Science.gov

Sample records for energy systems studies

  1. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T.

    1998-08-01

    In this progress report (covering the period May 1997--May 1998), the authors summarize results from ongoing technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Generally, the goal of their research is to illuminate possible pathways leading from present hydrogen markets and technologies toward wide scale use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, highlighting important technologies for RD and D. Over the past year they worked on three projects. From May 1997--November 1997, the authors completed an assessment of hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles, as compared to methanol and gasoline. Two other studies were begun in November 1997 and are scheduled for completion in September 1998. The authors are carrying out an assessment of potential supplies and demands for hydrogen energy in the New York City/New Jersey area. The goal of this study is to provide useful data and suggest possible implementation strategies for the New York City/ New Jersey area, as the Hydrogen Program plans demonstrations of hydrogen vehicles and refueling infrastructure. The authors are assessing the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy systems. The goals of this work are (a) to understand the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy system design; (b) to understand the conditions under which CO{sub 2} sequestration might become economically viable; and (c) to understand design issues for future low-CO{sub 2} emitting hydrogen energy systems based on fossil fuels.

  2. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E.

    1995-09-01

    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  3. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.G.; Steinbugler, M.

    1996-10-01

    In this report the authors describe results from technical and economic assessments carried out during the past year with support from the USDOE Hydrogen R&D Program. (1) Assessment of technologies for small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas. Because of the cost and logistics of transporting and storing hydrogen, it may be preferable to produce hydrogen at the point of use from more readily available energy carriers such as natural gas or electricity. In this task the authors assess near term technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas at small scale including steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming. (2) Case study of developing a hydrogen vehicle refueling infrastructure in Southern California. Many analysts suggest that the first widespread use of hydrogen energy is likely to be in zero emission vehicles in Southern California. Several hundred thousand zero emission automobiles are projected for the Los Angeles Basin alone by 2010, if mandated levels are implemented. Assuming that hydrogen vehicles capture a significant fraction of this market, a large demand for hydrogen fuel could evolve over the next few decades. Refueling a large number of hydrogen vehicles poses significant challenges. In this task the authors assess near term options for producing and delivering gaseous hydrogen transportation fuel to users in Southern California including: (1) hydrogen produced from natural gas in a large, centralized steam reforming plant, and delivered to refueling stations via liquid hydrogen truck or small scale hydrogen gas pipeline, (2) hydrogen produced at the refueling station via small scale steam reforming of natural gas, (3) hydrogen produced via small scale electrolysis at the refueling station, and (4) hydrogen from low cost chemical industry sources (e.g. excess capacity in refineries which have recently upgraded their hydrogen production capacity, etc.).

  4. Hydrogen energy systems technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The paper discusses the objectives of a hydrogen energy systems technology study directed toward determining future demand for hydrogen based on current trends and anticipated new uses and identifying the critical research and technology advancements required to meet this need with allowance for raw material limitations, economics, and environmental effects. Attention is focused on historic production and use of hydrogen, scenarios used as a basis for projections, projections of energy sources and uses, supply options, and technology requirements and needs. The study found more than a billion dollar annual usage of hydrogen, dominated by chemical-industry needs, supplied mostly from natural gas and petroleum feedstocks. Evaluation of the progress in developing nuclear fusion and solar energy sources relative to hydrogen production will be necessary to direct the pace and character of research and technology work in the advanced water-splitting areas.

  5. Wind energy systems information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with potential users of information on wind energy conversion. These interviews, part of a larger study covering nine different solar technologies, attempted to identify: the type of information each distinctive group of information users needed, and the best way of getting information to that group. Groups studied include: wind energy conversion system researchers; wind energy conversion system manufacturer representatives; wind energy conversion system distributors; wind turbine engineers; utility representatives; educators; county agents and extension service agents; and wind turbine owners.

  6. Biomass energy systems information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on biomass energy systems are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. This report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. Results from 12 biomass groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: Federally Funded Researchers (2 groups), Nonfederally Funded Researchers (2 groups), Representatives of Manufacturers (2 groups), Representatives of State Forestry Offices, Private Foresters, Forest Products Engineers, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, and System Managers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  7. Building Energy Information Systems: User Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Granderson, Jessica; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish

    2010-03-22

    Measured energy performance data are essential to national efforts to improve building efficiency, as evidenced in recent benchmarking mandates, and in a growing body of work that indicates the value of permanent monitoring and energy information feedback. This paper presents case studies of energy information systems (EIS) at four enterprises and university campuses, focusing on the attained energy savings, and successes and challenges in technology use and integration. EIS are broadly defined as performance monitoring software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems to store, analyze and display building energy information. Case investigations showed that the most common energy savings and instances of waste concerned scheduling errors, measurement and verification, and inefficient operations. Data quality is critical to effective EIS use, and is most challenging at the subsystem or component level, and with non-electric energy sources. Sophisticated prediction algorithms may not be well understood but can be applied quite effectively, and sites with custom benchmark models or metrics are more likely to perform analyses external to the EIS. Finally, resources and staffing were identified as a universal challenge, indicating a need to identify additional models of EIS use that extend beyond exclusive in-house use, to analysis services.

  8. Hydrogen energy systems studies. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.; Kartha, S.; Iwan, L.

    1996-08-13

    The results of previous studies suggest that the use of hydrogen from natural gas might be an important first step toward a hydrogen economy based on renewables. Because of infrastructure considerations (the difficulty and cost of storing, transmitting and distributing hydrogen), hydrogen produced from natural gas at the end-user`s site could be a key feature in the early development of hydrogen energy systems. In the first chapter of this report, the authors assess the technical and economic prospects for small scale technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas (steam reformers, autothermal reformers and partial oxidation systems), addressing the following questions: (1) What are the performance, cost and emissions of small scale steam reformer technology now on the market? How does this compare to partial oxidation and autothermal systems? (2) How do the performance and cost of reformer technologies depend on scale? What critical technologies limit cost and performance of small scale hydrogen production systems? What are the prospects for potential cost reductions and performance improvements as these technologies advance? (3) How would reductions in the reformer capital cost impact the delivered cost of hydrogen transportation fuel? In the second chapter of this report the authors estimate the potential demand for hydrogen transportation fuel in Southern California.

  9. Study on new biomass energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-03-01

    A biomass energy total system is proposed, and its feasibility is studied. It is the system in which liquid fuel is produced from eucalyptuses planted in the desert area in Australia for production of biomass resource. Eucalyptus tree planting aims at a growth amount of 40 cu m/ha. per year and a practical application area of 45,000ha. CO2 fixation in the biomass plantation becomes 540,000 tons at a 12 ton/ha. rate. Assuming that 0.55 ton of liquid fuel is produced from 1 ton of biomass, a petrochemical plant having a production of 2.5 million bbl/year per unit (equivalent to the fuel used in the 100,000kW class power plant) is needed. Moreover, survey is made on practicality of diesel substitution fuel by esterification of palm oil, and a marked effect of reduction in soot/smoke and particulates in exhaust gas is confirmed. The biomass conversion process technology and the technology for afforestation at the arid land and irrigation are important as future subjects, and the technology development using a bench plant and a pilot plant is needed.

  10. Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L.; Jabbour, S.J.; Clark, H.K.

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

  11. Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenung, Susan M.

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

  12. Energy management and control system verification study. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Boulware, K.E.; Williamson, G.C.

    1983-09-01

    Energy Management and Control Systems (EMCS) are being installed and operated throughout the Air Force. Millions of dollars have been spent on EMCS, but no study has conclusively proved that EMCS has actually saved the Air Force energy. This thesis used the Regression subprogram of Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) to determine if these systems are indeed saving the Air Force energy. Previous studies have shown that Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) is the best statistical predictor of base energy consumption. Eight bases were selected that had an operational EMCS. Two EMCS bases were compared with one control base for each of four CONUS winter heating zones. The results indicated small (less than 2%) energy savings have occurred at half of the EMCS bases studied. Therefore, this study does not conclusively prove that EMCS's have saved energy on Air Force bases. However, the methodology developed in this report could be applied on a broader scale to develop a more conclusive result.

  13. Project plan hydrogen energy systems technology. Phase 1: Hydrogen energy systems technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An overview of the potential need for hydrogen as a source of energy in the future was presented in order to identify and define the technology requirements for the most promising approaches to meet that need. The following study objectives were discussed: (1) determination of the future demand for hydrogen, based on current trends and anticipated new uses, (2) identification of the critical research and technology advances required to meet this need considering, to the extent possible, raw material limitations, economics, and environmental effects, and (3) definition and recommendation of the scope and space of a National Hydrogen Energy Systems Technology Program and outline of a Program Development Plan.

  14. Redox Bulk Energy Storage System Study, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciprios, G.; Erskine, W., Jr.; Grimes, P. G.

    1977-01-01

    Opportunities were found for electrochemical energy storage devices in the U.S. electric utility industry. Application requirements for these devices were defined, including techno-economic factors. A new device, the Redox storage battery was analyzed. The Redox battery features a decoupling of energy storage and power conversion functions. General computer methods were developed to simulate Redox system operations. These studies showed that the Redox system is potentially attractive if certain performance goals can be achieved. Pathways for reducing the cost of the Redox system were identified.

  15. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 4: Energy conversion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. H.; Gerlaugh, H. E.; Priestley, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    Industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed-cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum-based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on-site gasification of coal. An attempt was made to use consistent assumptions and a consistent set of ground rules specified by NASA for determining performance and cost. The advanced and commercially available cogeneration energy conversion systems studied in CTAS are fined together with their performance, capital costs, and the research and developments required to bring them to this level of performance.

  16. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems Regional Studies: West Texas & Northeastern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Humberto E.; Chen, Jun; Kim, Jong Suk; McKellar, Michael George; Deason, Wesley R; Richard B. Vilim; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Boardman, Richard D.

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to conduct a preliminary dynamic analysis of two realistic hybrid energy systems (HES) including a nuclear reactor as the main baseload heat generator (denoted as nuclear HES or nuclear hybrid energy systems [[NHES]) and to assess the local (e.g., HES owners) and system (e.g., the electric grid) benefits attainable by the application of NHES in scenarios with multiple commodity production and high penetration of renewable energy. It is performed for regional cases not generic examples based on available resources, existing infrastructure, and markets within the selected regions. This study also briefly addresses the computational capabilities developed to conduct such analyses, reviews technical gaps, and suggests some research paths forward.

  17. Screening study on high temperature energy transport systems

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, R.L.

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of the study described in this document is to identify the options for transporting thermal energy over long distances. The study deals specifically and exclusively with high temperature (> 400/sup 0/C(752/sup 0/F)) energy for industrial use. Energy transport is seen as a potential solution to: high unit cost of small coal and nuclear steam generators, and opposition to siting of coal or nuclear plants near populated areas. The study is of a preliminary nature but covers many options including steam, molten salts, organics, and chemical heat pipes. The development status and potential problems of these and other energy transport methods are discussed. Energy transport concepts are compared on a fundamental level based on physical properties and also are subjected to an economic study. The economic study indicated that the chemical heat pipe, under a specific set of circumstances, appeared to be the least expensive for distances greater than about 32 km (20 miles). However, if the temperature of the energy was lowered, the heat transfer salt (sodium nitrate/nitrite) system would apparently be a better economic choice for less than about 80 km (50 miles). None of the options studied appear to be more attractive than small coal-fired boilers when the transport distance is over about 64 km (40 miles). Several recommendations are made for refining the analysis.

  18. Southern company energy storage study : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Black, Clifton; Jenkins, Kip

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluates the business case for additional bulk electric energy storage in the Southern Company service territory for the year 2020. The model was used to examine how system operations are likely to change as additional storage is added. The storage resources were allowed to provide energy time shift, regulation reserve, and spinning reserve services. Several storage facilities, including pumped hydroelectric systems, flywheels, and bulk-scale batteries, were considered. These scenarios were tested against a range of sensitivities: three different natural gas price assumptions, a 15% decrease in coal-fired generation capacity, and a high renewable penetration (10% of total generation from wind energy). Only in the elevated natural gas price sensitivities did some of the additional bulk-scale storage projects appear justifiable on the basis of projected production cost savings. Enabling existing peak shaving hydroelectric plants to provide regulation and spinning reserve, however, is likely to provide savings that justify the project cost even at anticipated natural gas price levels. Transmission and distribution applications of storage were not examined in this study. Allowing new storage facilities to serve both bulk grid and transmission/distribution-level needs may provide for increased benefit streams, and thus make a stronger business case for additional storage.

  19. Prefeasibility study on compressed air energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmahgary, Y.; Peltola, E.; Sipilae, K.; Vaeaetaeinen, A.

    1991-08-01

    A prefeasibility study on compressed air energy storage (CALS) systems was launched in VTT in the course of the year 1990. The study was undertaken partly in the Laboratory of Electrical and Automation Engineering and partly in the Road, Traffic and Geotechnical Laboratory. Information on existing mines in Finland which could be used as storage caverns were collected (part 2). The costs of excavating rock caverns for compressed air storage and those for forming suitable storage caverns in existing mines were also estimated. This information was used in the first (and present) part of the report to calculate the economics of CAES. In the present part (part 1) of the study, an analysis of the different possible systems was given following a review of literature on CAES. This was followed by an economic analysis which comprised two separate systems. The first consisted of conventional oil fueled gas turbine plants provided with the CALS system. In the second system, wind turbines were used to run the compressors which are used in charging the compressed air storage cavern. The results of the current prefeasibility study confirmed the economic attractiveness of the CAES in the first system. Wind turbines still seem, however, to be too expensive to compete with coal power plants. More accurate and straight-forward results could be obtained only in a more comprehensive study.

  20. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K.

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  1. System-reliability studies for wave-energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, J. M.; Din, S.; Mytton, M. G.; Shore, N. L.; Stansfield, H. B.

    1980-06-01

    A study is reported that is being undertaken in the United Kingdom to determine means of developing the potential of the large wave-energy resource around the coast, in particular, that to the west facing the Atlantic. It is shown that derivation of the mean annual energy to be expected involved knowledge, not only of the wave climates, conversion efficiency characteristics of the proposed devices and of the power transmission system, but also of factors reflecting the availability overall. Attention is given to a simplified approach to the quantifying of reliability for each stage of the process. An appropriate method of analysis is established and a summary of the results obtained is given.

  2. Solar energy system case study: Telex Communications, Blue Earth, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, M.G.

    1984-09-01

    A study is made of a solar energy system for space heating a 97,000-square-foot office, factory, and warehouse building owned by Telex Communications, Inc. in Blue Earth, Minnesota. The solar system has 11,520 square feet of ground-oriented flat-plate collectors and a 20,000-gallon storage tank inside the building. Freeze protection is by drainback. Solar heated water from the storage tank circulates around the clock throughout the heating season to heating coils in the ducts. The system achieves its design solar fraction, is efficient, and generally reliable, but not cost-effective. Performance data for the solar system was collected by the National Solar Data Network for three heating seasons from 1978 to 1981. Because of a freeze-up of the collector array in December 1978, the solar system was only partially operational in the 1978 to 1979 heating season. The data in this report were collected in the 1979 to 1980 and 1980 to 1981 heating seasons.

  3. Energy Education in Elementary Social Studies. Holt Databank System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.

    This document provides elementary teachers with an annotated index according to grade levels 1-6 of energy education topics in the "Holt Databank System" (Holt, Rinehart and Winston), followed by suggestions for activities related to the topics. Indexed topics, which comprise a major portion of the document, include basic energy information,…

  4. Fundamental Study on Saving Energy for Electrified Railway System Applying High Temperature Superconductor Motor and Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Takeshi; Nakamura, Taketsune; Amemiya, Naoyuki

    Induction motor instead of dc one has been applied widely for dc electric rolling stock because of the advantage of its utility and efficiency. However, further improvement of motor characteristics will be required to realize environment-friendly dc railway system in the future. It is important to study more efficient machine applying dc electric rolling stock for next generation high performance system. On the other hand, the methods to reuse regenerative energy produced by motors effectively are also important. Therefore, we carried out fundamental study on saving energy for electrified railway system. For the first step, we introduced the energy storage system applying electric double-layer capacitors (EDLC), and its control system. And then, we tried to obtain the specification of high temperature superconductor induction/synchronous motor (HTS-ISM), which performance is similar with that of the conventional induction motors. Furthermore, we tried to evaluate an electrified railway system applying energy storage system and HTS-ISM based on simulation. We succeeded in showing the effectiveness of the introductions of energy storage system and HTS-ISM in DC electrified railway system.

  5. Case studies of thermal energy storage (TES) systems: Evaluation and verification of system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Sezgen, O.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed two case studies to review and analyze energy performance of thermal energy storage CMS systems in commercial buildings. Our case studies considered two partial ice storage systems in Northern California. For each case, we compiled historical data on TES design, installation, and operation. This information was further enhanced by data obtained through interviews with the building owners and operators. The performance and historical data of the TES systems and their components were grouped into issues related to design, installation, operation, and maintenance of the systems. Our analysis indicated that (1) almost all problems related to the operation of TES and non-TES systems could be traced back to the design of the system, and (2) the identified problems were not unique to the TES systems. There were as many original problems with conventional'' HVAC systems and components as with TES systems. Judging from the problems related to non-TES components identified in these two case studies, it is reasonable to conclude that conventional systems have as many problems as TES systems, but a failure, in a TES system may have a more dramatic impact on thermal comfort and electricity charges. The objective of the designers of the TES systems in the case-study buildings was to design just-the-right-size systems so that both the initial investment and operating costs would be minimized. Given such criteria, a system is typically designed only for normal and steady-state operating conditions-which often precludes due consideration to factors such as maintenance, growth in the needed capacity, ease of the operation, and modularity of the systems. Therefore, it is not surprising to find that these systems, at least initially, did not perform to the design intent and expectation and that they had to go through extended periods of trouble-shooting.

  6. Case studies of thermal energy storage (TES) systems: Evaluation and verification of system performance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Sezgen, O.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed two case studies to review and analyze energy performance of thermal energy storage CMS systems in commercial buildings. Our case studies considered two partial ice storage systems in Northern California. For each case, we compiled historical data on TES design, installation, and operation. This information was further enhanced by data obtained through interviews with the building owners and operators. The performance and historical data of the TES systems and their components were grouped into issues related to design, installation, operation, and maintenance of the systems. Our analysis indicated that (1) almost all problems related to the operation of TES and non-TES systems could be traced back to the design of the system, and (2) the identified problems were not unique to the TES systems. There were as many original problems with ``conventional`` HVAC systems and components as with TES systems. Judging from the problems related to non-TES components identified in these two case studies, it is reasonable to conclude that conventional systems have as many problems as TES systems, but a failure, in a TES system may have a more dramatic impact on thermal comfort and electricity charges. The objective of the designers of the TES systems in the case-study buildings was to design just-the-right-size systems so that both the initial investment and operating costs would be minimized. Given such criteria, a system is typically designed only for normal and steady-state operating conditions-which often precludes due consideration to factors such as maintenance, growth in the needed capacity, ease of the operation, and modularity of the systems. Therefore, it is not surprising to find that these systems, at least initially, did not perform to the design intent and expectation and that they had to go through extended periods of trouble-shooting.

  7. Power System Study for Renewable Energy Interconnection in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askar, O. F.; Ramachandaramurthy, V. K.

    2013-06-01

    The renewable energy (RE) sector has grown exponentially in Malaysia with the introduction of the Feed-In-Tariff (FIT) by the Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water. Photovoltaic, biogas, biomass and mini hydro are among the renewable energy sources which offer a lucrative tariff to incite developers in taking the green technology route. In order to receive the FIT, a developer is required by the utility company to perform a power system analysis which will determine the technical feasibility of an RE interconnection to the utility company's existing grid system. There are a number of aspects which the analysis looks at, the most important being the load flow and fault levels in the network after the introduction of an RE source. The analysis is done by modelling the utility company's existing network and simulating the network with the interconnection of an RE source. The results are then compared to the values before an interconnection is made as well as ensuring the voltage rise or the increase in fault levels do not violate any pre-existing regulations set by the utility company. This paper will delve into the mechanics of performing a load flow analysis and examining the results obtained.

  8. Numerical and experimental studies of liquid storage tank thermal stratification for a solar energy system

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S T; Han, S M

    1980-11-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental studies of thermal stratification in liquid energy storage tanks for the performance of solar energy systems are presented. The investigation was divided into three areas: (1) Justification of the Importance of Thermal Stratification Inside the Energy Storage Tanks, (II) Development of a Simple Mathematical Model which is Compatible with Existing Solar Energy System Simulation Code, and (III) Validation of Mathematical Models by Experimental Data Obtained from Realistic Solar Energy System Operations.

  9. Study of a wind energy conversion system in New Hampshire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockwood, J.; Kraft, G.; Pregent, G.; Smukler, L.

    1981-08-01

    Concern over conventional energy costs and supplies is currently strong, particularly in New England region where eighty percent of the total energy is oil based; furthermore, forty percent of this region's total energy is OPEC oil. These figures contrast with national averages of forty-seven and thirteen percent, respectively (1). The quest to develop alternative and renewable energy sources indigenous to New England is understandable in light of these figures. The wind is one such source. The study of wind energy can be divided into three basic areas; these are technical, legal-institutional, and financial. The technical area encompasses collection and analysis of wind data, selection and installation of wind turbines and peripheral equipment, and operation and maintenance. The legal-institutional area encompasses the resolution of such issues as land use policies, power contracts, and state and federal regulations. The financial area encompasses the examination of investment opportunities made available by various site-machine combinations and the selling of such opportunities to the investment community.

  10. An empirical study on energy efficiency improvement through photovoltaic systems and a LED lighting control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Young Kwan; Lee, Jae Hyeong

    2015-09-01

    In this research, a facility was constructed and its performance was analyzed to improve the energy efficiency of a vertical-type water treatment building. After the design and construction of a fixed tilt Photovoltaic in Building (PVIB) on the rooftop using a crystalline silicon solar cell module and photovoltaic generator integrated with the building by using a Building Integrated Photovoltaic System (BIPV), a thin-film module on the rooftop and outer wall of water treatment building, and the generation efficiency was analyzed. Also, a DC distribution was established for use of a brushless DC (BLDC) pump motor, and the existing lighting-facility-based manual on-off method was turned into a system for energy conservation by controlling light emitting diode (LED) through a wireless motion sensor and dimming control. In addition, a Building Energy Management System (BEMS) for a real-time analysis of the energy efficiency for a vertical0type water treatment building was prepared and tested. The vertical-type water treatment building developed in this study is currently operating the BEMS. The vertical-type water treatment building reported in this paper is expected to reduce energy consumption by about 30% compared to existing water treatment systems.

  11. Parametric study of tornado-type wind-energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ayad, S.S.

    1981-10-01

    The tornado-type wind energy system uses the pressure drop created by an intense vortex. The vortex is generated in a tower mounted at the turbine exit. The tower serves as a low pressure exhaust for the turbine. In a previous work, the author provided a numerical solution, using the two-equation (k-epsilon) turbulence model, of the tower flow with a uniform wind flow. Results compared favorably with measured values of pressure and showed a turbine diameter of approx. 0.4 times that of the tower to be optimum. In the present work, the author provides results to show the effects of embedding the tower in an atmospheric boundary layer, varying the tower height to diameter ratio, and varying tower diameter using the same system geometry and approach flow conditions. The results indicate a reduction of approx. 28% in power output

  12. The NASA Hydrogen Energy Systems Technology study - A summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laumann, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    This study is concerned with: hydrogen use, alternatives and comparisons, hydrogen production, factors affecting application, and technology requirements. Two scenarios for future use are explained. One is called the reference hydrogen use scenario and assumes continued historic uses of hydrogen along with additional use for coal gasification and liquefaction, consistent with the Ford technical fix baseline (1974) projection. The expanded scenario relies on the nuclear electric economy (1973) energy projection and assumes the addition of limited new uses such as experimental hydrogen-fueled aircraft, some mixing with natural gas, and energy storage by utilities. Current uses and supply of hydrogen are described, and the technological requirements for developing new methods of hydrogen production are discussed.

  13. Innovation in energy systems: a case study of gasoline rationing

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.C.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to develop a theoretical understanding of the implementation of new programs (innovations) by organizations, verify concepts with a case study of gasoline rationing, and apply knowledge gained to an analysis of the Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan. Major hypotheses of the study are: (1) Role specialization is required during the initial stage of implementation. (2) Decentralization is required during the initial stage of implementation. (3) Role specialization hinders implementation during the later stage. (4) Centralization is required during the later stage of implementation. The concept of technology delivery system is employed to demonstrate how organizational structure (degree of specialization centralization, etc.) is related to technological requirements and social need. The four major hypotheses were verified with the innovation theory as well as the case study of rationing. Application to the Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan leads to the conclusion that major problems would occur with plan implementation.

  14. Energy and cost saving results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the organization and methodology of the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study is presented. The objectives of the study were to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the future and to assess the advantages of advanced technology systems compared to those systems commercially available today. Advanced systems studied include steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics. Steam turbines, open cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines were also analyzed in versions typical of today's commercially available technology to provide a base against which to measure the advanced systems. Cogeneration applications in the major energy consuming manufacturing industries were considered. Results of the study in terms of plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings and economic attractiveness are presented for the various energy conversion systems considered.

  15. NV energy electricity storage valuation : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-01

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benefit the operations of NV Energy, and assesses whether those benefits are likely to justify the cost of the storage system. To determine the impact of grid-level storage, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (%22BA%22) as projected for 2020 was created. Storage was found to add value primarily through the provision of regulating reserve. Certain storage resources were found likely to be cost-effective even without considering their capacity value, as long as their effectiveness in providing regulating reserve was taken into account. Giving fast resources credit for their ability to provide regulating reserve is reasonable, given the adoption of FERC Order 755 (%22Pay-for-performance%22). Using a traditional five-minute test to determine how much a resource can contribute to regulating reserve does not adequately value fast-ramping resources, as the regulating reserve these resources can provide is constrained by their installed capacity. While an approximation was made to consider the additional value provided by a fast-ramping resource, a more precise valuation requires an alternate regulating reserve methodology. Developing and modeling a new regulating reserve methodology for NV Energy was beyond the scope of this study, as was assessing the incremental value of distributed storage.

  16. Using Terahertz Spectroscopy to Study Systems with Solar Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milot, Rebecca L.; Moore, Gary F.; Martini, Lauren A.; Brudvig, Gary W.; Crabtree, Robert H.; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A.

    2013-06-01

    Biomimetic solar water oxidation systems are being developed as renewable alternatives to fossil fuels. One possible design incorporates thin-film dye-sensitized nanoparticle photoanades to capture and convert visible light to charge carriers and catalysts to facilitate water oxidation. The physical properties of the dye are important due to its position as the light absorber and electron transfer initiator. Given the role that porphyrins play in photosynthesis and their synthetic tunability, they are promising components for these photoanodes. Time-Resolved THz Spectroscopy (TRTS), an optical pump/THz probe technique, is a non-contact electrical probe with proven usefulness for studying electron transfer and conductivity on a sub-picosecond timescale. Using TRTS, the efficiency and dynamics of electron injection from porphyrin dyes into metal oxide surfaces was found to be strongly influenced by the structure and photophysical properties of the dye.

  17. The Evolution of Energy-Transducing Systems. Studies with Archaebacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1996-01-01

    The dicyclohexyl carbodiimide (DCCD)- binding site of the membrane ATPase from Halobacterium saccharovorum was investigated during earlier periods of this Cooperative Agreement and was localized to a cyanogen bromide fragment of subunit 2 from amino acids 379 (Glu) to 442 (Met). Although the exact position of the reactive amino acid (probably a glutamic acid) has not yet been determined, the data, together with recently obtained immuno reactions and sequences of Cyanogen Bromide (CNBr) fragments from E.coli F-ATPase, suggested subunit interactions in the halobacterial ATPase which had not been recognized before. They also provided evidence for the presence of a gamma subunit in the halobacterial ATPase, and for a stretch of a amino acids similar to the 'catch' between beta and gamma in bovine F-ATPase. The evolutionary implications of these findings are twofold: first, halobacterial (or archaebacterial) ATPases appear as complex as those from higher organisms - no simpler versions of these membrane enzymes are known to date; second, a monophyletic origin of the energy-transducing ATPases is becoming more apparent, and - together with other data - the split into V- and F-ATPases may have occurred much later than had been previously thought (i.e., after the split into Archaea and Bacteria). Other work included the characterization of an extremely halophilic isolate (Halococcus salifodinae ) from Permian salt sediments. This organism appeared to be an autotrophic halobacterium; its incorporation of C02 was investigated.

  18. Feasibility study of a self-remediation system for mine drainage using its thermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Chamteut; Cheong, Youngwook; Yim, Giljae; Ji, Sangwoo

    2016-04-01

    Mine drainage is defined as the water which is discharged to the ground surface through shafts and/or cracks formed by mining activities. Typically, mine drainage features high concentration of acidity and metals since it passes through the underground. Therefore, for the purpose of protecting the surrounding natural environment, mine drainage should be remediated before being discharged to nature. Mine drainage, due to its nature of being retained underground, shows constant temperature which is independent from the temperature of the atmosphere above ground. This condition allows mine drainage to become a promising renewable energy source since energy can be recovered from water with constant temperature. In this research, a self-remediation system is proposed which remediates the mine drainage through electrochemical reactions powered by the thermal energy of mine drainage. High energy efficiency is able to be achieved by shortening the distance between the energy source and consumption, and therefore, this system has a strong advantage to be actualized. A feasibility study for the system was conducted in this research where the thermal energy of mine drainage over time and depth was calculated as energy supply and the required electrical energy for remediating the mine drainage was measured as energy consumption. While the technology of converting thermal energy directly into electrical energy is yet to be developed, energy balance analysis results showed that the proposed self-remediation system is theoretically possible.

  19. Status of Goldstone solar energy system study of the first Goldstone energy project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1977-01-01

    The results reached by the DSN engineering section and private consultants in the review of the initial plan of the Golstone Energy Project are summarized. The main objectives were in the areas of energy conservation and the application of solar-driven systems for power and hydrogen generation. This summary will provide background data for management planning decisions both to the DSN engineering section and other organizations planning a similar program. The review showed that an add-on solar driven absorption refrigeration unit with its associated changes to the existing system was not cost-effective, having a payback period of 29 years. Similar economically unattractive results were found for both a solar-hydrogen and a wind-hydrogen generation plant. However, cutting the hydrogen generation linkage from this plant improved its economic feasibility.

  20. Electromagnetic studies of redox systems for energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. D.; Scherson, D.; Yeager, E.

    1981-01-01

    Both chromium and iron couples were studied on various electrode surfaces in acidic perchlorate solution by using rotating ring-disk techniques. It was found that chloride which forms inner sphere coordination complexes with the redox species enhances the electrode kinetics dramatically. The effects of lead underpotential deposition and surface alloy formation on the kinetics of the chromium couple on gold were studied using both linear sweep voltammetry and potential step techniques. The lad underpotential deposition was found to slow down the kinetics of the reduction of the Cr species on gold surfaces although increase the hydrogen overvoltage. The effect on the chromium kinetics can be explained in terms of principally a double layer effect. The underpotential deposition lead species with its positive charge results in a decrease in the concentration of the Cr species at the electrode surface. Similar phenomena were also observed with bismuth underpotential deposition on gold for the iron couple.

  1. Electrochemical Studies of Redox Systems for Energy Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. D.; Calvo, E. J.; Yeager, E.

    1983-01-01

    Particular attention was paid to the Cr(II)/Cr(III) redox couple in aqueous solutions in the presence of Cl(-) ions. The aim of this research has been to unravel the electrode kinetics of this redox couple and the effect of Cl(1) and electrode substrate. Gold and silver were studied as electrodes and the results show distinctive differences; this is probably due to the role Cl(-) ion may play as a mediator in the reaction and the difference in state of electrical charge on these two metals (difference in the potential of zero charge, pzc). The competition of hydrogen evolution with CrCl3 reduction on these surfaces was studied by means of the rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE). The ring downstream measures the flux of chromous ions from the disk and therefore separation of both Cr(III) and H2 generation can be achieved by analyzing ring and disk currents. The conditions for the quantitative detection of Cr(2+) at the ring electrode were established. Underpotential deposition of Pb on Ag and its effect on the electrokinetics of Cr(II)/Cr(III) reaction was studied.

  2. A digital computer simulation and study of a direct-energy-transfer power-conditioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, W. W., III; Owen, H. A., Jr.; Wilson, T. G.; Rodriguez, G. E.; Paulkovich, J.

    1974-01-01

    A digital computer simulation technique, which can be used to study such composite power-conditioning systems, was applied to a spacecraft direct-energy-transfer power-processing system. The results obtained duplicate actual system performance with considerable accuracy. The validity of the approach and its usefulness in studying various aspects of system performance such as steady-state characteristics and transient responses to severely varying operating conditions are demonstrated experimentally.

  3. Energy conversion alternatives study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  4. The NASA hydrogen energy systems technology study: A summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laumann, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    The results and conclusions of the study, which found a significant current usage of hydrogen, dominated by chemical-industry needs and supplied mostly from natural gas and petroleum feedstocks are discussed. These needs are expected to increase significantly in the remainder of this century and to largely outgrow the current means of supply. Several hydrogen production methods were evaluated. Those not dependent on fossil resources were found to be presently more costly and technically more difficult than fossil-feedstock-based technologies, but it is clear that they will eventually need to be implemented.

  5. Study of fuel cell on-site, integrated energy systems in residential/commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakefield, R. A.; Karamchetty, S.; Rand, R. H.; Ku, W. S.; Tekumalla, V.

    1980-01-01

    Three building applications were selected for a detailed study: a low rise apartment building; a retail store, and a hospital. Building design data were then specified for each application, based on the design and construction of typical, actual buildings. Finally, a computerized building loads analysis program was used to estimate hourly end use load profiles for each building. Conventional and fuel cell based energy systems were designed and simulated for each building in each location. Based on the results of a computer simulation of each energy system, levelized annual costs and annual energy consumptions were calculated for all systems.

  6. Case study of total energy system, Sher-Den Mall, Sherman, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Myrtetus, G.B.; Levey, M.D.

    1980-12-01

    The Sher-Den Mall shopping center receives all of its electricity and heating and cooling energy from a total energy plant located within the shopping center proper. Four engine-generator units are fueled primarily by natural gas, with some fuel oil use. The following are presented: initial corporate planning, investigation, and feasibility studies; a description of the total energy system; capital costs; plant operations, and revenue structure. Tables, figures, exhibits, and equipment specification lists are presented. (MHR)

  7. A study of power generation from a low-cost hydrokinetic energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila Vilchis, Juana Mariel

    The kinetic energy in river streams, tidal currents, or other artificial water channels has been used as a feasible source of renewable power through different conversion systems. Thus, hydrokinetic energy conversion systems are attracting worldwide interest as another form of distributed alternative energy. Because these systems are still in early stages of development, the basic approaches need significant research. The main challenges are not only to have efficient systems, but also to convert energy more economically so that the cost-benefit analysis drives the growth of this alternative energy form. One way to view this analysis is in terms of the energy conversion efficiency per unit cost. This study presents a detailed assessment of a prototype hydrokinetic energy system along with power output costs. This experimental study was performed using commercial low-cost blades of 20 in diameter inside a tank with water flow speed up to 1.3 m/s. The work was divided into two stages: (a) a fixed-pitch blade configuration, using a radial permanent magnet generator (PMG), and (b) the same hydrokinetic turbine, with a variable-pitch blade and an axial-flux PMG. The results indicate that even though the efficiency of a simple blade configuration is not high, the power coefficient is in the range of other, more complicated designs/prototypes. Additionally, the low manufacturing and operation costs of this system offer an option for low-cost distributed power applications.

  8. Development of Residential Prototype Building Models and Analysis System for Large-Scale Energy Efficiency Studies Using EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Taylor, Zachary T.

    2014-09-10

    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in residential building energy efficiency and codes have resulted in increased interest in detailed residential building energy models using the latest energy simulation software. One of the challenges of developing residential building models to characterize new residential building stock is to allow for flexibility to address variability in house features like geometry, configuration, HVAC systems etc. Researchers solved this problem in a novel way by creating a simulation structure capable of creating fully-functional EnergyPlus batch runs using a completely scalable residential EnergyPlus template system. This system was used to create a set of thirty-two residential prototype building models covering single- and multifamily buildings, four common foundation types and four common heating system types found in the United States (US). A weighting scheme with detailed state-wise and national weighting factors was designed to supplement the residential prototype models. The complete set is designed to represent a majority of new residential construction stock. The entire structure consists of a system of utility programs developed around the core EnergyPlus simulation engine to automate the creation and management of large-scale simulation studies with minimal human effort. The simulation structure and the residential prototype building models have been used for numerous large-scale studies, one of which is briefly discussed in this paper.

  9. Energy storage benefits and market analysis handbook : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, James M.; Corey, Garth P.; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr.

    2004-12-01

    This Guide describes a high level, technology-neutral framework for assessing potential benefits from and economic market potential for energy storage used for electric utility-related applications. In the United States use of electricity storage to support and optimize transmission and distribution (T&D) services has been limited due to high storage system cost and by limited experience with storage system design and operation. Recent improvement of energy storage and power electronics technologies, coupled with changes in the electricity marketplace, indicate an era of expanding opportunity for electricity storage as a cost-effective electric resource. Some recent developments (in no particular order) that drive the opportunity include: (1) states adoption of the renewables portfolio standard (RPS), which may increased use of renewable generation with intermittent output, (2) financial risk leading to limited investment in new transmission capacity, coupled with increasing congestion on some transmission lines, (3) regional peaking generation capacity constraints, and (4) increasing emphasis on locational marginal pricing (LMP).

  10. A multi-stakeholder framework for sustainable energy behavior: A multidisciplinary systems study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khansari, Nasrin

    Growth of population and moving towards over-consumption and over-pollution are significant threats to the environment and therefore necessitate moving towards sustainability approaches. CO2 emissions are considered to be the main basis of the incredible increase in the earth's surface temperature in recent years. Most emissions result from human activities. Thus, developing a detailed framework representing the parameters affecting individuals' energy behaviors is required. This dissertation offers an integrated conceptual framework to increase the efficiency of energy systems under complex and uncertainty conditions, facilitate energy consumption problem solving, and support the development of capacities at the individual, social, and technical levels to improve managing energy consumptions in the future. This research presents a conceptual soft systems model to explore the process of individuals' energy behavior change based on socio-structural and techno-structural contexts. In addition, a comprehensive model based on systems dynamics principles is presented to address the issue of CO2 emissions related to the households' energy consumption behavior. The proposed systems dynamics model provides a broad overview of the key agents affecting energy consumption, including government/public sector, households, and power industry. The model is created based on the research in the literature discussing the causal relations between various variables. The proposed systems dynamics model is verified by simulating different scenarios. In this research a survey is designed and conducted to investigate the role of individual, social and technical behaviors in reducing energy consumption, energy costs and carbon footprints based on the energy use profile. In sum, this study investigates the process of energy behavior change based on socio-structural and techno-structural contexts.

