Science.gov

Sample records for energy storage rating

  1. Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  2. Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Mukundan, Rangachary

    2014-09-30

    Energy storage technology is critical if the U.S. is to achieve more than 25% penetration of renewable electrical energy, given the intermittency of wind and solar. Energy density is a critical parameter in the economic viability of any energy storage system with liquid fuels being 10 to 100 times better than batteries. However, the economical conversion of electricity to fuel still presents significant technical challenges. This project addressed these challenges by focusing on a specific approach: efficient processes to convert electricity, water and nitrogen to ammonia. Ammonia has many attributes that make it the ideal energy storage compound. The feed stocks are plentiful, ammonia is easily liquefied and routinely stored in large volumes in cheap containers, and it has exceptional energy density for grid scale electrical energy storage. Ammonia can be oxidized efficiently in fuel cells or advanced Carnot cycle engines yielding water and nitrogen as end products. Because of the high energy density and low reactivity of ammonia, the capital cost for grid storage will be lower than any other storage application. This project developed the theoretical foundations of N2 catalysis on specific catalysts and provided for the first time experimental evidence for activation of Mo 2N based catalysts. Theory also revealed that the N atom adsorbed in the bridging position between two metal atoms is the critical step for catalysis. Simple electrochemical ammonia production reactors were designed and built in this project using two novel electrolyte systems. The first one demonstrated the use of ionic liquid electrolytes at room temperature and the second the use of pyrophosphate based electrolytes at intermediate temperatures (200 – 300 ºC). The mechanism of high proton conduction in the pyrophosphate materials was found to be associated with a polyphosphate second phase contrary to literature claims and ammonia production rates as high as 5X 10

  3. Energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  4. The rates of solar energy storage and retrieval in a zeolite-water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, R.; Hollebone, B. R.; Langford, C. H.; Shigeishi, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The salient features that determine the possible use of a water vapour-zeolite 13X system as a method of energy storage were investigated. Cycling studies over two months revealed no decrease in water capacity nor any structural deterioration. The rate at which water could be desorbed in a static situation was determined at various temperatures from 110 to 250 C. The adsorption isotherm and the heats of adsorption as a function of amount of adsorbed water were determined. The saturation capacity was 0.33 g H2O/g zeolite while the heat of adsorption declined from 90 to 50 kJ kJ/mol. The rate of heat development was found to be very high so that heat extraction from the store would not be a problem in any practical utilization of this system.

  5. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  6. A high-rate and long cycle life aqueous electrolyte battery for grid-scale energy storage.

    PubMed

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Huggins, Robert A; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    New types of energy storage are needed in conjunction with the deployment of solar, wind and other volatile renewable energy sources and their integration with the electric grid. No existing energy storage technology can economically provide the power, cycle life and energy efficiency needed to respond to the costly short-term transients that arise from renewables and other aspects of grid operation. Here we demonstrate a new type of safe, fast, inexpensive, long-life aqueous electrolyte battery, which relies on the insertion of potassium ions into a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a novel activated carbon/polypyrrole hybrid anode. The cathode reacts rapidly with very little hysteresis. The hybrid anode uses an electrochemically active additive to tune its potential. This high-rate, high-efficiency cell has a 95% round-trip energy efficiency when cycled at a 5C rate, and a 79% energy efficiency at 50C. It also has zero-capacity loss after 1,000 deep-discharge cycles. PMID:23093186

  7. 78 FR 4143 - Energy Storage Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Energy Storage Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Energy Storage Holdings, LLC's application for market-based...

  8. NV Energy Electricity Storage Valuation

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-30

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benet the operations of NV Energy in 2020, and assesses whether those benets justify the cost of the storage system. In order to determine how grid-level storage might impact NV Energy, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (\\BA") as projected for 2020 was built and used for the study. Storage facilities were found to add value primarily by providing reserve. Value provided by the provision of time-of-day shifting was found to be limited. If regulating reserve from storage is valued the same as that from slower ramp rate resources, then it appears that a reciprocating engine generator could provide additional capacity at a lower cost than a pumped storage hydro plant or large storage capacity battery system. In addition, a 25-MW battery storage facility would need to cost $650/kW or less in order to produce a positive Net Present Value (NPV). However, if regulating reserve provided by storage is considered to be more useful to the grid than that from slower ramp rate resources, then a grid-level storage facility may have a positive NPV even at today's storage system capital costs. The value of having storage provide services beyond reserve and time-of-day shifting was not assessed in this study, and was therefore not included in storage cost-benefit calculations.

  9. Estimating electricity storage power rating and discharge duration for utility transmission and distribution deferral :a study for the DOE energy storage program.

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA); Butler, Paul Charles; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr.

    2005-11-01

    This report describes a methodology for estimating the power and energy capacities for electricity energy storage systems that can be used to defer costly upgrades to fully overloaded, or nearly overloaded, transmission and distribution (T&D) nodes. This ''sizing'' methodology may be used to estimate the amount of storage needed so that T&D upgrades may be deferred for one year. The same methodology can also be used to estimate the characteristics of storage needed for subsequent years of deferral.

  10. Distributions of energy storage rate and microstructural evolution in the area of plastic strain localization during uniaxial tension of austenitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliferuk, W.; Maj, M.

    2015-08-01

    The presented work is devoted to an experimental determination of the energy storage rate in the area of strain localization. The experimental procedure involves two complementary techniques: i.e. infrared thermography (IRT) and visible light imaging. The results of experiments have shown that during the evolution of plastic strain localization the energy storage rate in some areas of the deformed specimen drops to zero. To interpret the decrease of the energy storage rate in terms of micro-mechanisms, microstructural observations using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSC) were performed. On the basis of microstructural studies it is believed that a 0 value of energy storage rate corresponds to the state in which only two dominant components of the texture appear, creating conditions for crystallographic shear banding.

  11. Designing high-performance electrochemical energy-storage nanoarchitectures to balance rate and capacity.

    PubMed

    Sassin, Megan B; Hoag, Cheyne P; Willis, Bradley T; Kucko, Nathan W; Rolison, Debra R; Long, Jeffrey W

    2013-02-21

    The impressive specific capacitance and high-rate performance reported for many nanometric charge-storing films on planar substrates cannot impact a technology space beyond microdevices unless such performance translates into a macroscale form factor. In this report, we explore how the nanoscale-to-macroscale properties of the electrode architecture (pore size/distribution, void volume, thickness) define energy and power performance when scaled to technologically relevant dimensions. Our test bed is a device-ready electrode architecture in which scalable, manufacturable carbon nanofoam papers with tunable pore sizes (5-200 nm) and thickness (100-300 μm) are painted with ~10 nm coatings of manganese oxide (MnOx). The quantity of capacitance and the rate at which it is delivered for four different MnOx-C variants was assessed by fabricating symmetric electrochemical capacitors using a concentrated aqueous electrolyte. Carbon nanofoam papers containing primarily 10-20 nm mesopores support high MnOx loadings (60 wt%) and device-level capacitance (30 F g(-1)), but the small mesoporous network hinders electrolyte transport and the low void volume restricts the quantity of charge-compensating ions within the electrode, making the full capacitance only accessible at slow rates (5 mV s(-1)). Carbon nanofoam papers with macropores (100-200 nm) facilitate high rate operation (50 mV s(-1)), but deliver significantly lower device capacitance (13 F g(-1)) as a result of lower MnOx loadings (41 wt%). Devices comprising MnOx-carbon nanofoams with interconnecting networks of meso- and macropores balance capacitance and rate performance, delivering 33 F g(-1) at 5 mV s(-1) and 23 F g(-1) at 50 mV s(-1). The use of carbon nanofoam papers with size-tunable pore structures and thickness provides the opportunity to engineer the electrode architecture to deliver scalable quantities of capacitance (F cm(-2)) in tens of seconds with a single device. PMID:23334529

  12. Hybrid nickel manganese oxide nanosheet-3D metallic dendrite percolation network electrodes for high-rate electrochemical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Tuyen; Eugénio, Sónia; Boudard, Michel; Rapenne, Laetitia; Carmezim, M. João; Silva, Teresa M.; Montemor, M. Fátima

    2015-07-01

    This work reports the fabrication, by electrodeposition and post-thermal annealing, of hybrid electrodes for high rate electrochemical energy storage composed of nickel manganese oxide (Ni0.86Mn0.14O) nanosheets over 3D open porous dendritic NiCu foams. The hybrid electrodes are made of two different percolation networks of nanosheets and dendrites, and exhibit a specific capacitance value of 848 F g-1 at 1 A g-1. The electrochemical tests revealed that the electrodes display an excellent rate capability, characterized by capacitance retention of approximately 83% when the applied current density increases from 1 A g-1 to 20 A g-1. The electrodes also evidenced high charge-discharge cycling stability, which attained 103% after 1000 cycles.

  13. Thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The planning and implementation of activities associated with lead center management role and the technical accomplishments pertaining to high temperature thermal energy storage subsystems are described. Major elements reported are: (1) program definition and assessment; (2) research and technology development; (3) industrial storage applications; (4) solar thermal power storage applications; and (5) building heating and cooling applications.

  14. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. D.; Kannberg, L. D.; Raymond, J. R.

    1984-05-01

    Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) using heat or cold available from surplus, waste, climatic, or cogeneration sources show great promise to reduce peak demand, reduce electric utility load problems, and contribute to establishing favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems. Heated and chilled water can be injected, stored, and recovered from aquifers. Geologic materials are good thermal insulators, and potentially suitable aquifers are distributed throughout the United States. Potential energy sources for use in an aquifer thermal energy storage system include solar heat, power plant cogeneration, winter chill, and industrial waste heat source. Topics covered include: (1) the U.S. Department of Energy seasonal thermal energy storage program; (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology; (3) alternative STES technology; (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage; and (5) economic assessment.

  15. Energy storage apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.; Evans, H. E. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A high efficiency, flywheel type energy storage device which comprises an electronically commutated d.c. motor/generator unit having a massive flywheel rotor magnetically suspended around a ring shaped stator is presented. During periods of low energy demand, the storage devices were operated as a motor, and the flywheel motor was brought up to operating speed. Energy was drawn from the device functioning as a generator as the flywheel rotor rotated during high energy demand periods.

  16. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  17. Thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodzka, P. G.; Picklesimer, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    The general scope of study on thermal energy storage development includes: (1) survey and review possible concepts for storing thermal energy; (2) evaluate the potentials of the surveyed concepts for practical applications in the low and high temperature ranges for thermal control and storage, with particular emphasis on the low temperature range, and designate the most promising concepts; and (3) determine the nature of further studies required to expeditiously convert the most promising concept(s) to practical applications. Cryogenic temperature control by means of energy storage materials was also included.

  18. Thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, J.J. ); Kannberg, L.D. )

    1990-09-01

    This paper discusses how thermal energy storage (TES) can aid in the efficient use and provision of thermal energy, wherever there is a mismatch between energy generation and use. Three fundamental types of thermal energy storage processes (sensible, latent, and thermochemical) can be used, and many different media are available within each type. Various subsets of these processes are being researched and developed to accelerate TES implementation, focusing on applications in building heating and cooling, industrial energy efficiency, and utility and space power systems. TES can contribute significantly to meeting society's needs for more efficient, environmentally benign energy use in these and other sectors.

  19. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  20. Wind-energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Program SIMWEST can model wind energy storage system using any combination of five types of storage: pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic. Program is tool to aid design of optional system for given application with realistic simulation for further evaluation and verification.

  1. Thermal energy storage test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ternes, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal behavior of prototype thermal energy storage units (TES) in both heating and cooling modes is determined. Improved and advanced storage systems are developed and performance standards are proposed. The design and construction of a thermal cycling facility for determining the thermal behavior of full scale TES units is described. The facility has the capability for testing with both liquid and air heat transport, at variable heat input/extraction rates, over a temperature range of 0 to 280 F.

  2. Energy storage connection system

    DOEpatents

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  3. DOE Global Energy Storage Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The DOE International Energy Storage Database has more than 400 documented energy storage projects from 34 countries around the world. The database provides free, up-to-date information on grid-connected energy storage projects and relevant state and federal policies. More than 50 energy storage technologies are represented worldwide, including multiple battery technologies, compressed air energy storage, flywheels, gravel energy storage, hydrogen energy storage, pumped hydroelectric, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and thermal energy storage. The policy section of the database shows 18 federal and state policies addressing grid-connected energy storage, from rules and regulations to tariffs and other financial incentives. It is funded through DOE’s Sandia National Laboratories, and has been operating since January 2012.

  4. Inertial energy storage device

    DOEpatents

    Knight, Jr., Charles E.; Kelly, James J.; Pollard, Roy E.

    1978-01-01

    The inertial energy storage device of the present invention comprises a composite ring formed of circumferentially wound resin-impregnated filament material, a flanged hollow metal hub concentrically disposed in the ring, and a plurality of discrete filament bandsets coupling the hub to the ring. Each bandset is formed of a pair of parallel bands affixed to the hub in a spaced apart relationship with the axis of rotation of the hub being disposed between the bands and with each band being in the configuration of a hoop extending about the ring along a chordal plane thereof. The bandsets are disposed in an angular relationship with one another so as to encircle the ring at spaced-apart circumferential locations while being disposed in an overlapping relationship on the flanges of the hub. The energy storage device of the present invention has the capability of substantial energy storage due to the relationship of the filament bands to the ring and the flanged hub.

  5. Battery energy storage technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Max D.; Carr, Dodd S.

    1993-03-01

    Battery energy storage systems, comprising lead-acid batteries, power conversion systems, and control systems, are used by three main groups: power generating utilities, power distributing utilities, and major power consumers (such as electric furnace foundries). The principal advantages of battery energy storage systems to generating utilities include load leveling, frequency control, spinning reserve, modular construction, convenient siting, no emissions, and investment deferral for new generation and transmission equipment. Power distributing utilities and major power consumers can avoid costly demand changes by discharging their batteries at peak periods and then recharging with lower cost off-peak power (say, at night). Battery energy storage systems are most cost effective when designed for discharge periods of less than 5 h; other systems (for example, pumped water storage) are better suited for longer discharges. It is estimated that by the year 2000 there will be a potential need for 4000 MW of battery energy storage. New construction of five plants totaling 100 MW is presently scheduled for completion by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority between 1992 and 1995.

  6. Thermal energy storage material

    DOEpatents

    Leifer, Leslie

    1976-01-01

    A thermal energy storage material which is stable at atmospheric temperature and pressure and has a melting point higher than 32.degree.F. is prepared by dissolving a specific class of clathrate forming compounds, such as tetra n-propyl or tetra n-butyl ammonium fluoride, in water to form a substantially solid clathrate. The resultant thermal energy storage material is capable of absorbing heat from or releasing heat to a given region as it transforms between solid and liquid states in response to temperature changes in the region above and below its melting point.

  7. Applications and challenges for thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannberg, L. D.; Tomlinson, J. T.

    1991-04-01

    New thermal energy storage (TES) technologies are being developed and applied as society strives to relieve increasing energy and environmental stresses. Applications for these new technologies range from residential and district heating and cooling using waste and solar energy, to high-temperature energy storage for power production and industrial processes. In the last two decades there has been great interest and development of heat storage systems, primarily for residential and commercial buildings. While development has continued, the rate of advancement has slowed with current technology considered adequate for electrically charged heat storage furnaces. Use of chill storage for building diurnal cooling has received substantial development.

  8. REDOX electrochemical energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Reservoirs of chemical solutions can store electrical energy with high efficiency. Reactant solutions are stored outside conversion section where charging and discharging reactions take place. Conversion unit consists of stacks of cells connected together in parallel hydraulically, and in series electrically. Stacks resemble fuel cell batteries. System is 99% ampere-hour efficient, 75% watt hour efficient, and has long projected lifetime. Applications include storage buffering for remote solar or wind power systems, and industrial load leveling. Cost estimates are $325/kW of power requirement plus $51/kWh storage capacity. Mass production would reduce cost by about factor of two.

  9. Multifunctional composites for energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuvo, Mohammad Arif I.; Karim, Hasanul; Rajib, Md; Delfin, Diego; Lin, Yirong

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical super-capacitors have become one of the most important topics in both academia and industry as novel energy storage devices because of their high power density, long life cycles, and high charge/discharge efficiency. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the development of multifunctional structural energy storage devices such as structural super-capacitors for applications in aerospace, automobiles and portable electronics. These multifunctional structural super-capacitors provide lighter structures combining energy storage and load bearing functionalities. Due to their superior materials properties, carbon fiber composites have been widely used in structural applications for aerospace and automotive industries. Besides, carbon fiber has good electrical conductivity which will provide lower equivalent series resistance; therefore, it can be an excellent candidate for structural energy storage applications. Hence, this paper is focused on performing a pilot study for using nanowire/carbon fiber hybrids as building materials for structural energy storage materials; aiming at enhancing the charge/discharge rate and energy density. This hybrid material combines the high specific surface area of carbon fiber and pseudo-capacitive effect of metal oxide nanowires which were grown hydrothermally in an aligned fashion on carbon fibers. The aligned nanowire array could provide a higher specific surface area that leads to high electrode-electrolyte contact area and fast ion diffusion rates. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and XRay Diffraction (XRD) measurements were used for the initial characterization of this nanowire/carbon fiber hybrid material system. Electrochemical testing has been performed using a potentio-galvanostat. The results show that gold sputtered nanowire hybrid carbon fiber provides 65.9% better performance than bare carbon fiber cloth as super-capacitor.

  10. Energy Storage Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program funded the Energy Storage Project to develop battery and fuel cell technology to meet the expected energy storage needs of the Constellation Program for human exploration. Technology needs were determined by architecture studies and risk assessments conducted by the Constellation Program, focused on a mission for a long-duration lunar outpost. Critical energy storage needs were identified as batteries for EVA suits, surface mobility systems, and a lander ascent stage; fuel cells for the lander and mobility systems; and a regenerative fuel cell for surface power. To address these needs, the Energy Storage Project developed advanced lithium-ion battery technology, targeting cell-level safety and very high specific energy and energy density. Key accomplishments include the development of silicon composite anodes, lithiated-mixed-metal-oxide cathodes, low-flammability electrolytes, and cell-incorporated safety devices that promise to substantially improve battery performance while providing a high level of safety. The project also developed "non-flow-through" proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell stacks. The primary advantage of this technology set is the reduction of ancillary parts in the balance-of-plant--fewer pumps, separators and related components should result in fewer failure modes and hence a higher probability of achieving very reliable operation, and reduced parasitic power losses enable smaller reactant tanks and therefore systems with lower mass and volume. Key accomplishments include the fabrication and testing of several robust, small-scale nonflow-through fuel cell stacks that have demonstrated proof-of-concept. This report summarizes the project s goals, objectives, technical accomplishments, and risk assessments. A bibliography spanning the life of the project is also included.

  11. Maui energy storage study.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Karlson, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    This report investigates strategies to mitigate anticipated wind energy curtailment on Maui, with a focus on grid-level energy storage technology. The study team developed an hourly production cost model of the Maui Electric Company (MECO) system, with an expected 72 MW of wind generation and 15 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation in 2015, and used this model to investigate strategies that mitigate wind energy curtailment. It was found that storage projects can reduce both wind curtailment and the annual cost of producing power, and can do so in a cost-effective manner. Most of the savings achieved in these scenarios are not from replacing constant-cost diesel-fired generation with wind generation. Instead, the savings are achieved by the more efficient operation of the conventional units of the system. Using additional storage for spinning reserve enables the system to decrease the amount of spinning reserve provided by single-cycle units. This decreases the amount of generation from these units, which are often operated at their least efficient point (at minimum load). At the same time, the amount of spinning reserve from the efficient combined-cycle units also decreases, allowing these units to operate at higher, more efficient levels.

  12. Flywheel energy storage workshop

    SciTech Connect

    O`Kain, D.; Carmack, J.

    1995-12-31

    Since the November 1993 Flywheel Workshop, there has been a major surge of interest in Flywheel Energy Storage. Numerous flywheel programs have been funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), by the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Hybrid Vehicle Program, and by private investment. Several new prototype systems have been built and are being tested. The operational performance characteristics of flywheel energy storage are being recognized as attractive for a number of potential applications. Programs are underway to develop flywheels for cars, buses, boats, trains, satellites, and for electric utility applications such as power quality, uninterruptible power supplies, and load leveling. With the tremendous amount of flywheel activity during the last two years, this workshop should again provide an excellent opportunity for presentation of new information. This workshop is jointly sponsored by ARPA and DOE to provide a review of the status of current flywheel programs and to provide a forum for presentation of new flywheel technology. Technology areas of interest include flywheel applications, flywheel systems, design, materials, fabrication, assembly, safety & containment, ball bearings, magnetic bearings, motor/generators, power electronics, mounting systems, test procedures, and systems integration. Information from the workshop will help guide ARPA & DOE planning for future flywheel programs. This document is comprised of detailed viewgraphs.

  13. Energy Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation developed the drive train for use in the Chrysler Corporation's Patriot Mark II, which includes the Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) system. In Chrysler's experimental hybrid- electric car, the hybrid drive train uses an advanced turboalternator that generates electricity by burning a fuel; a powerful, compact electric motor; and a FES that eliminates the need for conventional batteries. The FES system incorporates technology SatCon developed in more than 30 projects with seven NASA centers, mostly for FES systems for spacecraft attitude control and momentum recovery. SatCon will continue to develop the technology with Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  14. Energy Storage (II): Developing Advanced Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Arthur L

    1974-01-01

    Energy storage, considered by some scientists to be the best technological and economic advancement after advanced nuclear power, still rates only modest funding for research concerning the development of advanced technologies. (PEB)

  15. Benefits from energy storage technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, R J; Kannberg, L D; O'Connell, L G; Eisenhaure, D; Hoppie, L O; Barlow, T M; Steele, R S; Strauch, S; Lawson, L J; Sapowith, A P

    1983-11-01

    The United States is continuing to rely upon nondomestic and nonsecure sources of energy. Large quantities of energy are lost as a result of time mismatches between the supply and the demand for power. Substantial improvements in energy efficiency are possible through the use of improved energy storage; advanced energy storage can also improve the utilization of domestic energy resources (coal, geothermal, solar, wind, and nuclear) by providing energy in accordance with a user's time-varying needs. Advanced storage technologies offer potentially substantial cost and performance advantages but also have significant technical risk. If even a fraction of the proposed technologies reach fruition, they will make an important contribution to better use of our domestic energy resources. The Energy Storage and Transport Technologies Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers encourages research, development, and application of energy storage technologies to reduce imports and energy costs.

  16. Benefits from energy storage technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, R.J.; Barlow, T.M.; Eisenhaure, D.; Hoppie, L.O.; Kunnberg, L.D.; Lawson, L.J.; O'Connell, L.G.; Sapowith, A.P.; Steele, R.S.; Strauch, S.

    1984-02-01

    The United States is continuing to rely upon nondomestic and nonsecure sources of energy. Large quantities of energy are lost as a result of time mismatches between the supply and the demand for power. Substantial improvements in energy efficiency are possible through the use of improved energy storage; advanced energy storage can also improve the utilization of domestic energy resources (coal, geothermal, solar, wind, and nuclear) by providing energy in accordance with a user's time-varying needs. Advanced storage technologies offer potentially substantial cost and performance advantages but also have significant technical risk. If even a fraction of the proposed technologies reach fruition, they will make an important contribution to better use of our domestic energy resources. The Energy Storage and Transport Technologies Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers encourages research, development, and application of energy storage technologies to reduce imports and energy costs.

  17. Terrestrial Energy Storage SPS Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Terrestrial energy storage systems for the SSP system were evaluated that could maintain the 1.2 GW power level during periods of brief outages from the solar powered satellite (SPS). Short-term outages of ten minutes and long-term outages up to four hours have been identified as "typical" cases where the ground-based energy storage system would be required to supply power to the grid. These brief interruptions in transmission could result from performing maintenance on the solar power satellite or from safety considerations necessitating the power beam be turned off. For example, one situation would be to allow for the safe passage of airplanes through the space occupied by the beam. Under these conditions, the energy storage system needs to be capable of storing 200 MW-hrs and 4.8 GW-hrs, respectively. The types of energy storage systems to be considered include compressed air energy storage, inertial energy storage, electrochemical energy storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and pumped hydro energy storage. For each of these technologies, the state-of-the-art in terms of energy and power densities were identified as well as the potential for scaling to the size systems required by the SSP system. Other issues addressed included the performance, life expectancy, cost, and necessary infrastructure and site locations for the various storage technologies.

  18. Advanced materials for energy storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Li, Feng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2010-02-23

    Popularization of portable electronics and electric vehicles worldwide stimulates the development of energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, toward higher power density and energy density, which significantly depends upon the advancement of new materials used in these devices. Moreover, energy storage materials play a key role in efficient, clean, and versatile use of energy, and are crucial for the exploitation of renewable energy. Therefore, energy storage materials cover a wide range of materials and have been receiving intensive attention from research and development to industrialization. In this Review, firstly a general introduction is given to several typical energy storage systems, including thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, hydrogen, and electrochemical energy storage. Then the current status of high-performance hydrogen storage materials for on-board applications and electrochemical energy storage materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors is introduced in detail. The strategies for developing these advanced energy storage materials, including nanostructuring, nano-/microcombination, hybridization, pore-structure control, configuration design, surface modification, and composition optimization, are discussed. Finally, the future trends and prospects in the development of advanced energy storage materials are highlighted. PMID:20217798

  19. Aquifer thermal energy storage program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, K.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Demonstration Program is to stimulate the interest of industry by demonstrating the feasibility of using a geological formation for seasonal thermal energy storage, thereby, reducing crude oil consumption, minimizing thermal pollution, and significantly reducing utility capital investments required to account for peak power requirements. This purpose will be served if several diverse projects can be operated which will demonstrate the technical, economic, environmental, and institutional feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage systems.

  20. Article for thermal energy storage

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    2000-06-27

    A thermal energy storage composition is provided which is in the form of a gel. The composition includes a phase change material and silica particles, where the phase change material may comprise a linear alkyl hydrocarbon, water/urea, or water. The thermal energy storage composition has a high thermal conductivity, high thermal energy storage, and may be used in a variety of applications such as in thermal shipping containers and gel packs.

  1. Superconducting energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Giese, R.F.

    1993-10-01

    This report describes the status of energy storage involving superconductors and assesses what impact the recently discovered ceramic superconductors may have on the design of these devices. Our description is intended for R&D managers in government, electric utilities, firms, and national laboratories who wish an overview of what has been done and what remains to be done. It is assumed that the reader is acquainted with superconductivity, but not an expert on the topics discussed here. Indeed, it is the author`s aim to enable the reader to better understand the experts who may ask for the reader`s attention, support, or funding. This report may also inform scientists and engineers who, though expert in related areas, wish to have an introduction to our topic.

  2. Effective energy storage from a triboelectric nanogenerator

    PubMed Central

    Zi, Yunlong; Wang, Jie; Wang, Sihong; Li, Shengming; Wen, Zhen; Guo, Hengyu; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-01-01

    To sustainably power electronics by harvesting mechanical energy using nanogenerators, energy storage is essential to supply a regulated and stable electric output, which is traditionally realized by a direct connection between the two components through a rectifier. However, this may lead to low energy-storage efficiency. Here, we rationally design a charging cycle to maximize energy-storage efficiency by modulating the charge flow in the system, which is demonstrated on a triboelectric nanogenerator by adding a motion-triggered switch. Both theoretical and experimental comparisons show that the designed charging cycle can enhance the charging rate, improve the maximum energy-storage efficiency by up to 50% and promote the saturation voltage by at least a factor of two. This represents a progress to effectively store the energy harvested by nanogenerators with the aim to utilize ambient mechanical energy to drive portable/wearable/implantable electronics. PMID:26964693

  3. Effective energy storage from a triboelectric nanogenerator.

    PubMed

    Zi, Yunlong; Wang, Jie; Wang, Sihong; Li, Shengming; Wen, Zhen; Guo, Hengyu; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-01-01

    To sustainably power electronics by harvesting mechanical energy using nanogenerators, energy storage is essential to supply a regulated and stable electric output, which is traditionally realized by a direct connection between the two components through a rectifier. However, this may lead to low energy-storage efficiency. Here, we rationally design a charging cycle to maximize energy-storage efficiency by modulating the charge flow in the system, which is demonstrated on a triboelectric nanogenerator by adding a motion-triggered switch. Both theoretical and experimental comparisons show that the designed charging cycle can enhance the charging rate, improve the maximum energy-storage efficiency by up to 50% and promote the saturation voltage by at least a factor of two. This represents a progress to effectively store the energy harvested by nanogenerators with the aim to utilize ambient mechanical energy to drive portable/wearable/implantable electronics. PMID:26964693

  4. Effective energy storage from a triboelectric nanogenerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zi, Yunlong; Wang, Jie; Wang, Sihong; Li, Shengming; Wen, Zhen; Guo, Hengyu; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-03-01

    To sustainably power electronics by harvesting mechanical energy using nanogenerators, energy storage is essential to supply a regulated and stable electric output, which is traditionally realized by a direct connection between the two components through a rectifier. However, this may lead to low energy-storage efficiency. Here, we rationally design a charging cycle to maximize energy-storage efficiency by modulating the charge flow in the system, which is demonstrated on a triboelectric nanogenerator by adding a motion-triggered switch. Both theoretical and experimental comparisons show that the designed charging cycle can enhance the charging rate, improve the maximum energy-storage efficiency by up to 50% and promote the saturation voltage by at least a factor of two. This represents a progress to effectively store the energy harvested by nanogenerators with the aim to utilize ambient mechanical energy to drive portable/wearable/implantable electronics.

  5. Utility energy storage applications studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenung, S.M.; Burns, C.

    1996-09-01

    The values of benefits and costs have been estimated for applying energy storage to three situations on the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation system. One situation is a valuable industrial customer requiring high quality, reliable power. The second situation is the need for reliable power at the end of a radial distribution feeder. The third situation is a case of thermal overload on a transmission line to a growing load in an environmentally sensitive location. The first case requires a small storage system (30 MJ); the second and third require relatively large systems (250 and 550 MWh, respectively). A variety of energy storage technologies was considered for each case. This paper presents the benefit/cost results for the technologies considered for each case. The technologies compared in this study are superconducting magnetics energy storage, batteries, flywheels, capacitors, compressed air energy storage, compressed air in vessels, and pumped hydro storage.

  6. Thermal energy storage apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Thoma, P.E.

    1980-04-22

    A thermal energy storage apparatus and method employs a container formed of soda lime glass and having a smooth, defectfree inner wall. The container is filled substantially with a material that can be supercooled to a temperature greater than 5* F., such as ethylene carbonate, benzophenone, phenyl sulfoxide, di-2-pyridyl ketone, phenyl ether, diphenylmethane, ethylene trithiocarbonate, diphenyl carbonate, diphenylamine, 2benzoylpyridine, 3-benzoylpyridine, 4-benzoylpyridine, 4methylbenzophenone, 4-bromobenzophenone, phenyl salicylate, diphenylcyclopropenone, benzyl sulfoxide, 4-methoxy-4prmethylbenzophenone, n-benzoylpiperidine, 3,3pr,4,4pr,5 pentamethoxybenzophenone, 4,4'-bis-(Dimethylamino)-benzophenone, diphenylboron bromide, benzalphthalide, benzophenone oxime, azobenzene. A nucleating means such as a seed crystal, a cold finger or pointed member is movable into the supercoolable material. A heating element heats the supercoolable material above the melting temperature to store heat. The material is then allowed to cool to a supercooled temperature below the melting temperature, but above the natural, spontaneous nucleating temperature. The liquid in each container is selectively initiated into nucleation to release the heat of fusion. The heat may be transferred directly or through a heat exchange unit within the material.

  7. Superconducting energy storage magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, Roger W. (Inventor); Eyssa, Yehia M. (Inventor); Abdelsalam, Mostafa K. (Inventor); Huang, Xianrui (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting magnet is formed having composite conductors arrayed in coils having turns which lie on a surface defining substantially a frustum of a cone. The conical angle with respect to the central axis is preferably selected such that the magnetic pressure on the coil at the widest portion of the cone is substantially zero. The magnet structure is adapted for use as an energy storage magnet mounted in an earthen trench or tunnel where the strength the surrounding soil is lower at the top of the trench or tunnel than at the bottom. The composite conductor may be formed having a ripple shape to minimize stresses during charge up and discharge and has a shape for each ripple selected such that the conductor undergoes a minimum amount of bending during the charge and discharge cycle. By minimizing bending, the working of the normal conductor in the composite conductor is minimized, thereby reducing the increase in resistance of the normal conductor that occurs over time as the conductor undergoes bending during numerous charge and discharge cycles.

  8. Energy conversion and storage program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemical and chemical engineering principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels; (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy storage; (4) characterization of complex chemical processes; and (5) the application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, and advanced methods of analysis. The following five areas are discussed: electrochemical energy storage and conversion; microstructured materials; biotechnology; fossil fuels; and high temperature superconducting processing. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  9. Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Program designed to demonstrate the storage and retrieval of energy on a seasonal basis using heat or cold available from waste or other sources during a surplus period is described. Factors considered include reduction of peak period demand and electric utility load problems and establishment of favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems for commercialization of the technology. The initial thrust of the STES Program toward utilization of ground water systems (aquifers) for thermal energy storage is emphasized.

  10. Lih thermal energy storage device

    DOEpatents

    Olszewski, Mitchell; Morris, David G.

    1994-01-01

    A thermal energy storage device for use in a pulsed power supply to store waste heat produced in a high-power burst operation utilizes lithium hydride as the phase change thermal energy storage material. The device includes an outer container encapsulating the lithium hydride and an inner container supporting a hydrogen sorbing sponge material such as activated carbon. The inner container is in communication with the interior of the outer container to receive hydrogen dissociated from the lithium hydride at elevated temperatures.

  11. Overview of energy storage applications

    SciTech Connect

    BOYES,JOHN D.

    2000-04-26

    Sandia National Laboratories has been studying Energy Storage Systems since the late 1970s. Sandia started by applying their defense program battery experience to larger stationary systems, eventually joining in the formation of the Utility Battery Group which has since evolved into the Energy Storage Association. Sandia's role, as a Department of Energy funded program is to look ahead at emerging technologies, perform early R and D and identify applications for Energy Storage Systems that offer significant benefit to the nation's electricity providers and users. In order to identify applications of energy storage, a two-phase Opportunities Analysis was conceptualized in FY94. Phase 1 of the project was completed and published in 1995 (SAND94-2605). Phase 2 of the project is an extension of Phase 1 to reexamine the identified applications in the dynamic environment of today. In a preliminary assessment of national benefits, SNL estimated that generation and transmission applications of storage could represent $17.2B in national benefits. In Phase 1 of the Opportunities Analysis, the T and D benefits were found to be significantly higher than previous estimates Phase 2 of the study, which began in late 1998, includes a refinement of the technical and economic understanding of the role of energy storage in the utility industry given the changing nature of the electricity provider industry. This is work in progress and current information is insufficient to estimate market size with a high degree of confidence, especially from a system supplier's perspective. Activity in Phase 2 has so far been primarily focused on the need to re-characterize the near and long-term utility application requirements for energy storage.

  12. Thermal Energy Storage: Fourth Annual Review Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The development of low cost thermal energy storage technologies is discussed in terms of near term oil savings, solar energy applications, and dispersed energy systems for energy conservation policies. Program definition and assessment and research and technology development are considered along with industrial storage, solar thermal power storage, building heating and cooling, and seasonal thermal storage. A bibliography on seasonal thermal energy storage emphasizing aquifer thermal energy is included.

  13. Energy storage-boiler tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, T. A.; Nemecek, J. J.; Simmons, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Activities performed in an effort to demonstrate heat of fusion energy storage in containerized salts are reported. The properties and cycle life characteristics of a eutectic salt having a boiling point of about 385 C (NaCl, KCl, Mg Cl2) were determined. M-terphenyl was chosen as the heat transfer fluid. Compatibility studies were conducted and mild steel containers were selected. The design and fabrication of a 2MWh storage boiler tank are discussed.

  14. Fundamental Studies Connected with Electrochemical Energy Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, E.; Sen, R.

    1974-01-01

    Papers are presented which deal with electrochemical research activities. Emphasis is placed on electrochemical energy storage devices. Topics discussed include: adsorption of dendrite inhibitors on zinc; proton discharge process; electron and protron transfer; quantum mechanical formulation of electron transfer rates; and theory of electrochemical kinetics in terms of two models of activation; thermal and electrostatic.

  15. Electroactive graphene nanofluids for fast energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubal, Deepak P.; Gomez-Romero, Pedro

    2016-09-01

    Graphenes have been extensively studied as electrode materials for energy storage in supercapacitors and batteries, but always as solid electrodes. The conception and development of graphene electroactive nanofluids (ENFs) reported here for the first time provides a novel way to ‘form’ graphene electrodes and demonstrates proof of concept for the use of these liquid electrodes for energy storage in novel flow cells. A stabilized dispersion of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in aqueous sulfuric acid solution was shown to have capacitive energy storage capabilities parallel to those of solid electrode supercapacitors (169 F g‑1(rGO)) but working up to much faster rates (from 1 mV s‑1 to the highest scan rate of 10 V s‑1) in nanofluids with 0.025, 0.1 and 0.4 wt% rGO, featuring viscosities very close to that of water, thus being perfectly suitable for scalable flow cells. Our results provide proof of concept for this technology and include preliminary flow cell performance of rGO nanofluids under static and continuous flow conditions. Graphene nanofluids effectively behave as true liquid electrodes with very fast capacitive storage mechanism and herald the application not only of graphenes but also other 2D materials like MoS2 in nanofluids for energy storage and beyond.

  16. Thermal energy storage flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, D.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to the development of an experimental program to study heat transfer, energy storage, fluid movement, and void location under microgravity. Plans for experimental flight packages containing Thermal Energy Storage (TES) material applicable for advanced solar heat receivers are discussed. Candidate materials for TES include fluoride salts, salt eutectics, silicides, and metals. The development of a three-dimensional computer program to describe TES material behavior undergoing melting and freezing under microgravity is also discussed. The TES experiment concept and plans for ground and flight tests are outlined.

  17. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  18. Post regulation circuit with energy storage

    DOEpatents

    Ball, Don G.; Birx, Daniel L.; Cook, Edward G.

    1992-01-01

    A charge regulation circuit provides regulation of an unregulated voltage supply and provides energy storage. The charge regulation circuit according to the present invention provides energy storage without unnecessary dissipation of energy through a resistor as in prior art approaches.

  19. Nanoconfined hydrides for energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Thomas K.; Besenbacher, Flemming; Jensen, Torben R.

    2011-05-01

    The world in the 21st century is facing increasing challenges within the development of more environmentally friendly energy systems, sustainable and `green chemistry' solutions for a variety of chemical and catalytic processes. Nanomaterials science is expected to contribute strongly by the development of new nanotools, e.g. for improving the performance of chemical reactions. Nanoconfinement is of increasing interest and may lead to significantly enhanced kinetics, higher degree of stability and/or more favourable thermodynamic properties. Nanoconfined chemical reactions may have a wide range of important applications in the near future, e.g. within the merging area of chemical storage of renewable energy. This review provides selected examples within nanoconfinement of hydrogen storage materials, which may serve as an inspiration for other research fields as well. Selected nanoporous materials, methods for preparation of nanoconfined systems and their hydrogen storage properties are reviewed.The world in the 21st century is facing increasing challenges within the development of more environmentally friendly energy systems, sustainable and `green chemistry' solutions for a variety of chemical and catalytic processes. Nanomaterials science is expected to contribute strongly by the development of new nanotools, e.g. for improving the performance of chemical reactions. Nanoconfinement is of increasing interest and may lead to significantly enhanced kinetics, higher degree of stability and/or more favourable thermodynamic properties. Nanoconfined chemical reactions may have a wide range of important applications in the near future, e.g. within the merging area of chemical storage of renewable energy. This review provides selected examples within nanoconfinement of hydrogen storage materials, which may serve as an inspiration for other research fields as well. Selected nanoporous materials, methods for preparation of nanoconfined systems and their hydrogen storage

  20. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  1. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, E. J.

    1993-06-01

    This report is the 1992 annual progress report for the Energy Conversion and Storage Program, a part of the Energy and Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Work described falls into three broad areas: electrochemistry; chemical applications; and materials applications. The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies principles of chemistry and materials science to solve problems in several areas: (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species, and (5) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Chemical applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing product and waste streams from synfuel plants, coal gasifiers, and biomass conversion processes. Materials applications research includes evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as development of novel preparation techniques. For example, techniques such as sputtering, laser ablation, and poised laser deposition are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  2. Rotary spring energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, S.

    1981-07-01

    The goal was to design a lightweight system, for bicycles, that can level the input energy requirement (human exertion) in accordance with variations in road load (friction, wind, and grade) and/or to provide a system for regenerative braking, that is, to store energy normally lost in brake pad friction for brief periods until it required for re-acceleration or hill-climbing. The rotary spring, also called the coil, motor, spiral, or power spring is governed by the equations reviewed. Materials used in spring manufacture are briefly discussed, and justification for steel as the design choice of material is given. Torque and power requirements for a bicycle and rider are provided as well as estimated human power output levels. These criteria are examined to define spring size and possible orientations on a bicycle. Patents and designs for coupling the spring to the drive train are discussed.

  3. Energy Storage Flywheels on Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, Robert O.; Brown, Gary; Levinthal, Joel; Brodeur, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    With advances in carbon composite material, magnetic bearings, microprocessors, and high-speed power switching devices, work has begun on a space qualifiable Energy Momentum Wheel (EMW). An EMW is a device that can be used on a satellite to store energy, like a chemical battery, and manage angular momentum, like a reaction wheel. These combined functions are achieved by the simultaneous and balanced operation of two or more energy storage flywheels. An energy storage flywheel typically consists of a carbon composite rotor driven by a brushless DC motor/generator. Each rotor has a relatively large angular moment of inertia and is suspended on magnetic bearings to minimize energy loss. The use of flywheel batteries on spacecraft will increase system efficiencies (mass and power), while reducing design-production time and life-cycle cost. This paper will present a discussion of flywheel battery design considerations and a simulation of spacecraft system performance utilizing four flywheel batteries to combine energy storage and momentum management for a typical LEO satellite. A proposed set of control laws and an engineering animation will also be presented. Once flight qualified and demonstrated, space flywheel batteries may alter the architecture of most medium and high-powered spacecraft.

  4. Prestressed elastomer for energy storage

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O.; Speranza, Donald

    1982-01-01

    Disclosed is a regenerative braking device for an automotive vehicle. The device includes a power isolating assembly (14), an infinitely variable transmission (20) interconnecting an input shaft (16) with an output shaft (18), and an energy storage assembly (22). The storage assembly includes a plurality of elastomeric rods (44, 46) mounted for rotation and connected in series between the input and output shafts. The elastomeric rods are prestressed along their rotational or longitudinal axes to inhibit buckling of the rods due to torsional stressing of the rods in response to relative rotation of the input and output shafts.

  5. High temperature underground thermal energy storage system for solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The activities feasibility of high temperature underground thermal storage of energy was investigated. Results indicate that salt cavern storage of hot oil is both technically and economically feasible as a method of storing huge quantities of heat at relatively low cost. One particular system identified utilizes a gravel filled cavern leached within a salt dome. Thermal losses are shown to be less than one percent of cyclically transferred heat. A system like this having a 40 MW sub t transfer rate capability and over eight hours of storage capacity is shown to cost about $13.50 per KWh sub t.

  6. Energy Storage for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Burke, Kenneth A.; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has long been a major contributor to the development and application of energy storage technologies for NASAs missions and programs. NASA GRC has supported technology efforts for the advancement of batteries and fuel cells. The Electrochemistry Branch at NASA GRC continues to play a critical role in the development and application of energy storage technologies, in collaboration with other NASA centers, government agencies, industry and academia. This paper describes the work in batteries and fuel cell technologies at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It covers a number of systems required to ensure that NASAs needs for a wide variety of systems are met. Some of the topics covered are lithium-based batteries, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, and nanotechnology activities. With the advances of the past years, we begin the 21st century with new technical challenges and opportunities as we develop enabling technologies for batteries and fuel cells for aerospace applications.

  7. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1998-09-08

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments.

  8. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1998-09-08

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments. 3 figs.

  9. Electrochemical Energy Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    This U.S. DRIVE electrochemical energy storage roadmap describes ongoing and planned efforts to develop electrochemical energy storage technologies for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The Energy Storage activity comprises a number of research areas (including advanced materials research, cell level research, battery development, and enabling R&D which includes analysis, testing and other activities) for advanced energy storage technologies (batteries and ultra-capacitors).

  10. Compact magnetic energy storage module

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1994-01-01

    A superconducting compact magnetic energy storage module in which a plurality of superconducting toroids, each having a toroidally wound superconducting winding inside a poloidally wound superconducting winding, are stacked so that the flow of electricity in each toroidally wound superconducting winding is in a direction opposite from the direction of electrical flow in other contiguous superconducting toroids. This allows for minimal magnetic pollution outside of the module.

  11. Compact magnetic energy storage module

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1994-12-20

    A superconducting compact magnetic energy storage module in which a plurality of superconducting toroids, each having a toroidally wound superconducting winding inside a poloidally wound superconducting winding, are stacked so that the flow of electricity in each toroidally wound superconducting winding is in a direction opposite from the direction of electrical flow in other contiguous superconducting toroids. This allows for minimal magnetic pollution outside of the module. 4 figures.

  12. Flywheel Energy Storage technology workshop

    SciTech Connect

    O`Kain, D.; Howell, D.

    1993-12-31

    Advances in recent years of high strength/lightweight materials, high performance magnetic bearings, and power electronics technology has spurred a renewed interest by the transportation, utility, and manufacturing industries in Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) technologies. FES offers several advantages over conventional electro-chemical energy storage, such as high specific energy and specific power, fast charging time, long service life, high turnaround efficiency (energy out/energy in), and no hazardous/toxic materials or chemicals are involved. Potential applications of FES units include power supplies for hybrid and electric vehicles, electric vehicle charging stations, space systems, and pulsed power devices. Also, FES units can be used for utility load leveling, uninterruptable power supplies to protect electronic equipment and electrical machinery, and for intermittent wind or photovoltaic energy sources. The purpose of this workshop is to provide a forum to highlight technologies that offer a high potential to increase the performance of FES systems and to discuss potential solutions to overcome present FES application barriers. This document consists of viewgraphs from 27 presentations.

  13. Energy-storage of a prescribed impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. E.

    1969-01-01

    General mathematical expression found for energy storage shows that for linear, passive networks there is a minimum possible energy storage corresponding to a prescribed impedance. The electromagnetic energy storage is determined at different excitation frequencies through analysis of the networks terminal and reactance characteristics.

  14. Energy storage device with large charge separation

    DOEpatents

    Holme, Timothy P.; Prinz, Friedrich B.; Iancu, Andrei

    2016-04-12

    High density energy storage in semiconductor devices is provided. There are two main aspects of the present approach. The first aspect is to provide high density energy storage in semiconductor devices based on formation of a plasma in the semiconductor. The second aspect is to provide high density energy storage based on charge separation in a p-n junction.

  15. Thermal energy storage program description

    SciTech Connect

    Reimers, E.

