesquite trees at two sites in Texas, with wind speeds above and below the apparent economic threshold. These indicators differ in their cost of data acquisition. A discriminant analysis indicates the accuracy of these indicators in classifying samples. The value, risks, and cost effectiveness of biological information in assessing regional wind resources is illustrated through decision analysis.

  4. 78 FR 15718 - Iberdrola Renewables, Inc. PacifiCorp NextEra Energy Resources, LLC Invenergy Wind North America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Iberdrola Renewables, Inc. PacifiCorp NextEra Energy Resources, LLC Invenergy Wind North America LLC Horizon Wind Energy LLC v. Bonneville Power Administration; Notice...

  5. 76 FR 26753 - Grant Program To Assess, Evaluate and Promote Development of Tribal Energy and Mineral Resources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ...The Energy and Mineral Development Program (EMDP) provides funding to Indian tribes with the mission goal of assessing, evaluating, and promoting energy and mineral resources on Indian trust lands for the economic benefit of Indian mineral owners. To achieve these goals, the Department of the Interior's Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development (IEED), through its Division of Energy and......

  6. 75 FR 22153 - Grant Program To Assess, Evaluate and Promote Development of Tribal Energy and Mineral Resources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ...The Energy and Mineral Development Program (EMDP) provides funding to Indian tribes with the mission goal of assessing, evaluating, and promoting energy and mineral resources on Indian trust lands for the economic benefit of Indian mineral owners. To achieve these goals, the Department of the Interior's Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development (IEED), through its Division of Energy and......

  7. 77 FR 2286 - Iberdrola Renewables, Inc., PacifiCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Iberdrola Renewables, Inc., PacifiCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North America LLC, Horizon Wind Energy LLC v. Bonneville Power Administration; Notice...

  8. US nonrenewable conventional primary energy resources as of year-end 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-07

    Estimates are made of the remaining amounts of US nonrenewable conventional primary energy resources as of the end of 1982. Tables present the holdings in the area of natural gas, crude oil, coal, and uranium. Attention is also given to those potentially additional supplies of natural gas and natural gas liquids and additional crude oil. A final table projects the life expectancy of US fossil fuels at various demand rates. 7 tables.

  9. Characterizing China's energy consumption with selective economic factors and energy-resource endowment: a spatial econometric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lei; Ji, Minhe; Bai, Ling

    2015-06-01

    Coupled with intricate regional interactions, the provincial disparity of energy-resource endowment and other economic conditions in China have created spatially complex energy consumption patterns that require analyses beyond the traditional ones. To distill the spatial effect out of the resource and economic factors on China's energy consumption, this study recast the traditional econometric model in a spatial context. Several analytic steps were taken to reveal different aspects of the issue. Per capita energy consumption (AVEC) at the provincial level was first mapped to reveal spatial clusters of high energy consumption being located in either well developed or energy resourceful regions. This visual spatial autocorrelation pattern of AVEC was quantitatively tested to confirm its existence among Chinese provinces. A Moran scatterplot was employed to further display a relatively centralized trend occurring in those provinces that had parallel AVEC, revealing a spatial structure with attraction among high-high or low-low regions and repellency among high-low or low-high regions. By a comparison between the ordinary least square (OLS) model and its spatial econometric counterparts, a spatial error model (SEM) was selected to analyze the impact of major economic determinants on AVEC. While the analytic results revealed a significant positive correlation between AVEC and economic development, other determinants showed some intricate influential patterns. The provinces endowed with rich energy reserves were inclined to consume much more energy than those otherwise, whereas changing the economic structure by increasing the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries also tended to consume more energy. Both situations seem to underpin the fact that these provinces were largely trapped in the economies that were supported by technologies of low energy efficiency during the period, while other parts of the country were rapidly modernized by adopting advanced

  10. Characterizing China's energy consumption with selective economic factors and energy-resource endowment: a spatial econometric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lei; Ji, Minhe; Bai, Ling

    2014-09-01

    Coupled with intricate regional interactions, the provincial disparity of energy-resource endowment and other economic conditions in China have created spatially complex energy consumption patterns that require analyses beyond the traditional ones. To distill the spatial effect out of the resource and economic factors on China's energy consumption, this study recast the traditional econometric model in a spatial context. Several analytic steps were taken to reveal different aspects of the issue. Per capita energy consumption (AVEC) at the provincial level was first mapped to reveal spatial clusters of high energy consumption being located in either well developed or energy resourceful regions. This visual spatial autocorrelation pattern of AVEC was quantitatively tested to confirm its existence among Chinese provinces. A Moran scatterplot was employed to further display a relatively centralized trend occurring in those provinces that had parallel AVEC, revealing a spatial structure with attraction among high-high or low-low regions and repellency among high-low or low-high regions. By a comparison between the ordinary least square (OLS) model and its spatial econometric counterparts, a spatial error model (SEM) was selected to analyze the impact of major economic determinants on AVEC. While the analytic results revealed a significant positive correlation between AVEC and economic development, other determinants showed some intricate influential patterns. The provinces endowed with rich energy reserves were inclined to consume much more energy than those otherwise, whereas changing the economic structure by increasing the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries also tended to consume more energy. Both situations seem to underpin the fact that these provinces were largely trapped in the economies that were supported by technologies of low energy efficiency during the period, while other parts of the country were rapidly modernized by adopting advanced

  11. Energy conservation in ethanol production from renewable resources and non-petroleum energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The dry milling process for the conversion of grain to fuel ethanol is reviewed for the application of energy conservation technology, which will reduce the energy consumption to 70,000 Btu per gallon, a reduction of 42% from a distilled spirits process. Specific energy conservation technology applications are outlined and guidelines for the owner/engineer for fuel ethanol plants to consider in the selection on the basis of energy conservation economics of processing steps and equipment are provided. The process was divided into 5 sections and the energy consumed in each step was determined based on 3 sets of conditions; a conventional distilled spirits process; a modern process incorporating commercially proven energy conservation; and a second generation process incorporating advanced conservation technologies which have not yet been proven. Steps discussed are mash preparation and cooking, fermentation, distillation, and distillers dried grains processing. The economics of cogeneration of electricity on fuel ethanol plants is also studied. (MCW)

  12. China offshore wind energy resources assessment with the QuikSCAT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jingwei; Luo, Yong; Zhang, Xiuzhi; Zhu, Rong