  11. Molecular dynamics study of a CNT-buckyball-enabled energy absorption system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Heng; Zhang, Liuyang; Becton, Matthew; Nie, Hong; Chen, Jinbao; Wang, Xianqiao

    2015-07-14

    An energy absorption system (EAS) composed of a carbon nanotube (CNT) with nested buckyballs is put forward for energy dissipation during impact owing to the outstanding mechanical properties of both CNTs and buckyballs. Here we implement a series of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the energy absorption capabilities of several different EASs based on a variety of design parameters. For example, the effects of impact energy, the number of nested buckyballs, and of the size of the buckyballs are analyzed to optimize the energy absorption capability of the EASs by tuning the relevant design parameters. Simulation results indicate that the energy absorption capability of the EAS is closely associated with the deformation characteristics of the confined buckyballs. A low impact energy leads to recoverable deformation of the buckyballs and the dissipated energy is mainly converted to thermal energy. However, a high impact energy yields non-recoverable deformation of buckyballs and thus the energy dissipation is dominated by the strain energy of the EAS. The simulation results also reveal that there exists an optimal value of the number of buckyballs for an EAS under a certain impact energy. Larger buckyballs are able to deform to a larger degree yet also need less impact energy to induce plastic deformation, therefore performing with a better overall energy absorption ability. Overall, the EAS in this study shows a remarkably high energy absorption density of 2 kJ g(-1), it is a promising candidate for mitigating impact energy and sheds light on the research of buckyball-filled CNTs for other applications. PMID:26074446

  12. A study of energy use for ventilation and air-conditioning systems in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chung Hoi Philip

    Most of the local modern buildings are high-rise with enclosed structure. Mechanical ventilation and air conditioning (MVAC) systems are installed for thermal comfort. Various types of MVAC systems found in Hong Kong were critically reviewed with comments on their characteristics in energy efficiency as well as application. The major design considerations were also discussed. Besides MVAC, other energy-consuming components in commercial buildings were also identified, such as lighting, lifts and escalators, office equipment, information technology facilities, etc. A practical approach has been adopted throughout this study in order that the end results will have pragmatic value to the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry in Hong Kong. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has become a major issue in commercial buildings worldwide including Hong Kong. Ventilation rate is no doubt a critical element in the design of HVAC systems, which can be realized more obviously in railway train compartments where the carbon dioxide level will be built up quickly when the compartments are crowded during rush hours. A study was carried out based on a simplified model using a train compartment that is equipped with an MVAC system. Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV) is a single-value parameter for controlling building energy use and is relatively simple to implement legislatively. The local government has taken a first step in reacting to the worldwide concern of energy conservation and environmental protection since 1995. Different methods of OTTV calculation were studied and the computation results were compared. It gives a clear picture of the advantages and limitations for each method to the building designers. However, due to the limitations of using OTTV as the only parameter for building energy control, some new approaches to a total control of building energy use were discussed and they might be considered for future revision of the building energy codes in Hong

  13. Energy and cost savings results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study /CTAS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS), a program undertaken to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the 1985-2000 time period, is described, and preliminary results are presented. Two cogeneration options are included in the analysis: a topping application, in which fuel is input to the energy conversion system which generates electricity and waste heat from the conversion system is used to provide heat to the process, and a bottoming application, in which fuel is burned to provide high temperature process heat and waste heat from the process is used as thermal input to the energy conversion system which generates energy. Steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics are examined. Expected plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings, and other results of the economic analysis are given, and the sensitivity of these results to the assumptions concerning fuel prices, price of purchased electricity and the potential effects of regional energy use characteristics is discussed.

  14. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems - Regional Studies. West Texas and Northeastern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Humberto E.; Chen, Jun; Kim, Jong S.; McKellar, Michael G.; Deason, Wesley R.; Vilim, Richard B.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Boardman, Richard D.

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to conduct a preliminary dynamic analysis of two realistic hybrid energy systems (HES) including a nuclear reactor as the main baseload heat generator (denoted as nuclear HES or nuclear hybrid energy systems [NHES]) and to assess the local (e.g., HES owners) and system (e.g., the electric grid) benefits attainable by the application of NHES in scenarios with multiple commodity production and high penetration of renewable energy. It is performed for regional cases - not generic examples - based on available resources, existing infrastructure, and markets within the selected regions. This study also briefly addresses the computational capabilities developed to conduct such analyses, reviews technical gaps, and suggests some research paths forward.

  15. Energy Conversion Chain Analysis of Sustainable Energy Systems: A Transportation Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    In general terms there are only three primary energy sources: fossil fuels, renewable energy, and nuclear fission. For fueling road transportation, there has been much speculation about the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, which would usher in the "hydrogen economy." A parallel situation would use a simple battery to store electricity…

  16. Wind energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  17. Design and experiment study of a semi-active energy-regenerative suspension system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Dehua; Chen, Long; Wang, Ruochen; Jiang, Haobin; Shen, Yujie

    2015-01-01

    A new kind of semi-active energy-regenerative suspension system is proposed to recover suspension vibration energy, as well as to reduce the suspension cost and demands for the motor-rated capacity. The system consists of an energy-regenerative damper and a DC-DC converter-based energy-regenerative circuit. The energy-regenerative damper is composed of an electromagnetic linear motor and an adjustable shock absorber with three regulating levels. The linear motor just works as the generator to harvest the suspension vibration energy. The circuit can be used to improve the system’s energy-regenerative performance and to continuously regulate the motor’s electromagnetic damping force. Therefore, although the motor works as a generator and damps the isolation without an external power source, the motor damping force is controllable. The damping characteristics of the system are studied based on a two degrees of freedom vehicle vibration model. By further analyzing the circuit operation characteristics under different working modes, the double-loop controller is designed to track the desired damping force. The external-loop is a fuzzy controller that offers the desired equivalent damping. The inner-loop controller, on one hand, is used to generate the pulse number and the frequency to control the angle and the rotational speed of the step motor; on the other hand, the inner-loop is used to offer the duty cycle of the energy-regenerative circuit. Simulations and experiments are conducted to validate such a new suspension system. The results show that the semi-active energy-regenerative suspension can improve vehicle ride comfort with the controllable damping characteristics of the linear motor. Meanwhile, it also ensures energy regeneration.

  18. Case studies of energy information systems and related technology: Operational practices, costs, and benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Dewey, Jim

    2003-09-02

    Energy Information Systems (EIS), which can monitor and analyze building energy consumption and related data throughout the Internet, have been increasing in use over the last decade. Though EIS developers describe the capabilities, costs, and benefits of EIS, many of these descriptions are idealized and often insufficient for potential users to evaluate cost, benefit and operational usefulness. LBNL has conducted a series of case studies of existing EIS and related technology installations. This study explored the following questions: (1) How is the EIS used in day-to-day operation? (2) What are the costs and benefits of an EIS? (3) Where do the energy savings come from? This paper reviews the process of these technologies from installation through energy management practice. The study is based on interviews with operators and energy managers who use EIS. Analysis of energy data trended by EIS and utility bills was also conducted to measure the benefit. This paper explores common uses and findings to identify energy savings attributable to EIS, and discusses non-energy benefits as well. This paper also addresses technologies related to EIS that have been demonstrated and evaluated by LBNL.

  19. Measuring savings in energy savings performance contracts using in-place energy management systems -- A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemeier, K.E.; Akbari, H.; Kromer, S.

    1996-08-01

    Energy Management Control Systems (EMCSs) have been used in many projects as a monitoring device to provide information necessary for estimating savings from efficiency measures. This paper discusses a case study that looked in great depth at that use for evaluating savings in Energy Savings Performance Contracting (ESPC). ESPC is one of the increasingly important mechanisms for profiting from energy efficiency in commercial buildings. With ESPC, a contractor finances and installs energy-conversion measures, and the resulting savings in energy bills are shared between the contractor and the building owner. Hence, the method used for determining savings is key to the success of this financing scheme. As a part of their effort to establish measurement and verification methods, the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) carried out a pilot study of ESPC, and the EMCS was used in the savings verification for this ESPC contract. This case study also serves as a detailed and quantitative comparison of EMCS and conventional monitoring techniques, according to the guidelines developed in earlier work. This paper discusses the concept of different levels of monitoring savings for ESPC and presents an assessment of the use of EMCS for these levels of monitoring.

  20. DYNAMIC ENERGY SAVING IN BUILDINGS WITH UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM – EXPERIMENTAL AND SIMULATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study is aimed at seeking a better understanding of the thermodynamics involved with the air distribution strategies associated with UFAD systems and its impact on the energy saving dynamics.
    Thus objectives are:

    • Experiment...

  1. A summary of the ECAS performance and cost results for MHD system. [Energy Conversion Alternatives Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seikel, G. R.; Sovie, R. J.; Burns, R. K.; Barna, G. J.; Burkhart, J. A.; Nainiger, J. J.; Smith, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The interagency-funded, NASA-coordinated Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) has studied the potential of various advanced power plant concepts using coal and coal-derived fuel. Principle studies were conducted through prime contracts with the General Electric Company and the Westinghouse Electric Corporation. The results indicate that open-cycle coal-fired direct-preheat MHD systems have potentially one of the highest coal-pile-to-bus-bar efficiencies and also one of the lowest costs of electricity (COE) of the systems studied. Closed-cycle MHD systems may have the potential to approach the efficiency and COE of open-cycle MHD. The 1200-1500 F liquid-metal MHD systems studied do not appear to have the potential of exceeding the efficiency or competing with the COE of advanced steam plants.

  2. A Study of Energy Management Systems and its Failure Modes in Smart Grid Power Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musani, Aatif

    The subject of this thesis is distribution level load management using a pricing signal in a smart grid infrastructure. The project relates to energy management in a spe-cialized distribution system known as the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. Energy management through demand response is one of the key applications of smart grid. Demand response today is envisioned as a method in which the price could be communicated to the consumers and they may shift their loads from high price periods to the low price periods. The development and deployment of the FREEDM system necessitates controls of energy and power at the point of end use. In this thesis, the main objective is to develop the control model of the Energy Management System (EMS). The energy and power management in the FREEDM system is digitally controlled therefore all signals containing system states are discrete. The EMS is modeled as a discrete closed loop transfer function in the z-domain. A breakdown of power and energy control devices such as EMS components may result in energy con-sumption error. This leads to one of the main focuses of the thesis which is to identify and study component failures of the designed control system. Moreover, H-infinity ro-bust control method is applied to ensure effectiveness of the control architecture. A focus of the study is cyber security attack, specifically bad data detection in price. Test cases are used to illustrate the performance of the EMS control design, the effect of failure modes and the application of robust control technique. The EMS was represented by a linear z-domain model. The transfer function be-tween the pricing signal and the demand response was designed and used as a test bed. EMS potential failure modes were identified and studied. Three bad data detection meth-odologies were implemented and a voting policy was used to declare bad data. The run-ning mean and standard deviation analysis method proves to be

  3. Complete data acquisition and analysis system for low-energy electron-molecule collision studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Pamir; Nandi, Dhananjay

    2015-09-01

    A complete data acquisition system has been developed that can work with any personal computer irrespective of the operating system installed on it. The software can be used in low and intermediate electron-energy collision studies with ground-state molecules in gas phase using a combination of RS-232, GPIB, and USB-interfaced devices. Various tabletop instruments and nuclear instrumentation module (NIM) -based electronics have been interfaced and have communicated with the software, which is based on LabVIEW. This is tested with dissociative electron attachment (DEA) and polar dissociation studies to oxygen molecule and successfully used in a DEA study of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.

  4. Feasibility Study of Cargo Airship Transportation Systems Powered by New Green Energy Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skuza, Jonathan R.; Park, Yeonjoon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Seaman, Shane T.; King, Glen C.; Choi, Sang H.; Song, Kyo D.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Lee, Kunik

    2014-01-01

    The development of transportation systems that use new and sustainable energy technologies is of utmost importance due to the possible future shortfalls that current transportation modes will encounter because of increased volume and costs. The introduction and further research and development of new transportation and energy systems by materials researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Department of Transportation are discussed in this Technical Memorandum. In this preliminary study, airship concepts were assessed for cargo transportation using various green energy technologies capable of 24-hour operation (i.e., night and day). Two prototype airships were successfully constructed and tested at LaRC to demonstrate their feasibility: one with commercially available solar cells for operation during the daytime and one with microwave rectennas (i.e., rectifying antennas) developed in-house for night-time operation. The test results indicate the feasibility of a cargo transportation airship powered by new green energy sources and wireless power technology. Future applications will exploit new green energy sources that use materials and devices recently developed or are in the process of being developed at LaRC. These include quantum well SiGe solar cells; low, mid-, and high temperature thermoelectric modules; and wireless microwave and optical rectenna devices. This study examines the need and development of new energy sources for transportation, including the current status of research, materials, and potential applications.

  5. Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems study: US Department of Energy Internal Review Panel report

    SciTech Connect

    Cudahy, J.; Escarda, T.; Gimpel, R.

    1995-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) commissioned two studies to uniformly evaluate nineteen thermal treatment technologies. These studies were called the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Phase I and Phase II. With the advice and guidance of the DOE Office of Environmental Management`s (EM`s) Mixed Waste Focus Group, OTD formed an ITTS Internal Review Panel, composed of scientists and engineers from throughout the DOE complex, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the California EPA, and private experts. The Panel met from November 15-18, 1994, to review and comment on the ITTS studies, to make recommendations on the most promising thermal treatment systems for DOE mixed low level wastes (MLLW), and to make recommendations on research and development necessary to prove the performance of the technologies on MLLW.

  6. Market and policy barriers to energy storage deployment : a study for the energy storage systems program.

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen B.; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie; Kirby, Brendan

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, crosscutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

  7. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Energy conversion system characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Six current and thirty-six advanced energy conversion systems were defined and combined with appropriate balance of plant equipment. Twenty-six industrial processes were selected from among the high energy consuming industries to serve as a frame work for the study. Each conversion system was analyzed as a cogenerator with each industrial plant. Fuel consumption, costs, and environmental intrusion were evaluated and compared to corresponding traditional values. The advanced energy conversion technologies indicated reduced fuel consumption, costs, and emissions. Fuel energy savings of 10 to 25 percent were predicted compared to traditional on site furnaces and utility electricity. With the variety of industrial requirements, each advanced technology had attractive applications. Fuel cells indicated the greatest fuel energy savings and emission reductions. Gas turbines and combined cycles indicated high overall annual savings. Steam turbines and gas turbines produced high estimated returns. In some applications, diesels were most efficient. The advanced technologies used coal derived fuels, or coal with advanced fluid bed combustion or on site gasifications. Data and information for both current and advanced energy conversion technology are presented. Schematic and physical descriptions, performance data, equipment cost estimates, and predicted emissions are included. Technical developments which are needed to achieve commercialization in the 1985-2000 period are identified.

  8. A Review of Study on Thermal Energy Transport System by Synthesis and Decomposition Reactions of Methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiusheng; Yabe, Akira; Kajiyama, Shiro; Fukuda, Katsuya

    The study on thermal energy transport system by synthesis and decomposition reactions of methanol was reviewed. To promote energy conservation and global environment protection, a two-step liquid-phase methanol synthesis process, which starts with carbonylation of methanol to methyl formate, then followed by the hydrogenolysis of the formate, was studied to recover wasted or unused discharged heat from industrial sources for the thermal energy demands of residential and commercial areas by chemical reactions. The research and development of the system were focused on the following three points. (1) Development of low-temperature decomposition and synthetic catalysts, (2) Development of liquid phase reactor (heat exchanger accompanying chemical reaction), (3) Simulation of the energy transport efficiency of entire system which contains heat recovery and supply sections. As the result of the development of catalyst, promising catalysts which agree with the development purposes for the methyl formate decomposition reaction and the synthetic reaction are being developed though some studies remain for the methanol decomposition and synthetic reactions. In the fundamental development of liquid phase reactor, the solubilities of CO and H2 gases in methanol and methyl formate were measured by the method of total pressure decrease due to absorption under pressures up to 1500kPa and temperatures up to 140°C. The diffusivity of CO gas in methanol was determined by measuring the diameter and solution time of single CO bubbles in methanol. The chemical reaction rate of methanol synthesis by hydrogenolysis of methyl formate was measured using a plate-type of Raney copper catalyst in a reactor with rectangular channel and in an autoclave reactor. The reaction characteristics were investigated by carrying out the experiments at various temperatures, flow rates and at various catalyst development conditions. We focused on the effect of Raney copper catalyst thickness on the liquid

  9. Optimal Model of Distributed Energy System by Using GAMS and CaseStudy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yongwen; Gao, Weijun; Ruan, Yingjun; Xuan, Ji; Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris

    2005-11-30

    This paper adopts optimal model which used GAMS to developmethods and tools for conducting an integrated assessment of DER system.Three cases were studied. Energy-saving, environmental and economicefficiency were evaluated. The results of the simulation can besummarized as follows: 1) For the current system, optimal operating timeis about 4,132 hours per year, and from 8 am to 22 pm everyday. 2) It iseconomical when electricity price increases or gas price decreases. 3)According to the load function of system, energy-saving, environmentaland economic efficiency will have amaximum value at optimal operatingtime. 4) Compared with exhaust heat efficiency, power generationefficiency has more influence to the economic efficiency and CO2reduction when the total efficiency is fixed.

  10. Case study of a magnetic system for low-energy machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoerling, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    The extra low-energy antiproton ring (ELENA) is a CERN particle decelerator with the purpose to deliver antiprotons at lowest energies aiming to enhance the study of antimatter. The hexagonal shaped ring with a circumference of about 30 m will decelerate antiprotons from momenta of 100 to 13.7 MeV /c . In this paper, the design approach for a magnet system for such a machine is presented. Due to the extra-low beam rigidity, the design of the magnet system is especially challenging because even small fields, arising for example from residual magnetization and hysteresis, have a major impact on beam dynamics. In total, seven prototype magnets of three different magnet types have been built and tested. This paper outlines challenges, describes solutions for the design of the magnet system and discusses the results of the prototypes.

  11. Energy density matrix formalism for interacting quantum systems: a quantum Monte Carlo study

    SciTech Connect

    Krogel, Jaron T; Kim, Jeongnim; Reboredo, Fernando A

    2014-01-01

    We develop an energy density matrix that parallels the one-body reduced density matrix (1RDM) for many-body quantum systems. Just as the density matrix gives access to the number density and occupation numbers, the energy density matrix yields the energy density and orbital occupation energies. The eigenvectors of the matrix provide a natural orbital partitioning of the energy density while the eigenvalues comprise a single particle energy spectrum obeying a total energy sum rule. For mean-field systems the energy density matrix recovers the exact spectrum. When correlation becomes important, the occupation energies resemble quasiparticle energies in some respects. We explore the occupation energy spectrum for the finite 3D homogeneous electron gas in the metallic regime and an isolated oxygen atom with ground state quantum Monte Carlo techniques imple- mented in the QMCPACK simulation code. The occupation energy spectrum for the homogeneous electron gas can be described by an effective mass below the Fermi level. Above the Fermi level evanescent behavior in the occupation energies is observed in similar fashion to the occupation numbers of the 1RDM. A direct comparison with total energy differences demonstrates a quantita- tive connection between the occupation energies and electron addition and removal energies for the electron gas. For the oxygen atom, the association between the ground state occupation energies and particle addition and removal energies becomes only qualitative. The energy density matrix provides a new avenue for describing energetics with quantum Monte Carlo methods which have traditionally been limited to total energies.

  12. Systems Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.

    1998-03-17

    The Systems Studies Activity had two objectives: (1) to investigate nontechnical barriers to the deployment of biomass production and supply systems and (2) to enhance and extend existing systems models of bioenergy supply and use. For the first objective, the Activity focused on existing bioenergy markets. Four projects were undertaken: a comparative analysis of bioenergy in Sweden and Austria; a one-day workshop on nontechnical barriers jointly supported by the Production Systems Activity; the development and testing of a framework for analyzing barriers and drivers to bioenergy markets; and surveys of wood pellet users in Sweden, Austria and the US. For the second objective, two projects were undertaken. First, the Activity worked with the Integrated BioEnergy Systems (TBS) Activity of TEA Bioenergy Task XIII to enhance the BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). This model is documented in the final report of the IBS Activity. The Systems Studies Activity contributed to enhancing the feedstock portion of the model by developing a coherent set of willow, poplar, and switchgrass production modules relevant to both the US and the UK. The Activity also developed a pretreatment module for switchgrass. Second, the Activity sponsored a three-day workshop on modeling bioenergy systems with the objectives of providing an overview of the types of models used to evaluate bioenergy and promoting communication among bioenergy modelers. There were nine guest speakers addressing different types of models used to evaluate different aspects of bioenergy, ranging from technoeconomic models based on the ASPEN software to linear programming models to develop feedstock supply curves for the US. The papers from this workshop have been submitted to Biomass and Bioenergy and are under editorial review.

  13. A Study of Energy Conversion Efficiency of a Savonius Type Wave Energy Converter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutar, Mustafa; Erdem, Ceyhan

    In the present study, two-dimensional, two-phase and turbulent flow around a horizontal axis 3-bladed Savonius rotor is considered. Numerical wave tank (NWT) simulations based on FVM/FDM technique in association with volume of fluid (VOF) element method are performed for specified values of wave heights for no-rotor flow case. Once validated against the theoretical data, the numerical simulations are extended to investigate the overall performance of the turbine over a very large range of wave height conditions for the rotor-flow case.

  14. A second-law study on packed bed energy storage systems utilizing phase-change materials

    SciTech Connect

    Adebiyi, G.A. )

    1991-08-01

    Thermal modeling of packed bed, thermal energy storage systems has traditionally been limited to first-law considerations. The exceptions include a few second-law studies of sensible heat storage systems and the latent heat storage systems. The cited second-law studies treat the storage and removal processes essentially as batch heating and cooling. The approximation effectively ignores the significant temperature gradient, especially in the axial direction, in the storage medium over a substantial portion of both the storage and removal processes. The results presented in this paper are for a more comprehensive model of the packed bed storage system utilizing encapsulated phase-change materials. The fundamental equations for the system are similar to those of Schumann, except that a transient conduction equation is included for intraparticle conduction in each pellet. The equations are solved numerically, and the media temperatures obtained are used for the determination of the exergy (or availability) disposition in complete storage-removal cycles. One major conclusion of the study from both the first-law and second-law perspectives is that the principal advantage in the use of phase-change storage material is the enhanced storage capacity, compared with the same size of packed bed utilizing a sensible heat storage material. Thermodynamically, however, it does not appear that the system employing phase-change storage material will always, or necessarily, be superior to that using a sensible heat-storage material. The latter conclusion is reached only on the basis of the second-law evaluation.

  15. Energy Systems Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    PRESTO, a COSMIC program, handles energy system specifications and predicts design efficiency of cogeneration systems. These systems allow a company to use excess energy produced to generate electricity. PRESTO is utilized by the Energy Systems Division of Thermo Electron Corporation in the custom design of cogeneration systems.

  16. An analytical study of a lead-acid flow battery as an energy storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Alex; Mukerjee, Santanu; Lee, Sang C.; Lee, Dong-Ha; Park, Sam

    2014-03-01

    The most important issue with our current clean energy technology is the dependence on environmental conditions to produce power. To solve this problem a wide range of energy storage devices are being explored for grid-scale energy storage including soluble lead-acid flow batteries. Flow batteries offer a unique solution to grid-scale energy storage because of their electrolyte tanks which allow easy scaling of storage capacity. This study seeks to further understand the mechanisms of a soluble lead acid flow battery using simulations. The effects of varies changes to operating conditions and the system configuration can be explored through simulations. The simulations preformed are 2D and include the positive electrode, negative electrode, and the flow space between them. Simulations presented in this study show Pb(II) surface concentration, external electric potential, and PbO/PbO2 surface concentration on the positive electrode. Simulations have shown increasing cell temperature can increase external electric potential by as much as 0.2 V during charge. Simulations have also shown electrolyte velocity is an important aspect when investigating lead deposition onto the electrodes. Experimental work was performed to validate simulation results of current density and voltage. Good correlation was found between experimental work and simulation results.

  17. Energy Control Systems: Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The installation of proper control systems is estimated as saving up to 25 percent of the energy used in schools. Other potential energy-saving areas are transmission (heat loss or gain through walls, especially ceilings); internal load (heat from students, lights, and machinery); ventilation; and equipment maintenance. (Author/MLF)

  18. Study of component technologies for fuel cell on-site integrated energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, W. D.; Mathias, S.

    1980-01-01

    Heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment are integrated with three types of fuel cells. System design and computer simulations are developed to utilize the thermal energy discharge of the fuel in the most cost effective manner. The fuel provides all of the electric needs and a loss of load probability analysis is used to ensure adequate power plant reliability. Equipment cost is estimated for each of the systems analyzed. A levelized annual cost reflecting owning and operating costs including the cost of money was used to select the most promising integrated system configurations. Cash flows are presented for the most promising 16 systems. Several systems for the 96 unit apartment complex (a retail store was also studied) were cost competitive with both gas and electric based conventional systems. Thermal storage is shown to be beneficial and the optimum absorption chiller sizing (waste heat recovery) in connection with electric chillers are developed. Battery storage was analyzed since the system is not electric grid connected. Advanced absorption chillers were analyzed as well. Recommendations covering financing, technical development, and policy issues are given to accelerate the commercialization of the fuel cell for on-site power generation in buildings.

  19. Gauging the feasibility of a downhole energy harvesting system through a proof-of-concept study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjolsing, Eric; Todd, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Hydrocarbon well operators deploy downhole reservoir monitoring equipment in order to optimize the rate at which hydrocarbons are extracted. Alternative power sources are sought that could be deployed in these harsh environments to replace or supplement standard power sources currently in use. To this end, a three phase proof-of-concept study was performed to gauge the feasibility of such a device. In the first phase a parametric study was performed to understand how high uncertainty variables affect the natural frequency of a producing hydrocarbon well. In a follow up study, the relationship between boundary conditions and system damping was investigated. In the second phase a structural housing was designed to satisfy American Petroleum Institute load cases. Using finite element models and standard tube/casing geometries, design pressures were iterated until a permissible housing design was achieved. This preliminary design provided estimates of the radial width and volume in which energy harvesting and storage elements may be situated. In the last phase a software program was developed to estimate the energy that might be harvested from user specified harvester configurations. The program is dependent on user input production tube accelerations; this permits well operators to use well-specific vibrational data as inputs to generate well-specific energy output estimates. Results indicate that a downhole energy harvesting tool is structurally feasible under reasonable operating conditions but no conclusions can be made as to the sufficiency of generated power as no in-situ acceleration time histories are available. Future work is discussed. Approved for publication, LA-UR-16-21193.

  20. Evaluation of battery/microturbine hybrid energy storage technologies at the University of Maryland :a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    De Anda, Mindi Farber (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Fall, Ndeye K.

    2005-03-01

    This study describes the technical and economic benefits derived from adding an energy storage component to an existing building cooling, heating, and power system that uses microturbine generation to augment utility-provided power. Three different types of battery energy storage were evaluated: flooded lead-acid, valve-regulated lead-acid, and zinc/bromine. Additionally, the economic advantages of hybrid generation/storage systems were evaluated for a representative range of utility tariffs. The analysis was done using the Distributed Energy Technology Simulator developed for the Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories by Energetics, Inc. The study was sponsored by the U.S. DOE Energy Storage Systems Program through Sandia National Laboratories and was performed in coordination with the University of Maryland's Center for Environmental Energy Engineering.

  1. The use of commercial and industrial waste in energy recovery systems - A UK preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lupa, Christopher J; Ricketts, Lois J; Sweetman, Andy; Herbert, Ben M J

    2011-08-01

    With 2020 energy targets set out by the EU fast approaching, the UK is trying to source a higher proportion of its energy from renewable resources. Coupled with this, a growing population and increasing trends in consumer demand have resulted in national waste loads increasing. A possible solution to both issues is energy-from-waste (EfW) technologies. Many studies have focused on municipal solid waste (MSW) as a potential feedstock, but appear to overlook the potential benefits of commercial and industrial waste (C&IW). In this study, samples of C&IW were collected from three North West waste management companies and Lancaster University campus. The samples were tested for their gross and net calorific value, moisture content, ash content, volatile matter, and also elemental composition to determine their suitability in EfW systems. Intra-sample analysis showed there to be little variation between samples with the exception two samples, from waste management site 3, which showed extensive variation with regards to net calorific value, ash content, and elemental analysis. Comparisons with known fuel types revealed similarities between the sampled C&IW, MSW, and refuse derived fuel (RDF) thereby justifying its potential for use in EfW systems. Mean net calorific value (NCV) was calculated as 9.47MJ/kg and concentrations of sulphur, nitrogen, and chlorine were found to be below 2%. Potential electrical output was calculated using the NCV of the sampled C&IW coupled with four differing energy generation technologies. Using a conventional incinerator with steam cycle, total electrical output was calculated as 24.9GWh, based on a plant operating at 100,000tpa. This value rose to 27.0GWh when using an integrated gasification combined cycle. A final aspect of this study was to deduce the potential total national electrical output if all suitable C&IW were to be used in EfW systems. Using incineration coupled with a steam turbine, this was determined to be 6TWh, 1.9% of

  2. Study of component technologies for fuel cell on-site integrated energy system. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, W. D.; Mathias, S.

    1980-01-01

    This data base catalogue was compiled in order to facilitate the analysis of various on site integrated energy system with fuel cell power plants. The catalogue is divided into two sections. The first characterizes individual components in terms of their performance profiles as a function of design parameters. The second characterizes total heating and cooling systems in terms of energy output as a function of input and control variables. The integrated fuel cell systems diagrams and the computer analysis of systems are included as well as the cash flows series for baseline systems.

  3. Energy Systems Laboratory Groundbreaking

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, David; Otter, C.L.; Simpson, Mike; Rogers, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    INL recently broke ground for a research facility that will house research programs for bioenergy, advanced battery systems, and new hybrid energy systems that integrate renewable, fossil and nuclear energy sources. Here's video from the groundbreaking ceremony for INL's new Energy Systems Laboratory. You can learn more about CAES research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  4. Energy Systems Laboratory Groundbreaking

    ScienceCinema

    Hill, David; Otter, C.L.; Simpson, Mike; Rogers, J.W.;

    2013-05-28

    INL recently broke ground for a research facility that will house research programs for bioenergy, advanced battery systems, and new hybrid energy systems that integrate renewable, fossil and nuclear energy sources. Here's video from the groundbreaking ceremony for INL's new Energy Systems Laboratory. You can learn more about CAES research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  5. Integrated municipal solid waste management: Six case studies of system cost and energy use. A summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of integrated municipal solid waste management systems in six cities: Minneapolis, NW; Springfield, MA; Seattle, WA; Scottsdale, AZ; Palm Beach County, CA; and Sevierville, TN. The primary objective of these case studies was to develop and present consistent cost, resource use (especially energy), and environmental regulator information on each operating IMSWM system. The process is defined as using two or more alternative waste management techniques. Detailed reports on each system are available.

  6. Innovative Business Cases for Energy Storage In a Restructured Electricity Marketplace, A Study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    IANNUCCI, JOE; EYER, JIM; BUTLER, PAUL C.

    2003-02-01

    This report describes the second phase of a project entitled ''Innovative Business Cases for Energy Storage in a Restructured Electricity Marketplace''. During part one of the effort, nine ''Stretch Scenarios'' were identified. They represented innovative and potentially significant uses of electric energy storage. Based on their potential to significantly impact the overall energy marketplace, the five most compelling scenarios were identified. From these scenarios, five specific ''Storage Market Opportunities'' (SMOs) were chosen for an in-depth evaluation in this phase. The authors conclude that some combination of the Power Cost Volatility and the T&D Benefits SMOs would be the most compelling for further investigation. Specifically, a combination of benefits (energy, capacity, power quality and reliability enhancement) achievable using energy storage systems for high value T&D applications, in regions with high power cost volatility, makes storage very competitive for about 24 GW and 120 GWh during the years of 2001 and 2010.

  7. Energy and costs scoping study for plasma pyrolysis thermal processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Sherick, K.E.; Findley, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide information in support of an investigation of thermal technologies as possible treatment process for buried wastes at the INEL. Material and energy balances and a cost estimate were generated for a representative plasma torch-based thermal waste treatment system operating in a pyrolysis mode. Two waste streams were selected which are representative of INEL buried wastes, large in volume, and difficult to treat by other technologies. These streams were a solidified nitrate sludge waste stream and a waste/soil mix of other buried waste components. The treatment scheme selected includes a main plasma chamber operating under pyrolyzing conditions; a plasma afterburner to provide additional residence time at high temperature to ensure complete destruction of hazardous organics; an off-gas treatment system; and a incinerator and stack to oxidize carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and vent the clean, oxidized gases to atmosphere. The material balances generated provide materials flow and equipment duty information of sufficient accuracy to generate initial rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) system capital and operating cost estimates for a representative plasma thermal processing system.

  8. Energy systems transformation.

    PubMed

    Dangerman, A T C Jérôme; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2013-02-12

    The contemporary industrial metabolism is not sustainable. Critical problems arise at both the input and the output side of the complex: Although affordable fossil fuels and mineral resources are declining, the waste products of the current production and consumption schemes (especially CO(2) emissions, particulate air pollution, and radioactive residua) cause increasing environmental and social costs. Most challenges are associated with the incumbent energy economy that is unlikely to subsist. However, the crucial question is whether a swift transition to its sustainable alternative, based on renewable sources, can be achieved. The answer requires a deep analysis of the structural conditions responsible for the rigidity of the fossil-nuclear energy system. We argue that the resilience of the fossil-nuclear energy system results mainly from a dynamic lock-in pattern known in operations research as the "Success to the Successful" mode. The present way of generating, distributing, and consuming energy--the largest business on Earth--expands through a combination of factors such as the longevity of pertinent infrastructure, the information technology revolution, the growth of the global population, and even the recent financial crises: Renewable-energy industries evidently suffer more than the conventional-energy industries under recession conditions. Our study tries to elucidate the archetypical traits of the lock-in pattern and to assess the respective importance of the factors involved. In particular, we identify modern corporate law as a crucial system element that thus far has been largely ignored. Our analysis indicates that the rigidity of the existing energy economy would be reduced considerably by the assignment of unlimited liabilities to the shareholders. PMID:23297208

  9. Solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An improved solar energy collection system, having enhanced energy collection and conversion capabilities, is delineated. The system is characterized by a plurality of receivers suspended above a heliostat field comprising a multiplicity of reflector surfaces, each being adapted to direct a concentrated beam of solar energy to illuminate a target surface for a given receiver. A magnitude of efficiency, suitable for effectively competing with systems employed in collecting and converting energy extracted from fossil fuels, is indicated.

  10. Global energy perspectives: A summary of the joint study by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis and World Energy Council

    SciTech Connect

    Gruebler, A.; Nakicenovic, N. |; Jefferson, M.

    1996-03-01

    This article reports a study on Global Energy Perspectives to 2050 and Beyond conducted jointly by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) and the World Energy Council (WEC). All together three cases of economic and energy developments were developed that sprawl into six scenarios of energy supply alternatives extending until the end of the 21st century. The international consistency of the scenarios was assessed with the help of formal energy models. The study took close account of world population prospects, economic growth, technological advance, the energy resource base, environmental implications from the local to the global level, financing requirements, and the future prospects of both fossil and nonfossil fuels and industries. Although no analysis can turn an uncertain future into a sure thing, the study identifies patterns that are robust across a purposely broad range of scenarios. The study also enables one to relate alternative near-term research and development, technology, economic, and environmental policies to the possible long-term divergence of energy systems structures. Due to the long lead times involved in the turnover of capital stock and infrastructures of the energy system, policy would need to be implemented now in order to initiate long-term structural changes in the energy system that would, however, become significant only after the year 2020. 23 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Hybrid community energy systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Karvelas, D. E.; Energy Systems

    2000-01-01

    The availability of efficient, economical, and reliable energy supplies can help attract industry and commercial businesses to a municipality or a region. Efficient use of energy can also improve the air quality and reduce pollution. Therefore, municipalities should explore and encourage the development and implementation of efficient energy systems. Integrated hybrid energy systems can be designed to meet the total energy requirements of large and small communities. These systems can yield significant energy and cost savings when compared with independent systems serving individual units or when compared with the conventional practice of buying power from a utility and producing thermal energy on-site. To maximize energy and cost savings, the design engineer should look beyond the conventional when designing such systems.

  12. Simulation of long term renewable energy feed-in for European power system studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev; Späth, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    Renewable energies already play a remarkable role in Europe as of today. It is expected that wind and solar amongst other renewables will contribute strongly to the future European energy generation. However, wind and solar generation facilities have due to the weather dependent nature of their resources highly fluctuating feed-in profiles. To overcome the mismatch between energy demand and generation it is important to study and understand the generation patterns and balancing potentials. The goal of the current work is to investigate how the feed-in time series from different renewable sources like on- and offshore wind, photovoltaic, solar thermal, wave, hydro, geothermal and biomass power and combination of them look like in an European power supply system . The work is part of the RESTORE 2050 project (BMU) that investigates the requirements for cross-country grid extensions, usage of storage technologies and capacities, the development of new balancing technologies and the conceptual design of the future energy market which is suitable for high generation percentages of solar and wind. High temporally and spatially resolved long term weather data from COSMO-EU, MERRA and Meteosat (MFG/MSG) satellite data has been used to simulate feed-in from several types of renewable energy sources on a 7 x 7 km grid covering Europe. For wind speeds MERRA reanalysis data has been statistically downscaled to account for orography. Generation was aggregated on the country level and production patterns and their variations in time of different resources were investigated for the years ranging from 2002 to 2012. In a first step the quality of the simulated feed in time series has been investigated by comparison to real observations of wind power and PV generation. Furthermore, some sensitivity studies with respect to underlying assumptions like spatial distribution of wind and PV capacities, the chosen hub-height and wind power curve have been done and will be presented. While

  13. Energy systems and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) Systems and Applications Group provides decision support services to help industry and government reach sound policy and planning decisions. They identify critical factors that affect the development and commercialization of energy systems. The multidisciplinary IGT team provides economic and financial analyses, technology assessments, feasibility studies, market evaluations, policy analyses, and impact assessments. Their information can be used to plan for diversification, operations, research and development, investment, options identification, and market strategies. The authors cite sample analyses and summarize experience in such areas as pipeline cost estimation. 3 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Energy systems transformation

    PubMed Central

    Dangerman, A. T. C. Jérôme; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary industrial metabolism is not sustainable. Critical problems arise at both the input and the output side of the complex: Although affordable fossil fuels and mineral resources are declining, the waste products of the current production and consumption schemes (especially CO2 emissions, particulate air pollution, and radioactive residua) cause increasing environmental and social costs. Most challenges are associated with the incumbent energy economy that is unlikely to subsist. However, the crucial question is whether a swift transition to its sustainable alternative, based on renewable sources, can be achieved. The answer requires a deep analysis of the structural conditions responsible for the rigidity of the fossil-nuclear energy system. We argue that the resilience of the fossil-nuclear energy system results mainly from a dynamic lock-in pattern known in operations research as the “Success to the Successful” mode. The present way of generating, distributing, and consuming energy—the largest business on Earth—expands through a combination of factors such as the longevity of pertinent infrastructure, the information technology revolution, the growth of the global population, and even the recent financial crises: Renewable-energy industries evidently suffer more than the conventional-energy industries under recession conditions. Our study tries to elucidate the archetypical traits of the lock-in pattern and to assess the respective importance of the factors involved. In particular, we identify modern corporate law as a crucial system element that thus far has been largely ignored. Our analysis indicates that the rigidity of the existing energy economy would be reduced considerably by the assignment of unlimited liabilities to the shareholders. PMID:23297208

  15. The Evolution of Energy-Transducing Systems. Studies with an Extremely Halophilic Archaebacterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1997-01-01

    The F-type ATPases are found in remarkably similar versions in the energy-transducing membranes of bacteria, chloroplasts and mitochondria (1). Thus, it is likely that they have originated early in the evolution of life, which is consistent with their function as key enzymes of cellular metabolism. The archaea (formerly called archaebacteria) are a group of microorganisms which, as shown by molecular sequencing and biochemical data, have diverged early from the main line of prokaryotic evolution (2). From studies of members of all three major groups of archaea, the halophiles, methanogens and thermoacidophiles, it emerged that they possess a membrane ATPase, which differs from the F-ATPases. The goal of this project was a comparison of the ATPase from the halophilic archaebacterium Halobacterium saccharovorum with the well-characterized F-type ATPases on the molecular level. The results were expected to allow a decision about the nature of archaebacterial ATPases, their classification as one of the known or, alternatively, novel enzyme complex, and possibly a deduction of events during the early evolution of energy-transducing systems.

  16. The evolution of energy-transducing systems. Studies with an extremely halophilic archaebacterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1992-01-01

    The F-type ATPases are found in remarkably similar versions in the energy-transducing membranes of eubacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria. Thus, it is likely that they have originated early in the evolution of life, which is consistent with their function as key enzymes of cellular metabolism. The archaebacteria are a group of microorganisms which, as shown by molecular sequencing and biochemical data, have diverged early from the main line of prokaryotic evolution. From studies of members of all three major groups of archaebacteria - the halophiles, methanogens, and thermoacidophiles - it emerged that they possess a membrane ATPase which differs from the F-ATPases. The goal of this project was a comparison of the ATPase from the halophilic archaebacterium Halobacterium saccharovorum with the well-characterized F-type ATPases on the molecular level. Amino acid sequences of critical regions of the enzyme were to be determined, as well as immunoreactions of single subunits in the search for common epitopes. The results were expected to allow a decision about the nature of archaebacterial ATPases, their classification as one of the known or, alternatively, novel enzyme complexes, and possibly deduction of events during the early evolution of energy-transducing systems.