    1989-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored applied research, development, and demonstration of technologies aimed at reducing energy consumption and encouraging replacement of premium fuels (notably oil) with renewable or abundant indigenous fuels. One of the technologies identified as being able to contribute to these goals is thermal energy storage (TES). Based on the potential for TES to contribute to the historic mission of the DOE and to address emerging energy issues related to the environment, a program to develop specific TES technologies for diurnal, industrial, and seasonal applications is underway. Currently, the program is directed toward three major application targets: (1) TES development for efficient off-peak building heating and cooling, (2) development of advanced TES building materials, and (3) TES development to reduce industrial energy consumption.

  16. Charging Graphene for Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jun

    2014-10-06

    Since 2004, graphene, including single atomic layer graphite sheet, and chemically derived graphene sheets, has captured the imagination of researchers for energy storage because of the extremely high surface area (2630 m2/g) compared to traditional activated carbon (typically below 1500 m2/g), excellent electrical conductivity, high mechanical strength, and potential for low cost manufacturing. These properties are very desirable for achieving high activity, high capacity and energy density, and fast charge and discharge. Chemically derived graphene sheets are prepared by oxidation and reduction of graphite1 and are more suitable for energy storage because they can be made in large quantities. They still contain multiply stacked graphene sheets, structural defects such as vacancies, and oxygen containing functional groups. In the literature they are also called reduced graphene oxide, or functionalized graphene sheets, but in this article they are all referred to as graphene for easy of discussion. Two important applications, batteries and electrochemical capacitors, have been widely investigated. In a battery material, the redox reaction occurs at a constant potential (voltage) and the energy is stored in the bulk. Therefore, the energy density is high (more than 100 Wh/kg), but it is difficult to rapidly charge or discharge (low power, less than 1 kW/kg)2. In an electrochemical capacitor (also called supercapacitors or ultracapacitor in the literature), the energy is stored as absorbed ionic species at the interface between the high surface area carbon and the electrolyte, and the potential is a continuous function of the state-of-charge. The charge and discharge can happen rapidly (high power, up to 10 kW/kg) but the energy density is low, less than 10 Wh/kg2. A device that can have both high energy and high power would be ideal.

  17. Thermal energy storage. [by means of chemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodzka, P. G.

    1975-01-01

    The principles involved in thermal energy storage by sensible heat, chemical potential energy, and latent heat of fusion are examined for the purpose of evolving selection criteria for material candidates in the low ( 0 C) and high ( 100 C) temperature ranges. The examination identifies some unresolved theoretical considerations and permits a preliminary formulation of an energy storage theory. A number of candidates in the low and high temperature ranges are presented along with a rating of candidates or potential candidates. A few interesting candidates in the 0 to 100 C region are also included. It is concluded that storage by means of reactions whose reversibility can be controlled either by product removal or by catalytic means appear to offer appreciable advantages over storage with reactions whose reversability cannot be controlled. Among such advantages are listed higher heat storage capacities and more favorable options regarding temperatures of collection, storage, and delivery. Among the disadvantages are lower storage efficiencies.

  18. Thermal energy storage and transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausz, W.

    1980-01-01

    The extraction of thermal energy from large LWR and coal fired plants for long distance transport to industrial and residential/commercial users is analyzed. Transport of thermal energy as high temperature water is shown to be considerably cheaper than transport as steam, hot oil, or molten salt over a wide temperature range. The delivered heat is competitive with user-generated heat from oil, coal, or electrode boilers at distances well over 50 km when the pipeline operates at high capacity factor. Results indicate that thermal energy storage makes meeting of even very low capacity factor heat demands economic and feasible and gives the utility flexibility to meet coincident electricity and heat demands effectively.

  19. Simulation of Flywheel Energy Storage System Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Long V.; Wolff, Frederick J.; Dravid, Narayan

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the progress made in the controller design and operation of a flywheel energy storage system. The switching logic for the converter bridge circuit has been redefined to reduce line current harmonics, even at the highest operating speed of the permanent magnet motor-generator. An electromechanical machine model is utilized to simulate charge and discharge operation of the inertial energy in the flywheel. Controlling the magnitude of phase currents regulates the rate of charge and discharge. The resulting improvements are demonstrated by simulation.

  20. Stable large-scale CO2 storage in defiance of an energy system based on renewable energy - Modelling the impact of varying CO2 injection rates on reservoir behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannach, Andreas; Hauer, Rene; Martin, Streibel; Stienstra, Gerard; Kühn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The IPCC Report 2014 strengthens the need for CO2 storage as part of CCS or BECCS to reach ambitious climate goals despite growing energy demand in the future. The further expansion of renewable energy sources is a second major pillar. As it is today in Germany the weather becomes the controlling factor for electricity production by fossil fuelled power plants which lead to significant fluctuations of CO2-emissions which can be traced in injection rates if the CO2 were captured and stored. To analyse the impact of such changing injection rates on a CO2 storage reservoir. two reservoir simulation models are applied: a. An (smaller) reservoir model approved by gas storage activities for decades, to investigate the dynamic effects in the early stage of storage filling (initial aquifer displacement). b. An anticline structure big enough to accommodate a total amount of ≥ 100 Mega tons CO2 to investigate the dynamic effects for the entire operational life time of the storage under particular consideration of very high filling levels (highest aquifer compression). Therefore a reservoir model was generated. The defined yearly injection rate schedule is based on a study performed on behalf of IZ Klima (DNV GL, 2014). According to this study the exclusive consideration of a pool of coal-fired power plants causes the most intensive dynamically changing CO2 emissions and hence accounts for variations of a system which includes industry driven CO2 production. Besides short-term changes (daily & weekly cycles) seasonal influences are also taken into account. Simulation runs cover a variation of injection points (well locations at the top vs. locations at the flank of the structure) and some other largely unknown reservoir parameters as aquifer size and aquifer mobility. Simulation of a 20 year storage operation is followed by a post-operational shut-in phase which covers approximately 500 years to assess possible effects of changing injection rates on the long-term reservoir

  1. Distributed energy storage: Time-dependent tree flow design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, A.; Ziaei, S.; Lorente, S.

    2016-05-01

    This article proposes "distributed energy storage" as a basic design problem of distributing energy storage material on an area. The energy flows by fluid flow from a concentrated source to points (users) distributed equidistantly on the area. The flow is time-dependent. Several scenarios are analyzed: sensible-heat storage, latent-heat storage, exergy storage vs energy storage, and the distribution of a finite supply of heat transfer surface between the source fluid and the distributed storage material. The chief conclusion is that the finite amount of storage material should be distributed proportionally with the distribution of the flow rate of heating agent arriving on the area. The total time needed by the source stream to "invade" the area is cumulative (the sum of the storage times required at each storage site) and depends on the energy distribution paths and the sequence in which the users are served by the source stream. Directions for future designs of distributed storage and retrieval are outlined in the concluding section.

  2. Inertial energy storage for spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, G.E.

    1984-09-01

    The feasibility of inertial energy storage in a spacecraft power system is evaluated on the basis of a conceptual integrated design that encompasses a composite rotor, magnetic suspension and a permanent magnet (PM) motor/generator for a 3-kW orbital average payload at a bus distribution voltage of 250 volts dc. The conceptual design, is referred to as a Mechanical Capacitor. The baseline power system configuration selected is a series system employing peak-power-tracking for a Low Earth-Orbiting application. Power processing, required in the motor/generator, provides potential alternative that can only be achieved in systems with electrochemical energy storage by the addition of power processing components. One such alternative configuration provides for peak-power-tracking of the solar array and still maintains a regulated bus, without the expense of additional power processing components. Precise speed control of the two counterrotating wheels is required to reduce interaction with the attitude control system (ACS) or alternatively, used to perform attitude control functions.

  3. Inertial Energy Storage for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of inertial energy storage in a spacecraft power system is evaluated on the basis of a conceptual integrated design that encompasses a composite rotor, magnetic suspension and a permanent magnet (PM) motor/generator for a 3-kW orbital average payload at a bus distribution voltage of 250 volts dc. The conceptual design, is referred to as a Mechanical Capacitor. The baseline power system configuration selected is a series system employing peak-power-tracking for a Low Earth-Orbiting application. Power processing, required in the motor/generator, provides potential alternative that can only be achieved in systems with electrochemical energy storage by the addition of power processing components. One such alternative configuration provides for peak-power-tracking of the solar array and still maintains a regulated bus, without the expense of additional power processing components. Precise speed control of the two counterrotating wheels is required to reduce interaction with the attitude control system (ACS) or alternatively, used to perform attitude control functions.

  4. Boosting CSP Production with Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2012-06-01

    Combining concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage shows promise for increasing grid flexibility by providing firm system capacity with a high ramp rate and acceptable part-load operation. When backed by energy storage capability, CSP can supplement photovoltaics by adding generation from solar resources during periods of low solar insolation. The falling cost of solar photovoltaic (PV) - generated electricity has led to a rapid increase in the deployment of PV and projections that PV could play a significant role in the future U.S. electric sector. The solar resource itself is virtually unlimited; however, the actual contribution of PV electricity is limited by several factors related to the current grid. The first is the limited coincidence between the solar resource and normal electricity demand patterns. The second is the limited flexibility of conventional generators to accommodate this highly variable generation resource. At high penetration of solar generation, increased grid flexibility will be needed to fully utilize the variable and uncertain output from PV generation and to shift energy production to periods of high demand or reduced solar output. Energy storage is one way to increase grid flexibility, and many storage options are available or under development. In this article, however, we consider a technology already beginning to be used at scale - thermal energy storage (TES) deployed with concentrating solar power (CSP). PV and CSP are both deployable in areas of high direct normal irradiance such as the U.S. Southwest. The role of these two technologies is dependent on their costs and relative value, including how their value to the grid changes as a function of what percentage of total generation they contribute to the grid, and how they may actually work together to increase overall usefulness of the solar resource. Both PV and CSP use solar energy to generate electricity. A key difference is the ability of CSP to utilize high

  5. Test report : Milspray Scorpion energy storage device.

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-08-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors have supplied their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and a subset of these systems were selected for performance evaluation at the BCIL. The technologies tested were electro-chemical energy storage systems comprised of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. MILSPRAY Military Technologies has developed an energy storage system that utilizes lead acid batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited assessment of the Milspray Scorpion Energy Storage Device.

  6. Simulation and evaluation of latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigmon, T. W.

    1980-01-01

    The relative value of thermal energy storage (TES) for heat pump storage (heating and cooling) as a function of storage temperature, mode of storage (hotside or coldside), geographic locations, and utility time of use rate structures were derived. Computer models used to simulate the performance of a number of TES/heat pump configurations are described. The models are based on existing performance data of heat pump components, available building thermal load computational procedures, and generalized TES subsystem design. Life cycle costs computed for each site, configuration, and rate structure are discussed.

  7. Development of nanocomposites for energy storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Md. Ashiqur Rahaman

    With the ever-increasing need in improving the performance and operation life of future mobile devices, developing higher power density energy storage devices has been receiving more attention. Lithium ion battery (LIB) and capacitor are two of the most widely used energy storage devices and have attracted increasing interest from both industrial and academic fields. Batteries have higher power density than capacitor but significantly longer charge/discharge rates. In order to further improve the performance of these energy storage devices, one of the approaches is to use high specific surface area nano-materials. Among all the nano-materials developed so far, one-dimensional nanowires are of special interests because of their high surface-to-volume ratio and aligned pathway for electron diffusion and conduction. Therefore, in this thesis work, zinc oxide nanowires are implemented as an anode along with carbon fiber/graphene to increase the performance of LIB while lead titanate nanowires are used to improve the energy density of capacitors. For batteries, zinc oxide nanowires are grown on carbon cloth by low temperature hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to analyze morphology and crystal structures of samples. The performances of LIB using zinc oxide nanowire coated carbon cloth and bare carbon cloth are compared to show the improvement induced by zinc oxide nanowires. For capacitors, lead titanate (PTO) nanowires are used with Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) to make nanocomposites of high dielectric constants. Lead titanate nanowires are synthesized by low temperature hydrothermal method. XRD and SEM are used to analyze as synthesized nanowires. Different volume fraction of PTO nanowires is used with PVDF to make dielectric for capacitor. Dielectric constant and breakdown voltage at variable frequency are determined to calculate energy density and specific energy density. The influence of temperature on

  8. Battery storage for supplementing renewable energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The battery storage for renewable energy systems section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  9. Synthesis of research and development in mechanical energy storage technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karadi, G. M.

    1980-05-01

    Techniques for underground energy storage are described. These techniques include underground pumped hydro storage, second generation compressed air energy storage, and seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage. An economic assessment for each of the techniques is presented.

  10. Matt Rogers on AES Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Matt

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Energy and AES Energy Storage recently agreed to a $17.1M conditional loan guarantee commitment. This project will develop the first battery-based energy storage system to provide a more stable and efficient electrical grid for New York State's high-voltage transmission network. Matt Rogers is the Senior Advisor to the Secretary for Recovery Act Implementation.

  11. Energy Storage for the Power Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Imhoff, Carl; Vaishnav, Dave

    2014-07-01

    The iron vanadium redox flow battery was developed by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as a solution to large-scale energy storage for the power grid. This technology provides the energy industry and the nation with a reliable, stable, safe, and low-cost storage alternative for a cleaner, efficient energy future.

  12. Matt Rogers on AES Energy Storage

    ScienceCinema

    Rogers, Matt

    2013-05-29

    The Department of Energy and AES Energy Storage recently agreed to a $17.1M conditional loan guarantee commitment. This project will develop the first battery-based energy storage system to provide a more stable and efficient electrical grid for New York State's high-voltage transmission network. Matt Rogers is the Senior Advisor to the Secretary for Recovery Act Implementation.

  13. Battery energy storage market feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, S.; Akhil, A.

    1997-07-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed energy storage as an important enabling technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  14. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; M. Green; S.J. Yoon; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing concerns in the production of reliable energy sources, the next generation in reliable power generation, hybrid energy systems, are being developed to stabilize these growing energy needs. The hybrid energy system incorporates multiple inputs and multiple outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilizing and storing the overproduction of energy to meet peak demands of energy at the time of need. With high thermal energy production of the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct properties. This paper will discuss the different energy storage options with the criteria for efficient energy storage set forth, and will primarily focus on different molten salt energy storage system options through a thermodynamic analysis

  15. High bit rate mass data storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The HDDR-II mass data storage system consists of a Leach MTR 7114 recorder reproducer, a wire wrapped, integrated circuit flat plane and necessary power supplies for the flat plane. These units, with interconnecting cables and control panel are enclosed in a common housing mounted on casters. The electronics used in the HDDR-II double density decoding and encoding techniques are described.

  16. Thermal energy storage for cogeneration applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drost, M. K.; Antoniak, Z. I.

    1992-04-01

    Cogeneration is playing an increasingly important role in providing energy efficient power generation and thermal energy for space heating and industrial process heat applications. However, the range of applications for cogeneration could be further increased if the generation of electricity could be decoupled from the generation of process heat. Thermal energy storage (TES) can decouple power generation from the production of process heat, allowing the production of dispatchable power while fully utilizing the thermal energy available from the prime mover. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) leads the US Department of Energy's Thermal Energy Storage Program. The program focuses on developing TES for daily cycling (diurnal storage), annual cycling (seasonal storage), and utility applications (utility thermal energy storage (UTES)). Several of these technologies can be used in a cogeneration facility. This paper discusses TES concepts relevant to cogeneration and describes the current status of these TES systems.

  17. Thermal energy storage apparatus, controllers and thermal energy storage control methods

    DOEpatents

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2016-05-03

    Thermal energy storage apparatus, controllers and thermal energy storage control methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage apparatus controller includes processing circuitry configured to access first information which is indicative of surpluses and deficiencies of electrical energy upon an electrical power system at a plurality of moments in time, access second information which is indicative of temperature of a thermal energy storage medium at a plurality of moments in time, and use the first and second information to control an amount of electrical energy which is utilized by a heating element to heat the thermal energy storage medium at a plurality of moments in time.

  18. Energy conservation with chilled-water storage

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorino, D.

    1993-05-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is widely recognized as a demand-side management technology for shifting cooling electrical demand from peak daytime periods to off-peak nighttime and weekend periods when utilities have reserve generating capacity. TES has enabled users to significantly reduce their electricity costs by reducing peak demand and taking advantage of lower off-peak usage rates, often with large utility incentive payments and sometimes with reduced capital costs. It has also enabled utilities to reduce peaks and fill valleys, thereby improving system load factors, reducing reliance on peaking units, increasing utilization of base load units and postponing the construction of additional generating units. Because TES has been so strongly categorized as a demand-shifting technology, its potential for energy conservation has received little recognition. And, certainly, there are many existing TES systems that use more electricity than conventional cooling systems and are beneficial only for shifting demand. However, recent advances in the technology have produced more efficient and better integrated TES systems that use less electricity and natural gas than conventional cooling/heating systems. To apprise engineers of thermal energy storage's potential for energy conservation, this article will study the design and operation of a TES system in one industrial retrofit application.

  19. 18 CFR 284.505 - Market-based rates for storage providers without a market-power determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... storage providers without a market-power determination. 284.505 Section 284.505 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE... Storage § 284.505 Market-based rates for storage providers without a market-power determination. (a)...

  20. 18 CFR 284.505 - Market-based rates for storage providers without a market-power determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... storage providers without a market-power determination. 284.505 Section 284.505 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE... Storage § 284.505 Market-based rates for storage providers without a market-power determination. (a)...

  1. 18 CFR 284.505 - Market-based rates for storage providers without a market-power determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... storage providers without a market-power determination. 284.505 Section 284.505 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE... Storage § 284.505 Market-based rates for storage providers without a market-power determination. (a)...

  2. Functional Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huihui

    The ability to harvest and convert solar energy has been associated with the evolution of human civilization. The increasing consumption of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution, however, has brought to concerns in ecological deterioration and depletion of the fossil fuels. Facing these challenges, humankind is forced to seek for clean, sustainable and renewable energy resources, such as biofuels, hydraulic power, wind power, geothermal energy and other kinds of alternative energies. However, most alternative energy sources, generally in the form of electrical energy, could not be made available on a continuous basis. It is, therefore, essential to store such energy into chemical energy, which are portable and various applications. In this context, electrochemical energy-storage devices hold great promises towards this goal. The most common electrochemical energy-storage devices are electrochemical capacitors (ECs, also called supercapacitors) and batteries. In comparison to batteries, ECs posses high power density, high efficiency, long cycling life and low cost. ECs commonly utilize carbon as both (symmetric) or one of the electrodes (asymmetric), of which their performance is generally limited by the capacitance of the carbon electrodes. Therefore, developing better carbon materials with high energy density has been emerging as one the most essential challenges in the field. The primary objective of this dissertation is to design and synthesize functional carbon materials with high energy density at both aqueous and organic electrolyte systems. The energy density (E) of ECs are governed by E = CV 2/2, where C is the total capacitance and V is the voltage of the devices. Carbon electrodes with high capacitance and high working voltage should lead to high energy density. In the first part of this thesis, a new class of nanoporous carbons were synthesized for symmetric supercapacitors using aqueous Li2SO4 as the electrolyte. A unique precursor was adopted to

  3. Joint Center for Energy Storage Research

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Isaacs

    2012-11-30

    The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR) is a major public-private research partnership that integrates U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories, major research universities and leading industrial companies to overcome critical scientific challenges and technical barriers, leading to the creation of breakthrough energy storage technologies. JCESR, centered at Argonne National Laboratory, outside of Chicago, consolidates decades of basic research experience that forms the foundation of innovative advanced battery technologies. The partnership has access to some of the world's leading battery researchers as well as scientific research facilities that are needed to develop energy storage materials that will revolutionize the way the United States and the world use energy.

  4. Thermal Energy Storage Flight Experiment in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, David

    1992-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Storage Flight Experiment was designed to characterize void shape and location in LiF-based phase change materials in different energy storage configurations representative of advanced solar dynamic systems. Experiment goals and payload design are described in outline and graphic form.

  5. Electrical Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Helms, C. R.; Cho, K. J.; Ferraris, John; Balkus, Ken; Chabal, Yves; Gnade, Bruce; Rotea, Mario; Vasselli, John

    2012-08-31

    This program focused on development of the fundamental understanding necessary to significantly improve advanced battery and ultra-capacitor materials and systems to achieve significantly higher power and energy density on the one hand, and significantly lower cost on the other. This program spanned all the way from atomic-level theory, to new nanomaterials syntheses and characterization, to system modeling and bench-scale technology demonstration. Significant accomplishments are detailed in each section. Those particularly noteworthy include: • Transition metal silicate cathodes with 2x higher storage capacity than commercial cobalt oxide cathodes were demonstrated. • MnO₂ nanowires, which are a promising replacement for RuO₂, were synthesized • PAN-based carbon nanofibers were prepared and characterized with an energy density 30-times higher than current ultracapacitors on the market and comparable to lead-acid batteries • An optimization-based control strategy for real-time power management of battery storage in wind farms was developed and demonstrated. • PVDF films were developed with breakdown strengths of > 600MVm⁻¹, a maximum energy density of approximately 15 Jcm⁻³, and an average dielectric constant of 9.8 (±1.2). Capacitors made from these films can support a 10-year lifetime operating at an electric field of 200 MV m⁻¹. This program not only delivered significant advancements in fundamental understanding and new materials and technology, it also showcased the power of the cross-functional, multi-disciplinary teams at UT Dallas and UT Tyler for such work. These teams are continuing this work with other sources of funding from both industry and government.

  6. Mechanical energy storage device for hip disarticulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallotton, W. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An artificial leg including a trunk socket, a thigh section hingedly coupled to the trunk socket, a leg section hingedly coupled to the thigh section and a foot section hingedly coupled to the leg section is outlined. A mechanical energy storage device is operatively associated with the artificial leg for storage and release of energy during the normal walking stride of the user. Energy is stored in the mechanical energy storage device during a weight-bearing phase of the walking stride when the user's weight is on the artificial leg. Energy is released during a phase of the normal walking stride, when the user's weight is removed from the artificial leg. The stored energy is released from the energy storage device to pivot the thigh section forwardly about the hinged coupling to the trunk socket.

  7. Underground Energy Storage Program. 1984 annual summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1985-06-01

    Underground Energy Storage (UES) Program activities during the period from April 1984 through March 1985 are briefly described. Primary activities in seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) involved field testing of high-temperature (>100/sup 0/C (212/sup 0/F)) aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) at St. Paul, laboratory studies of geochemical issues associated with high-temperatures ATES, monitoring of chill ATES facilities in Tuscaloosa, and STES linked with solar energy collection. The scope of international activities in STES is briefly discussed.

  8. Battery energy storage and superconducting magnetic energy storage for utility applications: A qualitative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, A.A.; Butler, P.; Bickel, T.C.

    1993-11-01

    This report was prepared at the request of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management for an objective comparison of the merits of battery energy storage with superconducting magnetic energy storage technology for utility applications. Conclusions are drawn regarding the best match of each technology with these utility application requirements. Staff from the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program and the superconductivity Programs at Sandia National contributed to this effort.

  9. Energy investment: The many lives of energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumagalli, Elena

    2016-07-01

    Energy storage offers potential to support a changing electricity sector, but investors remain uncertain about its attractiveness. Analysis now shows that this can be overcome for battery technology by providing more than one storage service in a single facility.

  10. Technoeconomic Modeling of Battery Energy Storage in SAM

    SciTech Connect

    DiOrio, Nicholas; Dobos, Aron; Janzou, Steven; Nelson, Austin; Lundstrom, Blake

    2015-09-01

    Detailed comprehensive lead-acid and lithium-ion battery models have been integrated with photovoltaic models in an effort to allow System Advisor Model (SAM) to offer the ability to predict the performance and economic benefit of behind the meter storage. In a system with storage, excess PV energy can be saved until later in the day when PV production has fallen, or until times of peak demand when it is more valuable. Complex dispatch strategies can be developed to leverage storage to reduce energy consumption or power demand based on the utility rate structure. This document describes the details of the battery performance and economic models in SAM.

  11. Phase change thermal energy storage material

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.

    1987-10-27

    A thermal energy storage tank is described comprising a containment vessel arranged for exposure to thermal energy, and a thermal energy storage composition disposed within the vessel and comprising a non-chloride hydrate having a phase change transition temperature in the range of 70/sup 0/-95/sup 0/F and a latent heat of transformation of greater than about 35 calories/gram. The non-chloride hydrate comprises trimethyol ethane hydrate.

  12. Operational Shortest-Term PV Solar Forecasting for ramp rate control with an ultracapacitor energy storage system using a Whole Sky Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, K. A.; Kleissl, J. P.; Torre, W.; Kurtz, B.; Mejia, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    UCSD has partnered with Maxwell Technologies to demonstrate Maxwells' ultracapacitor energy storage system (UESS) using UCSDs' shortest-term advective forecast for PV systems. Specifically, UCSD will be supplying 5-minute forecasts to predict ramp events for the UESS, which will then discharge/charge the system as appropriate for the event. Four different metrics will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the UCSD advective forecast with the UESS: (1) The root mean square error, root mean bias, and root mean absolute error will be calculated for the 5-minute forecast using measured irradiance from the UCSD DEMROES stations and compared to a persistence forecast (2) A "matching" error analysis will be performed to compare the 5-minute forecasted cloud cover of the PV system to the actual cloud cover at the forecasted time (3) The matching error of the advective forecast will be compared to the matching error of a persistence forecast to determine if, operationally, advective or persistence forecast performs best (4) Timing of predicted ramp events using the advective forecast will be compared to actual ramp events experienced by the UESS. The above metrics will also be used to analyze the effectiveness of cross-correlational and optical flow advective schemes in an operational setting. The cross-correlational method analyzes images from two different times to find an average velocity vector for cloud cover. Optical flow uses images from two time steps to find a velocity vector for each pixel of an image, allowing different sections of clouds to move at different speeds and directions. Hence, it is hypothesized the optical flow advective scheme will perform better then the cross-correlation method in operational settings.

  13. Compressed air energy storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    1981-07-28

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  14. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  15. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  16. 78 FR 18974 - ONEOK Texas Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ONEOK Texas Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on March 14, 2013, ONEOK Texas Gas Storage, L.L.C. filed a Rate Election pursuant to...

  17. Cost effective seasonal storage of wind energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, A.J.; Keck, M.B.

    1995-09-01

    Seasonal variation of the wind electric potential on the Great Plains could be a significant obstacle to the large scale utilization of wind generated electricity. Wind power densities usually are greatest during the spring, and decrease by at least 30 percent relative to the annual average in many areas during the summer months, when demand is highest. This problem can be overcome by using an oversized wind farm and a compressed air energy storage system (a baseload wind energy system). A minimum volume storage reservoir is needed to transform intermittent wind energy to baseload power, while a larger reservoir can be used to store excess power produced during the spring for either peak power or baseload output during the summer. The yearly average cost of energy increases by about 3 percent for the largest storage reservoir, indicating the seasonal storage of wind energy is economically as well as technically feasible.

  18. Energy Storage: Batteries and Fuel Cells for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Baumann, Eric D.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Exploration requires safe, human-rated, energy storage technologies with high energy density, high specific energy and the ability to perform in a variety of unique environments. The Exploration Technology Development Program is currently supporting the development of battery and fuel cell systems that address these critical technology areas. Specific technology efforts that advance these systems and optimize their operation in various space environments are addressed in this overview of the Energy Storage Technology Development Project. These technologies will support a new generation of more affordable, more reliable, and more effective space systems.

  19. University of Arizona Compressed Air Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Joseph; Muralidharan, Krishna

    2012-12-31

    Boiled down to its essentials, the grant’s purpose was to develop and demonstrate the viability of compressed air energy storage (CAES) for use in renewable energy development. While everyone agrees that energy storage is the key component to enable widespread adoption of renewable energy sources, the development of a viable scalable technology has been missing. The Department of Energy has focused on expanded battery research and improved forecasting, and the utilities have deployed renewable energy resources only to the extent of satisfying Renewable Portfolio Standards. The lack of dispatchability of solar and wind-based electricity generation has drastically increased the cost of operation with these components. It is now clear that energy storage coupled with accurate solar and wind forecasting make up the only combination that can succeed in dispatchable renewable energy resources. Conventional batteries scale linearly in size, so the price becomes a barrier for large systems. Flow batteries scale sub-linearly and promise to be useful if their performance can be shown to provide sufficient support for solar and wind-base electricity generation resources. Compressed air energy storage provides the most desirable answer in terms of scalability and performance in all areas except efficiency. With the support of the DOE, Tucson Electric Power and Science Foundation Arizona, the Arizona Research Institute for Solar Energy (AzRISE) at the University of Arizona has had the opportunity to investigate CAES as a potential energy storage resource.

  20. Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Hummon, M.; Jenkin, T.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.; O'Malley, M.

    2013-05-01

    This analysis evaluates several operational benefits of electricity storage, including load-leveling, spinning contingency reserves, and regulation reserves. Storage devices were simulated in a utility system in the western United States, and the operational costs of generation was compared to the same system without the added storage. This operational value of storage was estimated for devices of various sizes, providing different services, and with several sensitivities to fuel price and other factors. Overall, the results followed previous analyses that demonstrate relatively low value for load-leveling but greater value for provision of reserve services. The value was estimated by taking the difference in operational costs between cases with and without energy storage and represents the operational cost savings from deploying storage by a traditional vertically integrated utility. The analysis also estimated the potential revenues derived from a merchant storage plant in a restructured market, based on marginal system prices. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials and incomplete capture of system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit provided to the system. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

  1. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY DISTRIBUTED ENERGY STORAGE BATTERY

    SciTech Connect

    LANDI, J.T.; PLIVELICH, R.F.

    2006-04-30

    Electro Energy, Inc. conducted a research project to develop an energy efficient and environmentally friendly bipolar Ni-MH battery for distributed energy storage applications. Rechargeable batteries with long life and low cost potentially play a significant role by reducing electricity cost and pollution. A rechargeable battery functions as a reservoir for storage for electrical energy, carries energy for portable applications, or can provide peaking energy when a demand for electrical power exceeds primary generating capabilities.

  2. New energy storage concept uses tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, A.; Kafesjian, R. R.

    1966-01-01

    Energy storage system uses movable permeable tapes with cathode and electrolyte material that is drawn across an anode to produce electric power. The system features long shelf life, high efficiency, and flexible operation.

  3. TES (Thermal Energy Storage) Video News Release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    TES is an in-space technology experiment that flew on STS-62. Its intent is to investigate the behavior of two different thermal energy storage materials as they undergo repeated melting and freezing in the microgravity environment.

  4. Alkali metal/halide thermal energy storage systems performance evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. M.; Stearns, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    A pseudoheat-pipe heat transfer mechanism has been demonstrated effective in terms of both total heat removal efficiency and rate, on the one hand, and system isothermal characteristics, on the other, for solar thermal energy storage systems of the kind being contemplated for spacecraft. The selection of appropriate salt and alkali metal substances for the system renders it applicable to a wide temperature range. The rapid heat transfer rate obtainable makes possible the placing of the thermal energy storage system around the solar receiver canister, and the immersing of heat transfer fluid tubes in the phase change salt to obtain an isothermal heat source.

  5. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    DOEpatents

    McClelland, John F.

    1981-09-01

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  6. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    DOEpatents

    McClelland, J.F.

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent is described. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  7. Batteries for Large Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L.

    2011-07-15

    In recent years, with the deployment of renewable energy sources, advances in electrified transportation, and development in smart grids, the markets for large-scale stationary energy storage have grown rapidly. Electrochemical energy storage methods are strong candidate solutions due to their high energy density, flexibility, and scalability. This review provides an overview of mature and emerging technologies for secondary and redox flow batteries. New developments in the chemistry of secondary and flow batteries as well as regenerative fuel cells are also considered. Advantages and disadvantages of current and prospective electrochemical energy storage options are discussed. The most promising technologies in the short term are high-temperature sodium batteries with β”-alumina electrolyte, lithium-ion batteries, and flow batteries. Regenerative fuel cells and lithium metal batteries with high energy density require further research to become practical.

  8. Northeastern Center for Chemical Energy Storage (NECCES)

    SciTech Connect

    Whittingham, M. Stanley

    2015-07-31

    The chemical reactions that occur in batteries are complex, spanning a wide range of time and length scales from atomic jumps to the entire battery structure. The NECCES team of experimentalists and theorists made use of, and developed new methodologies to determine how model compound electrodes function in real time, as batteries are cycled. The team determined that kinetic control of intercalation reactions (reactions in which the crystalline structure is maintained) can be achieved by control of the materials morphology and explains and allows for the high rates of many intercalation reactions where the fundamental properties might indicate poor behavior in a battery application. The small overvoltage required for kinetic control is technically effective and economically feasible. A wide range of state-of-the-art operando techniques was developed to study materials under realistic battery conditions, which are now available to the scientific community. The team also investigated the key reaction steps in conversion electrodes, where the crystal structure is destroyed on reaction with lithium and rebuilt on lithium removal. These so-called conversion reactions have in principle much higher capacities, but were found to form very reactive discharge products that reduce the overall energy efficiency on cycling. It was found that by mixing either the anion, as in FeOF, or the cation, as in Cu1-yFeyF2, the capacity on cycling could be improved. The fundamental understanding of the reactions occurring in electrode materials gained in this study will allow for the development of much improved battery systems for energy storage. This will benefit the public in longer lived electronics, higher electric vehicle ranges at lower costs, and improved grid storage that also enables renewable energy supplies such as wind and solar.

  9. Hydrogen-based electrochemical energy storage

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2013-08-06

    An energy storage device (100) providing high storage densities via hydrogen storage. The device (100) includes a counter electrode (110), a storage electrode (130), and an ion conducting membrane (120) positioned between the counter electrode (110) and the storage electrode (130). The counter electrode (110) is formed of one or more materials with an affinity for hydrogen and includes an exchange matrix for elements/materials selected from the non-noble materials that have an affinity for hydrogen. The storage electrode (130) is loaded with hydrogen such as atomic or mono-hydrogen that is adsorbed by a hydrogen storage material such that the hydrogen (132, 134) may be stored with low chemical bonding. The hydrogen storage material is typically formed of a lightweight material such as carbon or boron with a network of passage-ways or intercalants for storing and conducting mono-hydrogen, protons, or the like. The hydrogen storage material may store at least ten percent by weight hydrogen (132, 134) at ambient temperature and pressure.

  10. Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenung, Susan M.

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

  11. Kauai Island Utility Cooperative energy storage study.

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, Abbas Ali; Yamane, Mike; Murray, Aaron T.

    2009-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performed an assessment of the benefits of energy storage for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative. This report documents the methodology and results of this study from a generation and production-side benefits perspective only. The KIUC energy storage study focused on the economic impact of using energy storage to shave the system peak, which reduces generator run time and consequently reduces fuel and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. It was determined that a 16-MWh energy storage system would suit KIUC's needs, taking into account the size of the 13 individual generation units in the KIUC system and a system peak of 78 MW. The analysis shows that an energy storage system substantially reduces the run time of Units D1, D2, D3, and D5 - the four smallest and oldest diesel generators at the Port Allen generating plant. The availability of stored energy also evens the diurnal variability of the remaining generation units during the off- and on-peak periods. However, the net economic benefit is insufficient to justify a load-leveling type of energy storage system at this time. While the presence of storage helps reduce the run time of the smaller and older units, the economic dispatch changes and the largest most efficient unit in the KIUC system, the 27.5-MW steam-injected combustion turbine at Kapaia, is run for extra hours to provide the recharge energy for the storage system. The economic benefits of the storage is significantly reduced because the charging energy for the storage is derived from the same fuel source as the peak generation source it displaces. This situation would be substantially different if there were a renewable energy source available to charge the storage. Especially, if there is a wind generation resource introduced in the KIUC system, there may be a potential of capturing the load-leveling benefits as well as using the storage to dampen the dynamic instability that the wind generation could introduce into

  12. Aquifer thermal energy storage. International symposium: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Aquifers have been used to store large quantities of thermal energy to supply process cooling, space cooling, space heating, and ventilation air preheating, and can be used with or without heat pumps. Aquifers are used as energy sinks and sources when supply and demand for energy do not coincide. Aquifer thermal energy storage may be used on a short-term or long-term basis; as the sole source of energy or as a partial storage; at a temperature useful for direct application or needing upgrade. The sources of energy used for aquifer storage are ambient air, usually cold winter air; waste or by-product energy; and renewable energy such as solar. The present technical, financial and environmental status of ATES is promising. Numerous projects are operating and under development in several countries. These projects are listed and results from Canada and elsewhere are used to illustrate the present status of ATES. Technical obstacles have been addressed and have largely been overcome. Cold storage in aquifers can be seen as a standard design option in the near future as it presently is in some countries. The cost-effectiveness of aquifer thermal energy storage is based on the capital cost avoidance of conventional chilling equipment and energy savings. ATES is one of many developments in energy efficient building technology and its success depends on relating it to important building market and environmental trends. This paper attempts to provide guidance for the future implementation of ATES. Individual projects have been processed separately for entry onto the Department of Energy databases.

  13. Appendix A: Energy storage technologies

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The project financial evaluation section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  14. Elemental Selenium for Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-Peng; Yin, Ya-Xia; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2015-01-15

    To meet the increasing demand for electrochemical energy storage with high energy density, elemental Se is proposed as a new attractive candidate with high volumetric capacity density similar to that of S. Se is chemically and electrochemically analogous to S to a large extent but is saliently featured owing to its semiconductivity, compatibility with carbonate-based electrolytes, and activity with a Na anode. Despite only short-term studies, many advanced Se-based electrode materials have been developed for rechargeable Li batteries, Na batteries, and Li ion batteries. In this Perspective, we review the advances in Se-based energy storage materials and the challenges of Li-Se battery in both carbonate-based and ether-based electrolytes. We also discuss the rational design strategies for future Se-based energy storage systems based on the strengths and weaknesses of Se. PMID:26263460

  15. Chemistry of Energy Conversion and Storage.

    PubMed

    Su, Dang-Sheng; Schlögl, R

    2016-02-19

    Special Issue: Energy Conversion and Storage. Critical issues in current energy-based societies are its generation through methods utilizing alternatives to fossil fuels as well as its storage. Considering the scope, it is not surprising that the research becomes more and more multidisciplinary. Therefore, it is important to keep focused. The ChemEner symposia, the last one being highlighted in this Special Issue, achieve this by focusing on the state of the art and the newest development of the Chemistry of hydrogen generation, carbon dioxide reduction, and other related topics, exploring new concepts for clean future energy. PMID:26914171

  16. Flywheel energy storage advances using HTS bearings.

    SciTech Connect

    Mulcahy, T. M.

    1998-09-11

    High-Temperature-Superconducting (HT) bearings have the potential to reduce idling losses and make flywheel energy storage economical. Demonstration of large, high-speed flywheels is key to market penetration. Toward this goal, a flywheel system has been developed and tested with 5-kg to 15-kg disk-shaped rotors. Rlm speeds exceeded 400 mls and stored energies were >80 W-hr. Test implementation required technological advances in nearly all aspects of the flywheel system. Features and limitations of the design and tests are discussed, especially those related to achieving additional energy storage.

  17. Energy Storage Fuel Cell Vehicle Analysis: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, T.; Pesaran, A.; Zolot, M.; Sprik, S.; Tataria, H.; Duong, T.

    2005-04-01

    In recent years, hydrogen fuel cell (FC) vehicle technology has received considerable attention as a strategy to decrease oil consumption and reduce harmful emissions. However, the cost, transient response, and cold performance of FC systems may present significant challenges to widespread adoption of the technology for transportation in the next 15 years. The objectives of this effort were to perform energy storage modeling with fuel cell vehicle simulations to quantify the benefits of hybridization and to identify a process for setting the requirements of ES for hydrogen-powered FC vehicles for U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Program.

  18. Energy Storage Fuel Cell Vehicle Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A; Markel, T; Zolot, M; Sprik, S; Tataria, H; Duong, T

    2005-08-01

    In recent years, hydrogen fuel cell (FC) vehicle technology has received considerable attention as a strategy to decrease oil consumption and reduce harmful emissions. However, the cost, transient response, and cold performance of FC systems may present significant challenges to widespread adoption of the technology for transportation in the next 15 years. The objectives of this effort were to perform energy storage modeling with fuel cell vehicle simulations to quantify the benefits of hybridization and to identify a process for setting the requirements of ES for hydrogen-powered FC vehicles for U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Program.

  19. Thermal energy storage chiller management

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.D.

    1996-11-01

    This paper addresses chiller applications that are designed to get the maximum benefit form a chiller plant every day of the year. It treats all chillers as variable-capacity devices and applies them in thermal storage system configurations that efficiently take advantage of that capability. It also recognizes that a chiller operating temperature differential is always a variable to which a chiller must always adjust. All the applications addressed vary the flow and in some situations the operating temperature differential to maximize or optimize each chiller`s capacity. It is done in such a manner that the safety and reliability of the chiller are improved rather than jeopardized.

  20. Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maru, H. C.; Dullea, J. F.; Kardas, A.; Paul, L.; Marianowski, L. G.; Ong, E.; Sampath, V.; Huang, V. M.; Wolak, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of storing thermal energy at temperatures of 450 C to 535 C in the form of latent heat of fusion was examined for over 30 inorganic salts and salt mixtures. Alkali carbonate mixtures were chosen as phase-change storage materials in this temperature range because of their relatively high storage capacity and thermal conductivity, moderate cost, low volumetric expansion upon melting, low corrosivity, and good chemical stability. Means of improving heat conduction through the solid salt were explored.

  1. Chilled water storage system reduces energy costs

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorino, D.P. )

    1993-04-01

    This article describes the conversion of an industrial central chiller plant from conventional live-load operation to full-shift thermal energy storage. The topics of the article include project design, project implementation, interactive pressure/temperature control, energy efficiency, operations and maintenance and cost effectiveness.

  2. Energy storage: Redox flow batteries go organic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Sprenkle, Vince

    2016-03-01

    The use of renewable resources as providers to the electrical grid is hampered by the intermittent and irregular nature in which they generate energy. Electrical energy storage technology could provide a solution and now, by using an iterative design process, a promising anolyte for use in redox flow batteries has been developed.

  3. Magnetic Energy Storage System: Superconducting Magnet Energy Storage System with Direct Power Electronics Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: ABB is developing an advanced energy storage system using superconducting magnets that could store significantly more energy than today’s best magnetic storage technologies at a fraction of the cost. This system could provide enough storage capacity to encourage more widespread use of renewable power like wind and solar. Superconducting magnetic energy storage systems have been in development for almost 3 decades; however, past devices were designed to supply power only for short durations—generally less than a few minutes. ABB’s system would deliver the stored energy at very low cost, making it ideal for eventual use in the electricity grid as a costeffective competitor to batteries and other energy storage technologies. The device could potentially cost even less, on a per kilowatt basis, than traditional lead-acid batteries.

  4. Underground-Energy-Storage Program, 1982 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1983-06-01

    Two principal underground energy storage technologies are discussed--Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) and Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES). The Underground Energy Storage Program objectives, approach, structure, and milestones are described, and technical activities and progress in the STES and CAES areas are summarized. STES activities include aquifer thermal energy storage technology studies and STES technology assessment and development. CAES activities include reservoir stability studies and second-generation concepts studies. (LEW)

  5. Nanostructured metal sulfides for energy storage.

    PubMed

    Rui, Xianhong; Tan, Huiteng; Yan, Qingyu

    2014-09-01

    Advanced electrodes with a high energy density at high power are urgently needed for high-performance energy storage devices, including lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitors (SCs), to fulfil the requirements of future electrochemical power sources for applications such as in hybrid electric/plug-in-hybrid (HEV/PHEV) vehicles. Metal sulfides with unique physical and chemical properties, as well as high specific capacity/capacitance, which are typically multiple times higher than that of the carbon/graphite-based materials, are currently studied as promising electrode materials. However, the implementation of these sulfide electrodes in practical applications is hindered by their inferior rate performance and cycling stability. Nanostructures offering the advantages of high surface-to-volume ratios, favourable transport properties, and high freedom for the volume change upon ion insertion/extraction and other reactions, present an opportunity to build next-generation LIBs and SCs. Thus, the development of novel concepts in material research to achieve new nanostructures paves the way for improved electrochemical performance. Herein, we summarize recent advances in nanostructured metal sulfides, such as iron sulfides, copper sulfides, cobalt sulfides, nickel sulfides, manganese sulfides, molybdenum sulfides, tin sulfides, with zero-, one-, two-, and three-dimensional morphologies for LIB and SC applications. In addition, the recently emerged concept of incorporating conductive matrices, especially graphene, with metal sulfide nanomaterials will also be highlighted. Finally, some remarks are made on the challenges and perspectives for the future development of metal sulfide-based LIB and SC devices. PMID:25073046

  6. Development of an energy storage tank model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Robert Christopher

    A linearized, one-dimensional finite difference model employing an implicit finite difference method for energy storage tanks is developed, programmed with MATLAB, and demonstrated for different applications. A set of nodal energy equations is developed by considering the energy interactions on a small control volume. The general method of solving these equations is described as are other features of the simulation program. Two modeling applications are presented: the first using a hot water storage tank with a solar collector and an absorption chiller to cool a building in the summer, the second using a molten salt storage system with a solar collector and steam power plant to generate electricity. Recommendations for further study as well as all of the source code generated in the project are also provided.

  7. Energy storage systems for MPD thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, S.B.

    1981-01-01

    Because of its high thrust density, the magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster is a promising candidate for many advanced space missions. Its high power requirements lead to operation in a pulsed mode using an intermediate energy storage device. The characteristics of a system consisting of a solar array, energy storage capacitor, and MPD thruster are studied for array powers in the range 25-375 kw. Assuming simple analytic models for the circuit components, the circuit charge and discharge equations are solved numerically, resulting in the system efficiency and capacitance. The system efficiency is inversely proportional to array power and decreases with circuit resistance. Alternative methods of energy storage such as a pulse forming network and a homopolar generator, are presented, and an overall comparison between all of the methods is given.

  8. Electrical Energy Storage and the Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howes, Ruth

    2007-05-01

    Demand for electricity varies seasonally, daily, and on much shorter time scales. Renewable energy sources such as solar or wind power are naturally intermittent. Nuclear power plants can respond to a narrow range of fluctuating demand quickly and to larger fluctuations in hours. However, they are most efficient when operated at a constant power output. Thus implementing either nuclear power or power from renewables requires either a system for storage of electrical energy that can respond quickly to demand or a back-up power source, usually a gas turbine plant that has a quick response time. We have studied six technologies for storing electrical energy from the grid: pumped hydropower, compressed air storage, batteries, flywheels, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and electrochemical capacitors. In addition, the power conversion systems (PCS) that connect storage to the grid are both expensive and critical to the success of a storage technology. Each of these six technologies offers different benefits, is at a different stage of readiness for commercial use, and offers opportunities for research. Advantages and disadvantages for each of the technologies and PCS will be discussed. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.OSS07.E1.1

  9. Engineered nanomembranes for smart energy storage devices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianfu; Chen, Yu; Schmidt, Oliver G; Yan, Chenglin

    2016-03-01

    Engineered nanomembranes are of great interest not only for large-scale energy storage devices, but also for on-chip energy storage integrated microdevices (such as microbatteries, microsupercapacitors, on-chip capacitors, etc.) because of their large active surfaces for electrochemical reactions, shortened paths for fast ion diffusion, and easy engineering for microdevice applications. In addition, engineered nanomembranes provide a lab-on-chip electrochemical device platform for probing the correlations of electrode structure, electrical/ionic conductivity, and electrochemical kinetics with device performance. This review focuses on the recent progress in engineered nanomembranes including tubular nanomembranes and planar nanomembranes, with the aim to provide a systematic summary of their fabrication, modification, and energy storage applications in lithium-ion batteries, lithium-oxygen batteries, on-chip electrostatic capacitors and micro-supercapacitors. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between engineered nanomembranes and electrochemical properties of lithium ion storage with engineered single-tube microbatteries is given, and the flexibility and transparency of micro-supercapacitors is also discussed. Remarks on challenges and perspectives related to engineered nanomembranes for the further development of energy storage applications conclude this review. PMID:26691394

  10. LiH thermal energy storage device

    DOEpatents

    Olszewski, M.; Morris, D.G.