    2008-10-01

    With the data, which were obtained from the SeaWinds scatterometer on board the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) QuikSCAT satellite (12.5km*12.5km available from 1999 to current daily orbit swath), the China offshore region were studied (105-135° E 15-45° N). Because swath location is not fixed, interpolation was applied to get a fixed grid with 0.1° resolution. We calculate and analysis China offshore wind resources effective density of wind energy (EDWE) at 10 meters high above the sea level. And find that EDWE is rich in offshore area. The highest EDWE is in Taiwan Strait and North and South of the strait, with the EDWE 600-800W/m2, the next highest is East China Sea and South China Sea. The lowest EDWE is Yellow Sea and Bohai bay, less than 400W/m2. And several other wind energy resource-rich areas are: 1)the north of Bohai Bay, with wind power density more than 800 w/m2 decline to the south, 2)the East China Sea area the power density above 400 w/m2 increase to the southward. Guangdong coastal waters are rich in wind resources energy.

  13. Dynamic simulation of connections between population, water resources, agriculture, and energy: Towards a global synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roach, J. D.; Tidwell, V. C.; Passell, H. D.

    2011-12-01

    During the past decade, scientists at Sandia National Laboratories have been attempting to integrate multi-disciplinary issues associated with human demands for water resources, agriculture, and energy, and the interconnections inherent in these into a common modeling framework. A variety of models have been created, each focusing specifically on certain aspects of the population - water - food - energy question, and each at a different geographic scale. The modeling of these dimensions of human resource use involves quantification of supply of and demand for the resources through time in order to gain some insight into sensitivities of the system to different model parameters. These models have been used to evaluate policy options in real time in an interactive setting. This presentation will summarize the localized efforts that have been made to this point, and propose a framework for a simulation tool to evaluate all four dimensions in a global context. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. Identifying high energy density stream-reaches through refined geospatial resolution in hydropower resource assessment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pasha, M. Fayzul K.; Yang, Majntxov; Yeasmin, Dilruba; Saetern, Sen; Kao, Shih -Chieh; Smith, Brennan T.

    2016-01-07

    Benefited from the rapid development of multiple geospatial data sets on topography, hydrology, and existing energy-water infrastructures, the reconnaissance level hydropower resource assessment can now be conducted using geospatial models in all regions of the US. Furthermore, the updated techniques can be used to estimate the total undeveloped hydropower potential across all regions, and may eventually help identify further hydropower opportunities that were previously overlooked. To enhance the characterization of higher energy density stream-reaches, this paper explored the sensitivity of geospatial resolution on the identification of hydropower stream-reaches using the geospatial merit matrix based hydropower resource assessment (GMM-HRA) model. GMM-HRAmore » model simulation was conducted with eight different spatial resolutions on six U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 8-digit hydrologic units (HUC8) located at three different terrains; Flat, Mild, and Steep. The results showed that more hydropower potential from higher energy density stream-reaches can be identified with increasing spatial resolution. Both Flat and Mild terrains exhibited lower impacts compared to the Steep terrain. Consequently, greater attention should be applied when selecting the discretization resolution for hydropower resource assessments in the future study.« less

  15. Embodied exergy-based assessment of energy and resource consumption of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jing; Li, Zhi; Li, Jiashuo; Shao, Ling; Han, Mengyao; Guo, Shan

    2014-03-01

    As an effective approach to achieve a more unified and scientific assessment, embodied exergy-based analysis is devised to assess the energy and resource consumption of buildings. A systematic accounting of the landmark buildings in E-town, Beijing is performed, on the basis of raw project data in the Bill of Quantities (BOQ) and the most recent embodied exergy intensities for the Chinese economy in 2007 with 135 industrial sectors. The embodied exergy of the engineering structure of the case buildings is quantified as 4.95E + 14 J, corresponding to an intensity of 8.25E + 09 J/m2 floor area. Total exergy of 51.9% and 28.8% are embodied in the steel and concrete inputs, respectively, due to the fact that the case buildings are structured of reinforced-concrete. The fossil fuel source (coal, crude oil, and natural gas) is predominant among four categories of natural resources (fossil fuel, biological, mineral, and environmental), accounting for 89.9% of the embodied exergy, with coal as the dominant energy resource (75.5%). The material accounts for 89.5% of the embodied exergy, in contrast to 9.0%, 1.4%, and 0.1% for manpower, energy, and equipment respectively. This result indicates that great attention should be given to the use of various materials vs. their value of their contribution.

  16. Electric Industry Structure and Regulatory Responses in a High Distributed Energy Resources Future

    SciTech Connect

    Corneli, Steve; Kihm, Steve; Schwartz, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    The emergence of distributed energy resources (DERs) that can generate, manage and store energy on the customer side of the electric meter is widely recognized as a transformative force in the power sector. This report focuses on two key aspects of that transformation: structural changes in the electric industry and related changes in business organization and regulation that are likely to result from them. Both industry structure and regulation are inextricably linked. History shows that the regulation of the power sector has responded primarily to innovation in technologies and business models that created significant structural changes in the sector’s cost and organizational structure.

  17. Impact of the underground injection control program on energy resource development

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, E.P.

    1983-10-01

    Part C of the Safe Drinking Water Act requires that underground sources of drinking water be protected from endangerment by well injection. The Act, as amended through 1980, and the resultant Underground Injection Control (UIC) program regulations and guidance describe minimum requirements for achieving this protection. Injection wells used in the development of energy resources, for example, those related to oil and natural gas production, and the solution mining of uranium, are regulated under the UIC program. The major features of the program requirements that affect such energy related wells are considered here from the Federal-Regional perspective.

  18. FUTURE APPLICATIONS OF EXPERT SYSTEMS FOR THE EVALUATION OF ENERGY RESOURCES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    The loss of professional experience and expertise in the domain of the earth sciences may prove to be one of the most serious outcomes of the boom-and-bust cyclic nature of the volatile energy and mining industries. Promising new applications of powerful computer systems, known as 'expert systems' or 'knowledge-based systems', are predicted for use in the earth sciences. These systems have the potential capability to capture and preserve the invaluable knowledge bases essential to the evaluation of the Nation's energy and mineral resources.

  19. FUTURE APPLICATIONS OF EXPERT SYSTEMS FOR THE EVALUATION OF ENERGY RESOURCES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Betty M.