  17. The global energy system.

    PubMed

    Häfele, W; Sassin, W

    1979-05-01

    A global energy system is conceptualized and analyzed, the energy distributor sub-system of the worldwide supranational system. Its many interconnections are examined and traced back to their source to determine the major elements of this global energy system. Long-term trends are emphasized. The analysis begins with a discussion of the local systems that resulted from the deployment of technology in the mid-nineteenth century, continues with a description of the global system based on oil that has existed for the past two decades, and ends with a scenario implying that an energy transition will occur in the future in which use of coal, nuclear, and solar energy will predominate. A major problem for the future will be the management of this energy transition. The optimal use of global resources and the efficient management of this transition will require a stable and persistent global order. PMID:464990

  18. Aerial Measuring System (AMS)/Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) Joint Comparison Study Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, P.; Halevy, I.

    2013-12-23

    Under the 13th Bilateral Meeting to Combat Nuclear Terrorism conducted on January 8–9, 2013, the committee approved the development of a cost-effective proposal to conduct a Comparison Study of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC). The study was to be held at the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada, with measurements at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The goal of the AMS and the IAEC joint survey was to compare the responses of the two agencies’ aerial radiation detection systems to varied radioactive surface contamination levels and isotopic composition experienced at the NNSS, and the differing data processing techniques utilized by the respective teams. Considering that for the comparison both teams were using custom designed and built systems, the main focus of the short campaign was to investigate the impact of the detector size and data analysis techniques used by both teams. The AMS system, SPectral Advanced Radiological Computer System, Model A (SPARCS-A), designed and built by RSL, incorporates four different size sodium iodide (NaI) crystals: 1" × 1", 2" × 4" × 4", 2" × 4" ×16", and an “up-looking” 2" × 4" × 4". The Israel AMS System, Air RAM 2000, was designed by the IAEC Nuclear Research Center – Negev (NRCN) and built commercially by ROTEM Industries (Israel) and incorporates two 2" diameter × 2" long NaI crystals. The operational comparison was conducted at RSL-Nellis in Las Vegas, Nevada, during week of June 24–27, 2013. The Israeli system, Air RAM 2000, was shipped to RSL-Nellis and mounted together with the DOE SPARCS on a DOE Bell-412 helicopter for a series of aerial comparison measurements at local test ranges, including the Desert Rock Airport and Area 3 at the NNSS. A 4-person Israeli team from the IAEC NRCN supported the activity together with 11

  19. Energy Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Cogeneration system is one in which the energy ordinarily wasted in an industrial process is recovered and reused to create a second form of energy. Such an energy recovery system is in use at Crane Company's plant in Ferguson, KY, which manufactures ceramic bathroom fixtures. Crane's system captures hot stack gases from the company's four ceramic kilns and uses them to produce electrical power for plant operations.

  20. Energy Measurement Studies for CO2 Measurement with a Coherent Doppler Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Koch, Grady J.; Vanvalkenburg, Randal L.; Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The accurate measurement of energy in the application of lidar system for CO2 measurement is critical. Different techniques of energy estimation in the online and offline pulses are investigated for post processing of lidar returns. The cornerstone of the techniques is the accurate estimation of the spectrum of lidar signal and background noise. Since the background noise is not the ideal white Gaussian noise, simple average level estimation of noise level is not well fit in the energy estimation of lidar signal and noise. A brief review of the methods is presented in this paper.

  1. Methods for Analysis of Urban Energy Systems: A New York City Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Bianca

    This dissertation describes methods developed for analysis of the New York City energy system. The analysis specifically aims to consider the built environment and its' impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Several contributions to the urban energy systems literature were made. First, estimates of annual energy intensities of the New York building stock were derived using a statistical analysis that leveraged energy consumption and tax assessor data collected by the Office of the Mayor. These estimates provided the basis for an assessment of the spatial distribution of building energy consumption. The energy consumption estimates were then leveraged to estimate the potential for combined heat and power (CHP) systems in New York City at both the building and microgrid scales. In aggregate, given the 2009 non-baseload GHG emissions factors for electricity production, these systems could reduce citywide GHG emissions by 10%. The operational characteristics of CHP systems were explored further considering different prime movers, climates, and GHG emissions factors. A combination of mixed integer linear programing and controlled random search algorithms were the methods used to determine the optimal capacity and operating strategies for the CHP systems under the various scenarios. Lastly a multi-regional unit commitment model of electricity and GHG emissions production for New York State was developed using data collected from several publicly available sources. The model was used to estimate average and marginal GHG emissions factors for New York State and New York City. The analysis found that marginal GHG emissions factors could reduce by 30% to 370 g CO2e/kWh in the next 10 years.

  2. Theoretical study of the dissociation energy and the red and violet band systems of CN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1987-01-01

    The dissociation energy (D sub O) of CN is determined to be 7.65 + or - 0.06 eV. This corresponds to delta H sub f (CN) = 105.3 + or - 1.5 kcal/mole, in excellent agreement with Engleman and Rouse (1975), but considerably larger than the recent value deduced from shock-tube studies by Colket (1984). The result is obtained not only from extensive ab initio MRCI calculations using a very large Gaussian basis set, but also from extrapolation of the directly computed value by comparison of computed and experimental results fo NO, C2, and N2. As an additional calibration of the methods, the D sub O value for CN was computed from the corresponding value for CN(-) using the experimental electron affinity data. The lifetime of the nu prime = 0 level of the violet (B 2 sigma + yields X 2 sigma +) system was computed to be 62.4 ns, in good agreement with both experiment and previous calculations. Lifetimes for the red (A 2 pi yields X 2 sigma +) system decrease with increasing nu prime, which is consistent both with the recent experiment and calculations. While the computed lifetimes are significantly longer that those obtained from the experiment, they are shorter than those deduced from an analysis of the solar spectrum. However the D sub O and f (sub OO) are consistent with Lambert's model for the solar spectrum.

  3. Studying energy evolution in the discharge chamber of a multichamber lightning protection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinchuk, M. E.; Budin, A. V.; Kumkova, I. I.; Chusov, A. N.

    2016-04-01

    We present experimental data on the distribution of energy deposition along the discharge chamber of a multichamber lightning protection system at the initial stage of a discharge process modeling a lightning current pulse with 10 kA amplitude. The multichamber system comprised serially connected gas-discharge chambers. The breakdown between electrodes situated on the bottom of a channel in each chamber induces the formation of a shock wave. Subsequent energy evolution during the development of discharge proceeds in the entire volume bounded by the shock wave.

  4. Measuring the embodied energy in drinking water supply systems: a case study in the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Mo, Weiwei; Nasiri, Fuzhan; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zhang, Qiong; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2010-12-15

    A sustainable supply of both energy and water is critical to long-term national security, effective climate policy, natural resource sustainability, and social wellbeing. These two critical resources are inextricably and reciprocally linked; the production of energy requires large volumes of water, while the treatment and distribution of water is also significantly dependent upon energy. In this paper, a hybrid analysis approach is proposed to estimate embodied energy and to perform a structural path analysis of drinking water supply systems. The applicability of this approach is then tested through a case study of a large municipal water utility (city of Kalamazoo) in the Great Lakes region to provide insights on the issues of water-energy pricing and carbon footprints. Kalamazoo drinking water requires approximately 9.2 MJ/m(3) of energy to produce, 30% of which is associated with indirect inputs such as system construction and treatment chemicals. PMID:21105699

  5. A virtual laboratory for the simulation of sustainable energy systems in a low energy building: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breen, M.; O’Donovan, A.; Murphy, M. D.; Delaney, F.; Hill, M.; Sullivan, P. D. O.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to develop a virtual laboratory simulation platform of the National Building Retrofit Test-bed at the Cork Institute of Technology, Ireland. The building in question is a low-energy retrofit which is provided with electricity by renewable systems including photovoltaics and wind. It can be thought of as a living laboratory, as a number of internal and external building factors are recorded at regular intervals during human occupation. The analysis carried out in this paper demonstrated that, for the period from April to September 2015, the electricity provided by the renewable systems did not consistently match the building’s electricity requirements due to differing load profiles. It was concluded that the use of load shifting techniques may help to increase the percentage of renewable energy utilisation.

  6. Fermilab Central Computing Facility: Energy conservation report and mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis study

    SciTech Connect

    Krstulovich, S.F.

    1986-11-12

    This report is developed as part of the Fermilab Central Computing Facility Project Title II Design Documentation Update under the provisions of DOE Document 6430.1, Chapter XIII-21, Section 14, paragraph a. As such, it concentrates primarily on HVAC mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis and should be considered as a supplement to the Title I Design Report date March 1986 wherein energy related issues are discussed pertaining to building envelope and orientation as well as electrical systems design.

  7. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study, Weiss Building & Development, LLC., System Home, River Forest, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    The Passive House Challenge Home located in River Forest, Illinois, is a 5-bedroom, 4.5-bath, 3,600 ft2 two-story home (plus basement) that costs about $237 less per month to operate than a similar sized home built to the 2009 IECC. For a home with no solar photovoltaic panels installed, it scored an amazingly low 27 on the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) score.An ENERGY STAR-rated dishwasher, clothes washer, and refrigerator; an induction cooktop, condensing clothes dryer, and LED lighting are among the energy-saving devices inside the home. All plumbing fixtures comply with EPA WaterSense criteria. The home was awarded a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the "systems builder" category.

  8. A comprehensive study on technologies of tyre monitoring systems and possible energy solutions.

    PubMed

    Kubba, Ali E; Jiang, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an overview on the state of the art of Tyre Pressure Monitoring System related technologies. This includes examining the latest pressure sensing methods and comparing different types of pressure transducers, particularly their power consumption and measuring range. Having the aim of this research to investigate possible means to obtain a tyre condition monitoring system (TCMS) powered by energy harvesting, various approaches of energy harvesting techniques were evaluated to determine which approach is the most applicable for generating energy within the pneumatic tyre domain and under rolling tyre dynamic conditions. This article starts with an historical review of pneumatic tyre development and demonstrates the reasons and explains the need for using a tyre condition monitoring system. Following this, different tyre pressure measurement approaches are compared in order to determine what type of pressure sensor is best to consider in the research proposal plan. Then possible energy harvesting means inside land vehicle pneumatic tyres are reviewed. Following this, state of the art battery-less tyre pressure monitoring systems developed by individual researchers or by world leading tyre manufacturers are presented. Finally conclusions are drawn based on the reviewed documents cited in this article and a research proposal plan is presented. PMID:24922457

  9. A Comprehensive Study on Technologies of Tyre Monitoring Systems and Possible Energy Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Kubba, Ali E.; Jiang, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an overview on the state of the art of Tyre Pressure Monitoring System related technologies. This includes examining the latest pressure sensing methods and comparing different types of pressure transducers, particularly their power consumption and measuring range. Having the aim of this research to investigate possible means to obtain a tyre condition monitoring system (TCMS) powered by energy harvesting, various approaches of energy harvesting techniques were evaluated to determine which approach is the most applicable for generating energy within the pneumatic tyre domain and under rolling tyre dynamic conditions. This article starts with an historical review of pneumatic tyre development and demonstrates the reasons and explains the need for using a tyre condition monitoring system. Following this, different tyre pressure measurement approaches are compared in order to determine what type of pressure sensor is best to consider in the research proposal plan. Then possible energy harvesting means inside land vehicle pneumatic tyres are reviewed. Following this, state of the art battery-less tyre pressure monitoring systems developed by individual researchers or by world leading tyre manufacturers are presented. Finally conclusions are drawn based on the reviewed documents cited in this article and a research proposal plan is presented. PMID:24922457

  10. Study on Communication System of Social Risk Information on Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hidekazu Yoshikawa; Toshio Sugiman; Yasunaga Wakabayashi; Hiroshi Shimoda; Mika Terado; Mariko Akimoto; Yoshihiko Nagasato

    2004-07-01

    As a new risk communication method for the construction of effective knowledge bases about 'safety and non-anxiety for nuclear energy', a study on new communication method of social risk information by means of electronic communication has been started, by noticing rapid expansion of internet usage in the society. The purpose of this research is to enhance the public acceptance to nuclear power in Japan by the following two aspects. The first is to develop the mutual communication system among the working persons involved in both the operation and maintenance activities for nuclear power plant, by which they will exchange their daily experiences to improve the safety conscious activities to foster 'safety culture' attitude. The other is the development of an effective risk communication system between nuclear society and the general publics about the hot issues of 'what are the concerned involved in the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste?' and 'what should we do to have social consensus to deal with this issue in future'. The authors' research plan for the above purpose is summarized as shown in Table 1. As the first step of the authors' three year research project which started from August 2003, social investigation by questionnaires by internet and postal mail, have been just recently conducted on their risk perception for the nuclear power for the people engaged in nuclear business and women in the metropolitan area, respectively, in order to obtain the relevant information on how and what should be considered for constructing effective risk communication methods of social risk information between the people within nuclear industries and the general public in society. Although there need to be discussed, the contrasting risk images as shown in Fig.1, can be depicted between the nuclear people and general public these days in Japan, from the results of the social investigation. As the conclusion of the authors' study thus far conducted, the

  11. Design study of the Low Energy Beam Transport system at RISP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahng, Jungbae; Kim, Eunsan; Kim, Yonghwan; Hong, In-Seok

    2013-03-01

    We present the design status of LEBT for the RISP that consists of two 90 degree dipoles, a multi-harmonic buncher, pair solenoids, electrostatic quadrupoles and a high voltage platform. After ECR-IS with an energy of 10 keV/u, heavy-ion beams are selected by achromatic bending systems and then be bunched in the LEBT. A multi-harmonic buncher is used to achieve a small longitudinal emittance in the RFQ. We show the results on the optics design by using the TRANSPORT code and the beam tracking of two-charge beams by using the code IMPACT. We present the results and issues on beam dynamics simulaitons in the designed LEBT system. For heavy ion beams in the low energy system, we have to separate and select desire beam. we also transport beam from ECR to RFQ with high transmission.

  12. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of integrated community energy systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, Duane A.; Weaver, Clifford L.; Rielley, Kevin J.; Gallagher, Kevin C.; Harmon, Susan B.; Hejna, David T.; Kitch, Edmund W.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of North Carolina governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  13. Energize It! An Ecologically Integrated Approach to the Study of the Digestive System and Energy Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derting, Terry L.

    1992-01-01

    Develops a research-oriented method of studying the digestive system that integrates species' ecology with the form and function of this system. Uses problem-posing, problem-probing, and peer persuasion. Presents information for mammalian systems. (27 references) (MKR)

  14. Design and experimental study of an integrated vapor chamber-thermal energy storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kota, Krishna M.

    Future defense, aerospace and automotive technologies involve electronic systems that release high pulsed waste heat like during high power microwave and laser diode applications in tactical and combat aircraft, and electrical and electronic systems in hybrid electric vehicles, which will require the development of an efficient thermal management system. A key design issue is the need for fast charging so as not to overheat the key components. The goal of this work is to study the fabrication and technology implementation feasibility of a novel high energy storage, high heat flux passive heat sink. Key focus is to verify by theory and experiments, the practicability of using phase change materials as a temporary storage of waste heat for heat sink applications. The reason for storing the high heat fluxes temporarily is to be able to reject the heat at the average level when the heat source is off. Accordingly, a concept of a dual latent heat sink intended for moderate to low thermal duty cycle electronic heat sink applications is presented. This heat sink design combines the features of a vapor chamber with rapid thermal energy storage employing graphite foam inside the heat storage facility along with phase change materials and is attractive owing to its passive operation unlike some of the current thermal management techniques for cooling of electronics employing forced air circulation or external heat exchangers. In addition to the concept, end-application dependent criteria to select an optimized design for this dual latent heat sink are presented. A thermal resistance concept based design tool/model has been developed to analyze and optimize the design for experiments. The model showed that it is possible to have a dual latent heat sink design capable of handling 7 MJ of thermal load at a heat flux of 500 W/cm2 (over an area of 100 cm 2) with a volume of 0.072 m3 and weighing about 57.5 kg. It was also found that with such high heat flux absorption capability

  15. Smart energy management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Aniruddha; Singh, Jugdutt

    2010-04-01

    Peak and average energy usage in domestic and industrial environments is growing rapidly and absence of detailed energy consumption metrics is making systematic reduction of energy usage very difficult. Smart energy management system aims at providing a cost-effective solution for managing soaring energy consumption and its impact on green house gas emissions and climate change. The solution is based on seamless integration of existing wired and wireless communication technologies combined with smart context-aware software which offers a complete solution for automation of energy measurement and device control. The persuasive software presents users with easy-to-assimilate visual cues identifying problem areas and time periods and encourages a behavioural change to conserve energy. The system allows analysis of real-time/statistical consumption data with the ability to drill down into detailed analysis of power consumption, CO2 emissions and cost. The system generates intelligent projections and suggests potential methods (e.g. reducing standby, tuning heating/cooling temperature, etc.) of reducing energy consumption. The user interface is accessible using web enabled devices such as PDAs, PCs, etc. or using SMS, email, and instant messaging. Successful real-world trial of the system has demonstrated the potential to save 20 to 30% energy consumption on an average. Low cost of deployment and the ability to easily manage consumption from various web enabled devices offers gives this system a high penetration and impact capability offering a sustainable solution to act on climate change today.

  16. Methodology to determine the technical performance and value proposition for grid-scale energy storage systems : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Loose, Verne William; Donnelly, Matthew K.; Trudnowski, Daniel J.

    2012-12-01

    As the amount of renewable generation increases, the inherent variability of wind and photovoltaic systems must be addressed in order to ensure the continued safe and reliable operation of the nation's electricity grid. Grid-scale energy storage systems are uniquely suited to address the variability of renewable generation and to provide other valuable grid services. The goal of this report is to quantify the technical performance required to provide di erent grid bene ts and to specify the proper techniques for estimating the value of grid-scale energy storage systems.

  17. A design study of the energy selection system for carbon-ion therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Garam; An, Dong Hyun; Hong, Bong Hwan; Kim, Geun Beom; Yim, Heejoong; Chang, Hong Seok; Jung, In Su; Kang, Kun Uk; Nam, Sang Hoon; Park, Inkyu

    2015-02-01

    KHIMA, a research project to construct a carbon radio-therapy facility in Korea, has been developing a superconducting cyclotron named KIRAMS-430 as a carbon(12 C 6+) particle accelerator. Due to the fixed beam energy of the cyclotron, an energy selection system (ESS) is required for treatment of tumors located at various depths in the human body. In the present paper, two design stages of the ESS are discussed. First, the beam tracks behind the degrader block and the statistical twiss parameters for the entire energy range were calculated by using the GEANT4 simulation toolkit. Analysis of the beam transmission and the contamination ratios were performed. In the second stage, the beam optics was designed to support the same phase profile at the end regardless of the variations in all of input twiss parameters and the emittance.

  18. Reactive Force Field Study of Li/C Systems for Electrical Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Raju, Muralikrishna; Ganesh, P; Kent, Paul R C; van Duin, Adri C T

    2015-05-12

    Graphitic carbon is still the most ubiquitously used anode material in Li-ion batteries. In spite of its ubiquity, there are few theoretical studies that fully capture the energetics and kinetics of Li in graphite and related nanostructures at experimentally relevant length, time-scales, and Li-ion concentrations. In this paper, we describe the development and application of a ReaxFF reactive force field to describe Li interactions in perfect and defective carbon-based materials using atomistic simulations. We develop force field parameters for Li-C systems using van der Waals-corrected density functional theory (DFT). Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of Li intercalation in perfect graphite with this new force field not only give a voltage profile in good agreement with known experimental and DFT results but also capture the in-plane Li ordering and interlayer separations for stage I and II compounds. In defective graphite, the ratio of Li/C (i.e., the capacitance increases and voltage shifts) both in proportion to the concentration of vacancy defects and metallic lithium is observed to explain the lithium plating seen in recent experiments. We also demonstrate the robustness of the force field by simulating model carbon nanostructures (i.e., both 0D and 1D structures) that can be potentially used as battery electrode materials. Whereas a 0D defective onion-like carbon facilitates fast charging/discharging rates by surface Li adsorption, a 1D defect-free carbon nanorod requires a critical density of Li for intercalation to occur at the edges. Our force field approach opens the opportunity for studying energetics and kinetics of perfect and defective Li/C structures containing thousands of atoms as a function of intercalation. This is a key step toward modeling of realistic carbon materials for energy applications. PMID:26574418

  19. A reactive force field study of Li/C systems for electrical energy storage

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Raju, Muralikrishna; Ganesh, P.; Kent, Paul R. C.; van Duin, Adri C.T.

    2015-04-02

    Graphitic carbon is still the most ubiquitously used anode material in Li-ion batteries. In spite of its ubiquity, there are few theoretical studies that fully capture the energetics and kinetics of Li in graphite and related nanostructures at experimentally relevant length, time-scales, and Li-ion concentrations. In this paper, we describe the development and application of a ReaxFF reactive force field to describe Li interactions in perfect and defective carbon-based materials using atomistic simulations. We develop force field parameters for Li–C systems using van der Waals-corrected density functional theory (DFT). Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of Li intercalation in perfect graphitemore » with this new force field not only give a voltage profile in good agreement with known experimental and DFT results but also capture the in-plane Li ordering and interlayer separations for stage I and II compounds. In defective graphite, the ratio of Li/C (i.e., the capacitance increases and voltage shifts) both in proportion to the concentration of vacancy defects and metallic lithium is observed to explain the lithium plating seen in recent experiments. We also demonstrate the robustness of the force field by simulating model carbon nanostructures (i.e., both 0D and 1D structures) that can be potentially used as battery electrode materials. Whereas a 0D defective onion-like carbon facilitates fast charging/discharging rates by surface Li adsorption, a 1D defect-free carbon nanorod requires a critical density of Li for intercalation to occur at the edges. Our force field approach opens the opportunity for studying energetics and kinetics of perfect and defective Li/C structures containing thousands of atoms as a function of intercalation. As a result, this is a key step toward modeling of realistic carbon materials for energy applications.« less

  20. A reactive force field study of Li/C systems for electrical energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Raju, Muralikrishna; Ganesh, P.; Kent, Paul R. C.; van Duin, Adri C.T.

    2015-04-02

    Graphitic carbon is still the most ubiquitously used anode material in Li-ion batteries. In spite of its ubiquity, there are few theoretical studies that fully capture the energetics and kinetics of Li in graphite and related nanostructures at experimentally relevant length, time-scales, and Li-ion concentrations. In this paper, we describe the development and application of a ReaxFF reactive force field to describe Li interactions in perfect and defective carbon-based materials using atomistic simulations. We develop force field parameters for Li–C systems using van der Waals-corrected density functional theory (DFT). Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of Li intercalation in perfect graphite with this new force field not only give a voltage profile in good agreement with known experimental and DFT results but also capture the in-plane Li ordering and interlayer separations for stage I and II compounds. In defective graphite, the ratio of Li/C (i.e., the capacitance increases and voltage shifts) both in proportion to the concentration of vacancy defects and metallic lithium is observed to explain the lithium plating seen in recent experiments. We also demonstrate the robustness of the force field by simulating model carbon nanostructures (i.e., both 0D and 1D structures) that can be potentially used as battery electrode materials. Whereas a 0D defective onion-like carbon facilitates fast charging/discharging rates by surface Li adsorption, a 1D defect-free carbon nanorod requires a critical density of Li for intercalation to occur at the edges. Our force field approach opens the opportunity for studying energetics and kinetics of perfect and defective Li/C structures containing thousands of atoms as a function of intercalation. As a result, this is a key step toward modeling of realistic carbon materials for energy applications.

  1. Home energy rating system business plan feasibility study in Washington state

    SciTech Connect

    Lineham, T.

    1995-03-01

    In the Fall of 1993, the Washington State Energy Office funded the Washington Home Energy Rating System project to investigate the benefits of a Washington state HERS. WSEO established a HERS and EEM Advisory Group. Composed of mortgage lenders/brokers, realtors, builders, utility staff, remodelers, and other state agency representatives, the Advisory Group met for the first time on November 17, 1993. The Advisory Group established several subcommittees to identify issues and options. During its March 1994 meeting, the Advisory Group formed a consensus directing WSEO to develop a HERS business plan for consideration. The Advisory Group also established a business plan subcommittee to help draft the plan. Under the guidance of the business plan subcommittee, WSEO conducted research on how customers value energy efficiency in the housing market. This plan represents WSEO`s effort to comply with the Advisory Group`s request. Why is a HERS Business Plan necessary? Strictly speaking this plan is more of a feasibility plan than a business plan since it is designed to help determine the feasibility of a new business venture: a statewide home energy rating system. To make this determination decision makers or possible investors require strategic information about the proposed enterprise. Ideally, the plan should anticipate the significant questions parties may want to know. Among other things, this document should establish decision points for action.

  2. Automotive energy management system

    SciTech Connect

    Shiber, S.

    1980-09-23

    A hydromechanical/hydrostatic automotive energy management system is described that is comprised of two hydraulic units, the system adapted to provide: an efficient, continuously variable optimal transmission ratio, an intermittent optimal engine operation in city traffic and regenerative braking, thereby, the system is able to reduce a car's fuel consumption by as much as one half while improving drivability.

  3. Terrestrial solar thermionic energy conversion systems concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.; Swerdling, M.

    1975-01-01

    Results obtained from studies of a (1) solar concentrator, (2) solar energy receiver - thermionic converter system, and (3) solar thermionic topping system are described. Peripheral subsystems, which are required for any solar energy conversion system, are also discussed.

  4. Energy cascade in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeter, J. L.; Dahlgren, H.; Akbari, H.; Swoboda, J.; Hampton, D. L.; Anderson, B. J.; Dyrud, L. P.; Fentzke, J.

    2013-12-01

    Common to all geomagnetic storms and substorms is the phenomenon of energy cascade, wherein an impulsive change in magnetospheric free energy is dissipated in a hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales at the ionospheric footprint, extending down to the fundamental scales available in the system (electron gyro-radius, electron inertial length). This paper investigates energy cascade through a synthesis of multi-scale measurements of a particular substorm (onset at ~10 UT on 01 March 2011). Fortuitous space-based measurements from the AMPERE experiment document the regional intensification of field-aligned currents. Conjugate ground-optical measurements of the subsequent auroral breakup are found to represent the optical manifestation of time-energy dispersive field-aligned electron bursts (FABs) [Dahlgren et al., 2013]. The 449-MHz Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar connects these features with ion-acoustic turbulence at the expanding edge of the substorm. The connection of large scale substorm currents with decameter-scale ionospheric turbulence fills an important observational gap in our understanding of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling under disturbed conditions.

  5. Integrated agricultural energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. M.

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of this program is to show New England farmers and other New England energy users how they can use alternative energy sources to reduce their energy cost and dependency on conventional sources. The project demonstrates alternative energy technologies in solar, alcohol and methane. Dissemination is planned through tours to be conducted by the Worcester County Extension Service. Most of these goals were completed as planned. A few things have yet to be completed. The solar panels and solar hot water tanks have to be installed. The fermenter's agitating and cooling system have to be secured inside the fermenter. Once these items are complete tours will begin early in the spring.

  6. Solar Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  7. Living Systems Energy Module

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-26

    The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

  8. A Complex Systems Approach to Energy Poverty in sub-Saharan Africa: Nigeria as a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidebell Emordi, Chukwunonso

    Energy poverty is pervasive in sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria, located in sub-Saharan West Africa, is the world's seventh largest oil exporting country and is a resource-rich nation. It however experiences the same levels of energy poverty as most of its neighboring countries. Attributing this paradox only to corruption or the "Dutch Disease", where one sector booms at the expense of other sectors of the economy, is simplistic and enervates attempts at reform. In addition, data on energy consumption is aggregated at the national level via estimates, disaggregated data is virtually non-existent. Finally, the wave of decentralization of vertically integrated national utilities sweeping the developing world has caught on in sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known of the economic and social implications of these transitions within the unique socio-technical system of the region's electricity sector, especially as it applies to energy poverty. This dissertation proposes a complex systems approach to measuring and mitigating energy poverty in Nigeria due to its multi-dimensional nature. This is done via a three-fold approach: the first section of the study delves into causation by examining the governance institutions that create and perpetuate energy poverty; the next section proposes a context-specific minimum energy poverty line based on field data collected on energy consumption; and the paper concludes with an indicator-based transition management framework encompassing institutional, economic, social, and environmental themes of sustainable transition within the electricity sector. This work contributes to intellectual discourse on systems-based mitigation strategies for energy poverty that are widely applicable within the sub-Saharan region, as well as adds to the knowledge-base of decision-support tools for addressing energy poverty in its complexity.

  9. Integrating Wind and Solar Energy in the U.S. Bulk Power System: Lessons from Regional Integration Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Lew, D.

    2012-09-01

    Two recent studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have examined the impacts of integrating high penetrations of wind and solar energy on the Eastern and Western electric grids. The Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS), initiated in 2007, examined the impact on power system operations of reaching 20% to 30% wind energy penetration in the Eastern Interconnection. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) examined the operational implications of adding up to 35% wind and solar energy penetration to the Western Interconnect. Both studies examined the costs of integrating variable renewable energy generation into the grid and transmission and operational changes that might be necessary to address higher penetrations of wind or solar generation. This paper identifies key insights from these regional studies for integrating high penetrations of renewables in the U.S. electric grid. The studies share a number of key findings, although in some instances the results vary due to differences in grid operations and markets, the geographic location of the renewables, and the need for transmission.

  10. NASA presentation. [wind energy conversion systems planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a wind energy system is outlined that supplies reliable energy at a cost competitive with other energy systems. A government directed industry program with strong university support is recommended that includes meteorological studies to estimate wind energy potentials and determines favorable regions and sites for wind power installations. Key phases of the overall program are wind energy conversion systems, meteorological wind studies, energy storage systems, and environmental impact studies. Performance testing with a prototype wind energy conversion and storage system is projected for Fiscal 1977.

  11. A study of the applicability/compatibility of inertial energy storage systems to future space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weldon, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    The applicability/compatibility of inertial energy storage systems like the homopolar generator (HPG) and the compensated pulsed alternator (CPA) to future space missions is explored. Areas of CPA and HPG design requiring development for space applications are identified. The manner in which acceptance parameters of the CPA and HPG scale with operating parameters of the machines are explored and the types of electrical loads which are compatible with the CPA and HPG are examined. Potential applications including the magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster, pulsed data transmission, laser ranging, welding and electromagnetic space launch are discussed.

  12. Lessons from Iowa : development of a 270 megawatt compressed air energy storage project in midwest Independent System Operator : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Holst, Kent; Huff, Georgianne; Schulte, Robert H.; Critelli, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The Iowa Stored Energy Park was an innovative, 270 Megawatt, $400 million compressed air energy storage (CAES) project proposed for in-service near Des Moines, Iowa, in 2015. After eight years in development the project was terminated because of site geological limitations. However, much was learned in the development process regarding what it takes to do a utility-scale, bulk energy storage facility and coordinate it with regional renewable wind energy resources in an Independent System Operator (ISO) marketplace. Lessons include the costs and long-term economics of a CAES facility compared to conventional natural gas-fired generation alternatives; market, legislative, and contract issues related to enabling energy storage in an ISO market; the importance of due diligence in project management; and community relations and marketing for siting of large energy projects. Although many of the lessons relate to CAES applications in particular, most of the lessons learned are independent of site location or geology, or even the particular energy storage technology involved.

  13. Numerical study of the performance of tornado-type wind energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ayad, S.S.

    1983-03-01

    The tornado-type wind energy system was proposed to utilize the pressure drop created by an intens vortex in a tower. The tower serves as a low pressure exhaust for the turbine. The author carried out a numerical solution of the tower flow, using the two-equation (kappa-epsilon) turbulence model, for the small size system tested by Yen, with a 0.127-m- (5-in.-) diam tower standing in a uniform wind flow. A comparison of the results with the measured pressure values verified the model. In the present work the same numerical model is used for a system with a tower that is completely embedded in an atmospheric boundary layer. The results show, for a tower in a boundary layer of the one-seventh power-law profile, about a 28% reduction of the values of power coefficient from those for a tower in a uniform stream. Calculations for the performance of a system with different tower heights and the same tower and turbine diameters show a sharp decrease of power for H/D less than or equal to 0.5. Analysis of the tangential velocity shows that the vortex should be maintained up to heights /ZETA//D less than or equal to 0.9 to avoid the decrease in power extraction. Numerical predictions are made for systems with tower diameters between 0.5 and 8 m (1.64 and 26.24 ft) using the same system geometry and approach flow conditions. The results show that the scale effect is negligible for systems of 4-m tower diameter or larger.

  14. A comparison study of different semi-active hybrid energy storage system topologies for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ziyou; Hofmann, Heath; Li, Jianqiu; Han, Xuebing; Zhang, Xiaowu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, four different semi-active hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs), which use both supercapacitors (SCs) and batteries, are compared based on an electric city bus running the China Bus Driving Cycle (CBDC). The SC sizes of the different HESS topologies are optimized by using the dynamic programming (DP) approach, based on a dynamic degradation model of the LiFePO4 battery. The operation costs of different HESSs, including the electricity and the battery degradation costs over a whole CBDC, are minimized in the optimization process. Based on the DP results, near-optimal control strategies of different HESSs for on-line uses are proposed. Finally, the four HESS topologies are comprehensively compared from different aspects, including operation cost, initial cost, and DC bus voltage variation. Simulation results show that all HESS topologies have their merits and drawbacks, and can be used in different applications with different requirements. In addition, about 50% of the operation cost of the energy storage system is reduced by the semi-active HESSs when compared to the battery-only topology. Thus the effectiveness of adopting the SC in the HESS is verified.

  15. Siting-selection study for the Soyland Power Cooperative, Inc. , compressed-air energy-storage system (CAES)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    A method used for siting a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system using geotechnical and environmental criteria is explained using the siting of a proposed 220 MW water-compensated CAES plant in Illinois as an example. Information is included on the identification and comparative ranking of 28 geotechnically and environmental sites in Illinois, the examination of fatal flaws, e.g., mitigation, intensive studies, costly studies, permit denials, at 7 sites; and the selection of 3 sites for further geological surveying. (LCL)

  16. Ocean energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-04-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory is engaged in developing ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems that are to provide synthetic fuels or an energy intensive product such as ammonia or aluminum. The work also includes assessment and design concepts for hybrid plants, such as geothermal-OTEC plants. The laboratory also has a technical advisory role with respect to DOE/DOET's management of the preliminary design activity of an industry team headed by Ocean Thermal Corporation that is designing an OTEC pilot plant that could be built in shallow water off the shore of Oahu, Hawaii. In addition, the Laboratory is now taking part in a program to evaluate and test the pneumatic wave energy conversion system, an ocean energy device consisting of a turbine that is air driven as a result of wave action in a chamber.

  17. Ocean energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Progress is reported on the development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems that will provide synthetic fuels (e.g., methanol), energy-intensive products such as ammonia (for fertilizers and chemicals), and aluminum. The work also includes assessment and design concepts for hybrid plants, such as geothermal-OTEC (GEOTEC) plants. Another effort that began in the spring of 1982 is a technical advisory role to DOE with respect to their management of the conceptual and preliminary design activity of industry teams that are designing a shelf-mounted offshore OTEC pilot plant that could deliver power to Oahu, Hawaii. In addition, a program is underway to evaluate and test the Pneumatic Wave-Energy Conversion System (PWECS), an ocean-energy device consisting of a turbine that is air-driven as a result of wave action in a chamber. The work on the various tasks as of 31 March 1983 is reported.

  18. Building Student Awareness of Societal Decision-Making Challenges about Energy through the Study of Earth System Data and Innovations in Energy-Related Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalles, D. R.; Acker, J. G.; Berding, M.

    2014-12-01

    Energy literacy requires knowledge about the trade-offs inherent in energy alternatives, about how humans use energy and have choices in how much energy to use, and about what changes to the Earth system are occurring from energy uses. It also requires collaborative decision-making skills coupled with awareness about what values we bring to the table as we negotiate solutions that serve both personal needs and the common good. Coming up with a notion of the common good requires delineating how environmental crises occurring in other parts of the world compare to our own. We also need to understand criteria for judging what might be viable solutions. This presentation describes work that SRI International is carrying out to meet these awareness-building needs. SRI educational researchers created a curriculum that immerses students in studying regional climate change data about California in comparison to global climate change. Students ponder solution energy-related strategies and impact analyses. The curriculum will be described, as will a collaboration between SRI educational researchers and materials scientists. The scientists are designing and testing technologies for producing biofuels and solar power, and for sequestering carbon from coal fired power plants. As they apply principles of science and engineering to test materials intended to meet these energy challenges, they understand that even if the tests prove successful, if there is not economic feasibility or environmental advantage, the technology may not stand as a viable solution. This educator-scientist team is using the Essential Energy Principles and Next Generation Science Standards to articulate milestones along a trajectory of energy learning. The trajectory starts with simple understandings of what energy is and what constitute our energy challenges. It ends with more the types of more sophisticated understandings needed for designing and testing energy technology solutions.

  19. Solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector having an extended curved sawtooth-contoured surface covered with a metalized polymeric reflecting material, reflects solar energy to a movably supported collector that is kept at the concentrated line focus reflector primary. The primary reflector may be constructed by a process utilizing well known freeway paving machinery. The solar energy absorber is preferably a fluid transporting pipe. Efficient utilization leading to high temperatures from the reflected solar energy is obtained by cylindrical shaped secondary reflectors that direct off-angle energy to the absorber pipe. A seriatim arrangement of cylindrical secondary reflector stages and spot-forming reflector stages produces a high temperature solar energy collection system of greater efficiency.

  20. Tube bundle system studies at Signal Peak Energy Bull Mountains #1 Mine

    PubMed Central

    Zipf, R.K.; Ochsner, R.; Krog, R.; Marchewka, W.; Valente, M.; Jensen, R.

    2015-01-01

    A tube bundle system (TBS) is a mechanical system for continuously drawing gas samples through tubes from multiple monitoring points located in an underground coal mine for analysis and display on the surface. The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), in collaboration with Signal Peak Energy (SPE), LLC, Bull Mountains No. 1 Mine, operated a TBS during mining of two bleederless, longwall panels. This paper describes the gas analysis data and its interpretation. As verified by the TBS, coal at the SPE mine tends to oxidize slowly. It was known that a reservoir of low-oxygen concentration atmosphere developed about 610 m (2,000 ft) behind the longwall face. A bleederless ventilation system facilitates formation of an inert atmosphere in this longwall gob and decreases the likelihood of spontaneous combustion. Connections of the mine atmosphere to the surface through subsidence cracks could allow airflow into the longwall gob, revive coal oxidation and increase spontaneous combustion risk. The atmospheric composition of the sealed areas was homogeneous, except in the immediate vicinity of suspected ingassing points. The TBS verified that gases within the partially sealed, bleederless longwall gob expanded into the longwall tailgate area when barometric pressure decreased. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the back return airflow at the longwall tailgate was observed to increase by a factor of three and possibly up to 10 times the typical background concentration of 0.5 to 1.0%, depending on the size of the longwall gob and the magnitude of barometric pressure decrease. TBS have the inherent disadvantage of slow response time due to travel time of the gas samples and sequential gas analyses. A TBS or similar continuous monitoring system could be beneficial in detecting and providing warning of potentially hazardous gas concentrations, if the slow response time of the system is always understood. PMID:26306075

  1. Maui energy storage study.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Karlson, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    This report investigates strategies to mitigate anticipated wind energy curtailment on Maui, with a focus on grid-level energy storage technology. The study team developed an hourly production cost model of the Maui Electric Company (MECO) system, with an expected 72 MW of wind generation and 15 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation in 2015, and used this model to investigate strategies that mitigate wind energy curtailment. It was found that storage projects can reduce both wind curtailment and the annual cost of producing power, and can do so in a cost-effective manner. Most of the savings achieved in these scenarios are not from replacing constant-cost diesel-fired generation with wind generation. Instead, the savings are achieved by the more efficient operation of the conventional units of the system. Using additional storage for spinning reserve enables the system to decrease the amount of spinning reserve provided by single-cycle units. This decreases the amount of generation from these units, which are often operated at their least efficient point (at minimum load). At the same time, the amount of spinning reserve from the efficient combined-cycle units also decreases, allowing these units to operate at higher, more efficient levels.