    1994-06-28

    A thermal energy storage device for use in a pulsed power supply to store waste heat produced in a high-power burst operation utilizes lithium hydride as the phase change thermal energy storage material. The device includes an outer container encapsulating the lithium hydride and an inner container supporting a hydrogen sorbing sponge material such as activated carbon. The inner container is in communication with the interior of the outer container to receive hydrogen dissociated from the lithium hydride at elevated temperatures. 5 figures.

  11. Aquifer thermal energy (heat and chill) storage

    SciTech Connect

    Jenne, E.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the 1992 Intersociety Conversion Engineering Conference, held in San Diego, California, August 3--7, 1992, the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program coordinated five sessions dealing specifically with aquifer thermal energy storage technologies (ATES). Researchers from Sweden, The Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, Canada, and the United States presented papers on a variety of ATES related topics. With special permission from the Society of Automotive Engineers, host society for the 1992 IECEC, these papers are being republished here as a standalone summary of ATES technology status. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  12. Redox flow cell energy storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The redox flow cell energy storage system being developed by NASA for use in remote power systems and distributed storage installations for electric utilities is presented. The system under consideration is an electrochemical storage device which utilizes the oxidation and reduction of two fully soluble redox couples (acidified chloride solutions of chromium and iron) as active electrode materials separated by a highly selective ion exchange membrane. The reactants are contained in large storage tanks and pumped through a stack of redox flow cells where the electrochemical reactions take place at porous carbon felt electrodes. Redox equipment has allowed the incorporation of state of charge readout, stack voltage control and system capacity maintenance (rebalance) devices to regulate cells in a stack jointly. A 200 W, 12 V system with a capacity of about 400 Wh has been constructed, and a 2 kW, 10kWh system is planned.

  13. Rapid Charging of Thermal Energy Storage Materials through Plasmonic Heating

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongyong; Tao, Peng; Liu, Yang; Xu, Hao; Ye, Qinxian; Hu, Hang; Song, Chengyi; Chen, Zhaoping; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Direct collection, conversion and storage of solar radiation as thermal energy are crucial to the efficient utilization of renewable solar energy and the reduction of global carbon footprint. This work reports a facile approach for rapid and efficient charging of thermal energy storage materials by the instant and intense photothermal effect of uniformly distributed plasmonic nanoparticles. Upon illumination with both green laser light and sunlight, the prepared plasmonic nanocomposites with volumetric ppm level of filler concentration demonstrated a faster heating rate, a higher heating temperature and a larger heating area than the conventional thermal diffusion based approach. With controlled dispersion, we further demonstrated that the light-to-heat conversion and thermal storage properties of the plasmonic nanocomposites can be fine-tuned by engineering the composition of the nanocomposites. PMID:25175717

  14. The role of thermal energy storage in industrial energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duscha, R. A.; Masica, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    Thermal Energy Storage for Industrial Applications is a major thrust of the Department of Energy's Thermal Energy Storage Program. Utilizing Thermal Energy Storage (TES) with process or reject heat recovery systems is shown to be extremely beneficial for several applications. Recent system studies resulting from contracts awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE) identified four especially significant industries where TES appears attractive - food processing, paper and pulp, iron and steel, and cement. Potential annual fuel savings with large scale implementation of near term TES systems for these industries is over 9,000,000 bbl of oil. This savings is due to recuperation and storage in the food processing industry, direct fuel substitution in the paper and pulp industry and reduction in electric utility peak fuel use through inplant production of electricity from utilization of reject heat in the steel and cement industries.

  15. Similarity and generalized analysis of efficiencies of thermal energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peiwen Li; Jon Van Lew; Cholik Chan; Wafaa Karaki; Jake Stephens; J. E. O'Brien

    2012-03-01

    This paper examined the features of three typical thermal storage systems including: (1) direct storage of heat transfer fluid in containers, (2) storage of thermal energy in a packed bed of solid filler material, with energy being carried in/out by a flowing heat transfer fluid which directly contacts the packed bed, and (3) a system in which heat transfer fluid flows through tubes that are imbedded into a thermal storage material which may be solid, liquid, or a mixture of the two. The similarity of the three types of thermal storage systems was discussed, and generalized energy storage governing equations were introduced in both dimensional and dimensionless forms. The temperatures of the heat transfer fluid during energy charge and discharge processes and the overall energy storage efficiencies were studied through solution of the energy storage governing equations. Finally, provided in the paper are a series of generalized charts bearing curves for energy storage effectiveness against four dimensionless parameters grouped up from many of the thermal storage system properties including dimensions, fluid and thermal storage material properties, as well as the operational conditions including mass flow rate of the fluid, and the ratio of energy charge and discharge time periods. Engineers can conveniently look up the charts to design and calibrate the size of thermal storage tanks and operational conditions without doing complicated individual modeling and computations. It is expected that the charts will serve as standard tools for thermal storage system design and calibration.

  16. The Electrochemical Flow Capacitor: Capacitive Energy Storage in Flowable Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennison, Christopher R.

    Electrical energy storage (EES) has emerged as a necessary aspect of grid infrastructure to address the increasing problem of grid instability imposed by the large scale implementation of renewable energy sources (such as wind or solar) on the grid. Rapid energy recovery and storage is critically important to enable immediate and continuous utilization of these resources, and provides other benefits to grid operators and consumers as well. In past decades, there has been significant progress in the development of electrochemical EES technologies which has had an immense impact on the consumer and micro-electronics industries. However, these advances primarily address small-scale storage, and are often not practical at the grid-scale. A new energy storage concept called "the electrochemical flow capacitor (EFC)" has been developed at Drexel which has significant potential to be an attractive technology for grid-scale energy storage. This new concept exploits the characteristics of both supercapacitors and flow batteries, potentially enabling fast response rates with high power density, high efficiency, and long cycle lifetime, while decoupling energy storage from power output (i.e., scalable energy storage capacity). The unique aspect of this concept is the use of flowable carbon-electrolyte slurry ("flowable electrode") as the active material for capacitive energy storage. This dissertation work seeks to lay the scientific groundwork necessary to develop this new concept into a practical technology, and to test the overarching hypothesis that energy can be capacitively stored and recovered from a flowable media. In line with these goals, the objectives of this Ph.D. work are to: i) perform an exploratory investigation of the operating principles and demonstrate the technical viability of this new concept and ii) establish a scientific framework to assess the key linkages between slurry composition, flow cell design, operating conditions and system performance. To

  17. Electric Vehicles Mileage Extender Kinetic Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jivkov, Venelin; Draganov, Vutko; Stoyanova, Yana

    2015-03-01

    The proposed paper considers small urban vehicles with electric hybrid propulsion systems. Energy demands are examined on the basis of European drive cycle (NEUDC) and on an energy recuperation coefficient and are formulated for description of cycle energy transfers. Numerical simulation results show real possibilities for increasing in achievable vehicle mileage at the same energy levels of a main energy source - the electric battery. Kinetic energy storage (KES), as proposed to be used as an energy buffer and different structural schemes of the hybrid propulsion system are commented. Minimum energy levels for primary (the electric battery) and secondary (KES) sources are evaluated. A strategy for reduced power flows control is examined, and its impact on achievable vehicle mileage is investigated. Results show an additional increase in simulated mileage at the same initial energy levels.

  18. Energy Efficient Storage and Transfer of Cryogens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Cryogenics is globally linked to energy generation, storage, and usage. Thermal insulation systems research and development is an enabling part of NASA's technology goals for Space Launch and Exploration. New thermal testing methodologies and materials are being transferred to industry for a wide range of commercial applications.

  19. Thermal energy storage effort at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The technical, operational, and economic readiness of parabolic dish systems for electric and thermal applications was investigated. A parabolic dish system was then developed to the point at which subsequent commercialization activities can lead to successful market penetration. The immediate possible applications of the dish system to thermal energy storage are discussed.

  20. Start It up: Flywheel Energy Storage Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to construct and test an off-grid photovoltaic (PV) system in which the power from a solar array could be stored in a rechargeable battery and a flywheel motor generator assembly. The mechanical flywheel energy storage system would in turn effectively power a 12-volt DC appliance. The voltage and current of…

  1. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, V. Vasudeva

    2008-10-01

    This paper gives an Introduction to Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) systems and their applications along with an overview of their present status. Further a brief description to a Micro SMES/UPS system of 0.5 MJ capacity that was developed/tested at IIT, Kharagpur is also included.

  2. Fuel Cells and Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammells, Anthony F.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cells and major features and types of batteries used for electrical energy storage. Includes two tables presenting comparison of major battery features and summary of major material problems in the sodium-sulfur and lithium-alloy metal sulfide batteries. (JN)

  3. Energy Proportionality for Disk Storage Using Replication

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jinoh; Rotem, Doron

    2010-09-09

    Energy saving has become a crucial concern in datacenters as several reports predict that the anticipated energy costs over a three year period will exceed hardware acquisition. In particular, saving energy for storage is of major importance as storage devices (and cooling them off) may contribute over 25 percent of the total energy consumed in a datacenter. Recent work introduced the concept of energy proportionality and argued that it is a more relevant metric than just energy saving as it takes into account the tradeoff between energy consumption and performance. In this paper, we present a novel approach, called FREP (Fractional Replication for Energy Proportionality), for energy management in large datacenters. FREP includes areplication strategy and basic functions to enable flexible energy management. Specifically, our method provides performance guarantees by adaptively controlling the power states of a group of disks based on observed and predicted workloads. Our experiments, using a set of real and synthetic traces, show that FREP dramatically reduces energy requirements with a minimal response time penalty.

  4. A system for spacecraft attitude control and energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaughnessy, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A conceptual design for a double-gimbal reaction-wheel energy-wheel device which has three-axis attitude control and electrical energy storage capability is given. A mathematical model for the three-axis gyroscope (TAG) was developed, and a system of multiple units is proposed for attitude control and energy storage for a class of spacecraft. Control laws were derived to provide the required attitude-control torques and energy transfer while minimizing functions of TAG gimbal angles, gimbal rates, reaction-wheel speeds, and energy-wheel speed differences. A control law is also presented for a magnetic torquer desaturation system. A computer simulation of a three-TAG system for an orbiting telescope was used to evaluate the concept. The results of the study indicate that all control and power requirements can be satisfied by using the TAG concept.

  5. Energy storage mechanism for hybrid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jun; Chernova, Natasha; Omenya, Fredrick; Rastogi, Alok; Whittingham, Stanley

    Many devices require both high energy and high power density, and lithium ion batteries and super-capacitors cannot separately always meet the requirements. In this work, we study the operating mechanism of a hybrid battery, which combines the best properties of batteries and supercapacitors. We analyze the lithium ion storage mechanism using XRD, Raman, TEM and electrochemical measurements. The model system studied combines a non-intercalating carbon black anode with a LiFePO4 cathode. At 50% state of charge, XRD data for LiFePO4 cathode material shows a mixture of LiFePO4 and FePO4, indicating battery reaction. On the other hand, the activated carbon remains structurally unchanged. We also discuss the impact of a range of activated carbon/ LiFePO4 (AC/LFP) ratios. From cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge results, the system exhibits battery-domain characteristics when the AC/ LFP ratio is below one, but showing more supercapacitor-domain traits when the ratio is higher. Besides, the systems have higher rate capacity at AC/LFP ratio around four as compared to one. This research is supported by NSF under Award Number 1318202.

  6. CALORSTOCK 1994: Thermal energy storage. Better economy, environment, technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangas, M. T.; Lund, P. D.

    This publication is the second volume of the Proceedings of CALORSTOCK'94, the Sixth International Conference on Thermal Energy Storage held in Espoo, Finland on 22-25 Aug. 1994. This volume contains 51 presentations from the following six sessions: Chemical storage; Heat storage and environment; Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage; Water storage pits and tanks; Cooling; and National activities.

  7. High energy storage flywheel test program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodson, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    The RS-31 Flywheel System is an energy storage device which is accelerated by an AVCO LYCOMING T55-L-7C 2930 SHP drive engine to 14,506 RPM. The two contra-rotating double disk rotors of the flywheel module have an inertia of 320,176 sq. in.-lbs storing 30 KW-HRS of energy at design speed. This was a Research Development test activity designed to explore and verify design predictions of system performance.

  8. Nanowire modified carbon fibers for enhanced electrical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuvo, Mohammad Arif Ishtiaque; (Bill) Tseng, Tzu-Liang; Ashiqur Rahaman Khan, Md.; Karim, Hasanul; Morton, Philip; Delfin, Diego; Lin, Yirong

    2013-09-01

    The study of electrochemical super-capacitors has become one of the most attractive topics in both academia and industry as energy storage devices because of their high power density, long life cycles, and high charge/discharge efficiency. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the development of multifunctional structural energy storage devices such as structural super-capacitors for applications in aerospace, automobiles, and portable electronics. These multifunctional structural super-capacitors provide structures combining energy storage and load bearing functionalities, leading to material systems with reduced volume and/or weight. Due to their superior materials properties, carbon fiber composites have been widely used in structural applications for aerospace and automotive industries. Besides, carbon fiber has good electrical conductivity which will provide lower equivalent series resistance; therefore, it can be an excellent candidate for structural energy storage applications. Hence, this paper is focused on performing a pilot study for using nanowire/carbon fiber hybrids as building materials for structural energy storage materials; aiming at enhancing the charge/discharge rate and energy density. This hybrid material combines the high specific surface area of carbon fiber and pseudo-capacitive effect of metal oxide nanowires, which were grown hydrothermally in an aligned fashion on carbon fibers. The aligned nanowire array could provide a higher specific surface area that leads to high electrode-electrolyte contact area thus fast ion diffusion rates. Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Diffraction measurements are used for the initial characterization of this nanowire/carbon fiber hybrid material system. Electrochemical testing is performed using a potentio-galvanostat. The results show that gold sputtered nanowire carbon fiber hybrid provides 65.9% higher energy density than bare carbon fiber cloth as super-capacitor.

  9. Underground Energy Storage Program. 1985 annual summary

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, J.R.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1986-08-01

    Primary activities in seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) involved field testing of high-temperature (> 100/sup 0/C (212/sup 0/F)) aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) at St. Paul, monitoring of the University of Alabama Student Recreation Center in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and limited numerical modeling efforts. The first long-cycle test at the University of Minnesota field test facility was completed. It consisted of approximately 59 days of heated water injection, 64 days of storage, and 58 days of heated water recovery. Chemistry of the recovered water was close to what was expected. Limited experimentation was done to characterize physical and chemical processes at the ATES test facility. A chill ATES monitoring project, initiated at the Student Recreation Center on the University of Alabama campus, continued during the reporting period. Numerical modeling efforts were continued at a minimum level to support field studies. The chill ATES facility at the University of Alabama Student Recreation Center was simulated with the Unconfined Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (UCATES) model to examine the effect of different injection/recovery patterns on the system's thermal performance.

  10. Southern company energy storage study : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Black, Clifton; Jenkins, Kip

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluates the business case for additional bulk electric energy storage in the Southern Company service territory for the year 2020. The model was used to examine how system operations are likely to change as additional storage is added. The storage resources were allowed to provide energy time shift, regulation reserve, and spinning reserve services. Several storage facilities, including pumped hydroelectric systems, flywheels, and bulk-scale batteries, were considered. These scenarios were tested against a range of sensitivities: three different natural gas price assumptions, a 15% decrease in coal-fired generation capacity, and a high renewable penetration (10% of total generation from wind energy). Only in the elevated natural gas price sensitivities did some of the additional bulk-scale storage projects appear justifiable on the basis of projected production cost savings. Enabling existing peak shaving hydroelectric plants to provide regulation and spinning reserve, however, is likely to provide savings that justify the project cost even at anticipated natural gas price levels. Transmission and distribution applications of storage were not examined in this study. Allowing new storage facilities to serve both bulk grid and transmission/distribution-level needs may provide for increased benefit streams, and thus make a stronger business case for additional storage.

  11. Fuel cell energy storage for Space Station enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stedman, J. K.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on fuel cell energy storage for space station enhancement are presented. Topics covered include: power profile; solar dynamic power system; photovoltaic battery; space station energy demands; orbiter fuel cell power plant; space station energy storage; fuel cell system modularity; energy storage system development; and survival power supply.

  12. Flywheel Energy Storage Technology Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, Frederick J.

    2001-01-01

    A flywheel energy storage system was spun to 60,000 rpm while levitated on magnetic bearings. This system is being developed as an energy-efficient replacement for chemical battery systems. Used in groups, the flywheels can have two functions providing attitude control for a spacecraft in orbit as well as providing energy storage. The first application for which the NASA Glenn Research Center is developing the flywheel is the International Space Station, where a two-flywheel system will replace one of the nickel-hydrogen battery strings in the space station's power system. The 60,000-rpm development rotor is about one-eighth the size that will be needed for the space station (0.395 versus 3.07 kWhr).

  13. Cost projections for Redox Energy storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaels, K.; Hall, G.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary design and system cost analysis was performed for the redox energy storage system. A conceptual design and cost estimate was prepared for each of two energy applications: (1) electric utility 100-MWh requirement (10-MW for ten hours) for energy storage for utility load leveling application, and (2) a 500-kWh requirement (10-kW for 50 hours) for use with a variety of residential or commercial applications, including stand alone solar photovoltaic systems. The conceptual designs were based on cell performance levels, system design parameters, and special material costs. These data were combined with estimated thermodynamic and hydraulic analysis to provide preliminary system designs. Results indicate that the redox cell stack to be amenable to mass production techniques with a relatively low material cost.

  14. Magnetic Bearings for Inertial Energy Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    The selection of a noncontacting bearing technique with no wear out phenomena and which is vacuum compatible which is the decisive factor in selecting magnetic bearings for kinetic energy storage was investigated. Unlimited cycle life without degradation is a primary goal. Storage efficiency is a key parameter which is defined as the ratio of the energy remaining to energy stored after a fixed time interval at no load conditions. Magnetic bearings, although noncontacting, are not perfectly frictionless in that magnetic losses due to eddy currents and hysteresis can occur. Practical magnetic bearings, however, deviate from perfect symmetry and have discontinuities and asymmetric flux paths either by design or when controlled in the presence of disturbances, which cause losses. These losses can be kept smaller in the bearings than in a high power motor/generator, however, are a significant factor in selecting the magnetic bearing type.

  15. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems -- Energy Storage (SEGIS-ES).

    SciTech Connect

    Hanley, Charles J.; Ton, Dan T.; Boyes, John D.; Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the concept for augmenting the SEGIS Program (an industry-led effort to greatly enhance the utility of distributed PV systems) with energy storage in residential and small commercial applications (SEGIS-ES). The goal of SEGIS-ES is to develop electrical energy storage components and systems specifically designed and optimized for grid-tied PV applications. This report describes the scope of the proposed SEGIS-ES Program and why it will be necessary to integrate energy storage with PV systems as PV-generated energy becomes more prevalent on the nation's utility grid. It also discusses the applications for which energy storage is most suited and for which it will provide the greatest economic and operational benefits to customers and utilities. Included is a detailed summary of the various storage technologies available, comparisons of their relative costs and development status, and a summary of key R&D needs for PV-storage systems. The report concludes with highlights of areas where further PV-specific R&D is needed and offers recommendations about how to proceed with their development.

  16. A thermal energy storage system for adsorbent low-pressure natural gas storage

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, C.F.; Jasionowski, W.J.; Kountz, K.J.; Tiller, A.J.; Gauthier, S.W.; Takagishi, S.K.

    1992-12-31

    Carbon-based adsorbents were determined to be the best enhanced storage media that would store more natural gas at low pressures than achieved with compression only. Thermal energy storage (TES) was previously demonstrated to be a potentially promising technique to mitigate heat effects associated with low-pressure carbon adsorption systems for natural gas storage. Further investigations were conducted to develop information for the design of an optimized adsorption system that incorporates TES heat management. The selection of appropriate phase-change materials and nucleating agents, encapsulant materials, and corrosion inhibitors for a TES heat management system are discussed and the results of extended thermal cyclic behavior are presented. Engineering analyses and finite element analyses are employed to calculate adsorption rates, heat generation, temperatures, and heat transfer within the adsorbent bed. The size, volume, and arrangement of components for an operational TES system designed to accommodate fast-fill within a defined time limit is presented.

  17. A thermal energy storage system for adsorbent low-pressure natural gas storage

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, C.F.; Jasionowski, W.J.; Kountz, K.J.; Tiller, A.J. ); Gauthier, S.W.; Takagishi, S.K. )

    1992-01-01

    Carbon-based adsorbents were determined to be the best enhanced storage media that would store more natural gas at low pressures than achieved with compression only. Thermal energy storage (TES) was previously demonstrated to be a potentially promising technique to mitigate heat effects associated with low-pressure carbon adsorption systems for natural gas storage. Further investigations were conducted to develop information for the design of an optimized adsorption system that incorporates TES heat management. The selection of appropriate phase-change materials and nucleating agents, encapsulant materials, and corrosion inhibitors for a TES heat management system are discussed and the results of extended thermal cyclic behavior are presented. Engineering analyses and finite element analyses are employed to calculate adsorption rates, heat generation, temperatures, and heat transfer within the adsorbent bed. The size, volume, and arrangement of components for an operational TES system designed to accommodate fast-fill within a defined time limit is presented.

  18. Energy Conversion & Storage Program, 1993 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, E.J.

    1994-06-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in: production of new synthetic fuels; development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; and the study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  19. Energy conversion & storage program. 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, E.J.

    1995-04-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program investigates state-of-the-art electrochemistry, chemistry, and materials science technologies for: (1) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; (2) development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; (3) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; (4) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  20. Solar energy storage researchers information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar energy storage are described. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 2 groups of researchers are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers and Non-DOE-Funded Researchers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  1. Nanostructured graphene nanoplatelets for energy storage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monga, Anchita

    There is an increasing demand for high performance compact batteries for diverse applications ranging from portable electronics to electric automotive vehicles. This need has driven the direction of research towards newer materials, improved synthesis and architectured assembly. This research addresses the gravimetric and volumetric density challenges as well as the cost issues faced by energy storage devices by developing structured graphitic materials, aiming at better electrochemical performance, improved energy density and reduced cost. The few layer graphene nanoplatelets (GnP) used in this study can be produced from natural graphite in thicknesses from 1-10 nm and in widths from 0.3 to 50 microns via an acid intercalation/thermal exfoliation process. The GnP serves as an inexpensive alternative to carbon nanotubes and single graphene sheets. The ability to nanostructure GnP and tailor its inherent properties for lithium storage and electrical conductivity, allows it to be used for customized applications in three different lithium ion battery components viz., active anode material, current collector and conducting additive. Metal nanoparticle doped GnP in which nanosized metal particles are coated onto the GnP basal surface, have been assembled to make a 'pillared' nanostructure in which the particles maintain a fixed distance between adjacent GnPs facilitating improved transport and enhanced lithium storage capacity, especially at faster charge rates. Graphene nanoplatelets synthesized with different sizes of metal nanoparticles effectively create a nano-architectured GnP multilayer assembly with flexible interlayer spacing. The creation of a lithium ion battery anode with controllable GnP interlayer spacing facilitates lithium ion diffusion through the electrode, and this in turn leads to improved transport and enhanced capacity. Graphene nanoplatelets are also intrinsically excellent electrical conductors, which can be assembled into continuous conductive

  2. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) Activities at NREL; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, J.

    2015-04-21

    This presentation provides an overview of hydrogen and energy storage, including hydrogen storage pathways and international power-to-gas activities, and summarizes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's hydrogen energy storage activities and results.

  3. Study of thermal energy storage using fluidized bed heat exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weast, T. E.; Shannon, L. J.; Ananth, K. P.

    1980-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of fluid bed heat exchangers (FBHX) for thermal energy storage (TES) in waste heat recovery applications is assessed by analysis of two selected conceptual systems, the rotary cement kiln and the electric arc furnace. It is shown that the inclusion of TES in the energy recovery system requires that the difference in off-peak and on-peak energy rates be large enough so that the value of the recovered energy exceeds the value of the stored energy by a wide enough margin to offset parasitic power and thermal losses. Escalation of on-peak energy rates due to fuel shortages could make the FBHX/TES applications economically attractive in the future.

  4. Commercialization of aquifer thermal energy storage technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hattrup, M.P.; Weijo, R.O.

    1989-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Storage and Distribution. The purpose of the study was to develop and screen a list of potential entry market applications for aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES). Several initial screening criteria were used to identify promising ATES applications. These include the existence of an energy availability/usage mismatch, the existence of many similar applications or commercial sites, the ability to utilize proven technology, the type of location, market characteristics, the size of and access to capital investment, and the number of decision makers involved. The in-depth analysis identified several additional screening criteria to consider in the selection of an entry market application. This analysis revealed that the best initial applications for ATES are those where reliability is acceptable, and relatively high temperatures are allowable. Although chill storage was the primary focus of this study, applications that are good candidates for heat ATES were also of special interest. 11 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Energy Storage Systems Are Coming: Are You Ready

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, David R.

    2015-12-05

    Energy storage systems (batteries) are not a new concept, but the technology being developed and introduced today with an increasing emphasis on energy storage, is new. The increased focus on energy, environmental and economic issues in the built environment is spurring increased application of renewables as well as reduction in peak energy use - both of which create a need for energy storage. This article provides an overview of current and anticipated energy storage technology, focusing on ensuring the safe application and use of energy storage on both the grid and customer side of the utility meter.

  6. Energy storage improvement through material science approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Brandon Joseph

    A need for improved energy storage is apparent for the improvement of our society. Lithium ion batteries are one of the leading energy storage technologies being researched today. These batteries typically utilize coupled reduction/oxidation reactions with intercalation reactions in crystalline metal oxides with lithium ions as charge carriers to produce efficient and high power energy storage options. The cathode material (positive electrode) has been an emphasis in the recent research as it is currently the weakest link of the battery. Several systems of cathode materials have been studied with different structures and chemical makeup, all having advantages and disadvantages. One focus of the research presented below was creating a low cost and high performance cathode material by creating a composite of the low cost spinel structured LiMn2O4 and the higher capacity layered structure materials. Two compositional diagrams were used to map out the composition space between end members which include two dimensional layer structured LiCoO 2, LiNiO2, LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 and three dimensional spinel structured LiMn2O4. Several compositions in each composition map were electrochemically tested and structurally characterized in an attempt to discover a high performance cathode material with a lower cost precursor. The best performing composition in each system shows the desired mixed phase of the layered and spinel crystal structures, yielding improved performance versus the individual end member components. The surrounding compositions were then tested in order to find the optimum composition and performance. The best performing composition was 0.2LiCoO 2•0.7LiNi0.8Co0.2O2•0.1LiMn 2O4 and yielded a specific capacity of 182mAh/g. Another promising area of chemical energy storage is in the storage of hydrogen gas in chemical hydrides. Hydrogen gas can be used as a fuel in a variety of applications as a viable method for storing and transporting energy. Currently, the

  7. NREL module energy rating methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J.; Kroposki, B.

    1995-11-01

    The goals of this project were to develop a tool for: evaluating one module in different climates; comparing different modules; provide a Q&D method for estimating periodic energy production; provide an achievable module rating; provide an incentive for manufacturers to optimize modules to non-STC conditions; and to have a consensus-based, NREL-sponsored activity. The approach taken was to simulate module energy for five reference days of various weather conditions. A performance model was developed.

  8. Inductive energy storage for MPD thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, L. K.; Jones, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    The high thrust density of the self-field magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster makes it a promising candidate for many advanced space missions. The high power requirements of this thruster lead to its operation in a pulsed mode from an energy storage device. The system characteristics of an inductive energy storage circuit with a solar array power from 25 kwe to 400 kwe are considered, by solving the circuit equations for the inductor charge and discharge phases. Using simple analytic models of the circuit components, the total system efficiency and inductance are determined as functions of the array output power and circuit resistance. The total system efficiency increases with array power and is acceptable only for low values of circuit resistance, indicating that superconducting circuitry may be desirable. The optimum charge-discharge cycle changes fundamentally as the circuit resistance is decreased through a critical value dependent on the thruster operating characteristics.

  9. Solar energy storage using surfactant micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, R. C.; Marwadi, P. R.; Latha, P. K.; Bhise, S. B.

    1982-09-01

    The results of experiments designed to test the soluble reduced form of thionine dye as a suitable solar energy storage agent inside the hydrophobic core of surfactant micelles are discussed. Aqueous solutions of thionine, methylene blue, cetyl pyridinium bromide, sodium lauryl sulphate, iron salts, and iron were employed as samples of anionic, cationic, and nonionic surfactants. The solutions were exposed to light until the dye disappeared, and then added drop-by-drop to surfactant solutions. The resultant solutions were placed in one cell compartment while an aqueous solution with Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) ions were placed in another, with the compartments being furnished with platinum electrodes connected using a saturated KCl-agar bridge. Data was gathered on the short circuit current, maximum power, and internal resistance encountered. Results indicate that dye-surfactant systems are viable candidates for solar energy storage for later conversion to electrical power.

  10. High temperature superconducting magnetic energy storage for future NASA missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faymon, Karl A.; Rudnick, Stanley J.

    1988-01-01

    Several NASA sponsored studies based on 'conventional' liquid helium temperature level superconductivity technology have concluded that superconducting magnetic energy storage has considerable potential for space applications. The advent of high temperature superconductivity (HTSC) may provide additional benefits over conventional superconductivity technology, making magnetic energy storage even more attractive. The proposed NASA space station is a possible candidate for the application of HTSC energy storage. Alternative energy storage technologies for this and other low Earth orbit missions are compared.

  11. Reluctance apparatus for flywheel energy storage

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R.

    2000-01-01

    A motor generator for providing high efficiency, controlled voltage output or storage of energy in a flywheel system. A motor generator includes a stator of a soft ferromagnetic material, a motor coil and a generator coil, and a rotor has at least one embedded soft ferromagnetic piece. Control of voltage output is achieved by use of multiple stator pieces and multiple rotors with controllable gaps between the stator pieces and the soft ferromagnetic piece.

  12. Superflywheel energy storage system. [for windpowered machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabenhorst, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    A windpowered system using the superflywheel configuration for energy storage is considered. Basic elements of superflywheels are thin rods assembled in pregrooved hub lamina so that they fan out in radial orientation. Adjacent layers of hub lamina are assembled 90 degree in rotation to each other so as to form a circular brush configuration. Thus stress concentrations and rod failure are minimized and realistic failure containment for a high performance flywheel is obtained.

  13. Energy Storage. Teachers Guide. Science Activities in Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Mary Lynn, Ed.

    Included in this science activities energy package for students in grades 4-10 are 12 activities related to energy storage. Each activity is outlined on the front and back of a single sheet and is introduced by a key question. Most of the activities can be completed in the classroom with materials readily available in any community. Among the…

  14. Thermal energy storage for cooling of commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H. ); Mertol, A. )

    1988-07-01

    The storage of coolness'' has been in use in limited applications for more than a half century. Recently, because of high electricity costs during utilities' peak power periods, thermal storage for cooling has become a prime target for load management strategies. Systems with cool storage shift all or part of the electricity requirement from peak to off-peak hours to take advantage of reduced demand charges and/or off-peak rates. Thermal storage technology applies equally to industrial, commercial, and residential sectors. In the industrial sector, because of the lack of economic incentives and the custom design required for each application, the penetration of this technology has been limited to a few industries. The penetration rate in the residential sector has been also very limited due to the absence of economic incentives, sizing problems, and the lack of compact packaged systems. To date, the most promising applications of these systems, therefore, appear to be for commercial cooling. In this report, the current and potential use of thermal energy storage systems for cooling commercial buildings is investigated. In addition, a general overview of the technology is presented and the applicability and cost-effectiveness of this technology for developed and developing countries are discussed. 28 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Merits of flywheels for spacecraft energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.

    1984-01-01

    Flywheel energy storage systems which have a very good potential for use in spacecraft are discussed. This system can be superior to alkaline secondary batteries and regenerable fuel cells in most of the areas that are important in spacecraft applications. Of special importance, relative to batteries, are lighter weight, longer cycle and operating life, and high efficiency which minimizes solar array size and the amount of orbital makeup fuel required. Flywheel systems have a long shelf life, give a precise state of charge indication, have modest thermal control needs, are capable of multiple discharges per orbit, have simple ground handling needs, and have characteristics which would be useful for military applications. The major disadvantages of flywheel energy storage systems are that: power is not available during the launch phase without special provisions; and in flight failure of units may force shutdown of good counter rotating units, amplifying the effects of failure and limiting power distribution system options; no inherent emergency power capability unless specifically designed for, and a high level of complexity compared with batteries. The potential advantages of the flywheel energy storage system far outweigh the disadvantages.

  16. Research for superconducting energy storage patterns and its practical countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, D. H.; Cui, D. J.; Li, B.; Teng, Y.; Zheng, G. L.; Wang, X. Q.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we attempt to introduce briefly the significance, the present status, as well as the working principle of the primary patterns of the superconducting energy storage system, first of all. According to the defect on the lower energy storage density of existed superconducting energy storage device, we proposed some new ideas and strategies about how to improve the energy storage density, in which, a brand-new but a tentative proposal regarding the concept of energy compression was emphasized. This investigation has a certain reference value towards the practical application of the superconducting energy storage.

  17. Magnesium-Antimony Liquid Metal Battery for Stationary Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bradwell, DJ; Kim, H; Sirk, AHC; Sadoway, DR

    2012-02-01

    Batteries are an attractive option for grid: scale energy storage applications because of their small footprint and flexible siting. A high-temperature (700 degrees C) magnesium antimony (MgllSb) liquid metal battery comprising a negative electrode of Mg, a molten salt electrolyte (MgCL2-KCl-NaCl), and a positive electrode of Sb is proposed and characterized. Because of the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases, they stratify by density into three distinct layers. Cells were cycled at rates ranging from 50 to 200 mA/cm(2) and demonstrated up to 69% DC-DC energy efficiency. The self-segregating nature of the battery components and the use Of low-cost materials results in a promising technology for stationary energy storage applications.

  18. Redox flow cell energy storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    NASA-Redox systems are electrochemical storage devices that use two fully soluble Redox couples, anode and cathode fluids, as active electrode materials separated by a highly selective ion exchange membrane. The reactants are contained in large storage tanks and pumped through a stack of Redox flow cells where the electrochemical reactions (reduction and oxidation) take place at porous carbon felt electrodes. A string or stack of these power producing cells is connected in series in a bipolar manner. Redox energy storage systems promise to be inexpensive and possess many features that provide for flexible design, long life, high reliability and minimal operation and maintenance costs. These features include independent sizing of power and storage capacity requirements and inclusion within the cell stack of a cell that monitors the state of charge of the system as a whole, and a rebalance cell which permits continuous correction to be made for minor side reactions that would tend to result in the anode fluid and cathode fluids becoming electrochemically out of balance. These system features are described and discussed.

  19. Energy storage for wind-generator application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russel, F. M.

    1982-09-01

    A low-cost method was developed for storing energy and stiffening power supplied by wind generators. It involved inflatable, fabric-reinforced elastic liners buried underground and containing a fluid, probably water, at an intermediate pressure. The ground would be subject to elastic deformation and the method could be applicable to unstable ground such as deep sand, heterogeneous sedimentary or other unconsolidated deposits in remote locations or hostile environments. While the density of energy storage was considered low, compared with pumped-hydro systems, the technology could be attractive for developing countries.

  20. Thermal energy storage composition comprising peat moss

    SciTech Connect

    Rueffel, P.G.

    1980-11-04

    Peat moss is used in a thermal energy storage composition to provide a network in which to trap an incongruently melting salt hydrate capable of storing thermal energy as latent heat of phase change. The peat moss network is effective in preventing the segregation of a dehydrated form of the salt between heating and cooling cycles. In a preferred embodiment that salt hydrate is the decahydrate of sodium sulphate. A nucleating agent such as sodium tetraborate decahydrate is included to prevent supercooling in the composition, and promote crystallization of the decahydrate of sodium sulphate.

  1. Low temperature latent heat thermal energy storage - Heat storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abhat, A.

    1983-01-01

    Heat-of-fusion storage materials for low temperature latent heat storage in the temperature range 0-120 C are reviewed. Organic and inorganic heat storage materials classified as paraffins, fatty acids, inorganic salt hydrates and eutectic compounds are considered. The melting and freezing behavior of the various substances is investigated using the techniques of Thermal Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The importance of thermal cycling tests for establishing the long-term stability of the storage materials is discussed. Finally, some data pertaining to the corrosion compatibility of heat-of-fusion substances with conventional materials of construction is presented.

  2. Advanced Thermal Energy Storage: Novel Tuning of Critical Fluctuations for Advanced Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: NAVITASMAX is developing a novel thermal energy storage solution. This innovative technology is based on simple and complex supercritical fluids— substances where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist, and tuning the properties of these fluid systems to increase their ability to store more heat. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in NAVITASMAX’s system during the day and released at night—when the sun is not shining—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in NAVITASMAX’s system at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours.

  3. Regenerative braking through elastomeric energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppie, L. O.

    The project goals are to improve the energy density and fatigue life of the elastomeric units through elastomer formulations and fabrication technique research, and to verify that a compact method of attachment is feasible in full-size units. Samples of a new compound have shown an improvement of 100% in energy density as compared with the previous compound. The energy density, hysteresis loss, and fatigue life of fullsize units fabricated with this compound will be measured during the project. Molding techniques commonly used within the rubber industry give rise to surface flaws on the finished energy storage units, and these surface flaws have been indentified as sources of subsequent fatigue failure. A molding technique aimed at minimizing surface flaws will be investigated during this project. Small-scale energy storage units were used to carry out a comparison of compact attachment concepts. One concept has been selected and will be incorporated into full-size units for test and evaluation during this project.

  4. Energy Storage and Distributed Energy Generation Project, Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwank, Johannes; Mader, Jerry; Chen, Xiaoyin; Mi, Chris; Linic, Suljo; Sastry, Ann Marie; Stefanopoulou, Anna; Thompson, Levi; Varde, Keshav

    2008-03-31

    This report serves as a Final Report under the “Energy Storage and Distribution Energy Generation Project” carried out by the Transportation Energy Center (TEC) at the University of Michigan (UM). An interdisciplinary research team has been working on fundamental and applied research on: -distributed power generation and microgrids, -power electronics, and -advanced energy storage. The long-term objective of the project was to provide a framework for identifying fundamental research solutions to technology challenges of transmission and distribution, with special emphasis on distributed power generation, energy storage, control methodologies, and power electronics for microgrids, and to develop enabling technologies for novel energy storage and harvesting concepts that can be simulated, tested, and scaled up to provide relief for both underserved and overstressed portions of the Nation’s grid. TEC’s research is closely associated with Sections 5.0 and 6.0 of the DOE "Five-year Program Plan for FY2008 to FY2012 for Electric Transmission and Distribution Programs, August 2006.”

  5. Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stys, Z. S.

    1983-09-01

    The design features and performance capabilities of Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants for transferring off-peak utility electricity to on-peak hours are described. The plant operations involve compressing ambient air with an axial flow compressor and depositing it in an underground reservoir at 70 bar pressure. Released during a peaking cycle, the pressure is reduced to 43 bar, the air is heated to 550 C, passed through an expander after a turbine, and passed through a low pressure combustion chamber to be heated to 850 C. A West German plant built in 1978 to supply over 300 MW continuous power for up to two hours is detailed, noting its availability factor of nearly 98 percent and power delivery cost of $230/kW installed. A plant being constructed in Illinois will use limestone caverns as the air storage tank.

  6. Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannberg, L. D.

    1985-06-01

    DOE has funded investigation of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) since 1975. The scope of the ATES investigation has encompassed numerical modeling, field testing, economic analyses, and evaluation of institutional issues. ATES has received the bulk of the attention because of its widespread potential in the US. US efforts are now concentrated on a high temperature (up to 150C) ATES field test on the St. Paul campus of the University of Minnesota. Four short-term test cycles and the first of two long-term test cycles have been completed at this site. Utilization of chill ATES to meet summer air conditioning demands has been monitored at two operating sites in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. The systems utilize a cooling tower to directly chill groundwater pumped from a water table aquifer for storage in the same aquifer. The first of the two systems has exhibited relatively poor performance. More comprehensive monitoring has recently been undertaken at another site.

  7. Inter-seasonal variability in baseflow recession rates: The role of aquifer antecedent storage in central California watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bart, Ryan; Hope, Allen

    2014-11-01

    Baseflow recession rates vary inter-seasonally in many watersheds. This variability is generally associated with changes in evapotranspiration; however, an additional and less studied control over inter-seasonal baseflow recession rates is the effect of aquifer antecedent storage. Understanding the role of aquifer antecedent storage on baseflow recession rates is crucial for Mediterranean-climate regions, where seasonal asynchronicity of precipitation and energy levels produces large inter-seasonal differences in aquifer storage. The primary objective of this study was to elucidate the relation between aquifer antecedent storage and baseflow recession rates in four central California watersheds using antecedent streamflow as a surrogate for watershed storage. In addition, a parsimonious storage-discharge model consisting of two nonlinear stores in parallel was developed as a heuristic tool for interpreting the empirical results and providing insight into how inter-seasonal changes in aquifer antecedent storage may affect baseflow recession rates. Antecedent streamflow cumulated from the beginning of the wateryear was found to be the strongest predictor of baseflow recession rates, indicating that inter-seasonal differences in aquifer storage are a key control on baseflow recession rates in California watersheds. Baseflow recession rates and antecedent streamflow exhibited a negative power-law relation, with baseflow recession rates decreasing by up to two orders of magnitude as antecedent streamflow levels increased. Inference based on the storage-discharge model indicated that the dominant source of recession flow shifted from small, rapid response aquifers at the beginning of the wet season to large, seasonal aquifers as the wet season progressed. Aquifer antecedent storage in California watersheds should be accounted for along with evapotranspiration when characterizing baseflow recession rates.

  8. Energy storage systems program report for FY1996

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.C.

    1997-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective energy storage systems as a resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage systems for stationary applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1996.

  9. NV energy electricity storage valuation : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-01

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benefit the operations of NV Energy, and assesses whether those benefits are likely to justify the cost of the storage system. To determine the impact of grid-level storage, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (%22BA%22) as projected for 2020 was created. Storage was found to add value primarily through the provision of regulating reserve. Certain storage resources were found likely to be cost-effective even without considering their capacity value, as long as their effectiveness in providing regulating reserve was taken into account. Giving fast resources credit for their ability to provide regulating reserve is reasonable, given the adoption of FERC Order 755 (%22Pay-for-performance%22). Using a traditional five-minute test to determine how much a resource can contribute to regulating reserve does not adequately value fast-ramping resources, as the regulating reserve these resources can provide is constrained by their installed capacity. While an approximation was made to consider the additional value provided by a fast-ramping resource, a more precise valuation requires an alternate regulating reserve methodology. Developing and modeling a new regulating reserve methodology for NV Energy was beyond the scope of this study, as was assessing the incremental value of distributed storage.

  10. Energy storage benefits and market analysis handbook : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, James M.; Corey, Garth P.; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr.

    2004-12-01

    This Guide describes a high level, technology-neutral framework for assessing potential benefits from and economic market potential for energy storage used for electric utility-related applications. In the United States use of electricity storage to support and optimize transmission and distribution (T&D) services has been limited due to high storage system cost and by limited experience with storage system design and operation. Recent improvement of energy storage and power electronics technologies, coupled with changes in the electricity marketplace, indicate an era of expanding opportunity for electricity storage as a cost-effective electric resource. Some recent developments (in no particular order) that drive the opportunity include: (1) states adoption of the renewables portfolio standard (RPS), which may increased use of renewable generation with intermittent output, (2) financial risk leading to limited investment in new transmission capacity, coupled with increasing congestion on some transmission lines, (3) regional peaking generation capacity constraints, and (4) increasing emphasis on locational marginal pricing (LMP).

  11. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-11-30

    Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is a hybrid energy storage and generation concept that has many potential benefits especially in a location with increasing percentages of intermittent wind energy generation. The objectives of the NYSEG Seneca CAES Project included: for Phase 1, development of a Front End Engineering Design for a 130MW to 210 MW utility-owned facility including capital costs; project financials based on the engineering design and forecasts of energy market revenues; design of the salt cavern to be used for air storage; draft environmental permit filings; and draft NYISO interconnection filing; for Phase 2, objectives included plant construction with a target in-service date of mid-2016; and for Phase 3, objectives included commercial demonstration, testing, and two-years of performance reporting. This Final Report is presented now at the end of Phase 1 because NYSEG has concluded that the economics of the project are not favorable for development in the current economic environment in New York State. The proposed site is located in NYSEG’s service territory in the Town of Reading, New York, at the southern end of Seneca Lake, in New York State’s Finger Lakes region. The landowner of the proposed site is Inergy, a company that owns the salt solution mining facility at this property. Inergy would have developed a new air storage cavern facility to be designed for NYSEG specifically for the Seneca CAES project. A large volume, natural gas storage facility owned and operated by Inergy is also located near this site and would have provided a source of high pressure pipeline quality natural gas for use in the CAES plant. The site has an electrical take-away capability of 210 MW via two NYSEG 115 kV circuits located approximately one half mile from the plant site. Cooling tower make-up water would have been supplied from Seneca Lake. NYSEG’s engineering consultant WorleyParsons Group thoroughly evaluated three CAES designs and concluded that any

  12. Energy conversion & storage program. 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, E.J.

    1996-06-01

    The 1995 annual report discusses laboratory activities in the Energy Conversion and Storage (EC&S) Program. The report is divided into three categories: electrochemistry, chemical applications, and material applications. Research performed in each category during 1995 is described. Specific research topics relate to the development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, the development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion, the characterization of new chemical processes and complex chemical species, and the study and application of novel materials related to energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials and deposition technologies, and advanced methods of analysis.

  13. Steady State Microbunching for High Brilliance and High Repetition Rate Storage Ring-Based Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Alex; Ratner, Daniel; Jiao, Yi; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.

    2012-09-06

    Electron-based light sources have proven to be effective sources of high brilliance, high frequency radiation. Such sources are typically either linac-Free Electron Laser (FEL) or storage ring types. The linac-FEL type has high brilliance (because the beam is microbunched) but low repetition rate. The storage ring type has high repetition rate (rapid beam circulation) but comparatively low brilliance or coherence. We propose to explore the feasibility of a microbunched beam in a storage ring that promises high repetition rate and high brilliance. The steady-state-micro-bunch (SSMB) beam in storage ring could provide CW sources for THz, EUV, or soft X-rays. Several SSMB mechanisms have been suggested recently, and in this report, we review a number of these SSMB concepts as promising directions for high brilliance, high repetition rate light sources of the future. The trick of SSMB lies in the RF system, together with the associated synchrotron beam dynamics, of the storage ring. Considering various different RF arrangements, there could be considered a number of scenarios of the SSMB. In this report, we arrange these scenarios more or less in order of the envisioned degree of technical challenge to the RF system, and not in the chronological order of their original references. Once the stored beam is steady-state microbunched in a storage ring, it passes through a radiator repeatedly every turn (or few turns). The radiator extracts a small fraction of the beam energy as coherent radiation with a wavelength corresponding to the microbunched period of the beam. In contrast to an FEL, this radiator is not needed to generate the microbunching (as required e.g. by SASE FELs or seeded FELs), so the radiator can be comparatively simple and short.