    1988-01-01

    The loss of professional experience and expertise in the domain of the earth sciences may prove to be one of the most serious outcomes of the boom-and-bust cyclic nature of the volatile energy and mining industries. Promising new applications of powerful computer systems, known as 'expert systems' or 'knowledge-based systems', are predicted for use in the earth science. These systems have the potential capability to capture and preserve the invaluable knowledge bases essential to the evaluation of US energy and mineral resources.

  20. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 4. Impact of geothermal resource development in Hawaii (including air and water quality)

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, S.M.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    The environmental consequences of natural processes in a volcanic-fumerolic region and of geothermal resource development are presented. These include acute ecological effects, toxic gas emissions during non-eruptive periods, the HGP-A geothermal well as a site-specific model, and the geothermal resources potential of Hawaii. (MHR)

  1. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 3. Southern Solar Energy Center Region

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Southern Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK)

  2. Proposed applications with implementation techniques of the upcoming renewable energy resource, The Tesla Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman Saeed Khan, M.; Maqsood, M. Irfan; Ali, Ehsan; Jamal, Shah; Javed, M.

    2013-06-01

    Recent research has shown that tesla turbine can be one of the future efficient sources of renewable energy. Modern techniques used for designing of tesla turbine have given optimum results regarding efficiency and applications. In this paper we have suggested fully coordinated applications of tesla turbine in different fields particularly in power generation at both low level and high level generation. In Energy deficient countries the tesla turbine has wide range of applications and it can play an important role in energy management system. Our proposed applications includes, the use of tesla turbine as renewable energy resource using tesla turbine in distributed generation system use of tesla turbine at home for power generation use of tesla turbine in irrigation channels using tesla turbine in hybrid electric vehicles All applications are explained with the help of flow charts and block diagrams and their implementation techniques are also explained in details. The results of physical experiments and simulations are also included for some applications.

  3. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 1. Northeast Solar Energy Center Region

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Northeast Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK).

  4. Groundwater-quality data in seven GAMA study units: results from initial sampling, 2004-2005, and resampling, 2007-2008, of wells: California GAMA Program Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The GAMA-PBP began sampling, primarily public supply wells in May 2004. By the end of February 2006, seven (of what would eventually be 35) study units had been sampled over a wide area of the State. Selected wells in these first seven study units were resampled for water quality from August 2007 to November 2008 as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. The initial sampling was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within the seven study units. In the 7 study units, 462 wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area. Wells selected this way are referred to as grid wells or status wells. Approximately 3 years after the initial sampling, 55 of these previously sampled status wells (approximately 10 percent in each study unit) were randomly selected for resampling. The seven resampled study units, the total number of status wells sampled for each study unit, and the number of these wells resampled for trends are as follows, in chronological order of sampling: San Diego Drainages (53 status wells, 7 trend wells), North San Francisco Bay (84, 10), Northern San Joaquin Basin (51, 5), Southern Sacramento Valley (67, 7), San Fernando–San Gabriel (35, 6), Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins (91, 11), and Southeast San Joaquin Valley (83, 9). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N

  5. Advanced Communication and Control of Distributed Energy Resources at Detroit Edison

    SciTech Connect

    Haukur Asgeirsson; Richard Seguin

    2004-01-31

    The project objective was to create the communication and control system, the process and the economic procedures that will allow owners (e.g., residential, commercial, industrial, manufacturing, etc.) of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) connected in parallel to the electric distribution to have their resources operated in a manner that protects the electric utility distribution network and personnel that may be working on the network. The Distribution Engineering Workstation (DEW) (a power flow and short circuit modeling tool) was modified to calculate the real-time characteristics of the distribution network based on the real-time electric distribution network information and provide DER operating suggestions to the Detroit Edison system operators so that regional electric stability is maintained. Part of the suggestion algorithm takes into account the operational availability of DER’s, which is known by the Energy Aggregator, DTE Energy Technologies. The availability information will be exchanged from DTE Energy Technologies to Detroit Edison. For the calculated suggestions to be used by the Detroit Edison operators, procedures were developed to allow an operator to operate a DER by requesting operation of the DER through DTE Energy Technologies. Prior to issuing control of a DER, the safety of the distribution network and personnel needs to be taken into account. This information will be exchanged from Detroit Edison to DTE Energy Technologies. Once it is safe to control the DER, DTE Energy Technologies will issue the control signal. The real-time monitoring of the DECo system will reflect the DER control. Multi-vendor DER technologies’ representing approximately 4 MW of capacity was monitored and controlled using a web-based communication path. The DER technologies included are a photovoltaic system, energy storage, fuel cells and natural gas/diesel internal combustion engine generators. This report documents Phase I result for the Detroit Edison

  6. Water Requirements for Energy Production Technologies: A Collaborative Effort to Support Integrated Resource Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averyt, K.; Macknick, J.; Participants in The WaterEnergy Workshop

    2010-12-01

    Global, national and regional concerns are emerging about the capacity of available water resources to meet increasing energy demands posed by a growing population—particularly as water availability is expected to shift as a result of a warming climate. For the same reasons, the use of both non-traditional water resources and water transport is expected to increase, creating greater demand for energy to move and treat water. Integrated planning efforts designed to avoid collisions between water and energy resource management decisions require consistent data outlining both the water requirements for energy development, and the energy required to move and treat water. Here we present the results of a collaborative, interagency effort to compile, assess, and outline consumptive uses of water associated with different parts of the energy generation process. A consistent set of data is important to support integrated modeling efforts in support of decision making and planning. The leaders of several efforts occurring in parallel to collate water use data converged at a workshop held in August 2010. The participants shared estimates of water use related to the major water-consuming steps of all the energy production processes currently operating in the U.S., and those expected to be online in the future. Discussions also addressed underlying data assumptions, data reliability concerns, and regional variability in reported ranges of values. Participants identified key data gaps, determining whether outside expert engagement could fill the gaps, or if additional research was required. The team collaborated after the meeting to fill in the data gaps utilizing institutional knowledge from a wide variety of agencies. The end result is a compilation of best estimates of the water requirements for energy production, as agreed to by the expert participants at the workshop and subsequent interactions. One key informational gap emerging from the workshop is the need to

  7. US scientific contributions to the water resources program of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, P. K.; Schneider, V. R.