  2. Interdisciplinary design study of a high-rise integrated roof wind energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, R. W. A.; Ferraro, R. M.; Suma, A. B.; Moonen, S. P. G.

    2012-10-01

    Today's market in micro-wind turbines is in constant development introducing more efficient solutions for the future. Besides the private use of tower supported turbines, opportunities to integrate wind turbines in the built environment arise. The Integrated Roof Wind Energy System (IRWES) presented in this work is a modular roof structure integrated on top of existing or new buildings. IRWES is build up by an axial array of skewed shaped funnels used for both wind inlet and outlet. This inventive use of shape and geometry leads to a converging air capturing inlet to create high wind mass flow and velocity toward a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) in the center-top of the roof unit for the generation of a relatively high amount of energy. The scope of this research aims to make an optimized structural design of IRWES to be placed on top of the Vertigo building in Eindhoven; analysis of the structural performance; and impact to the existing structure by means of Finite Element Modeling (FEM). Results show that the obvious impact of wind pressure to the structural design is easily supported in different configurations of fairly simple lightweight structures. In particular, the weight addition to existing buildings remains minimal.

  3. An enhanced model of land water and energy for global hydrologic and earth-system studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, Paul C.D.; Malyshev, Sergey L.; Shevliakova, Elena; Dunne, Krista A.; Findell, Kirsten L.; Gleeson, Tom; Liang, Zhi; Phillips, Peter; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Swenson, Sean

    2014-01-01

    LM3 is a new model of terrestrial water, energy, and carbon, intended for use in global hydrologic analyses and as a component of earth-system and physical-climate models. It is designed to improve upon the performance and to extend the scope of the predecessor Land Dynamics (LaD) and LM3V models by better quantifying the physical controls of climate and biogeochemistry and by relating more directly to components of the global water system that touch human concerns. LM3 includes multilayer representations of temperature, liquid water content, and ice content of both snowpack and macroporous soil–bedrock; topography-based description of saturated area and groundwater discharge; and transport of runoff to the ocean via a global river and lake network. Sensible heat transport by water mass is accounted throughout for a complete energy balance. Carbon and vegetation dynamics and biophysics are represented as in LM3V. In numerical experiments, LM3 avoids some of the limitations of the LaD model and provides qualitatively (though not always quantitatively) reasonable estimates, from a global perspective, of observed spatial and/or temporal variations of vegetation density, albedo, streamflow, water-table depth, permafrost, and lake levels. Amplitude and phase of annual cycle of total water storage are simulated well. Realism of modeled lake levels varies widely. The water table tends to be consistently too shallow in humid regions. Biophysical properties have an artificial stepwise spatial structure, and equilibrium vegetation is sensitive to initial conditions. Explicit resolution of thick (>100 m) unsaturated zones and permafrost is possible, but only at the cost of long (≫300 yr) model spinup times.

  4. A survey study of energy distribution in component stars of Algol-type binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobias, Jan Joseph

    A study survey of Algol-type binary systems was undertaken in order to investigate radiative flux distributions of their component stars. For hot primaries low-dispersion ultraviolet spectra, made with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUD) satellite, are combined at comparable phases with optical spectrophotometric scans, made at Lick Observatory, and then matched with a least-square method to Kurucz model atmospheres. Cooler secondaries are classified by matching their optical flux distributions, observed at totality, to standard stars. Results show that the U Sagittae system consists of a B7.5V-IV star while the secondary is matched by a G4III IV standard. The RW Tauri system consists of a B8V primary, while the secondary is matched by a KOIII standard. The UV spectrum of the primary in RY Geminorum matches that of an AOV standard. The secondary in RY GEM is KOIV. The system of RS Cephei consists of B9.7Ve and G8III-IV stars. The system of RW Persei consists of B9.6e and K2(+ or - 2)IV-III stars. The system of RX Geminorum consists of AOV or AOIII and K2(+ or - 2) stars. Finally, in Beta Lyrae the primary appears to be a B8.5-B9II-Ib object.

  5. Wind Energy Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    During the 1920s and 1930s, millions of wind energy systems were used on farms and other locations far from utility lines. However, with passage of the Rural Electrification Act in 1939, cheap electricity was brought to rural areas. After that, the use of wind machines dramatically declined. Recently, the rapid rise in fuel prices has led to a…

  6. Integrated roof wind energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suma, A. B.; Ferraro, R. M.; Dano, B.; Moonen, S. P. G.

    2012-10-01

    Wind is an attractive renewable source of energy. Recent innovations in research and design have reduced to a few alternatives with limited impact on residential construction. Cost effective solutions have been found at larger scale, but storage and delivery of energy to the actual location it is used, remain a critical issue. The Integrated Roof Wind Energy System is designed to overcome the current issues of urban and larger scale renewable energy system. The system is built up by an axial array of skewed shaped funnels that make use of the Venturi Effect to accelerate the wind flow. This inventive use of shape and geometry leads to a converging air capturing inlet to create high wind mass flow and velocity toward a vertical-axis wind turbine in the top of the roof for generation of a relatively high amount of energy. The methods used in this overview of studies include an array of tools from analytical modelling, PIV wind tunnel testing, and CFD simulation studies. The results define the main design parameters for an efficient system, and show the potential for the generation of high amounts of renewable energy with a novel and effective system suited for the built environment.

  7. Long- vs. short-term energy storage technologies analysis : a life-cycle cost study : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenung, Susan M.; Hassenzahl, William V.

    2003-08-01

    This report extends an earlier characterization of long-duration and short-duration energy storage technologies to include life-cycle cost analysis. Energy storage technologies were examined for three application categories--bulk energy storage, distributed generation, and power quality--with significant variations in discharge time and storage capacity. More than 20 different technologies were considered and figures of merit were investigated including capital cost, operation and maintenance, efficiency, parasitic losses, and replacement costs. Results are presented in terms of levelized annual cost, $/kW-yr. The cost of delivered energy, cents/kWh, is also presented for some cases. The major study variable was the duration of storage available for discharge.

  8. Overview of the National Energy-Water System (NEWS) Assessment Framework Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Miara, A.; Rosenzweig, B.; Corsi, F.; Piasecki, M.; Celicourt, P.; Fekete, B. M.; Macknick, J.; Melillo, J. M.; Newmark, R. L.; Tidwell, V. C.; Suh, S.; Prousevitch, A.

    2015-12-01

    In practical terms, strategic planning for the nation's economic, social and environmental future increasingly centers on issues relating to fresh water. U.S. energy security is highly dependent on electricity generated by the nation's fleet of thermoelectric power stations, which today contribute 90% to total electricity production. This presentation summarizes the overall structure and recent progress on a study devoted to climate adaptation and the reliability of power sector infrastructure and operations, when viewed through the lens of strategic water issues. The focus is on electric power infrastructure, i.e., the types, spatial distributions and levels of investment in technologies that deliver or could deliver electricity to the U.S. economy. The work is guided by a central hypothesis, that today's portfolio of electric power sector infrastructure is unsustainable in the context of satisfying its water needs under anticipated climate change and rising electricity demands. Insofar as water-mediated feedbacks reverberate throughout the national economy, we include macro-economic perspectives as well. The work is organized around the technical development of the NEWS framework which is then used to evaluate, in the context of anticipated climate, economic change and regulatory context: the performance of the nation's electricity sector, the feasibility of alternative pathways to improve climate adaptation, and impacts of energy technology. Scenarios are co-designed with a stakeholder community, and investment tradeoffs are considered with respect to the productivity of the economy, water availability and aquatic ecosystem condition.

  9. Energy Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation developed the drive train for use in the Chrysler Corporation's Patriot Mark II, which includes the Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) system. In Chrysler's experimental hybrid- electric car, the hybrid drive train uses an advanced turboalternator that generates electricity by burning a fuel; a powerful, compact electric motor; and a FES that eliminates the need for conventional batteries. The FES system incorporates technology SatCon developed in more than 30 projects with seven NASA centers, mostly for FES systems for spacecraft attitude control and momentum recovery. SatCon will continue to develop the technology with Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  10. Energy storage connection system

    DOEpatents

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  11. Case Studies of integrated hydrogen systems. International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement, Final report for Subtask A of task 11 - Integrated Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schucan, T.

    1999-12-31

    Within the framework of the International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement, Task 11 was undertaken to develop tools to assist in the design and evaluation of existing and potential hydrogen demonstration projects. Emphasis was placed on integrated systems, from input energy to hydrogen end use. Included in the PDF document are the Executive Summary of the final report and the various case studies. The activities of task 11 were focused on near- and mid-term applications, with consideration for the transition from fossil-based systems to sustainable hydrogen energy systems. The participating countries were Canada, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland and the United States. In order for hydrogen to become a competitive energy carrier, experience and operating data need to be generated and collected through demonstration projects. A framework of scientific principles, technical expertise, and analytical evaluation and assessment needed to be developed to aid in the design and optimization of hydrogen demonstration projects to promote implementation. The task participants undertook research within the framework of three highly coordinated subtasks that focused on the collection and critical evaluation of data from existing demonstration projects around the world, the development and testing of computer models of hydrogen components and integrated systems, and the evaluation and comparison of hydrogen systems. While the Executive Summary reflects work on all three subtasks, this collection of chapters refers only to the work performed under Subtask A. Ten projects were analyzed and evaluated in detail as part of Subtask A, Case Studies. The projects and the project partners were: Solar Hydrogen Demonstration Project, Solar-Wasserstoff-Bayern, Bayernwerk, BMW, Linde, Siemens (Germany); Solar Hydrogen Plant on Residential House, M. Friedli (Switzerland); A.T. Stuart Renewable Energy Test Site; Stuart Energy Systems (Canada); PHOEBUS Juelich

  12. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic–Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions. PMID:26121032

  13. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions. PMID:26121032

  14. Performance studies of energy consumption for single and multiple nozzle systems under impinging air jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etemoglu, Akin Burak; Can, Muhiddin

    2013-08-01

    Impinging air jets of various shapes, sizes and configurations are commonly used in heating, cooling and drying industrial processes. An analytical study has been carried out to optimise the thermal performance of single and multiple nozzle systems using impinging air jets. The optimisation of the nozzle array was given for practical purposes. The results show that within practical limits, a narrower nozzle size results in a greater heat and mass transfer coefficient. An economical analysis of the drying processes is also given for slot nozzles.

  15. Analyzing and modeling CRE in a changing climate and energy system - a case study from Mid-Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tøfte, Lena S.; Sauterleute, Julian F.; Kolberg, Sjur A.; Warland, Geir

    2014-05-01

    Climate related energy (CRE) is influenced by both weather, the system for energy transport and market mechanisms. In the COMPLEX-project, Mid-Norway is a case study where we analyze co-fluctuations between wind and hydropower resources; how co-fluctuations may change in the long-term; which effects this has on the power generation; and how the hydropower system can be operated optimally in this context. In the region Mid-Norway, nearly all power demand is generated by hydro-electric facilities, and the region experiences a deficit of electricity. This is both due to energy deficiency and limitations in the power grid system. In periods of low inflow and situations with high electricity demand (i.e. winter), power must be imported from neighboring regions. In future, this situation might change with the development of renewable energy sources. The region is likely to experience considerable investments in wind power and small-scale hydropower. In relation to the deployment of wind power and small-scale hydropower and security of supply, the transmission grid within and out of the region is extended. With increasing production of intermittent energy sources as wind and small-scale hydro, dependencies and co-fluctuations between rain and wind are to be analyzed due to spatial and temporal scale, in the present and a future climate. Climate change scenarios agree on higher temperatures, more precipitation in total and a larger portion of the precipitation coming as rain in this region, and the average wind speed as well as the frequency of storms along the coast is expected to increase slightly during the winter. Changing temperatures will also change the electricity needs, as electricity is the main source for heating in Norway. It's important to study if and to which extent today's hydropower system and reservoirs are able to balance new intermittent energy sources in the region, in both today's and tomorrow's climate. The case study includes down-scaling of climate

  16. Wind energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  17. Energy Systems Divisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applewhite, John

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the JSC Energy Systems Divisions work in propulsion. Specific work in LO2/CH4 propulsion, cryogenic propulsion, low thrust propulsion for Free Flyer, robotic and Extra Vehicular Activities, and work on the Morpheus terrestrial free flyer test bed is reviewed. The back-up slides contain a chart with comparisons of LO2/LCH4 with other propellants, and reviewing the advantages especially for spacecraft propulsion.

  18. A study of Tycho's SNR at TeV energies with the HEGRA CT-System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonian, F. A.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Barrio, J. A.; Bernlöhr, K.; Börst, H.; Bojahr, H.; Bolz, O.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Denninghoff, S.; Fonseca, V.; Gonzalez, J. C.; Götting, N.; Heinzelmann, G.; Hermann, G.; Heusler, A.; Hofmann, W.; Horns, D.; Ibarra, A.; Jung, I.; Kankanyan, R.; Kestel, M.; Kettler, J.; Kohnle, A.; Konopelko, A.; Kornmeyer, H.; Kranich, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Lampeitl, H.; Lorenz, E.; Lucarelli, F.; Magnussen, N.; Mang, O.; Meyer, H.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Padilla, L.; Panter, M.; Plaga, R.; Plyasheshnikov, A.; Prahl, J.; Pühlhofer, G.; Rauterberg, G.; Röhring, A.; Rhode, W.; Rowell, G. P.; Sahakian, V.; Samorski, M.; Schilling, M.; Schröder, F.; Stamm, W.; Tluczykont, M.; Völk, H. J.; Wiedner, C.; Wittek, W.

    2001-07-01

    Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR) was observed during 1997 and 1998 with the HEGRA Čerenkov Telescope System in a search for gamma-ray emission at energies above ~ 1 TeV. An analysis of these data, ~ 65 hours in total, resulted in no evidence for TeV gamma-ray emission. The 3sigma upper limit to the gamma-ray flux (>1 TeV) from Tycho is estimated at 5.78x 10-13 photons cm-2 s-1, or 33 milli-Crab. We interpret our upper limit within the framework of the following scenarios: (1) that the observed hard X-ray tail is due to synchrotron emission. A lower limit on the magnetic field within Tycho may be estimated B>=22 mu G, assuming that the RXTE-detected X-rays were due to synchrotron emission. However, using results from a detailed model of the ASCA emission, a more conservative lower limit B>=6 mu G is derived. (2) The hadronic model of Drury and (3) the more recent time-dependent kinetic theory of Berezhko & Völk. Our upper limit lies within the range of predicted values of both hadronic models, according to uncertainties in physical parameters of Tycho, and shock acceleration details. In the latter case, the model was scaled to suit the parameters of Tycho and re-normalised to account for a simplification of the original model. We find that we cannot rule out Tycho as a potential contributor at an average level to the Galactic cosmic-ray flux.

  19. Energy Systems Integration Facility Overview

    ScienceCinema

    Arvizu, Dan; Chistensen, Dana; Hannegan, Bryan; Garret, Bobi; Kroposki, Ben; Symko-Davies, Martha; Post, David; Hammond, Steve; Kutscher, Chuck; Wipke, Keith

    2014-06-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is the right tool, at the right time... a first-of-its-kind facility that addresses the challenges of large-scale integration of clean energy technologies into the energy systems that power the nation.

  20. Energy Systems Integration Facility Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Arvizu, Dan; Chistensen, Dana; Hannegan, Bryan; Garret, Bobi; Kroposki, Ben; Symko-Davies, Martha; Post, David; Hammond, Steve; Kutscher, Chuck; Wipke, Keith

    2014-02-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is the right tool, at the right time... a first-of-its-kind facility that addresses the challenges of large-scale integration of clean energy technologies into the energy systems that power the nation.

  1. System dynamics and energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The goals of the project were to evaluate the importance of process dynamics in building HVAC systems. The specific objectives were: 1. To study the dynamics of a building HVAC system using test data and computer models; 2. To determine the effect of the time between control decisions on the energy consumption of an HVAC system; 3. To determine dynamic HVAC operating strategies that will potentially reduce energy consumption. The HVAC system of the 11 story IBM building in Atlanta, Georgia, was studied using a combination of data collected at the site and models of the components. The HVAC system consists of two 550 ton centrifugal chillers, a cooling tower with two cells and a two speed fan in each cell, and variable and constant air volume air distribution systems. An energy management and control system (EMCS) that monitors the flow rates, temperatures, and pressures throughout the system, controls the operating modes, and sets the status of major components was installed in the building.

  2. The evolution of energy-transducing systems. Studies with an extremely halophilic archaebacterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1991-01-01

    The halobacterial ATPase was labeled with C-14-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and subunit 2 of the enzyme was prepared by electroelution. Subunit 2 was cleaved by several chemical and enzymatic procedures for further preparation of peptides. Immunoreactions (Western blotting) of halobacterial membranes were performed with an antiserum against subunit A of the vacuolar ATPase from Neurospora crassa. A 85 K band (subunit 1) from the membranes of H saccharovorum and from two halobacterial isolates, which were isolated from Permian salt sediments, reacted strongly with the antiserum. The ATPase from the latter isolates resembled the ATPase from H saccharovorum, but had a higher content of acidic amino acids. If it can be verified that the age of the bacterial isolates is in the same range as when deposition of salt occurred, an extremely interesting system for the study of evolutionary questions would be available, since the salt-embedded bacteria presumably did not undergo mutational and selectional events.

  3. Energy-Systems Economic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, J.; Slonski, M. L.; Borden, C. S.

    1982-01-01

    Energy Systems Economic Analysis (ESEA) program is flexible analytical tool for rank ordering of alternative energy systems. Basic ESEA approach derives an estimate of those costs incurred as result of purchasing, installing and operating an energy system. These costs, suitably aggregated into yearly costs over lifetime of system, are divided by expected yearly energy output to determine busbar energy costs. ESEA, developed in 1979, is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

  4. Applications of Optical Spectroscopy in Studies on Energy & Electron Transfer and Solvation Effects in Nanoscale and Molecular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Megan H. J.

    This thesis describes three investigations, ranging in subject matters, all of which relating to systems capable of photoinduced reactions involving energy or electron transfer. The phenomenon and the effects of environment in the various systems are explored using different methodologies of optical spectroscopy. As the chapters progress, different investigations introduce and build on fundamental concepts encountered and in complexity of the methodologies used to explore the systems. The first chapter introduces the preparation of water-soluble CdSe nanocrystal clusters. The clusters, created using a protein, are 3-D close-packed self-assemblies of nanocrystals. Due to this close-packed nature, electronic interactions between the nanocrystals allow for energy migration within the cluster. The structural and optical properties of the clusters were described. Then using steady-state spectroscopy, properties of the original nanocrystals were compared to that of the cluster to determine the consequence of nanocrystal coupling interactions and their potential use toward the development of artificial light-harvesting systems. In the second chapter, CdSe nanocrystals are functionalized with a unique electro-active polymer, and the electron transfer between the nanocrystal and the electro-active polymer adsorbate is investigated. Using fluorescence decay measurements, the electron transfer reaction inherent to the system with respect to a comprehensive range of dielectric solvents was explored. The study illustrates the high complexity of seemingly typical nanocrystal-based systems and provides general awareness of what factors need to be considered when dealing with such systems. The final chapter starts with an informal review of ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy, focusing on two methods, three-pulse photon echo peak shift (3PEPS) and two-dimensional photon echo (2DPE) electronic spectroscopy, and how they are related. A straightforward approach for extracting 3PEPS data

  5. Energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, L.M.

    1985-09-16

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weathproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction and operational with a minimal power draw.

  6. Energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Lawrence M.

    1987-01-01

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weatherproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction, and operational with a minimal power draw.

  7. Energy Production Systems. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in energy production systems is one of 15 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  8. Results of design studies and wind tunnel tests of an advanced high lift system for an Energy Efficient Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The development of an advanced technology high lift system for an energy efficient transport incorporating a high aspect ratio supercritical wing is described. This development is based on the results of trade studies to select the high lift system, analysis techniques utilized to design the high lift system, and results of a wind tunnel test program. The program included the first experimental low speed, high Reynolds number wind tunnel test for this class of aircraft. The experimental results include the effects on low speed aerodynamic characteristics of various leading and trailing edge devices, nacelles and pylons, aileron, spoilers, and Mach and Reynolds numbers. Results are discussed and compared with the experimental data and the various aerodynamic characteristics are estimated.

  9. Study on the application of NASA energy management techniques for control of a terrestrial solar water heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, T. D.; Ollendorf, S.

    1979-01-01

    This paper addresses the potential for enhanced solar system performance through sophisticated control of the collector loop flow rate. Computer simulations utilizing the TRNSYS solar energy program were performed to study the relative effect on system performance of eight specific control algorithms. Six of these control algorithms are of the proportional type: two are concave exponentials, two are simple linear functions, and two are convex exponentials. These six functions are typical of what might be expected from future, more advanced, controllers. The other two algorithms are of the on/off type and are thus typical of existing control devices. Results of extensive computer simulations utilizing actual weather data indicate that proportional control does not significantly improve system performance. However, it is shown that thermal stratification in the liquid storage tank may significantly improve performance.

  10. Energy savings from operation and maintenance training for apartment boiler heating systems. An energy study on ten low-income apartments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The Portland Energy Office provided operation and maintenance (O&M) training to the operators of boiler heating systems for ten low-income apartment complexes in the Fall of 1990. This study tracked energy usage before and after O&M training to see if savings occurred. Training was provided on both weatherized and non-weatherized apartments to find out if weatherization impacted the amount of O&M savings to be obtained. Also, energy savings from the O&M training and building shell weatherization are compared. The O&M training averaged about four hours per building. Content was adjusted at each site to match needs of the boiler and operator. The Energy Office also provided a boiler tune-up by a service technician. The training stressed low-cost and no-cost measures which operators could either do themselves or hire service help to implement. It also emphasized boiler safety. Nine of the ten apartment complexes in the study used less energy per heating degree-day after the O&M help. Average savings were 10%. Four apartments chosen randomly as controls had negative savings; they used slightly more energy during the same post-O&M time frame. Weatherized and unweatherized apartments showed similar savings after the O&M help, 10% and 11% percent respectively. Savings from weatherization of six of the apartments in the winter of 1988--1989 were also measured. A low average of only 4% was observed, reflecting negative savings in two buildings.

  11. Backup of renewable energy for an electrical island: case study of Israeli electricity system--current status.

    PubMed

    Fakhouri, A; Kuperman, A

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of Israeli Government's targets of 10% renewable energy penetration by 2020 and determining the desired methodology (models) for assessing the effects on the electricity market, addressing the fact that Israel is an electricity island. The main objective is to determine the influence of achieving the Government's goals for renewable energy penetration on the need for backup in the Israeli electricity system. This work presents the current situation of the Israeli electricity market and the study to be taken in order to assess the undesirable effects resulting from the intermittency of electricity generated by wind and solar power stations as well as presents some solutions to mitigating these phenomena. Future work will focus on a quantitative analysis of model runs and determine the amounts of backup required relative to the amount of installed capacity from renewable resources. PMID:24624044

  12. A High-Energy, Ultrashort-Pulse X-Ray System for the Dynamic Study of Heavy, Dense Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, D J

    2004-09-17

    Thomson-scattering based x-ray radiation sources, in which a laser beam is scattered off a relativistic electron beam resulting in a high-energy x-ray beam, are currently being developed by several groups around the world to enable studies of dynamic material properties which require temporal resolution on the order of tens of femtoseconds to tens of picoseconds. These sources offer pulses that are shorter than available from synchrotrons, more tunable than available from so-called Ka sources, and more penetrating and more directly probing than ultrafast lasers. Furthermore, Thomson-scattering sources can scale directly up to x-ray energies in the few MeV range, providing peak brightnesses far exceeding any other sources in this regime. This dissertation presents the development effort of one such source at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the Picosecond Laser-Electron InterAction for the Dynamic Evaluation of Structures (PLEIADES) project, designed to target energies from 30 keV to 200 keV, with a peak brightness on the order of 10{sup 18} photons {center_dot} s{sup -1} {center_dot} mm{sup -2} {center_dot} mrad{sup -2} {center_dot} 0.01% bandwidth{sup -1}. A 10 TW Ti:Sapphire based laser system provides the photons for the interaction, and a 100 MeV accelerator with a 1.6 cell S-Band photoinjector at the front end provides the electron beam. The details of both these systems are presented, as is the initial x-ray production and characterization, validating the theory of Thomson scattering. In addition to the systems used to enable PLEIADES, two alternative systems are discussed. An 8.5 GHz X-Band photoinjector, capable of sustaining higher accelerating gradients and producing lower emittance electron beams in a smaller space than the S-Band gun, is presented, and the initial operation and commissioning of this gun is presented. Also, a hybrid chirped-pulse amplification system is presented as an alternative to the standard regenerative amplifier technology

  13. Picosecond spectroscopic studies of energy transfer in phycobiliproteins and model dye systems

    SciTech Connect

    Switalski, S.C.

    1987-02-01

    Energy transfer was investigated in the ..cap alpha beta.. monomer and separated ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of C-phycocyanin from Anabaena variabilis and Anacystis nidulans, using steady-state and picosecond spectroscopy. Fluorescence excitation polarization spectra were consistent with a sensitizing (s) - fluorescing (f) model using a Forster energy transfer mechanism. The rise in polarization across the absorption band towards longer wavelength for the ..beta.. subunit and the ..cap alpha beta.. monomer was attributed to energy transfer among the three chromophores in the ..cap alpha beta.. monomer and between the 2 chromophores in the ..beta.. subunit. The constant polarization of the ..cap alpha.. subunit, with one chromophore, is consistent with a lack of any possibility of energy transfer. Fluorescence emission maxima were at 640 nm for the ..cap alpha beta.. monomer and the separated subunits of Anabaena variabilis, and 645 nm for the ..beta.. subunit, 640 nm for the ..cap alpha.. subunit, and 644 nm for ..cap alpha beta.. monomer of Anacystis nidulans. We have shown that the labels s and f are not consistent with all the steady-state spectroscopic results. 171 refs., 32 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Energy Manpower Study, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seward County Community Coll., Liberal, KS.

    A study was conducted in Kansas to determine the need for vocational education programs in solar energy technology in community colleges. After a literature search revealed a project need for trained solar energy technicians, Seward County Community College surveyed 100 Kansas heating, air conditioning, and plumbing companies to determine future…

  15. Theoretical study of the dissociation energy and the red and violet band systems of CN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1988-01-01

    The dissociation energy D0 is determined here for the CN ground-state and radiative lifetimes for the A 2Pi and B 2Sigma(+) states. D0 is found to be 7.65 + or - 0.06 eV, corresponding to Delta Hf (CN) = 105.3 + or - 1.5 kcal/mole. These results are compared with current experimental estimates and with previous theoretical calculations.

  16. Decentralized energy studies: bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, J.M.; Unseld, C.T.; Levine, A.; Silversmith, J.A.

    1980-05-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of literature on decentralized energy systems. It is arranged according to topical (e.g., lifestyle and values, institutions, and economics) and geographical scale to facilitate quick reference to specific areas of interest. Also included are articles by and about Amory B. Lovins who has played a pivotal role in making energy decentralization an important topic of national debate. Periodicals, other bibliographies, and directories are also listed.

  17. Short review on solar energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herez, Amal; Ramadan, Mohamad; Abdulhay, Bakri; Khaled, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    Solar energy can be utilized mainly in heat generation and electricity production. International energy agency (IEA) shows, in a comparative study on the world energy consumption that in 2050 solar arrays installation will provide about 45% of world energy demand. Solar energy is one of the most important renewable energy source which plays a great role in providing energy solutions. As known there is wide variety of types of collectors and applications of solar energy. This paper aimed to make a short review on solar energy systems, according to types of collectors and applications used.

  18. Energy recovery system

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Albert S.; Verhoff, Francis H.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved wet air oxidation system and method for reducing the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of waste water used from scrubbers of coal gasification plants, with this COD reduction being sufficient to effectively eliminate waste water as an environmental pollutant. The improvement of the present invention is provided by heating the air used in the oxidation process to a temperature substantially equal to the temperature in the oxidation reactor before compressing or pressurizing the air. The compression of the already hot air further heats the air which is then passed in heat exchange with gaseous products of the oxidation reaction for "superheating" the gaseous products prior to the use thereof in turbines as the driving fluid. The superheating of the gaseous products significantly minimizes condensation of gaseous products in the turbine so as to provide a substantially greater recovery of mechanical energy from the process than heretofore achieved.

  19. Utility energy storage applications studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenung, S.M.; Burns, C.

    1996-09-01

    The values of benefits and costs have been estimated for applying energy storage to three situations on the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation system. One situation is a valuable industrial customer requiring high quality, reliable power. The second situation is the need for reliable power at the end of a radial distribution feeder. The third situation is a case of thermal overload on a transmission line to a growing load in an environmentally sensitive location. The first case requires a small storage system (30 MJ); the second and third require relatively large systems (250 and 550 MWh, respectively). A variety of energy storage technologies was considered for each case. This paper presents the benefit/cost results for the technologies considered for each case. The technologies compared in this study are superconducting magnetics energy storage, batteries, flywheels, capacitors, compressed air energy storage, compressed air in vessels, and pumped hydro storage.

  20. Studies of Aqueous and Non-Aqueous Electrochemical Interface for Applications in Microelectronic and Energy Storage Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jianping

    analyzing double layer capacitances of ionic liquids (ILs) at the surfaces of two carbon-based electrodes. These systems are relevant for energy storage supercapacitors and often are associated with unconventional electrochemical properties. In chapter 8, the electrochemical interfaces of a glassy carbon (GC) and a carbon nanotube (CNT) paper electrode have been studied in EmimBF 4 and BmimBF4 ILs using CV and EIS.

  1. Advances in Energy Management Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, J.S.; Prince, B.; Sasson, A.M.; Wynne, W.T.; Trefny, F.; Cleveland, F.

    1986-08-01

    This paper is one of the series prepared for a special session to be held at PICA 85. The objective is to review the advances that have been made in Energy Management Systems and to obtain a more common agreement as to the usefulness and future of such systems. The paper contains a summary of five discussions of Energy Management Systems. These discussions focus on the major components of an Energy Management System and address important questions as to the usefulness, past developments, the current state-of-the-art, and needs in Energy Management Systems. Each author provides a different perspective of these systems. The discussions are intended to provide insight into Energy Management Systems, to solicit discussions, and to provide a forum for discussions of Energy Management System's developments and future needs.

  2. Study on an environmental-friendly and high-efficient fuel cell energy conversion system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li-Jun; Cao, Guang-Yi; Zhu, Xin-Jian; Jiang, An-Zhong; Tian, Zi-Ping

    2003-01-01

    The kinds and the distribution of the coal in China are investigated. The results indicated that the 80% coal in China is used by the method of the coal gasification. The possibility of utilization and development of the fuel cell power plant in China is analyzed. A combined cycle generation system is designed. Its net electrical efficiency is about 55% (LHV), which is higher than that of the fire power plant. So it is environmental-friendly and high-efficient generation mode. PMID:12602611

  3. Upgrade of Compressed Air Control System Reduces Energy Costs at Michelin Tire Plant. Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Project Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    This case study highlights the upgraded compressed air system at a Michelin tire manufacturing plant in Spartanburg, South Carolina. The controls upgrade project enabled multiple compressor operation without blow-off, and significantly reduced energy costs.

  4. Advanced drilling systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, K.G.; Livesay, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    This work was initiated as part of the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) Program. It is being performed through joint finding from the Department of Energy Geothermal Division and the Natural Gas Technology Branch, Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Interest in advanced drilling systems is high. The Geothermal Division of the Department of Energy has initiated a multi-year effort in the development of advanced drilling systems; the National Research Council completed a study of drilling and excavation technologies last year; and the MIT Energy Laboratory recently submitted a proposal for a national initiative in advanced drilling and excavation research. The primary reasons for this interest are financial. Worldwide expenditures on oil and gas drilling approach $75 billion per year. Also, drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing electricity from geothermal energy. There is incentive to search for methods to reduce the cost of drilling. Work on ideas to improve or replace rotary drilling technology dates back at least to the 1930`s. There was a significant amount of work in this area in the 1960`s and 1970`s; and there has been some continued effort through the 1980`s. Undoubtedly there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied; however, it is almost certain that new efforts to initiate work on advanced drilling systems will build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems provide the basis for the current study of advanced drilling.

  5. A Study of the Energy-Saving Potential of Metal Roofs Incorporating Dynamic Insulation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Miller, William A; Kriner, Scott; Manlove, Gary

    2013-01-01

    This article presents various metal roof configurations that were tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, U.S. between 2009 and 2013, and describes their potential for reducing the attic-generated space-conditioning loads. These roofs contained different combinations of phase-change material, rigid insulation, low emittance surface, and above-sheathing ventilation with standing-seam metal panels on top. These roofs were designed to be installed on existing roofs decks, or on top of asphalt shingles for retrofit construction. All the tested roofs showed the potential for substantial energy savings compared to an asphalt shingle roof, which was used as a control for comparison. The roofs were constructed on a series of adjacent attics separated at the gables using thick foam insulation. The attics were built on top of a conditioned room. All attics were vented at the soffit and ridge. The test roofs and attics were instrumented with an array of thermocouples. Heat flux transducers were installed in the roof deck and attic floor (ceiling) to measure the heat flows through the roof and between the attic and conditioned space below. Temperature and heat flux data were collected during the heating, cooling and swing seasons over a three-year period. Data from previous years of testing have been published. Here, data from the latest roof configurations being tested in year three of the project are presented. All test roofs were highly effective in reducing the heat flows through the roof and ceiling, and in reducing the diurnal attic-temperature fluctuations.

  6. Solar Energy: Solar System Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  7. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    SciTech Connect

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    options considered to date are not ideal. One approach is to insulate between the trusses at the roof plane. The construction process is time consuming and costs more than conventional attic construction. Moreover, the problems of air infiltration and thermal bridges across the insulation remain. Another approach is to use structurally insulated panels (SIPs), but conventional SIPs are unlikely to be the ultimate solution because an additional underlying support structure is required except for short spans. In addition, wood spline and metal locking joints can result in thermal bridges and gaps in the foam. This study undertook a more innovative approach to roof construction. The goal was to design and evaluate a modular energy efficient panelized roof system with the following attributes: (1) a conditioned and clear attic space for HVAC equipment and additional finished area in the attic; (2) manufactured panels that provide structure, insulation, and accommodate a variety of roofing materials; (3) panels that require support only at the ends; (4) optimal energy performance by minimizing thermal bridging and air infiltration; (5) minimal risk of moisture problems; (6) minimum 50-year life; (7) applicable to a range of house styles, climates and conditions; (8) easy erection in the field; (9) the option to incorporate factory-installed solar systems into the panel; and (10) lowest possible cost. A nationwide market study shows there is a defined market opportunity for such a panelized roof system with production and semi-custom builders in the United States. Senior personnel at top builders expressed interest in the performance attributes and indicate long-term opportunity exists if the system can deliver a clear value proposition. Specifically, builders are interested in (1) reducing construction cycle time (cost) and (2) offering increased energy efficiency to the homebuyer. Additional living space under the roof panels is another low-cost asset identified as part of

  8. A Study of Mars Dust Environment Simulation at NASA Johnson Space Center Energy Systems Test Area Resource Conversion Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yuan-Liang Albert

    1999-01-01

    The dust environment on Mars is planned to be simulated in a 20 foot thermal-vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center, Energy Systems Test Area Resource Conversion Test Facility in Houston, Texas. This vacuum chamber will be used to perform tests and study the interactions between the dust in Martian air and ISPP hardware. This project is to research, theorize, quantify, and document the Mars dust/wind environment needed for the 20 foot simulation chamber. This simulation work is to support the safety, endurance, and cost reduction of the hardware for the future missions. The Martian dust environment conditions is discussed. Two issues of Martian dust, (1) Dust Contamination related hazards, and (2) Dust Charging caused electrical hazards, are of our interest. The different methods of dust particles measurement are given. The design trade off and feasibility were studied. A glass bell jar system is used to evaluate various concepts for the Mars dust/wind environment simulation. It was observed that the external dust source injection is the best method to introduce the dust into the simulation system. The dust concentration of 30 Mg/M3 should be employed for preparing for the worst possible Martian atmosphere condition in the future. Two approaches thermal-panel shroud for the hardware conditioning are discussed. It is suggested the wind tunnel approach be used to study the dust charging characteristics then to be apply to the close-system cyclone approach. For the operation cost reduction purpose, a dehumidified ambient air could be used to replace the expensive CO2 mixture for some tests.

  9. Federal Energy Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Joseph G.; Moneyhun, Dora H.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the Technical Information Center (TIC), and lists databases accessible online to the Department of Energy and its contractors through DOE/RECON. (RAA)

  10. Energy conversion system

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F.E.

    1981-06-30

    A thermal-mechanical energy converting device is disclosed that has at least two rotatably supported wheels and with one or more endless transmission elements of a material having a memory effect capable in the bending mode of converting thermal energy into mechanical energy when heated from a temperature below its transition temperature to a temperature above its transition temperature; the transmission elements serve to drive one wheel from the other wheel upon application of thermal energy to the transmission elements, whereby the thermal energy is transferred from the other wheel to the transmission elements over at least a major portion of the circumferential contact of the transmission elements with the other wheel.

  11. Study of the cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Practical means were assessed for achieving reduced fuel consumption in commercial air transportation. Five areas were investigated: current aircraft types, revised operational procedures, modifications to current aircraft, derivatives of current aircraft and new near-term fuel conservative aircraft. As part of a multiparticipant coordinated effort, detailed performance and operating cost data in each of these areas were supplied to the contractor responsible for the overall analysis of the cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the domestic commercial air transportation system. A follow-on study was performed to assess the potential of an advanced turboprop transport aircraft concept. To provide a valid basis for comparison, an equivalent turbofan transport aircraft concept incorporating equal technology levels was also derived. The aircraft as compared on the basis of weight, size, fuel utilization, operational characteristics and costs.

  12. System for controlling a hybrid energy system

    DOEpatents

    Hoff, Brian D.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2013-01-29

    A method includes identifying a first operating sequence of a repeated operation of at least one non-traction load. The method also includes determining first and second parameters respectively indicative of a requested energy and output energy of the at least one non-traction load and comparing the determined first and second parameters at a plurality of time increments of the first operating sequence. The method also includes determining a third parameter of the hybrid energy system indicative of energy regenerated from the at least one non-traction load and monitoring the third parameter at the plurality of time increments of the first operating sequence. The method also includes determining at least one of an energy deficiency or an energy surplus associated with the non-traction load of the hybrid energy system and selectively adjusting energy stored within the storage device during at least a portion of a second operating sequence.

  13. Design and parametric study on energy harvesting from bridge vibration using tuned dual-mass damper systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeya, Kouichi; Sasaki, Eiichi; Kobayashi, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    A bridge vibration energy harvester has been proposed in this paper using a tuned dual-mass damper system, named hereafter Tuned Mass Generator (TMG). A linear electromagnetic transducer has been applied to harvest and make use of the unused reserve of energy the aforementioned damper system absorbs. The benefits of using dual-mass systems over single-mass systems for power generation have been clarified according to the theory of vibrations. TMG parameters have been determined considering multi-domain parameters, and TMG has been tuned using a newly proposed parameter design method. Theoretical analysis results have shown that for effective energy harvesting, it is essential that TMG has robustness against uncertainties in bridge vibrations and tuning errors, and the proposed parameter design method for TMG has demonstrated this feature.

  14. Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Advanced Fuel/Vehicle Systems: A North American Study of Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Criteria Pollutant Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, Norman; Wang, Michael; Weber, Trudy; Darlington, Thomas

    2005-05-01

    An accurate assessment of future fuel/propulsion system options requires a complete vehicle fuel-cycle analysis, commonly called a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis. This WTW study analyzes energy use and emissions associated with fuel production (or well-to-tank [WTT]) activities and energy use and emissions associated with vehicle operation (or tank-to-wheels [TTW]) activities.

  15. Energy - A systems problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourke, Roger D.

    1982-01-01

    Energy management in its most comprehensive sense encompasses economic, technical, environmental, and political problems. The present evaluation of prospects notes that opportunities for energy conservation are widespread, in such fields as building air conditioning, transportation, electrical appliances, and industrial processes. Further conservation is expected to be achieved through a combination of technology development and economics; the latter factor must not be unduly influenced by political measures that shield consumers from the true cost of energy.