  14. Gain and energy storage in holmium YLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storm, Mark E.; Deyst, John P.

    1991-01-01

    It is demonstrated that Q-switched holmium lasers are capable of high-gain and high-energy operation at 300 K. Small-signal gain coefficients of 0.50 and 0.12/cm have been measured in YLF and YAG, respectively. Small-signal gains of 0.50/cm are comparable to those achievable in Nd:YAG and are not typical of low-gain materials. This large gain in the Ho:YLF material is made possible by operating the amplifier in the ground state depletion mode. The amplifier performance data and associated analysis presented demonstrate that efficient energy storage is possible with very high excited state ion densities of the Ho 5I7 upper laser level. This is an important result since upconversion can limit the 5I7 population. Although upconversion was still present in this experiment, it was possible to achieve efficient energy storage, demonstrating that the problem is manageable even at high excitation densities in YLF.

  15. Electrochemical energy storage subsystems study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, F. Q.; Richardson, P. W.; Graff, C. L.; Jordan, M. V.; Patterson, V. L.

    1981-01-01

    The effects on life cycle costs (LCC) of major design and performance technology parameters for multi kW LEO and GEO energy storage subsystems using NiCd and NiH2 batteries and fuel cell/electrolysis cell devices were examined. Design, performance and LCC dynamic models are developed based on mission and system/subsystem requirements and existing or derived physical and cost data relationships. The models define baseline designs and costs. The major design and performance parameters are each varied to determine their influence on LCC around the baseline values.

  16. Thermochemical energy storage for a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Mckissock, Barbara I.; Difilippo, Frank

    1992-01-01

    A thermochemical solar energy storage concept involving the reversible reaction CaO + H2O yields Ca(OH)2 is proposed as a power system element for a lunar base. The operation and components of such a system are described. The CaO/H2O system is capable of generating electric power during both the day and night. Mass of the required amount of CaO is neglected since it is obtained from lunar soil. Potential technical problems, such as reactor design and lunar soil processing, are reviewed.

  17. Electrochemical Energy Storage Subsystems Study, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, F. Q.; Richardson, P. W.; Graff, C. L.; Jordan, M. V.; Patterson, V. L.

    1981-01-01

    The effects on life cycle costs (LCC) of major design and performance technology parameters for multi kW LEO and GEO energy storage subsystems using NiCd and NiH2 batteries and fuel cell/electrolysis cell devices were examined. Design, performance and LCC dynamic models are developed based on mission and system/subsystem requirements and existing or derived physical and cost data relationships. The models are exercised to define baseline designs and costs. Then the major design and performance parameters are each varied to determine their influence on LCC around the baseline values.

  18. Development of Molecular Electrocatalysts for Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    DuBois, Daniel L.

    2014-02-20

    Molecular electrocatalysts can play an important role in energy storage and utilization reactions needed for intermittent renewable energy sources. This manuscript describes three general themes that our laboratories have found useful in the development of molecular electrocatalysts for reduction of CO2 to CO and for H2 oxidation and production. The first theme involves a conceptual partitioning of catalysts into first, second, and outer coordination spheres. This is illustrated with the design of electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction to CO using first and second coordination spheres and for H2 production catalysts using all three coordination spheres. The second theme focuses on the development of thermodynamic models that can be used to design catalysts to avoid high energy and low energy intermediates. In this research, new approaches to the measurement of thermodynamic hydride donor and acceptor abilities of transition metal complexes were developed. Combining this information with other thermodynamic information such as pKa values and redox potentials led to more complete thermodynamic descriptions of transition metal hydride, dihydride, and related species. Relationships extracted from this information were then used to develop models that are powerful tools for predicting and understanding the relative free energies of intermediates in catalytic reactions. The third theme is the control of proton movement during electrochemical fuel generation and utilization reactions. This research involves the incorporation of pendant amines in the second coordination sphere that can facilitate H-H bond heterolysis and heteroformation, intramolecular and intermolecular proton transfer steps, and the coupling of proton and electron transfer steps. Studies also indicate an important role for outer coordination sphere in the delivery of protons to the second coordination sphere. Understanding these proton transfer reactions and their

  19. Hybrid nano-structure for enhanced energy storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuvo, Mohammad Arif Ishtiaque

    The goal of this research is to develop electrode materials using various nano-structure hybrids for improved energy storage devices. Enhancing the performance of energy storage device has been gaining tremendous attention since it holds the key solution to advance renewable energy usage thus reduce the consumption of fossil fuels. The application of energy storage devices such as super-capacitor and Li-ion-battery has seen significant growth; however, it is still limited mainly by charge/discharge rate and energy density. One of the solutions is to use nano-structure materials, which offer higher power at high energy density and improved stability during the charge discharge cycling of ions in and out of the storage electrode material. In this research, carbon-based materials (e.g. porous carbon, graphene) in conjunction with metal oxides such as CeO2 nanoparticles/TiO2 nanowires are synthesized utilizing low temperature hydrothermal method for the fabrication of advanced electrode materials. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used for materials characterization. Poentio-galvanostat, battery analyzer, and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) were used for evaluating the electrochemical performance. The testing results have shown that a maximum 500% higher specific capacitance could be obtained using porous carbon/CeO2 instead of porous carbon for super-capacitor application and microwave exfoliated graphene oxide/TiO2 nanowire hybrid provides up to 80% increment of specific capacity compared to porous carbon anode for Li-ion-battery application.

  20. Economic Analysis Case Studies of Battery Energy Storage with SAM

    SciTech Connect

    DiOrio, Nicholas; Dobos, Aron; Janzou, Steven

    2015-11-01

    Interest in energy storage has continued to increase as states like California have introduced mandates and subsidies to spur adoption. This energy storage includes customer sited behind-the-meter storage coupled with photovoltaics (PV). This paper presents case study results from California and Tennessee, which were performed to assess the economic benefit of customer-installed systems. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued.

  1. Emerging electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badwal, Sukhvinder; Giddey, Sarbjit; Munnings, Christopher; Bhatt, Anand; Hollenkamp, Tony

    2014-09-01

    Electrochemical cells and systems play a key role in a wide range of industry sectors. These devices are critical enabling technologies for renewable energy; energy management, conservation and storage; pollution control / monitoring; and greenhouse gas reduction. A large number of electrochemical energy technologies have been developed in the past. These systems continue to be optimized in terms of cost, life time and performance, leading to their continued expansion into existing and emerging market sectors. The more established technologies such as deep-cycle batteries and sensors are being joined by emerging technologies such as fuel cells, large format lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical reactors; ion transport membranes and supercapacitors. This growing demand (multi billion dollars) for electrochemical energy systems along with the increasing maturity of a number of technologies is having a significant effect on the global research and development effort which is increasing in both in size and depth. A number of new technologies, which will have substantial impact on the environment and the way we produce and utilize energy, are under development. This paper presents an overview of several emerging electrochemical energy technologies along with a discussion some of the key technical challenges.

  2. Emerging electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies

    PubMed Central

    Badwal, Sukhvinder P. S.; Giddey, Sarbjit S.; Munnings, Christopher; Bhatt, Anand I.; Hollenkamp, Anthony F.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical cells and systems play a key role in a wide range of industry sectors. These devices are critical enabling technologies for renewable energy; energy management, conservation, and storage; pollution control/monitoring; and greenhouse gas reduction. A large number of electrochemical energy technologies have been developed in the past. These systems continue to be optimized in terms of cost, life time, and performance, leading to their continued expansion into existing and emerging market sectors. The more established technologies such as deep-cycle batteries and sensors are being joined by emerging technologies such as fuel cells, large format lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical reactors; ion transport membranes and supercapacitors. This growing demand (multi billion dollars) for electrochemical energy systems along with the increasing maturity of a number of technologies is having a significant effect on the global research and development effort which is increasing in both in size and depth. A number of new technologies, which will have substantial impact on the environment and the way we produce and utilize energy, are under development. This paper presents an overview of several emerging electrochemical energy technologies along with a discussion some of the key technical challenges. PMID:25309898

  3. Emerging electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies.

    PubMed

    Badwal, Sukhvinder P S; Giddey, Sarbjit S; Munnings, Christopher; Bhatt, Anand I; Hollenkamp, Anthony F

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical cells and systems play a key role in a wide range of industry sectors. These devices are critical enabling technologies for renewable energy; energy management, conservation, and storage; pollution control/monitoring; and greenhouse gas reduction. A large number of electrochemical energy technologies have been developed in the past. These systems continue to be optimized in terms of cost, life time, and performance, leading to their continued expansion into existing and emerging market sectors. The more established technologies such as deep-cycle batteries and sensors are being joined by emerging technologies such as fuel cells, large format lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical reactors; ion transport membranes and supercapacitors. This growing demand (multi billion dollars) for electrochemical energy systems along with the increasing maturity of a number of technologies is having a significant effect on the global research and development effort which is increasing in both in size and depth. A number of new technologies, which will have substantial impact on the environment and the way we produce and utilize energy, are under development. This paper presents an overview of several emerging electrochemical energy technologies along with a discussion some of the key technical challenges. PMID:25309898

  4. Energy Storage Systems Program Report for FY98

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.C.

    1999-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Power Technologies. The goal of this program is to collaborate with industry in developing cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1998.

  5. Energy Storage Systems Program Report for FY99

    SciTech Connect

    BOYES,JOHN D.

    2000-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Power Technologies. The goal of this program is to develop cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications in collaboration with academia and industry. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1999.

  6. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, A.; Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  7. Study of flywheel energy storage for space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of flywheel systems for space stations using the Space Operations Center (SOC) as a point of reference is discussed. Comparisons with batteries and regenerative fuel cells are made. In the flywheel energy storage concept, energy is stored in the form of rotational kinetic energy using a spinning wheel. Energy is extracted from the flywheel using an attached electrical generator; energy is provided to spin the flywheel by a motor, which operates during sunlight using solar array power. The motor and the generator may or may not be the same device. Flywheel energy storage systems have a very good potential for use in space stations. This system can be superior to alkaline secondary batteries and regenerable fuel cells in most of the areas that are important in spacecraft applications. Of special impotance relative to batteries, are high energy density (lighter weight), longer cycle and operating life, and high efficiency which minimizes the amount of orbital makeup fuel required. In addition, flywheel systems have a long shelf life, give a precise state of charge indication, have modest thermal control needs, are capable of multiple discharges per orbit, have simple ground handling needs, and have the potential for very high discharge rate. Major disadvantages are noted.

  8. Elastomeric member for energy storage device

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O.; Chute, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An energy storage device (10) is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member (16), disposed within a tubular housing (14), which elastomeric member (16) is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member (16) is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section, transition end sections, and is attached to rigid end piece assemblies (22, 24) of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections (76, 78) are such that upon stretching of the member, a substantially uniform diameter assembly results to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing (14). During manufacture, woven wire mesh sleeves (26, 28) are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section (76, 78) to provide the correct profile and helix angle. Each sleeve (26, 28) contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond therebetween.

  9. Test report : Raytheon / KTech RK30 energy storage system.

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. Raytheon/KTech has developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the Raytheon/KTech Zinc-Bromide Energy Storage System.

  10. Test report : Princeton power systems prototype energy storage system.

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-08-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprised of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. Princeton Power Systems has developed an energy storage system that utilizes lithium ion phosphate batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the Princeton Power Systems Prototype Energy Storage System.

  11. Solar energy collector/storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Bettis, J.R.; Clearman, F.R.

    1983-05-24

    A solar energy collector/storage system which includes an insulated container having working fluid inlets and outlets and an opening, a light-transmitting member positioned over the opening, and a heat-absorbing member which is centrally situated, is supported in the container, and is made of a mixture of gypsum , lampblack, and water. A light-reflecting liner made of corrugated metal foil preferably is attached to the internal surface of the container. The opening of the container is positioned in optical alignment with a source of solar energy. A light-reflecting cover optionally can be hingedly attached to the container, and can be positioned such as to reflect solar energy rays into the container. The system is adaptable for use with a working gas (e.g., air) and/or a working liquid (e.g., water) in separated flows which absorb heat from the heat-absorbing member, and which are useable per se or in an associated storage and/or circulatory system that is not part of this invention. The heatabsorbing mixture can also contain glass fibers. The heatabsorbing member is of such great load-bearing strength that it can also be used simultaneously as a structural member, e.g., a wall or ceiling of a room; and, thereby, the system can be used to heat a room, if a window of the room is the light-transmitting member and is facing the sun, and if the heat-absorbing member is a wall and/or the ceiling of the room and receives solar energy through the window.

  12. Oriented Nanostructures for Energy Conversion and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jun; Cao, Guozhong H.; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; DuBois, Daniel L.; Zhou, Xiao Dong; Graff, Gordon L.; Pederson, Larry R.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2008-08-28

    Recently the role of nanostructured materials in addressing the challenges in energy and natural resources has attracted wide attention. In particular, oriented nanostructures have demonstrated promising properties for energy harvesting, conversion and storage. The purpose of the paper is to review the synthesis and application of oriented nanostructures in a few key areas of energy technologies, namely photovoltaics, batteries, supercapacitors and thermoelectrics. Although the applications differ from field to field, one of the fundamental challenges is to improve the generation and transport of electrons and ions. We will first briefly review the several major approaches to attain oriented nanostructured films that are applicable for energy applications. We will then discuss how such controlled nanostructures can be used in photovoltaics, batteries, capacitors, thermoelectrics, and other unconventional ways of energy conversion. We will highlight the role of high surface area to maximize the surface activity, and the importance of optimum dimension and architecture, controlled pore channels and alignment of the nanocrystalline phase to optimize the electrons and ion transport. Finally, the paper will discuss the challenges in attaining integrated architectures to achieve the desired performance. Brief background information will be provided for the relevant technologies, but the emphasis is focused mainly on the nanoeffects of mostly inorganic based materials and devices.

  13. Electric utility applications of hydrogen energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-10-15

    This report examines the capital cost associated with various energy storage systems that have been installed for electric utility application. The storage systems considered in this study are Battery Energy Storage (BES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Flywheel Energy Storage (FES). The report also projects the cost reductions that may be anticipated as these technologies come down the learning curve. This data will serve as a base-line for comparing the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen energy storage (HES) systems in the electric utility sector. Since pumped hydro or compressed air energy storage (CAES) is not particularly suitable for distributed storage, they are not considered in this report. There are no comparable HES systems in existence in the electric utility sector. However, there are numerous studies that have assessed the current and projected cost of hydrogen energy storage system. This report uses such data to compare the cost of HES systems with that of other storage systems in order to draw some conclusions as to the applications and the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen as a electricity storage alternative.

  14. Market and policy barriers to energy storage deployment : a study for the energy storage systems program.

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen B.; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie; Kirby, Brendan

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, crosscutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

  15. 76 FR 39869 - Lee 8 Storage Partnership; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lee 8 Storage Partnership; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case...,150 (May 20, 2010). Any person desiring to participate in this rate proceeding must file a motion to... the proceeding. Any person wishing to become a party must file a notice of intervention or motion...

  16. Modular Energy Storage System for Alternative Energy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Janice; Ervin, Frank

    2012-05-15

    An electrical vehicle environment was established to promote research and technology development in the area of high power energy management. The project incorporates a topology that permits parallel development of an alternative energy delivery system and an energy storage system. The objective of the project is to develop technologies, specifically power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls that provide efficient and effective energy management between electrically powered devices in alternative energy vehicles plugin electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, range extended vehicles, and hydrogen-based fuel cell vehicles. In order to meet the project objectives, the Vehicle Energy Management System (VEMS) was defined and subsystem requirements were obtained. Afterwards, power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls were designed. Finally, these subsystems were built, tested individually, and integrated into an electric vehicle system to evaluate and optimize the subsystems performance. Phase 1 of the program established the fundamental test bed to support development of an electrical environment ideal for fuel cell application and the mitigation of many shortcomings of current fuel cell technology. Phase 2, continued development from Phase 1, focusing on implementing subsystem requirements, design and construction of the energy management subsystem, and the integration of this subsystem into the surrogate electric vehicle. Phase 2 also required the development of an Alternative Energy System (AES) capable of emulating electrical characteristics of fuel cells, battery, gen set, etc. Under the scope of the project, a boost converter that couples the alternate energy delivery system to the energy storage system was developed, constructed and tested. Modeling tools were utilized during the design process to optimize both component and system design. This model driven design process enabled an iterative process to track and evaluate the impact

  17. Experimental investigation of a packed bed thermal energy storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cascetta, Mario; Cau, Giorgio; Puddu, Pierpaolo; Serra, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    In this work experimental investigations on a thermal energy storage system with a solid material as storage media and air as heat transfer fluid will be presented. The experimental test rig, installed at the DIMCM of the University of Cagliari, consists of a carbon steel tank filled with freely poured alumina beads that allows investigations of heat transfer phenomena in packed beds. The aim of this work is to show the influence of the operating conditions and physical parameters on thermocline formation and, in particular, the thermal behaviour of the thermal energy storage for repeated charging and discharging cycles. Better charging efficiency is obtained for lower values of mass flow rate and maximum air temperature and for increasing aspect ratio. A decreasing influence of the metal wall with continuous operation is also highlighted. In conclusion, the analysis focuses on the thermal hysteresis phenomenon, which causes degradation of the thermocline and the reduction of the energy that can be stored by the accumulator as the repeated number of cycles increases.

  18. A new energy saving storage system: SERAID for disk array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fei; Hu, Huaixiang; Liu, Ke

    2008-12-01

    Recently, high-energy consumption has become a serious concern for both storage servers and data centers. Recent research studies have utilized the short response times of multiple speed disks to decrease energy consumption. However, very few manufactures can produce the multiple speeds hard disk because of its complexity. The main limitation to MAID system is that we must assume the frequently accessed data is less than 5%, in fact, in most strong coupling system, the data can't be cached due to the access pattern and moreover the first accessed data which are usually frequently accessed are not cached, as a result, system performance is heavily degraded. In this paper, we propose the new storage system called saving energy RAID (SERAID), in which we place the frequently accessed data into solid state disks (SSD) and place the less frequently accessed ones into conventional hard disks (CHD). Because the energy consumption is very low and the random read/write rate is very fast in SSD, we can get high availability and high saving energy RAID system at the expense of very few costs. The simulation result shows that the random write performance of SERAID is 10 times rapid than those of traditional RAID and the random read performance of SERAID is 5 times rapid than those of conventional RAID. Besides that, the mean energy consumption of SERAIDsystem is lower than that of traditional RAID.

  19. 18 CFR 284.505 - Market-based rates for storage providers without a market-power determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Market-based rates for storage providers without a market-power determination. 284.505 Section 284.505 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978...

  20. 18 CFR 284.505 - Market-based rates for storage providers without a market-power determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Market-based rates for storage providers without a market-power determination. 284.505 Section 284.505 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978...

  1. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  2. Solar energy in the context of energy use, energy transportation and energy storage.

    PubMed

    MacKay, David J C

    2013-08-13

    Taking the UK as a case study, this paper describes current energy use and a range of sustainable energy options for the future, including solar power and other renewables. I focus on the area involved in collecting, converting and delivering sustainable energy, looking in particular detail at the potential role of solar power. Britain consumes energy at a rate of about 5000 watts per person, and its population density is about 250 people per square kilometre. If we multiply the per capita energy consumption by the population density, then we obtain the average primary energy consumption per unit area, which for the UK is 1.25 watts per square metre. This areal power density is uncomfortably similar to the average power density that could be supplied by many renewables: the gravitational potential energy of rainfall in the Scottish highlands has a raw power per unit area of roughly 0.24 watts per square metre; energy crops in Europe deliver about 0.5 watts per square metre; wind farms deliver roughly 2.5 watts per square metre; solar photovoltaic farms in Bavaria, Germany, and Vermont, USA, deliver 4 watts per square metre; in sunnier locations, solar photovoltaic farms can deliver 10 watts per square metre; concentrating solar power stations in deserts might deliver 20 watts per square metre. In a decarbonized world that is renewable-powered, the land area required to maintain today's British energy consumption would have to be similar to the area of Britain. Several other high-density, high-consuming countries are in the same boat as Britain, and many other countries are rushing to join us. Decarbonizing such countries will only be possible through some combination of the following options: the embracing of country-sized renewable power-generation facilities; large-scale energy imports from country-sized renewable facilities in other countries; population reduction; radical efficiency improvements and lifestyle changes; and the growth of non-renewable low

  3. Energy storage management system with distributed wireless sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Bandhauer, Todd M.

    2015-12-08

    An energy storage system having a multiple different types of energy storage and conversion devices. Each device is equipped with one or more sensors and RFID tags to communicate sensor information wirelessly to a central electronic management system, which is used to control the operation of each device. Each device can have multiple RFID tags and sensor types. Several energy storage and conversion devices can be combined.

  4. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Novel Liquid Air Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, X. D.; Wang, S. X.; Zhang, X. L.; Cui, C.; Chen, L. B.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, J. J.

    In this study, a novel liquid air energy storage system for electrical power load shifting application is introduced. It is a combination of an air liquefaction cycle and a gas turbine power generation cycle without fuel combustion. Thermodynamic analysis is conducted to investigate the performance of this system. The results show that liquid air energy storage systems could be very effective systems for electrical power storage with high efficiency, high energy density and extensive application prospects.

  5. Composite materials for thermal energy storage

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.; Shinton, Y.D.

    1985-01-04

    A composite material for thermal energy storage based upon polyhydric alcohols, such as pentaerythritol, trimethylol ethane (also known as pentaglycerine), neopentyl glycol and related compounds including trimethylol propane, monoaminopentaerythritol, diamino-pentaerythritol and tris(hydroxymethyl)acetic acid, separately or in combinations, which provide reversible heat storage through crystalline phase transformations. These PCM's do not become liquid during use and are in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon, siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, porous rock, and mixtures thereof. Particulate additions such as aluminum or graphite powders, as well as metal and carbon fibers can also be incorporated therein. Particulate and/or fibrous additions can be introduced into molten phase change materials which can then be cast into various shapes. After the phase change materials have solidified, the additions will remain dispersed throughout the matrix of the cast solid. The polyol is in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon, siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, and mixtures thereof.

  6. Composite materials for thermal energy storage

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Burrows, Richard W.; Shinton, Yvonne D.

    1986-01-01

    The present invention discloses composite material for thermal energy storage based upon polyhydric alcohols, such as pentaerythritol, trimethylol ethane (also known as pentaglycerine), neopentyl glycol and related compounds including trimethylol propane, monoaminopentaerythritol, diamino-pentaerythritol and tris(hydroxymethyl)acetic acid, separately or in combinations, which provide reversible heat storage through crystalline phase transformations. These phase change materials do not become liquid during use and are in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, porous rock, and mixtures thereof. Particulate additions, such as aluminum or graphite powders, as well as metal and carbon fibers can also be incorporated therein. Particulate and/or fibrous additions can be introduced into molten phase change materials which can then be cast into various shapes. After the phase change materials have solidified, the additions will remain dispersed throughout the matrix of the cast solid. The polyol is in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, and mixtures thereof.

  7. Composite materials for thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, D. K.; Burrows, R. W.; Shinton, Y. D.

    1985-01-01

    A composite material for thermal energy storage based upon polyhydric alcohols, such as pentaerythritol, trimethylol ethane (also known as pentaglycerine), neopentyl glycol and related compounds including trimethylol propane, monoaminopentaerythritol, diamino-pentaerythritol and tris(hydroxymethyl)acetic acid, separately or in combinations, which provide reversible heat storage through crystalline phase transformations are discussed. These PCM's do not become liquid during use and are in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon, siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, porous rock, and mixtures thereof. Particulate additions such as aluminum or graphite powders, as well as metal and carbon fibers can also be incorporated therein. Particulate and/or fibrous additions can be introduced into molten phase change materials which can then be cast into various shapes. After the phase change materials have solidified, the additions will remain dispersed throughout the matrix of the cast solid. The polyol is in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon, siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, and mixtures thereof.

  8. Thermal energy storage for industrial waste heat recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, H. W.; Kedl, R. J.; Duscha, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal energy storage systems designed for energy conservation through the recovery, storage, and reuse of industrial process waste heat are reviewed. Consideration is given to systems developed for primary aluminum, cement, the food processing industry, paper and pulp, and primary iron and steel. Projected waste-heat recovery and energy savings are listed for each category.

  9. Assessment of Energy Storage Alternatives in the Puget Sound Energy System Volume 2: Energy Storage Evaluation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Di; Jin, Chunlian; Balducci, Patrick J.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2013-12-01

    This volume presents the battery storage evaluation tool developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), which is used to evaluate benefits of battery storage for multiple grid applications, including energy arbitrage, balancing service, capacity value, distribution system equipment deferral, and outage mitigation. This tool is based on the optimal control strategies to capture multiple services from a single energy storage device. In this control strategy, at each hour, a look-ahead optimization is first formulated and solved to determine battery base operating point. The minute by minute simulation is then performed to simulate the actual battery operation. This volume provide background and manual for this evaluation tool.

  10. Scenario simulation based assessment of subsurface energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, C.; Bauer, S.; Dahmke, A.

    2014-12-01

    Energy production from renewable sources such as solar or wind power is characterized by temporally varying power supply. The politically intended transition towards renewable energies in Germany („Energiewende") hence requires the installation of energy storage technologies to compensate for the fluctuating production. In this context, subsurface energy storage represents a viable option due to large potential storage capacities and the wide prevalence of suited geological formations. Technologies for subsurface energy storage comprise cavern or deep porous media storage of synthetic hydrogen or methane from electrolysis and methanization, or compressed air, as well as heat storage in shallow or moderately deep porous formations. Pressure build-up, fluid displacement or temperature changes induced by such operations may affect local and regional groundwater flow, geomechanical behavior, groundwater geochemistry and microbiology. Moreover, subsurface energy storage may interact and possibly be in conflict with other "uses" like drinking water abstraction or ecological goods and functions. An utilization of the subsurface for energy storage therefore requires an adequate system and process understanding for the evaluation and assessment of possible impacts of specific storage operations on other types of subsurface use, the affected environment and protected entities. This contribution presents the framework of the ANGUS+ project, in which tools and methods are developed for these types of assessments. Synthetic but still realistic scenarios of geological energy storage are derived and parameterized for representative North German storage sites by data acquisition and evaluation, and experimental work. Coupled numerical hydraulic, thermal, mechanical and reactive transport (THMC) simulation tools are developed and applied to simulate the energy storage and subsurface usage scenarios, which are analyzed for an assessment and generalization of the imposed THMC

  11. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    SciTech Connect

    2012-11-30

    This report provides a review and an analysis of potential environmental justice areas that could be affected by the New York State Electric & Gas (NYSEG) compress air energy storage (CAES) project and identifies existing environmental burden conditions on the area and evaluates additional burden of any significant adverse environmental impact. The review assesses the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the area surrounding the proposed CAES facility in Schuyler County, New York. Schuyler County is one of 62 counties in New York. Schuyler County’s 2010 population of 18,343 makes it one of the least populated counties in the State (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). This report was prepared for WorleyParsons by ERM and describes the study area investigated, methods and criteria used to evaluate this area, and the findings and conclusions from the evaluation.

  12. Complex and liquid hydrides for energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callini, Elsa; Atakli, Zuleyha Özlem Kocabas; Hauback, Bjørn C.; Orimo, Shin-ichi; Jensen, Craig; Dornheim, Martin; Grant, David; Cho, Young Whan; Chen, Ping; Hjörvarsson, Bjørgvin; de Jongh, Petra; Weidenthaler, Claudia; Baricco, Marcello; Paskevicius, Mark; Jensen, Torben R.; Bowden, Mark E.; Autrey, Thomas S.; Züttel, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The research on complex hydrides for hydrogen storage was initiated by the discovery of Ti as a hydrogen sorption catalyst in NaAlH4 by Boris Bogdanovic in 1996. A large number of new complex hydride materials in various forms and combinations have been synthesized and characterized, and the knowledge regarding the properties of complex hydrides and the synthesis methods has grown enormously since then. A significant portion of the research groups active in the field of complex hydrides is collaborators in the International Energy Agreement Task 32. This paper reports about the important issues in the field of complex hydride research, i.e. the synthesis of borohydrides, the thermodynamics of complex hydrides, the effects of size and confinement, the hydrogen sorption mechanism and the complex hydride composites as well as the properties of liquid complex hydrides. This paper is the result of the collaboration of several groups and is an excellent summary of the recent achievements.

  13. Optimizing Ice Thermal Storage to Reduce Energy Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Christopher L.

    Energy cost for buildings is an issue of concern for owners across the U.S. The bigger the building, the greater the concern. A part of this is due to the energy required to cool the building and the way in which charges are set when paying for energy consumed during different times of the day. This study will prove that designing ice thermal storage properly will minimize energy cost in buildings. The effectiveness of ice thermal storage as a means to reduce energy costs lies within transferring the time of most energy consumption from on-peak to off-peak periods. Multiple variables go into the equation of finding the optimal use of ice thermal storage and they are all judged with the final objective of minimizing monthly energy costs. This research discusses the optimal design of ice thermal storage and its impact on energy consumption, energy demand, and the total energy cost. A tool for optimal design of ice thermal storage is developed, considering variables such as chiller and ice storage sizes and charging and discharge times. The simulations take place in a four-story building and investigate the potential of Ice Thermal Storage as a resource in reducing and minimizing energy cost for cooling. The simulations test the effectiveness of Ice Thermal Storage implemented into the four-story building in ten locations across the United States.

  14. Seasonal storage of energy in solar heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, J. E.; Klein, S. A.; Mitchell, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper focuses on several aspects of seasonal storage for space heating using water as the storage medium. The interrelationships between collector area, storage volume, and system performance are investigated using the transient simulation program TRNSYS. The situations for which seasonal storage is most promising are presented. Particular emphasis is placed upon design of seasonal storage systems. A design method is presented which is applicable for storage capacities ranging from a few days to seasonal storage. This design method, coupled with cost information, should be useful in assessing the economic viability of seasonal storage systems. Also investigated are the importance of the load heat exchanger size, tank insulation, collector slope, and year-to-year weather variations in system design.

  15. Analysis of lunar regolith thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Colozza, A.J.

    1991-11-01

    The concept of using lunar regolith as a thermal energy storage medium was evaluated. The concept was examined by mathematically modeling the absorption and transfer of heat by the lunar regolith. Regolith thermal and physical properties were established through various sources as functions of temperature. Two cases were considered: a semi-infinite, constant temperature, cylindrical heat source embedded in a continuum of lunar regolith and a spherically shaped molten zone of lunar regolith set with an initial temperature profile. The cylindrical analysis was performed in order to examine the amount of energy which can be stored in the regolith during the day. At night, the cylinder acted as a perfect insulator. This cycling was performed until a steady state situation was reached in the surrounding regolith. It was determined that a cycling steady state occurs after approximately 15 day/night cycles. Results were obtained for cylinders of various diameters. The spherical molten zone analysis was performed to establish the amount of thermal energy, within the regolith, necessary to maintain some molten material throughout a nighttime period. This surrounding temperature profile was modeled after the cycling steady state temperature profile established by the cylindrical analysis. It was determined that a molten sphere diameter of 4.76 m is needed to maintain a core temperature near the low end of the melting temperature range throughout one nighttime period.

  16. Analysis of lunar regolith thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of using lunar regolith as a thermal energy storage medium was evaluated. The concept was examined by mathematically modeling the absorption and transfer of heat by the lunar regolith. Regolith thermal and physical properties were established through various sources as functions of temperature. Two cases were considered: a semi-infinite, constant temperature, cylindrical heat source embedded in a continuum of lunar regolith and a spherically shaped molten zone of lunar regolith set with an initial temperature profile. The cylindrical analysis was performed in order to examine the amount of energy which can be stored in the regolith during the day. At night, the cylinder acted as a perfect insulator. This cycling was performed until a steady state situation was reached in the surrounding regolith. It was determined that a cycling steady state occurs after approximately 15 day/night cycles. Results were obtained for cylinders of various diameters. The spherical molten zone analysis was performed to establish the amount of thermal energy, within the regolith, necessary to maintain some molten material throughout a nighttime period. This surrounding temperature profile was modeled after the cycling steady state temperature profile established by the cylindrical analysis. It was determined that a molten sphere diameter of 4.76 m is needed to maintain a core temperature near the low end of the melting temperature range throughout one nighttime period.

  17. Battery energy storage market feasibility study -- Expanded report

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, S.; Akhil, A.

    1997-09-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the battery energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed battery storage as an important technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  18. Energy Storage Applications in Power Systems with Renewable Energy Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghofrani, Mahmoud

    In this dissertation, we propose new operational and planning methodologies for power systems with renewable energy sources. A probabilistic optimal power flow (POPF) is developed to model wind power variations and evaluate the power system operation with intermittent renewable energy generation. The methodology is used to calculate the operating and ramping reserves that are required to compensate for power system uncertainties. Distributed wind generation is introduced as an operational scheme to take advantage of the spatial diversity of renewable energy resources and reduce wind power fluctuations using low or uncorrelated wind farms. The POPF is demonstrated using the IEEE 24-bus system where the proposed operational scheme reduces the operating and ramping reserve requirements and operation and congestion cost of the system as compared to operational practices available in the literature. A stochastic operational-planning framework is also proposed to adequately size, optimally place and schedule storage units within power systems with high wind penetrations. The method is used for different applications of energy storage systems for renewable energy integration. These applications include market-based opportunities such as renewable energy time-shift, renewable capacity firming, and transmission and distribution upgrade deferral in the form of revenue or reduced cost and storage-related societal benefits such as integration of more renewables, reduced emissions and improved utilization of grid assets. A power-pool model which incorporates the one-sided auction market into POPF is developed. The model considers storage units as market participants submitting hourly price bids in the form of marginal costs. This provides an accurate market-clearing process as compared to the 'price-taker' analysis available in the literature where the effects of large-scale storage units on the market-clearing prices are neglected. Different case studies are provided to

  19. Nanoporous and Nanostructured Materials for Energy Storage and Sensor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Anh D.

    The major objective of this work is to design nanostructured and nanoporous materials targeting the special needs of the energy storage and sensing fields. Nanostructured and nanoporous materials are increasingly finding applications in many fields, including electrical energy storage and explosive sensing. The advancement of energy storage devices is important to the development of three fields that have strong effects on human society: renewable energy, transportation, and portable devices. More sensitive explosive sensors will help to prevent terrorism activities and boost national security. Hierarchically porous LiFePO4 (LFP)/C composites were prepared using a surfactant and colloidal crystals as dual templates. The surfactant serves as the template for mesopores and polymeric colloidal spheres serve as the template for macropores. The confinement of the surfactant-LFP-carbon precursor in the colloidal templates is crucial to suppress the fast crystallization of LFP and helps to maintain the ordered structure. The obtained composites with high surface areas and ordered porous structure showed excellent rate performance when used as cathode materials for LIBs, which will allow them to be used as a power source for EVs and HEVs. The synthesis of LiFePO 4 in three dimensionally confined spaces within the colloidal template resulted in the formation of spherical particles. Densely packed LiFePO 4 spheres in a carbon matrix were obtained by spin-casting the LFP-carbon precursor on a quartz substrate and then pyrolyzing it. The product showed high capacity and could be charged /discharged with very little capacity fading over many cycles. Three-dimensionally ordered mesoporous carbons were prepared from nano-sized silica sphere colloidal crystal templates. These materials with very high surface areas and ordered porous structure showed high capacitance and excellent rate capability when used as electrodes for supercapacitors. Mesoporous silica thin films of different

  20. First assessment of continental energy storage in CMIP5 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta-Valero, Francisco José; García-García, Almudena; Beltrami, Hugo; Smerdon, Jason E.

    2016-05-01

    Although much of the energy gained by the climate system over the last century has been stored in the oceans, continental energy storage remains important to estimate the Earth's energy imbalance and also because crucial positive climate feedback processes such as soil carbon and permafrost stability depend on continental energy storage. Here for the first time, 32 general circulation model simulations from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) are examined to assess their ability to characterize the continental energy storage. Results display a consistently lower magnitude of continental energy storage in CMIP5 simulations than the estimates from geothermal data. A large range in heat storage is present across the model ensemble, which is largely explained by the substantial differences in the bottom boundary depths used in each land surface component.

  1. Experimental analysis of Hybridised Energy Storage Systems for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwar, Wasim; Engstrom, Timothy; Marinescu, Monica; Green, Nick; Taylor, Nigel; Offer, Gregory J.

    2016-08-01

    The requirements of the Energy Storage System (ESS) for an electrified vehicle portfolio consisting of a range of vehicles from micro Hybrid Electric Vehicle (mHEV) to a Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) vary considerably. To reduce development cost of an electrified powertrain portfolio, a modular system would ideally be scaled across each vehicle; however, the conflicting requirements of a mHEV and BEV prevent this. This study investigates whether it is possible to combine supercapacitors suitable for an mHEV with high-energy batteries suitable for use in a BEV to create a Hybridised Energy Storage System (HESS) suitable for use in a HEV. A passive HESS is found to be capable of meeting the electrical demands of a HEV drive cycle; the operating principles of HESSs are discussed and factors limiting system performance are explored. The performance of the HESS is found to be significantly less temperature dependent than battery-only systems, however the heat generated suggests a requirement for thermal management. As the HESS degrades (at a similar rate to a specialised high-power-battery), battery resistance rises faster than supercapacitor resistance; as a result, the supercapacitor provides a greater current contribution, therefore the energy throughput, temperature rise and degradation of the batteries is reduced.

  2. The Role of Energy Storage in Commercial Building

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Bandyopadhyay, Gopal K.; Finley, C.; Koritarov, V. S.; Molburg, J. C.; Wang, J.; Zhao, Fuli; Brackney, L.; Florita, A. R.

    2010-09-30

    Motivation and Background of Study This project was motivated by the need to understand the full value of energy storage (thermal and electric energy storage) in commercial buildings, the opportunity of benefits for building operations and the potential interactions between a building and a smart grid infrastructure. On-site or local energy storage systems are not new to the commercial building sector; they have been in place in US buildings for decades. Most building-scale storage technologies are based on thermal or electrochemical storage mechanisms. Energy storage technologies are not designed to conserve energy, and losses associated with energy conversion are inevitable. Instead, storage provides flexibility to manage load in a building or to balance load and generation in the power grid. From the building owner's perspective, storage enables load shifting to optimize energy costs while maintaining comfort. From a grid operations perspective, building storage at scale could provide additional flexibility to grid operators in managing the generation variability from intermittent renewable energy resources (wind and solar). To characterize the set of benefits, technical opportunities and challenges, and potential economic values of storage in a commercial building from both the building operation's and the grid operation's view-points is the key point of this project. The research effort was initiated in early 2010 involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quantify these opportunities from a commercial buildings perspective. This report summarizes the early discussions, literature reviews, stakeholder engagements, and initial results of analyses related to the overall role of energy storage in commercial buildings. Beyond the summary of roughly eight months of effort by the laboratories, the report attempts to substantiate the importance of active DOE/BTP R

  3. Energy and environmental issues of aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1988-08-01

    Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) has the potential to provide storage for large-scale industrial and building heating and cooling at many sites in the US. However, implementation requires careful attention to site geohydraulic and geochemical characteristics. Field tests in the US have shown that over 60% of the heat injected at temperatures over 100/degree/C can be recovered on a seasonal cycle. Similarly, aquifer storage of chilled groundwater can provide building cooling with a reduction of over 50% in annual cooling electrical energy consumption and a factor of 20 reduction in summer cooling peak electrical demand. Heat ATES will require water treatment at most sites to prevent precipitation of calcium and magnesium carbonates and silica (depending upon the temperature regime). Environmental concerns create a need for detailed geochemical and water treatment analysis using models and laboratory studies. At some sites microbiological issues must also be resolved. In some instances bacteria can cause extensive corrosion or clogging of the well screen and surrounding porous media. At other sites effects on indigenous beneficial microbiota and the potential for augmenting growth and release of pathogenic organisms are of concern. Laboratory research as well as field testing is being conducted to extend and augment experience in related technologies. Results from field testing and environmental monitoring have not revealed dramatic environmental impacts. Rather, they have revealed the strong potential for geochemical and geohydraulic factors to influence successful ATES operations. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Energy storage systems program report for FY97

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.C.

    1998-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to collaborate with industry in developing cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1997. 46 figs., 20 tabs.

  5. Inertial energy storage for advanced space station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Tassel, K. E.; Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    Because the NASA Space Station will spend approximately one-third of its orbital time in the earth's shadow, depriving it of solar energy and requiring an energy storage system to meet system demands, attention has been given to flywheel energy storage systems. These systems promise high mechanical efficiency, long life, light weight, flexible design, and easily monitored depth of discharge. An assessment is presently made of three critical technology areas: rotor materials, magnetic suspension bearings, and motor-generators for energy conversion. Conclusions are presented regarding the viability of inertial energy storage systems and of problem areas requiring further technology development efforts.

  6. Engineering evaluation of a sodium hydroxide thermal energy storage module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perdue, D. G.; Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    An engineering evaluation of thermal energy storage prototypes was performed in order to assess the development status of latent heat storage media. The testing and the evaluation of a prototype sodium hydroxide module is described. This module stored off-peak electrical energy as heat for later conversion to domestic hot water needs.

  7. Hybrid radical energy storage device and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Gennett, Thomas; Ginley, David S.; Braunecker, Wade; Ban, Chunmei; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw

    2016-04-26

    Hybrid radical energy storage devices, such as batteries or electrochemical devices, and methods of use and making are disclosed. Also described herein are electrodes and electrolytes useful in energy storage devices, for example, radical polymer cathode materials and electrolytes for use in organic radical batteries.

  8. Hybrid radical energy storage device and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Gennett, Thomas; Ginley, David S; Braunecker, Wade; Ban, Chunmei; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw

    2015-01-27

    Hybrid radical energy storage devices, such as batteries or electrochemical devices, and methods of use and making are disclosed. Also described herein are electrodes and electrolytes useful in energy storage devices, for example, radical polymer cathode materials and electrolytes for use in organic radical batteries.

  9. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for asynchronous electrical systems

    DOEpatents

    Boenig, H.J.

    1984-05-16

    It is an object of the present invention to provide superconducting magnetic energy storage for a plurality of asynchronous electrical systems. It is a further object of the present invention to provide load leveling and stability improvement in a plurality of independent ac systems using a single superconducting magnetic energy storage coil.

  10. Summary of selected compressed air energy storage studies

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    A descriptive summarily of research and development in compressed air energy storage technology is presented. Research funded primarily by the Department of Energy is described. Results of studies by other groups and experience at the Huntorf plant in West Germany are included. Feasibility studies performed by General Electric are summarized. The feasibility of air storage in dissolved salt cavities is also demonstrated. (BCS)

  11. Preliminary survey and evaluation of nonaquifer thermal energy storage concepts for seasonal storage

    SciTech Connect

    Blahnik, D.E.

    1980-11-01

    Thermal energy storage enables the capture and retention of heat energy (or cold) during one time period for use during another. Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) involves a period of months between the input and recovery of energy. The purpose of this study was to make a preliminary investigation and evaluation of potential nonaquifer STES systems. Current literature was surveyed to determine the state of the art of thermal energy storage (TES) systems such as hot water pond storage, hot rock storage, cool ice storage, and other more sophisticated concepts which might have potential for future STES programs. The main energy sources for TES principally waste heat, and the main uses of the stored thermal energy, i.e., heating, cooling, and steam generation are described. This report reviews the development of sensible, latent, and thermochemical TES technologies, presents a preliminary evaluation of the TES methods most applicable to seasonal storage uses, outlines preliminary conclusions drawn from the review of current TES literature, and recommends further research based on these conclusions. A bibliography of the nonaquifer STES literature review, and examples of 53 different TES concepts drawn from the literature are provided. (LCL)

  12. Energy Storage Technology Development for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing battery and fuel cell technology to meet the expected energy storage needs of human exploration systems. Improving battery performance and safety for human missions enhances a number of exploration systems, including un-tethered extravehicular activity suits and transportation systems including landers and rovers. Similarly, improved fuel cell and electrolyzer systems can reduce mass and increase the reliability of electrical power, oxygen, and water generation for crewed vehicles, depots and outposts. To achieve this, NASA is developing non-flow-through proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell stacks, and electrolyzers coupled with low permeability membranes for high pressure operation. The primary advantage of this technology set is the reduction of ancillary parts in the balance-of-plant fewer pumps, separators and related components should result in fewer failure modes and hence a higher probability of achieving very reliable operation, and reduced parasitic power losses enable smaller reactant tanks and therefore systems with lower mass and volume. Key accomplishments over the past year include the fabrication and testing of several robust, small-scale non-flow-through fuel cell stacks that have demonstrated proof-of-concept. NASA is also developing advanced lithium-ion battery cells, targeting cell-level safety and very high specific energy and energy density. Key accomplishments include the development of silicon composite anodes, lithiatedmixed- metal-oxide cathodes, low-flammability electrolytes, and cell-incorporated safety devices that promise to substantially improve battery performance while providing a high level of safety.

  13. Applications of cogeneration with thermal energy storage technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaram, S.; Katipamula, S.; Williams, H.R.

    1995-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) leads the U.S. Department of Energy`s Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Program. The program focuses on developing TES for daily cycling (diurnal storage), annual cycling (seasonal storage), and utility-scale applications [utility thermal energy storage (UTES)]. Several of these storage technologies can be used in a new or an existing power generation facility to increase its efficiency and promote the use of the TES technology within the utility and the industrial sectors. The UTES project has included a study of both heat storage and cool storage systems for different utility-scale applications. The study reported here has shown that an oil/rock diurnal TES system, when integrated with a simple gas turbine cogeneration system, can produce on-peak power for $0.045 to $0.06 /kWh, while supplying a 24-hour process steam load. The molten salt storage system was found to be less suitable for simple as well as combined-cycle cogeneration applications. However, certain advanced TES concepts and storage media could substantially improve the performance and economic benefits. In related study of a chill TES system was evaluated for precooling gas turbine inlet air, which showed that an ice storage system could be used to effectively increase the peak generating capacity of gas turbines when operating in hot ambient conditions.

  14. Full open-framework batteries for stationary energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D.; Liu, Nian; Nelson, Johanna; McDowell, Matthew T.; Huggins, Robert A.; Toney, Michael F.; Cui, Yi

    2014-01-01

    New types of energy storage are needed in conjunction with the deployment of renewable energy sources and their integration with the electrical grid. We have recently introduced a family of cathodes involving the reversible insertion of cations into materials with the Prussian Blue open-framework crystal structure. Here we report a newly developed manganese hexacyanomanganate open-framework anode that has the same crystal structure. By combining it with the previously reported copper hexacyanoferrate cathode we demonstrate a safe, fast, inexpensive, long-cycle life aqueous electrolyte battery, which involves the insertion of sodium ions. This high rate, high efficiency cell shows a 96.7% round trip energy efficiency when cycled at a 5C rate and an 84.2% energy efficiency at a 50C rate. There is no measurable capacity loss after 1,000 deep-discharge cycles. Bulk quantities of the electrode materials can be produced by a room temperature chemical synthesis from earth-abundant precursors.

  15. Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L.; Jabbour, S.J.; Clark, H.K.