    2007-12-01

    It is well recognized that a better understanding of the water cycle and increased availability of hydrological information for surface and groundwater resources are key factors in the ability to sustainably manage water resources. Since its inception in 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has played a critical role in developing isotope applications for hydrology and building scientific capacity in developing countries. Through an active technical cooperation program with a funding of nearly $8M per biennium, the IAEA assists developing countries in using isotope techniques for the assessment and monitoring of water resources, in particular, groundwater resources. In addition, substantial human resources and institutional capacity are built through the provision of training and appropriate equipment for monitoring. The water resources program of the IAEA is implemented with the support of a number of experts and the United States contributes extensively to this program. Although spanning the entire 50 year history of the IAEA, the contribution of US scientists, and particularly those from the US Geological Survey, has been substantial over the past 10 years. These contributions have included assistance in technical cooperation projects in Africa, Latin America and Asia, as well as internationally coordinated research projects in vadose zone hydrology, surface water - groundwater interactions, and regional aquifer studies. In Ethiopia, a national groundwater assessment program was formulated and a computer database was provided to manage hydrological information. A robust program of capacity building in cooperation with the USGS and Argonne National Laboratory has provided training to a number of IAEA-sponsored candidates from Africa and Latin America. This paper will describe the objectives and results of some of these cooperative efforts.

  8. 75 FR 45623 - Morris Energy Group, LLC v.PSEG Energy Resources & Trade LLC; PSEG Fossil LLC; and PSEG Power LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Morris Energy Group, LLC v.PSEG Energy Resources & Trade LLC; PSEG Fossil..., LLC, PSEG Fossil LLC and PSEG Power LLC (PSEG Power Companies) (Respondents), requesting that...

  9. Proceedings of the 10th study presentation meeting of Japan Society of Energy and Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concerning solar/natural energy, reports are made on a design of wind turbine arrays, hydrogen production by solar thermal conversion, demonstration tests with the interconnected system, etc. About the combustion, discussions are made on efficiency and pollution abatement measures. Besides solid electrolyte and internal-heat-reforming type molten carbonate fuel cells, test runs of phosphoric acid fuel cells for the district heat supply/on-site use are conducted. Furthermore, studies on the ocean thermal energy conversion and the wave power generation are taken up. The global energy system is also proposed which combines the photovoltaic power generation, hydrogen production and methanol fuel synthesis using flue gas CO2 transported by tanker in the desert for the global warming prevention/resource recycling. Reports on energy conservation using energy storage and heat pumps are made. Application of electric power to superconductivity technology is reported on. As for the energy system, district cooling and heating, alternative energy, cogeneration, etc. are introduced, and then many examples of energy conservation and non-pollution are presented.

  10. The Water-Energy-Food Nexus in a Rapidly Developing Resource Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.; Kirste, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Technological advances and access to global markets have changed the rate at which resource exploitation takes place. The environmental impact of the rapid development and distribution of resources such as minerals and hydrocarbons has led to a greater potential for significant stress on water resources both in terms of quality and quantity. How and where those impacts manifest is crucial to determining appropriate risk management strategies. North East British Columbia has an abundance of shale gas reserves that are anticipated to be exploited at a large scale in coming years, primarily for export as liquefied natural gas (LNG). However, there is growing concern that fracking and other activities related to shale gas development pose risks to water quality and quantity in the region. Water lies at the center of the water-energy-food nexus, with an accelerating water demand for fracking and industrial operations as well as for domestic, environmental and agricultural uses. Climate change is also anticipated to alter the hydrologic regime, posing added stress to the water resource. This case study examines the water-energy-food nexus in the context of a region that is impacted by a rapidly developing resource sector, encompassing water demand/supply, climate change, interaction between deep aquifers and shallow aquifers/surface waters, water quality concerns related to fracking, land use disturbance, and community impacts. Due to the rapid rate of development, there are significant knowledge gaps in our understanding of the water resource. Currently agencies are undertaking water resource assessments and establishing monitoring sites. This research aims to assess water security in North East British Columbia in a coordinated fashion through various partnerships. In addition to collecting baseline knowledge and data, the study will evaluate risk and resilience indicators in relation to water security. A risk assessment framework specific to the shale gas development

  11. Modeling of thermal storage systems in MILP distributed energy resource models

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Steen, David; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Gonçalo; Groissböck, Markus; DeForest, Nicholas; Marnay, Chris

    2014-08-04

    Thermal energy storage (TES) and distributed generation technologies, such as combined heat and power (CHP) or photovoltaics (PV), can be used to reduce energy costs and decrease CO2 emissions from buildings by shifting energy consumption to times with less emissions and/or lower energy prices. To determine the feasibility of investing in TES in combination with other distributed energy resources (DER), mixed integer linear programming (MILP) can be used. Such a MILP model is the well-established Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM); however, it currently uses only a simplified TES model to guarantee linearity and short run-times. Loss calculations aremore » based only on the energy contained in the storage. This paper presents a new DER-CAM TES model that allows improved tracking of losses based on ambient and storage temperatures, and compares results with the previous version. A multi-layer TES model is introduced that retains linearity and avoids creating an endogenous optimization problem. The improved model increases the accuracy of the estimated storage losses and enables use of heat pumps for low temperature storage charging. Ultimately,results indicate that the previous model overestimates the attractiveness of TES investments for cases without possibility to invest in heat pumps and underestimates it for some locations when heat pumps are allowed. Despite a variation in optimal technology selection between the two models, the objective function value stays quite stable, illustrating the complexity of optimal DER sizing problems in buildings and microgrids.« less

  12. Status of radiotherapy resources in Africa: an International Atomic Energy Agency analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, May; Bourque, Jean-Marc; Pynda, Yaroslav; Iżewska, Joanna; Van der Merwe, Debbie; Zubizarreta, Eduardo; Rosenblatt, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    Radiation therapy is an important component of cancer control programmes. The scarcity of radiation oncology resources in Africa is becoming more severe as cancer incidence increases in the continent. We did a longitudinal assessment of the status of radiation oncology resources in Africa to measure the extent of the problem and the effects of programmes designed to enhance radiation services in the continent. Radiation oncology departments in Africa were surveyed through the Directory of Radiotherapy Centres, and this information was supplemented by that available from International Atomic Energy Agency Regional African and Interregional project reports for 2010. Of 52 African countries included, only 23 are known to have teletherapy. These facilities are concentrated in the southern and northern states of the continent. Brachytherapy resources (high-dose rate or low-dose rate) were only available in 20 of the 52 African countries. Although progress has been made in the establishment of radiation oncology services in some countries, a large need still exists for basic radiation services, and much resource mobilisation is needed for services to keep pace with the burgeoning populations of many countries. PMID:23561748

  13. Survey of ecological resources at selected US Department of Energy sites

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, C.; Beckert, H.; Abrams, C.