  16. Research for electric energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. E.

    1993-10-01

    This report documents the technical progress in the two investigations which make up the project 'Support of Research Projects for Electrical Energy Systems,' Department of Energy Task Order Number 137, funded by the US Department of Energy and performed by the Electricity Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The first investigation is concerned with the measurement of magnetic fields in support of epidemiogical and in vitro studies of biological field effects. During 1992, the derivation of equations which predict differences between the average magnetic flux density using circular coil probes and the flux density at the center of the probe, assuming a dipole magnetic field, were completed. The information gained using these equations allows the determination of measurement uncertainty due to probe size when magnetic fields from many electrical appliances are characterized. Consultations with various state and federal organizations and the development of standards related to electric and magnetic field measurements continued. The second investigation is concerned with two different activities related to compressed-gas insulated high voltage systems: the measurement of dissociative electron attachment cross sections and negative ion production in S2F10, S2OF10, and S2O2F10, and Monte-Carlo simulations of ac-generated partial-discharge pulses that can occur in SF6-insulated power systems and can be sources of gas decomposition.

  17. Ocean energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanagh, J.E.; Clarke, J.H.; Price, R.

    1993-12-31

    Energy is stored by nature in the tides, waves, and thermal and salinity gradients of the world`s oceans. Although the total energy flux of each of these renewable resources is large, only a small fraction of their potential is likely to be exploited in the foreseeable future. There are two reasons for this. First, ocean energy is spread diffusely over a wide area, requiring large and expensive plants for its collection; and second, the energy is often available in areas remote from centers of consumption. Tidal energy, which entails the use of estuarine barrages at sites having high tidal ranges, offers the best prospects in the short to medium term. Not only are its components commercially available, but many of the best sites for implementation have been identified. Indeed, on the basis of current field experience, tidal power may be regarded as a technically proven, dependable and long-lived source of electric power. The exploitation of wave energy, by comparison, is still in its infancy. Small shoreline and nearshore devices are likely to be developed first, but their applicability and potential is limited. More powerful, large-wave offshore energy plants are unlikely to be deployed for a few decades, although the bulk of ocean-energy potential is located offshore. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), which is currently in the prototype stage, is costly and largely restricted to tropical locations. Its applications are likely to be limited. Salt-gradient energy, once a focus of interest, is not expected to be exploited in the foreseeable future. Overall, the pace and extent of commercial exploitation of ocean energy is likely to be affected by the rising environmental costs of fossil fuels and by the availability of construction capital at modes real interest rates. If the largest projects are to succeed, however, government support at the national level may be necessary. 42 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Terrestrial Energy Storage SPS Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Terrestrial energy storage systems for the SSP system were evaluated that could maintain the 1.2 GW power level during periods of brief outages from the solar powered satellite (SPS). Short-term outages of ten minutes and long-term outages up to four hours have been identified as "typical" cases where the ground-based energy storage system would be required to supply power to the grid. These brief interruptions in transmission could result from performing maintenance on the solar power satellite or from safety considerations necessitating the power beam be turned off. For example, one situation would be to allow for the safe passage of airplanes through the space occupied by the beam. Under these conditions, the energy storage system needs to be capable of storing 200 MW-hrs and 4.8 GW-hrs, respectively. The types of energy storage systems to be considered include compressed air energy storage, inertial energy storage, electrochemical energy storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and pumped hydro energy storage. For each of these technologies, the state-of-the-art in terms of energy and power densities were identified as well as the potential for scaling to the size systems required by the SSP system. Other issues addressed included the performance, life expectancy, cost, and necessary infrastructure and site locations for the various storage technologies.

  19. Fuel Cell Power Model Version 2: Startup Guide, System Designs, and Case Studies. Modeling Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen Generation from Fuel Cell-Based Distributed Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.; Saur, G.; Becker, W.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-06-01

    This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.

  20. Energy conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.

    1977-01-01

    Scheme based on chemical decomposition and recombination converts energy collected at relatively low temperatures (300 C) to higher temperatures required for efficient operation of steam-driven electrical generators. Approach uses one or more cyclical reversible chemical reactions in which compound is made to decompose and absorb thermal energy at low temperature by shifting equilibrium.

  1. Research for electric energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. E.

    1992-06-01

    This report documents the technical progress in the four investigations which make up the project 'Support of Research Projects for Electrical Energy Systems', Department of Energy Task Order Number 137, funded by the US Department of Energy and performed by the Electricity Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The first investigation is concerned with the measurement of magnetic fields in support of epidemiogical and in vitro studies of biological field effects. The second investigation is concerned with two different activities: the production of S2F10 in negative corona in SF6 and the measurement of electron scattering and dissociative electron attachment cross sections for SF6 and its electrical by-products. The third investigation is also concerned with tvo different activities: several liquids that are currently used or have potential for use as high voltage dielectrics are studied using conventional impulse breakdown measurement techniques and high-speed photography and advances in partial discharge measurement techniques are presented. The last investigation is concerned with the evaluation and improvement of methods for measuring fast transients in electrical power systems such as might be associated with an electromagnetic impulse.

  2. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  3. Power system commonality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1992-07-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening

  4. Stochastic Energy Deployment System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-11-30

    SEDS is an economy-wide energy model of the U.S. The model captures dynamics between supply, demand, and pricing of the major energy types consumed and produced within the U.S. These dynamics are captured by including: the effects of macroeconomics; the resources and costs of primary energy types such as oil, natural gas, coal, and biomass; the conversion of primary fuels into energy products like petroleum products, electricity, biofuels, and hydrogen; and lastly the end- usemore » consumption attributable to residential and commercial buildings, light and heavy transportation, and industry. Projections from SEDS extend to the year 2050 by one-year time steps and are generally projected at the national level. SEDS differs from other economy-wide energy models in that it explicitly accounts for uncertainty in technology, markets, and policy. SEDS has been specifically developed to avoid the computational burden, and sometimes fruitless labor, that comes from modeling significantly low-level details. Instead, SEDS focuses on the major drivers within the energy economy and evaluates the impact of uncertainty around those drivers.« less

  5. Stochastic Energy Deployment System

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-30

    SEDS is an economy-wide energy model of the U.S. The model captures dynamics between supply, demand, and pricing of the major energy types consumed and produced within the U.S. These dynamics are captured by including: the effects of macroeconomics; the resources and costs of primary energy types such as oil, natural gas, coal, and biomass; the conversion of primary fuels into energy products like petroleum products, electricity, biofuels, and hydrogen; and lastly the end- use consumption attributable to residential and commercial buildings, light and heavy transportation, and industry. Projections from SEDS extend to the year 2050 by one-year time steps and are generally projected at the national level. SEDS differs from other economy-wide energy models in that it explicitly accounts for uncertainty in technology, markets, and policy. SEDS has been specifically developed to avoid the computational burden, and sometimes fruitless labor, that comes from modeling significantly low-level details. Instead, SEDS focuses on the major drivers within the energy economy and evaluates the impact of uncertainty around those drivers.

  6. Parametric study of a variable-magnetic-field-based energy-selection system for generating a spread-out Bragg peak with a laser-accelerated proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Hyun; Suh, Tae-Suk; Kang, Young Nam; Yoo, Seung Hoon; Pae, Ki-Hong; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong

    2013-01-01

    Laser-based proton beam acceleration, which produces broad energy spectra, is unsuitable for direct clinical use. Thus, employing an energy selection system is necessary. The purpose of the present study was to investigate a method whereby a variable magnetic field could be employed with an energy selection system to generate a spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). For energy selection, particle transport and dosimetric property measurements, the Geant4 toolkit was implemented. The energy spectrum of the laser-accelerated proton beam was acquired using a particle-in-cell simulation. The hole size and the position of the energy selection collimator were varied in order to determine the effects of those parameters on the dosimetric properties. To generate an SOBP, we changed the magnetic field in the energy selection system for each beam weighting factor during beam irradiation. The overall results of this study suggest that the use of an energy selection system with a variable magnetic field can effectively generate an SOBP suitable for proton radiation therapy applications.

  7. Research for electric energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. E.

    1991-06-01

    The technical progress in four investigations which make up the project 'Support of Research Projects for Electrical Energy Systems,' funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and performed by the Electricity Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is discussed. These investigations include measurements of magnetic fields in support of epidemiological and in vitro studies of biological field effects; development of a technique to measure trace amounts of S2F10 in the presence of SF6 and the development of an improved stochastic analyzer for pulsating phenomena; optical and electrical measurements of negative streamers preceding electric breakdown in liquid dielectrics; and the development of a reference resistive divider for high voltage impulse measurements.

  8. An Evaluation Study of the Reduction Effects of the CO2 Emission Quantity and the Primary Energy in the Residential PEFC Co-generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Kazushige; Yonemori, Hideto; Yasaka, Yasuyoshi

    This paper deals with the introduction effects on the basis of the comparative study of residential PEFC (polymer electrolyte fuel cell) co-generation systems and conventional systems that consist of a conventional gas boiler or a condensing gas boiler or a CO2 heat pump and the thermal power plant, by using the computer simulation. The target systems for estimation conform to real systems in the market and the energy demand data acquired from the past field tests was applied. As a result, it becomes clear that the residential PEFC co-generation systems have high performance in the energy saving and the CO2 reduction, from a comparison study with conventional systems and CO2 heat pump system. Concretely to say, the average energy saving rate that the residential PEFC co-generation system provides is 13.9% and the average CO2 reduction rate is 16.5% using quantity of reduction of CO2 as estimate function. Otherwise, the average energy saving rate that the CO2 heat pump system provides is 13.7% and the average CO2 reduction rate is 10.0%. Furthermore, we have proved the effectiveness a radiator in the residential PEFC co-generation system.

  9. Characterization and assessment of novel bulk storage technologies : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program.

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, Georgianne; Tong, Nellie; Fioravanti, Richard; Gordon, Paul; Markel, Larry; Agrawal, Poonum; Nourai, Ali

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the results of a high-level study to assess the technological readiness and technical and economic feasibility of 17 novel bulk energy storage technologies. The novel technologies assessed were variations of either pumped storage hydropower (PSH) or compressed air energy storage (CAES). The report also identifies major technological gaps and barriers to the commercialization of each technology. Recommendations as to where future R&D efforts for the various technologies are also provided based on each technology's technological readiness and the expected time to commercialization (short, medium, or long term). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned this assessment of novel concepts in large-scale energy storage to aid in future program planning of its Energy Storage Program. The intent of the study is to determine if any new but still unproven bulk energy storage concepts merit government support to investigate their technical and economic feasibility or to speed their commercialization. The study focuses on compressed air energy storage (CAES) and pumped storage hydropower (PSH). It identifies relevant applications for bulk storage, defines the associated technical requirements, characterizes and assesses the feasibility of the proposed new concepts to address these requirements, identifies gaps and barriers, and recommends the type of government support and research and development (R&D) needed to accelerate the commercialization of these technologies.

  10. Quantum-Chemical Studies on Excitation Energy Transfer Processes in BODIPY-Based Donor-Acceptor Systems.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, J Dominik; Kleinschmidt, Martin; Larbig, Alexander; Tatchen, Jörg; Marian, Christel M

    2015-09-01

    BODIPY-based excitation energy transfer (EET) cassettes are experimentally extensively studied and serve as excellent model systems for the investigation of photophysical processes, since they occur in any photosynthetic system and in organic photovoltaics. In the present work, the EET rates in five BODIPY-based EET cassettes in which anthracene serves as the donor have been determined, employing the monomer transition density approach (MTD) and the ideal dipole approximation (IDA). To this end, a new computer program has been devised that calculates the direct and exchange contributions to the excitonic coupling (EC) matrix element from transition density matrices generated by a combined density functional and multireference configuration interaction (DFT/MRCI) calculation for the monomers. EET rates have been calculated according to Fermi's Golden Rule from the EC and the spectral overlap, which was obtained from the calculated vibrationally resolved emission and absorption spectra of donor and acceptor, respectively. We find that the direct contribution to the EC matrix element is dominant in the studied EET cassettes. Furthermore, we show that the contribution of the molecular linker to the EET rate cannot be neglected. In our best fragment model, the molecular linker is attached to the donor moiety. For cassettes in which the transition dipole moments of donor and acceptor are oriented in parallel manner, our results confirm the experimental findings reported by Kim et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 2006, 110, 20-27]. In cassettes with a perpendicular orientation of the donor and acceptor transition dipole moments, dynamic effects turn out to be important. PMID:26575926

  11. ENERGY-TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    DOEpatents

    Thonemann, P.C.; Cowhig, W.T.; Davenport, P.A.

    1963-04-01

    This patent relates to the transfer of energy in a traveling electromagnetic wave to direct-current electrical energy in a gaseous medium. The traveling wave is generated by means of a radio-frequency oscillator connected across a capacitance-loaded helix wound around a sealed tube enclosing the gaseous medium. The traveling wave causes the electrons within the medium to drift towards one end of the tube. The direct current appearing across electrodes placed at each end of the tube is then used by some electrical means. (AEC)

  12. Incomplete fusion studies in the 19F+159Tb system at low energies and its correlation with various systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuaib, Mohd.; Sharma, Vijay R.; Yadav, Abhishek; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Devendra P.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

    2016-07-01

    The excitation functions of reaction residues populated via the complete fusion and incomplete fusion process in the interaction of the 19F+159Tb system have been measured at energies ≈4 -6 MeV/nucleon, using off-line γ -ray spectroscopy. The analysis of data was done within the framework of statistical model code pace4 (a compound nucleus model). A significant fraction of incomplete fusion was observed in the production of reaction residues involving α particle(s) in the exit channels, even at energies as low as near the Coulomb barrier. The incomplete fusion strength function was deduced from the experimental excitation functions and the dependence of this strength function on various entrance channel parameters was studied. The present results show a strong dependence on the projectile α -Q value that agrees well with the existing data. To probe the dependence of incomplete fusion on entrance channel mass asymmetry, the present work was compared with the results obtained in the interaction of 12C, 16O, and 19F with nearby targets available in the literature. It was observed that the mass asymmetry linearly increases for each projectile separately and turns out to be a projectile-dependent mass-asymmetry systematics. The deduced incomplete fusion strength functions in the present work are also plotted as a function of ZPZT (Coulomb effect) and compared with the existing literature. A strong dependence of the Coulomb effect on the incomplete fusion fraction was observed. It was found that the fraction of incomplete fusion linearly increases with ZPZT and was found to be more for larger ZPZT values indicating significantly important linear systematics.

  13. Benefits from flywheel energy storage for area regulation in California - demonstration results : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program.

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, James M.

    2009-10-01

    This report documents a high-level analysis of the benefit and cost for flywheel energy storage used to provide area regulation for the electricity supply and transmission system in California. Area regulation is an 'ancillary service' needed for a reliable and stable regional electricity grid. The analysis was based on results from a demonstration, in California, of flywheel energy storage developed by Beacon Power Corporation (the system's manufacturer). Demonstrated was flywheel storage systems ability to provide 'rapid-response' regulation. Flywheel storage output can be varied much more rapidly than the output from conventional regulation sources, making flywheels more attractive than conventional regulation resources. The performance of the flywheel storage system demonstrated was generally consistent with requirements for a possible new class of regulation resources - 'rapid-response' energy-storage-based regulation - in California. In short, it was demonstrated that Beacon Power Corporation's flywheel system follows a rapidly changing control signal (the ACE, which changes every four seconds). Based on the results and on expected plant cost and performance, the Beacon Power flywheel storage system has a good chance of being a financially viable regulation resource. Results indicate a benefit/cost ratio of 1.5 to 1.8 using what may be somewhat conservative assumptions. A benefit/cost ratio of one indicates that, based on the financial assumptions used, the investment's financial returns just meet the investors target.

  14. Electrodynamic tether system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this program is to define an Electrodynamic Tether System (ETS) that could be erected from the space station and/or platforms to function as an energy storage device. A schematic representation of the ETS concept mounted on the space station is presented. In addition to the hardware design and configuration efforts, studies are also documented involving simulations of the Earth's magnetic fields and the effects this has on overall system efficiency calculations. Also discussed are some preliminary computer simulations of orbit perturbations caused by the cyclic/night operations of the ETS. System cost estimates, an outline for future development testing for the ETS system, and conclusions and recommendations are also provided.

  15. Pyrolysis system evaluation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of two different pyrolysis concepts which recover energy from solid waste was conducted in order to determine the merits of each concept for integration into a Integrated Utility System (IUS). The two concepts evaluated were a Lead Bath Furnace Pyrolysis System and a Slagging Vertical Shaft, Partial Air Oxidation Pyrolysis System. Both concepts will produce a fuel gas from the IUS waste and sewage sludge which can be used to offset primary fuel consumption in addition to the sanitary disposal of the waste. The study evaluated the thermal integration of each concept as well as the economic impact on the IUS resulting from integrating each pyrolysis concepts. For reference, the pyrolysis concepts were also compared to incineration which was considered the baseline IUS solid waste disposal system.

  16. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 2: Advanced energy conversion systems. Part 1: Open-cycle gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. H.; Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Ten energy conversion systems are defined and analyzed in terms of efficiency. These include: open-cycle gas turbine recuperative; open-cycle gas turbine; closed-cycle gas turbine; supercritical CO2 cycle; advanced steam cycle; liquid metal topping cycle; open-cycle MHD; closed-cycle inert gas MHD; closed-cycle liquid metal MHD; and fuel cells. Results are presented.

  17. Solar Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A waste water treatment plant in Wilton, Maine, where sludge is converted to methane gas, and Monsanto Company's Environmental Health Laboratory in St. Louis Missouri, where more than 200 solar collectors provide preheating of boiler feed water for laboratory use are representative of Grumman's Sunstream line of solar energy equipment. This equipment was developed with technology from NASA's Apollo lunar module program.

  18. Energy Signal Tool for Decision Support in Building Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Henze, G. P.; Pavlak, G. S.; Florita, A. R.; Dodier, R. H.; Hirsch, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    A prototype energy signal tool is demonstrated for operational whole-building and system-level energy use evaluation. The purpose of the tool is to give a summary of building energy use which allows a building operator to quickly distinguish normal and abnormal energy use. Toward that end, energy use status is displayed as a traffic light, which is a visual metaphor for energy use that is either substantially different from expected (red and yellow lights) or approximately the same as expected (green light). Which light to display for a given energy end use is determined by comparing expected to actual energy use. As expected, energy use is necessarily uncertain; we cannot choose the appropriate light with certainty. Instead, the energy signal tool chooses the light by minimizing the expected cost of displaying the wrong light. The expected energy use is represented by a probability distribution. Energy use is modeled by a low-order lumped parameter model. Uncertainty in energy use is quantified by a Monte Carlo exploration of the influence of model parameters on energy use. Distributions over model parameters are updated over time via Bayes' theorem. The simulation study was devised to assess whole-building energy signal accuracy in the presence of uncertainty and faults at the submetered level, which may lead to tradeoffs at the whole-building level that are not detectable without submetering.

  19. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    ECAS compared various advanced energy conversion systems that can use coal or coal-derived fuels for baseload electric power generation. It was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 consisted of parametric studies. From these results, 11 concepts were selected for further study in Phase 2. For each of the Phase 2 systems and a common set of ground rules, performance, cost, environmental intrusion, and natural resource requirements were estimated. In addition, the contractors defined the state of the associated technology, identified the advances required, prepared preliminary research and development plans, and assessed other factors that would affect the implementation of each type of powerplant. The systems studied in Phase 2 include steam systems with atmospheric- and pressurized-fluidized-bed boilers; combined cycle gas turbine/steam systems with integrated gasifiers or fired by a semiclean, coal derived fuel; a potassium/steam system with a pressurized-fluidized-bed boiler; a closed-cycle gas turbine/organic system with a high-temperature, atmospheric-fluidized-bed furnace; a direct-coal-fired, open- cycle magnetohydrodynamic/steam system; and a molten-carbonate fuel cell/steam system with an integrated gasifier. The sensitivity of the results to changes in the ground rules and the impact of uncertainties in capital cost estimates were also examined.

  20. National Energy Modeling System (NEMS)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of U.S. through 2030. NEMS projects the production, imports, conversion, consumption, and prices of energy, subject to assumptions on macroeconomic and financial factors, world energy markets, resource availability and costs, behavioral and technological choice criteria, cost and performance characteristics of energy technologies, and demographics. NEMS was designed and implemented by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). NEMS can be used to analyze the effects of existing and proposed government laws and regulations related to energy production and use; the potential impact of new and advanced energy production, conversion, and consumption technologies; the impact and cost of greenhouse gas control; the impact of increased use of renewable energy sources; and the potential savings from increased efficiency of energy use; and the impact of regulations on the use of alternative or reformulated fuels. NEMS has also been used for a number of special analyses at the request of the Administration, U.S. Congress, other offices of DOE and other government agencies, who specify the scenarios and assumptions for the analysis. Modules allow analyses to be conducted in energy topic areas such as residential demand, industrial demand, electricity market, oil and gas supply, renewable fuels, etc.

  1. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 4: System planning studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-04-01

    Preliminary design and planning studies of water compensated compressed air energy storage (CAES) and underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) power plants are presented. The costs of the CAES and UPH plant designs, and the results of economic evaluations performed for the PEPCO system are presented. The PEPCO system planning analysis was performed in parallel stages with plant design development. Analyses performed early in the project indicated a requirement for 1000 MW/10,000 MWH of energy storage on a daily operating schedule, with economic installation in two segments of 500 MW in 1990 and 1997. The analysis was updated eighteen months later near the end of the project to reflect the impact of new growth projections and revised plant costs. The revised results indicated economic installations for either UPH or CAES of approximately 675 MW/6750 MWH on a daily cycle, installed in blocks of approximately 225 MW in 1990, 1993 and 1995. Significant savings in revenue requirements and oil fuel over the combustion turbine alternative were identified for both CAES and UPH.

  2. Decentralized Energy Studies: compendium of U. S. studies and projects

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, J.; Ohi, J.M.

    1980-06-01

    This compendium was prepared as a part of the Decentralized Energy Studies task at the Solar Energy Research Institute. The compendium lists and briefly describes a number of studies, programs, and projects that involve decentralized energy systems. The purpose is to provide information about research activities in decentralized energy systems to researchers, government officials, and interested citizens. A contact person or address is given for each of the activities listed so that interested readers can obtain more information.

  3. Solar energy grid integration systems - Energy storage (SEGIS-ES)

    SciTech Connect

    Ton, Dan; Peek, Georgianne H.; Hanley, Charles; Boyes, John

    2008-05-01

    In late 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a series of studies to address issues related to potential high penetration of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation systems on our nation’s electric grid. This Renewable Systems Interconnection (RSI) initiative resulted in the publication of 14 reports and an Executive Summary that defined needs in areas related to utility planning tools and business models, new grid architectures and PV systems configurations, and models to assess market penetration and the effects of high-penetration PV systems. As a result of this effort, the Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) program was initiated in early 2008. SEGIS is an industry-led effort to develop new PV inverters, controllers, and energy management systems that will greatly enhance the utility of distributed PV systems.

  4. A Study of Economic Evaluation of Demand-side Energy Storage System in Consideration of Market Clearing Price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Ken; Sugihara, Hideharu; Tsuji, Kiichiro; Mitani, Yasunori

    In Japan electricity market will open on 1st April 2004. Electric utility, Power Producer and Supplier (:PPS) and Load Service Entity (:LSE) will join to the electricity market. LSEs purchase electricity based on Market Clearing Price (:MCP) from electricity market. LSEs supply electricity to the customers contracted with the LSEs on a certain electricity price, and one to the customers introduced Energy Storage System (:ES) on a time of use pricing. It is difficult for LSEs to estimate whether they have incentive to promote customers to introduce ES or not. In this paper, it is evaluated the reduction of LSEs' purchasing cost from electricity market and other LSEs' purchasing cost by introducing customers ES. It is clarified that which kind of customers has the effect of decreasing LSEs' purchasing cost and how much MCP of whole power system the demand-side energy storage systems change. Through numerical examples, this paper evaluates the possibility to give the cost merit to both customers with energy storage systems and LSE by using a real data of yearly MCP.

  5. Energy storage for the electricity grid : benefits and market potential assessment guide : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, James M.; Corey, Garth P.

    2010-02-01

    This guide describes a high-level, technology-neutral framework for assessing potential benefits from and economic market potential for energy storage used for electric-utility-related applications. The overarching theme addressed is the concept of combining applications/benefits into attractive value propositions that include use of energy storage, possibly including distributed and/or modular systems. Other topics addressed include: high-level estimates of application-specific lifecycle benefit (10 years) in $/kW and maximum market potential (10 years) in MW. Combined, these criteria indicate the economic potential (in $Millions) for a given energy storage application/benefit. The benefits and value propositions characterized provide an important indication of storage system cost targets for system and subsystem developers, vendors, and prospective users. Maximum market potential estimates provide developers, vendors, and energy policymakers with an indication of the upper bound of the potential demand for storage. The combination of the value of an individual benefit (in $/kW) and the corresponding maximum market potential estimate (in MW) indicates the possible impact that storage could have on the U.S. economy. The intended audience for this document includes persons or organizations needing a framework for making first-cut or high-level estimates of benefits for a specific storage project and/or those seeking a high-level estimate of viable price points and/or maximum market potential for their products. Thus, the intended audience includes: electric utility planners, electricity end users, non-utility electric energy and electric services providers, electric utility regulators and policymakers, intermittent renewables advocates and developers, Smart Grid advocates and developers, storage technology and project developers, and energy storage advocates.

  6. Energy and the food system

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Jeremy; Williams, Adrian; Hughes, John K.; Black, Mairi; Murphy, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Modern agriculture is heavily dependent on fossil resources. Both direct energy use for crop management and indirect energy use for fertilizers, pesticides and machinery production have contributed to the major increases in food production seen since the 1960s. However, the relationship between energy inputs and yields is not linear. Low-energy inputs can lead to lower yields and perversely to higher energy demands per tonne of harvested product. At the other extreme, increasing energy inputs can lead to ever-smaller yield gains. Although fossil fuels remain the dominant source of energy for agriculture, the mix of fuels used differs owing to the different fertilization and cultivation requirements of individual crops. Nitrogen fertilizer production uses large amounts of natural gas and some coal, and can account for more than 50 per cent of total energy use in commercial agriculture. Oil accounts for between 30 and 75 per cent of energy inputs of UK agriculture, depending on the cropping system. While agriculture remains dependent on fossil sources of energy, food prices will couple to fossil energy prices and food production will remain a significant contributor to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Technological developments, changes in crop management, and renewable energy will all play important roles in increasing the energy efficiency of agriculture and reducing its reliance of fossil resources. PMID:20713398

  7. Energy and the food system.

    PubMed

    Woods, Jeremy; Williams, Adrian; Hughes, John K; Black, Mairi; Murphy, Richard

    2010-09-27

    Modern agriculture is heavily dependent on fossil resources. Both direct energy use for crop management and indirect energy use for fertilizers, pesticides and machinery production have contributed to the major increases in food production seen since the 1960s. However, the relationship between energy inputs and yields is not linear. Low-energy inputs can lead to lower yields and perversely to higher energy demands per tonne of harvested product. At the other extreme, increasing energy inputs can lead to ever-smaller yield gains. Although fossil fuels remain the dominant source of energy for agriculture, the mix of fuels used differs owing to the different fertilization and cultivation requirements of individual crops. Nitrogen fertilizer production uses large amounts of natural gas and some coal, and can account for more than 50 per cent of total energy use in commercial agriculture. Oil accounts for between 30 and 75 per cent of energy inputs of UK agriculture, depending on the cropping system. While agriculture remains dependent on fossil sources of energy, food prices will couple to fossil energy prices and food production will remain a significant contributor to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Technological developments, changes in crop management, and renewable energy will all play important roles in increasing the energy efficiency of agriculture and reducing its reliance of fossil resources. PMID:20713398

  8. Transfer and partitioning of energy and mass through seafloor hydrothermal systems: comparative studies at the Ridge2000 Integrated Study Sites (ISS) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tivey, M. K.

    2010-12-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal systems are major players in the transfer of mass and energy from the mantle and crust to the ocean and biosphere. Over the past thirty years, much has been learned about this transfer to the ocean, but considerably less is known about the transfer to the biosphere. Study of hydrothermal systems in a diverse range of geologic settings has shown relationships between spreading rate and hydrothermal heat flux, substrate composition (including rock geochemistry, presence/absence of sediment) and hydrothermal fluid composition, and magmatic/tectonic events and temporal variability of fluid composition (e.g., German and Von Damm, Treatise On Geochemistry, 2004; Baker et al. AGU Monograph Series 91, 1995). Studies in arc and back-arc settings are documenting the effects of magmatic acid volatiles on fluid-rock reaction and fluid and vent deposit compositions (e.g., Ishibashi and Urabe, Backarc Basins: Tectonics and Magmatism, 1995). These comparative studies in a wide range of geologic settings, including at the three Ridge2000 ISS, have provided a fairly good understanding of the flux of heat and many elements to the ocean associated with high temperature seafloor hydrothermal systems. Considerably less is known, however, about the partitioning of heat and mass (particularly metals and sulfur) in hydrothermal systems. The deposits that form at vent sites are intimately linked within paths of energy and mass transport from the mantle and crust to the oceans. Transport differs greatly through different types of deposits (e.g., black smokers, white smokers/diffusers, flanges). Estimates of heat flux from measured temperatures of flow (unless integrated over and around an entire vent field) require an understanding of the partitioning of flow between focused black smokers and more diffuse flow from diffusers, flanges, and surfaces of deposits, and from the igneous substrate. Estimates of mass flux into the ocean require an understanding of the

  9. Low energy stage study. Volume 1: Executive summary. [propulsion system configurations for orbital launching of space shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Cost effective approaches for placing automated payloads into circular and elliptical orbits using energy requirements significantly lower than that provided by the smallest, currently planned shuttle upper stage, SSUS-D, were investigated. Launch costs were derived using both NASA existing/planned launch approaches as well as new propulsion concepts meeting low-energy regime requirements. Candidate new propulsion approaches considered were solid (tandem, cluster, and controlled), solid/liquid combinations and all-liquid stages. Results show that the most economical way to deliver the 129 low energy payloads is basically with a new modular, short liquid bipropellant stage system for the large majority of the payloads. For the remainder of the payloads, use the shuttle with integral OMS and the Scout form for a few specialized payloads until the Shuttle becomes operational.

  10. Steam System Energy Conservation Measures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple system inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: fixing steam leaks. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  11. Photoactivation Studies of Zinc Porphyrin-Myoglobin System and Its Application for Light-Chemical Energy Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chin-Hao; Hu, Yi-Ting; Lo, Chen-Fu; Luo, Liyang; Lin, Hung-Ming; Chang, Cheng-Hsiang; Lin, Ching-Yao; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang; Wu, Tung-Kung

    2011-01-01

    An artificial zinc porphyrin-myoglobin-based photo-chemical energy conversion system, consisting of ZnPP-Mb or ZnPE1-Mb as a photosensitizer, NADP+ as an electron acceptor, and triethanolamine as an electron donor, has been constructed to mimic photosystem I. The photoirradiated product is able to reduce a single-electron acceptor protein cytochrome c, but cannot catalyze the two-electron reduction of acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase, thus demonstrating a single electron transfer mechanism. Furthermore, the artificial system can bifunctionally promote oxidoredox reactions, depending on the presence or absence of a sacrificial electron donor, thus suggesting its potential application in electrochemical regeneration steps involved in chemical transformation and/or energy conversion. PMID:22043177

  12. Advanced drilling systems study.

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Kenneth G.; Livesay, Billy Joe; Finger, John Travis

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the results of a study of advanced drilling concepts conducted jointly for the Natural Gas Technology Branch and the Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. A number of alternative rock cutting concepts and drilling systems are examined. The systems cover the range from current technology, through ongoing efforts in drilling research, to highly speculative concepts. Cutting mechanisms that induce stress mechanically, hydraulically, and thermally are included. All functions necessary to drill and case a well are considered. Capital and operating costs are estimated and performance requirements, based on comparisons of the costs for alternative systems to conventional drilling technology, are developed. A number of problems common to several alternatives and to current technology are identified and discussed.

  13. Tether Transportation System Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangham, M. E.; Lorenzini, E.; Vestal, L.

    1998-01-01

    The projected traffic to geostationary earth orbit (GEO) is expected to increase over the next few decades. At the same time, the cost of delivering payloads from the Earth's surface to low earth orbit (LEO) is projected to decrease, thanks in part to the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). A comparable reduction in the cost of delivering payloads from LEO to GEO is sought. The use of in-space tethers, eliminating the requirement for traditional chemical upper stages and thereby reducing the launch mass, has been identified as such an alternative. Spinning tethers are excellent kinetic energy storage devices for providing the large delta vee's required for LEO to GEO transfer. A single-stage system for transferring payloads from LEO to GEO was proposed some years ago. The study results presented here contain the first detailed analyses of this proposal, its extension to a two-stage system, and the likely implementation of the operational system.

  14. Modular Energy Storage System for Alternative Energy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Janice; Ervin, Frank

    2012-05-15

    of design alternatives and the impact of changes. Refinement of models was accomplished through correlation studies to measured data obtained from functioning hardware. Specifically, correlation and characterization of the boost converter resulted in a model that was effectively used to determine overall VEMS performance. The successful development of the boost converter can be attributed to utilization of previously proven technologies and adapting to meet the VEMS requirements. This program provided significant improvement in development time of various generations of boost converters. The software strategies and testing results support the development of current energy management systems and directly contribute to the future of similar, commercial products at Magna E-Car Systems. Because of this development project, Magna E-Car Systems is able to offer automotive customers a boost converter system with reduced time to market and decreased product cost, thus transferring the cost and timing benefits to the end use consumer.

  15. Study on the present use of energy in cooking with an emphasis on economising fuel/utensil system

    SciTech Connect

    Malathi, D.; Swaminathan, K.R.

    1986-03-01

    The article is based on a study where experiments were conducted to find out quantity of different commercial fuels for cooking with respect to utensils (made of different materials) and time for the cooking operations, and investigates energy requirements of various utensils for cooking under varying cooking media.

  16. Portable treatment systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas.

  17. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 1: Introduction and summary and general assumptions. [energy conversion systems for electric power plants using coal - feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beecher, D. T.

    1976-01-01

    Nine advanced energy conversion concepts using coal or coal-derived fuels are summarized. They are; (1) open-cycle gas turbines, (2) combined gas-steam turbine cycles, (3) closed-cycle gas turbines, (4) metal vapor Rankine topping, (5) open-cycle MHD; (6) closed-cycle MHD; (7) liquid-metal MHD; (8) advanced steam; and (9) fuel cell systems. The economics, natural resource requirements, and performance criteria for the nine concepts are discussed.

  18. Innovative applications of energy storage in a restructured electricity marketplace : Phase III final report : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, James M.; Erdman, Bill; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes Phase III of a project entitled Innovative Applications of Energy Storage in a Restructured Electricity Marketplace. For this study, the authors assumed that it is feasible to operate an energy storage plant simultaneously for two primary applications: (1) energy arbitrage, i.e., buy-low-sell-high, and (2) to reduce peak loads in utility ''hot spots'' such that the utility can defer their need to upgrade transmission and distribution (T&D) equipment. The benefits from the arbitrage plus T&D deferral applications were estimated for five cases based on the specific requirements of two large utilities operating in the Eastern U.S. A number of parameters were estimated for the storage plant ratings required to serve the combined application: power output (capacity) and energy discharge duration (energy storage). In addition to estimating the various financial expenditures and the value of electricity that could be realized in the marketplace, technical characteristics required for grid-connected distributed energy storage used for capacity deferral were also explored.

  19. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 4. Saudi Engineering Solar Energy Applications System Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

  20. Electromagnetic-gravitational energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, K. H.

    1981-01-01

    Two methods are considered to 'tap' the earth's rotational energy. This ancient 'collapsed gravitational energy' exceeds the earth-lunar binding energy. One involves an orbiting 'electromagnetic-gravitational' coupling system whereby the earth's rotation, with its nonuniform mass distribution, first uses gravity to add orbital energy to a satellite, similar to a planetary 'flyby'. The second stage involves enhanced satellite 'drag' as current-carrying coils withdraw the added orbital energy as they pass through the earth's nonuniform magnetic field. A second more direct method couples the earth's rotational motion using conducting wires moving through the noncorotating part (ionospheric current systems) of the geomagnetic field. These methods, although not immediately feasible, are considerably more efficient than using pure gravitational coupling to earth-moon tides.

  1. Introduction to the application of dynamical systems theory in the study of the dynamics of cosmological models of dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Salcedo, Ricardo; Gonzalez, Tame; Horta-Rangel, Francisco A.; Quiros, Israel; Sanchez-Guzmán, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    The theory of dynamical systems is a very complex subject that has produced several surprises in the recent past in connection with the theory of chaos and fractals. The application of the tools of dynamical systems in cosmological settings is less known, in spite of the number of published scientific papers on this subject. In this paper, a mostly pedagogical introduction to the cosmological application of the basic tools of dynamical systems theory is presented. It is shown that, in spite of their amazing simplicity, these tools allow us to extract essential information on the asymptotic dynamics of a wide variety of cosmological models. The power of these tools is illustrated within the context of the so-called Λ-cold dark matter (ΛCDM) and scalar field models of dark energy. This paper is suitable for teachers, undergraduate students, and postgraduate students in the disciplines of physics and mathematics.

  2. Battery energy storage market feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, S.; Akhil, A.

    1997-07-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed energy storage as an important enabling technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  3. Energy optimization system

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Zhi; de Bedout, Juan Manuel; Kern, John Michael; Biyik, Emrah; Chandra, Ramu Sharat

    2013-01-22

    A system for optimizing customer utility usage in a utility network of customer sites, each having one or more utility devices, where customer site is communicated between each of the customer sites and an optimization server having software for optimizing customer utility usage over one or more networks, including private and public networks. A customer site model for each of the customer sites is generated based upon the customer site information, and the customer utility usage is optimized based upon the customer site information and the customer site model. The optimization server can be hosted by an external source or within the customer site. In addition, the optimization processing can be partitioned between the customer site and an external source.

  4. Ocean thermal energy conversion gas-desorption studies. Volume 2. Deaeration in a packed column and a barometric intake system

    SciTech Connect

    Golshani, A.; Chen, F.C.

    1981-09-01

    After a review of previous relevant studies, the design of a gas desorption test loop and a barometric intake system are described. The results of vacuum deaeration in a packed column and a barometric intake system are presented, and the savings that can be achieved when the packed column and barometric intake system are combined are discussed. Vacuum deaeration laboratory experiments using three different kinds of packings in a packed column test section and a series of barometric intake deaeration experiments are reported. A conceptual OTEC deaeration subsystem design, based on these results, and its implications on an OTEC-open cycle power system are presented. (LEW)

  5. A rotational and axial motion system load frame insert for in situ high energy x-ray studies.

    PubMed

    Shade, Paul A; Blank, Basil; Schuren, Jay C; Turner, Todd J; Kenesei, Peter; Goetze, Kurt; Suter, Robert M; Bernier, Joel V; Li, Shiu Fai; Lind, Jonathan; Lienert, Ulrich; Almer, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    High energy x-ray characterization methods hold great potential for gaining insight into the behavior of materials and providing comparison datasets for the validation and development of mesoscale modeling tools. A suite of techniques have been developed by the x-ray community for characterizing the 3D structure and micromechanical state of polycrystalline materials; however, combining these techniques with in situ mechanical testing under well characterized and controlled boundary conditions has been challenging due to experimental design requirements, which demand new high-precision hardware as well as access to high-energy x-ray beamlines. We describe the design and performance of a load frame insert with a rotational and axial motion system that has been developed to meet these requirements. An example dataset from a deforming titanium alloy demonstrates the new capability. PMID:26429452

  6. A rotational and axial motion system load frame insert for in situ high energy x-ray studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shade, Paul A. Schuren, Jay C.; Turner, Todd J.; Blank, Basil; Kenesei, Peter; Goetze, Kurt; Lienert, Ulrich; Almer, Jonathan; Suter, Robert M.; Bernier, Joel V.; Li, Shiu Fai; Lind, Jonathan

    2015-09-15

    High energy x-ray characterization methods hold great potential for gaining insight into the behavior of materials and providing comparison datasets for the validation and development of mesoscale modeling tools. A suite of techniques have been developed by the x-ray community for characterizing the 3D structure and micromechanical state of polycrystalline materials; however, combining these techniques with in situ mechanical testing under well characterized and controlled boundary conditions has been challenging due to experimental design requirements, which demand new high-precision hardware as well as access to high-energy x-ray beamlines. We describe the design and performance of a load frame insert with a rotational and axial motion system that has been developed to meet these requirements. An example dataset from a deforming titanium alloy demonstrates the new capability.