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

  16. Heat storage rate and acute fatigue in rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, L O C; Oliveira, A; Lima, N R V; Machado-Moreira, C A

    2003-01-01

    Thermal environmental stress can anticipate acute fatigue during exercise at a fixed intensity (%VO2max). Controversy exists about whether this anticipation is caused by the absolute internal temperature (Tint, degrees C), by the heat storage rate (HSR, cal/min) or by both mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to study acute fatigue (total exercise time, TET) during thermal stress by determining Tint and HSR from abdominal temperature. Thermal environmental stress was controlled in an environmental chamber and determined as wet bulb globe temperature ( degrees C), with three environmental temperatures being studied: cold (18 degrees C), thermoneutral (23.1 degrees C) or hot (29.4 degrees C). Six untrained male Wistar rats weighing 260-360 g were used. The animals were submitted to exercise at the same time of day in the three environments and at two treadmill velocities (21 and 24 m/min) until exhaustion. After implantation of a temperature sensor and treadmill adaptation, the animals were submitted to a Latin square experimental design using a 2 x 3 factorial scheme (velocity and environment), with the level of significance set at P<0.05. The results showed that the higher the velocity and the ambient temperature, the lower was the TET, with these two factors being independent. This result indicated that fatigue was independently affected by both the increase in exercise intensity and the thermal environmental stress. Fatigue developed at different Tint and HSR showed the best inverse relationship with TET. We conclude that HSR was the main anticipating factor of fatigue. PMID:12532237

  17. Aquifer thermal energy storage costs with a seasonal chill source

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    The cost of energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system from a seasonal chill source was investigated. Costs were estimated for point demand and residential development ATES systems using the computer code AQUASTOR. AQUASTOR was developed at PNL specifically for the economic analysis of ATES systems. In this analysis the cost effect of varying a wide range of technical and economic parameters was examined. Those parameters exhibiting a substantial influence on the costs of ATES delivered chill were: system size; well flow rate; transmission distance; source temperature; well depth; and cost of capital. The effects of each parameter are discussed. Two primary constraints of ATES chill systems are the extremely low energy density of the storage fluid and the prohibitive costs of lengthy pipelines for delivering chill to residential users. This economic analysis concludes that ATES-delivered chill will not be competitive for residential cooling applications. The otherwise marginal attractiveness of ATES chill systems vanishes under the extremely low load factors characteristic of residential cooling systems. (LCL)

  18. Carbon Nanotube Films for Energy Storage Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozinda, Alina

    With the rising demands for small, lightweight, and long-lasting portable electronics, the need for energy storage devices with both large power and large energy densities becomes vitally important. From their usage in hybrid electric vehicles to wearable electronics, supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries have been the focus of many previous works. Electrode materials with large specific surface areas can enhance the charging speed and total amount of stored energy. To this end, vertically self-aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) forests are well suited, as they possess outstanding electrical conductivities as well as high mechanical strength and large specific surface areas. In addition, forests of vertically aligned CNTs allow the ions within an electrolyte to pass freely between the individual CNTs from electrode to electrode. In order to minimize the system resistance of the battery or supercapacitor, a thin molybdenum current collector layer is deposited beneath catalyst of the CNT forest, thus ensuring that when the CNT forest grows from its substrate, each CNT has an innate connection to the current collector. This versatile CNT-Mo film architecture is used in this work as both supercapacitor as well as lithium-ion battery electrodes. It is desirable to have energy storage devices of adjustable shapes, such that they may conform to the shrinking form factors of modern portable electronics and mechanically flexible electrodes are an attractive prospect. The CNT-Mo film is shown here to easily release from its growth substrate, after which it may be placed onto a number of surfaces and topographies and densified. Two polymer films, KaptonRTM and Thermanox(TM) , have been used as substrates for the demonstrations of flexible supercapacitor electrodes. Test results show that the attached active CNT-Mo film can withstand bending to at least as large an angle as 180°. The specific capacitance of a 5 mm by 5 mm area electrode in the K2SO 4 aqueous electrolyte with

  19. Feasibility studies of aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S. H.

    1993-01-01

    Determining the feasibility of using aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) for a particular heating or cooling application is an interdisciplinary effort, requiring (at a minimum) expertise in engineering and hydrology. The feasibility study should proceed in two distinct stages. The first stage, which is limited in scope and detail, is intended to show if an ATES system is technically and economically suited to the application. Focus of this preliminary investigation is on revealing the existence of factors that might weigh heavily against the use of ATES methods, and, in the absence of such factors, on choosing a suitable scale for the ATES plant and well field. The results of the preliminary investigation are used to determine if more detailed investigation--including field studies--are justified, and to facilitate comparing the advantages of ATES to those of other means of providing heating or cooling. The second stage of the feasibility study focuses on detailed aquifer characterization, refinement of engineering design and cost estimates, and economic and environmental risk analysis. The results of this investigation, if favorable, will be used to justify the expense of constructing the ATES system.

  20. Advanced Energy Storage Management in Distribution Network

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Ceylan, Oguzhan; Xiao, Bailu; Starke, Michael R; Ollis, T Ben; King, Daniel J; Irminger, Philip; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    With increasing penetration of distributed generation (DG) in the distribution networks (DN), the secure and optimal operation of DN has become an important concern. In this paper, an iterative mixed integer quadratic constrained quadratic programming model to optimize the operation of a three phase unbalanced distribution system with high penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) panels, DG and energy storage (ES) is developed. The proposed model minimizes not only the operating cost, including fuel cost and purchasing cost, but also voltage deviations and power loss. The optimization model is based on the linearized sensitivity coefficients between state variables (e.g., node voltages) and control variables (e.g., real and reactive power injections of DG and ES). To avoid slow convergence when close to the optimum, a golden search method is introduced to control the step size and accelerate the convergence. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on modified IEEE 13 nodes test feeders with multiple PV panels, DG and ES. Numerical simulation results validate the proposed algorithm. Various scenarios of system configuration are studied and some critical findings are concluded.

  1. Hybrid DNA materials for energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norwood, R. A.; Thomas, J.; Peyghambarian, N.; Wang, J.; Li, L.; Ouchen, F.; Grote, J. E.

    2010-08-01

    We investigate the dielectric and electrical properties of sol-gel/DNA-CTMA blends, with particular interest in capacitor applications in energy storage. Methacryloyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MAPTMS) was the solgel precursor, and DNA-CTMA was blended in to the resulting sol-gel at various weight percentages. The blends were tested for their dielectric properties and dielectric breakdown strength; the 5% DNA blend was found to be optimal with a dielectric constant in the range of 7.5, while the breakdown strength was greater than 800 V/μm for 1 μm films and about 500 V/μm for 5μm films. Hybrid sol-gel/DNA-CTMA/barium titanate nanoparticle composites were also formulated and their dielectric properties measured. While a high dielectric constant was achieved (38), this came at the expense of a significantly reduced breakdown voltage (160V/μm). We discuss these results as well as other aspects of the dielectric and electrical properties of these blends.

  2. Conceptual design and engineering studies of adiabatic compressed air energy storage (CAES) with thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hobson, M. J.

    1981-11-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a conceptual engineering design and evaluation study and to develop a design for an adiabatic CAES system using water-compensated hard rock caverns for compressed air storage. The conceptual plant design was to feature underground containment for thermal energy storage and water-compensated hard rock caverns for high pressure air storage. Other design constraints included the selection of turbomachinery designs that would require little development and would therefore be available for near-term plant construction and demonstration. The design was to be based upon the DOE/EPRI/PEPCO-funded 231 MW/unit conventional CAES plant design prepared for a site in Maryland. This report summarizes the project, its findings, and the recommendations of the study team; presents the development and optimization of the plant heat cycle and the selection and thermal design of the thermal energy storage system; discusses the selection of turbomachinery and estimated plant performance and operational capability; describes the control system concept; and presents the conceptual design of the adiabatic CAES plant, the cost estimates and economic evaluation, and an assessment of technical and economic feasibility. Particular areas in the plant design requiring further development or investigation are discussed. It is concluded that the adiabatic concept appears to be the most attractive candidate for utility application in the near future. It is operationally viable, economically attractive compared with competing concerns, and will require relatively little development before the construction of a plant can be undertaken. It is estimated that a utility could start the design of a demonstration plant in 2 to 3 years if research regarding TES system design is undertaken in a timely manner. (LCL)

  3. Flight experiment of thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, David

    1989-01-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) enables a solar dynamic system to deliver constant electric power through periods of sun and shade. Brayton and Stirling power systems under current considerations for missions in the near future require working fluid temperatures in the 1100 to 1300+ K range. TES materials that meet these requirements fall into the fluoride family of salts. These salts store energy as a heat of fusion, thereby transferring heat to the fluid at constant temperature during shade. The principal feature of fluorides that must be taken into account is the change in volume that occurs with melting and freezing. Salts shrink as they solidify, a change reaching 30 percent for some salts. The location of voids that form as result of the shrinkage is critical when the solar dynamic system reemerges into the sun. Hot spots can develop in the TES container or the container can become distorted if the melting salt cannot expand elsewhere. Analysis of the transient, two-phase phenomenon is being incorporated into a three-dimensional computer code. The code is capable of analysis under microgravity as well as 1 g. The objective of the flight program is to verify the predictions of the code, particularly of the void location and its effect on containment temperature. The four experimental packages comprising the program will be the first tests of melting and freezing conducted under microgravity. Each test package will be installed in a Getaway Special container to be carried by the shuttle. The package will be self-contained and independent of shuttle operations other than the initial opening of the container lid and the final closing of the lid. Upon the return of the test package from flight, the TES container will be radiographed and finally partitioned to examine the exact location and shape of the void. Visual inspection of the void and the temperature data during flight will constitute the bases for code verification.

  4. Graphene and graphene-based materials for energy storage applications.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jixin; Yang, Dan; Yin, Zongyou; Yan, Qingyu; Zhang, Hua

    2014-09-10

    With the increased demand in energy resources, great efforts have been devoted to developing advanced energy storage and conversion systems. Graphene and graphene-based materials have attracted great attention owing to their unique properties of high mechanical flexibility, large surface area, chemical stability, superior electric and thermal conductivities that render them great choices as alternative electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage systems. This Review summarizes the recent progress in graphene and graphene-based materials for four energy storage systems, i.e., lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, lithium-sulfur batteries and lithium-air batteries. PMID:24431122

  5. Using the shield for thermal energy storage in PULSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, G. T.; Wong, C. P. C.; Sze, D.-K.; Bathe, C. G.; Blanchard, J. P.; Brimer, C.; Cheng, E. T.; El-Guebaly, L. A.; Hasan, M. Z.; Najmabadi, F.

    1994-04-01

    The PULSAR pulsed tokamak power plant design utilizes the outboard shield for thermal energy storage to maintain full 1000 MW(e) output during the dwell period of 200 s. Thermal energy resulting from direct nuclear heating is accumulated in the shield during the 7200 s fusion power production phase. The maximum shield temperature may be much higher than that for the blanket because radiation damage is significantly reduced. During the dwell period, thermal power discharged from the shield and coolant temperature are simultaneously regulated by controlling the coolant mass flow rate at the shield inlet. This is facilitated by throttled coolant bypass. Design concepts using helium and lithium coolant have been developed. Two-dimensional, time-dependent thermal hydraulic calculations were performed to confirm performance capabilities required of the design concepts. The results indicate that the system design and performance can accommodate uncertainties in material limits or the length of the dwell period.

  6. BEAM INDUCED ENERGY DEPOSITION IN MUON STORAGE RINGS.

    SciTech Connect

    MOKHOV,N.V.; JOHNSTONE,C.J.; PARKER,B.L.

    2001-06-18

    Beam-induced radiation effects have been simulated for 20 and 50 GeV muon storage rings designed for a Neutrino Factory. It is shown that by appropriately shielding the superconducting magnets, quench stability, acceptable dynamic heat loads, and low residual dose rates can be achieved. Alternatively, if a specially-designed skew focusing magnet without superconducting coils on the magnet's mid-plane is used, then the energy is deposited preferentially in the warm iron yoke or outer cryostat layers and internal shielding may not be required. In addition to the component irradiation analysis, shielding studies have been performed. Calculations of the external radiation were done for both designs but the internal energy deposition calculations for the 20 GeV Study-2 lattice are still in progress.

  7. Beam-induced energy deposition in muon storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolai V. Mokhov; Carol J. Johnstone; Brett Parker

    2001-06-22

    Beam-induced radiation effects have been simulated for 20 and 50 GeV muon storage rings designed for a Neutrino Factory. It is shown that by appropriately shielding the superconducting magnets, quench stability, acceptable dynamic heat loads, and low residual dose rates can be achieved. Alternatively, if a specially-designed skew focusing magnet without superconducting coils on the magnet's mid-plane is used, then the energy is deposited preferentially in the warm iron yoke or outer cryostat layers and internal shielding may not be required. In addition to the component irradiation analysis, shielding studies have been performed. Calculations of the external radiation were done for both designs but the internal energy deposition calculations for the 20 GeV Study-2 lattice are still in progress.

  8. Innovative Business Cases for Energy Storage In a Restructured Electricity Marketplace, A Study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    IANNUCCI, JOE; EYER, JIM; BUTLER, PAUL C.

    2003-02-01

    This report describes the second phase of a project entitled ''Innovative Business Cases for Energy Storage in a Restructured Electricity Marketplace''. During part one of the effort, nine ''Stretch Scenarios'' were identified. They represented innovative and potentially significant uses of electric energy storage. Based on their potential to significantly impact the overall energy marketplace, the five most compelling scenarios were identified. From these scenarios, five specific ''Storage Market Opportunities'' (SMOs) were chosen for an in-depth evaluation in this phase. The authors conclude that some combination of the Power Cost Volatility and the T&D Benefits SMOs would be the most compelling for further investigation. Specifically, a combination of benefits (energy, capacity, power quality and reliability enhancement) achievable using energy storage systems for high value T&D applications, in regions with high power cost volatility, makes storage very competitive for about 24 GW and 120 GWh during the years of 2001 and 2010.

  9. Development of regenerable energy storage for space multimegawatt applications

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, M.

    1986-01-01

    A program has recently been initiated as a part of the national Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) to develop energy storage technology for space power applications. This program is jointly conducted by the Department of Energy and the Department of Defense. It is focused on the development of advanced technologies in regenerable energy storage that will be required for generation of multimegawatt levels of sprint power for SDI space missions. Energy storage technology considered in the program relate to devices that have a high specific capacity for energy storage, which can provide high levels of electric power on demand, and which may be recharged with electric power. The devices of principal interest are electrochemical batteries, chemical fuel cells, and electromechanical flywheels (the latter includes the motors and generators used to provide the electrical to mechanical coupling). The intent of the program is to resolve technical feasibility issues associated with an electrically regenerable energy storage system satisfying SDI needs. Specifically, energy storage technology will be developed through the proof-of-concept stage within the next six years that provides a specific power greater than 2.5 kW/kg with an energy storage density of at least 450 kJ/kg.

  10. Applications of thermal energy storage in the cement industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeger, F. A.; Beshore, D. G.; Miller, F. M.; Gartner, E. M.

    1978-01-01

    In the manufacture of cement, literally trillions of Btu's are rejected to the environment each year. The purpose of this feasibility study program was to determine whether thermal energy storage could be used to conserve or allow alternative uses of this rejected energy. This study identifies and quantifies the sources of rejected energy in the cement manufacturing process, established use of this energy, investigates various storage system concepts, and selects energy conservation systems for further study. Thermal performance and economic analyses are performed on candidate storage systems for four typical cement plants representing various methods of manufacturing cement. Through the use of thermal energy storage in conjunction with waste heat electric power generation units, an estimated 2.4 x 10 to the 13th power Btu/year, or an equivalent on investment of the proposed systems are an incentive for further development.

  11. Impact of wind farms with energy storage on transient stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Douglas Allen

    Today's energy infrastructure will need to rapidly expand in terms of reliability and flexibility due to aging infrastructure, changing energy market conditions, projected load increases, and system reliability requirements. Over the few decades, several states in the U.S. are now requiring an increase in wind penetration. These requirements will have impacts on grid reliability given the inherent intermittency of wind generation and much research has been completed on the impact of wind on grid reliability. Energy storage has been proposed as a tool to provide greater levels of reliability; however, little research has occurred in the area of wind with storage and its impact on stability given different possible scenarios. This thesis addresses the impact of wind farm penetration on transient stability when energy storage is added. The results show that battery energy storage located at the wind energy site can improve the stability response of the system.

  12. Energy storage specification requirements for hybrid-electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, A.F.

    1993-09-01

    A study has been made of energy storage unit requirements for hybrid-electric vehicles. The drivelines for these vehicles included both primary energy storage units and/or pulse power units. The primary energy storage units were sized to provide ``primary energy`` ranges up to 60 km. The total power capability of the drivelines were such that the vehicles had 0 to 100 km/h acceleration times of 10 to 12 s. The power density requirements for primary energy storage devices to be used in hybrid vehicles are much higher than that for devices to be used in electric vehicles. The energy density and power density requirements for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles, are not much different than those in an electric vehicle. The cycle life requirements for primary energy-storage units for hybrid vehicles are about double that for electric vehicles, because of the reduced size of the storage units in the hybrid vehicles. The cycle life for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles is about the same as for electric vehicles having battery load leveling. Because of the need for additional components in the hybrid driveline, the cost of the energy storage units in hybrid vehicles should be much less (at least a factor of two) than those in electric vehicles. There are no presently available energy storage units that meet all the specifications for hybrid vehicle applications, but ultracapacitors and bipolar lead-acid batteries are under development that have the potential for meeting them. If flywheel systems having a mechanical system energy density of 40 to 50 W{center_dot}h/kg and an electrical system power density of 2 to 3 kw/kg can be developed, they would have the potential of meeting specifications for primary storage and pulse power units.

  13. Operational Benefits of Meeting California's Energy Storage Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, Josh; Denholm, Paul; Jorgenson, Jennie; Helman, Udi

    2015-12-18

    In October 2013, the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) finalized procurement targets and other requirements to its jurisdictional utilities for a minimum of 1,325 MW of 'viable and cost-effective' energy storage systems by 2020. The goal of this study is to explore several aspects of grid operations in California and the Western Interconnection resulting from meeting the CPUC storage targets. We perform this analysis using a set of databases and grid simulation tools developed and implemented by the CPUC, the California Independent System Operator (CAISO), and the California Energy Commission (CEC) for the CPUC's Long-term Procurement Plan (LTPP). The 2014 version of this database contains information about generators, storage, transmission, and electrical demand, for California in the year 2024 for both 33% and 40% renewable energy portfolios. We examine the value of various services provided by energy storage in these scenarios. Sensitivities were performed relating to the services energy storage can provide, the capacity and duration of storage devices, export limitations, and negative price floor variations. Results show that a storage portfolio, as outlined by the CPUC, can reduce curtailment and system-wide production costs for 33% and 40% renewable scenarios. A storage device that can participate in energy and ancillary service markets provides the grid with the greatest benefit; the mandated storage requirement of 1,325 MW was estimated to reduce the total cost of production by about 78 million per year in the 33% scenario and 144 million per year in the 40% scenario. Much of this value is derived from the avoided start and stop costs of thermal generators and provision of ancillary services. A device on the 2024 California grid and participating in only ancillary service markets can provide the system with over 90% of the value as the energy and ancillary service device. The analysis points to the challenge of new storage providing regulation

  14. Potential energy savings from aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.R.; Weijo, R.O.

    1988-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory researchers developed an aggregate-level model to estimate the short- and long-term potential energy savings from using aquifer thermal storage (ATES) in the United States. The objectives of this effort were to (1) develop a basis from which to recommend whether heat or chill ATES should receive future research focus and (2) determine which market sector (residential, commercial, or industrial) offers the largest potential energy savings from ATES. Information was collected on the proportion of US land area suitable for ATES applications. The economic feasibility of ATES applications was then evaluated. The potential energy savings from ATES applications was calculated. Characteristic energy use in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors was examined, as was the relationship between waste heat production and consumption by industrial end-users. These analyses provided the basis for two main conclusions: heat ATES applications offer higher potential for energy savings than do chill ATES applications; and the industrial sector can achieve the highest potential energy savings for the large consumption markets. Based on these findings, it is recommended that future ATES research and development efforts be directed toward heat ATES applications in the industrial sector. 11 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Perspectives on energy storage wheels for space station application

    SciTech Connect

    Oglevie, R.E.

    1984-11-01

    Several of the issues of the workshop are addressed from the perspective of a potential Space Station developer and energy wheel user. Systems considerations are emphasized rather than component technology. The potential of energy storage wheel (ESW) concept is discussed. The current status of the technology base is described. Justification for advanced technology development is also discussed. The study concludes that energy storage in wheels is an attractive concept for immediate technology development and future Space Station application.

  16. Nanophase glass ceramics for capacitive energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangarajan, Badri

    Glass ceramics are candidate dielectric materials for high energy storage capacitors. Since energy density depends primarily on dielectric permittivity and breakdown strength, glass ceramics with interconnected nano-crystalline particles and low porosity, which leads to high breakdown strength, are expected to have high energy density values. Three glass ceramic systems were investigated. Barium/lead sodium niobate glass ceramics, designated as PNNS (PbO-Na 2O-Nb2O5-SiO2) and BNNS (BaONa 2O- Nb2O5-SiO2), and barium titanate silicate glass ceramic, designated as BTS (BaOTiO2-SiO2), belonging to medium (epsilonr ~ 400-700) and low (epsilon r ~ 20) permittivity regimes, respectively, were fabricated by roller quenching and controlled crystallization. The overall properties of the glass ceramics were controlled by connectivity and volume fraction of crystallites. PNNS and BNNS developed perovskite and tungsten-bronze phases during crystallization with permittivity values between 400 and 700. Microstructural analysis of PNNS glass ceramic revealed grain sizes of the order of 50 nm. The calculated breakdown strengths were ~0.7 and ~075 MV/cm for PNNS and BNNS respectively. The resulting energy densities at breakdown were ~4.5 and ~6.5 J/cm3 for PNNS and BNNS respectively. However, the disadvantages, such as difficult glass formability, less control over crystallization due to multiphase formation and low dielectric breakdown strength values due to high dielectric contrast between the glass and crystal phases, associated with PNNS and BNNS glass ceramics served as the motivating factor for exploring BTS glass ceramic. The major advantage of studying BTS glass ceramic over the other systems is that a single crystalline phase, fresnoite (Ba2TiSi2O 8), grows from the quenched glass and properties can be explored over the whole spectrum ranging from fully amorphous to fully crystalline. Crystallization kinetics of the BTS glass is explored to control the relative volume

  17. Thermochemical seasonal energy storage for solar thermal power

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhart, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    During the many years that thermochemical energy storage has been under investigation, the concept has been plagued with two persistent problems: high capital cost and poor efficiency. Literally hundreds of chemical reactions have also been carried out. For short-term storage, thermochemical systems suffer in comparison with highly efficient sensible storage media such as molten salts. Long-term storage, on the other hand, is not cost-competitive with systems employing fossil backup power. Thermochemical storage will play a significant role in solar thermal electric conversion only under highly select circumstances. The portion of electric demand served by solar plants must be sufficiently high that the balance of the grid cannot fully supplant seasonal storage. High fossil fuel costs must preclude the use of gas turbines for backup power. Significant breakthroughs in the development of one or more chemical reaction systems must occur. Ingeniously integrated systems must be employed to enhance the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of thermochemical storage. A promising integration scheme discussed herein consists of using sensible storage for diurnal cycling in parallel with thermochemical seasonal storage. Under the most favorable circumstances, thermochemical storage can be expected to play a small but perhaps vital role in supplying baseload energy from solar thermal electric conversion plants.

  18. A solar receiver-storage modular cascade based on porous ceramic structures for hybrid sensible/thermochemical solar energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrafiotis, Christos; de Oliveira, Lamark; Roeb, Martin; Sattler, Christian

    2016-05-01

    The current state-of-the-art solar heat storage concept in air-operated Solar Tower Power Plants is to store the solar energy provided during on-sun operation as sensible heat in porous solid materials that operate as recuperators during off-sun operation. The technology is operationally simple; however its storage capacity is limited to 1.5 hours. An idea for extending this capacity is to render this storage concept from "purely" sensible to "hybrid" sensible/ thermochemical one, via coating the porous heat exchange modules with oxides of multivalent metals for which their reduction/oxidation reactions are accompanied by significant heat effects, or by manufacturing them entirely of such oxides. In this way solar heat produced during on-sun operation can be used (in addition to sensibly heating the porous solid) to power the endothermic reduction of the oxide from its state with the higher metal valence to that of the lower; the thermal energy can be entirely recovered by the reverse exothermic oxidation reaction (in addition to sensible heat) during off-sun operation. Such sensible and thermochemical storage concepts were tested on a solar-irradiated receiver- heat storage module cascade for the first time. Parametric studies performed so far involved the comparison of three different SiC-based receivers with respect to their capability of supplying solar-heated air at temperatures sufficient for the reduction of the oxides, the effect of air flow rate on the temperatures achieved within the storage module, as well as the comparison of different porous storage media made of cordierite with respect to their sensible storage capacity.

  19. Energy optimization for a wind DFIG with flywheel energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzaoui, Ihssen; Bouchafaa, Farid

    2016-07-01

    The type of distributed generation unit that is the subject of this paper relates to renewable energy sources, especially wind power. The wind generator used is based on a double fed induction Generator (DFIG). The stator of the DFIG is connected directly to the network and the rotor is connected to the network through the power converter with three levels. The objective of this work is to study the association a Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) in wind generator. This system is used to improve the quality of electricity provided by wind generator. It is composed of a flywheel; an induction machine (IM) and a power electronic converter. A maximum power tracking technique « Maximum Power Point Tracking » (MPPT) and a strategy for controlling the pitch angle is presented. The model of the complete system is developed in Matlab/Simulink environment / to analyze the results from simulation the integration of wind chain to networks.

  20. Proceedings of the DOE chemical energy storage and hydrogen energy systems contracts review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    Sessions were held on electrolysis-based hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen production, hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen storage materials, end-use applications and system studies, chemical heat pump/chemical energy storage systems, systems studies and assessment, thermochemical hydrogen production cycles, advanced production concepts, and containment materials. (LHK)

  1. Evaluation of thermal energy storage materials for advanced compressed air energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zaloudek, F.R.; Wheeler, K.R.; Marksberry, L.

    1983-03-01

    Advanced Compressed-Air Energy Storage (ACAS) plants have the near-term potential to reduce the fuel consumption of compressed-air plants from 33 to 100%, depending upon their design. Fuel is saved by storing some or all of the heat of compression as sensible heat which is subsequently used to reheat the compressed air prior to expansion in the turbine generator. The thermal storage media required for this application must be low cost and durable. The objective of this project was to screen thermal store materials based on their thermal cycle durability, particulate formation and corrosion resistant characteristics. The materials investigated were iron oxide pellets, Denstone pebbles, cast-iron balls, and Dresser basalt rock. The study specifically addressed the problems of particle formation and thermal ratcheting of the materials during thermal cycling and the chemical attack on the materials by the high temperature and moist environment in an ACAS heat storage bed. The results indicate that from the durability standpoint Denstone, cast iron containing 27% or more chromium, and crushed Dresser basalt would possibly stand up to ACAS conditions. If costs are considered in addition to durability and performance, the crushed Dresser basalt would probably be the most desirable heat storage material for adiabatic and hybrid ACAS plants, and more in-depth longer term thermal cycling and materials testing of Dresser basalt is recommended. Also recommended is the redesign and costing analysis of both the hybrid and adiabatic ACAS facilities based upon the use of Dresser basalt as the thermal store material.

  2. Innovative applications of energy storage in a restructured electricity marketplace : Phase III final report : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, James M.; Erdman, Bill; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes Phase III of a project entitled Innovative Applications of Energy Storage in a Restructured Electricity Marketplace. For this study, the authors assumed that it is feasible to operate an energy storage plant simultaneously for two primary applications: (1) energy arbitrage, i.e., buy-low-sell-high, and (2) to reduce peak loads in utility ''hot spots'' such that the utility can defer their need to upgrade transmission and distribution (T&D) equipment. The benefits from the arbitrage plus T&D deferral applications were estimated for five cases based on the specific requirements of two large utilities operating in the Eastern U.S. A number of parameters were estimated for the storage plant ratings required to serve the combined application: power output (capacity) and energy discharge duration (energy storage). In addition to estimating the various financial expenditures and the value of electricity that could be realized in the marketplace, technical characteristics required for grid-connected distributed energy storage used for capacity deferral were also explored.

  3. Characterization of Encapsulated Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weihuan

    Solar energy is receiving a lot of attentions at present since it is a kind of clean, renewable and sustainable energy. A major limitation however is that it is available for only about 2,000 hours a year in many places. One way to improve this situation is to use thermal energy storage (TES) system for the off hours. A novel method to store solar energy for large scale energy usage is using high melting temperature encapsulated phase change materials (EPCMs). The present work is a study of thermal energy storage systems with phase change materials (PCMs). It is hoped that this work is to help understand the storage capability and heat transfer processes in the EPCM capsules in order to help design large EPCM based thermoclines. A calorimeter system was built to test the energy stored in EPCM capsules and examine the storage capabilities and potential for storage deterioration in EPCM capsules to determine the types of EPCMs suitable for TES. To accomplish this, the heat transfer performances of the EPCMs are studied in detail. Factors which could affect the heat transfer performance including the properties of materials, the sizes of capsules, the types of heat transfer fluids, the gravity effect of solid PCM, the buoyancy-driven convection in the molten PCM, void space inside the capsule are given attention. Understanding these characteristics for heat transfer process could help build the EPCM based thermoclines to make energy storage economical for solar energy and other applications.

  4. Energy: Systems for Control, Maintenance, and Storage. A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gerald, Comp.; McKane, Irving, Comp.

    This publication is a bibliography of available periodical literature on specific aspects of energy and today's technology. The Applied Science and Technology Indexes were searched for articles that related to these specific areas: (1) Energy control systems; (2) Maintenance of Energy Systems; and (3) Energy storage. The articles and papers…

  5. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    SciTech Connect

    2012-11-30

    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

  6. Characterization of an energy storage capacitor in abnormal thermal environments

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, L.R.; Chen, K.C.; Baron, R.V.

    2000-01-05

    There are applications of high-voltage, energy-storage, capacitors where it is desirable that the energy storage capability can be reliably and predictably negated in abnormal environments such as fire. This property serves as a safety feature to prevent events of unintended consequence. The present paper describes studies of the thermal response characteristics of a cylindrically wound, discrete Mylar film/foil capacitor design. The experimental setups that simulate fires will be presented. Three different heat input geometries were employed: uniform radial input, spot radial input, and axial input. Heat input was controlled via feedback system to maintain specific temperature ramp rates. Both capacitor voltage and current were monitored during the thermal excursion to ascertain the failure temperature, i.e. when the capacitor permanently shorts. Temperature of failure data is presented for the three heat input cases along with a statistical analysis of the results and application implications. The physics of failure will be described in terms of the thermal/mechanical properties of the Mylar.

  7. Long vs. short-term energy storage:sensitivity analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Inc., Menlo Park, CA); Hassenzahl, William V. (,Advanced Energy Analysis, Piedmont, CA)

    2007-07-01

    This report extends earlier work to characterize long-duration and short-duration energy storage technologies, primarily on the basis of life-cycle cost, and to investigate sensitivities to various input assumptions. Another technology--asymmetric lead-carbon capacitors--has also been added. Energy storage technologies are examined for three application categories--bulk energy storage, distributed generation, and power quality--with significant variations in discharge time and storage capacity. Sensitivity analyses include cost of electricity and natural gas, and system life, which impacts replacement costs and capital carrying charges. Results are presented in terms of annual cost, $/kW-yr. A major variable affecting system cost is hours of storage available for discharge.

  8. Hybrid energy storage: the merging of battery and supercapacitor chemistries.

    PubMed

    Dubal, D P; Ayyad, O; Ruiz, V; Gómez-Romero, P

    2015-04-01

    The hybrid approach allows for a reinforcing combination of properties of dissimilar components in synergic combinations. From hybrid materials to hybrid devices the approach offers opportunities to tackle much needed improvements in the performance of energy storage devices. This paper reviews the different approaches and scales of hybrids, materials, electrodes and devices striving to advance along the diagonal of Ragone plots, providing enhanced energy and power densities by combining battery and supercapacitor materials and storage mechanisms. Furthermore, some theoretical aspects are considered regarding the possible hybrid combinations and tactics for the fabrication of optimized final devices. All of it aiming at enhancing the electrochemical performance of energy storage systems. PMID:25623995

  9. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K.

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  10. Onboard high data rate signal processing and storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Warner H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective is to advance the state of the art in onboard image data processing and storage through the use of advanced gallium arsenide integrated circuit technology. Viewgraphs are given on research and development efforts, an adaptive programmable processor chip set, design characteristics of an eight bit general processor, and a density comparison of silicon and gallium arsenide integrated circuits.

  11. Impact of Rhizomania on Storage Respiration Rate and Sugar Loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizomania, (beet necrotic yellow vein virus) is a serious threat to sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris) production in Minnesota and eastern North Dakota. As the prevalence and severity of the disease has increased, the proportion of diseased roots placed in postharvest storage piles also has increased. Thi...

  12. Towards greener and more sustainable batteries for electrical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larcher, D.; Tarascon, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    Ever-growing energy needs and depleting fossil-fuel resources demand the pursuit of sustainable energy alternatives, including both renewable energy sources and sustainable storage technologies. It is therefore essential to incorporate material abundance, eco-efficient synthetic processes and life-cycle analysis into the design of new electrochemical storage systems. At present, a few existing technologies address these issues, but in each case, fundamental and technological hurdles remain to be overcome. Here we provide an overview of the current state of energy storage from a sustainability perspective. We introduce the notion of sustainability through discussion of the energy and environmental costs of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries, considering elemental abundance, toxicity, synthetic methods and scalability. With the same themes in mind, we also highlight current and future electrochemical storage systems beyond lithium-ion batteries. The complexity and importance of recycling battery materials is also discussed.

  13. SIMWEST - A simulation model for wind energy storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edsinger, R. W.; Warren, A. W.; Gordon, L. H.; Chang, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive and efficient computer program for the modeling of wind energy systems with storage. The level of detail of SIMWEST (SImulation Model for Wind Energy STorage) is consistent with evaluating the economic feasibility as well as the general performance of wind energy systems with energy storage options. The software package consists of two basic programs and a library of system, environmental, and control components. The first program is a precompiler which allows the library components to be put together in building block form. The second program performs the technoeconomic system analysis with the required input/output, and the integration of system dynamics. An example of the application of the SIMWEST program to a current 100 kW wind energy storage system is given.

  14. Towards greener and more sustainable batteries for electrical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Larcher, D; Tarascon, J-M

    2015-01-01

    Ever-growing energy needs and depleting fossil-fuel resources demand the pursuit of sustainable energy alternatives, including both renewable energy sources and sustainable storage technologies. It is therefore essential to incorporate material abundance, eco-efficient synthetic processes and life-cycle analysis into the design of new electrochemical storage systems. At present, a few existing technologies address these issues, but in each case, fundamental and technological hurdles remain to be overcome. Here we provide an overview of the current state of energy storage from a sustainability perspective. We introduce the notion of sustainability through discussion of the energy and environmental costs of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries, considering elemental abundance, toxicity, synthetic methods and scalability. With the same themes in mind, we also highlight current and future electrochemical storage systems beyond lithium-ion batteries. The complexity and importance of recycling battery materials is also discussed. PMID:25515886

  15. Overview of Energy Storage Technologies for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, Subbarao

    2006-01-01

    This presentations gives an overview of the energy storage technologies that are being used in space applications. Energy storage systems have been used in 99% of the robotic and human space missions launched since 1960. Energy storage is used in space missions to provide primary electrical power to launch vehicles, crew exploration vehicles, planetary probes, and astronaut equipment; store electrical energy in solar powered orbital and surface missions and provide electrical energy during eclipse periods; and, to meet peak power demands in nuclear powered rovers, landers, and planetary orbiters. The power source service life (discharge hours) dictates the choice of energy storage technology (capacitors, primary batteries, rechargeable batteries, fuel cells, regenerative fuel cells, flywheels). NASA is planning a number of robotic and human space exploration missions for the exploration of space. These missions will require energy storage devices with mass and volume efficiency, long life capability, an the ability to operate safely in extreme environments. Advanced energy storage technologies continue to be developed to meet future space mission needs.

  16. Molten Glass for Thermal Storage: Advanced Molten Glass for Heat Transfer and Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: Halotechnics is developing a high-temperature thermal energy storage system using a new thermal-storage and heat-transfer material: earth-abundant and low-melting-point molten glass. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Halotechnics new thermal storage material targets a price that is potentially cheaper than the molten salt used in most commercial solar thermal storage systems today. It is also extremely stable at temperatures up to 1200°C—hundreds of degrees hotter than the highest temperature molten salt can handle. Being able to function at high temperatures will significantly increase the efficiency of turning heat into electricity. Halotechnics is developing a scalable system to pump, heat, store, and discharge the molten glass. The company is leveraging technology used in the modern glass industry, which has decades of experience handling molten glass.

  17. Survey of sensible and latent heat thermal energy storage projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylin, F.; Merino, M.

    1981-05-01

    Ongoing and completed research projects on sensible and latent heat thermal enegy storage for low, intermediate, and high temperature applications are reviewed. Projects in the United States and abroad are included. Several research efforts are in the index although the project descriptions are absent. Project lists are organized into four sections: short term sensible heat storage; seasonal sensible heat storage; latent heat storage; and models, economic analysis, and support studies. The organization of the Department of Energy programs managing many of these projects is also outlined. Projects are presented in a standard format that includes laboratory; funding level and period; status; project description; technical and economic parameters; and applications.

  18. Buffer thermal energy storage for a solar Brayton engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strumpf, H. J.; Barr, K. P.

    1981-01-01

    A study has been completed on the application of latent-heat buffer thermal energy storage to a point-focusing solar receiver equipped with an air Brayton engine. To aid in the study, a computer program was written for complete transient/stead-state Brayton cycle performance. The results indicated that thermal storage can afford a significant decrease in the number of engine shutdowns as compared to operating without thermal storage. However, the number of shutdowns does not continuously decrease as the storage material weight increases. In fact, there appears to be an optimum weight for minimizing the number of shutdowns.

  19. Electrochemical energy storage systems for solar thermal applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauthamer, S.; Frank, H.

    1980-01-01

    Existing and advanced electrochemical storage and inversion/conversion systems that may be used with terrestrial solar-thermal power systems are evaluated. The status, cost and performance of existing storage systems are assessed, and the cost, performance, and availability of advanced systems are projected. A prime consideration is the cost of delivered energy from plants utilizing electrochemical storage. Results indicate that the five most attractive electrochemical storage systems are the: iron-chromium redox (NASA LeRC), zinc-bromine (Exxon), sodium-sulfur (Ford), sodium-sulfur (Dow), and zinc-chlorine (EDA).

  20. Lower-Energy Energy Storage System (LEESS) Component Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.; Cosgrove, J.; Shi, Y.; Saxon, A.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-10-01

    Alternate hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) energy storage systems (ESS) such as lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) and electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) modules have the potential for improved life, superior cold temperature performance, and lower long-term cost projections relative to traditional battery storage systems. If such lower-energy ESS (LEESS) devices can also be shown to maintain high HEV fuel savings, future HEVs designed with these devices could have an increased value proposition relative to conventional vehicles. NREL's vehicle test platform is helping validate the in-vehicle performance capability of alternative LEESS devices and identify unforeseen issues. NREL created the Ford Fusion Hybrid test platform for in-vehicle evaluation of such alternative LEESS devices, bench testing of the initial LIC pack, integration and testing of the LIC pack in the test vehicle, and bench testing and installation of an EDLC module pack. EDLC pack testing will continue in FY15. The in-vehicle LIC testing results suggest technical viability of LEESS devices to support HEV operation. Several LIC configurations tested demonstrated equivalent fuel economy and acceleration performance as the production nickel-metal-hydride ESS configuration across all tests conducted. The lowest energy LIC scenario demonstrated equivalent performance over several tests, although slightly higher fuel consumption on the US06 cycle and slightly slower acceleration performance. More extensive vehicle-level calibration may be able to reduce or eliminate these performance differences. The overall results indicate that as long as critical attributes such as engine start under worst case conditions can be retained, considerable ESS downsizing may minimally impact HEV fuel savings.

  1. Site specific comparison of H2, CH4 and compressed air energy storage in porous formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmann Pfeiffer, Wolf; Wang, Bo; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The supply of energy from renewable sources like wind or solar power is subject to fluctuations determined by the climatic and weather conditions, and shortage periods can be expected on the order of days to weeks. Energy storage is thus required if renewable energy dominates the total energy production and has to compensate the shortages. Porous formations in the subsurface could provide large storage capacities for various energy carriers, such as hydrogen (H2), synthetic methane (CH4) or compressed air (CAES). All three energy storage options have similar requirements regarding the storage site characteristics and consequently compete for suitable subsurface structures. The aim of this work is to compare the individual storage methods for an individual storage site regarding the storage capacity as well as the achievable delivery rates. This objective is pursued using numerical simulation of the individual storage operations. In a first step, a synthetic anticline with a radius of 4 km, a drop of 900 m and a formation thickness of 20 m is used to compare the individual storage methods. The storage operations are carried out using -depending on the energy carrier- 5 to 13 wells placed in the top of the structure. A homogeneous parameter distribution is assumed with permeability, porosity and residual water saturation being 500 mD, 0.35 and 0.2, respectively. N2 is used as a cushion gas in the H2 storage simulations. In case of compressed air energy storage, a high discharge rate of 400 kg/s equating to 28.8 mio. m³/d at surface conditions is required to produce 320 MW of power. Using 13 wells the storage is capable of supplying the specified gas flow rate for a period of 31 hours. Two cases using 5 and 9 wells were simulated for both the H2 and the CH4 storage operation. The target withdrawal rates of 1 mio. sm³/d are maintained for the whole extraction period of one week in all simulations. However, the power output differs with the 5 well scenario producing

  2. Simulation of a high temperature thermal energy storage system employing several families of phase-change storage material

    SciTech Connect

    Adebiyi, G.A.

    1989-03-01

    Previous work by the author entailed modeling of the Packed Bed Thermal Energy Storage System, utilizing Phase-Change Materials, and a performance evaluation of the system based on the Second Law of thermodynamics. A principal conclusion reached is that the use of a single family of phase-change storage material may not in fact produce a thermodynamically superior system relative to one utilizing sensible heat storage material. This prompted us to modify our model so that we could investigate whether or not a significantly improved performance may be achieved via the use of multiple families of phase-change materials instead. Other factors investigated in the present work include the effect on system performance due to the thermal mass of the containment vessel wall, varying temperature and mass flow rate of the flue gas entering the packed bed during the storage process, and thermal radiation which could be a significant factor at high temperature levels. The resulting model is intended to serve as an integral part of a real-time simulation of the application of a high temperature regenerator in a periodic brick plant. This paper describes the more comprehensive model of the high temperature thermal energy storage system and presents results indicating that improved system performance could be achieved via a judicious choice of multiple families of phase-change materials.

  3. Synthesis of research and development in mechanical energy storage technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karadi, G. M.

    1985-05-01

    Current research in the field of energy storage was synthesized, previous accomplishments and trends have been reassessed, and new research was initiated to improve the understanding of basic phenomena governing aquifer energy storage operations. The research effort on the Environmental and Institutional Aspects of Compressed Air Energy storage was completed and specific guidelines were proposed for planning purposes. The seasonal thermal energy storage component of the ongoing work involved the reassessment of strategies of RD and D efforts and independent research was initiated on multiple aquifer systems which has already resulted in a new approach in the analysis of dispersion in porous media. A new method is advanced for the estimation of the number of heating, freezing and degree days. In the areas of Diurnal Thermal Energy Storage, Solar Thermal Storage, District Heating and Cooling, and Storage for Solar Receivers the various options is studied by reassessing the findings of various research projects and the most promising technologies and/or combinations of technologies will be determined.

  4. Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications (Report Summary) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Hummon, M.; Jenkin, T.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.; O'Malley, M.

    2013-06-01

    This analysis evaluates several operational benefits of electricity storage, including load-leveling, spinning contingency reserves, and regulation reserves. Storage devices were simulated in a utility system in the western United States, and the operational costs of generation was compared to the same system without the added storage. This operational value of storage was estimated for devices of various sizes, providing different services, and with several sensitivities to fuel price and other factors. Overall, the results followed previous analyses that demonstrate relatively low value for load-leveling but greater value for provision of reserve services. The value was estimated by taking the difference in operational costs between cases with and without energy storage and represents the operational cost savings from deploying storage by a traditional vertically integrated utility. The analysis also estimated the potential revenues derived from a merchant storage plant in a restructured market, based on marginal system prices. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials and incomplete capture of system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit provided to the system. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

  5. The Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, Paul; Jorgenson, Jennie; Hummon, Marissa; Jenkin, Thomas; Palchak, David; Kirby, Brendan; Ma, Ookie; O'Malley, Mark

    2013-05-01

    This analysis evaluates several operational benefits of electricity storage, including load-leveling, spinning contingency reserves, and regulation reserves. Storage devices were simulated in a utility system in the western United States, and the operational costs of generation was compared to the same system without the added storage. This operational value of storage was estimated for devices of various sizes, providing different services, and with several sensitivities to fuel price and other factors. Overall, the results followed previous analyses that demonstrate relatively low value for load-leveling but greater value for provision of reserve services. The value was estimated by taking the difference in operational costs between cases with and without energy storage and represents the operational cost savings from deploying storage by a traditional vertically integrated utility. The analysis also estimated the potential revenues derived from a merchant storage plant in a restructured market, based on marginal system prices. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials and incomplete capture of system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit provided to the system. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

  6. Development of thermal energy storage units for spacecraft cryogenic coolers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, R.; Mahefkey, E. T.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal Energy Storage Units were developed for storing thermal energy required for operating Vuilleumier cryogenic space coolers. In the course of the development work the thermal characteristics of thermal energy storage material was investigated. By three distinctly different methods it was established that ternary salts did not release fusion energy as determined by ideality at the melting point of the eutectic salt. Phase change energy was released over a relatively wide range of temperature with a large change in volume. This strongly affects the amount of thermal energy that is available to the Vuilleumier cryogenic cooler at its operating temperature range and the amount of thermal energy that can be stored and released during a single storage cycle.

  7. Design Considerations for High Energy Electron -- Positron Storage Rings

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Richter, B.

    1966-11-01

    High energy electron-positron storage rings give a way of making a new attack on the most important problems of elementary particle physics. All of us who have worked in the storage ring field designing, building, or using storage rings know this. The importance of that part of storage ring work concerning tests of quantum electrodynamics and mu meson physics is also generally appreciated by the larger physics community. However, I do not think that most of the physicists working tin the elementary particle physics field realize the importance of the contribution that storage ring experiments can make to our understanding of the strongly interacting particles. I would therefore like to spend the next few minutes discussing the sort of things that one can do with storage rings in the strongly interacting particle field.

  8. Technology Base Research Project for electrochemical energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, K.

    1991-06-01

    This report is an executive summary of major project goals and descriptions for electrochemical energy storage. Exploratory research, applied science research, air systems research, milestones, and management activities are a few of the topics discussed. (JL)

  9. Enhanced Reliability of Photovoltaic Systems with Energy Storage and Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Manz, D.; Schelenz, O.; Chandra, R.; Bose, S.; de Rooij, M.; Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This report summarizes efforts to reconfigure loads during outages to allow individual customers the opportunity to enhance the reliability of their electric service through the management of their loads, photovoltaics, and energy storage devices.