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns and manages a wide range of ecological resources. During the next 30 years, DOE Headquarters and Field Offices will make land-use planning decisions and conduct environmental remediation and restoration activities in response to federal and state statutes. This document fulfills, in part, DOE`s need to know what types of ecological resources it currently owns and manages by synthesizing information on the types and locations of ecological resources at 10 DOE sites: Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Plant, Los Alamos National Laboratory, savannah River Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Fernald Environmental Management Project. This report summarizes information on ecosystems, habitats, and federally listed threatened, endangered, and candidate species that could be stressed by contaminants or physical activity during the restoration process, or by the natural or anthropogenic transport of contaminants from presently contaminated areas into presently uncontaminated areas. This report also provides summary information on the ecosystems, habitats, and threatened and endangered species that exist on each of the 10 sites. Each site chapter contains a general description of the site, including information on size, location, history, geology, hydrology, and climate. Descriptions of the major vegetation and animal communities and of aquatic resources are also provided, with discussions of the treatened or endangered plant or animal species present. Site-specific ecological issues are also discussed in each site chapter. 106 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Learning About Energy Resources Through Student Created Video Documentaries in the University Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, P.; Courtney, A.

    2010-12-01

    Students enrolled in an undergraduate non-science majors’ Energy Perspectives course created 10-15 minute video documentaries on topics related to Energy Resources and the Environment. Video project topics included wave, biodiesel, clean coal, hydro, solar and “off-the-grid” energy technologies. No student had any prior experience with creating video projects. Students had Liberal Arts academic backgrounds that included Anthropology, Theater Arts, International Studies, English and Early Childhood Education. Students were required to: 1) select a topic, 2) conduct research, 3) write a narrative, 4) construct a project storyboard, 5) shoot or acquire video and photos (from legal sources), 6) record the narrative, and 7) construct the video documentary. This study describes the instructional approach of using student created video documentaries as projects in an undergraduate non-science majors’ science course. Two knowledge survey instruments were used for assessment purposes. Each instrument was administered Pre-, Mid- and Post course. One survey focused on the skills necessary to research and produce video documentaries. Results showed students acquired enhanced technology skills especially with regard to research techniques, writing skills and video editing. The second survey assessed students’ content knowledge acquired from each documentary. Results indicated students’ increased their content knowledge of energy resource topics. Students reported very favorable evaluations concerning their experience with creating “Ken Burns” video project documentaries.

  15. Explaining Earths Energy Budget: CERES-Based NASA Resources for K-12 Education and Public Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Bethea, K.; Marvel, M. T.; Ruhlman, K.; LaPan, J.; Lewis, P.; Madigan, J.; Oostra, D.; Taylor, J.

    2014-01-01

    Among atmospheric scientists, the importance of the Earth radiation budget concept is well understood. Papers have addressed the topic for over 100 years, and the large Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) science team (among others), with its multiple on-orbit instruments, is working hard to quantify the details of its various parts. In education, Earth's energy budget is a concept that generally appears in middle school and Earth science curricula, but its treatment in textbooks leaves much to be desired. Students and the public hold many misconceptions, and very few people have an appreciation for the importance of this energy balance to the conditions on Earth. More importantly, few have a correct mental model that allows them to make predictions and understand the effect of changes such as increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. As an outreach element of the core CERES team at NASA Langley, a multi-disciplinary group of scientists, educators, graphic artists, writers, and web developers has been developing and refining graphics and resources to explain the Earth's Energy budget over the last few decades. Resources have developed through an iterative process involving ongoing use in front of a variety of audiences, including students and teachers from 3rd to 12th grade as well as public audiences.

  16. High yield wind energy resources in the mid-Hudson River Basin. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sforza, P.M.; Bailey, B.H.

    1983-12-01

    The report describes the results of a wind resource assessment program in the mid-Hudson River Basin area that resulted in a year-long hourly record of wind speed and direction data at two tower levels and four sites. Three of these sites are typical of the exposed hilly terrain characteristic of the Catskill Region. The average annual wind speed for the period of this study was 12.6 to 15.4 miles per hour at the 100-foot tower level. The performance of wind systems ranging in capacity from 55 to 7200 kW was evaluated using the hourly wind data and manufacturer-supplied power curves. Total energy production and cost estimates for these wind systems were then used to calculate levelized cost of energy and internal rate of return calculations for the wind systems evaluated. The internal rate of return with and without the 15 percent Federal energy investment tax credit and five-year accelerated depreciation was calculated using a discounted cash-flow method. In the best wind resource case available, the average internal rates of return on investment with and without the energy investment tax credit and depreciation schedule were 21 percent and 12 percent, respectively.

  17. Distributed Energy Resources at Naval Base Ventura County Building1512: A Sensitivity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Owen C.; Marnay, Chris

    2005-06-05

    This report is the second of a two-part study by BerkeleyLab of a DER (distributed energy resources) system at Navy Base VenturaCounty (NBVC). First, a preliminary assessment ofthe cost effectivenessof distributed energy resources at Naval Base Ventura County (NBVC)Building 1512 was conducted in response to the base s request for designassistance to the Federal Energy Management Program (Bailey and Marnay,2004). That report contains a detailed description of the site and theDER-CAM (Consumer Adoption Model) parameters used. This second reportcontains sensitivity analyses of key parameters in the DER system modelof Building 1512 at NBVC and additionally considers the potential forabsorption-powered refrigeration.The prior analysis found that under thecurrent tariffs, and given assumptions about the performance andstructure of building energy loads and available generating technologycharacteristics, installing a 600 kW DER system with absorption coolingand recovery heat capabilities could deliver cost savings of about 14percent, worth $55,000 per year. However, under current conditions, thisstudy also suggested that significant savings could be obtained ifBuilding 1512 changed from its current direct access contract to a SCETOU-8 (Southern California Edison time of use tariff number 8) ratewithout installing a DER system. Evaluated on this tariff, the potentialsavings from installation of a DER system would be about 4 percent of thetotal bill, or $16,000 per year.