  7. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 11: Advanced steam systems. [energy conversion efficiency for electric power plants using steam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A parametric analysis was made of three types of advanced steam power plants that use coal in order to have a comparison of the cost of electricity produced by them a wide range of primary performance variables. Increasing the temperature and pressure of the steam above current industry levels resulted in increased energy costs because the cost of capital increased more than the fuel cost decreased. While the three plant types produced comparable energy cost levels, the pressurized fluidized bed boiler plant produced the lowest energy cost by the small margin of 0.69 mills/MJ (2.5 mills/kWh). It is recommended that this plant be designed in greater detail to determine its cost and performance more accurately than was possible in a broad parametric study and to ascertain problem areas which will require development effort. Also considered are pollution control measures such as scrubbers and separates for particulate emissions from stack gases.

  8. Thermal hydraulic studies of spallation target for one-way coupled Indian accelerator driven systems with low energy proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantha, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Satyamurthy, P.

    2007-02-01

    BARC has recently proposed a one-way coupled ADS reactor. This reactor requires typically 1 GeV proton beam with 2 mA of current. Approximately 8 kW of heat is deposited in the window of the target. Circulating liquid metal target (lead/lead-bismuth{eutectic) has to extract this heat and this is a critical R&D problem to be solved. At present there are very few accelerators, which can give few mA and high-energy proton beam. However, accelerators with low energy and hundreds of micro-ampere current are commercially available. In view of this, it is proposed in this paper to simulate beam window heating of 8 kW in the target with low-energy proton beam. Detailed thermal analysis in the spallation and window region has been carried out to study the capability of heat extraction by circulating LBE for a typical target loop with a proton beam of 30 MeV energy and current of 0.267 mA. The heat deposition study is carried out using FLUKA code and flow analysis by CFD code. The detailed analysis of this work is presented in this paper.

  9. Preliminary formation analysis for compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, William Payton

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an engineering and operational understanding of CAES performance for a depleted natural gas reservoir by evaluation of relative permeability effects of air, water and natural gas in depleted natural gas reservoirs as a reservoir is initially depleted, an air bubble is created, and as air is initially cycled. The composition of produced gases will be evaluated as the three phase flow of methane, nitrogen and brine are modeled. The effects of a methane gas phase on the relative permeability of air in a formation are investigated and the composition of the produced fluid, which consists primarily of the amount of natural gas in the produced air are determined. Simulations of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in depleted natural gas reservoirs were carried out to assess the effect of formation permeability on the design of a simple CAES system. The injection of N2 (as a proxy to air), and the extraction of the resulting gas mixture in a depleted natural gas reservoir were modeled using the TOUGH2 reservoir simulator with the EOS7c equation of state. The optimal borehole spacing was determined as a function of the formation scale intrinsic permeability. Natural gas reservoir results are similar to those for an aquifer. Borehole spacing is dependent upon the intrinsic permeability of the formation. Higher permeability allows increased injection and extraction rates which is equivalent to more power per borehole for a given screen length. The number of boreholes per 100 MW for a given intrinsic permeability in a depleted natural gas reservoir is essentially identical to that determined for a simple aquifer of identical properties. During bubble formation methane is displaced and a sharp N2methane boundary is formed with an almost pure N2 gas phase in the bubble near the borehole. During cycling mixing of methane and air occurs along the boundary as the air bubble boundary moves. The extracted gas mixture changes as a

  10. Environmental and Economic Performance of Commercial-scale Solar Photovoltaic Systems: A Field Study of Complex Energy Systems at the Desert Research Institute (DRI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.

    2014-12-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are being aggressively deployed at residential, commercial, and utility scales to complement power generation from conventional sources. This is motivated both by the desire to reduce carbon footprints and by policy-driven financial incentives. Although several life cycle analyses (LCA) have investigated environmental impacts and energy payback times of solar PV systems, most results are based on hypothetical systems rather than actual, deployed systems that can provide measured performance data. Over the past five years, Desert Research Institute (DRI) in Nevada has installed eight solar PV systems of scales from 3 to 1000 kW, the sum of which supply approximately 40% of the total power use at DRI's Reno and Las Vegas campuses. The goal of this work is to explore greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts and examine the economic performance of DRI's PV systems by developing and applying a comprehensive LCA and techno-economic (TEA) model. This model is built using data appropriate for each type of panel used in the DRI systems. Power output is modeled using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) model PVWatts. The performance of PVWatts is verified by the actual measurements from DRI's PV systems. Several environmental and economic metrics are quantified for the DRI systems, including life cycle GHG emissions and energy return. GHG results are compared with Nevada grid-based electricity. Initial results indicate that DRI's solar-derived electricity offers clear GHG benefits compared to conventional grid electricity. DRI's eight systems have GHG intensity values of 29-56 gCO2e/kWh, as compared to the GHG intensity of 212 gCO2e/kWh of national average grid power. The major source of impacts (82-92% of the total) is the upstream life cycle burden of manufacturing PV panels, which are made of either mono-crystalline or multi-crystalline silicon. Given the same type of PV panel, GHG intensity decreases as the scale of the system increases

  11. Energy requirements in pressure irrigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, R.; Rodríguez-Sinobas, L.; Juana, L.; Laguna, F. V.; Castañón, G.; Gil, M.; Benítez, J.

    2012-04-01

    Modernization of irrigation schemes, generally understood as transformation of surface irrigation systems into pressure -sprinkler and trickle- irrigation systems, aims at, among others, improving irrigation efficiency and reduction of operation and maintenance efforts made by the irrigators. However, pressure irrigation systems, in contrast, carry a serious energy cost. Energy requirements depend on decisions taken on management strategies during the operation phase, which are conditioned by previous decisions taken on the design project of the different elements which compose the irrigation system. Most of the countries where irrigation activity is significant bear in mind that modernization irrigation must play a key role in the agricultural infrastructure policies. The objective of this study is to characterize and estimate the mean and variation of the energy consumed by common types of irrigation systems and their management possibilities. The work includes all processes involved from the diversion of water into irrigation specific infrastructure to water discharge by the emitters installed on the crop fields. Simulation taking into account all elements comprising the irrigation system has been used to estimate the energy requirements of typical irrigation systems of several crop production systems. It has been applied to extensive and intensive crop systems, such us extensive winter crops, summer crops and olive trees, fruit trees and vineyards and intensive horticulture in greenhouses. The simulation of various types of irrigation systems and management strategies, in the framework imposed by particular cropping systems, would help to develop criteria for improving the energy balance in relation to the irrigation water supply productivity.

  12. SMES for wind energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul Antony, Anish

    simulation results the utility of SMES in voltage sag mitigation for momentary interruptions. The 1MJ SMES mitigates voltage sags for a useful duration ~50 seconds. In conclusion (Chapter 7), we believe that in this dissertation, we have documented the design of SMES for both momentary and sustained interruptions in wind turbines. We have put forth some novel and relevant hypotheses, developed and performed suitable simulation studies to validate these hypotheses. By doing so, we have been able to expand our knowledge in our quest to grasp the underlying mechanisms of storage systems in wind energy integration. Although the resulting analysis has allowed us to gain valuable insight, we feel that it is only the tip of the iceberg, and that many yet unknown discoveries are to be made. We remain hopeful that the future of SMES for wind energy will only look brighter from here onward. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  13. North energy system risk analysis features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, V. A.; Prokhorov, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    Risk indicator analysis for a decentralized energy system of the North was carried out. Based on analysis of damages caused by accidents at energy systems, their structure is selected, and a North energy system risk determination method was proposed.

  14. New wholesale power market design using linked forward markets : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William; Ellison, James F.; Elliott, Ryan Thomas; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Guttromson, Ross; Tesfatsion, Leigh S.

    2013-04-01

    This report proposes a reformulation of U.S. ISO/RTO-managed wholesale electric power mar- kets for improved reliability and e ciency of system operations. Current markets do not specify or compensate primary frequency response. They also unnecessarily limit the participation of new technologies in reserve markets and o er insu cient economic inducements for new capacity invest- ment. In the proposed market reformulation, energy products are represented as physically-covered rm contracts and reserve products as physically-covered call option contracts. Trading of these products is supported by a backbone of linked ISO/RTO-managed forward markets with planning horizons ranging from multiple years to minutes ahead. A principal advantage of this reformulation is that reserve needs can be speci ed in detail, and resources can o er the services for which they are best suited, without being forced to conform to rigid reserve product de nitions. This should improve the business case for electric energy storage and other emerging technologies to provide reserve. In addition, the facilitation of price discovery should help to ensure e cient energy/reserve procurement and adequate levels of new capacity investment.

  15. Coupled dynamics analysis of wind energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    A qualitative description of all key elements of a complete wind energy system computer analysis code is presented. The analysis system addresses the coupled dynamics characteristics of wind energy systems, including the interactions of the rotor, tower, nacelle, power train, control system, and electrical network. The coupled dynamics are analyzed in both the frequency and time domain to provide the basic motions and loads data required for design, performance verification and operations analysis activities. Elements of the coupled analysis code were used to design and analyze candidate rotor articulation concepts. Fundamental results and conclusions derived from these studies are presented.

  16. Electrical Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Helms, C. R.; Cho, K. J.; Ferraris, John; Balkus, Ken; Chabal, Yves; Gnade, Bruce; Rotea, Mario; Vasselli, John

    2012-08-31

    This program focused on development of the fundamental understanding necessary to significantly improve advanced battery and ultra-capacitor materials and systems to achieve significantly higher power and energy density on the one hand, and significantly lower cost on the other. This program spanned all the way from atomic-level theory, to new nanomaterials syntheses and characterization, to system modeling and bench-scale technology demonstration. Significant accomplishments are detailed in each section. Those particularly noteworthy include: • Transition metal silicate cathodes with 2x higher storage capacity than commercial cobalt oxide cathodes were demonstrated. • MnO₂ nanowires, which are a promising replacement for RuO₂, were synthesized • PAN-based carbon nanofibers were prepared and characterized with an energy density 30-times higher than current ultracapacitors on the market and comparable to lead-acid batteries • An optimization-based control strategy for real-time power management of battery storage in wind farms was developed and demonstrated. • PVDF films were developed with breakdown strengths of > 600MVm⁻¹, a maximum energy density of approximately 15 Jcm⁻³, and an average dielectric constant of 9.8 (±1.2). Capacitors made from these films can support a 10-year lifetime operating at an electric field of 200 MV m⁻¹. This program not only delivered significant advancements in fundamental understanding and new materials and technology, it also showcased the power of the cross-functional, multi-disciplinary teams at UT Dallas and UT Tyler for such work. These teams are continuing this work with other sources of funding from both industry and government.

  17. Systems Evaluation at the Cool Energy House

    SciTech Connect

    J. Williamson and S. Puttagunta

    2013-09-01

    Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) monitored several advanced mechanical systems within a 2012 deep energy retrofitted home in the small Orlando suburb of Windermere, FL. This report provides performance results of one of the home's heat pump water heaters (HPWH) and the whole-house dehumidifier (WHD) over a six month period. In addition to assessing the energy performance of these systems, this study sought to quantify potential comfort improvements over traditional systems. This information is applicable to researchers, designers, plumbers, and HVAC contractors. Though builders and homeowners can find useful information within this report, the corresponding case studies are a likely better reference for this audience.

  18. Systems Evaluation at the Cool Energy House

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, J.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-09-01

    Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) monitored several advanced mechanical systems within a 2012 deep energy retrofitted home in the small Orlando suburb of Windermere, FL. This report provides performance results of one of the home's heat pump water heaters (HPWH) and the whole-house dehumidifier (WHD) over a six month period. In addition to assessing the energy performance of these systems,this study sought to quantify potential comfort improvements over traditional systems. This information is applicable to researchers, designers, plumbers, and HVAC contractors. Though builders and homeowners can find useful information within this report, the corresponding case studies are a likely better reference for this audience.

  19. A comparative study of the Au + H2, Au+ + H2, and Au- + H2 systems: Potential energy surfaces and dynamics of reactive collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorta-Urra, Anaís; Zanchet, Alexandre; Roncero, Octavio; Aguado, Alfredo

    2015-04-01

    In order to study the Au- + H2 collision, a new global potential energy surface (PES) describing the ground electronic state of AuH 2- system is developed and compared with the PESs of the neutral [Zanchet et al., J. Chem. Phys. 132, 034301 (2010)] and cationic systems [Anaís et al., J. Chem. Phys. 135, 091102 (2011)]. We found that Au- - H2 presents a H-Au-H insertion minimum attributed to the stabilization of the LUMO 3b2 orbital, which can be considered as the preamble of the chemisorption well appearing in larger gold clusters. While the LUMO orbital is stabilized, the HOMO 6a1 is destabilized, creating a barrier at the geometry where the energy orbitals' curves are crossing. In the anion, this HOMO is doubly occupied, while in the neutral system is half-filled and completely empty in the cation, explaining the gradual disappearance of the well and the barrier as the number of electrons decreases. The cation presents a well in the entrance channel partially explained by electrostatic interactions. The three systems' reactions are highly endothermic, by 1.66, 2.79, and 3.23 eV for AuH, AuH+, and AuH- products, respectively. The reaction dynamics is studied using quasi-classical trajectory method for the three systems. The one corresponding to the anionic system is new in this work. Collision energies between 1.00 and 8.00 eV, measured for the cation, are in good agreement with the simulated cross section for the AuH+. It was also found that the total fragmentation, in three atoms, competes becoming dominant at sufficiently high energy. Here, we study the competition between the two different reaction pathways for the anionic, cationic, and neutral species, explaining the differences using a simple model based on the topology of the potential energy surfaces.

  20. A comparative study of the Au + H₂, Au⁺ + H₂, and Au⁻ + H₂ systems: Potential energy surfaces and dynamics of reactive collisions.

    PubMed

    Dorta-Urra, Anaís; Zanchet, Alexandre; Roncero, Octavio; Aguado, Alfredo

    2015-04-21

    In order to study the Au(-) + H2 collision, a new global potential energy surface (PES) describing the ground electronic state of AuH2(-) system is developed and compared with the PESs of the neutral [Zanchet et al., J. Chem. Phys. 132, 034301 (2010)] and cationic systems [Anaís et al., J. Chem. Phys. 135, 091102 (2011)]. We found that Au(-) - H2 presents a H-Au-H insertion minimum attributed to the stabilization of the LUMO 3b2 orbital, which can be considered as the preamble of the chemisorption well appearing in larger gold clusters. While the LUMO orbital is stabilized, the HOMO 6a1 is destabilized, creating a barrier at the geometry where the energy orbitals' curves are crossing. In the anion, this HOMO is doubly occupied, while in the neutral system is half-filled and completely empty in the cation, explaining the gradual disappearance of the well and the barrier as the number of electrons decreases. The cation presents a well in the entrance channel partially explained by electrostatic interactions. The three systems' reactions are highly endothermic, by 1.66, 2.79, and 3.23 eV for AuH, AuH(+), and AuH(-) products, respectively. The reaction dynamics is studied using quasi-classical trajectory method for the three systems. The one corresponding to the anionic system is new in this work. Collision energies between 1.00 and 8.00 eV, measured for the cation, are in good agreement with the simulated cross section for the AuH(+). It was also found that the total fragmentation, in three atoms, competes becoming dominant at sufficiently high energy. Here, we study the competition between the two different reaction pathways for the anionic, cationic, and neutral species, explaining the differences using a simple model based on the topology of the potential energy surfaces. PMID:25903884

  1. Permutationally invariant fitting of intermolecular potential energy surfaces: A case study of the Ne-C2H2 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Guo, Hua

    2015-12-01

    The permutation invariant polynomial-neural network (PIP-NN) approach is extended to fit intermolecular potential energy surfaces (PESs). Specifically, three PESs were constructed for the Ne-C2H2 system. PES1 is a full nine-dimensional PIP-NN PES directly fitted to ˜42 000 ab initio points calculated at the level of CCSD(T)-F12a/cc-pCVTZ-F12, while the other two consist of the six-dimensional PES for C2H2 [H. Han, A. Li, and H. Guo, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 244312 (2014)] and an intermolecular PES represented in either the PIP (PES2) or PIP-NN (PES3) form. The comparison of fitting errors and their distributions, one-dimensional cuts and two-dimensional contour plots of the PESs, as well as classical trajectory collisional energy transfer dynamics calculations shows that the three PESs are very similar. We conclude that full-dimensional PESs for non-covalent interacting molecular systems can be constructed efficiently and accurately by the PIP-NN approach for both the constituent molecules and intermolecular parts.

  2. Feasibility study on wave energy power plant with oscillating water column system in Bawean Island Seas Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A. F.; Hadi, S.

    2016-03-01

    As a huge archipelago with 17,480 islands, Indonesia still has difficulties to electrify all of its islands especially on the remote ones (areas) because of a power grid coverage limitation of National Electrical Company (PLN). This research discusses the potential calculation of sea wave power conversion by utilizing Oscillating Water Column (OWC) system in remote islands, especially on Bawean Island Seas. OWC system is chosen because of its advantages compared to other systems and also because of its suitability towards sea and coast areas in Indonesia. Kim Nielsen and David Ross Law were used for the power calculation. The research took data sampling during one month in 2015 with the result of wave height average of 2.09 meters. That obtained data resulted wave energy of within 270.19 and electrical power output of about 52.7 kW by using Oscillating Water Column system. Based on this result, Break Even Point (BEP) for one plant covering 117 houses will become zero in the period of 3 years 8 months.

  3. Health risks of energy systems.

    PubMed

    Krewitt, W; Hurley, F; Trukenmüller, A; Friedrich, R

    1998-08-01

    Health risks from fossil, renewable and nuclear reference energy systems are estimated following a detailed impact pathway approach. Using a set of appropriate air quality models and exposure-effect functions derived from the recent epidemiological literature, a methodological framework for risk assessment has been established and consistently applied across the different energy systems, including the analysis of consequences from a major nuclear accident. A wide range of health impacts resulting from increased air pollution and ionizing radiation is quantified, and the transferability of results derived from specific power plants to a more general context is discussed. PMID:9775447

  4. Industrial energy systems and assessment opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barringer, Frank Leonard, III

    Industrial energy assessments are performed primarily to increase energy system efficiency and reduce energy costs in industrial facilities. The most common energy systems are lighting, compressed air, steam, process heating, HVAC, pumping, and fan systems, and these systems are described in this document. ASME has produced energy assessment standards for four energy systems, and these systems include compressed air, steam, process heating, and pumping systems. ASHRAE has produced an energy assessment standard for HVAC systems. Software tools for energy systems were developed for the DOE, and there are software tools for almost all of the most common energy systems. The software tools are AIRMaster+ and LogTool for compressed air systems, SSAT and 3E Plus for steam systems, PHAST and 3E Plus for process heating systems, eQUEST for HVAC systems, PSAT for pumping systems, and FSAT for fan systems. The recommended assessment procedures described in this thesis are used to set up an energy assessment for an industrial facility, collect energy system data, and analyze the energy system data. The assessment recommendations (ARs) are opportunities to increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems. A set of recommended assessment procedures and recommended assessment opportunities are presented for each of the most common energy systems. There are many assessment opportunities for industrial facilities, and this thesis describes forty-three ARs for the seven different energy systems. There are seven ARs for lighting systems, ten ARs for compressed air systems, eight ARs for boiler and steam systems, four ARs for process heating systems, six ARs for HVAC systems, and four ARs for both pumping and fan systems. Based on a history of past assessments, average potential energy savings and typical implementation costs are shared in this thesis for most ARs. Implementing these ARs will increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems in

  5. Solar-hydrogen energy system for Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Lutfi, N.

    1990-01-01

    A solar-hydrogen energy system has been proposed for Pakistan as the best replacement for the present fossil fuel based energy system. It has been suggested to produce hydrogen via photovoltaic-electrolysis, utilizing the available non-agricultural sunny terrain in Baluchistan region. There will be a desalination plant for sea water desalination. The area under the photovoltaic panels with the availability of water would provide suitable environment for growing some cash crops. This would change the cast useless desert land into green productive farms. In order to show the quantitative benefits of the proposed system, future trends of important energy and economical parameters have been studied with and without hydrogen introduction. The following parameters have been included: population, energy demand (fossil + hydrogen), energy production (fossil + hydrogen), gross national product, fossil energy imports, world energy prices, air pollution, quality of life, environmental savings due to hydrogen introduction, savings due to the higher utilization efficiency of hydrogen, by-product credit, agricultural income, income from hydrogen sale, photovoltaic cell area, total land area, water desalination plant capacity, capital investment, operating and maintenance cost, and total income from the system. The results indicate that adopting the solar-hydrogen energy system would eliminate the import dependency of fossil fuels, increase gross product per capita, reduce pollution, improve quality of life and establish a permanent and clean energy system. The total annual expenditure on the proposed system is less than the total income from the proposed system. The availability of water, the cash crop production, electricity and hydrogen would result in rapid development of Baluchistan, the largest province of Pakistan.

  6. Potential energy of a dinuclear system

    SciTech Connect

    Adamyan, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V.; Jolos, R.V.; Ivanova, S.P.; Mel`nikova, O.I.

    1994-11-01

    An effective method for calculating the potential energy of a dinuclear system is proposed. Analytic expressions for calculating the nuclear part of the nucleus-nucleus potential in the double-folding form are obtained. A relationship between this potential and the proximity potential is found. Effects of deformation and mutual orientation of nuclei on the interaction potential are studied. It follows from a comparison of calculated potential energies with nuclear binding energies that excited states of some nuclei can be treated as dinuclear or trinuclear systems. 27 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Single cell performance studies on the Fe/Cr Redox Energy Storage System using mixed reactant solutions at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahn, R. F.; Hagedorn, N. H.; Ling, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental studies in a 14.5 sq cm single cell system using mixed reactant solutions at 65 C are described. Systems were tested under isothermal conditions i.e., reactants and the cell were at the same temperature. Charging and discharging performance were evaluted by measuring watt-hour and coulombic efficiencies, voltage-current relationships, hydrogen evolution and membrane resistivity. Watt-hour efficiencies ranged from 86% at 43 ma/sq cm to 75% at 129 ma/sq cm with corresponding coulombic efficiencies of 92% and 97%, respectively. Hydrogen evolution was less than 1% of the charge coulombic capacity during charge-discharge cycling. Bismuth and bismuth-lead catalyzed chromium electrodes maintained reversible performance and low hydrogen evolution under normal and adverse cycling conditions. Reblending of the anode and cathode solutions was successfully demonstrated to compensate for osmotic volume changes. Improved performance was obtained with mixed reactant systems in comparison to the unmixed reactant systems.

  8. Enhanced distributed energy resource system

    DOEpatents

    Atcitty, Stanley; Clark, Nancy H.; Boyes, John D.; Ranade, Satishkumar J.

    2007-07-03

    A power transmission system including a direct current power source electrically connected to a conversion device for converting direct current into alternating current, a conversion device connected to a power distribution system through a junction, an energy storage device capable of producing direct current connected to a converter, where the converter, such as an insulated gate bipolar transistor, converts direct current from an energy storage device into alternating current and supplies the current to the junction and subsequently to the power distribution system. A microprocessor controller, connected to a sampling and feedback module and the converter, determines when the current load is higher than a set threshold value, requiring triggering of the converter to supply supplemental current to the power transmission system.

  9. Decentralized energy studies: compendium of international studies and research

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, C.

    1980-03-01

    The purpose of the compendium is to provide information about research activities in decentralized energy systems to researchers, government officials, and interested citizens. The compendium lists and briefly describes a number of studies in other industrialized nations that involve decentralized energy systems. A contact person is given for each of the activities listed so that interested readers can obtain more information.

  10. A comparative study on the mechatronic and electronic self-powered synchronized switch interfaces for piezoelectric energy harvesting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haili; Ge, Cong; Liang, Junrui; Wang, Ya

    2016-04-01

    By scavenging the vibration energy from the ambience, the piezoelectric energy harvesting (PEH) technology provides one of the most promising solutions towards the everlasting power supplies for distributed wireless sensors. Given the capacitive characteristics of the piezoelectric devices, synchronized switch interface circuits, such as the synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI), have been developed towards the harvested power enhancement. The self-powered sensing and control issue is essential for implementing these circuit innovations in practical applications. This paper provides a comparative study on the recently proposed mechatronic self-powered SSHI (MSP-SSHI) and the existing electronic self-powered SSHI (ESP-SSHI). The MSP-SSHI uses a single-pole double-throw switch to simultaneously perform the sensing and switching functions in the SSHI interface. It can reduce the switching threshold and energy losses caused in the semiconductors of the electronic solution, and no need to care about the high-voltage breakdown problems in the ESP-SSHI. On the other hand, the distance between the pole and throws will introduce certain switching phase difference under the larger range of excitation. A piecewise linear model of the MSP-SSHI is built to analyze the switching phase difference. It was found that the damping ratio and stiffness in the mechanical switch can significantly influence the switching phase difference. Simulations show that well-designed damping ratio and stiffness can help the MSP-SSHI maintain smaller switching phase difference, and therefore improve the output power.

  11. Ocean energy conversion systems report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-03-01

    Alternative power cycle concepts to the closed-cycle Rankine are evaluated and those that show potential for delivering power in a cost effective and environmentally acceptable fashion are explored. Concepts are classified according to the ocean energy resource: thermal, waves, currents, and salinity gradient. The lift of seawater entrained in a vertical steam flow provides potential energy for a conventional hydraulic turbine conversion system. Quantification of the process and assessment of potential cost must be completed to support concept evaluation. Exploratory development is completed in thermoelectricity and 2-phase nozzles for other thermal concepts. Wave energy concepts are evaluated by analysis and model testing with emphasis on pneumatic turbines and wave focussing. Several conversion approaches to ocean current energy are being evaluated.

  12. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 6: Closed-cycle gas turbine systems. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amos, D. J.; Fentress, W. K.; Stahl, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    Both recuperated and bottomed closed cycle gas turbine systems in electric power plants were studied. All systems used a pressurizing gas turbine coupled with a pressurized furnace to heat the helium for the closed cycle gas turbine. Steam and organic vapors are used as Rankine bottoming fluids. Although plant efficiencies of over 40% are calculated for some plants, the resultant cost of electricity was found to be 8.75 mills/MJ (31.5 mills/kWh). These plants do not appear practical for coal or oil fired plants.

  13. Final report on testing of ACONF technology for the US Coast Guard National Distress Systems : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, Leanne M.; Byrd, Thomas M., Jr.; Murray, Aaron T.; Ginn, Jerry W.; Symons, Philip C.; Corey, Garth P.

    2005-08-01

    This report documents the results of a six month test program of an Alternative Configuration (ACONF) power management system design for a typical United States Coast Guard (USCG) National Distress System (NDS) site. The USCG/USDOE funded work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories to evaluate the effect of a Sandia developed battery management technology known as ACONF on the performance of energy storage systems at NDS sites. This report demonstrates the savings of propane gas, and the improvement of battery performance when utilizing the new ACONF designs. The fuel savings and battery performance improvements resulting from ACONF use would be applicable to all current NDS sites in the field. The inherent savings realized when using the ACONF battery management design was found to be significant when compared to battery replacement and propane refueling at the remote NDS sites.

  14. A Diagnostic System for Studying Energy Partitioning and Assessing the Response of the Ionosphere during HAARP Modification Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djuth, Frank T.; Elder, John H.; Williams, Kenneth L.

    1996-01-01

    This research program focused on the construction of several key radio wave diagnostics in support of the HF Active Auroral Ionospheric Research Program (HAARP). Project activities led to the design, development, and fabrication of a variety of hardware units and to the development of several menu-driven software packages for data acquisition and analysis. The principal instrumentation includes an HF (28 MHz) radar system, a VHF (50 MHz) radar system, and a high-speed radar processor consisting of three separable processing units. The processor system supports the HF and VHF radars and is capable of acquiring very detailed data with large incoherent scatter radars. In addition, a tunable HF receiver system having high dynamic range was developed primarily for measurements of stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE). A separate processor unit was constructed for the SEE receiver. Finally, a large amount of support instrumentation was developed to accommodate complex field experiments. Overall, the HAARP diagnostics are powerful tools for studying diverse ionospheric modification phenomena. They are also flexible enough to support a host of other missions beyond the scope of HAARP. Many new research programs have been initiated by applying the HAARP diagnostics to studies of natural atmospheric processes.

  15. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; M. Green; S.J. Yoon; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing concerns in the production of reliable energy sources, the next generation in reliable power generation, hybrid energy systems, are being developed to stabilize these growing energy needs. The hybrid energy system incorporates multiple inputs and multiple outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilizing and storing the overproduction of energy to meet peak demands of energy at the time of need. With high thermal energy production of the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct properties. This paper will discuss the different energy storage options with the criteria for efficient energy storage set forth, and will primarily focus on different molten salt energy storage system options through a thermodynamic analysis

  16. Mining Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2007-07-01

    The Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) relies on analytical studies to identify large energy reduction opportunities in energy-intensive industries and uses these results to guide its R&D portfolio. The energy bandwidth illustrates the total energy-saving opportunity that exists in the industry if the current processes are improved by implementing more energy-efficient practices and by using advanced technologies. This bandwidth analysis report was conducted to assist the ITP Mining R&D program in identifying energy-saving opportunities in coal, metals, and mineral mining. These opportunities were analyzed in key mining processes of blasting, dewatering, drilling, digging, ventilation, materials handling, crushing, grinding, and separations.

  17. Solar energy food dehydration system: Concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, L.V.

    1988-01-01

    The research activities to be carried out to form the body of this work were planned, first, to increase the general knowledge in the areas of solar energy application and, secondly, to provide sufficient data for the development of a new solar energy powered food dehydrating system. The research work does not aim merely at pursuing the study and development of a new component or a new type of material to be used in the solar industry. But the final and main part of this research is devoted to the development and design of a solar energy system uncharted before the purpose of dehydrating various agricultural products. This proposed solar powered system development is thereby a contribution of technological knowledge to the field of Applied Sciences. It is one of the viable and effective solutions to solving the world's food and energy shortage problem, especially in the less developed regions of the world. The body of this work, thus is divided into three major parts as follows: (1) The search for a thorough understanding of the origin and fundamental characteristics of solar energy. (2) Past and present applications of solar energy. (3) The development and design of a new solar energy powered system for the dehydration of food crops.

  18. Energy Systems and Population Health

    SciTech Connect

    Ezzati, Majid; Bailis, Rob; Kammen, Daniel M.; Holloway, Tracey; Price, Lynn; Cifuentes, Luis A.; Barnes, Brendon; Chaurey, Akanksha; Dhanapala, Kiran N.

    2004-04-12

    It is well-documented that energy and energy systems have a central role in social and economic development and human welfare at all scales, from household and community to regional and national (41). Among its various welfare effects, energy is closely linked with people s health. Some of the effects of energy on health and welfare are direct. With abundant energy, more food or more frequent meals can be prepared; food can be refrigerated, increasing the types of food items that are consumed and reducing food contamination; water pumps can provide more water and eliminate the need for water storage leading to contamination or increased exposure to disease vectors such as mosquitoes or snails; water can be disinfected by boiling or using other technologies such as radiation. Other effects of energy on public health are mediated through more proximal determinants of health and disease. Abundant energy can lead to increased irrigation, agricultural productivity, and access to food and nutrition; access to energy can also increase small-scale income generation such as processing of agricultural commodities (e.g., producing refined oil from oil seeds, roasting coffee, drying and preserving fruits and meats) and production of crafts; ability to control lighting and heating allows education or economic activities to be shielded from daily or seasonal environmental constraints such as light, temperature, rainfall, or wind; time and other economic resources spent on collecting and/or transporting fuels can be used for other household needs if access to energy is facilitated; energy availability for transportation increases access to health and education facilities and allow increased economic activity by facilitating the transportation of goods and services to and from markets; energy for telecommunication technology (radio, television, telephone, or internet) provides increased access to information useful for health, education, or economic purposes; provision of energy

  19. The effect of sea ice on the solar energy budget in the astmosphere-sea ice-ocean system: A model study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Z.; Stamnes, Knut; Weeks, W. F.; Tsay, Si-Chee

    1994-01-01

    A coupled one-dimensional multilayer and multistream radiative transfer model has been developed and applied to the study of radiative interactions in the atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean system. The consistent solution of the radiative transfer equation in this coupled system automatically takes into account the refraction and reflection at the air-ice interface and allows flexibility in choice of stream numbers. The solar radiation spectrum (0.25 micron-4.0 micron) is divided into 24 spectral bands to account adequately for gaseous absorption in the atmosphere. The effects of ice property changes, including salinity and density variations, as well as of melt ponds and snow cover variations over the ice on the solar energy distribution in the entire system have been studied quantitatively. The results show that for bare ice it is the scattering, determined by air bubbles and brine pockets, in just a few centimeters of the top layer of ice that plays the most important role in the solar energy absorption and partitioning in the entire system. Ice thickness is important to the energy distribution only when the ice is thin, while the absorption in the atmosphere is not sensitive to ice thickness exceeds about 70 cm. The presence of clouds moderates all the sensitivities of the absorptive amounts in each layer to the variations in the ice properties and ice thickness. Comparisons with observational spectral albedo values for two simple ice types are also presented.

  20. Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

  1. Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-10-01

    ITP conducted a study on energy use and potential savings, or "bandwidth" study, in major steelmaking processes. Intended to provide a realistic estimate of the potential amount of energy that can be saved in an industrial process, the "bandwidth" refers to the difference between the amount of energy that would be consumed in a process using commercially available technology versus the minimum amount of energy needed to achieve those same results based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study (PDF 133 KB) also estimates steel industry energy use in the year 2010, and uses that value as a basis for comparison against the minimum requirements. This energy savings opportunity for 2010 will aid focus on longer term R&D.

  2. Infrared fluorescence studies of electronic-to-vibrational energy transfer in a Br2:NO system. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hawks, M.R.

    1993-12-01

    Steady-state photolysis techniques were used to study electronic-to-vibrational energy transfer mechanisms from atomic bromine to nitric oxide. Molecular bromine was photodissociated by 488nm radiation to produce equal parts Br(2p(sub 1/2)) and Br(2p (sub 3/2)). Side fluorescence intensity from Br(2p (sub 1/2)) at 2.7 microns and from NO (v =1) and 2 around 5.3 microns measured as a function of bromine pressure and nitric oxide pressure. The branching ratio collisional transfer into the first and second states of NO was determined, and previously reported rates for quenching of NO by molecular bromine were verified. Nitric oxide, Bromine, E-V transfer, Infrared fluorescence, Photolysis.

  3. Single cell performance studies on the FE/CR Redox Energy Storage System using mixed reactant solutions at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahn, R. F.; Hagedorn, N. H.; Ling, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental studies in a 14.5 sq cm single cell system using mixed reactant solutions at 65 C are described. Systems were tested under isothermal conditions, i.e., reactants and the cell were at the same temperature. Charging and discharging performance were evaluated by measuring watt-hour and coulombic efficiencies, voltage-current relationships, hydrogen evolution and membrane resistivity. Watt-hour efficiencies ranged from 86 percent at 43 ma/sq cm to 75 percent at 129 ma/sq cm with corresponding coulombic efficiencies of 92 percent and 97 percent, respectively. Hydrogen evolution was less than 1 percent of the charge coulumbic capacity during charge-discharge cycling. Bismuth amd bismuth-lead catalyzed chromium electrodes maintained reversible performance and low hydrogen evolution under normal and adverse cycling conditions. Reblending of the anode and cathode solutions was successfully demonstrated to compensate for osmotic volume changes. Improved performance was obtained with mixed reactant systems in comparison to the unmixed reactant systems. Previously announced in STAR as N83-25042

  4. Chemical/hydrogen energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-06-01

    This report describes activities conducted during 1986 within the Chemical/Hydrogen Energy Systems (C/HES) Program, for which Bookhaven National Laboratory provides technical and management support to the U.S. Department of Energy. Research and exploratory efforts under this program have been directed towards developing a base technology that will apply to hydrogen production, storage, and transport. Major areas of interest include: (1) High Temperature Water Vapor Electrolysis for Hydrogen Generation (Westinghouse); (2) Evaluation of Materials for Medium Temperature Water Vapor Electrolysis; (3) Cryoadsorption of Hydrogen on Activated Carbon (Syracuse). Contributions in 1986 made by private sector contractors, university, researchers, and BNL in-house technical staff are summarized in the report. Also included is a summary of related International Energy Agency (IEA) cooperative efforts as well as plans and major activities scheduled for 1987.

  5. A System of Systems Approach to the EU Energy System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jess, Tom; Madani, Kaveh; Mahlooji, Maral; Ristic, Bora

    2016-04-01

    Around the world, measures to prevent dangerous climate change are being adopted and may change energy systems fundamentally. The European Union (EU) is committed to reducing greenhouse gas emission by 20% by 2020 and by 80-95% by 2050. In order to achieve this, EU member states aim to increase the share of renewables in the energy mix to 20% by 2020. This commitment comes as part of a series of other aims, principles, and policies to reform the EU's energy system. Cost-efficiency in the emissions reductions measures as well as strategic goals under the Resource Efficient Europe flagship initiative which would include a more prudent approach to other natural resources such as water and land. Using the "System of Systems Approach", as from Hadian and Madani (2015), energy sources' Relative Aggregate Footprints (RAF) in the EU are evaluated. RAF aggregates across four criteria: carbon footprint, water footprint, land footprint, and economic cost. The four criteria are weighted by resource availability across the EU and for each Member State. This provides an evaluation of the overall resource use efficiency of the EU's energy portfolio and gives insight into the differences in the desirability of energy sources across Member States. Broadly, nuclear, onshore wind, and geothermal are most desirable under equal criteria weights and EU average weighting introduces only small changes in the relative performance of only few technologies. The member state specific weightings show that most countries have similar energy technology preferences. However, the UK deviates most strongly from the average, with an even stronger preference for nuclear and coal. Sweden, Malta and Finland also deviate from the typical preferences indicating the complexity in play in reforming the EU energy system. Reference Hadian S, Madani K (2015) A System of Systems Approach to Energy Sustainability Assessment: Are All Renewables Really Green? Ecological Indicators, 52, 194-206.

  6. Dynamic management of integrated residential energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratori, Matteo

    This study combines principles of energy systems engineering and statistics to develop integrated models of residential energy use in the United States, to include residential recharging of electric vehicles. These models can be used by government, policymakers, and the utility industry to provide answers and guidance regarding the future of the U.S. energy system. Currently, electric power generation must match the total demand at each instant, following seasonal patterns and instantaneous fluctuations. Thus, one of the biggest drivers of costs and capacity requirement is the electricity demand that occurs during peak periods. These peak periods require utility companies to maintain operational capacity that often is underutilized, outdated, expensive, and inefficient. In light of this, flattening the demand curve has long been recognized as an effective way of cutting the cost of producing electricity and increasing overall efficiency. The problem is exacerbated by expected widespread adoption of non-dispatchable renewable power generation. The intermittent nature of renewable resources and their non-dispatchability substantially limit the ability of electric power generation of adapting to the fluctuating demand. Smart grid technologies and demand response programs are proposed as a technical solution to make the electric power demand more flexible and able to adapt to power generation. Residential demand response programs offer different incentives and benefits to consumers in response to their flexibility in the timing of their electricity consumption. Understanding interactions between new and existing energy technologies, and policy impacts therein, is key to driving sustainable energy use and economic growth. Comprehensive and accurate models of the next-generation power system allow for understanding the effects of new energy technologies on the power system infrastructure, and can be used to guide policy, technology, and economic decisions. This

  7. Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Energy System Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Den Durpel, Luc Van

    2004-06-17

    DANESS is an integrated process model for nuclear energy systems allowing the simulation of multiple reactors and fuel cycles in a continuously changing nuclear reactor park configuration. The model is energy demand driven and simulates all nuclear fuel cycle facilites, up to 10 reactors and fuels. Reactor and fuel cycle facility history are traced and the cost of generating energy is calculated per reactor and for total nuclear energy system. The DANESS model aims at performing dynamic systems analysis of nuclear energy development used for integrated analysis of development paths for nuclear energy, parameter scoping for new nuclear energy systems, economic analysis of nuclear energy, government role analysis, and education.