  10. Crosstalk compensation in analysis of energy storage devices

    DOEpatents

    Christophersen, Jon P; Morrison, John L; Morrison, William H; Motloch, Chester G; Rose, David M

    2014-06-24

    Estimating impedance of energy storage devices includes generating input signals at various frequencies with a frequency step factor therebetween. An excitation time record (ETR) is generated to include a summation of the input signals and a deviation matrix of coefficients is generated relative to the excitation time record to determine crosstalk between the input signals. An energy storage device is stimulated with the ETR and simultaneously a response time record (RTR) is captured that is indicative of a response of the energy storage device to the ETR. The deviation matrix is applied to the RTR to determine an in-phase component and a quadrature component of an impedance of the energy storage device at each of the different frequencies with the crosstalk between the input signals substantially removed. This approach enables rapid impedance spectra measurements that can be completed within one period of the lowest frequency or less.

  11. Magnetic Resonance Studies of Energy Storage Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez Reina, Rafael

    In today's society there is high demand to have access to energy for portable devices in different forms. Capacitors with high performance in small package to achieve high charge/discharge rates, and batteries with their ability to store electricity and make energy mobile are part of this demand. The types of internal dielectric material strongly affect the characteristics of a capacitor, and its applications. In a battery, the choice of the electrolyte plays an important role in the Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) formation, and the cathode material for high output voltage. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are research techniques that exploit the magnetic properties of the electron and certain atomic nuclei to determine physical and chemical properties of the atoms or molecules in which they are contained. Both EPR and NMR spectroscopy technique can yield meaningful structural and dynamic information. Three different projects are discussed in this dissertation. First, High energy density capacitors where EPR measurements described herein provide an insight into structural and chemical differences in the dielectric material of a capacitor. Next, as the second project, Electrolyte solutions where an oxygen-17 NMR study has been employed to assess the degree of preferential solvation of Li+ ions in binary mixtures of EC (ethylene carbonate) and DMC (dimethyl carbonate) containing LiPF6 (lithium hexafluo-rophosphate) which may be ultimately related to the SEI formation mechanism. The third project was to study Bismuth fluoride as cathode material for rechargeable batteries. The objective was to study 19F and 7Li MAS NMR of some nanocomposite cathode materials as a conversion reaction occurring during lithiation and delithation of the BiF3/C nanocomposite.

  12. Sizing a water softener for aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.H.; Jenne, E.A.

    1993-03-01

    In aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) installations, ground water is circulated between an aquifer and heat exchangers via a well field. It is often necessary to soften the water to prevent carbonate scaling in pipes, heat exchangers, and well screens. Most ATES projects requiring water softening will be best served by using synthetic ion-exchange resins. The size of the resin beds, the resin regeneration cycle, and the amount of NaCl brine used in each regeneration depend on several factors. These are (1) the chemistry of the native ground water, (2) allowable residual hardness after softening, (3) the maximum flow rate of water through the ATES plant, and (4) exchange characteristics of the resin. Example calculations are given for a three-bed water softening system.

  13. Electrochemical cells for medium- and large-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Xiaoliang; Choi, Daiwon; Lu, Xiaochuan; Yang, G.; Sun, C.

    2014-12-12

    This is one of the chapters in the book titled “Advances in batteries for large- and medium-scale energy storage: Applications in power systems and electric vehicles” that will be published by the Woodhead Publishing Limited. The chapter discusses the basic electrochemical fundamentals of electrochemical energy storage devices with a focus on the rechargeable batteries. Several practical secondary battery systems are also discussed as examples

  14. Regulatory Policy and Markets for Energy Storage in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2014-05-14

    The last 5 years have been one of the most exciting times for the energy storage industry. We have seen significant advancements in the regulatory process to make accommodations for valuing and monetizing energy storage for what it provides to the grid. The most impactful regulatory decision for the energy storage industry has come from California, where the California Public Utilities Commission issued a decision that mandates procurement requirements of 1.325 GW for energy storage to 3 investor-own utilities in 4 stages: in 2014, 2016, 2018, and 2020. Furthermore, at the Federal level, FERC’s Order 755, requires the transmission operators to develop pay for performance tariffs for ancillary services. This has had direct impact on the market design of US competitive wholesale markets and the monetization of fast responding grid assets. While this order is technology neutral, it clearly plays into the fast-responding capability of energy storage technologies. Today PJM, CAISO, MISO, NYISO, and NE-ISO have implemented Order 755 and offer new tariff for regulation services based on pay-for-performance principles. Furthermore, FERC Order 784, issued in July 2013 requires transmission providers to consider speed and accuracy in determining the requirements for ancillary services. In November 2013, FERC issued Order 972, which revises the small generator interconnection agreement which declares energy storage as a power source. This order puts energy storage on par with existing generators. This paper will discuss the implementation of FERC’s Pay for Performance Regulation order at all ISOs in the U.S. under FERC regulatory authority (this excludes ERCOT). Also discussed will be the market impacts and overall impacts on the NERC regulation performance indexes. The paper will end with a discussion on the California and Ontario, Canada procurement mandates and the opportunity that it may present to the energy storage industry.

  15. 78 FR 56692 - Colorado River Storage Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-161

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Projects (SLCA/IP) Firm Power Rate and the Colorado River Storage Project (CRSP) Transmission and Ancillary Services Rates through September 30, 2015. The existing SLCA/IP Firm Power Rate and CRSP Transmission and...) is proposing to temporarily extend the existing SLCA/IP Firm Power Rate and CRSP Transmission...

  16. Energy storage and thermal control system design status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Stephen N.; Willhoite, Bryan C.; Vanommering, Gert

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom electric power system (EPS) will initially rely on photovoltaics for power generation and Ni/H2 batteries for electrical energy storage. The current design for and the development status of two major subsystems in the PV Power Module is discussed. The energy storage subsystem comprised of high capacity Ni/H2 batteries and the single-phase thermal control system that rejects the excess heat generated by the batteries and other components associated with power generation and storage is described.

  17. Energy storage by compressed air. [using windpowered pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szego, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of windpower energy storage by compressed air is considered. The system is comprised of a compressor, a motor, and a pump turbine to store air in caverns or aquifiers. It is proposed that storage of several days worth of compressed air up to 650 pounds per square inch can be used to push the aquifier up closer to the container dome and thus initiate piston action by simply compressing air more and more. More energy can be put into it by pressure increase or pushing back the water in the aquifier. This storage system concept has reheat flexibility and lowest cost effectiveness.

  18. Energy storage for low earth orbit operations at high power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trout, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented of an in-house study of relative sizes and technology needs of three energy storage systems for high power, low earth orbit power systems. The systems compared are nickel-cadmium batteries, nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell systems (RFCS). RFCS based on hydrogen-oxygen and hydrogen-chlorine reactants are examined. Those components of the total power system which are significantly impacted by energy storage system selection; e.g., solar array, reactant storage tanks and radiator sizes, are included incrementally in the weights of the systems compared.

  19. Redox Bulk Energy Storage System Study, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciprios, G.; Erskine, W., Jr.; Grimes, P. G.

    1977-01-01

    Opportunities were found for electrochemical energy storage devices in the U.S. electric utility industry. Application requirements for these devices were defined, including techno-economic factors. A new device, the Redox storage battery was analyzed. The Redox battery features a decoupling of energy storage and power conversion functions. General computer methods were developed to simulate Redox system operations. These studies showed that the Redox system is potentially attractive if certain performance goals can be achieved. Pathways for reducing the cost of the Redox system were identified.

  20. Demonstration of Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage to Support Renewable Energy Production

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, Benjamin

    2015-01-02

    This project develops and demonstrates a megawatt (MW)-scale Energy Storage System that employs compressed air as the storage medium. An isothermal compressed air energy storage (ICAESTM) system rated for 1 MW or more will be demonstrated in a full-scale prototype unit. Breakthrough cost-effectiveness will be achieved through the use of proprietary methods for isothermal gas cycling and staged gas expansion implemented using industrially mature, readily-available components.The ICAES approach uses an electrically driven mechanical system to raise air to high pressure for storage in low-cost pressure vessels, pipeline, or lined-rock cavern (LRC). This air is later expanded through the same mechanical system to drive the electric motor as a generator. The approach incorporates two key efficiency-enhancing innovations: (1) isothermal (constant temperature) gas cycling, which is achieved by mixing liquid with air (via spray or foam) to exchange heat with air undergoing compression or expansion; and (2) a novel, staged gas-expansion scheme that allows the drivetrain to operate at constant power while still allowing the stored gas to work over its entire pressure range. The ICAES system will be scalable, non-toxic, and cost-effective, making it suitable for firming renewables and for other grid applications.

  1. Twelve Principles for Green Energy Storage in Grid Applications.

    PubMed

    Arbabzadeh, Maryam; Johnson, Jeremiah X; Keoleian, Gregory A; Rasmussen, Paul G; Thompson, Levi T

    2016-01-19

    The introduction of energy storage technologies to the grid could enable greater integration of renewables, improve system resilience and reliability, and offer cost effective alternatives to transmission and distribution upgrades. The integration of energy storage systems into the electrical grid can lead to different environmental outcomes based on the grid application, the existing generation mix, and the demand. Given this complexity, a framework is needed to systematically inform design and technology selection about the environmental impacts that emerge when considering energy storage options to improve sustainability performance of the grid. To achieve this, 12 fundamental principles specific to the design and grid application of energy storage systems are developed to inform policy makers, designers, and operators. The principles are grouped into three categories: (1) system integration for grid applications, (2) the maintenance and operation of energy storage, and (3) the design of energy storage systems. We illustrate the application of each principle through examples published in the academic literature, illustrative calculations, and a case study with an off-grid application of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). In addition, trade-offs that can emerge between principles are highlighted. PMID:26629882

  2. Modeling of battery energy storage in the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Flynn, W.T.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-12-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) developed by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration is a well-recognized model that is used to project the potential impact of new electric generation technologies. The NEMS model does not presently have the capability to model energy storage on the national grid. The scope of this study was to assess the feasibility of, and make recommendations for, the modeling of battery energy storage systems in the Electricity Market of the NEMS. Incorporating storage within the NEMS will allow the national benefits of storage technologies to be evaluated.

  3. Quantifying induced effects of subsurface renewable energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Sebastian; Beyer, Christof; Pfeiffer, Tilmann; Boockmeyer, Anke; Popp, Steffi; Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Wang, Bo; Li, Dedong; Dethlefsen, Frank; Dahmke, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    New methods and technologies for energy storage are required for the transition to renewable energy sources. Subsurface energy storage systems such as salt caverns or porous formations offer the possibility of hosting large amounts of energy or substance. When employing these systems, an adequate system and process understanding is required in order to assess the feasibility of the individual storage option at the respective site and to predict the complex and interacting effects induced. This understanding is the basis for assessing the potential as well as the risks connected with a sustainable usage of these storage options, especially when considering possible mutual influences. For achieving this aim, in this work synthetic scenarios for the use of the geological underground as an energy storage system are developed and parameterized. The scenarios are designed to represent typical conditions in North Germany. The types of subsurface use investigated here include gas storage and heat storage in porous formations. The scenarios are numerically simulated and interpreted with regard to risk analysis and effect forecasting. For this, the numerical simulators Eclipse and OpenGeoSys are used. The latter is enhanced to include the required coupled hydraulic, thermal, geomechanical and geochemical processes. Using the simulated and interpreted scenarios, the induced effects are quantified individually and monitoring concepts for observing these effects are derived. This presentation will detail the general investigation concept used and analyze the parameter availability for this type of model applications. Then the process implementation and numerical methods required and applied for simulating the induced effects of subsurface storage are detailed and explained. Application examples show the developed methods and quantify induced effects and storage sizes for the typical settings parameterized. This work is part of the ANGUS+ project, funded by the German Ministry

  4. Design Flexibility of Redox Flow Systems. [for energy storage applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, N. H.; Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    The characteristics inherent in Redox flow systems permit considerable latitude in designing systems for specific storage applications. The first of these characteristics is the absence of plating/deplating reactions with their attendant morphology changes at the electrodes. This permits a given Redox system to operate over a wide range of depths of discharge and charge/discharge rates. The second characteristic is the separation of power generating components (stacks) from the energy storage components (tanks). This results in cost effective system design, ease of system growth via modularization, and freedom from sizing restraints so that the whole spectrum of applications, from utilities down to single residence can be considered. The final characteristic is the commonality of the reactant fluids which assures that all cells at all times are receiving reactants at the same state of charge. Since no cell can be out of balance with respect to any other cell, it is possible for some cells to be charged while others are discharging, in effect creating a DC to DC transformer. It is also possible for various groups of cells to be connected to separate loads, thus supplying a range of output voltages. Also, trim cells can be used to maintain constant bus voltage as the load is changed or as the depth of discharge increases. The commonality of reactant fluids also permits any corrective measures such as rebalancing to occur at the system level instead of at the single cell level.

  5. Nanostructured Materials for Advanced Electrochemical Energy Storage Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Benjamin E.

    This dissertation discusses work aimed at developing and improving nanostructured materials for electrochemical energy storage, specifically electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). This was achieved through a combination of templating, precursor selection, and heteroatom doping to control the morphology and composition of the materials for improved performance in both types of energy storage. The first part of the thesis discusses EDLCs. First, a new method to produce soft-templated carbon materials is described. This process allows for improved production of mesoporous carbon made through soft templating. The work continues with using ionic liquids to dope nitrogen into hard templated mesoporous carbon. This led to a 40% improvement in specific capacitance due to improved conductivity. The section concludes with an investigation of physical and electrochemical properties of twelve ionic liquid electrolytes to determine which parameters are most important to achieve a high energy density. The second part discusses my work on LIBs, starting with a design of a low-cost electrochemical cell for in-situ X-ray diffraction monitoring during galvanostatic cycling. It continues with the development of a novel cathode material, Li8ZrO6, with a high lithium content. In this material, the redox activity is localized on oxygen atoms. Li8ZrO6 displays initial capacities higher than those of commercial materials but has large polarization. The capacity is further improved with transition metal doping, leading to a final specific capacity of over 175 mAh/g after 140 cycles at a rate of C/5.

  6. Dynamic operating benefits of energy storage: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fancher, R.B.; Jabbour, S.J.; Spelman, J.R.

    1986-10-01

    The use of energy storage power plants to enhance power system operational flexibility (spinning reserve, load following, reduced minimum loading of power plants, etc.) yields substantive economic benefits due to reduced fuel use, lower operating and maintenance costs, and extended life of power plants. Inclusion of these benefits in generation expansion studies could increase the economic incentives of installing storage and fuel cell power plants. The objective of this project is to identify the benefits of energy storage due to the enhanced system operational flexibility, or simply called dynamic operating benefits (DOB). The results of an international symposium on DOB and three case studies in the US are reported. The results produce strong evidence of the reality and significance of dynamic operating benefits of energy storage and the importance of including that benefit in generation expansion studies.

  7. Buffer thermal energy storage for an air Brayton solar engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strumpf, H. J.; Barr, K. P.

    1981-01-01

    The application of latent-heat buffer thermal energy storage to a point-focusing solar receiver equipped with an air Brayton engine was studied. To demonstrate the effect of buffer thermal energy storage on engine operation, a computer program was written which models the recuperator, receiver, and thermal storage device as finite-element thermal masses. Actual operating or predicted performance data are used for all components, including the rotating equipment. Based on insolation input and a specified control scheme, the program predicts the Brayton engine operation, including flows, temperatures, and pressures for the various components, along with the engine output power. An economic parametric study indicates that the economic viability of buffer thermal energy storage is largely a function of the achievable engine life.

  8. Aquifer thermal energy storage reference manual: seasonal thermal energy storage program

    SciTech Connect

    Prater, L.S.

    1980-01-01

    This is the reference manual of the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Program, and is the primary document for the transfer of technical information of the STES Program. It has been issued in preliminary form and will be updated periodically to include more technical data and results of research. As the program progresses and new technical data become available, sections of the manual will be revised to incorporate these data. This primary document contains summaries of: the TRW, incorporated demonstration project at Behtel, Alaska, Dames and Moore demonstration project at Stony Brook, New York, and the University of Minnesota demonstration project at Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota; the technical support programs including legal/institutional assessment; economic assessment; environmental assessment; field test facilities; a compendia of existing information; numerical simulation; and non-aquifer STES concepts. (LCL)

  9. Legal and regulatory issues affecting aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1981-10-01

    This document updates and expands the report with a similar title issued in October 1980. This document examines a number of legal and regulatory issues that potentially can affect implementation of the aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) concept. This concept involves the storage of thermal energy in an underground aquifer until a later date when it can be effectively utilized. Either heat energy or chill can be stored. Potential end uses of the energy include district space heating and cooling, industrial process applications, and use in agriculture or aquaculture. Issues are examined in four categories: regulatory requirements, property rights, potential liability, and issues related to heat or chill delivery.

  10. Energy storage by droplet/bubble capillary force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhang, Xiaolong; Huang, Tony Jun; Chen, Xiaolin

    In present research, a capillary energy storage device is designed by a channel-expansion chamber structure. In the proposed model, the energy is stored in the form of compressed droplet/ bubble in a smaller channel with the release of energy in the form of capillary driven flow. The power output curve for this device is provided by numerical studies. Trials are also engaged to design a continuous output supply by considering the power output and the viscous loss. This device can potentially be used in both micro- and nano- scale energy storage.

  11. An Assessment of Nuclear Isomers as an Energy Storage Medium

    SciTech Connect

    Hartouni, Edward P.

    2009-03-16

    Nuclear Isomers have been suggested as a potential high energy density medium that might be used to store energy. This talk assesses the state of the science supporting key elements of using nuclear isomers in energy storage applications. The focus is on the nuclear isomer {sup 178m2}Hf which has been most widely suggested for energy storage applications. However, the science issues apply to all nuclear isomer. The assessment addresses the production of the nuclear isomer, and inducing the release of the isomer. Also discussed are novel speculations on photon and/or neutron chain reactions, both as a 'pure' material as well as mixed with other materials.

  12. An Assessment of Nuclear Isomers as an Energy Storage Medium

    SciTech Connect

    Hartouni, E P

    2008-12-08

    Nuclear Isomers have been suggested as a potential high energy density medium that might be used to store energy. This talk assesses the state of the science supporting key elements of using nuclear isomers in energy storage applications. The focus is on the nuclear isomer {sup 178m2}Hf which has been most widely suggested for energy storage applications. However, the science issues apply to all nuclear isomer. The assessment addresses the production of the nuclear isomer, and inducing the release of the isomer. Also discussed are novel speculations on photon and/or neutron chain reactions, both as a 'pure' material as well as mixed with other materials.

  13. Numerical Modeling of a Shallow Borehole Thermal Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catolico, N.; Ge, S.; Lu, N.; McCartney, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) combined with solar thermal energy harvesting is an economic technological system to garner and store energy as well as an environmentally-sustainable alternative for the heating of buildings. The first community-scale BTES system in North America was installed in 2007 in the Drake Landing Solar Community (DLSC), about 35 miles south of Calgary, Canada. The BTES system involves direct circulation of water heated from solar thermal panels in the summer into a storage tank, after which it is circulate within an array of 144 closed-loop geothermal heat exchangers having a depth of 35 m and a spacing of 2.5 m. In the winter the circulation direction is reversed to supply heat to houses. Data collection over a six year period indicates that this system can supply more than 90% of the winter heating energy needs for 52 houses in the community. One major challenge facing the BTES system technology is the relatively low annual efficiency, i.e., the ratio of energy input and output is in the range of 15% to 40% for the system in Drake Landing. To better understand the working principles of BTES and to improve BTES performance for future applications at larger scales, a three-dimensional transient coupled fluid and heat transfer model is established using TOUGH2. The time-dependent injection temperatures and circulation rate measured over the six years of monitoring are used as model input. The simulations are calibrated using soil temperature data measured at different locations over time. The time-dependent temperature distributions within the borehole region agree well with the measured temperatures for soil with an intrinsic permeability of 10e-19 m2, an apparent thermal conductivity of 2.03 W/m°C, and a volumetric heat capacity of 2.31 MJ/m-3°C. The calibrated model serves as the basis for a sensitivity analysis of soil and operational parameters on BTES system efficiency preformed with TOUGH2. Preliminary results suggest 1) BTES

  14. Estimating Continental Energy Storage from CMIP5 Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Cuesta-Valero, Francisco; García-García, Almudena; Beltrami, Hugo; Smerdon, Jason

    2016-04-01

    The Earth's energy imbalance is a critical metric for understanding the current state of the Earth's climate system and its future evolution. Although much of the energy gained by the climate system over the last century has been stored in the oceans, the continental subsurface energy storage remains important because climate feedback processes such as soil carbon and permafrost stability depend on long-term subsurface energy storage. Here, for the first time, thirty two General Circulation Model (GCM) simulations from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) were examined to assess their ability to account for the continental energy storage. The magnitude of the subsurface heat content derived from GCM simulations are consistently lower than the estimates from borehole temperature data for the second half of the 20th century. The estimates of continental heat storage from CMIP5 simulations also display a large range of variability which may be partially due to (1) the different bottom boundary depth of each GCM land surface component, limiting the subsurface heat storage, (2) the different energy exchange parameterizations between the lower atmosphere and the ground within each model, and (3) the different sensitivity of models to external forcings. Our results suggest that a deeper bottom boundary placement in the land surface component could improve the estimates of subsurface energy content within the GCM simulations.

  15. Bypass apparatus and method for series connected energy storage devices

    DOEpatents

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Daigle, Dominik

    2000-01-01

    A bypass apparatus and method for series connected energy storage devices. Each of the energy storage devices coupled to a common series connection has an associated bypass unit connected thereto in parallel. A current bypass unit includes a sensor which is coupled in parallel with an associated energy storage device or cell and senses an energy parameter indicative of an energy state of the cell, such as cell voltage. A bypass switch is coupled in parallel with the energy storage cell and operable between a non-activated state and an activated state. The bypass switch, when in the non-activated state, is substantially non-conductive with respect to current passing through the energy storage cell and, when in the activated state, provides a bypass current path for passing current to the series connection so as to bypass the associated cell. A controller controls activation of the bypass switch in response to the voltage of the cell deviating from a pre-established voltage setpoint. The controller may be included within the bypass unit or be disposed on a control platform external to the bypass unit. The bypass switch may, when activated, establish a permanent or a temporary bypass current path.

  16. FY2014 Energy Storage R&D Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-03-01

    The Energy Storage research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for projects focusing on batteries for plug-in electric vehicles. Program targets focus on overcoming technical barriers to enable market success including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost, (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability), (3) reducing battery weight & volume, and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush. This report describes the progress made on the research and development projects funded by the Energy Storage subprogram in 2014. You can download individual sections at the following website, http://energy.gov/eere/vehicles/downloads/vehicle-technologies-office-2014-energy-storage-rd-annual-report.

  17. Thermal energy storage technical progress report, April 1992--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, M.

    1993-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting development of thermal energy storage (TES) as a means of efficiently coupling energy supplies to variable heating or cooling demands. Uses of TES include electrical demand-side management in buildings and industry, extending the utilization of renewable energy resources such as solar, and recovery of waste heat from periodic industrial processes. Technical progress to develop TES for specific diurnal and industrial applications under the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s TES program from April 1992 to March 1993 is reported and covers research in the areas of low temperature sorption, thermal energy storage water heater, latent heat storage wallboard and latent/sensible heat regenerator technology development.

  18. FY2007 NREL Energy Storage R&D Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.

    2007-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is engaged in research and development activities to support achieving targets and objectives set by the Energy Storage Program at the Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology in the U.S. Department of Energy. These activities include: 1. supporting the Battery Technology Development Program with battery thermal characterization and modeling and with energy storage system simulations and analysis; 2. supporting the Applied Research Program by developing thermal models to address abuse of Li-Ion batteries; and 3. supporting the Focused Long-Term Research Program by investigating improved Li-Ion battery electrode materials. This report summarizes the results of NREL energy storage activities in FY07.

  19. Lifecycle Cost Analysis of Hydrogen Versus Other Technologies for Electrical Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, D.; Saur, G.; Penev, M.; Ramsden, T.

    2009-11-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis evaluating the economic viability of hydrogen for medium- to large-scale electrical energy storage applications compared with three other storage technologies: batteries, pumped hydro, and compressed air energy storage (CAES).

  20. Carbonless Transportation and Energy Storage in Future Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lamont, A.D.; Berry, G.D.

    2001-01-17

    By 2050 world population is projected to stabilize near 10 billion. Global economic development will outpace this growth, achieving present European per capita living standards by quintupling the size of the global economy--and increasing energy use, especially electricity, substantially. Even with aggressive efficiency improvements, global electricity use will at least triple to 30 trillion kWh/yr in 2050. Direct use of fuels, with greater potential for efficiency improvement, may be held to 80 trillion kWh (289 EJ) annually, 50% above present levels (IPCC, 1996). Sustaining energy use at these or higher rates, while simultaneously stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels, will require massive deployment of carbon-conscious energy systems for electricity generation and transportation by the mid 21st Century. These systems will either involve a shift to non-fossil primary energy sources (such as solar, wind, biomass, nuclear, and hydroelectric) or continue to rely on fossil primary energy sources and sequester carbon emissions (Halmann, 1999). Both approaches share the need to convert, transmit, store and deliver energy to end-users through carbonless energy carriers.

  1. Seasonal Solar Thermal Absorption Energy Storage Development.

    PubMed

    Daguenet-Frick, Xavier; Gantenbein, Paul; Rommel, Mathias; Fumey, Benjamin; Weber, Robert; Gooneseker, Kanishka; Williamson, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a thermochemical seasonal storage with emphasis on the development of a reaction zone for an absorption/desorption unit. The heat and mass exchanges are modelled and the design of a suitable reaction zone is explained. A tube bundle concept is retained for the heat and mass exchangers and the units are manufactured and commissioned. Furthermore, experimental results of both absorption and desorption processes are presented and the exchanged power is compared to the results of the simulations. PMID:26842331

  2. Thermal energy storage apparatus enabling use of aqueous or corrosive thermal storage media

    SciTech Connect

    James, T.W.

    1993-08-31

    A holdover plate is described for thermal energy storage in refrigeration and air conditioning systems, the holdover plate comprising: a heat exchanger with an adjacent space in close proximity thereto; a plurality of expandable capsules containing a thermal energy storage medium, the capsules substantially filling the adjacent space and the capsules including means to provide for expansion of the thermal energy storage medium without altering outer envelope dimensions of the capsules; a containment means forming an exterior of the holdover plate and surrounding the heat exchanger and the adjacent space filled with the capsules, the containment means further containing a convective coupling fluid which thermally couples and is non-corrosive to the heat exchanger, the capsules, and the containment means; and wherein the convective coupling fluid transfers heat primarily through natural convection and conduction and does not freeze at operational temperatures of the heat exchanger.

  3. The state of energy storage in electric utility systems and its effect on renewable energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, N S

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the state of the art of electric energy storage technologies and discusses how adding intermittent renewable energy technologies (IRETs) to a utility network affects the benefits from storage dispatch. Load leveling was the mode of storage dispatch examined in the study. However, the report recommended that other modes be examined in the future for kilowatt and kilowatt-hour optimization of storage. The motivation to install storage with IRET generation can arise from two considerations: reliability and enhancement of the value of energy. Because adding storage increases cost, reliability-related storage is attractive only if the accruing benefits exceed the cost of storage installation. The study revealed that the operation of storage should not be guided by the output of the IRET but rather by system marginal costs. Consequently, in planning studies to quantify benefits, storage should not be considered as an entity belonging to the system and not as a component of IRETS. The study also indicted that because the infusion of IRET energy tends to reduce system marginal cost, the benefits from load leveling (value of energy) would be reduced. However, if a system has storage, particularly if the storage is underutilized, its dispatch can be reoriented to enhance the benefits of IRET integration.

  4. Legal and regulatory issues affecting compressed air energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1981-07-01

    Several regulatory and legal issues that can potentially affect implementation of a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system are discussed. This technology involves the compression of air using base load electric power for storage in an underground storage medium. The air is subsequently released and allowed to pass through a turbine to generate electricity during periods of peak demand. The storage media considered most feasible are a mined hard rock cavern, a solution-mined cavern in a salt deposit, and a porous geologic formation (normally an aquifer) of suitable structure. The issues are discussed in four categories: regulatory issues common to most CAES facilities regardless of storage medium, regulatory issues applicable to particular CAES reservoir media, issues related to possible liability from CAES operations, and issues related to acquisition of appropriate property rights for CAES implementation. The focus is on selected federal regulation. Lesser attention is given to state and local regulation. (WHK)

  5. Thermal energy storage systems using fluidized bed heat exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weast, T.; Shannon, L.

    1980-01-01

    A rotary cement kiln and an electric arc furnace were chosen for evaluation to determine the applicability of a fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHX) for thermal energy storage (TES). Multistage shallow bed FBHX's operating with high temperature differences were identified as the most suitable for TES applications. Analysis of the two selected conceptual systems included establishing a plant process flow configuration, an operational scenario, a preliminary FBHX/TES design, and parametric analysis. A computer model was developed to determine the effects of the number of stages, gas temperatures, gas flows, bed materials, charge and discharge time, and parasitic power required for operation. The maximum national energy conservation potential of the cement plant application with TES is 15.4 million barrels of oil or 3.9 million tons of coal per year. For the electric arc furnance application the maximum national conservation potential with TES is 4.5 million barrels of oil or 1.1 million tons of coal per year. Present time of day utility rates are near the breakeven point required for the TES system. Escalation of on-peak energy due to critical fuel shortages could make the FBHX/TES applications economically attractive in the future.

  6. Control and Size Energy Storage for Managing Energy balance of Variable Generation Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Xinda; Lu, Ning; Jin, Chunlian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents control algorithms and sizing strategies for using energy storage to manage energy balance for variable generation resources. The control objective is to minimize the hourly generation imbalance between the actual and the scheduled generation of the wind farm. Three control algorithms are compared: tracking power imbalance, post-compensation, and pre-compensation. Measurement data from a wind farm located in South-central Washington State are used in the study. The results show that tracking power imbalance yields the best performance by keeping the hourly energy imbalances zero. However, the energy storage system (ESS) will be significantly oversized. Post-compensation reduces power rating of the ESS but the hourly imbalance may not be kept as zero when large and long-lasting energy imbalances occur. A linear regression forecasting algorithm is developed for the pre-compensation algorithm to pre-charge or pre-discharge the ESS based on predicted energy imbalances. The performance comparison shows that the pre-compensation method significantly reduces the size of the ESS while maintaining satisfactory performance.

  7. The strain capacitor: A novel energy storage device

    SciTech Connect

    Deb Shuvra, Pranoy; McNamara, Shamus

    2014-12-15

    A novel electromechanical energy storage device is reported that has the potential to have high energy densities. It can efficiently store both mechanical strain energy and electrical energy in the form of an electric field between the electrodes of a strain-mismatched bilayer capacitor. When the charged device is discharged, both the electrical and mechanical energy are extracted in an electrical form. The charge-voltage profile of the device is suitable for energy storage applications since a larger portion of the stored energy can be extracted at higher voltage levels compared to a normal capacitor. Its unique features include the potential for long lifetime, safety, portability, wide operating temperature range, and environment friendliness. The device can be designed to operate over varied operating voltage ranges by selecting appropriate materials and by changing the dimensions of the device. In this paper a finite element model of the device is developed to verify and demonstrate the potential of the device as an energy storage element. This device has the potential to replace conventional energy storage devices.

  8. Rating the energy performance of buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Olofsson, Thomas; Meier, Alan; Lamberts, Roberto

    2004-12-01

    In order to succeed in developing a more sustainable society, buildings will need to be continuously improved. This paper discusses how to rate the energy performance of buildings. A brief review of recent approaches to energy rating is presented. It illustrates that there is no single correct or wrong concept, but one needs to be aware of the relative impact of the strategies. Different strategies of setting energy efficiency standards are discussed and the advantages of the minimum life cycle cost are shown. Indicators for building energy rating based on simulations, aggregated statistics and expert knowledge are discussed and illustrated in order to demonstrate strengths and weaknesses of each approach. In addition, the importance of considering the level of amenities offered is presented. Attributes of a rating procedure based on three elements, flexible enough for recognizing different strategies to achieve energy conservation, is proposed.

  9. Hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, A. I.; Nazarova, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    A hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine unit is considered that can be used in both nuclear and centralized power industries. However, it is the most promising when used for power-generating plants based on renewable energy sources (RES). The basic feature of the energy storage system in question is combination of storing the energy in compressed air and hydrogen and oxygen produced by the water electrolysis. Such a process makes the energy storage more flexible, in particular, when applied to RES-based power-generating plants whose generation of power may considerably vary during the course of a day, and also reduces the specific cost of the system by decreasing the required volume of the reservoir. This will allow construction of such systems in any areas independent of the local topography in contrast to the compressed-air energy storage gas-turbine plants, which require large-sized underground reservoirs. It should be noted that, during the energy recovery, the air that arrives from the reservoir is heated by combustion of hydrogen in oxygen, which results in the gas-turbine exhaust gases practically free of substances hazardous to the health and the environment. The results of analysis of a hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are presented. Its layout and the principle of its operation are described and the basic parameters are computed. The units of the system are analyzed and their costs are assessed; the recovery factor is estimated at more than 60%. According to the obtained results, almost all main components of the hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are well known at present; therefore, no considerable R&D costs are required. A new component of the system is the H2-O2 combustion chamber; a difficulty in manufacturing it is the necessity of ensuring the combustion of hydrogen in oxygen as complete as possible and preventing formation of nitric oxides.

  10. Ferroelectric polymer networks with high energy density and improved discharged efficiency for dielectric energy storage.

    PubMed

    Khanchaitit, Paisan; Han, Kuo; Gadinski, Matthew R; Li, Qi; Wang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Ferroelectric polymers are being actively explored as dielectric materials for electrical energy storage applications. However, their high dielectric constants and outstanding energy densities are accompanied by large dielectric loss due to ferroelectric hysteresis and electrical conduction, resulting in poor charge-discharge efficiencies under high electric fields. To address this long-standing problem, here we report the ferroelectric polymer networks exhibiting significantly reduced dielectric loss, superior polarization and greatly improved breakdown strength and reliability, while maintaining their fast discharge capability at a rate of microseconds. These concurrent improvements lead to unprecedented charge-discharge efficiencies and large values of the discharged energy density and also enable the operation of the ferroelectric polymers at elevated temperatures, which clearly outperforms the melt-extruded ferroelectric polymer films that represents the state of the art in dielectric polymers. The simplicity and scalability of the described method further suggest their potential for high energy density capacitors. PMID:24276519

  11. Thermal energy storage for the Stirling engine powered automobile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, D. T. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal energy storage (TES) system developed for use with the Stirling engine as an automotive power system has gravimetric and volumetric storage densities which are competitive with electric battery storage systems, meets all operational requirements for a practical vehicle, and can be packaged in compact sized automobiles with minimum impact on passenger and freight volume. The TES/Stirling system is the only storage approach for direct use of combustion heat from fuel sources not suitable for direct transport and use on the vehicle. The particular concept described is also useful for a dual mode TES/liquid fuel system in which the TES (recharged from an external energy source) is used for short duration trips (approximately 10 miles or less) and liquid fuel carried on board the vehicle used for long duration trips. The dual mode approach offers the potential of 50 percent savings in the consumption of premium liquid fuels for automotive propulsion in the United States.

  12. Compressed air energy storage technology program. Annual report for 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Loscutoff, W.V.

    1980-06-01

    The objectives of the Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) program are to establish stability criteria for large underground reservoirs in salt domes, hard rock, and porous rock used for air storage in utility applications, and to develop second-generation CAES technologies that have minimal or no dependence on petroleum fuels. During the year reported reports have been issued on field studies on CAES on aquifers and in salt, stability, and design criteria for CAES and for pumped hydro-storage caverns, laboratory studies of CAES in porous rock reservoris have continued. Research has continued on combined CAES/Thermal Energy Storage, CAES/Solar systems, coal-fired fluidized bed combustors for CAES, and two-reservoir advanced CAES concepts. (LCL)

  13. Design and installation manual for thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R L; Nield, K J; Rohde, R R; Wolosewicz, R M

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide information on the design and installation of thermal energy storage in active solar systems. It is intended for contractors, installers, solar system designers, engineers, architects, and manufacturers who intend to enter the solar energy business. The reader should have general knowledge of how solar heating and cooling systems operate and knowledge of construction methods and building codes. Knowledge of solar analysis methods such as f-Chart, SOLCOST, DOE-1, or TRNSYS would be helpful. The information contained in the manual includes sizing storage, choosing a location for the storage device, and insulation requirements. Both air-based and liquid-based systems are covered with topics on designing rock beds, tank types, pump and fan selection, installation, costs, and operation and maintenance. Topics relevant to latent heat storage include properties of phase-change materials, sizing the storage unit, insulating the storage unit, available systems, and cost. Topics relevant to heating domestic water include safety, single- and dual-tank systems, domestic water heating with air- and liquid-based space heating systems, and stand alone domestics hot water systems. Several appendices present common problems with storage systems and their solutions, heat transfer fluid properties, economic insulation thickness, heat exchanger sizing, and sample specifications for heat exchangers, wooden rock bins, steel tanks, concrete tanks, and fiberglass-reinforced plastic tanks.

  14. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Tianyue

    2016-03-15

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  15. Technology Base Research Project for electrochemical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Kim

    1989-05-01

    This report summarizes the progress made by the Technology Base Research (TBR) Project for Electrochemical Energy Storage during calendar year 1988. The primary objective of the TBR Project, which is sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), is to identify electrochemical technologies that can satisfy stringent performance and economic requirements for electric vehicles and stationary energy storage applications. The ultimate goal is to transfer the most-promising electrochemical technologies to the private sector or to another DOE project (e.g., SNL's ETD Project) for further development and scale-up.

  16. Energy storage considerations for a robotic Mars surface sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, P. M.; Cataldo, R. L.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of various energy storage systems (including Ni-Cd, Ni-H2, Ag-Zn, Li-XS, Na-S, PbSO4, and regenerative fuel cell systems) considered for a robotic Mars surface sampler are reviewed. It is concluded that the bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery and the sodium-sulfur battery are both viable candidates as storage systems for the rover's Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator. For a photovoltaic storage system, the regenerative fuel cell and the bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery are the primary candidates.

  17. Dependability of wind energy generators with short-term energy storage.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, B

    1976-11-26

    Power fluctuations and power duration curves for wind energy generators, including energy storage facilities of a certain capacity, are compared to those of typical nuclear reactors. A storage system capable of delivering the yearly average power output for about 10 hours already makes the dependability of the wind energy system comparable to that of a typical nuclear plant. PMID:17748551

  18. Solar energy storage via endothermic photochemical reactions. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wamser, C.C.; Olmsted, J.A. III

    1983-12-26

    Research effort on this focused on two aspects of photochemical solar energy storage: the storage potential of photoisomerization reactions and studies of polymer-bound photosensitizers. The latter area has become the major focus of our research efforts, specifically the study of membrane-bound photosensitizers. The status of these studies at the termination of the grant are described below. Detailed results of the photoisomerization work have appeared in the literature, and a copy of that manuscript is included in this report.

  19. Toroidal constant-tension superconducting magnetic energy storage units

    DOEpatents

    Herring, J. Stephen

    1992-01-01

    A superconducting magnetic energy storage unit is provided in which the magnet is wound in a toroidal fashion such that the magnetic field produced is contained only within the bore of the magnet, and thus producing a very low external field. The superconducting magnet includes a coolant channel disposed through the wire. The bore of the magnet comprises a storage volume in which cryogenic coolant is stored, and this volume supplies the coolant to be delivered to the coolant channel in the magnet.

  20. A method to determine stratification efficiency of thermal energy storage processes independently from storage heat losses

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, Michel Y.; Streicher, Wolfgang; Bales, Chris

    2010-06-15

    A new method for the calculation of a stratification efficiency of thermal energy storages based on the second law of thermodynamics is presented. The biasing influence of heat losses is studied theoretically and experimentally. Theoretically, it does not make a difference if the stratification efficiency is calculated based on entropy balances or based on exergy balances. In practice, however, exergy balances are less affected by measurement uncertainties, whereas entropy balances can not be recommended if measurement uncertainties are not corrected in a way that the energy balance of the storage process is in agreement with the first law of thermodynamics. A comparison of the stratification efficiencies obtained from experimental results of charging, standby, and discharging processes gives meaningful insights into the different mixing behaviors of a storage tank that is charged and discharged directly, and a tank-in-tank system whose outer tank is charged and the inner tank is discharged thereafter. The new method has a great potential for the comparison of the stratification efficiencies of thermal energy storages and storage components such as stratifying devices. (author)

  1. Hydrogen sorption rate by intermetallic compounds suitable for tritium storage

    SciTech Connect

    Penzhorn, R.D.; Sirch, M.; Perevezentsev, A.N.; Borisenko, A.N.

    1995-10-01

    The kinetics of the sorption of molecular hydrogen by ZrCo and Zr{sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1.9} was investigated as function of temperature at several constant pressures of hydrogen. A comparison between the isothermal hydrogen sorption rates by ZrCo, Zr{sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1.9} and LaNi{sub 4.7}Al{sub 0.3} is given and reaction mechanisms are discussed. From fittings of the experimental results to well known gas/solid reaction rate laws it was concluded that the reaction mechanisms of the reaction with ZrCo is complex and dependent upon the prevailing reaction conditions. The hydrogen sorption rate by the powder of all three IMC`s was found to be second order in hydrogen pressure. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Thermal energy storage for space cooling. Technology for reducing on-peak electricity demand and cost

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    Cool storage technology can be used to significantly reduce energy costs by allowing energy intensive, electrically driven cooling equipment to be predominantly operated during off-peak hours when electricity rates are lower. In addition, some system configurations may result in lower first costs and/or lower operating costs. Cool storage systems of one type or another could potentially be cost-effectively applied in most buildings with a space cooling system. A survey of approximately 25 manufacturers providing cool storage systems or components identified several thousand current installations, but less than 1% of these were at Federal facilities. With the Federal sector representing nearly 4% of commercial building floor space and 5% of commercial building energy use, Federal utilization would appear to be lagging. Although current applications are relatively few, the estimated potential annual savings from using cool storage in the Federal sector is $50 million. There are many different types of cool storage systems representing different combinations of storage media, charging mechanisms, and discharging mechanisms. The basic media options are water, ice, and eutectic salts. Ice systems can be further broken down into ice harvesting, ice-on-coil, ice slurry, and encapsulated ice options. Ice-on-coil systems may be internal melt or external melt and may be charged and discharged with refrigerant or a single-phase coolant (typically a water/glycol mixture). Independent of the technology choice, cool storage systems can be designed to provide full storage or partial storage, with load-leveling and demand-limiting options for partial storage. Finally, storage systems can be operated on a chiller-priority or storage priority basis whenever the cooling load is less than the design conditions. The first section describes the basic types of cool storage technologies and cooling system integration options. The next three sections define the savings potential in the

  3. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    BOYES, JOHN D.; DE ANA, MINDI FARBER; TORRES, WENCESLANO

    1999-09-01

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems.

  4. Bismuth pyrochlore thin films for dielectric energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, Elizabeth K. Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2015-08-07

    Thin films of cubic pyrochlore bismuth zinc niobate, bismuth zinc tantalate, and bismuth zinc niobate tantalate were fabricated using chemical solution deposition. This family of materials exhibited moderate relative permittivities between 55 ± 2 and 145 ± 5 for bismuth zinc tantalate and bismuth zinc niobate, respectively, and low loss tangents on the order of 0.0008 ± 0.0001. Increases in the concentration of the tantalum end member increased the dielectric breakdown strength. For example, at 10 kHz, the room temperature breakdown strength of bismuth zinc niobate was 5.1 MV/cm, while that of bismuth zinc tantalate was 6.1 MV/cm. This combination of a high breakdown strength and a moderate permittivity led to a high discharged energy storage density for all film compositions. For example, at a measurement frequency of 10 kHz, bismuth zinc niobate exhibited a maximum recoverable energy storage density of 60.8 ± 2.0 J/cm{sup 3}, while bismuth zinc tantalate exhibited a recoverable energy storage density of 60.7 ± 2.0 J/cm{sup 3}. Intermediate compositions of bismuth zinc niobate tantalate offered higher energy storage densities; at 10 mol. % tantalum, the maximum recoverable energy storage density was ∼66.9 ± 2.4 J/cm{sup 3}.

  5. Energy conservation through utilization of mechanical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhaure, D. B.; Bliamptis, T. E.; Downer, J. R.; Heinemann, P. C.

    Potential benefits regarding fuel savings, necessary technology, and evaluation criteria for the development of flywheel-hybrid vehicles are examined. A case study is quoted in which adoption of flywheel-hybrid vehicles in a taxi fleet would result in an increase of 10 mpg average to 32 mpg. Two proposed systems are described, one involving direct engine power to the flywheel and the second regenerating the flywheel from braking energy through a continuously variable transmission. Fuel consumption characteristics are considered the ultimate determinant in the choice of configuration, while material properties and housing shape determine the flywheel speed range. Vehicle losses are characterized and it is expected that a flywheel at 12,000 rpm will experience less than one hp average parasitic power loss. Flywheel storage is suitable for smaller engines because larger engines dominate the power train mass. Areas considered important for further investigation include reliability of an engine run near maximum torque, noise and vibration associated with flywheel operation, start up delays, compatibility of driver controls, integration of normal with regenerative braking systems, and, most importantly, the continuously variable transmission.

  6. Integrated Building Energy Systems Design Considering Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Aki, Hirohisa

    2009-04-07

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems (e.g., PV or fuel cells with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. The interactions among PV, solar thermal, and storage systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and CO2 emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that can pursue two strategies as its objective function. These two strategies are minimization of its annual energy costs or of its CO2 emissions. The problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, e.g., nursing homes, to obtain not only the optimal investment portfolio, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules for the selected technologies. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in micro-generation optimization on a building level, with example applications in New York State and California. It shows results from a two-year research projectperformed for the U.S. Department of Energy and ongoing work. Contrary to established expectations, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption compete rather than supplement each other considering the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply. The work shows that high electricity tariffs during on-peak hours are a significant driver for the adoption of electric storage technologies. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries have to be charged by grid power during off-peak hours instead of PV during on-peak hours. In contrast, we also show a CO2 minimization strategy where the common assumption that batteries can be charged by PV can be fulfilled at extraordinarily high energy costs for the site.