  18. Audit Report "Department of Energy Efforts to Manage Information Technology Resources in an Energy-Efficient and Environmentally Responsible Manner"

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 emphasizes energy efficiency and conservation as critical to the Nation's economic vitality; its goal of reducing dependence on foreign energy sources; and, related efforts to improve the environment. The Act highlights the significant use of various forms of energy in the Federal sector and promotes efforts to improve the energy efficiency of Federal operations. One specific area of interest is the increasing demand for Federal sector computing resources and the corresponding increase in energy use, with both cost and environmental implications. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reported that, without aggressive conservation measures, data center energy consumption alone is expected to double over the next five years. In our report on Management of the Department's Data Centers at Contractor Sites (DOE/IG-0803, October 2008) we concluded that the Department of Energy had not always improved the efficiency of its contractor data centers even when such modifications were possible and practical. Despite its recognized energy conservation leadership role, the Department had not always taken advantage of opportunities to reduce energy consumption associated with its information technology resources. Nor, had it ensured that resources were managed in a way that minimized impact on the environment. In particular: (1) The seven Federal and contractor sites included in our review had not fully reduced energy consumption through implementation of power management settings on their desktop and laptop computers; and, as a consequence, spent $1.6 million more on energy costs than necessary in Fiscal Year 2008; (2) None of the sites reviewed had taken advantage of opportunities to reduce energy consumption, enhance cyber security, and reduce costs available through the use of techniques, such as 'thin-client computing' in their unclassified environments; and, (3) Sites had not always taken the necessary steps to reduce

  19. The United Nations framework classification for fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacDonald, D.; Lynch-Bell, M.; Ross, J.; Heiberg, S.; Griffiths, C.; Klett, T.

    2011-01-01

    Effective resource management in a globalizing economy requires accurate assessments of fossil energy and minerals resources. The recoverable quantities must be described and categorized in a manner that is consistent with scientific and social/economic information describing the economy as well as with the information describing the projects to recover them. A number of different standards have evolved over time in response to various professional needs Under a mandate given by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) has cooperated with Governments, regulatory agencies, industry, international organizations, and professional organizations (including Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO), the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers (SPEE)), as well as with outstanding experts, to define a global classification for extractive activities (including oil, gas, heavy oil and bitumen extraction) that reflects the principal concerns of existing petroleum and mineral classifications. The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources-2009 (UNFC-2009) aims to serve the following four principal needs: 1. The needs in international energy and mineral studies to formulate robust and long-sighted policies. 2. The needs of governments in managing their resources accordingly, allowing market prices to be transferred to the wellhead with as little loss as possible. 3. The industries' needs for information while deploying technology, management and finance to secure energy supplies and capture value efficiently within the established frameworks to serve its host countries, shareholders and stakeholders. 4. The financial community's need for information to allocate capital appropriately, providing reduced costs and improved long

  20. Summary of Information and Resources Related to Energy Use in Healthcare Facilities - Version 1

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Coughlin, Jennifer L.; Mathew, Paul A.

    2009-09-08

    This document presents the results of a review of publicly available information on energy use in health care facilities. The information contained in this document and in the sources cited herein provides the background and context for efforts to reduce energy use and costs in health care. Recognizing the breadth and diversity of relevant information, the author acknowledges that the report is likely not comprehensive. It is intended only to present a broad picture of what is currently known about health care energy use. This review was conducted as part of a 'High Performance Health Care Buildings' research study funded by the California Energy Commission. The study was motivated by the recognition that health care facilities collectively account for a substantial fraction of total commercial building energy use, due in large part to the very high energy intensity of hospitals and other inpatient care facilities. The goal of the study was to develop a roadmap of research, development and deployment (RD&D) needs for the health care industry. In addition to this information review, the road map development process included interviews with industry experts and a full-day workshop at LBNL in March 2009. This report is described as 'Version 1' with the intent that it will be expanded and updated as part of an ongoing LBNL program in healthcare energy efficiency. The document is being released in this form with the hope that it can assist others in finding and accessing the resources described within.

  1. International energy trade impacts on water resource crises: an embodied water flows perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. C.; Zhong, R.; Zhao, P.; Zhang, H. W.; Wang, Y.; Mao, G. Z.

    2016-07-01

    Water and energy are coupled in intimate ways (Siddiqi and Anadon 2011 Energy Policy 39 4529–40), which is amplified by international energy trade. The study shows that the total volume of energy related international embodied water flows averaged 6298 Mm3 yr‑1 from 1992–2010, which represents 10% of the water used for energy production including oil, coal, gas and electricity production. This study calculates embodied water import and export status of 219 countries from 1992 to 2010 and embodied water flow changes of seven regions over time (1992/2000/2010). In addition, the embodied water net export risk-crisis index and net embodied water import benefit index are established. According to the index system, 33 countries export vast amounts of water who have a water shortage, which causes water risk and crisis related to energy trade. While 29 countries abate this risk due to their rich water resource, 45 countries import embodied water linked to energy imports. Based on the different status of countries studied, the countries were classified into six groups with different policy recommendations.

  2. Environmental engineering: energy value of replacing waste disposal with resource recovery

    PubMed

    Iranpour; Stenstrom; Tchobanoglous; Miller; Wright; Vossoughi

    1999-07-30

    Although in the past, environmental engineering has been primarily concerned with waste disposal, the focus of the field is now shifting toward viewing wastes as potential resources. Because reclamation usually consumes less energy than producing new materials, increasing reclamation not only reduces pollution but saves energy. Technological innovations contributing to this shift are summarized here, and are variously classified as emerging technologies or research topics, as either new departures or incremental improvements, and as opportunistic innovations, or examples of a unifying strategy. Both liquid and solid waste examples are given, such as a recent discovery of effects in disinfecting microfiltered reclaimed wastewater with ultraviolet light. In addition to its value in reducing pollution and conserving energy, this reorientation of environmental engineering could contribute to a more general shift toward greater cooperation among organizations dealing with the environment. PMID:10426987

  3. The state of energy storage in electric utility systems and its effect on renewable energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, N S

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the state of the art of electric energy storage technologies and discusses how adding intermittent renewable energy technologies (IRETs) to a utility network affects the benefits from storage dispatch. Load leveling was the mode of storage dispatch examined in the study. However, the report recommended that other modes be examined in the future for kilowatt and kilowatt-hour optimization of storage. The motivation to install storage with IRET generation can arise from two considerations: reliability and enhancement of the value of energy. Because adding storage increases cost, reliability-related storage is attractive only if the accruing benefits exceed the cost of storage installation. The study revealed that the operation of storage should not be guided by the output of the IRET but rather by system marginal costs. Consequently, in planning studies to quantify benefits, storage should not be considered as an entity belonging to the system and not as a component of IRETS. The study also indicted that because the infusion of IRET energy tends to reduce system marginal cost, the benefits from load leveling (value of energy) would be reduced. However, if a system has storage, particularly if the storage is underutilized, its dispatch can be reoriented to enhance the benefits of IRET integration.