  8. Energy storage systems for MPD thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, S.B.

    1981-01-01

    Because of its high thrust density, the magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster is a promising candidate for many advanced space missions. Its high power requirements lead to operation in a pulsed mode using an intermediate energy storage device. The characteristics of a system consisting of a solar array, energy storage capacitor, and MPD thruster are studied for array powers in the range 25-375 kw. Assuming simple analytic models for the circuit components, the circuit charge and discharge equations are solved numerically, resulting in the system efficiency and capacitance. The system efficiency is inversely proportional to array power and decreases with circuit resistance. Alternative methods of energy storage such as a pulse forming network and a homopolar generator, are presented, and an overall comparison between all of the methods is given.

  9. Integrated Energy System Dispatch Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Ryan; Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris

    2006-06-16

    On-site cogeneration of heat and electricity, thermal and electrical storage, and curtailing/rescheduling demand options are often cost-effective to commercial and industrial sites. This collection of equipment and responsive consumption can be viewed as an integrated energy system(IES). The IES can best meet the sites cost or environmental objectives when controlled in a coordinated manner. However, continuously determining this optimal IES dispatch is beyond the expectations for operators of smaller systems. A new algorithm is proposed in this paper to approximately solve the real-time dispatch optimization problem for a generic IES containing an on-site cogeneration system subject to random outages, limited curtailment opportunities, an intermittent renewable electricity source, and thermal storage. An example demonstrates how this algorithm can be used in simulation to estimate the value of IES components.

  10. Decentalized solar photovoltaic energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, M. C.

    1980-09-01

    Environmental data for decentralized solar photovoltaic systems have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems program (TASE). Emphasis has been placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ, utilizing a unique solar cell array-roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5% efficiency at 28/sup 0/C and 100 mW/cm/sup 2/ (AMI) insolation are used to generate approx. 10 kW (peak). An all-electric home is considered with lead-acid battery storage, dc-ac inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. Major material requirements, scaled to quad levels of end-use energy include significant quantities of silicon, copper, lead, antimony, sulfuric acid and plastics. Operating residuals generated are negligible with the exception of those from the storage battery due to a short (10-year) lifetime. A brief general discussion of other environmental, health, and safety and resource availability impacts is presented. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

  11. Gen IV Nuclear Energy Systems Interim Status Report on Pre-conceptual LFR Design Studies and Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, W G; Brown, N W; Smith, C F; Sienicki, J J; Moisseytsev, A V; Kim, S J; Smith, M A; Yang, W S; Williamson, M; Li, N

    2005-02-09

    Previous pre-conceptual core neutronics and system thermal hydraulics calculations initiated the investigation of viability of a Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR) lead-cooled small modular fast reactor concept.1 The calculations indicated that a single-phase natural circulation SSTAR reactor concept with good core reactor physics performance, good system thermal hydraulics performance, and a high Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle efficiency of 40 % may be viable at an electrical power of 18 MWe (45 MWt). Pre-conceptual studies of SSTAR viability have continued with the objective of improving the system thermal hydraulic performance and raising the plant efficiency as well as extending the neutronics analysis. This effort has been motivated by several considerations. First, the initial Pre-conceptual studies were focused upon a ''pancake'' core having a height-to-diameter of 0.5. It was found that a compact core with high average burn up could be realized with a height-to-diameter ratio of 0.8. Second, the initial assumed reactor vessel height of 12.2 meters limited the height of the Pb-to-CO{sub 2} in-reactor heat exchangers (HXs) which reduced the efficiency of supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycle power converter. It was found that by increasing the reactor vessel height to 18 meters, the greater driving head for single-phase natural circulation would offset both the greater pressure drop of the 0.8 height-to-diameter ratio core as well as the pressure drop of taller HXs. This has enabled the plant efficiency to be increased from 40 to 43 % and the plant electrical power to be raised from 18 to 20 MWe. Third, reactivity feedback coefficients, which had previously not been generated for SSTAR, have now been calculated for the core. The reactivity feedback coefficients provide a basis for future investigation of the autonomous load following and passive shutdown behavior of the reactor. The current status of

  12. Geothermal energy from the Pannonian Basins System: An outcrop analogue study of exploration target horizons in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götz, Annette E.; Sass, Ingo; Török, Ákos

    2015-04-01

    The characterization of geothermal reservoirs of deep sedimentary basins is supported by outcrop analogue studies since reservoir characteristics are strongly related to the sedimentary facies and thus influence the basic direction of geothermal field development and applied technology (Sass & Götz, 2012). Petro- and thermophysical rock properties are key parameters in geothermal reservoir characterization and the data gained from outcrop samples serve to understand the reservoir system. New data from the Meso- and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks of Budapest include carbonates and siliciclastics of Triassic, Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene age, exposed on the western side of the river Danube in the Buda Hills (Götz et al., 2014). Field and laboratory analyses revealed distinct horizons of different geothermal potential and thus, enable to identify and interpret corresponding exploration target horizons in geothermal prone depths in the Budapest region as well as in the Hungarian sub-basins of the Pannonian Basins System (Zala and Danube basins, Great Plain) exhibiting geothermal anomalies. References Götz, A.E., Török, Á., Sass, I., 2014. Geothermal reservoir characteristics of Meso- and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks of Budapest (Hungary). German Journal of Geosciences, 165, 487-493. Sass, I., Götz, A.E., 2012. Geothermal reservoir characterization: a thermofacies concept. Terra Nova, 24, 142-147.

  13. Feasibility study of a low-energy gamma ray system for measuring quantity and flow rate of slush hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Shen, Chih-Ping; Sprinkle, Danny R.

    1992-01-01

    As part of a study to demonstrate the suitability of an X-ray or gamma ray probe for monitoring the quality and flow rate of slush hydrogen, mass attenuation coefficients for Cd-109 X- and gamma radiation in five chemical compounds were measured. The Ag-109 K rays were used for water and acetic acid, whereas E3 transition from the first excited state at 87.7 keV in Ag-109 provided the probe radiation for bromobenzene, alpha (exp 2) chloroisodurene, and cetyl bromide. Measurements were made for a single phase (gas, liquid, solid) as well as mixed phases (liquid plus solid) in all cases. It was shown that the mass attenuation coefficient for the selected radiations is independent of the phase of the test fluids or phase ratios in the case of mixed phase fluids. Described here are the procedure and the results for the five fluid systems investigated.

  14. Integrated solar energy system optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, S. K.

    1982-11-01

    The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

  15. Picosecond time-resolved emission studies. I. Real-time measurements of solvent-solute interactions. II. Kinetics of energy flow in a photosynthetic antenna system. [4-aminophthalimide

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, S.W.

    1985-11-01

    Using a picosecond fluorimeter, the dynamics of solvation of electronically excited 4-aminophthalimide in a variety of solvents is measured. The solvation process is manifested by a time-dependent red shift in the emission spectrum in certain solvents. This red shift is time-resolved using a streak camera system. The time constant of the relaxation is found to correlate strongly with the longitudinal dielectric relaxation rate of the solvent. The correlation holds for changes in solvent, for isotopic substitution of a solvent, and for changes in temperature. Never before have direct measurements of excited-state solvation dynamics been shown to correlate with dielectric relaxation over such a wide range of experimental conditions. Emission from certain photosynthetic antenna complexes, phycobilisomes, and from the building blocks of phycobilisomes, phycobiliproteins, has also been studied using the streak camera system. Both the rising and filling portions of the time-resolved emission profiles of the fluorescing chromophores in these structures are studied. The rates of energy transfer between structural domains of the antenna complex and within the isolated biliprotein complexes are deduced from these studies. Comparison of emission profiles from a series of structurally distinct phycobilisomes isolated from three related strains of cyanobacteria have provided new insights into the correlation of the energy transfer function and macromolecular structure in these light-harvesting antenna systems. 133 refs., 58 figs., 14 tabs.

  16. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities. Volume thirty-eight. Oklahoma. Final report of a study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of integrated community energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Oklahoma governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities, Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One: An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  17. Battery storage for supplementing renewable energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The battery storage for renewable energy systems section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  18. Developing an Undergraduate Program in Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanchi, John

    2010-10-01

    Texas Christian University (TCU) is developing an undergraduate program in engineering that prepares students to become engineers with an emphasis in energy systems. Courses in the program include an overview of energy in society that is suitable for the general student population; a technical overview of traditional energy (coal, oil and gas), nuclear energy, and renewable energy; and courses that cover more specialized energy topics. Students participating in this program will improve their understanding of energy systems; be introduced to outstanding scientific and engineering problems; learn about the role of energy in a global and societal context; and evaluate contemporary issues associated with energy. The energy systems curriculum will improve student understanding of activities that are a major component of the economy. As engineering students graduate with an energy systems emphasis, they will take their places in society with a much more sophisticated understanding of energy-related issues affecting their community. This talk will present the status of the new program.

  19. Mars Aerocapture Systems Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Henry S.; Oh, David Y.; Westhelle, Carlos H.; Fisher, Jody L.; Dyke, R. Eric; Edquist, Karl T.; Brown, James L.; Justh, Hilary L.; Munk, Michelle M.

    2006-01-01

    Mars Aerocapture Systems Study (MASS) is a detailed study of the application of aerocapture to a large Mars robotic orbiter to assess and identify key technology gaps. This study addressed use of an Opposition class return segment for use in the Mars Sample Return architecture. Study addressed mission architecture issues as well as system design. Key trade studies focused on design of aerocapture aeroshell, spacecraft design and packaging, guidance, navigation and control with simulation, computational fluid dynamics, and thermal protection system sizing. Detailed master equipment lists are included as well as a cursory cost assessment.

  20. NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEM COST MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Francesco Ganda; Brent Dixon

    2012-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is preparing to perform an evaluation of the full range of possible Nuclear Energy Systems (NES) in 2013. These include all practical combinations of fuels and transmuters (reactors and sub-critical systems) in single and multi-tier combinations of burners and breeders with no, partial, and full recycle. As part of this evaluation, Levelized Cost of Electricity at Equilibrium (LCAE) ranges for each representative system will be calculated. To facilitate the cost analyses, the 2009 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis Report is being amended to provide up-to-date cost data for each step in the fuel cycle, and a new analysis tool, NE-COST, has been developed. This paper explains the innovative “Island” approach used by NE-COST to streamline and simplify the economic analysis effort and provides examples of LCAE costs generated. The Island approach treats each transmuter (or target burner) and the associated fuel cycle facilities as a separate analysis module, allowing reuse of modules that appear frequently in the NES options list. For example, a number of options to be screened will include a once-through uranium oxide (UOX) fueled light water reactor (LWR). The UOX LWR may be standalone, or may be the first stage in a multi-stage system. Using the Island approach, the UOX LWR only needs to be modeled once and the module can then be reused on subsequent fuel cycles. NE-COST models the unit operations and life cycle costs associated with each step of the fuel cycle on each island. This includes three front-end options for supplying feedstock to fuel fabrication (mining/enrichment, reprocessing of used fuel from another island, and/or reprocessing of this island’s used fuel), along with the transmuter and back-end storage/disposal. Results of each island are combined based on the fractional energy generated by each islands in an equilibrium system. The cost analyses use the probability

  1. SMES for wind energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul Antony, Anish

    Renewable energy sources are ubiquitous, wind energy in particular is one of the fastest growing forms of renewable energy, yet the stochastic nature of wind creates fluctuations that threaten the stability of the electrical grid. In addition to stability with increased wind energy, the need for additional load following capability is a major concern hindering increased wind energy penetration. Improvements in power electronics are required to increase wind energy penetration, but these improvements are hindered by a number of limitations. Changes in physical weather conditions, insufficient capacity of the transmission line and inaccurate wind forecasting greatly stymie their effect and ultimately lead to equipment damage. With this background, the overall goal of this research effort is to pitch a case for superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) by (1) optimally designing the SMES to be coupled with wind turbines thus reducing wind integration challenges and (2) to help influence decision makers in either increasing superconducting wire length/fill factor or improving superconducting splice technology thereby increasing the storage capacity of the SMES. Chapter 1 outlines the scope of this thesis by answering the following questions (1) why focus on wind energy? (2) What are the problems associated with increasing wind energy on the electric grid? (3) What are the current solutions related to wind integration challenges and (4) why SMES? Chapter 2, presents a detailed report on the study performed on categorizing the challenges associated with integrating wind energy into the electric grid. The conditions under which wind energy affected the electric grid are identified both in terms of voltage stability and excess wind generation. Chapter 3, details a comprehensive literature review on the different superconducting wires. A technology assessment of the five selected superconductors: [Niobium Titanium (NbTi), Niobium Tin (Nb3Sn), Bismuth strontium calcium

  2. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, A.; Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  3. NEMS - National Energy Modeling System: An Overview

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2009 a summary description of NEMS and each of its components. NEMS is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of energy markets for the midterm period through 2030. The NEMS is used to produce the Annual Energy Outlook.

  4. Ocean energy systems: Multiyear program plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-05-01

    Specific planned activities to be conducted by the Department of Energy in connection with the Ocean Energy System Program for FY 1979 through FY 1984 are described. Program funding is presently 95 percent OTEC, with 5 percent directed toward alternate energy sources such as salinity gradients waves and currents, technical status, ocean energy systems resource requirements, issues, and a management plan are discussed.

  5. Compressed Air System Optimization Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Textile Manufacturing Mill (Peerless Division, Thomaston Mills, Inc.): Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Technical Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wogsland, J.

    2001-06-18

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the textile manufacturing mill project.

  6. Performance of deep geothermal energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikonda, Nikhil

    Geothermal energy is an important source of clean and renewable energy. This project deals with the study of deep geothermal power plants for the generation of electricity. The design involves the extraction of heat from the Earth and its conversion into electricity. This is performed by allowing fluid deep into the Earth where it gets heated due to the surrounding rock. The fluid gets vaporized and returns to the surface in a heat pipe. Finally, the energy of the fluid is converted into electricity using turbine or organic rankine cycle (ORC). The main feature of the system is the employment of side channels to increase the amount of thermal energy extracted. A finite difference computer model is developed to solve the heat transport equation. The numerical model was employed to evaluate the performance of the design. The major goal was to optimize the output power as a function of parameters such as thermal diffusivity of the rock, depth of the main well, number and length of lateral channels. The sustainable lifetime of the system for a target output power of 2 MW has been calculated for deep geothermal systems with drilling depths of 8000 and 10000 meters, and a financial analysis has been performed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the system for a practical range of geothermal parameters. Results show promising an outlook for deep geothermal systems for practical applications.

  7. Renewable Energy Options for a Utility System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Lena; Panjeshahi, M. Hassan; Perry, Simon

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, renewable energies have been re-addressed with respect to the potentials and feasibility of being incorporated in process industries. Within a process, utility system is considered to be the most appropriate place for using sustainable energies. For integrating the renewable energies, the pinch analysis is applied as the main tool to provide opportunity for energy conservation. The results demonstrated that the power generation by the wind is the most cost effective and environmentally friendly option for energy conservation in comparison to the other sustainable resources. However the tidal energy stands the least due to the long payback period. Also, a computer program has been developed, using MATLAB 7.3, to screen out different scenarios and perform economic study. The outcome data showed that, there are several different opportunities for the integration of alternative energies. Finally, this method has been applied to a case study and various retrofit projects have been identified, each of which has certain amount of CO2 reduction and estimated values for the required investment, saving potential and payback period.

  8. Madelung and strain energies in the Ga1-xAlxN system: A study on the quality of cluster expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, L. G.; Marques, M.; Teles, L. K.

    2006-08-01

    First-principles calculations within the local-density formalism were used to study the accuracy of cluster expansion techniques to predict the energy band gaps and enthalpy of the pseudobinary system Ga1-xAlxN , a technologically important alloy. The chosen pseudobinary system has the advantage of having small lattice mismatches, which minimizes the enthalpies of formation, and of being a semiconducting system with a direct band gap for any concentration x . Many different cluster expansion techniques were tested, some presenting clear advantages. The many cluster expansions were also compared against models of Madelung and strain energy, both long-range interactions. Though cluster expansions fail completely for the long-range Madelung interaction model, they behave remarkably well in the not so long-range strain model. The qualitative results for the strain model are similar to the results for the enthalpy and gap of the alloy system, thus giving us an assurance of our conclusions. Using only short-range interactions, all cluster expansions are clearly inadequate for the long-period orderings.

  9. Investigations of the tornado wind energy system

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, J.T.

    1982-06-01

    Current test results are presented on the Tornado Wind Energy System (TWES). The objective of the study was to determine the performance and potential of TWES systems using wind tunnel models. Experimental results on system performance with a simple bladed turbine in both the Grumman Research Tunnel and Langley V/STOL Tunnel are presented, followed by descriptions of a larger, 15-ft model and data from tests of a 30-in turbine, as well as results from a cost analysis. It is concluded that TWES has a good commercial potential.

  10. Career Directions--Renewable Energy Systems Integrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleeman, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy systems are beginning to appear everywhere. Solar modules are creating "blue roofs" that convert the energy from the sun into household electricity. Solar thermal systems on roofs can generate hot water. Wind turbines catch breezes to provide even more electricity. Recommendations for saving energy, specifying systems for…

  11. Electric utility transmission and distribution upgrade deferral benefits from modular electricity storage : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, James M.

    2009-06-01

    The work documented in this report was undertaken as part of an ongoing investigation of innovative and potentially attractive value propositions for electricity storage by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Electricity Storage Systems (ESS) Program. This study characterizes one especially attractive value proposition for modular electricity storage (MES): electric utility transmission and distribution (T&D) upgrade deferral. The T&D deferral benefit is characterized in detail. Also presented is a generalized framework for estimating the benefit. Other important and complementary (to T&D deferral) elements of possible value propositions involving MES are also characterized.

  12. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tainzhen; Liu, Xaiobing

    2009-11-01

    With the current movement toward net zero energy buildings, many technologies are promoted with emphasis on their superior energy efficiency. The variable refrigerant flow (VRF) and ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are probably the most competitive technologies among these. However, there are few studies reporting the energy efficiency of VRF systems compared with GSHP systems. In this article, a preliminary comparison of energy efficiency between the air-source VRF and GSHP systems is presented. The computer simulation results show that GSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRF system for conditioning a small office building in two selected US climates. In general, GSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRV system, especially when the building has significant heating loads. For buildings with less heating loads, the GSHP system could still perform better than the air-source VRF system in terms of energy efficiency, but the resulting energy savings may be marginal.

  13. Renewable energy delivery systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Howard Andrew

    2013-12-10

    A system, method and/or apparatus for the delivery of energy at a site, at least a portion of the energy being delivered by at least one or more of a plurality of renewable energy technologies, the system and method including calculating the load required by the site for the period; calculating the amount of renewable energy for the period, including obtaining a capacity and a percentage of the period for the renewable energy to be delivered; comparing the total load to the renewable energy available; and, implementing one or both of additional and alternative renewable energy sources for delivery of energy to the site.

  14. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Novel Liquid Air Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, X. D.; Wang, S. X.; Zhang, X. L.; Cui, C.; Chen, L. B.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, J. J.

    In this study, a novel liquid air energy storage system for electrical power load shifting application is introduced. It is a combination of an air liquefaction cycle and a gas turbine power generation cycle without fuel combustion. Thermodynamic analysis is conducted to investigate the performance of this system. The results show that liquid air energy storage systems could be very effective systems for electrical power storage with high efficiency, high energy density and extensive application prospects.

  15. Integrated energy management study. Energy efficient transport program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Integrated Energy Management (IEM) Study investigated the practicality and feasibility of a closed-loop energy management system for transport aircraft. The study involved: (1) instrumentation and collection of in-flight data for a United Airlines 727-200 flying 80 revenue flights throughout the United Airlines network,(2) analysis of the in-flight data to select representative city pairs and establish operational procedures employed in flying a reference flight profile, (3) simulation of the reference profile in a fast-time model to verify the model and establish performance values against which to measure IEM benefits, (4) development of IEM algorithms, and (5) assessment of the IEM concept.

  16. Energy loss in medium-energy ion scattering: A combined theoretical and experimental study of the model system Y on Si(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz-Marquez, M.A.; Parkinson, G.S.; Woodruff, D.P.; Hentz, A.; Grande, P.L.; Schiwietz, G.; Wood, T.J.; Bonet, C.; Tear, S.P.; Bailey, P.; Noakes, T.C.Q.

    2005-08-15

    The energy-loss spectrum associated with scattering of 100 keV H{sup +} ions from Y atoms on Si(111) has been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Measurements were made from Y overlayers, and from the Si(111)(1x1) two-dimensional silicide phase formed by Y on this surface, in various scattering geometries and with different surface preparations. Theoretical simulations were conducted based on calculations of the energy loss experienced in specific ion trajectories through the surface, using coupled-channel calculations to describe inner-shell ionization and excitation as a function of impact parameter. The experimental results indicate that additional broadening contributions arise from surface inhomogeneity and roughness, but for near-normal incident and outgoing trajectories the theory and experiment agree quite well. The calculations show that, even for the ideal two-dimensional silicide phase in which the Y atoms lie just below the surface, significant energy loss arises from interaction of the ions with surrounding Si atoms, leading to a complete loss of intensity at zero energy loss.

  17. Dark energy in systems of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.

    2013-11-01

    The precise observational data of the Hubble Space Telescope have been used to study nearby galaxy systems. The main result is the detection of dark energy in groups, clusters, and flows of galaxies on a spatial scale of about 1-10 Mpc. The local density of dark energy in these systems, which is determined by various methods, is close to the global value or even coincides with it. A theoretical model of the nearby Universe has been constructed, which describes the Local Group of galaxies with the flow of dwarf galaxies receding from this system. The key physical parameter of the group-flow system is zero gravity radius, which is the distance at which the gravity of dark matter is compensated by dark-energy antigravity. The model predicts the existence of local regions of space where Einstein antigravity is stronger than Newton gravity. Six such regions have been revealed in the data of the Hubble space telescope. The nearest of these regions is at a distance of 1-3 Mpc from the center of the Milky Way. Antigravity in this region is several times stronger than gravity. Quasiregular flows of receding galaxies, which are accelerated by the dark-energy antigravity, exist in these regions. The model of the nearby Universe at the scale of groups of galaxies (˜1 Mpc) can be extended to the scale of clusters (˜10 Mpc). The systems of galaxies with accelerated receding flows constitute a new and probably widespread class of metagalactic populations. Strong dynamic effects of local dark energy constitute the main characteristic feature of these systems.

  18. Energy Systems Fabrication Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Energy Systems Fabrication Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The Energy Systems Fabrication Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) manufactures components for fuel cells and electrochemical cells using a variety of manufacturing techniques. Fabricated components include catalysts, thin-film and gas diffusion electrodes, and membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). The laboratory supports NREL's fuel cell and electrochemical cell related research. The main focus of the laboratory is to provide support for fuel cell research that is performed in adjacent laboratories. The laboratory enables NREL to manufacture fuel cells in-house using, for example, experimental catalyst developed at NREL. It further enables the creation of MEAs containing artificial defects required for the systematic study of performance and lifetime effects and the evaluation of in-house and externally developed quality control diagnostics for high volume production of fuel cell. Experiments performed in the laboratory focus mainly on the development of alternative fuel cell manufacturing methods.

  19. Energy Management System (EMS) study, Fort Belvoir, Virginia, Department of the Army, Baltimore District, Corps of Engineers; executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, E.Y.

    1995-11-01

    General Location; Fort Belvoir is an 8,656 acre Post held fee simple by the US Army. It is located in the Commonwealth of Virginia, 14 miles south of Washington, D.C., situated primarily on a peninsula of the Potomac River. Interstate 95 and US Route 1 provide primary transportation links to Norfolk, Washington, DC, and other cities. Fort Belvoir is an Army Installation under the Command of the United States Military District of Washington (MDW). Installation Mission: Since 1988 and its transfer to the MDW, Fort Belvoir`s mission has shifted from training to service to MDW and the National Capitol Region (NCR). Within its eight mission elements are: contingency military support to the NCR, Regional Administrative Center, Regional Logistics Support, Regional Recreation Center, Classroom Center, Housing and other regional activities. The Installation is now referred to as `U.S. Army Fort Belvoir`. Ft. Belvoir has been tasked, by Executive Order 12902, with reducing the total energy consumption on the Installation by 30% of the FY1985 level by the year FY2005. The purpose of this study is to determine the most effective Energy Management Systems (EMS) to install to assist in meeting this challenge. The analysis performed was based upon five buildings of different function, occupancy and scheduling, as well as different types of mechanical systems. Three different EMS types were analyzed for their advantages and applicability to each building. The results of this study are to be used to evaluate other buildings on the Installation. The three types of systems analyzed for this study are the FM Relay (FMR), the Power Line Carrier (PLC) and the Direct Digital Control (DDC) Systems.

  20. Nondynamical correlation energy in model molecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chojnacki, Henryk

    The hypersurfaces for the deprotonation processes have been studied at the nonempirical level for H3O+, NH+4, PH+4, and H3S+ cations within their correlation consistent basis set. The potential energy curves were calculated and nondynamical correlation energies analyzed. We have found that the restricted Hartree-Fock wavefunction leads to the improper dissociation limit and, in the three latest cases requires multireference description. We conclude that these systems may be treated as a good models for interpretation of the proton transfer mechanism as well as for testing one-determinantal or multireference cases.

  1. Hybrid Energy System Modeling in Modelica

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Binder; Christiaan J. J. Paredis; Humberto E. Garcia

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a Hybrid Energy System (HES) configuration is modeled in Modelica. Hybrid Energy Systems (HES) have as their defining characteristic the use of one or more energy inputs, combined with the potential for multiple energy outputs. Compared to traditional energy systems, HES provide additional operational flexibility so that high variability in both energy production and consumption levels can be absorbed more effectively. This is particularly important when including renewable energy sources, whose output levels are inherently variable, determined by nature. The specific HES configuration modeled in this paper include two energy inputs: a nuclear plant, and a series of wind turbines. In addition, the system produces two energy outputs: electricity and synthetic fuel. The models are verified through simulations of the individual components, and the system as a whole. The simulations are performed for a range of component sizes, operating conditions, and control schemes.

  2. Future energy system in environment, economy, and energy problems (2) various nuclear energy system evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Ujita, Hiroshi; Tashimo, Masanori

    2006-07-01

    Role and potentials of nuclear energy system in the energy options are discussed from the viewpoint of sustainable development with protecting from global warming by using the energy module structure of GRAPE model. They change and are affected dramatically by different sets of energy characteristics, nuclear behavior and energy policy even under the moderate set of presumptions. Introduction of thousands of reactors in the end of the century seems inevitable for better life and cleaner earth, but it will not come without efforts and cost. The analysis suggests the need of long term planning and R and D efforts under the wisdom. (authors)

  3. Engineered Geothermal Systems Energy Return On Energy Investment

    SciTech Connect

    Mansure, A J

    2012-12-10

    Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. Too often comparisons of energy systems use efficiency when EROI would be more appropriate. For geothermal electric power generation, EROI is determined by the electricity delivered to the consumer compared to the energy consumed to construct, operate, and decommission the facility. Critical factors in determining the EROI of Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) are examined in this work. These include the input energy embodied into the system. Embodied energy includes the energy contained in the materials, as well as, that consumed in each stage of manufacturing from mining the raw materials to assembling the finished system. Also critical are the system boundaries and value of the energy heat is not as valuable as electrical energy. The EROI of an EGS depends upon a number of factors that are currently unknown, for example what will be typical EGS well productivity, as well as, reservoir depth, temperature, and temperature decline rate. Thus the approach developed is to consider these factors as parameters determining EROI as a function of number of wells needed. Since the energy needed to construct a geothermal well is a function of depth, results are provided as a function of well depth. Parametric determination of EGS EROI is calculated using existing information on EGS and US Department of Energy (DOE) targets and is compared to the minimum EROI an energy production system should have to be an asset rather than a liability.

  4. Fermilab D-0 Experimental Facility: Energy conservation report and mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis study

    SciTech Connect

    Krstulovich, S.F.

    1987-10-31

    This report is developed as part of the Fermilab D-0 Experimental Facility Project Title II Design Documentation Update. As such, it concentrates primarily on HVAC mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis.

  5. Technion Libraries Systems Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Pauline

    This study is aimed at clarifying the objectives of the Technion Libraries' Systems, both within the Technion and as a national information resource, by defining the structure, organization, and methods to achieve these objectives. It considers Technion's future plans and current library practices as based on reports on the system, Technion…

  6. Water and Energy Savings using Demand Hot Water Recirculating Systems in Residential Homes: A Case Study of Five Homes in Palo Alto, California

    SciTech Connect

    Ally, M.R.

    2002-11-14

    This report summarizes a preliminary study aimed at estimating the potential of saving potable water, (and the electrical energy used to heat it), that is presently lost directly to the drain while occupants wait for hot water to arrive at the faucet (point of use). Data were collected from five single-family homes in Palo Alto, California. Despite the small sample size in this study, the results make a compelling case for retrofitting homes with hot water recirculation systems to eliminate unnecessary wastage of water at the point of use. Technical as well as behavioral and attitudinal changes towards water conservation are necessary for a fulfilling and successful conservation effort. This report focuses on the technical issues, but behavioral issues are also noted, which may be factored into future studies involving local and state governments and utility companies.

  7. A study on the spectroscopic, energy band, and optoelectronic properties of α,ω-dihexylsexithiophene/tris(8-hydroxyquinolinate) gallium blends; DH6T/Gaq3 composite system.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Fahmi F; Yahya, Mohd Yazid; Ketuly, Kamal Aziz; Muhammad, Abdulkader Jaleel; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2016-12-01

    In this work the optical response, spectroscopic behaviour, and optoelectronic properties of solution and solid state composite systems based on α,ω-dihexylsexithiophene/tris(8-hydroxyquinolinate) gallium (DH6T/Gaq3) are studied upon the incorporation of different molar percentages of Gaq3. UV-vis, PL, FTIR spectrophotometers and SEM technique were utilized to perform the investigations. The results showed a reduced energy band (Eg) (from 2.33eV to 1.83eV) and a broadened absorption spectrum for the blend system when 29.8% molar of Gaq3 was incorporated. These were attributed to the enhanced intermolecular interactions that are brought about by the increased strength of π-π overlap between the molecular moieties. A mathematical formula was developed to interpret the non-monotonic change occurred in Eg, while numerical calculations have been made to assign the type and nature of the electronic transitions governing the spectroscopic behaviour of the system. The results were elaborated and comprehensively discussed in terms of the exciton generation, energy band theory, molecular interactions, and spatial geometry. PMID:27372510

  8. Michigan School District Buys Energy Management System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technological Horizons in Education, 1982

    1982-01-01

    With the aid of a federal grant for energy conservation, the Warren Consolidated School System (Michigan) will purchase a Margaux 6400 Building Management system to manage energy usage in 35 district buildings. Reasons for selecting the system and system capabilities are briefly discussed. (Author/JN)

  9. Kauai Island Utility Cooperative energy storage study.

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, Abbas Ali; Yamane, Mike; Murray, Aaron T.

    2009-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performed an assessment of the benefits of energy storage for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative. This report documents the methodology and results of this study from a generation and production-side benefits perspective only. The KIUC energy storage study focused on the economic impact of using energy storage to shave the system peak, which reduces generator run time and consequently reduces fuel and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. It was determined that a 16-MWh energy storage system would suit KIUC's needs, taking into account the size of the 13 individual generation units in the KIUC system and a system peak of 78 MW. The analysis shows that an energy storage system substantially reduces the run time of Units D1, D2, D3, and D5 - the four smallest and oldest diesel generators at the Port Allen generating plant. The availability of stored energy also evens the diurnal variability of the remaining generation units during the off- and on-peak periods. However, the net economic benefit is insufficient to justify a load-leveling type of energy storage system at this time. While the presence of storage helps reduce the run time of the smaller and older units, the economic dispatch changes and the largest most efficient unit in the KIUC system, the 27.5-MW steam-injected combustion turbine at Kapaia, is run for extra hours to provide the recharge energy for the storage system. The economic benefits of the storage is significantly reduced because the charging energy for the storage is derived from the same fuel source as the peak generation source it displaces. This situation would be substantially different if there were a renewable energy source available to charge the storage. Especially, if there is a wind generation resource introduced in the KIUC system, there may be a potential of capturing the load-leveling benefits as well as using the storage to dampen the dynamic instability that the wind generation could introduce into

  10. Proceedings of the DOE chemical energy storage and hydrogen energy systems contracts review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    Sessions were held on electrolysis-based hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen production, hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen storage materials, end-use applications and system studies, chemical heat pump/chemical energy storage systems, systems studies and assessment, thermochemical hydrogen production cycles, advanced production concepts, and containment materials. (LHK)

  11. In situ energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction system for time-resolved thin-film growth studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellmer, K.; Mientus, R.; Weiß, V.; Rossner, H.

    2003-03-01

    Energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) with synchrotron light can be used for in situ-structural analysis during polycrystalline thin-film growth, due to its fast data collection and the fixed diffraction angle. An in situ deposition and analysis set-up for the investigation of nucleation and growth of thin films during magnetron sputtering was constructed and installed at the synchrotron radiation source Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungs Labor (Hamburg). The polychromatic synchrotron beam passes the sputtering chamber through Kapton windows and hits the substrate with the growing film. The diffracted beam, observed under a fixed diffraction angle of between 1° and 10° was energy-analysed by a high-purity germanium detector. The measurement time for a single XRD spectrum can be as short as 10 s for a beam line at a bending magnet, which allows a time-resolved monitoring of film growth. The performance of the in situ EDXRD set-up is demonstrated for the growth of zinc oxide and tin-doped indium oxide films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering from ceramic and metallic targets. From the position and the width of the diffraction lines the internal mechanical strain and the grain size of the growing films can be derived. The prospects for thin-film growth investigations using such an instrument are assessed.

  12. Emissions and energy efficiency assessment of baseload wind energy systems.

    PubMed

    Denholm, Paul; Kulcinski, Gerald L; Holloway, Tracey

    2005-03-15

    The combination of wind energy generation and energy storage can produce a source of electricity that is functionally equivalent to a baseload coal or nuclear power plant. A model was developed to assess the technical and environmental performance of baseload wind energy systems using compressed air energy storage. The analysis examined several systems that could be operated in the midwestern United States under a variety of operating conditions. The systems can produce substantially more energy than is required from fossil or other primary sources to construct and operate them. By operation at a capacity factor of 80%, each evaluated system achieves an effective primary energy efficiency of at least five times greater than the most efficient fossil combustion technology, with greenhouse gas emission rates less than 20% of the least emitting fossil technology currently available. Life-cycle emission rates of NOx and SO2 are also significantly lower than fossil-based systems. PMID:15819254

  13. Theoretical study of network design methodologies for the aerial relay system. [energy consumption and air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, J. M.; Simpson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The aerial relay system network design problem is discussed. A generalized branch and bound based algorithm is developed which can consider a variety of optimization criteria, such as minimum passenger travel time and minimum liner and feeder operating costs. The algorithm, although efficient, is basically useful for small size networks, due to its nature of exponentially increasing computation time with the number of variables.

  14. Energy Management System Lowers U.S. Navy Energy Costs Through PV System Interconnection (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    To meet the U.S. Navy's energy goals, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) spent two years collaborating on demonstrations that tested market-ready energy efficiency measures, renewable energy generation, and energy systems integration. One such technology - an energy management system - was identified as a promising method for reducing energy use and costs, and can contribute to increasing energy security.

  15. Electric vehicle energy management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaoui, Chakib

    This thesis investigates and analyzes novel strategies for the optimum energy management of electric vehicles (EVs). These are aimed to maximize the useful life of the EV batteries and make the EV more practical in order to increase its acceptability to market. The first strategy concerns the right choice of the batteries for the EV according to the user's driving habits, which may vary. Tests conducted at the University of Massachusetts Lowell battery lab show that the batteries perform differently from one manufacturer to the other. The second strategy was to investigate the fast chargeability of different batteries, which leads to reduce the time needed to recharge the EV battery pack. Tests were conducted again to prove that only few battery types could be fast charged. Test data were used to design a fast battery charger that could be installed in an EV charging station. The third strategy was the design, fabrication and application of an Electric Vehicle Diagnostic and Rejuvenation System (EVDRS). This system is based on Mosfet Controlled Thyristors (MCTs). It is capable of quickly identifying any failing battery(s) within the EV pack and rejuvenating the whole battery pack without dismantling them and unloading them. A novel algorithm to rejuvenate Electric Vehicle Sealed Lead Acid Batteries is described. This rejuvenation extends the useful life of the batteries and makes the EV more competitive. The fourth strategy was to design a thermal management system for EV, which is crucial to the safe operation, and the achievement of normal/optimal performance of, electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A novel approach for EV thermal management, based on Pettier-Effect heat pumps, was designed, fabricated and tested in EV. It shows the application of this type of technology for thermal management of EVs.

  16. Energy Systems Integration: A Convergence of Ideas

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Garrett, B.; MacMillan, S.; Rice, B.; Komomua, C.; O'Malley, M.; Zimmerle, D.

    2012-07-01

    Energy systems integration (ESI) enables the effective analysis, design, and control of these interactions and interdependencies along technical, economic, regulatory, and social dimensions. By focusing on the optimization of energy from all systems, across all pathways, and at all scales, we can better understand and make use of the co-benefits that result to increase reliability and performance, reduce cost, and minimize environmental impacts. This white paper discusses systems integration and the research in new control architectures that are optimized at smaller scales but can be aggregated to optimize energy systems at any scale and would allow replicable energy solutions across boundaries of existing and new energy pathways.

  17. World Energy Projection System Plus: An Overview

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report contains a summary description of the methodology and scope of WEPS and each of its component models. WEPS is a computer-based, energy modeling system of long-term international energy markets for the period through 2035. The system was used to produce the International Energy Outlook 2011.

  18. Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, William R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

  19. Research for Electric Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W.E.

    1991-06-01

    This report documents the technical progress in investigations. The first investigation is concerned with the measurement of magnetic fields in support of epidemiogical and in vitro studies of biological field effects. NIST cohosted a workshop on exposure and biological parameters that should be considered during the vitro studies with extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields. Also, equations were developed to predict the magnetic field in a parallel plate magnetic field exposure system. The second investigation is concerned with two different activities: the detection of trace levels of S{sub 2}F{sub 10} in SF{sub 6} and the development of an improved stochastic analyzer for pulsating phenomena (SAPP). The detection of S{sub 2}F{sub 10} in the presence of SF{sub 6} using mass-spectrometric detection coupled to a gas chromatograph is difficult because of the similar mass spectra. A technique is described that enables the detection of S{sub 2}F{sub 10} in gaseous SF{sub 6} down to the ppb level using a modified gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The new system was applied to an investigation of the stochastic behavior of negative corona (Trichel pulses) and the effect of a dielectric barrier on these discharges. The third investigation is concerned with breakdown and prebreakdown phenomena in liquid dielectrics. The activity reported here was a study of negative steamers preceding electric breakdown in hexanes. Using the image preserving optical delay, the growth of the streamers associated with partial discharges at a point cathode are photographed at high magnification. The last investigation is concerned with the evaluation and improvement of methods for measuring fast transients in electrical power systems such as might be associated with an electromagnetic impulse. A compact resistive divider, NIST4, was designed. It is anticipated that this divider together with some Kerr electro-optical devices will be used as the reference system at NIST.

  20. Test report : Princeton power systems prototype energy storage system.

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-08-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprised of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. Princeton Power Systems has developed an energy storage system that utilizes lithium ion phosphate batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the Princeton Power Systems Prototype Energy Storage System.

  1. A theoretical study of the vibrational energy spectrum of the HOCl/HClO system on an accurate {ital ab initio} potential energy surface

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.A.; Skokov, S.; Bowman, J.M.