  7. Entropy, pumped-storage and energy system finance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2015-04-01

    Pumped-storage holds a key role for integrating renewable energy units with non-renewable fuel plants into large-scale energy systems of electricity output. An emerging issue is the development of financial engineering models with physical basis to systematically fund energy system efficiency improvements across its operation. A fundamental physically-based economic concept is the Scarcity Rent; which concerns the pricing of a natural resource's scarcity. Specifically, the scarcity rent comprises a fraction of a depleting resource's full price and accumulates to fund its more efficient future use. In an integrated energy system, scarcity rents derive from various resources and can be deposited to a pooled fund to finance the energy system's overall efficiency increase; allowing it to benefit from economies of scale. With pumped-storage incorporated to the system, water upgrades to a hub resource, in which the scarcity rents of all connected energy sources are denominated to. However, as available water for electricity generation or storage is also limited, a scarcity rent upon it is also imposed. It is suggested that scarcity rent generation is reducible to three (3) main factors, incorporating uncertainty: (1) water's natural renewability, (2) the energy system's intermittent components and (3) base-load prediction deviations from actual loads. For that purpose, the concept of entropy is used in order to measure the energy system's overall uncertainty; hence pumped-storage intensity requirements and generated water scarcity rents. Keywords: pumped-storage, integration, energy systems, financial engineering, physical basis, Scarcity Rent, pooled fund, economies of scale, hub resource, uncertainty, entropy Acknowledgement: This research was funded by the Greek General Secretariat for Research and Technology through the research project Combined REnewable Systems for Sustainable ENergy DevelOpment (CRESSENDO; grant number 5145)

  8. Simulation of Mechanical Processes in Gas Storage Caverns for Short-Term Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Norbert; Nagel, Thomas; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, Germany's energy management has started to be transferred from fossil fuels to renewable and sustainable energy carriers. Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power are subjected by fluctuations, thus the development and extension of energy storage capacities is a priority in German R&D programs. This work is a part of the ANGUS+ Project, funded by the federal ministry of education and research, which investigates the influence of subsurface energy storage on the underground. The utilization of subsurface salt caverns as a long-term storage reservoir for fossil fuels is a common method, since the construction of caverns in salt rock is inexpensive in comparison to solid rock formations due to solution mining. Another advantage of evaporate as host material is the self-healing behaviour of salt rock, thus the cavity can be assumed to be impermeable. In the framework of short-term energy storage (hours to days), caverns can be used as gas storage reservoirs for natural or artificial fuel gases, such as hydrogen, methane, or compressed air, where the operation pressures inside the caverns will fluctuate more frequently. This work investigates the influence of changing operation pressures at high frequencies on the stability of the host rock of gas storage caverns utilizing numerical models. Therefore, we developed a coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) model based on the finite element method utilizing the open-source software platform OpenGeoSys. The salt behaviour is described by well-known constitutive material models which are capable of predicting creep, self-healing, and dilatancy processes. Our simulations include the thermodynamic behaviour of gas storage process, temperature development and distribution on the cavern boundary, the deformation of the cavern geometry, and the prediction of the dilatancy zone. Based on the numerical results, optimal operation modes can be found for individual caverns, so the risk of host rock damage

  9. Improved Heat-of-Fusion Energy Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, K. H.; Manvi, R.

    1982-01-01

    Alkali metal/alkali-halide mixtures proposed for preventing solid buildup during energy recovery. When mixture melts (by absorption of heat of fusion), it forms two immiscible liquids. Salt-rich phase is heavier and has higher melting/recrysallization temperature; so during energy recovery salt crystallizes in this phase first. Since heat exchanger for energy recovery is in lighter metal-rich phase, solids do not form and there is no reduction of heat-recovery efficiency.

  10. Carbon nanomaterials for advanced energy conversion and storage.

    PubMed

    Dai, Liming; Chang, Dong Wook; Baek, Jong-Beom; Lu, Wen

    2012-04-23

    It is estimated that the world will need to double its energy supply by 2050. Nanotechnology has opened up new frontiers in materials science and engineering to meet this challenge by creating new materials, particularly carbon nanomaterials, for efficient energy conversion and storage. Comparing to conventional energy materials, carbon nanomaterials possess unique size-/surface-dependent (e.g., morphological, electrical, optical, and mechanical) properties useful for enhancing the energy-conversion and storage performances. During the past 25 years or so, therefore, considerable efforts have been made to utilize the unique properties of carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, as energy materials, and tremendous progress has been achieved in developing high-performance energy conversion (e.g., solar cells and fuel cells) and storage (e.g., supercapacitors and batteries) devices. This article reviews progress in the research and development of carbon nanomaterials during the past twenty years or so for advanced energy conversion and storage, along with some discussions on challenges and perspectives in this exciting field. PMID:22383334

  11. Overview of the US industrial thermal energy storage program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszewski, M.

    1981-02-01

    Thermal energy storage can contribute to industrial conservation efforts directed at saving premium (gas and oil) fuels, which is a priority national need. This can be done by using storage to allow the recycling of industrial reject heat to reduce primary energy consumption or to allow alternate fuels to replace gas and oil. Industrial thermal energy storage efforts include three major areas: in-plant reuse of industrial reject heat; external reuse of industrial reject heat for applications in the industrial or buildings sector; and use of alternate fuels to replace gas and oil. The program currently includes engineering field tests in the brick and aluminum industries. In addition, technology transfer activities are underway in the pulp and paper industry.

  12. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOEpatents

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Daigle, Dominik; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ranger, Michel; Ross, Guy; Rouillard, Roger; St-Germain, Philippe; Sudano, Anthony; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2003-11-04

    The present invention is directed to an improved electrochemical energy storage device. The electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state, thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. Fuses and various electrical and electromechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  13. Electrical energy storage for the grid: a battery of choices.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Bruce; Kamath, Haresh; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2011-11-18

    The increasing interest in energy storage for the grid can be attributed to multiple factors, including the capital costs of managing peak demands, the investments needed for grid reliability, and the integration of renewable energy sources. Although existing energy storage is dominated by pumped hydroelectric, there is the recognition that battery systems can offer a number of high-value opportunities, provided that lower costs can be obtained. The battery systems reviewed here include sodium-sulfur batteries that are commercially available for grid applications, redox-flow batteries that offer low cost, and lithium-ion batteries whose development for commercial electronics and electric vehicles is being applied to grid storage. PMID:22096188

  14. Alkaline regenerative fuel cell systems for energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Reid, M. A.; Martin, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of the results of a preliminary design study of a regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for application to future low-earth orbit space missions. The high energy density storage system is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte cell technology and incorporates dedicated fuel cell and electrolysis cell modules. In addition to providing energy storage, the system can provide hydrogen and oxygen for attitude control of the satellite and for life support. During the daylight portion of the orbit the electrolysis module uses power provided by the solar array to generate H2 and O2 from the product water produced by the fuel cell module. The fuel cell module supplies electrical power during the dark period of the orbit.

  15. Hierarchical nanowires for high-performance electrochemical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuo; Dong, Yi-Fan; Wang, Dan-Dan; Chen, Wei; Huang, Lei; Shi, Chang-Wei; Mai, Li-Qiang

    2014-06-01

    Nanowires are promising candidates for energy storage devices such as lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors and lithium-air batteries. However, simple-structured nanowires have some limitations hence the strategies to make improvements need to be explored and investigated. Hierarchical nanowires with enhanced performance have been considered as an ideal candidate for energy storage due to the novel structures and/or synergistic properties. This review describes some of the recent progresses in the hierarchical nanowire merits, classification, synthesis and performance in energy storage applications. Herein we discuss the hierarchical nanowires based on their structural design from three major categories, including exterior design, interior design and aligned nanowire assembly. This review also briefly outlines the prospects of hierarchical nanowires in morphology control, property enhancement and application versatility.

  16. Solar Thermal Energy Storage in a Photochromic Macrocycle.

    PubMed

    Vlasceanu, Alexandru; Broman, Søren L; Hansen, Anne S; Skov, Anders B; Cacciarini, Martina; Kadziola, Anders; Kjaergaard, Henrik G; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2016-07-25

    The conversion and efficient storage of solar energy is recognized to hold significant potential with regard to future energy solutions. Molecular solar thermal batteries based on photochromic systems exemplify one possible technology able to harness and apply this potential. Herein is described the synthesis of a macrocycle based on a dimer of the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) photo/thermal couple. By taking advantage of conformational strain, this DHA-DHA macrocycle presents an improved ability to absorb and store incident light energy in chemical bonds (VHF-VHF). A stepwise energy release over two sequential ring-closing reactions (VHF→DHA) combines the advantages of an initially fast discharge, hypothetically addressing immediate energy consumption needs, followed by a slow process for consistent, long-term use. This exemplifies another step forward in the molecular engineering and design of functional organic materials towards solar thermal energy storage and release. PMID:27253462

  17. Energy utilization rates during shuttle extravehicular activities.

    PubMed

    Waligora, J M; Kumar, K V

    1995-01-01

    The work rates or energy utilization rates during EVA are major factors in sizing of life support systems. These rates also provide a measure of ease of EVA and its cost in crew fatigue. From the first Shuttle EVA on the STS-6 mission in 1983, we have conducted 59 man-EVA and 341 man-hours of EVA. Energy utilization rates have been measured on each of these EVA. Metabolic rate was measured during each EVA using oxygen utilization corrected for suit leakage. From 1981-1987, these data were available for average data over the EVA or over large segments of the EVA. Since 1987, EVA oxygen utilization data were available at 2-minute intervals. The average metabolic rate on Shuttle EVA (194 kcal/hr.) has been significantly lower than metabolic rates during Apollo and Skylab missions. Peak rates have been below design levels, infrequent, and of short duration. The data suggest that the energy cost of tasks may be inversely related to the degree of training for the task. The data provide insight on the safety margins provided by life support designs and on the energy cost of Station construction EVA. PMID:11540993

  18. Capacitive energy storage in nanostructured carbon-electrolyte systems.

    PubMed

    Simon, P; Gogotsi, Y

    2013-05-21

    Securing our energy future is the most important problem that humanity faces in this century. Burning fossil fuels is not sustainable, and wide use of renewable energy sources will require a drastically increased ability to store electrical energy. In the move toward an electrical economy, chemical (batteries) and capacitive energy storage (electrochemical capacitors or supercapacitors) devices are expected to play an important role. This Account summarizes research in the field of electrochemical capacitors conducted over the past decade. Overall, the combination of the right electrode materials with a proper electrolyte can successfully increase both the energy stored by the device and its power, but no perfect active material exists and no electrolyte suits every material and every performance goal. However, today, many materials are available, including porous activated, carbide-derived, and templated carbons with high surface areas and porosities that range from subnanometer to just a few nanometers. If the pore size is matched with the electrolyte ion size, those materials can provide high energy density. Exohedral nanoparticles, such as carbon nanotubes and onion-like carbon, can provide high power due to fast ion sorption/desorption on their outer surfaces. Because of its higher charge-discharge rates compared with activated carbons, graphene has attracted increasing attention, but graphene had not yet shown a higher volumetric capacitance than porous carbons. Although aqueous electrolytes, such as sodium sulfate, are the safest and least expensive, they have a limited voltage window. Organic electrolytes, such as solutions of [N(C2H5)4]BF4 in acetonitrile or propylene carbonate, are the most common in commercial devices. Researchers are increasingly interested in nonflammable ionic liquids. These liquids have low vapor pressures, which allow them to be used safely over a temperature range from -50 °C to at least 100 °C and over a larger voltage window

  19. Descriptive analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, R.W.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of large-scale aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) was examined. A key to ATESs attractiveness is its simplicity of design and construction. The storage device consists of two ordinary water wells drilled into an aquifer, connected at the surface by piping and a heat exchanger. During the storage cycle water is pumped out of the aquifer, through the heat exchanger to absorb thermal energy, and then back down into the aquifer through the second well. The thermal storage remains in the aquifer storage bubble until required for use, when it is recovered by reversing the storage operation. For many applications the installation can probably be designed and constructed using existing site-specific information and modern well-drilling techniques. The potential for cost-effective implementation of ATES was investigated in the Twin Cities District Heating-Cogeneration Study in Minnesota. In the study, ATES demonstrated a net energy saving of 32% over the nonstorage scenario, with an annual energy cost saving of $31 million. Discounting these savings over the life of the project, the authors found that the break-even capital cost for ATES construction was $76/kW thermal, far above the estimated ATES development cost of $23 to 50/kW thermal. It appears tht ATES can be highly cost effective as well as achieve substantial fuel savings. ATES would be environmentally beneficial and could be used in many parts of the USA. The existing body of information on ATES indicates that it is a cost-effective, fuel-conserving technique for providing thermal energy for residential, commercial, and industrial users. The negative aspects are minor and highly site-specific, and do not seem to pose a threat to widespread commercialization. With a suitable institutional framework, ATES promises to supply a substantial portion of the nation's future energy needs. (LCL)

  20. Chemical energy storage system for SEGS solar thermal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. R.; Lamarche, J. L.; Spanner, G. E.

    1991-09-01

    In October 1988, a symposium was held in Helendale, California, to discuss thermal energy storage (TES) concepts applicable to medium temperature (200 to 400 C) solar thermal electric power plants, in general, and the solar electric generating system (SEGS) plants developed by Luz International, in particular. Chemical reaction energy storage based on the reversible reaction between metal oxides and metal hydroxides was identified as a leading candidate for meeting Luz International's cost and performance requirements. The principal objectives of this study were to identify the design conditions, requirements, and potential feasibility for a chemical energy storage system applied to a SEGS solar thermal power plant. The remaining sections of this report begin by providing an overview of the chemical reaction energy storage concept and a SEGS solar thermal power plant. Subsequent sections describe the initial screening of alternative evaporation energy sources and the more detailed evaluation of design alternatives considered for the preferred evaporation energy source. The final sections summarize the results, conclusions, and recommendations.

  1. FY2011 Annual Report for NREL Energy Storage Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Ban, C.; Dillon, A.; Gonder, J.; Ireland, J.; Keyser, M.; Kim, G. H.; Lee, K. J.; Long, D.; Neubauer, J.; Santhangopalan, S.; Smith, K.

    2012-04-01

    This report describes the work of NREL's Energy Storage group for FY2011. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supports energy storage R&D under the Vehicle Technologies Program at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE Energy Storage program's charter is to develop battery technologies that will enable large market penetration of electric drive vehicles. These vehicles could have a significant impact on the nation's goal of reducing dependence on imported oil and gaseous pollutant emissions. DOE has established several program activities to address and overcome the barriers limiting the penetration of electric drive battery technologies: cost, performance, safety, and life. These programs are: (1) Advanced Battery Development [through the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC)]; (2) Testing, Design and Analysis (TDA); (3) Applied Battery Research (ABR); and (4) Focused Fundamental Research, or Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT). In FY11, DOE funded NREL to make technical contributions to all of these R&D activities. This report summarizes NREL's R&D projects in FY11 in support of the USABC, TDA, ABR, and BATT program elements. In addition, we continued the enhancement of NREL's battery testing facilities funded through the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) of 2009. The FY11 projects under NREL's Energy Storage R&D program are briefly described below. Each of these is discussed in depth in the main sections of this report.

  2. New power-conditioning systems for superconducting magnetic energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Byung Moon

    1992-06-01

    This dissertation presents the development of new power-conditioning systems for superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), which can regulate fast and independently the active and reactive powers demanded in the ac network. Three new power-conditioning systems were developed through a systematic approach to match the requirements of the superconducting coil and the ac power network. Each of these new systems is composed of ten 100-MW modules connected in parallel to handle the large current through the superconducting coil. The first system, which was published in the IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, consists of line-commutated 24-pulse converter, a thyristor-switched tap-changing transformer, and a thyristor-switched capacitor bank. The second system, which was accepted for publication in the IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, consists of a 12-pulse GTO (gate turn-off thyristor) converter and a thyristor-switched tap-changing transformer. The third system, which was submitted to the International Journal of Energy System, consists of a dc chopper and a voltage-source PWM (pulse width modulation) converter. The operational concept of each new system is verified through mathematical analyses and computer simulations. The dynamic interaction of each new system with the ac network and the superconducting coil is analyzed using a simulation model with EMTP (electro-magnetic transients program). The analysis results prove that each new system is feasible and realizable. Each system can regulate the active and reactive powers of the utility network rapidly and independently, and each offer a significant reduction of the system rating by reducing the reactive power demand in the converter. Feasible design for each new system was introduced using a modular design approach based on the 1000 MW/5000 MWH plant, incorporating commercially available components and proven technologies.

  3. Microwave energy storage in resonant cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, R.A.

    1983-02-01

    One method of generating short, high-power microwave pulses is to store rf energy in a resonant cavity over a relatively long fill time and extract is rapidly. A power gain roughly equal to the ratio of fill time to extraction time can be obtained. During the filling of a resonant cavity some of the energy is lost in heating the cavity walls, and some will generally be reflected at the input coupling of the cavity. In this paper we discuss the time dependence of the stored energy and related quantities and the way in which it depends on the coupling of the source to the cavity.

  4. Nanomechanical Energy Storage in Twisted Nanotube Ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teich, David; Fthenakis, Zacharias G.; Seifert, Gotthard; Tománek, David

    2012-12-01

    We determine the deformation energetics and energy density of twisted carbon nanotubes and nanotube ropes that effectively constitute a torsional spring. Using ab initio and parametrized density functional calculations, we identify structural changes in these systems and determine their elastic limits. The deformation energy of twisted nanotube ropes contains contributions associated not only with twisting but also with stretching, bending, and compression of individual nanotubes. We quantify these energy contributions and show that their relative role changes with the number of nanotubes in the rope.

  5. Germination rate of Phyllospadix japonicus seeds relative to storage methods and periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung-Im; Lee, Kun-Seop; Son, Min Ho

    2014-03-01

    To determine the optimal storage method and longest possible storage period of Phyllospadix japonicus seeds, we examined post-storage germination rates using different storage methods and periods for P. japonicus seeds harvested in Korean coastal waters. P. japonicus seeds are classified as recalcitrant seeds with an average moisture content of 45.4%. Germination rates of P. japonicus seeds stored in seawater at 4 °C, seawater at room temperature with air supply, and an aquarium with continuous seawater circulation ranged from 35.0% to 43.5%, whereas seeds stored in seawater at 30°C, a refrigerator at -20°C, and a desiccator at room temperature did not germinate. Seeds stored at 4°C maintained germination rates of 72.5˜73.0% until 30 days of storage, but showed rapidly decreasing germination rates after 60 days and no germination after 180 days. Since few studies have investigated seed storage of P. japonicus, these results will serve as useful data for seed-based P. japonicus habitat restoration.

  6. Product suitable for the storage and conveyance of thermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Babin, L.; Clausse, D.

    1981-09-01

    This invention concerns the storage and conveyance of thermal energy at low temperature, by using the latent heat produced by a substance during changes of state. This substance consists of a salt producing considerable latent heat during change of state, such as NA/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, 10 H/sub 2/O, combined closely with a nucleating agent such as borax and dispersed in an oil to which an emulsifying agent has been added. This product is particularly suitable for storage of solar energy at low temperature and for heating of enclosed areas.

  7. Building heating and cooling applications thermal energy storage program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eissenberg, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal energy storage technology and development of building heating and cooling applications in the residential and commercial sectors is outlined. Three elements are identified to undergo an applications assessment, technology development, and demonstration. Emphasis is given to utility load management thermal energy system application where the stress is on the 'customer side of the meter'. Thermal storage subsystems for space conditioning and conservation means of increased thermal mass within the building envelope and by means of low-grade waste heat recovery are covered.

  8. The Redox Flow System for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, P.; Gahn, R. F.; Pfeiffer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The interfacing of a Solar Photovoltaic System and a Redox Flow System for storage was workable. The Redox Flow System, which utilizes the oxidation-reduction capability of two redox couples, in this case iron and titanium, for its storage capacity, gave a relatively constant output regardless of solar activity so that a load could be run continually day and night utilizing the sun's energy. One portion of the system was connected to a bank of solar cells to electrochemically charge the solutions, while a separate part of the system was used to electrochemically discharge the stored energy.

  9. Gelatin/graphene systems for low cost energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Landi, Giovanni; Fedi, Filippo; Sorrentino, Andrea; Iannace, Salvatore; Neitzert, Heinz C.

    2014-05-15

    In this work, we introduce the possibility to use a low cost, biodegradable material for temporary energy storage devices. Here, we report the use of biologically derived organic electrodes composed of gelatin ad graphene. The graphene was obtained by mild sonication in a mixture of volatile solvents of natural graphite flakes and subsequent centrifugation. The presence of exfoliated graphene sheets was detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The homogeneous dispersion in gelatin demonstrates a good compatibility between the gelatin molecules and the graphene particles. The electrical characterization of the resulting nanocomposites suggests the possible applications as materials for transient, low cost energy storage device.

  10. Phase change thermal storage for a solar total energy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. E.; Cohen, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical and experimental program is being conducted on a one-tenth scale model of a high-temperature (584 K) phase-change thermal energy storage system for installation in a solar total energy test facility at Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.A. The thermal storage medium is anhydrous sodium hydroxide with 8% sodium nitrate. The program will produce data on the dynamic response of the system to repeated cycles of charging and discharging simulating those of the test facility. Data will be correlated with a mathematical model which will then be used in the design of the full-scale system.

  11. Advanced Energy Storage Life and Health Prognostics (INL)

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this work is to develop methodologies that will accurately estimate state-of-health (SOH) and remaining useful life (RUL) of electrochemical energy storage devices using both offline and online (i.e., in-situ) techniques through: (1) Developing a statistically robust battery life estimator tool based on both testing and simulation, (2) Developing rapid impedance spectrum measurement techniques that enable onboard power assessment, and (3) Developing an energy storage monitoring system that incorporates both passive and active measurements for onboard systems.

  12. FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS WITH SUPERCONDUCTING BEARINGS FOR UTILITY APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Michael Strasik; Mr. Arthur Day; Mr. Philip Johnson; Dr. John Hull

    2007-10-26

    This project’s mission was to achieve significant advances in the practical application of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) materials to energy-storage systems. The ultimate product was planned as an operational prototype of a flywheel system on an HTS suspension. While the final prototype flywheel did not complete the final offsite demonstration phase of the program, invaluable lessons learned were captured on the laboratory demonstration units that will lead to the successful deployment of a future HTS-stabilized, composite-flywheel energy-storage system (FESS).

  13. Semi-transparent solar energy thermal storage device

    DOEpatents

    McClelland, John F.

    1985-06-18

    A visually transmitting solar energy absorbing thermal storage module includes a thermal storage liquid containment chamber defined by an interior solar absorber panel, an exterior transparent panel having a heat mirror surface substantially covering the exterior surface thereof and associated top, bottom and side walls, Evaporation of the thermal storage liquid is controlled by a low vapor pressure liquid layer that floats on and seals the top surface of the liquid. Porous filter plugs are placed in filler holes of the module. An algicide and a chelating compound are added to the liquid to control biological and chemical activity while retaining visual clarity. A plurality of modules may be supported in stacked relation by a support frame to form a thermal storage wall structure.

  14. Semi-transparent solar energy thermal storage device

    DOEpatents

    McClelland, John F.

    1986-04-08

    A visually transmitting solar energy absorbing thermal storage module includes a thermal storage liquid containment chamber defined by an interior solar absorber panel, an exterior transparent panel having a heat mirror surface substantially covering the exterior surface thereof and associated top, bottom and side walls. Evaporation of the thermal storage liquid is controlled by a low vapor pressure liquid layer that floats on and seals the top surface of the liquid. Porous filter plugs are placed in filler holes of the module. An algicide and a chelating compound are added to the liquid to control biological and chemical activity while retaining visual clarity. A plurality of modules may be supported in stacked relation by a support frame to form a thermal storage wall structure.

  15. Geotechnical basis for underground energy storage in hard rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquhar, O. C.

    1982-03-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric storage requires the excavation of caverns in hard rock. Hard rock caverns, also, are one option for compressed air stoage. Preliminary design studies for both technologies at a specific site were completed. The geotechnical aspects of these storage systems are discussed from a generic viewpoint. Information about effective use of hard rock openings, including tunnels and shafts, comes mainly from other types of underground projects. These are power houses for hydroelectric and conventional pumped storage schemes, as well as transportation facilities and mines. Rock strength, support, instrumentation, costs, management, and experimental work are among the items considered. Mapping of geologic structures, rock fragmentation, and rock mass properties is also discussed. The general conclusions are that rock types favorable for underground energy storage are present at suitable depths in many areas and that they can be identified by adequate geotechnical exploration prior to detailed design.

  16. Extended development of a sodium hydroxide thermal energy storage module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. E.; Rowny, P. E.; Cohen, B. M.

    1980-01-01

    The post-test evaluation of a single heat exchanger sodium hydroxide thermal energy storage module for use in solar electric generation is reported. Chemical analyses of the storage medium used in the experimental model are presented. The experimental verification of the module performance using an alternate heat transfer fluid, Caloria HT-43, is described. Based on these results, a design analysis of a dual heat exchanger concept within the storage module is presented. A computer model and a reference design for the dual system (storage working fluid/power cycle working fluid) were completed. The dual system is estimated to have a capital cost of approximately one half that of the single heat exchanger concept.

  17. Grid regulation services for energy storage devices based on grid frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Richard M; Hammerstrom, Donald J; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C.W.; Tuffner, Francis K

    2014-04-15

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for charging and discharging an energy storage device connected to an electrical power distribution system. In one exemplary embodiment, a controller monitors electrical characteristics of an electrical power distribution system and provides an output to a bi-directional charger causing the charger to charge or discharge an energy storage device (e.g., a battery in a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV)). The controller can help stabilize the electrical power distribution system by increasing the charging rate when there is excess power in the electrical power distribution system (e.g., when the frequency of an AC power grid exceeds an average value), or by discharging power from the energy storage device to stabilize the grid when there is a shortage of power in the electrical power distribution system (e.g., when the frequency of an AC power grid is below an average value).

  18. Grid regulation services for energy storage devices based on grid frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Richard M; Hammerstrom, Donald J; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C.W.; Tuffner, Francis K

    2013-07-02

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for charging and discharging an energy storage device connected to an electrical power distribution system. In one exemplary embodiment, a controller monitors electrical characteristics of an electrical power distribution system and provides an output to a bi-directional charger causing the charger to charge or discharge an energy storage device (e.g., a battery in a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV)). The controller can help stabilize the electrical power distribution system by increasing the charging rate when there is excess power in the electrical power distribution system (e.g., when the frequency of an AC power grid exceeds an average value), or by discharging power from the energy storage device to stabilize the grid when there is a shortage of power in the electrical power distribution system (e.g., when the frequency of an AC power grid is below an average value).

  19. Peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement with the superconducting flywheel energy storage in electric railway system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hansang; Jung, Seungmin; Cho, Yoonsung; Yoon, Donghee; Jang, Gilsoo

    2013-11-01

    This paper proposes an application of the 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems to reduce the peak power of the electric railway system. The electric railway systems have high-power characteristics and large amount of regenerative energy during vehicles’ braking. The high-power characteristic makes operating cost high as the system should guarantee the secure capacity of electrical equipment and the low utilization rate of regenerative energy limits the significant energy efficiency improvement. In this paper, it had been proved that the peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement can be achieved by using 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems with the optimally controlled charging or discharging operations. Also, economic benefits had been assessed.

  20. Toroidal solar collection and energy storage apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, K.J.

    1980-09-23

    Vehicular tires are generally toroidal heat collection elements of a solar heating system. Liquid or gaseous fluid flow is circulated between the tires and a space to be heated for transferring the heat from the tires to the space. The tires are generally vertically stacked within a thermally insulated enclosure which includes a double glazed window located so that solar rays impinge on and heat the tires. Heat storage media such as water, rock or pebble beds, or phase change material in an elongated coiled jacket may be provided within the tires. Downwardly inclined vanes either partially cut from the tire walls or attached to the tires or attached to separators between the tires, provide additional surface area to absorb the solar radiation and to also direct airflow radially inward into the center of the tires. When the vanes are formed by cutting from the tires, they are naturally hinged for elevational angulation and a cable linkage is provided to simultaneously adjust the elevation of the vanes or to close the apertures in the tire walls formed by the cutting out of the vanes. The window is selectively obstructed from light and heat transfer therethrough either by means of a removeable cover or by thermally insulating sliding opaque sheets within the walls of the enclosure which are selectively positionable between the double glazing.

  1. Mesoporous materials for energy conversion and storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2016-06-01

    To meet the growing energy demands in a low-carbon economy, the development of new materials that improve the efficiency of energy conversion and storage systems is essential. Mesoporous materials offer opportunities in energy conversion and storage applications owing to their extraordinarily high surface areas and large pore volumes. These properties may improve the performance of materials in terms of energy and power density, lifetime and stability. In this Review, we summarize the primary methods for preparing mesoporous materials and discuss their applications as electrodes and/or catalysts in solar cells, solar fuel production, rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells. Finally, we outline the research and development challenges of mesoporous materials that need to be overcome to increase their contribution in renewable energy applications.

  2. Overview of the Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurevich, M.

    1981-03-01

    The program promotes energy savings and fuel substitution by developing and helping to commercialize technologies for storing heat or cold, with shot investment payback periods as a cost goal. The sources of energy include industrial and utility waste heat as well as primary sources such as solar, geothermal, nuclear and fossil fuels. The primary source of "cold" for seasonal storage is winter chilled air. The program emphasizes near-term (1980's) approaches to energy conservation and displacement of natural gas and oil. It also provides for development of technologies which will allow use of renewable resources such as solar-thermal energy during the mid-term (1990's) and advanced energy storage and transport techniques for the far-term (beyond 2000).

  3. Application of MCNP{trademark} to storage facility dose rate assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, W.T.; Roberts, R.R.; Estes, G.P.; Taylor, W.M.

    1996-12-31

    The MCNP code is widely used in the determination of neutral particle dose rate analyses. In this paper we examine the application of MCNP to several storage facilities containing special nuclear material, SNM, wherein the neutron dose rate is the primary quantity of interest. In particular, we describe the special geometry, modeling assumptions, and physics considerations encountered in each of three applications.

  4. Phase-Change Thermal Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-11-01

    The goal of this program is to advance the engineering and scientific understanding of solar thermal technology and to establish the technology base from which private industry can develop solar thermal power production options for introduction into the competitive energy market. Solar thermal technology concentrates the solar flux using tracking mirrors or lenses onto a receiver where the solar energy is absorbed as heat and converted into electricity or incorporated into products as process heat. The two primary solar thermal technologies, central receivers and distributed receivers, employ various point and line-focus optics to concentrate sunlight. Current central receiver systems use fields of heliostats (two-axes tracking mirrors) to focus the sun's radiant energy onto a single, tower-mounted receiver. Point focus concentrators up to 17 meters in diameter track the sun in two axes and use parabolic dish mirrors or Fresnel lenses to focus radiant energy onto a receiver. Troughs and bowls are line-focus tracking reflectors that concentrate sunlight onto receiver tubes along their focal lines. Concentrating collector modules can be used alone or in a multimodule system. The concentrated radiant energy absorbed by the solar thermal receiver is transported to the conversion process by a circulating working fluid. Receiver temperatures range from 100 C in low-temperature troughs to over 1500 C in dish and central receiver systems.

  5. A Techno-Commercial Assessment of Residential and Bulk Battery Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadkarni, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    Battery energy storage has shown a lot of potential in the recent past to be effective in various grid services due to its near instantaneous ramp rates and modularity. This thesis aims to determine the commercial viability of customer premises and substation sited battery energy storage systems. Five different types of services have been analyzed considering current market pricing of Lithium-ion batteries and power conditioning equipment. Energy Storage Valuation Tool 3.0 (Beta) has been used to exclusively determine the value of energy storage in the services analyzed. The results indicate that on the residential level, Lithium-ion battery energy storage may not be a cost beneficial option for retail tariff management or demand charge management as only 20-30% of the initial investment is recovered at the end of 15 year plant life. SRP's two retail Time-of-Use price plans E-21 and E-26 were analyzed in respect of their ability to increase returns from storage compared to those with flat pricing. It was observed that without a coupled PV component, E-21 was more suitable for customer premises energy storage, however, its revenue stream reduces with addition to PV. On the grid scale, however, with carefully chosen service hierarchy such as distribution investment deferral, spinning or balancing reserve support, the initial investment can be recovered to an extent of about 50-70%. The study done here is specific to Salt River Project inputs and data. Results for all the services analyzed are highly location specific and are only indicative of the overall viability and returns from them.

  6. Geodesy - the key for constraining rates of magma supply, storage, and eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poland, Michael; Anderson, Kyle

    2016-04-01

    Volcanology is an inherently interdisciplinary science that requires joint analysis of diverse physical and chemical datasets to infer subsurface processes from surface observations. Among the diversity of data that can be collected, however, geodetic data are critical for elucidating the main elements of a magmatic plumbing system because of their sensitivity to subsurface changes in volume and mass. In particular, geodesy plays a key role in determining rates of magma supply, storage, and eruption. For example, surface displacements are critical for estimating the volume changes and locations of subsurface magma storage zones, and remotely sensed radar data make it possible to place significant bounds on eruptive volumes. Combining these measurements with geochemical indicators of magma composition and volatile content enables modeling of magma fluxes throughout a volcano's plumbing system, from source to surface. We combined geodetic data (particularly InSAR) with prior geochemical constraints and measured gas emissions from Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i, to develop a probabilistic model that relates magma supply, storage, and eruption over time. We found that the magma supply rate to Kīlauea during 2006 was 35-100% greater than during 2000-2001, with coincident increased rates of subsurface magma storage and eruption at the surface. By 2012, this surge in supply had ended, and supply rates were below those of 2000-2001; magma storage and eruption rates were similarly reduced. These results demonstrate the connection between magma supply, storage, and eruption, and the overall importance of magma supply with respect to volcanic hazards at Kīlauea and similar volcanoes. Our model also confirms the importance of geodetic data in modeling these parameters - rates of storage and eruption are, in some cases, almost uniquely constrained by geodesy. Future modeling efforts along these lines should also seek to incorporate gravity data, to better determine magma

  7. Analysis of Metmyoglobin Formation Rates in Frozen Tuna Meat during Frozen Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viriyarattanasak, Chotika; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

    Formation of metmyoglobin (metMb) in frozen tuna meat stored at -90, -60, -40, -30, -20, and -10°C for approximately 6 months was investigated. The reaction rate of metMB formation was estimated from a linear plot of ln ([M∞ . Mt] /[M∞ . Mo]) and storage time (t) for each storage temperature (Ts) (M∞, Mt, and Mo are metMb contents at times t = t∞, t, and 0, respectively). When M∞ was assumed to be 100%, the rate of metMb formation followed the first-order reaction only during the early stage of storage period. MetMb formation, however obeyed the first-order reaction for all test temperatures even during long-term storage when M∞ was assumed to be dependent on storage temperature (M∞(Ts)). A discontinuity was observed in the temperature dependence of M∞(Ts) at storage temperature range between -60 and -40°C, which was attributed to the glass transition of protein system. On the other hand, the temperature dependence of metMb formation did not show a significant change over all storage temperatures.

  8. Technology transfer for the US Department of Energy's Energy Storage Program: Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Bruneau, C.L.; Fassbender, L.L.

    1988-10-01

    This document contains the appendices to Technology Transfer Recommendations for the US Department of Energy's Storage Program (PNL-6484, Vol. 1). These appendices are a list of projects, publications, and presentations connected with the Energy Storage (STOR) program. In Volume 1, the technology transfer activities of the STOR program are examined and mechanisms for increasing the effectiveness of those activities are recommended.

  9. Thermal Assessment of a Latent-Heat Energy Storage Module During Melting and Freezing for Solar Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Archibold, Antonio

    Capital investment reduction, exergetic efficiency improvement and material compatibility issues have been identified as the primary techno-economic challenges associated, with the near-term development and deployment of thermal energy storage (TES) in commercial-scale concentrating solar power plants. Three TES techniques have gained attention in the solar energy research community as possible candidates to reduce the cost of solar-generated electricity, namely (1) sensible heat storage, (2) latent heat (tank filled with phase change materials (PCMs) or encapsulated PCMs packed in a vessel) and (3) thermochemical storage. Among these the PCM macro-encapsulation approach seems to be one of the most-promising methods because of its potential to develop more effective energy exchange, reduce the cost associated with the tank and increase the exergetic efficiency. However, the technological barriers to this approach arise from the encapsulation techniques used to create a durable capsule, as well as an assessment of the fundamental thermal energy transport mechanisms during the phase change. A comprehensive study of the energy exchange interactions and induced fluid flow during melting and solidification of a confined storage medium is reported in this investigation from a theoretical perspective. Emphasis has been placed on the thermal characterization of a single constituent storage module rather than an entire storage system, in order to, precisely capture the energy exchange contributions of all the fundamental heat transfer mechanisms during the phase change processes. Two-dimensional, axisymmetric, transient equations for mass, momentum and energy conservation have been solved numerically by the finite volume scheme. Initially, the interaction between conduction and natural convection energy transport modes, in the absence of thermal radiation, is investigated for solar power applications at temperatures (300--400°C). Later, participating thermal radiation

  10. Metal hydrides for concentrating solar thermal power energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, D. A.; Paskevicius, M.; Humphries, T. D.; Felderhoff, M.; Capurso, G.; Bellosta von Colbe, J.; Dornheim, M.; Klassen, T.; Ward, P. A.; Teprovich, J. A.; Corgnale, C.; Zidan, R.; Grant, D. M.; Buckley, C. E.

    2016-04-01

    The development of alternative methods for thermal energy storage is important for improving the efficiency and decreasing the cost of concentrating solar thermal power. We focus on the underlying technology that allows metal hydrides to function as thermal energy storage (TES) systems and highlight the current state-of-the-art materials that can operate at temperatures as low as room temperature and as high as 1100 °C. The potential of metal hydrides for thermal storage is explored, while current knowledge gaps about hydride properties, such as hydride thermodynamics, intrinsic kinetics and cyclic stability, are identified. The engineering challenges associated with utilising metal hydrides for high-temperature TES are also addressed.

  11. High energy storage capacitor by embedding tunneling nano-structures

    DOEpatents

    Holme, Timothy P; Prinz, Friedrich B; Van Stockum, Philip B

    2014-11-04

    In an All-Electron Battery (AEB), inclusions embedded in an active region between two electrodes of a capacitor provide enhanced energy storage. Electrons can tunnel to/from and/or between the inclusions, thereby increasing the charge storage density relative to a conventional capacitor. One or more barrier layers is present in an AEB to block DC current flow through the device. The AEB effect can be enhanced by using multi-layer active regions having inclusion layers with the inclusions separated by spacer layers that don't have the inclusions. The use of cylindrical geometry or wrap around electrodes and/or barrier layers in a planar geometry can enhance the basic AEB effect. Other physical effects that can be employed in connection with the AEB effect are excited state energy storage, and formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC).

  12. Design of a high temperature subsurface thermal energy storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Qi

    Solar thermal energy is taking up increasing proportions of future power generation worldwide. Thermal energy storage technology is a key method for compensating for the inherent intermittency of solar resources and solving the time mismatch between solar energy supply and electricity demand. However, there is currently no cost-effective high-capacity compact storage technology available (Bakker et al., 2008). The goal of this work is to propose a high temperature subsurface thermal energy storage (HSTES) technology and demonstrate its potential energy storage capability by developing a solar-HSTES-electricity generation system. In this work, main elements of the proposed system and their related state-of-art technologies are reviewed. A conceptual model is built to illustrate the concept, design, operating procedure and application of such a system. A numerical base model is built within the TOUGH2-EOS1 multiphase flow simulator for the evaluation of system performance. Additional models are constructed and simulations are done to identify the effect of different operational and geological influential factors on the system performance. Our work shows that when the base model is run with ten years operation of alternate injection and production processes - each for a month - with a thermal power input of 10.85 MW, about 83% of the injected thermal energy could be recovered within each working cycle from a stabilized HSTES system. After the final conversion into electrical energy, a relative (compared with the direct use of hot water) electricity generation efficiency of 73% is obtained. In a typical daily storage scenario, the simulated thermal storage efficiency could exceed 78% and the relative electricity generation efficiency is over 66% in the long run. In a seasonal storage scenario, these two efficiencies reach 69% and 53% respectively by the end of the simulation period of 10 years. Additional simulations reveal a thinner storage aquifer with a higher

  13. Energy storage possibilities of atomic hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etters, R. D.; Dugan, J. V., Jr.; Palmer, R.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of storing large amounts of energy in a free radical system such as atomic hydrogen is analyzed. Attention is focused on theoretical calculations of the ground state properties of spin-aligned atomic triplet hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium. The solid-liquid phase transition in atomic hydrogen is also examined.

  14. Phase change thermal energy storage material

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Burrows, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    A thermal energy storge composition is disclosed. The composition comprises a non-chloride hydrate having a phase change transition temperature in the range of 70.degree.-95.degree. F. and a latent heat of transformation of at least about 35 calories/gram.

  15. 76 FR 22393 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Cancellation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy... and Wildlife Service for the proposed Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project....

  16. 78 FR 26358 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy...), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All local, state, and federal...

  17. 77 FR 47628 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy... Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric...

  18. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Storage Cost Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Karen; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Han, Vickie; Chan, Michael; Chiang, Helena; Leonard, Jon

    2013-03-11

    The overall objective of this project is to conduct cost analyses and estimate costs for on- and off-board hydrogen storage technologies under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on a consistent, independent basis. This can help guide DOE and stakeholders toward the most-promising research, development and commercialization pathways for hydrogen-fueled vehicles. A specific focus of the project is to estimate hydrogen storage system cost in high-volume production scenarios relative to the DOE target that was in place when this cost analysis was initiated. This report and its results reflect work conducted by TIAX between 2004 and 2012, including recent refinements and updates. The report provides a system-level evaluation of costs and performance for four broad categories of on-board hydrogen storage: (1) reversible on-board metal hydrides (e.g., magnesium hydride, sodium alanate); (2) regenerable off-board chemical hydrogen storage materials(e.g., hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, ammonia borane); (3) high surface area sorbents (e.g., carbon-based materials); and 4) advanced physical storage (e.g., 700-bar compressed, cryo-compressed and liquid hydrogen). Additionally, the off-board efficiency and processing costs of several hydrogen storage systems were evaluated and reported, including: (1) liquid carrier, (2) sodium borohydride, (3) ammonia borane, and (4) magnesium hydride. TIAX applied a bottom-up costing methodology customized to analyze and quantify the processes used in the manufacture of hydrogen storage systems. This methodology, used in conjunction with ® software and other tools, developed costs for all major tank components, balance-of-tank, tank assembly, and system assembly. Based on this methodology, the figure below shows the projected on-board high-volume factory costs of the various analyzed hydrogen storage systems, as designed. Reductions in the key cost drivers may bring hydrogen storage system costs closer to this DOE target

  19. Test profiles for stationary energy-storage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, P. C.; Cole, J. F.; Taylor, P. A.

    Evaluation of battery and other energy-storage technologies for stationary uses is progressing rapidly toward application-specific testing. This testing uses computer-based data acquisition and control equipment, active electronic loads and power supplies, and customized software, to enable sophisticated test regimes which simulate actual use conditions. These simulated-use tests provide more accurate performance and life evaluations than simple constant resistance or current testing regimes. Several organizations are cooperating to develop simulated-use tests for utility-scale storage systems, especially battery energy-storage systems (BESSs). Some of the tests use stepped constant-power charge and discharge regimes to simulate conditions created by electric utility applications such as frequency regulation (FR) and spinning reserve (SR). Other test profiles under development simulate conditions for the energy-storage component of remote-area power supplies (RAPSs) which include renewable and/or fossil-fuelled generators. Various RAPS applications have unique sets of service conditions that require specialized test profiles. Almost all RAPS tests and many tests that represent other stationary applications need, however, to simulate significant time periods that storage devices operate at low-to-medium states-of-charge without full recharge. Consideration of these and similar issues in simulated-use test regimes is necessary to predict effectively the responses of the various types of batteries in specific stationary applications. This paper describes existing and evolving stationary applications for energy-storage technologies and test regimes which are designed to simulate them. The paper also discusses efforts to develop international testing standards.

  20. Flywheel energy storage with superconductor magnetic bearings

    DOEpatents

    Weinberger, Bernard R.; Lynds, Jr., Lahmer; Hull, John R.

    1993-01-01

    A flywheel having superconductor bearings has a lower drag to lift ratio that translates to an improvement of a factor of ten in the rotational decay rate. The lower drag results from the lower dissipation of melt-processed YBCO, improved uniformity of the permanent magnet portion of the bearings, operation in a different range of vacuum pressure from that taught by the art, and greater separation distance from the rotating members of conductive materials.

  1. Assessment of flywheel energy storage for spacecraft power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, G.E.; Studer, P.A.; Baer, D.A.

    1983-05-01

    The feasibility of inertial energy storage in a spacecraft power system is evaluated on the basis of a conceptual integrated design that encompasses a composite rotor, magnetic suspension, and a permanent magnet (PM) motor/generator for a 3-kW orbital average payload at a bus distribution voltage of 250 volts dc. The conceptual design, which evolved at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), is referred to as a Mechanical Capacitor. The baseline power system configuration selected is a series system employing peak-power-tracking for a Low Earth-Orbiting application. Power processing, required in the motor/generator, provides a potential alternative configurations that can only be achieved in systems with electrochemical energy storage by the addition of power processing components. One such alternative configuration provides for peak-power-tracking of the solar array and still maintains a regulated bus, without the expense of additional power processing components. Precise speed control of the two counterrotating wheels is required to reduce interaction with the attitude control system (ACS) or alternatively, used to perform attitude control functions. Critical technologies identified are those pertaining to the energy storage element and are prioritized as composite wheel development, magnetic suspension, motor/generator, containment, and momentum control. Comparison with a 3-kW, 250-Vdc power system using either NiCd or NiH2 for energy storage results in a system in which inertial energy storage offers potential advantages in lifetime, operating temperature, voltage regulation, energy density, charge control, and overall system weight reduction.

  2. Assessment of flywheel energy storage for spacecraft power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G. E.; Studer, P. A.; Baer, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of inertial energy storage in a spacecraft power system is evaluated on the basis of a conceptual integrated design that encompasses a composite rotor, magnetic suspension, and a permanent magnet (PM) motor/generator for a 3-kW orbital average payload at a bus distribution voltage of 250 volts dc. The conceptual design, which evolved at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), is referred to as a Mechanical Capacitor. The baseline power system configuration selected is a series system employing peak-power-tracking for a Low Earth-Orbiting application. Power processing, required in the motor/generator, provides a potential alternative configurations that can only be achieved in systems with electrochemical energy storage by the addition of power processing components. One such alternative configuration provides for peak-power-tracking of the solar array and still maintains a regulated bus, without the expense of additional power processing components. Precise speed control of the two counterrotating wheels is required to reduce interaction with the attitude control system (ACS) or alternatively, used to perform attitude control functions. Critical technologies identified are those pertaining to the energy storage element and are prioritized as composite wheel development, magnetic suspension, motor/generator, containment, and momentum control. Comparison with a 3-kW, 250-Vdc power system using either NiCd or NiH2 for energy storage results in a system in which inertial energy storage offers potential advantages in lifetime, operating temperature, voltage regulation, energy density, charge control, and overall system weight reduction.

  3. Energy Conversion and Storage Program. 1990 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  4. Energy Conversion and Storage Program: 1992 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, E.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report is the 1992 annual progress report for the Energy Conversion and Storage Program, a part of the Energy and Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Work described falls into three broad areas: electrochemistry; chemical applications; and materials applications. The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies principles of chemistry and materials science to solve problems in several areas: (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species, and (5) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Chemical applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing product and waste streams from synfuel plants, coal gasifiers, and biomass conversion processes. Materials applications research includes evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as development of novel preparation techniques. For example, techniques such as sputtering, laser ablation, and poised laser deposition are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  5. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) and Power-to-Gas Economic Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, Joshua

    2015-07-30

    This presentation summarizes opportunities for hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas and presents the results of a market analysis performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to quantify the value of energy storage. Hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas systems have the ability to integrate multiple energy sectors including electricity, transportation, and industrial. On account of the flexibility of hydrogen systems, there are a variety of potential system configurations. Each configuration will provide different value to the owner, customers and grid system operator. This presentation provides an economic comparison of hydrogen storage, power-to-gas and conventional storage systems. The total cost is compared to the revenue with participation in a variety of markets to assess the economic competitiveness. It is found that the sale of hydrogen for transportation or industrial use greatly increases competitiveness. Electrolyzers operating as demand response devices (i.e., selling hydrogen and grid services) are economically competitive, while hydrogen storage that inputs electricity and outputs only electricity have an unfavorable business case. Additionally, tighter integration with the grid provides greater revenue (e.g., energy, ancillary service and capacity markets are explored). Lastly, additional hours of storage capacity is not necessarily more competitive in current energy and ancillary service markets and electricity markets will require new mechanisms to appropriately compensate long duration storage devices.