  4. Evaluating Solar Resource Data Obtained from Multiple Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-09-01

    Solar radiation resource measurements from radiometers are used to predict and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic and concentrating solar power systems, validate satellite-based models for estimating solar resources, and advance research in solar forecasting and climate change. This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI). These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband irradiometers, and a pyranometer with a shading ring deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference GHI and DNI.

  5. Assessment of (mu)grid distributed energy resource potential using DER-CAM and GIS

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris; Bartholomew, Emily; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Siddiqui, Afzal S.; LaCommare, Kristina S.H.

    2002-01-01

    This report outlines an approach to assess the local potential for deployment of distributed energy resources (DER), small power-generation installations located close to the point where the energy they produce will be consumed. Although local restraints, such as zoning, building codes, and on-site physical barriers are well-known frustrations to DER deployment, no analysis method has been developed to address them within a broad economic analysis framework. The approach developed here combines established economic optimization techniques embedded in the Distributed Energy Resource Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) with a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of local land-use constraint. An example case in the San Diego area is developed from a strictly customer perspective, based on the premise that future development of DER may take the form of microgrids ((mu)Grids) under the control of current utility customers. Beginning with assumptions about which customer combinations h ave complementary energy loads, a GIS was used to locate specific neighborhoods in the San Diego area with promising customer combinations. A detailed energy analysis was conducted for the commercial/residential area chosen covering both electrical and heat energy requirements. Under various scenarios, different combinations of natural gas reciprocating engines were chosen by DER-CAM, ranging in size from 25 kW to 500 kW, often with heat recovery or absorption cooling. These generators typically operate throughout the day and are supplemented by purchased electricity during late-night and early-morning hours, when utility time-of-use prices are lowest. Typical (mu)Grid scenarios displaced about 80 percent of their annual gas heat load through CHP. Self-generation together with absorption cooling dramatically reduce electricity purchases, which usually only occur during nighttime hours.

  6. Distributed energy resources customer adoption modeling with combined heat and power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Firestone, Ryan M.; Ghosh, Srijay; Stadler, Michael; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2003-07-01

    In this report, an economic model of customer adoption of distributed energy resources (DER) is developed. It covers progress on the DER project for the California Energy Commission (CEC) at Berkeley Lab during the period July 2001 through Dec 2002 in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Distributed Energy Resources Integration (DERI) project. CERTS has developed a specific paradigm of distributed energy deployment, the CERTS Microgrid (as described in Lasseter et al. 2002). The primary goal of CERTS distributed generation research is to solve the technical problems required to make the CERTS Microgrid a viable technology, and Berkeley Lab's contribution is to direct the technical research proceeding at CERTS partner sites towards the most productive engineering problems. The work reported herein is somewhat more widely applicable, so it will be described within the context of a generic microgrid (mGrid). Current work focuses on the implementation of combined heat and power (CHP) capability. A mGrid as generically defined for this work is a semiautonomous grouping of generating sources and end-use electrical loads and heat sinks that share heat and power. Equipment is clustered and operated for the benefit of its owners. Although it can function independently of the traditional power system, or macrogrid, the mGrid is usually interconnected and exchanges energy and possibly ancillary services with the macrogrid. In contrast to the traditional centralized paradigm, the design, implementation, operation, and expansion of the mGrid is meant to optimize the overall energy system requirements of participating customers rather than the objectives and requirements of the macrogrid.

  7. Food Waste to Energy: How Six Water Resource Recovery Facilities are Boosting Biogas Production and the Bottom Line

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRFs) with anaerobic digestion have been harnessing biogas for heat and power since at least the 1920’s. A few are approaching “energy neutrality” and some are becoming “energy positive” through a combination of energy efficiency measures and...

  8. Improving Maryland's Offshore Wind Energy Resource Estimate Using Doppler Wind Lidar Technology to Assess Microtmeteorology Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. Pé, Alexandra; Wesloh, Daniel; Antoszewski, Graham; Daham, Farrah; Goudarzi, Navid; Rabenhorst, Scott; Delgado, Ruben

    2016-06-01

    There is enormous potential to harness the kinetic energy of offshore wind and produce power. However significant uncertainties are introduced in the offshore wind resource assessment process, due in part to limited observational networks and a poor understanding of the marine atmosphere's complexity. Given the cubic relationship between a turbine's power output and wind speed, a relatively small error in the wind speed estimate translates to a significant error in expected power production. The University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) collected in-situ measurements offshore, within Maryland's Wind Energy Area (WEA) from July-August 2013. This research demonstrates the ability of Doppler wind lidar technology to reduce uncertainty in estimating an offshore wind resource, compared to traditional resource assessment techniques, by providing a more accurate representation of the wind profile and associated hub-height wind speed variability. The second objective of this research is to elucidate the impact of offshore micrometeorology controls (stability, wind shear, turbulence) on a turbine's ability to produce power. Compared to lidar measurements, power law extrapolation estimates and operational National Weather Service models underestimated hub-height wind speeds in the WEA. In addition, lidar observations suggest the frequent development of a low-level wind maximum (LLWM), with high turbinelayer wind shear and low turbulence intensity within a turbine's rotor layer (40m-160m). Results elucidate the advantages of using Doppler wind lidar technology to improve offshore wind resource estimates and its ability to monitor under-sampled offshore meteorological controls impact on a potential turbine's ability to produce power.