  6. Energy storage possibilities of atomic hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etters, R. D.; Dugan, J. V., Jr.; Palmer, R.

    1976-01-01

    Several recent experiments designed to produce and store macroscopic quantities of atomic hydrogen are discussed. The bulk, ground state properties of atomic hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium systems are calculated assuming that all pair interactions occur via the atomic triplet potential. The conditions required to obtain this system, including inhibition of recombination through the energetically favorable singlet interaction, are discussed. The internal energy, pressure, and compressibility are calculated applying the Monte Carlo technique with a quantum mechanical variational wavefunction. The system studied consisted of 32 atoms in a box with periodic boundary conditions. Results show that atomic triplet hydrogen and deuterium remain gaseous at 0 K; i.e., the internal energy is positive at all molar volumes considered.

  7. Carbon foams for energy storage devices

    DOEpatents

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1996-01-01

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc-1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m.sup.2 /g-1000 m.sup.2 /g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved.

  8. Carbon foams for energy storage devices

    DOEpatents

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.

    1996-06-25

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc--1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m{sup 2}/g-1000 m{sup 2}/g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved. 9 figs.

  9. NREL Energy Storage Projects: FY2013 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Ban, C.; Brooker, A.; Gonder, J.; Ireland, J.; Keyser, M.; Kim, G. H.; Long, D.; Neubauer, J.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Smith, K.; Tenent, R.; Wood, E.; Han, T.; Hartridge, S.; Shaffer, C. E.

    2014-07-01

    In FY13, DOE funded NREL to make technical contributions to various R&D activities. This report summarizes NREL's R&D projects in FY13 in support of the USABC; Battery Testing, Analysis, and Design; ABR; and BATT program elements. The FY13 projects under NREL's Energy Storage R&D program are discussed in depth in this report.

  10. Advanced energy storage for space applications: A follow-up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

    1994-01-01

    Viewgraphs on advanced energy storage for space applications are presented. Topics covered include: categories of space missions using batteries; battery challenges; properties of SOA and advanced primary batteries; lithium primary cell applications; advanced rechargeable battery applications; present limitations of advanced battery technologies; and status of Li-TiS2, Ni-MH, and Na-NiCl2 cell technologies.

  11. Mathematical modeling of moving boundary problems in thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, A. D.

    1980-01-01

    The capability for predicting the performance of thermal energy storage (RES) subsystems and components using PCM's based on mathematical and physical models is developed. Mathematical models of the dynamic thermal behavior of (TES) subsystems using PCM's based on solutions of the moving boundary thermal conduction problem and on heat and mass transfer engineering correlations are also discussed.

  12. Thermal energy storage subsystems. A collection of quarterly reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The design, development, and progress toward the delivery of three subsystems is discussed. The subsystem used a salt hydrate mixture for thermal energy storage. The program schedules, technical data, and other program activities from October 1, 1976, through December 31, 1977 are presented.

  13. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for asynchronous electrical systems

    DOEpatents

    Boenig, Heinrich J.

    1986-01-01

    A superconducting magnetic energy storage coil connected in parallel between converters of two or more ac power systems provides load leveling and stability improvement to any or all of the ac systems. Control is provided to direct the charging and independently the discharging of the superconducting coil to at least a selected one of the ac power systems.

  14. Integration of Wind Turbines with Compressed Air Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsie, I.; Marano, V.; Rizzo, G.; Moran, M.

    2009-08-01

    Some of the major limitations of renewable energy sources are represented by their low power density and intermittent nature, largely depending upon local site and unpredictable weather conditions. These problems concur to increase the unit costs of wind power, so limiting their diffusion. By coupling storage systems with a wind farm, some of the major limitations of wind power, such as a low power density and an unpredictable nature, can be overcome. After an overview on storage systems, the Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is analyzed, and the state of art on such systems is discussed. A Matlab/Simulink model of a hybrid power plant consisting of a wind farm coupled with CAES is then presented. The model has been successfully validated starting from the operating data of the McIntosh CAES Plant in Alabama. Time-series neural network-based wind speed forecasting are employed to determine the optimal daily operation strategy for the storage system. A detailed economic analysis has been carried out: investment and maintenance costs are estimated based on literature data, while operational costs and revenues are calculated according to energy market prices. As shown in the paper, the knowledge of the expected available energy is a key factor to optimize the management strategies of the proposed hybrid power plant, allowing to obtain environmental and economic benefits.

  15. Magnetic Cobalt Ferrite Nanocrystals For an Energy Storage Concentration Cell.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qilin; Patel, Ketan; Donatelli, Greg; Ren, Shenqiang

    2016-08-22

    Energy-storage concentration cells are based on the concentration gradient of redox-active reactants; the increased entropy is transformed into electric energy as the concentration gradient reaches equilibrium between two half cells. A recyclable and flow-controlled magnetic electrolyte concentration cell is now presented. The hybrid inorganic-organic nanocrystal-based electrolyte, consisting of molecular redox-active ligands adsorbed on the surface of magnetic nanocrystals, leads to a magnetic-field-driven concentration gradient of redox molecules. The energy storage performance of concentration cells is dictated by magnetic characteristics of cobalt ferrite nanocrystal carriers. The enhanced conductivity and kinetics of redox-active electrolytes could further induce a sharp concentration gradient to improve the energy density and voltage switching of magnetic electrolyte concentration cells. PMID:27440206

  16. FY2011 Progress Report for Energy Storage Research & Development

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-01-31

    The FY 2011 Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D focuses on advancing the development of batteries to enable a large market penetration of hybrid and electric vehicles. Program targets focus on overcoming technical barriers to enable market success including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost, (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability), (3) reducing battery weight & volume, and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush.

  17. FY2013 Energy Storage R&D Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-02-01

    The FY 2013 Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D focuses on advancing the development of batteries to enable a large market penetration of hybrid and electric vehicles. Program targets focus on overcoming technical barriers to enable market success including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost, (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability), (3) reducing battery weight & volume, and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush.

  18. Heat pipe solar receiver with thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    1981-01-01

    An HPSR Stirling engine generator system featuring latent heat thermal energy storge, excellent thermal stability and self regulating, effective thermal transport at low system delta T is described. The system was supported by component technology testing of heat pipes and of thermal storage and energy transport models which define the expected performance of the system. Preliminary and detailed design efforts were completed and manufacturing of HPSR components has begun.

  19. Storage-ring measurements of hyperfine induced transition rates in berylliumlike ions

    SciTech Connect

    Schippers, Stefan

    2013-07-11

    The status of experimental measurements and theoretical calculations of the hyperfine induced 2s2p{sup 3}P{sub 0}{yields}2s{sup 21}S{sub 0} transition rate in Be-like ions is reviewed. Possible reasons, such as external electromagnetic fields and competing E1M1 two-photon transitions, for presently existing significant discrepancies between experiment and theory are discussed. Finally, directions for future research are outlined.

  20. Realization rates of the National Energy Audit

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, L.G.; Gettings, M.B.

    1998-11-01

    Engineering estimates of savings resulting from installation of energy conservation measures in homes are often greater than the savings actually realized. A brief review of prior studies of realization rates prefaces this study of rates from an engineering audit tool, NEAT, (developed for the Department of Energy`s Low-Income Weatherization Assistance Program) used in a New York state utility`s low-income program. Estimates of metered and predicted savings are compared for 49 homes taken from a data base of homes that participated in the first year of the utility`s program. Average realization rates ranging from 57% to 69% result, depending on the data quality. Detailed examinations of two houses using an alternate engineering method, the DOE-2 computer program (considered an industry standard), seem to indicate that the low realization rates mainly result from factors other than inaccuracies in the audit`s internal algorithms. Causes of the low realization rates are examined, showing that the strongest single factor linked to the low rates in this study is the use of secondary heating fuels that supplement the primary heating fuel. This study, like the other similar studies, concludes that engineering estimates are valuable tools in determining ranked lists of cost-effective weatherization measures, but may not be accurate substitutes for measured results in evaluating program performance.

  1. Carbon Materials for Chemical Capacitive Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Yunpu; Dou, Yuqian; Zhao, Dongyuan; Fulvio, Pasquale F.; Mayes, Richard T.; Dai, Sheng

    2011-09-26

    Carbon materials have attracted intense interests as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors, because of their high surface area, electrical conductivity, chemical stability and low cost. Activated carbons produced by different activation processes from various precursors are the most widely used electrodes. Recently, with the rapid growth of nanotechnology, nanostructured electrode materials, such as carbon nanotubes and template-synthesized porous carbons have been developed. Their unique electrical properties and well controlled pore sizes and structures facilitate fast ion and electron transportation. In order to further improve the power and energy densities of the capacitors, carbon-based composites combining electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC)-capacitance and pseudo-capacitance have been explored. They show not only enhanced capacitance, but as well good cyclability. In this review, recent progresses on carbon-based electrode materials are summarized, including activated carbons, carbon nanotubes, and template-synthesized porous carbons, in particular mesoporous carbons. Their advantages and disadvantages as electrochemical capacitors are discussed. At the end of this review, the future trends of electrochemical capacitors with high energy and power are proposed.

  2. Characterization and assessment of novel bulk storage technologies : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program.

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, Georgianne; Tong, Nellie; Fioravanti, Richard; Gordon, Paul; Markel, Larry; Agrawal, Poonum; Nourai, Ali

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the results of a high-level study to assess the technological readiness and technical and economic feasibility of 17 novel bulk energy storage technologies. The novel technologies assessed were variations of either pumped storage hydropower (PSH) or compressed air energy storage (CAES). The report also identifies major technological gaps and barriers to the commercialization of each technology. Recommendations as to where future R&D efforts for the various technologies are also provided based on each technology's technological readiness and the expected time to commercialization (short, medium, or long term). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned this assessment of novel concepts in large-scale energy storage to aid in future program planning of its Energy Storage Program. The intent of the study is to determine if any new but still unproven bulk energy storage concepts merit government support to investigate their technical and economic feasibility or to speed their commercialization. The study focuses on compressed air energy storage (CAES) and pumped storage hydropower (PSH). It identifies relevant applications for bulk storage, defines the associated technical requirements, characterizes and assesses the feasibility of the proposed new concepts to address these requirements, identifies gaps and barriers, and recommends the type of government support and research and development (R&D) needed to accelerate the commercialization of these technologies.

  3. Graphene-Based Integrated Photovoltaic Energy Harvesting/Storage Device.

    PubMed

    Chien, Chih-Tao; Hiralal, Pritesh; Wang, Di-Yan; Huang, I-Sheng; Chen, Chia-Chun; Chen, Chun-Wei; Amaratunga, Gehan A J

    2015-06-24

    Energy scavenging has become a fundamental part of ubiquitous sensor networks. Of all the scavenging technologies, solar has the highest power density available. However, the energy source is erratic. Integrating energy conversion and storage devices is a viable route to obtain self-powered electronic systems which have long-term maintenance-free operation. In this work, we demonstrate an integrated-power-sheet, consisting of a string of series connected organic photovoltaic cells (OPCs) and graphene supercapacitors on a single substrate, using graphene as a common platform. This results in lighter and more flexible power packs. Graphene is used in different forms and qualities for different functions. Chemical vapor deposition grown high quality graphene is used as a transparent conductor, while solution exfoliated graphene pastes are used as supercapacitor electrodes. Solution-based coating techniques are used to deposit the separate components onto a single substrate, making the process compatible with roll-to-roll manufacture. Eight series connected OPCs based on poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60 BM) bulk-heterojunction cells with aluminum electrodes, resulting in a ≈5 V open-circuit voltage, provide the energy harvesting capability. Supercapacitors based on graphene ink with ≈2.5 mF cm(-2) capacitance provide the energy storage capability. The integrated-power-sheet with photovoltaic (PV) energy harvesting and storage functions had a mass of 0.35 g plus the substrate. PMID:25703342

  4. Mission and status of the US Department of Energy's battery energy storage program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, J. E.; Hurwitch, J. W.; Landgrebe, A. R.; Hauser, S. G.

    1985-05-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's battery research program has evolved to reflect the changing conditions of the world energy economy and the national energy policy. The battery energy storage program supports the goals of the National Energy Policy Plan (FY 1984). The goals are to provide an adequate supply of energy at reasonable costs, minimize federal control and involvement in the energy marketplace, promote a balanced and mixed energy resource system, and facilitate technology transfer from the public to the private sector. This paper describes the history of the battery energy storage program and its relevance to the national interest. Potential market applications for battery energy storage are reviewed, and each technology, its goals, and its current technical status are described. The paper concludes by describing the strategy developed to ensure effective technology transfer to the private sector and reviewing past significant accomplishments.

  5. Metal-halide mixtures for latent heat energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, K.; Manvi, R.

    1981-01-01

    Some candidates for alkali metal and alkali halide mixtures suitable for thermal energy storage at temperatures 600 C are identified. A solar thermal system application which offer advantages such as precipitation of salt crystals away from heat transfer surfaces, increased thermal conductivity of phase change materials, corrosion inhibition, and a constant monotectic temperature, independent of mixture concentrations. By using the lighters, metal rich phase as a heat transfer medium and the denser, salt rich phase as a phase change material for latent heat storage, undesirable solidification on the heat transfer surface may be prevented, is presented.

  6. Energy storage in ultrathin solid oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Van Overmeere, Quentin; Kerman, Kian; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2012-07-11

    The power output of hydrogen fuel cells quickly decreases to zero if the fuel supply is interrupted. We demonstrate thin film solid oxide fuel cells with nanostructured vanadium oxide anodes that generate power for significantly longer time than reference porous platinum anode thin film solid oxide fuel cells when the fuel supply is interrupted. The charge storage mechanism was investigated quantitatively with likely identified contributions from the oxidation of the vanadium oxide anode, its hydrogen storage properties, and different oxygen concentration at the electrodes. Fuel cells capable of storing charge even for short periods of time could contribute to ultraminiaturization of power sources for mobile energy. PMID:22712483

  7. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  8. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  9. Toroidal constant-tension superconducting magnetic energy storage units

    DOEpatents

    Herring, J.S.

    1992-11-03

    A superconducting magnetic energy storage unit is provided in which the magnet is wound in a toroidal fashion such that the magnetic field produced is contained only within the bore of the magnet, and thus producing a very low external field. The superconducting magnet includes a coolant channel disposed through the wire. The bore of the magnet comprises a storage volume in which cryogenic coolant is stored, and this volume supplies the coolant to be delivered to the coolant channel in the magnet. 6 figs.

  10. Carbon coated textiles for flexible energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Jost, Kristy; Perez, Carlos O; Mcdonough, John; Presser, Volker; Heon, Min; Dion, Genevieve; Gogotsi, Yury

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a flexible and lightweight fabric supercapacitor electrode as a possible energy source in smart garments. We examined the electrochemical behavior of porous carbon materials impregnated into woven cotton and polyester fabrics using a traditional printmaking technique (screen printing). The porous structure of such fabrics makes them attractive for supercapacitor applications that need porous films for ion transfer between electrodes. We used cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study the capacitive behaviour of carbon materials using nontoxic aqueous electrolytes including sodium sulfate and lithium sulfate. Electrodes coated with activated carbon (YP17) and tested at 0.25 A$g1 achieved a high gravimetric and areal capacitance, an average of 85 F$g1 on cotton lawn and polyester microfiber, both corresponding to 0.43 F$cm2.

  11. Carbon coated textiles for flexible energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Jost, Kristy; Perez, Carlos R.; McDonough, John K.; Presser, Volker; Heon, Min; Dion, Genevieve; Gogotsi, Yury

    2011-10-20

    This paper describes a flexible and lightweight fabric supercapacitor electrode as a possible energy source in smart garments. We examined the electrochemical behavior of porous carbon materials impregnated into woven cotton and polyester fabrics using a traditional printmaking technique (screen printing). The porous structure of such fabrics makes them attractive for supercapacitor applications that need porous films for ion transfer between electrodes. We used cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study the capacitive behaviour of carbon materials using nontoxic aqueous electrolytes including sodium sulfate and lithium sulfate. Electrodes coated with activated carbon (YP17) and tested at ~0.25 A·g⁻¹ achieved a high gravimetric and areal capacitance, an average of 85 F·g⁻¹ on cotton lawn and polyester microfiber, both corresponding to ~0.43 F·cm⁻².

  12. Optimal Operation of Energy Storage in Power Transmission and Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan Hejazi, Seyed Hossein

    In this thesis, we investigate optimal operation of energy storage units in power transmission and distribution grids. At transmission level, we investigate the problem where an investor-owned independently-operated energy storage system seeks to offer energy and ancillary services in the day-ahead and real-time markets. We specifically consider the case where a significant portion of the power generated in the grid is from renewable energy resources and there exists significant uncertainty in system operation. In this regard, we formulate a stochastic programming framework to choose optimal energy and reserve bids for the storage units that takes into account the fluctuating nature of the market prices due to the randomness in the renewable power generation availability. At distribution level, we develop a comprehensive data set to model various stochastic factors on power distribution networks, with focus on networks that have high penetration of electric vehicle charging load and distributed renewable generation. Furthermore, we develop a data-driven stochastic model for energy storage operation at distribution level, where the distribution of nodal voltage and line power flow are modelled as stochastic functions of the energy storage unit's charge and discharge schedules. In particular, we develop new closed-form stochastic models for such key operational parameters in the system. Our approach is analytical and allows formulating tractable optimization problems. Yet, it does not involve any restricting assumption on the distribution of random parameters, hence, it results in accurate modeling of uncertainties. By considering the specific characteristics of random variables, such as their statistical dependencies and often irregularly-shaped probability distributions, we propose a non-parametric chance-constrained optimization approach to operate and plan energy storage units in power distribution girds. In the proposed stochastic optimization, we consider

  13. Capacitive energy storage and recovery for synchrotron magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Koseki, K.

    2014-06-15

    Feasibility studies on capacitive energy storage and recovery in the main-ring synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex were conducted by circuit simulation. The estimated load fluctuation was 96 MVA in total for dipole magnets, which is likely to induce a serious disturbance in the main grid. It was found that the energy stored in the magnets after the excitation period can be recovered to the storage capacitor by controlling the voltage across the energy-storage capacitor using a pulse-width-modulation converter and reused in the next operational cycle. It was also found that the power fluctuation in the main grid can be reduced to 12 MVA. An experimental evaluation of an aluminum metalized film capacitor revealed that capacitance loss was induced by a fluctuating voltage applied to the storage capacitor when applying the proposed method. The capacitance loss was induced by corona discharge around the edges of segmented electrodes of a self-healing capacitor. The use of aluminum-zinc alloy was evaluated as a countermeasure to mitigate the effect induced by the corona discharge. For a zinc content of 8%, which was optimized experimentally, a capacitor with a sufficient life time expectancy of 20 years and a working potential gradient of 250 V/μm was developed.

  14. Bismuth pyrochlore-based thin films for dielectric energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Elizabeth K.

    The drive towards the miniaturization of electronic devices has created a need for dielectric materials with large energy storage densities. These materials, which are used in capacitors, are a critical component in many electrical systems. Here, the development of dielectric energy storage materials for pulsed power applications, which require materials with the ability to accumulate a large amount of energy and then deliver it to the system rapidly, is explored. The amount of electrostatic energy that can be stored by a material is a function of the induced polarization and the dielectric breakdown strength of the material. An ideal energy storage dielectric would possess a high relative permittivity, high dielectric breakdown strength, and low loss tangent under high applied electric fields. The bismuth pyrochlores are a compositionally tunable family of materials that meet these requirements. Thin films of cubic pyrochlore bismuth zinc niobate, bismuth zinc tantalate, and bismuth zinc niobate tantalate, were fabricated using a novel solution chemistry based upon the Pechini method. This solution preparation is advantageous because it avoids the use of teratogenic solvents, such as 2-methoxyethanol. Crystalline films fabricated using this solution chemistry had very small grains that were approximately 27 nm in lateral size and 35 nm through the film thickness. Impedance measurements found that the resistivity of the grain boundaries was two orders of magnitude higher than the resistivity of the grain interior. The presence of many resistive grain boundaries impeded conduction through the films, resulting in high breakdown strengths for these materials. In addition to high breakdown strengths, this family of materials exhibited moderate relative permittivities of between 55 +/- 2 and 145 +/- 5, for bismuth zinc tantalate and bismuth zinc niobate, respectively, and low loss tangents on the order of 0.0008 +/- 0.0001. Increases in the concentration of the tantalum

  15. Parametric design studies of toroidal magnetic energy storage units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, J. Stephen

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) units have a number of advantages as storage devices. Electrical current is the input, output and stored medium, allowing for completely solid-state energy conversion. The magnets themselves have no moving parts. The round trip efficiency is higher than those for batteries, compressed air or pumped hydro. Output power can be very high, allowing complete discharge of the unit within a few seconds. Finally, the unit can be designed for a very large number of cycles, limited basically by fatigue in the structural components. A small systems code was written to produce and evaluate self-consistent designs for toroidal superconducting energy storage units. The units can use either low temperature or high temperature superconductors. The coils have D shape where the conductor and its stabilizer/structure is loaded only in tension and the centering forces are borne by a bucking cylinder. The coils are convectively cooled from a cryogenic reservoir in the bore of the coils. The coils are suspended in a cylindrical metal shell which protects the magnet during rail, automotive or shipboard use. It is important to note that the storage unit does not rely on its surroundings for structural support, other than normal gravity and inertial loads. Designs are presented for toroidal energy storage units produced by the systems code. A wide range of several parameters have been considered, resulting in units storing from 1 MJ to 72 GJ. Maximum fields range from 5 T to 20 T. The masses and volumes of the coils, bucking cylinder, coolant, insulation and outer shell are calculated. For unattended use, the allowable operating time using only the boiloff of the cryogenic fluid for refrigeration is calculated. For larger units, the coils were divided into modules suitable for normal truck or rail transport.

  16. Strain Engineering to Modify the Electrochemistry of Energy Storage Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralidharan, Nitin; Carter, Rachel; Oakes, Landon; Cohn, Adam P.; Pint, Cary L.

    2016-06-01

    Strain engineering has been a critical aspect of device design in semiconductor manufacturing for the past decade, but remains relatively unexplored for other applications, such as energy storage. Using mechanical strain as an input parameter to modulate electrochemical potentials of metal oxides opens new opportunities intersecting fields of electrochemistry and mechanics. Here we demonstrate that less than 0.1% strain on a Ni-Ti-O based metal-oxide formed on superelastic shape memory NiTi alloys leads to anodic and cathodic peak potential shifts by up to ~30 mV in an electrochemical cell. Moreover, using the superelastic properties of NiTi to enable strain recovery also recovers the electrochemical potential of the metal oxide, providing mechanistic evidence of strain-modified electrochemistry. These results indicate that mechanical energy can be coupled with electrochemical systems to efficiently design and optimize a new class of strain-modulated energy storage materials.

  17. Review of power quality applications of energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-05-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories contracted Sentech, Inc., to assess the impact of power quality problems on the electricity supply system. This report contains the results of several studies that have identified the cost of power quality events for electricity users and providers. The large annual cost of poor power quality represents a national inefficiency and is reflected in the cost of goods sold, reducing US competitiveness. The Energy Storage Systems (ESS) Program takes the position that mitigation merits the attention of not only the DOE but affected industries as well as businesses capable of assisting in developing solutions to these problems. This study represents the preliminary stages of an overall strategy by the ESS Program to understand the magnitude of these problems so as to begin the process of engaging industry partners in developing solutions.

  18. Environmental and regulatory aspects of compressed-air energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Beckwith, M.A.; Mathur, J.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of fuel regulations, environmental protection laws, the National Environmental Policy Act, underground injection regulations, and state regulations on the development of compressed air storage systems and power plants are discussed. It is concluded that environmental regulatory concerns of conventional energy technologies are often different from those associated with new technologies such as compressed air energy storage (CAES). Confusion and uncertainty often results when the current environmental regulatory system is applied to new technologies. Evolution of the regulatory system must accompany and rapidly accommodate technological development if the benefits of such development are to be fully realized in a timely manner. Those responsible for technological development in the energy field must be aware of these disparities and conduct their efforts accordingly.

  19. Strain Engineering to Modify the Electrochemistry of Energy Storage Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Muralidharan, Nitin; Carter, Rachel; Oakes, Landon; Cohn, Adam P.; Pint, Cary L.

    2016-01-01

    Strain engineering has been a critical aspect of device design in semiconductor manufacturing for the past decade, but remains relatively unexplored for other applications, such as energy storage. Using mechanical strain as an input parameter to modulate electrochemical potentials of metal oxides opens new opportunities intersecting fields of electrochemistry and mechanics. Here we demonstrate that less than 0.1% strain on a Ni-Ti-O based metal-oxide formed on superelastic shape memory NiTi alloys leads to anodic and cathodic peak potential shifts by up to ~30 mV in an electrochemical cell. Moreover, using the superelastic properties of NiTi to enable strain recovery also recovers the electrochemical potential of the metal oxide, providing mechanistic evidence of strain-modified electrochemistry. These results indicate that mechanical energy can be coupled with electrochemical systems to efficiently design and optimize a new class of strain-modulated energy storage materials. PMID:27283872

  20. Engineered nanocomposites for energy storage, electrochromic, and anticorrosion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Huige

    Polymer nanocomposites exhibit unique properties that cannot be obtained each material acting alone. Till now, polymer nanocomposites have attracted significant research interest due to their promising potential for versatile applications ranging from environmental remediation, energy storage, electromagnetic (EM) absorption, sensing and actuation, transportation and safety, defense system, information industry, to novel catalysts, etc. Herein, innovative polymer nanocomposites for energy storage, energy saving, and anticorrosion applications have been synthesized, characterized, and evaluated. Specifically, conductive polymer, i.e., polyamine and polypyrrole, nanocomposites prepared via chemical or electrochemical oxidative polymerization techniques have been investigated for electrochemical supercapacitor electrode materials applications; Conductive polyurethane (PU) nanocomposite coatings filled with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) fabricated by employing an in situ surface-initiated-polymerization (SIP) method have been tested for corrosion prevention purpose.

  1. Strain Engineering to Modify the Electrochemistry of Energy Storage Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Nitin; Carter, Rachel; Oakes, Landon; Cohn, Adam P; Pint, Cary L

    2016-01-01

    Strain engineering has been a critical aspect of device design in semiconductor manufacturing for the past decade, but remains relatively unexplored for other applications, such as energy storage. Using mechanical strain as an input parameter to modulate electrochemical potentials of metal oxides opens new opportunities intersecting fields of electrochemistry and mechanics. Here we demonstrate that less than 0.1% strain on a Ni-Ti-O based metal-oxide formed on superelastic shape memory NiTi alloys leads to anodic and cathodic peak potential shifts by up to ~30 mV in an electrochemical cell. Moreover, using the superelastic properties of NiTi to enable strain recovery also recovers the electrochemical potential of the metal oxide, providing mechanistic evidence of strain-modified electrochemistry. These results indicate that mechanical energy can be coupled with electrochemical systems to efficiently design and optimize a new class of strain-modulated energy storage materials. PMID:27283872

  2. NREL Energy Storage Projects. FY2014 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, Ahmad; Ban, Chunmei; Burton, Evan; Gonder, Jeff; Grad, Peter; Jun, Myungsoo; Keyser, Matt; Kim, Gi-Heon; Neubauer, Jeremy; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Saxon, Aron; Shi, Ying; Smith, Kandler; Sprague, Michael; Tenent, Robert; Wood, Eric; Yang, Chuanbo; Zhang, Chao; Han, Taeyoung; Hartridge, Steve; Shaffer, Christian E.

    2015-03-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory supports energy storage R&D under the Office of Vehicle Technologies at the U.S. Department of Energy. The DOE Energy Storage Program’s charter is to develop battery technologies that will enable large market penetration of electric drive vehicles. These vehicles could have a significant impact on the nation’s goal of reducing dependence on imported oil and gaseous pollutant emissions. DOE has established several program activities to address and overcome the barriers limiting the penetration of electric drive battery technologies: cost, performance, safety, and life. These programs are; Advanced Battery Development through the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC); Battery Testing, Analysis, and Design; Applied Battery Research (ABR); and Focused Fundamental Research, or Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) In FY14, DOE funded NREL to make technical contributions to all of these R&D activities. This report summarizes NREL’s R&D projects in FY14 in support of the USABC; Battery Testing, Analysis, and Design; ABR; and BATT program elements. The FY14 projects under NREL’s Energy Storage R&D program are briefly described below. Each of these is discussed in depth in this report.

  3. The Redox flow system for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, P.; Gahn, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    A new method of storage was applied to a solar photovoltaic system. The storage method is a redox flow system which utilizes the oxidation-reduction capability of two soluble electrochemical redox couples for its storage capacity. The particular variant described separates the charging and discharging function of the system such that the electrochemical couples are simultaneously charged and discharged in separate parts of the system. The solar array had 12 solar cells; wired in order to give a range of voltages and currents. The system stored the solar energy so that a load could be run continually day and night. The main advantages of the redox system are that it can accept a charge in the low voltage range and produce a relatively constant output regardless of solar activity.

  4. Thermal energy storage with liquid-liquid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Santana, E.A.; Stiel, L.I.

    1989-03-01

    The use of liquid-liquid mixtures for heat and cool storage applications has been investigated. Suitable mixtures exhibit large changes in the heat of mixing above and below the critical solution temperature of the system. Analytical procedures have been utilized to determine potential energy storage capabilities of systems with upper or lower critical solution temperatures. It has been found that aqueous systems with lower critical solution temperatures in a suitable range can result in large increases in the effective heat capacity in the critical region. For cool storage with a system of this type, the cooling process results in a transformation from two liquid phases to a single phase. Heats of mixing have been measured with a flow calorimeter system for a number of potential mixtures, and the results are summarized.

  5. Deployment of Behind-The-Meter Energy Storage for Demand Charge Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J.; Simpson, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how economically motivated customers will use energy storage for demand charge reduction, as well as how this changes in the presence of on-site photovoltaic power generation, to investigate the possible effects of incentivizing increased quantities of behind-the-meter storage. It finds that small, short-duration batteries are most cost effective regardless of solar power levels, serving to reduce short load spikes on the order of 2.5% of peak demand. While profitable to the customer, such action is unlikely to adequately benefit the utility as may be desired, thus highlighting the need for modified utility rate structures or properly structured incentives.

  6. Radical covalent organic frameworks: a general strategy to immobilize open-accessible polyradicals for high-performance capacitive energy storage.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Xu, Hong; Chen, Xiong; Wu, Dingcai; Wu, Yang; Liu, Hao; Gu, Cheng; Fu, Ruowen; Jiang, Donglin

    2015-06-01

    Ordered π-columns and open nanochannels found in covalent organic frameworks (COFs) could render them able to store electric energy. However, the synthetic difficulty in achieving redox-active skeletons has thus far restricted their potential for energy storage. A general strategy is presented for converting a conventional COF into an outstanding platform for energy storage through post-synthetic functionalization with organic radicals. The radical frameworks with openly accessible polyradicals immobilized on the pore walls undergo rapid and reversible redox reactions, leading to capacitive energy storage with high capacitance, high-rate kinetics, and robust cycle stability. The results suggest that channel-wall functional engineering with redox-active species will be a facile and versatile strategy to explore COFs for energy storage. PMID:25908404

  7. Method and apparatus for thermal energy storage. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.

    1975-08-19

    A method and apparatus for storing energy by converting thermal energy to potential chemically bound energy in which a first metal hydride is heated to dissociation temperature, liberating hydrogen gas which is compressed and reacted with a second metal to form a second metal hydride while releasing thermal energy. Cooling the first metal while warming the second metal hydride to dissociation temperature will reverse the flow of hydrogen gas back to the first metal, releasing additional thermal energy. The method and apparatus are particularly useful for the storage and conversion of thermal energy from solar heat sources and for the utilization of this energy for space heating purposes, such as for homes or offices.

  8. Energy Storage on the Grid and the Short-term Variability of Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hittinger, Eric Stephen

    Wind generation presents variability on every time scale, which must be accommodated by the electric grid. Limited quantities of wind power can be successfully integrated by the current generation and demand-side response mix but, as deployment of variable resources increases, the resulting variability becomes increasingly difficult and costly to mitigate. In Chapter 2, we model a co-located power generation/energy storage block composed of wind generation, a gas turbine, and fast-ramping energy storage. A scenario analysis identifies system configurations that can generate power with 30% of energy from wind, a variability of less than 0.5% of the desired power level, and an average cost around $70/MWh. While energy storage technologies have existed for decades, fast-ramping grid-level storage is still an immature industry and is experiencing relatively rapid improvements in performance and cost across a variety of technologies. Decreased capital cost, increased power capability, and increased efficiency all would improve the value of an energy storage technology and each has cost implications that vary by application, but there has not yet been an investigation of the marginal rate of technical substitution between storage properties. The analysis in chapter 3 uses engineering-economic models of four emerging fast-ramping energy storage technologies to determine which storage properties have the greatest effect on cost-of-service. We find that capital cost of storage is consistently important, and identify applications for which power/energy limitations are important. In some systems with a large amount of wind power, the costs of wind integration have become significant and market rules have been slowly changing in order to internalize or control the variability of wind generation. Chapter 4 examines several potential market strategies for mitigating the effects of wind variability and estimate the effect that each strategy would have on the operation and

  9. Thermofluid effect on energy storage in fluidized bed reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfoudi, Nadjiba; El Ganaoui, Mohammed; Moummi, Abdelhafid

    2016-05-01

    The development of innovative systems of heat storage is imperative to improve the efficiency of the existing systems used in the thermal solar energy applications. Several techniques were developed and realized in this context. The technology of the sand fluidized bed (sandTES) offers a promising alternative to the current state-of-the-art of the heat storage systems, such as fixed bed using a storage materials, as sand, ceramic, and stones, etc. Indeed, the use of the fluidization technique allows an effective heat transfer to the solid particles. With the sand, an important capacity of storage is obtained by an economic and ecological material [N. Mahfoudi, A. Moummi, M. El Ganaoui, Appl. Mech. Mater. 621, 214 (2014); N. Mahfoudi, A. Khachkouch, A. Moummi B. Benhaoua, M. El Ganaoui, Mech. Ind. 16, 411 (2015); N. Mahfoudi, A. Moummi, M. El Ganaoui, F. Mnasri, K.M. Aboudou, 3e Colloque internationale Francophone d"énergétique et mécanique, Comores, 2014, p. 91]. This paper presents a CFD simulation of the hydrodynamics and the thermal transient behavior of a fluidized bed reactor of sand, to determine the characteristics of storage. The simulation shows a symmetry breaking that occurs and gave way to chaotic transient generation of bubble formation after 3 s. Furthermore, the predicted average temperature of the solid phase (sand) increases gradually versus the time with a gain of 1 °C in an interval of 10 s. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy Harvesting, Conversion and Storage (ICOME 2015) - Elected submissions", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  10. Economics of internal and external energy storage in solar power plant operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.; Fujita, T.

    1977-01-01

    A simple approach is formulated to investigate the effect of energy storage on the bus-bar electrical energy cost of solar thermal power plants. Economic analysis based on this approach does not require detailed definition of a specific storage system. A wide spectrum of storage system candidates ranging from hot water to superconducting magnets can be studied based on total investment and a rough knowledge of energy in and out efficiencies. Preliminary analysis indicates that internal energy storage (thermal) schemes offer better opportunities for energy cost reduction than external energy storage (nonthermal) schemes for solar applications. Based on data and assumptions used in JPL evaluation studies, differential energy costs due to storage are presented for a 100 MWe solar power plant by varying the energy capacity. The simple approach presented in this paper provides useful insight regarding the operation of energy storage in solar power plant applications, while also indicating a range of design parameters where storage can be cost effective.

  11. Advanced nanostructured materials for energy storage and conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchings, Gregory S.

    Due to a global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to utilize renewable sources of energy, much effort has been directed towards creating new alternatives to fossil fuels. Identifying novel materials for energy storage and conversion can enable radical changes to the current fuel production infrastructure and energy utilization. The use of engineered nanostructured materials in these systems unlocks unique catalytic activity in practical configurations. In this work, research efforts have been focused on the development of nanostructured materials to address the need for both better energy conversion and storage, with applications toward Li-O2 battery electrocatalysts, electrocatalytic generation of H2, conversion of furfural to useful chemicals and fuels, and Li battery anode materials. Highly-active alpha-MnO2 materials were synthesized for use as bifunctional oxygen reduction (ORR) and evolution (OER) catalysts in Li-O2 batteries, and were evaluated under operating conditions with a novel in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy configuration. Through detailed analysis of local coordination and oxidation states of Mn atoms at key points in the electrochemical cycle, a self-switching behavior affecting the bifunctional activity was identified and found to be critical. In an additional study of materials for lithium batteries, nanostructured TiO2 anode materials doped with first-row transition metals were synthesized and evaluated for improving battery discharge capacity and rate performance, with Ni and Co doping at low levels found to cause the greatest enhancement. In addition to battery technology research, I have also sought to find inexpensive and earth-abundant electrocatalysts to replace state-of-the-art Pt/C in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), a systematic computational study of Cu-based bimetallic electrocatalysts was performed. During the screening of dilute surface alloys of Cu mixed with other first-row transition metals, materials with

  12. Influence of geologic layering on heat transport and storage in an aquifer thermal energy storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridger, D. W.; Allen, D. M.

    2013-09-01

    A modeling study was carried out to evaluate the influence of aquifer heterogeneity, as represented by geologic layering, on heat transport and storage in an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system in Agassiz, British Columbia, Canada. Two 3D heat transport models were developed and calibrated using the flow and heat transport code FEFLOW including: a "non-layered" model domain with homogeneous hydraulic and thermal properties; and, a "layered" model domain with variable hydraulic and thermal properties assigned to discrete geological units to represent aquifer heterogeneity. The base model (non-layered) shows limited sensitivity for the ranges of all thermal and hydraulic properties expected at the site; the model is most sensitive to vertical anisotropy and hydraulic gradient. Simulated and observed temperatures within the wells reflect a combination of screen placement and layering, with inconsistencies largely explained by the lateral continuity of high permeability layers represented in the model. Simulation of heat injection, storage and recovery show preferential transport along high permeability layers, resulting in longitudinal plume distortion, and overall higher short-term storage efficiencies.

  13. Prefeasibility study on compressed air energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmahgary, Y.; Peltola, E.; Sipilae, K.; Vaeaetaeinen, A.

    1991-08-01

    A prefeasibility study on compressed air energy storage (CALS) systems was launched in VTT in the course of the year 1990. The study was undertaken partly in the Laboratory of Electrical and Automation Engineering and partly in the Road, Traffic and Geotechnical Laboratory. Information on existing mines in Finland which could be used as storage caverns were collected (part 2). The costs of excavating rock caverns for compressed air storage and those for forming suitable storage caverns in existing mines were also estimated. This information was used in the first (and present) part of the report to calculate the economics of CAES. In the present part (part 1) of the study, an analysis of the different possible systems was given following a review of literature on CAES. This was followed by an economic analysis which comprised two separate systems. The first consisted of conventional oil fueled gas turbine plants provided with the CALS system. In the second system, wind turbines were used to run the compressors which are used in charging the compressed air storage cavern. The results of the current prefeasibility study confirmed the economic attractiveness of the CAES in the first system. Wind turbines still seem, however, to be too expensive to compete with coal power plants. More accurate and straight-forward results could be obtained only in a more comprehensive study.

  14. Compressed-air energy storage: Pittsfield aquifer field test

    SciTech Connect

    Bui, H.V.; Herzog, R.A.; Jacewicz, D.M.; Lange, G.R.; Scarpace, E.R.; Thomas, H.H. )

    1990-02-01

    This report documents the results of a comprehensive investigation into the practical feasibility for Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) in Porous Media. Natural gas porous media storage technology developed from seventy years of experience by the natural gas storage industry is applied to the investigation of CAES in porous media. A major objective of this investigation is the geologic characterization, deliverability prediction, and operations analysis of the Pittsfield CAES aquifer experiment, conducted in Pike County, Illinois during 1981--85 under EPRI/DOE sponsorship. Emphasis has been placed on applying accepted petroleum engineering concepts to the study of deliverability and on the characterization and quantification of oxygen losses which reportedly occurred at Pittsfield. Other objectives are to apply the natural gas underground storage technology and approach to a general study of CAES feasibility in porous media reservoirs, with emphasis on the practical risks and constraints of air storage in aquifer and depleted natural gas reservoirs, the effects of water on CAES operation, corrosion effects, and a review of air dehydration options.

  15. Energy storage inherent in large tidal turbine farms.

    PubMed

    Vennell, Ross; Adcock, Thomas A A

    2014-06-01

    While wind farms have no inherent storage to supply power in calm conditions, this paper demonstrates that large tidal turbine farms in channels have short-term energy storage. This storage lies in the inertia of the oscillating flow and can be used to exceed the previously published upper limit for power production by currents in a tidal channel, while simultaneously maintaining stronger currents. Inertial storage exploits the ability of large farms to manipulate the phase of the oscillating currents by varying the farm's drag coefficient. This work shows that by optimizing how a large farm's drag coefficient varies during the tidal cycle it is possible to have some flexibility about when power is produced. This flexibility can be used in many ways, e.g. producing more power, or to better meet short predictable peaks in demand. This flexibility also allows trading total power production off against meeting peak demand, or mitigating the flow speed reduction owing to power extraction. The effectiveness of inertial storage is governed by the frictional time scale relative to either the duration of a half tidal cycle or the duration of a peak in power demand, thus has greater benefits in larger channels. PMID:24910516

  16. Energy storage inherent in large tidal turbine farms

    PubMed Central

    Vennell, Ross; Adcock, Thomas A. A.

    2014-01-01

    While wind farms have no inherent storage to supply power in calm conditions, this paper demonstrates that large tidal turbine farms in channels have short-term energy storage. This storage lies in the inertia of the oscillating flow and can be used to exceed the previously published upper limit for power production by currents in a tidal channel, while simultaneously maintaining stronger currents. Inertial storage exploits the ability of large farms to manipulate the phase of the oscillating currents by varying the farm's drag coefficient. This work shows that by optimizing how a large farm's drag coefficient varies during the tidal cycle it is possible to have some flexibility about when power is produced. This flexibility can be used in many ways, e.g. producing more power, or to better meet short predictable peaks in demand. This flexibility also allows trading total power production off against meeting peak demand, or mitigating the flow speed reduction owing to power extraction. The effectiveness of inertial storage is governed by the frictional time scale relative to either the duration of a half tidal cycle or the duration of a peak in power demand, thus has greater benefits in larger channels. PMID:24910516

  17. Time dependence of energy storage across multiple ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D. E.; Frank, J. M.; Ewers, B. E.; Desai, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Energy flow through ecosystems plays a critical role in processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales, from monthly growing season length of landscapes to sub-diurnal responses of soil respiration to temperature, photosynthesis and water inputs. The interaction of solar radiation and ecosystems is complex with terrestrial canopies and aquatic structure both connecting above- and below-ground processes via energy fluxes. Previous work by Leuning et al has shown that at 30-minute timescales, only 8% of eddy covariance sites in the La Thuile dataset observe energy closure and when averaged to 24-hour timescales, this goes up to 45%. This work examines the effect of temporal lags in energy storage in both terrestrial (shrub and forest) and aquatic (lake) ecosystems. Analyses show energy storage terms have unique temporal lags that vary between ecosystem and time of year, from having zero lag to several hour timescales within terrestrial ecosystems, depending primarily on water content. Large differences between ecosystem types are also highlighted as aquatic ecosystems have lags that range between daily and monthly timescales. Furthermore, ecosystem disturbance can alter time lags as well and results from a native bark beetle disturbance show vegetation lag decreasing while soil lag increasing following changes in water content. Energy storage lags can improve site energy closure by several percent, and these results will lead to a better understanding of surface energy budget closure, an as-of-yet unresolved issue in the flux community, as well as highlighting the importance of time-dependency of ecosystem energy fluxes as a unique method to examine ecosystem processes.

  18. Superior pseudocapacitive behavior of confined lignin nanocrystals for renewable energy-storage materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Kon; Kim, Yun Ki; Lee, Hyunjoo; Lee, Sang Bok; Park, Ho Seok

    2014-04-01

    Strong demand for high-performance energy-storage devices has currently motivated the development of emerging capacitive materials that can resolve their critical challenge (i.e., low energy density) and that are renewable and inexpensive energy-storage materials from both environmental and economic viewpoints. Herein, the pseudocapacitive behavior of lignin nanocrystals confined on reduced graphene oxides (RGOs) used for renewable energy-storage materials is demonstrated. The excellent capacitive characteristics of the renewable hybrid electrodes were achieved by synergizing the fast and reversible redox charge transfer of surface-confined quinone and the interplay with electron-conducting RGOs. Accordingly, pseudocapacitors with remarkable rate and cyclic performances (~96 % retention after 3000 cycles) showed a maximum capacitance of 432 F g(-1), which was close to the theoretical capacitance of 482 F g(-1) and sixfold higher than that of RGO (93 F g(-1)). The chemical strategy delineated herein paves the way to develop advanced renewable electrodes for energy-storage applications and understand the redox chemistry of electroactive biomaterials. PMID:24678040

  19. Ammonia synthesis for producing supercritical steam in the context of solar thermochemical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Aryafar, Hamarz; Warrier, Gopinath; Lovegrove, Keith M.; Lavine, Adrienne S.

    2016-05-01

    In ammonia-based solar thermochemical energy storage systems, the stored energy is released when the hydrogen (H2) and nitrogen (N2) react exothermically to synthesize ammonia (NH3), providing thermal energy to a power block for electricity generation. However, ammonia synthesis has not yet been shown to reach temperatures consistent with the highest performance modern power blocks. Two similar ammonia synthesis reactors with different lengths have been used to study the ammonia synthesis reaction at high temperature and pressure and to begin the process of model improvement and validation. With the longer reactor, supercritical steam with flow rate up to 0.09 g/s has been heated from less than 350°C to ˜650°C. This result shows the technical feasibility of using ammonia-based thermochemical energy storage in a CSP plant with a supercritical steam Rankine cycle power block.

  20. Sustainability of energy and carbon capture and storage for Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpsar, Cengiz

    This study, as study herein, is intended to approach a different way to provide sustainability of energy and environment by different aspects for Turkey. This study investigates the potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey for non-emissions of GHG and elaborates on a carbon capture and storage technology by creating a roadmap for Turkey. The main purpose of this study is to make a roadmap about carbon capture and storage (CCS) for Turkey to use as it proceeds. As one of the members of International Panel of Climate Change, which signed Kyoto protocol, it must adapt its acts and regulations. In addition, this study concentrates on the sustainable energy potential of Turkey, although the study investigated only the alternative energy resources suitable for Turkey: solar, wind, geothermal, bio-energy, and hydropower. There are huge numbers of potential renewable energy sources, and given Turkey's total energy demand of 106.3 million tons equivalent petroleum in 2010, only solar potential would be able to eventually supply the total demand, but energy from the wind and hydropower are sufficient to provide partial amounts. This study might help policy makers in their decisions regarding CCS technology. Currently, there are various technical and non-technical economic and social challenges that prevent CCS from become an extensively used commercial technology. This document discusses them and presents goals for each research pathway.