  9. 76 FR 62804 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Notice of Meetings To Discuss Resource Issues Related to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Meetings: Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC (Duke) Water Quantity and Operations Resource Committee: Thursday... Carolinas, LLC (Duke) Water Quantity and Operations Resource Committee: Operations models. Duke Stakeholder... Erosion of the Islands in Lake Keowee. g. All local, state, and federal agencies, Indian tribes, and...

  10. Annual Performance Report: 2007-2008 State Assessment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Jason; Thurlow, Martha; Vang, Mai

    2010-01-01

    States and other educational entities receiving Part B funding under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) submitted their Annual Performance Reports (APRs) and Section 618 Table 6 data together to the U.S. Secretary of Education on or before February 1, 2009. These reports may have been modified during the following few months,…

  11. Influenza update 2007-2008: vaccine advances, pandemic preparation.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2007-12-01

    Influenza vaccination remains our best measure to prevent epidemic and pandemic influenza. We must continue to improve vaccination rates for targeted populations. Antiviral options are currently limited to the neuraminidase inhibitors. PMID:18183839

  12. Restrictions on Research Awards: Troublesome Clauses 2007/2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Universities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This joint report by the Association of American Universities (AAU) and the Council on Governmental Relations (COGR) is based on a survey of 20 U.S. research universities that conduct significant amounts of federal research. It follows up on a 2003/2004 survey of the same institutions. The new report shows that, despite the concerns and…

  13. Report on 2007-2008 High Tunnel Studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New management strategies are needed to produce strawberry planting materials that will fruit in off-season in the mid-Atlantic coast region. Also, a better understanding of mechanisms that control flowering in strawberries is needed to improve fall flowering in short-day type cultivars. When plug...

  14. Overview of global space activities in 2007/2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Nicolas; Delmotte, Raphaëlle

    2009-08-01

    The period ranging from July 2007 to June 2008 has been marked by significant trends and issues in the space sector, particularly under the impulsion of space-faring countries. The internationalisation and globalisation of the space sector which started a few years ago have been gaining momentum as well. As a consequence, the size of the space sector has been growing, as well as the global competition for market shares.

  15. American Council of Learned Societies Annual Report, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Learned Societies, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS) provides the humanities and related social sciences with leadership, opportunities for innovation, and national and international representation. ACLS was founded in 1919 to represent the United States in the Union Academique Internationale. Its mission is "the advancement of humanistic studies in…

  16. Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer: 2007-2008 Progress and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, P. R.; Lay, O. P.; Martin, S. R.; Peters, R. D.; Gappinger, R. O.; Ksendzov, A.; Scharf, D. P.; Booth, A. J.; Beichman, C. A.; Serabyn, E.; Johnston, K. J.; Danchi, W. C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of technology development for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer (TPF-I). TPF-I is a mid-infrared space interferometer being designed with the capability of detecting Earth-like planets in the habitable zones around nearby stars. The overall technology roadmap is presented and progress with each of the testbeds is summarized. The current interferometer architecture, design trades, and the viability of possible reduced-scope mission concepts are also presented.

  17. Shillapoo Wildlife Area, Annual Report 2007-2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, Brian

    2007-10-01

    This report summarizes accomplishments, challenges and successes on WDFW's Shillapoo Wildlife Area funded under Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Wildlife Mitigation Program (BPA project No.2003-012-00) during the Fiscal Year 08 contract period October 1, 2007-September 30, 2008. The information presented here is intended to supplement that contained in BPA's PISCES contract development and reporting system. The organization below is by broad categories of work but references are made to individual work elements in the PISCES Statement of Work as appropriate. Significant progress was realized in almost all major work types. Of particular note was progress made in tree plantings and pasture rehabilitation efforts. This year's tree planting effort included five sites detailed below and in terms of the number of plants was certainly the largest effort on the wildlife area to date in one season. The planting itself took a significant amount of time, which was anticipated. However, installation of mats and tubes took much longer than expected which impacted planned fence projects in particular. Survival of the plantings appears to be good. Improvement to the quality of waterfowl pasture habitats is evident on a number of sites due to replanting and weed control efforts. Continuing long-term weed control efforts will be key in improving this particular type of habitat. A prolonged cold, wet spring and a number of equipment breakdowns presented stumbling blocks that impacted schedules and ultimately progress on planned activities. The unusual spring weather delayed fieldwork on pasture planting projects as well as weed control and slowed the process of maintaining trees and shrubs. This time lag also caused the continued deferral of some of our fencing projects. The large brush hog mower had the driveline break twice and the smaller tractor had an engine failure that caused it to be down for over a month. We have modified our budget plan for next year to include a temporary employee that will work primarily on tree maintenance and fencing projects to make sure that we make progress in these areas and we will be investigating whether a heavier duty driveline can be obtained for the mower.

  18. MCPS Special Education at a Glance 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) "Special Education at a Glance," which includes a copy of the "Guide to Planning and Assessing School-Based Special Education Programs," provides in a single document, information about the special education population at each MCPS school, including enrollment, staffing, special education…

  19. Scotch Creek Wildlife Area 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Jim

    2008-11-03

    The Scotch Creek Wildlife Area is a complex of 6 separate management units located in Okanogan County in North-central Washington State. The project is located within the Columbia Cascade Province (Okanogan sub-basin) and partially addresses adverse impacts caused by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee hydroelectric dams. With the acquisition of the Eder unit in 2007, the total size of the wildlife area is now 19,860 acres. The Scotch Creek Wildlife Area was approved as a wildlife mitigation project in 1996 and habitat enhancement efforts to meet mitigation objectives have been underway since the spring of 1997 on Scotch Creek. Continuing efforts to monitor the threatened Sharp-tailed grouse population on the Scotch Creek unit are encouraging. The past two spring seasons were unseasonably cold and wet, a dangerous time for the young of the year. This past spring, Scotch Creek had a cold snap with snow on June 10th, a critical period for young chicks just hatched. Still, adult numbers on the leks have remained stable the past two years. Maintenance of BPA funded enhancements is necessary to protect and enhance shrub-steppe and to recover and sustain populations of Sharp-tailed grouse and other obligate species.

  20. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2007-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review highlights developments in mycotoxin analysis and sampling over a period between mid-2007 and mid-2008. It covers the major mycotoxins aflatoxins, alternaria toxins, cyclopiazonic acid, fumonisins, ochratoxin, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. Some aspects of natural occurrence, ...