    1999-10-01

    A new, global analytical potential energy surface is constructed for the X&hthinsp;{sup 1}A{sup {prime}} electronic ground state of HOCl that accurately includes the HClO isomer. The potential is obtained by using accurate {ital ab initio} data from a previously published surface [Skokov {ital et al.}, J. Chem. Phys. {bold 109}, 2662 (1998)], as well as a significant number of new data for the HClO region of the surface at the same multireference configuration interaction, complete basis set limit level of theory. Vibrational energy levels and intensities are computed for both HOCl and HClO up to the OH+Cl dissociation limit and above the isomerization barrier. After making only minor adjustments to the {ital ab initio} surface, the errors with respect to experiment for HOCl are generally within a few cm{sup {minus}1} for 22 vibrational levels with the largest error being 26 cm{sup {minus}1}. A total of 813 bound vibrational states are calculated for HOCl. The HClO potential well supports 57 localized states, of which only the first 3 are bound. The strongest dipole transitions for HClO were computed for the fundamentals{emdash}33, 2.9, and 25 km/mol for {nu}{sub 1}, {nu}{sub 2}, and {nu}{sub 3}, respectively. From exact J=1 ro-vibrational calculations, state dependent rotational constants have been calculated for HClO. Lastly, resonance calculations with the new potential demonstrate that the presence of the HClO minimum has a negligible effect on the resonance states of HOCl near the dissociation threshold due to the relatively high and wide isomerization barrier. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Technology Roadmap. Energy Loss Reduction and Recovery in Industrial Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-11-01

    To help guide R&D decision-making and gain industry insights on the top opportunities for improved energy systems, ITP sponsored the Energy Loss Reduction and Recoveryin Energy Systems Roadmapping Workshopin April 2004 in Baltimore, Maryland. This Technology Roadmapis based largely on the results of the workshop and additional industrial energy studies supported by ITP and EERE. It summarizes industry feedback on the top opportunities for R&D investments in energy systems, and the potential for national impacts on energy use and the environment.

  3. Sampling strategies for environmental data useful in design modification of ocean energy systems: an OTEC case study

    SciTech Connect

    Dengler, A.T.

    1983-01-01

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) program is completing the conceptual design phase and entering the preliminary design phase of a 40 MWe pilot plant. During all design phases, there is a constructive feedback between the design of the plant and the body of data which describes the oceanographic and environmental setting of the plant. The design of the plant helps to define what data are gathered, and the data help refine the design of the plant. During conceptual design, development has proceeded on two baseline designs. Both designs are sited at the coast near Kahe Point, Oahu, Hawaii. The two designs are: (1) a shelf-seated artificial island, connected via a causeway to Oahu, using stainless steel heat exchangers, with the thermal resource enhanced by effluent from a near-by power plant, ammonia working fluid and biocide (chlorine) cleaning; and (2) a shelf-mounted tower 1 mile offshore using submerged aluminum heat exchangers, R-22 (freon) working fluid, and slurry cleaning with biocide (chlorine) backup. The designs are driven by engineering and socio-legal requirements which are in part defined using environmental and oceanographic data pertinent to the site. These requirements may be related to the data through four groupings of environmental concerns: (1) siting, design and operational criteria; (2) thermal resource evaluation and variability; (3) biological and chemical issues; and (4) regulatory requirements. The design, the requirements and the data are continually upgraded in concert.

  4. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 10: Liquid-metal MHD systems. [energy conversion efficiency of electric power plants using liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, R. R.; Lippert, T. E.

    1976-01-01

    Electric Power Plant costs and efficiencies are presented for two basic liquid-metal cycles corresponding to 922 and 1089 K (1200 and 1500 F) for a commercial applications using direct coal firing. Sixteen plant designs are considered for which major component equipment were sized and costed. The design basis for each major component is discussed. Also described is the overall systems computer model that was developed to analyze the thermodynamics of the various cycle configurations that were considered.

  5. The World's Evolving Energy System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbert, M. King

    1981-01-01

    Examines energy production, utilization, and resources within a three-phase framework of human history: (1) small human population and low energy utilization; (2) exponential growth and exploitation of fossil fuels; and (3) a return to a steady state of energy utilization. (SK)

  6. BWID System Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, M.C.; Rudin, M.J.; Morrison, J.L.; Richardson, J.G.

    1991-12-31

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) System Design Study is to identify and evaluate technology process options for the cradle-to-grave remediation of Transuranic (TRU)-Contaminated Waste Pits and Trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Emphasis is placed upon evaluating system configuration options and associated functional and operational requirements for retrieving and treating the buried wastes. A Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter was developed to evaluate the identified remediation systems and their enabling technologies based upon system requirements and quantification of technical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability (CERCLA) balancing criteria. Remediation systems will also be evaluated with respect to regulatory and institutional acceptance and cost-effectiveness.

  7. BWID System Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, M.C.; Rudin, M.J.; Morrison, J.L.; Richardson, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) System Design Study is to identify and evaluate technology process options for the cradle-to-grave remediation of Transuranic (TRU)-Contaminated Waste Pits and Trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Emphasis is placed upon evaluating system configuration options and associated functional and operational requirements for retrieving and treating the buried wastes. A Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter was developed to evaluate the identified remediation systems and their enabling technologies based upon system requirements and quantification of technical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability (CERCLA) balancing criteria. Remediation systems will also be evaluated with respect to regulatory and institutional acceptance and cost-effectiveness.

  8. Work and energy in rotating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjarres, Diego A.; Herrera, William J.; Diaz, Rodolfo A.

    2013-08-01

    The way in which forces transform from an inertial reference frame to a non-inertial rotating frame is well studied in the literature. However, the treatment of the work-energy theorem in rotating systems is not considered in textbooks. In this paper, we show that the work-energy theorem can still be applied to a closed system of particles in a rotating reference frame, as long as the work of fictitious forces is properly included in the formalism. The Coriolis force does not contribute to the work coming from fictitious forces. It is remarkable that real forces that do no work in an inertial reference frame can do work in the rotating reference frame and vice versa.

  9. Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Energy System Strategies

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-06-17

    DANESS is an integrated process model for nuclear energy systems allowing the simulation of multiple reactors and fuel cycles in a continuously changing nuclear reactor park configuration. The model is energy demand driven and simulates all nuclear fuel cycle facilites, up to 10 reactors and fuels. Reactor and fuel cycle facility history are traced and the cost of generating energy is calculated per reactor and for total nuclear energy system. The DANESS model aims atmore » performing dynamic systems analysis of nuclear energy development used for integrated analysis of development paths for nuclear energy, parameter scoping for new nuclear energy systems, economic analysis of nuclear energy, government role analysis, and education.« less

  10. Neutron imaging for geothermal energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip R; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Polsky, Yarom

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal systems extract heat energy from the interior of the earth using a working fluid, typically water. Three components are required for a commercially viable geothermal system: heat, fluid, and permeability. Current commercial electricity production using geothermal energy occurs where the three main components exist naturally. These are called hydrothermal systems. In the US, there is an estimated 30 GW of base load electrical power potential for hydrothermal sites. Next generation geothermal systems, named Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), have an estimated potential of 4500 GW. EGSs lack in-situ fluid, permeability or both. As such, the heat exchange system must be developed or engineered within the rock. The envisioned method for producing permeability in the EGS reservoir is hydraulic fracturing, which is rarely practiced in the geothermal industry, and not well understood for the rocks typically present in geothermal reservoirs. High costs associated with trial and error learning in the field have led to an effort to characterize fluid flow and fracturing mechanisms in the laboratory to better understand how to design and manage EGS reservoirs. Neutron radiography has been investigated for potential use in this characterization. An environmental chamber has been developed that is suitable for reproduction of EGS pressures and temperatures and has been tested for both flow and precipitations studies with success for air/liquid interface imaging and 3D reconstruction of precipitation within the core.

  11. Central airport energy systems using alternate energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop the concept of a central airport energy system designed to supply energy for aircraft ground support and terminal complex utility systems using municipal waste as a fuel. The major task was to estimate the potential for reducing aircraft and terminal fuel consumption by the use of alternate renewable energy sources. Additional efforts included an assessment of indirect benefits of reducing airport atmospheric and noise pollution.

  12. High energy chemical laser system

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, D.W.; Pearson, R.K.

    1975-12-23

    A high energy chemical laser system is described wherein explosive gaseous mixtures of a reducing agent providing hydrogen isotopes and interhalogen compounds are uniformly ignited by means of an electrical discharge, flash- photolysis or an electron beam. The resulting chemical explosion pumps a lasing chemical species, hydrogen fluoride or deuterium fluoride which is formed in the chemical reaction. The generated lasing pulse has light frequencies in the 3- micron range. Suitable interhalogen compounds include bromine trifluoride (BrF$sub 3$), bromine pentafluoride (BrF$sub 5$), chlorine monofluoride (ClF), chlorine trifluoride (ClF$sub 3$), chlorine pentafluoride (ClF$sub 5$), iodine pentafluoride (IF$sub 5$), and iodine heptafluoride (IF$sub 7$); and suitable reducing agents include hydrogen (H$sub 2$), hydrocarbons such as methane (CH$sub 4$), deuterium (D$sub 2$), and diborane (B$sub 2$H$sub 6$), as well as combinations of the gaseous compound and/or molecular mixtures of the reducing agent.

  13. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management system - An Italian case study on the quality of MSW data

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchini, A.; Pellegrini, M.; Saccani, C.

    2011-09-15

    This paper analyses the way numerical data on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) quantities are recorded, processed and then reported for six of the most meaningful Italian Districts and shows the difficulties found during the comparison of these Districts, starting from the lack of homogeneity and the fragmentation of the data indispensable to make this critical analysis. These aspects are often ignored, but data certainty are the basis for serious MSW planning. In particular, the paper focuses on overall Source Separation Level (SSL) definition and on the influence that Special Waste (SW) assimilated to MSW has on it. An investigation was then necessary to identify new parameters in place of overall SSL. Moreover, these parameters are not only important for a waste management system performance measure, but are fundamental in order to design and check management plan and to identify possible actions to improve it.

  14. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management system--an Italian case study on the quality of MSW data.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, A; Pellegrini, M; Saccani, C

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the way numerical data on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) quantities are recorded, processed and then reported for six of the most meaningful Italian Districts and shows the difficulties found during the comparison of these Districts, starting from the lack of homogeneity and the fragmentation of the data indispensable to make this critical analysis. These aspects are often ignored, but data certainty are the basis for serious MSW planning. In particular, the paper focuses on overall Source Separation Level (SSL) definition and on the influence that Special Waste (SW) assimilated to MSW has on it. An investigation was then necessary to identify new parameters in place of overall SSL. Moreover, these parameters are not only important for a waste management system performance measure, but are fundamental in order to design and check management plan and to identify possible actions to improve it. PMID:21486689

  15. Economic Evaluation of Townhouse Solar Energy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar-energy site in Columbia, South Carolina, is comprised of four townhouse apartments. Report summarizes economic evaluation of solar--energy system and projected performance of similar systems in four other selected cities. System is designed to supply 65 percent of heating and 75 percent of hot water.

  16. Dynamic management of integrated residential energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratori, Matteo

    This study combines principles of energy systems engineering and statistics to develop integrated models of residential energy use in the United States, to include residential recharging of electric vehicles. These models can be used by government, policymakers, and the utility industry to provide answers and guidance regarding the future of the U.S. energy system. Currently, electric power generation must match the total demand at each instant, following seasonal patterns and instantaneous fluctuations. Thus, one of the biggest drivers of costs and capacity requirement is the electricity demand that occurs during peak periods. These peak periods require utility companies to maintain operational capacity that often is underutilized, outdated, expensive, and inefficient. In light of this, flattening the demand curve has long been recognized as an effective way of cutting the cost of producing electricity and increasing overall efficiency. The problem is exacerbated by expected widespread adoption of non-dispatchable renewable power generation. The intermittent nature of renewable resources and their non-dispatchability substantially limit the ability of electric power generation of adapting to the fluctuating demand. Smart grid technologies and demand response programs are proposed as a technical solution to make the electric power demand more flexible and able to adapt to power generation. Residential demand response programs offer different incentives and benefits to consumers in response to their flexibility in the timing of their electricity consumption. Understanding interactions between new and existing energy technologies, and policy impacts therein, is key to driving sustainable energy use and economic growth. Comprehensive and accurate models of the next-generation power system allow for understanding the effects of new energy technologies on the power system infrastructure, and can be used to guide policy, technology, and economic decisions. This

  17. Integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    SciTech Connect

    Biagi, C.; Bahar, D.; Teheranian, B.; Vetromile, J.; Quapp, W.J.; Bechtold, T.; Brown, B.; Schwinkendorf, W.; Swartz, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of nonthermal treatment technologies. The study consisted of a systematic assessment of five nonthermal treatment alternatives. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The alternatives considered were innovative nonthermal treatments for organic liquids and sludges, process residue, soil and debris. Vacuum desorption or various washing approaches are considered for treatment of soil, residue and debris. Organic destruction methods include mediated electrochemical oxidation, catalytic wet oxidation, and acid digestion. Other methods studied included stabilization technologies and mercury separation of treatment residues. This study is a companion to the integrated thermal treatment study which examined 19 alternatives for thermal treatment of MLLW waste. The quantities and physical and chemical compositions of the input waste are based on the inventory database developed by the US Department of Energy. The Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) systems were evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 pounds per hour) as the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS). 48 refs., 68 figs., 37 tabs.

  18. Study of cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coykendall, R. E.; Curry, J. K.; Domke, A. E.; Madsen, S. E.

    1976-01-01

    Economic studies were conducted for three general fuel conserving options: (1) improving fuel consumption characteristics of existing aircraft via retrofit modifications; (2) introducing fuel efficient derivations of existing production aircraft and/or introducing fuel efficient, current state-of-the-art new aircraft; and (3) introducing an advanced state-of-the-art turboprop airplane. These studies were designed to produce an optimum airline fleet mix for the years 1980, 1985 and 1990. The fleet selected accommodated a normal growth market by introducing somewhat larger aircraft while solving for maximum departure frequencies and a minimum load factor corresponding to a 15% investment hurdle rate. Fuel burnt per available-seat-mile flown would drop 22% from 1980 to 1990 due to the use of more fuel efficient aircraft designs, larger average aircraft size, and increased seating density. An inflight survey was taken to determine air traveler attitudes towards a new generation of advanced turboprops.

  19. Growth Rates of Global Energy Systems and Future Outlooks

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeoek, Mikael; Li, Junchen; Johansson, Kersti; Snowden, Simon

    2012-03-15

    The world is interconnected and powered by a number of global energy systems using fossil, nuclear, or renewable energy. This study reviews historical time series of energy production and growth for various energy sources. It compiles a theoretical and empirical foundation for understanding the behaviour underlying global energy systems' growth. The most extreme growth rates are found in fossil fuels. The presence of scaling behaviour, i.e. proportionality between growth rate and size, is established. The findings are used to investigate the consistency of several long-range scenarios expecting rapid growth for future energy systems. The validity of such projections is questioned, based on past experience. Finally, it is found that even if new energy systems undergo a rapid 'oil boom'-development-i.e. they mimic the most extreme historical events-their contribution to global energy supply by 2050 will be marginal.

  20. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Environmental Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khalifa, H. Ezzat; Isik, Can; Dannenhoffer, John F. III

    2011-02-23

    s thermal dissatisfaction below a given threshold. The DECS energy usage was calculated using the simplified thermal model. OSFA control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected HIYW control with a thermostat at each workstation were implemented for 3 cities representing 3 different climatic regions and control scenarios. It is shown that optimization allows DECS to deliver a higher level of individual and population thermal comfort while achieving annual energy savings between 14 and 26% compared to OSFA. The optimization model also allowed us to study the influence of the partitions’ thermal resistance and the variability of internal loads at each office. These influences didn’t make significant changes in the optimized energy consumption relative to OSFA. The results show that it is possible to provide thermal comfort for each occupant while saving energy compared to OSFA Furthermore, to simplify the implementation of this approach, a fuzzy logic system has been developed to generalize the overall optimization strategy. Its performance was almost as good as the gradient system. The fuzzy system provided thermal comfort to each occupant and saved energy compared to OSFA. The energy savings of the fuzzy system were not as high as for the gradient-optimized system, but the fuzzy system avoided complete connectivity, and the optimization did not have to be repeated for each population. 3. We employed a detailed CFD model of adjacent occupied cubicles to extend the thermal-circuit model in three significant ways: (a) relax the “office wall” requirement by allowing energy to flow between zones via advection as well as conduction, (b) improve the comfort model to account both for radiation as well as convection heat transfer, and (c) support ventilation systems in which the temperature is stratified, such as in underfloor air distribution systems. Initially, three-dimensional CFD simulations of several cubicle configurations, with

  1. A Preliminary Study of the Application of a Model Animal-Caenorhabidity elegans' Exposure to a Low-Energy Ion Irradiation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuelan; Cai, Kezhou; Feng, Huiyun; Xu, An; Yuan, Hang; Yu, Zengliang

    2007-10-01

    Because of the lack of suitable animal models adapted to high vacuum stress in the low-energy ion implantation system, the bio-effects ion irradiation with an energy less than 50 keV on multi-cellular animal individuals have never been investigated so far. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has proved to be an excellent animal model used for the study of a broad spectrum of biological issues. The purpose of this work was to investigate the viability of this animal under ion irradiation. We studied the protection effects of glycerol and trehalose on the enhancement of nematodes' ability to bear the vacuum stress. The results showed that the survival of the nematodes was enhanced remarkably under long and slow desiccation, even without glycerol and trehalose. 15% glycerol showed a better anti-vacuum stress effect on the nematodes than trehalose did under short-time desiccation. Low-temperature pre-treatment or post-treatment of the samples had no obvious effect on the survival scored after argon ion irradiation. Moreover, little effect was induced by 15% glycerol- and vacuum-exposure on germ cell apoptosis, compared to the untreated control sample. It issuggested that such treatment would provide relatively low background for genotoxic evaluations with ion irradiation.

  2. Renewable Energy Feasibility Study Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rooney, Tim

    2013-10-30

    The Gila River Indian Community (GRIC or the Community) contracted the ANTARES Group, Inc. (“ANTARES”) to assess the feasibility of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. A solar energy project could provide a number of benefits to the Community in terms of potential future energy savings, increased employment, environmental benefits from renewable energy generation and usage, and increased energy self-sufficiency. The study addresses a number of facets of a solar project’s overall feasibility, including:  Technical appropriateness;  Solar resource characteristics and expected system performance;  Levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) economic assessment. The Gila River Indian Community (GRIC or the Community) contracted the ANTARES Group, Inc. (“ANTARES”) to prepare a biomass resource assessment study and evaluate the feasibility of a bioenergy project on Community land. A biomass project could provide a number of benefits to the Community in terms of increased employment, environmental benefits from renewable energy generation and usage, and increased energy self-sufficiency. The study addresses a number of facets of a biomass project’s overall feasibility, including:  Resource analysis and costs;  Identification of potential bioenergy projects;  Technical and economic (levelized cost of energy) modeling for selected project configuration.

  3. Fluid flow systems analysis to save energy

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, P.S.

    1999-07-01

    Industrial processes use rotating equipment (e.g.; pump, fan, blower, centrifugal compressor, positive displacement compressor) and pipe (or duct) to move fluid from point A to B, with many processes using electric motors as the prime mover. Most of the systems in the industry are over-designed to meet a peak load demand which might occur over a small fraction of the time or to satisfy a higher pressure demanded by a much smaller user in the same process. The system over-design will result in a selection of larger but inefficient rotating equipment and electric motor system. A careful life cycle cost and economic evaluation must be undertaken to ensure that the process audit, reengineering and equipment selections are not impacting the industrial process goals, but result in a least optimal cost over the life of the project. The paper will define, discuss, and present various process systems in chemical, hydrocarbon and pulp and paper industries. It will discuss the interactive impact of the changes in the mechanical system configuration and the changes in the process variables to better redesign the system and reduce the cost of operation. it will also present a check list of energy conservation measures (ECM) or opportunities. Such ECMs will be related to hydraulics, system components, process modifications, and system efficiency. Two or three case studies will be presented focusing on various conservation measures that improve electrical operating efficiency of a distillation column system. An incremental cost and payback analysis will be presented to assist the investment in process optimization and energy savings' measures.

  4. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Full Report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Gregory; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  5. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Gregory; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  6. The importance of embodied and operational energy and the use of renewable energy systems (RES) in the domestic sector in Greece: Case study, analysis of a design for a private residence in Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogiatzoglou, Nikolaos

    2007-12-01

    The general framework of this thesis is set by addressing the environmental problems that several countries around the world are facing. Greece is undoubtedly one of them, particularly after failing to comply with its Kyoto Protocol commitments and thus meeting the relevant greenhouse gas emission targets. The project focuses on the built environment and more particularly on the domestic sector. The theoretical part contains the presentation of certain sustainable design principles and techniques, the implementation of which may result in a thermally comfortable and healthy interior, minimising the need for the use of non renewable forms of energy (e.g. oil) to heat and/or cool interior space. More specifically, the aim of this dissertation is to evaluate the environmental performance of an un-built residence, assumed to be built in the northern suburbs of Athens. For that reason its fabric is studied in TAS software the size of the openings, the type of glazing, the amount of certain materials (e.g. insulation and wall thicknesses) and so on are tested. The analysis indicates that the house's cooling and heating loads are reasonable and thus it can be described as environmentally friendly to a certain extent. Additionally, the project seeks to highlight the importance of the embodied and operational energy. This is achieved by studying in detail the case study and by calculating its embodied and operational energy, assuming that its lifetime is approximately 40 years. Furthermore, the residence's carbon footprint is calculated as well as the total structural cost, in an attempt to detect the best scenario that combines at the same time the smallest carbon footprint and cost. The analysis provides evidence that that can be achieved by using thicker insulation in the external concrete walls as well as in the roof. Finally, the use of geothermal and solar energy in the domestic sector is explored the former covering the space heating and cooling needs and the latter

  7. Phase 1 of the First Solar Small Power System Experiment (experimental System No. 1). Volume 1: Technical Studies for Solar Point-focusing, Distributed Collector System, with Energy Conversion at the Collector, Category C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, T. B. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of a solar electric power plant for a small community is evaluated and specific system designs for development and demonstration are selected. All systems investigated are defined as point focusing, distributed receiver concepts, with energy conversion at the collector. The preferred system is comprised of multiple parabolic dish concentrators employing Stirling cycle engines for power conversion. The engine, AC generator, cavity receiver, and integral sodium pool boiler/heat transport system are combined in a single package and mounted at the focus of each concentrator. The output of each concentrator is collected by a conventional electrical distribution system which permits grid-connected or stand-alone operation, depending on the storage system selected.

  8. Introduction to wind energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, H.-J.

    2015-08-01

    This article presents the basic concepts of wind energy and deals with the physics and mechanics of operation. It describes the conversion of wind energy into rotation of turbine, and the critical parameters governing the efficiency of this conversion. After that it presents an overview of various parts and components of windmills. The connection to the electrical grid, the world status of wind energy use for electricity production, the cost situation and research and development needs are further aspects which will be considered.

  9. Proceedings of the Alternate Energy Systems Seminar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Alternative Energy Systems Seminar was held on March 30, 1978, and was sponsored jointly be the Southwest District Office of the U.S. Department of Energy and JPL. The seminar was an experiment in information exchange with the aim of presenting, in a single day, status and prospects for a number of advanced energy systems to a diverse, largely nontechnical audience, and to solicit post-seminar responses from that audience as to the seminar's usefulness. The major systems presented are: (1) Solar Photovoltaic; (2) Geothermal; (3) Cogeneration Power; (4) Solar Thermal; (5) Solar Heating and Cooling; (6) Wind Energy; and (7) Systems Considerations.

  10. The effect of varying soil moisture on the energy balance and CO2 exchange of sunflowers: A study using a mini weighing lysimeter system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Espejo, A.; Verhoef, A.

    2003-04-01

    Soil moisture is, together with nitrogen, the most important limiting factor in the plant global production. Its spatial and temporal evolution will determine the energy, water and carbon budgets and the vegetation distribution. For vegetated surfaces, the evapotranspiration is a large component of the energy balance. Understanding the response of the plants to their environment is critical to estimate this flux. To study the evolution of the evapotranspiration under different conditions we have designed a high precision mini lysimeter system. The aim of this set-up is to get a better insight into the interaction between root-zone soil moisture and canopy exchange processes. The experiment consists of 25 soil-filled perspex boxes, which are arranged in a 5× 5-square. This set-up allows for flexibility in experimental set-up and vegetation types/soil moisture levels, and enables us to mimic within-field, or even within-region, variability, without the experimental difficulties encountered in field trials. The results show how soil water stress promotes a high variability in the canopy development and in the evapotranspiration, thereby affecting other components of the energy balance, especially the sensible heat flux. The effect of this variation on the CO_2 exchange and its impact on the water use efficiency by plants is also discussed. The results will be used to include the impact of soil water stress on canopy gas exchange in a Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer model (SVAT). Furthermore, it will be tested how well a simple SVAT scheme can deal with within and between pixel variability. This study is deemed extremely relevant for large-scale remote sensing and to aid our understanding the impact of climate change on heterogeneous surfaces.

  11. Assessing District Energy Systems Performance Integrated with Multiple Thermal Energy Storages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaie, Behnaz

    The goal of this study is to examine various energy resources in district energy (DE) systems and then DE system performance development by means of multiple thermal energy storages (TES) application. This study sheds light on areas not yet investigated precisely in detail. Throughout the research, major components of the heat plant, energy suppliers of the DE systems, and TES characteristics are separately examined; integration of various configurations of the multiple TESs in the DE system is then analysed. In the first part of the study, various sources of energy are compared, in a consistent manner, financially and environmentally. The TES performance is then assessed from various aspects. Then, TES(s) and DE systems with several sources of energy are integrated, and are investigated as a heat process centre. The most efficient configurations of the multiple TESs integrated with the DE system are investigated. Some of the findings of this study are applied on an actual DE system. The outcomes of this study provide insight for researchers and engineers who work in this field, as well as policy makers and project managers who are decision-makers. The accomplishments of the study are original developments TESs and DE systems. As an original development the Enviro-Economic Function, to balance the economic and environmental aspects of energy resources technologies in DE systems, is developed; various configurations of multiple TESs, including series, parallel, and general grid, are developed. The developed related functions are discharge temperature and energy of the TES, and energy and exergy efficiencies of the TES. The TES charging and discharging behavior of TES instantaneously is also investigated to obtain the charging temperature, the maximum charging temperature, the charging energy flow, maximum heat flow capacity, the discharging temperature, the minimum charging temperature, the discharging energy flow, the maximum heat flow capacity, and performance

  12. Ocean energy researchers information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on ocean energy systems. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. Only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 2 groups of researchers are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers and Non-DOE-Funded Researchers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  13. Studies on design of 351  nm focal plane diagnostic system prototype and focusing characteristic of SGII-upgraded facility at half achievable energy performance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chong; Ji, Lailin; Yang, Lin; Zhao, Dongfeng; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Dong; Zhu, Baoqiang; Lin, Zunqi

    2016-04-01

    In order to obtain the intensity distribution of a 351 nm focal spot and smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) focal plane profile of a SGII-upgraded facility, a type of off-axis imaging system with three spherical mirrors, suitable for a finite distance source point to be imaged near the diffraction limit has been designed. The quality factor of the image system is 1.6 times of the diffraction limit tested by a 1053 nm point source. Because of the absence of a 351 nm point source, we can use a Collins diffraction imaging integral with respect to λ=351  nm, corresponding to a quality factor that is 3.8 times the diffraction limit at 351 nm. The calibration results show that at least the range of ±10  mrad of view field angle and ±50  mm along the axial direction around the optimum object distance can be satisfied with near diffraction limited image that is consistent with the design value. Using this image system, the No. 2 beam of the SGII-upgraded facility has been tested. The test result of the focal spot of final optics assembly (FOA) at 351 nm indicates that about 80% of energy is encompassed in 14.1 times the diffraction limit, while the output energy of the No. 2 beam is 908 J at 1053 nm. According to convolution theorem, the true value of a 351 nm focal spot of FOA is about 12 times the diffraction limit because of the influence of the quality factor. Further experimental studies indicate that the RMS value along the smoothing direction is less than 15.98% in the SSD spot test experiment. Computer simulations show that the quality factor of the image system used in the experiment has almost no effect on the SSD focal spot test. The image system can remarkably distort the SSD focal spot distribution under the circumstance of the quality factor 15 times worse than the diffraction limit. The distorted image shows a steep slope in the contour of the SSD focal spot along the smoothing direction that otherwise has a relatively flat top region

  14. Programming models for energy-aware systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Haitao

    Energy efficiency is an important goal of modern computing, with direct impact on system operational cost, reliability, usability and environmental sustainability. This dissertation describes the design and implementation of two innovative programming languages for constructing energy-aware systems. First, it introduces ET, a strongly typed programming language to promote and facilitate energy-aware programming, with a novel type system design called Energy Types. Energy Types is built upon a key insight into today's energy-efficient systems and applications: despite the popular perception that energy and power can only be described in joules and watts, real-world energy management is often based on discrete phases and modes, which in turn can be reasoned about by type systems very effectively. A phase characterizes a distinct pattern of program workload, and a mode represents an energy state the program is expected to execute in. Energy Types is designed to reason about energy phases and energy modes, bringing programmers into the optimization of energy management. Second, the dissertation develops Eco, an energy-aware programming language centering around sustainability. A sustainable program built from Eco is able to adaptively adjusts its own behaviors to stay on a given energy budget, avoiding both deficit that would lead to battery drain or CPU overheating, and surplus that could have been used to improve the quality of the program output. Sustainability is viewed as a form of supply and demand matching, and a sustainable program consistently maintains the equilibrium between supply and demand. ET is implemented as a prototyped compiler for smartphone programming on Android, and Eco is implemented as a minimal extension to Java. Programming practices and benchmarking experiments in these two new languages showed that ET can lead to significant energy savings for Android Apps and Eco can efficiently promote battery awareness and temperature awareness in real

  15. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  16. Non-tracking solar energy collector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy collector system is described characterized by an improved concentrator for directing incident rays of solar energy on parallel strip-like segments of a flatplate receiver. Individually mounted reflector modules of a common asymmetrical triangular cross-sectional configuration supported for independent orientation are asymmetric included with vee-trough concentrators for deflecting incident solar energy toward the receiver.

  17. Solar Energy: Solar System Design Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system design fundamentals is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy…

  18. Modeling of battery energy storage in the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Flynn, W.T.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-12-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) developed by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration is a well-recognized model that is used to project the potential impact of new electric generation technologies. The NEMS model does not presently have the capability to model energy storage on the national grid. The scope of this study was to assess the feasibility of, and make recommendations for, the modeling of battery energy storage systems in the Electricity Market of the NEMS. Incorporating storage within the NEMS will allow the national benefits of storage technologies to be evaluated.

  19. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Challenges and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; S.B. Sitton; S.J. Yoon; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing demand of energy and costs of the fossil fuels, coupled with the environmental concerns have resulted in an increased interest in alternative energy sources. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) are being considered which incorporates renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy combined with nuclear reactor and energy storage to meet the peak hours demand imposed on the grid, along with providing process heat for other potential industrial applications. This concept could potentially satisfy various energy demands and improve reliability, robustness and resilience for the entire system as a whole, along with economic and net efficiency gains. This paper provides a brief understanding of potential NHES system and architecture along with the challenges

  20. High Energy Particle Transport Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-12-17

    Version 00 NMTC/JAM is an upgraded version of the code CCC-694/NMTC-JAERI97, which was developed in 1982 at JAERI and is based on the CCC-161/NMTC code system. NMTC/JAM simulates high energy nuclear reactions and nuclear meson transport processes. The applicable energy range of NMTC/JAM was extended in principle up to 200 GeV for nucleons and mesons by introducing the high energy nuclear reaction code Jet-Aa Microscopic (JAM) for the intra-nuclear cascade part. For the evaporation andmore » fission process, a new model, GEM, can be used to describe the light nucleus production from the excited residual nucleus. According to the extension of the applicable energy, the nucleon-nucleus non-elastic, elastic and differential elastic cross section data were upgraded. In addition, the particle transport in a magnetic field was implemented for beam transport calculations. Some new tally functions were added, and the format of input and output of data is more user friendly. These new calculation functions and utilities provide a tool to carry out reliable neutronics study of a large scale target system with complex geometry more accurately and easily than with the previous model. It implements an intranuclear cascade model taking account of the in-medium nuclear effects and the preequilibrium calculation model based on the exciton one. For treating the nucleon transport process, the nucleon-nucleus cross sections are revised to those derived by the systematics of Pearlstein. Moreover, the level density parameter derived by Ignatyuk is included as a new option for particle evaporation calculation. A geometry package based on the Combinatorial Geometry with multi-array system and the importance sampling technique is implemented in the code. Tally function is also employed for obtaining such physical quantities as neutron energy spectra, heat deposition and nuclide yield without editing a history file. The code can simulate both the primary spallation reaction and the

  1. Wind energy systems: program summary

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    The Federal Wind Energy Program (FWEP) was initiated to provide focus, direction and funds for the development of wind power. Each year a summary is prepared to provide the American public with an overview of government sponsored activities in the FWEP. This program summary describes each of the Department of Energy's (DOE) current wind energy projects initiated or renewed during FY 1979 (October 1, 1978 through September 30, 1979) and reflects their status as of April 30, 1980. The summary highlights on-going research, development and demonstration efforts and serves as a record of progress towards the program objectives. It also provides: the program's general management structure; review of last year's achievements; forecast of expected future trends; documentation of the projects conducted during FY 1979; and list of key wind energy publications.

  2. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLOR ENERGY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood

    2004-04-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports solar light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of solar lighting and electric lighting. A benchmark prototype system has been developed to evaluate the HSL system. Sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. A secondary mirror consisting of eight planar-segmented mirrors directs the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) array to produce electricity. During this reporting period, the project team made advancements in the design of the second generation (Alpha) system. For the Alpha system, the eight individual 12 mm fibers have been replaced with a centralized bundle of 3 mm fibers. The TRNSYS Full-Spectrum Solar Energy System model has been updated and new components have been added. The TPV array and nonimaging device have been tested and progress has been made in the fiber transmission models. A test plan was developed for both the high-lumen tests and the study to determine the non-energy benefits of daylighting. The photobioreactor team also made major advancements in the testing of model scale and bench top lab-scale systems.

  3. Life cycle optimization of building energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman, Ayat; Norman, Bryan; Ries, Robert

    2008-02-01

    A life cycle optimization model intended to potentially reduce the environmental impacts of energy use in commercial buildings is presented. A combination of energy simulation, life cycle assessment, and operations research techniques are used to develop the model. In addition to conventional energy systems, such as the electric grid and a gas boiler, cogeneration systems which concurrently generate power and heat are investigated as an alternative source of energy. Cogeneration systems appeared to be an attractive alternative to conventional systems when considering life cycle environmental criteria. Internal combustion engine and microturbine (MT) cogeneration systems resulted in a reduction of up to 38% in global warming potential compared with conventional systems, while solid oxide fuel cell and MT cogeneration systems resulted in a reduction of up to 94% in tropospheric ozone precursor potential (TOPP). Results include a Pareto-optimal frontier between reducing costs and reducing the selected environmental indicators.

  4. PV System Energy Evaluation Method (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes a comparison of the "predicted" energy (based on historical weather data) with the "expected" energy (based on the measured weather data) to determine whether a PV system is performing as modeled in order to verify the accuracy of a model. A key factor in defining this energy test is determining the test boundary so that weather variations are not inadvertently included in what is considered to be PV system performance.

  5. Energy accounting and optimization for mobile systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Mian

    Energy accounting determines how much a software process contributes to the total system energy consumption. It is the foundation for evaluating software and has been widely used by operating system based energy management. While various energy accounting policies have been tried, there is no known way to evaluate them directly simply because it is hard to track every hardware use by software in a heterogeneous multi-core system like modern smartphones and tablets. In this thesis, we provide the ground truth for energy accounting based on multi-player game theory and offer the first evaluation of existing energy accounting policies, revealing their important flaws. The proposed ground truth is based on Shapley value, a single value solution to multi-player games of which four axiomatic properties are natural and self-evident to energy accounting. To obtain the Shapley value-based ground truth, one only needs to know if a process is active during the time under question and the system energy consumption during the same time. We further provide a utility optimization formulation of energy management and show, surprisingly, that energy accounting does not matter for existing energy management solutions that control the energy use of a process by giving it an energy budget, or budget based energy management (BEM). We show an optimal energy management (OEM) framework can always outperform BEM. While OEM does not require any form of energy accounting, it is related to Shapley value in that both require the system energy consumption for all possible combination of processes under question. We provide a novel system solution that meet this requirement by acquiring system energy consumption in situ for an OS scheduler period, i.e.,10 ms. We report a prototype implementation of both Shapley value-based energy accounting and OEM based scheduling. Using this prototype and smartphone workload, we experimentally demonstrate how erroneous existing energy accounting policies can

  6. The Essene Way renewable energy system

    SciTech Connect

    Bath, D.

    1997-05-01

    This article describes the large photovoltaic system which powers the Essene Way Resort on Ambergris Caye off the coast of Belize. Included in the article are descriptions of the collaborative efforts needed to develop the system, the system itself, how it was installed, and how it now operates. Project partners were Solar Design Associates, Inc. and Advanced Energy Systems.

  7. Energy Systems Integration: NREL + Advanced Energy (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This fact sheet describes the collaboration between NREL and Advanced Energy Industries at the ESIF to test its advanced photovoltaic inverter technology with the ESIF's power hardware-in-the-loop system and megawatt-scale grid simulators.

  8. Fundamental Study for Introduction of Renewable Energy into Syowa Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Shogo; Abiko, Haruhiko; Kurihara, Junichi; Ishizawa, Kenji; Endo, Nobuhiko

    To reduce the volume of fuel consumed at Syowa base in Antarctica, we study the proper renewable energy system (RE system) to supply both electrical and thermal energy. Though a lot of photovoltaic power generation systems (PV systems) and wind power generation systems (WG systems) have already been installed all over the world, climate is quite different from other area and we have few experiences on renewable energy system in Antarctica. Moreover, though thermal load is much bigger than electrical load all the year round, both PV system and WG system generate only electrical energy. Therefore we proposed a power supply system composed of PV, WG and heat pump to convert a part of electrical energy to thermal energy. It is important to clear the proper system capacity, operational method of heat pump in this system. As a first step, we studied those items on this system without energy storage system by a simulation. We found that proper operational method of heat pump is affected by capacity of RE system and WG system is useful more than PV system.

  9. Simulation of Energy Management Systems in EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, P. G.; Torcellini, P. A.; Crawley, D.

    2008-01-01

    An energy management system (EMS) is a dedicated computer that can be programmed to control all of a building's energy-related systems, including heating, cooling, ventilation, hot water, interior lighting, exterior lighting, on-site power generation, and mechanized systems for shading devices, window actuators, and double facade elements. Recently a new module for simulating an EMS was added to the EnergyPlus whole-building energy simulation program. An essential part of the EMS module is the EnergyPlus Runtime Language (ERL), which is a simple programming language that is used to specify the EMS control algorithms. The new EMS controls and the flexibility of ERL allow EnergyPlus to simulate many novel control strategies that are not possible with the previous generation of building energy simulation programs. This paper surveys the standard controls in EnergyPlus, presents the new EMS features, describes the implementation of the module, and explores some of the possible applications for the new EMS capabilities in EnergyPlus.

  10. Earthquake Alert System feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.

    1991-12-01

    An Earthquake Alert System (EAS) could give several seconds to several tens of seconds warning before the strong motion from a large earthquake arrives. Such a system would include a large network of sensors distributed within an earthquake-prone region. The sensors closest to the epicenter of a particular earthquake would transmit data at the speed of light to a central processing center, which would broadcast an area-wide alarm in advance of the spreading elastic wave energy from the earthquake. This is possible because seismic energy travels slowly (3--6 km/s) compared to the speed of light. Utilities, public and private institutions, businesses, and the general public would benefit from an EAS. Although many earthquake protection systems exist that automatically shut down power, gas mains, etc. when ground motion at a facility reaches damaging levels, not EAS -- that is, a system that can provide warning in advance of elastic wave energy arriving at a facility -- has ever been developed in the United States. A recent study by the National Academy of Sciences (NRC, 1991) concludes that an EAS is technically feasible and strongly recommends installing a prototype system that makes use of existing microseismic stations as much as possible. The EAS concept discussed here consists of a distributed network of remote seismic stations that measure weak and strong earth motion and transmit the data in real time to central facility. This facility processes the data and issues warning broadcasts in the form of information packets containing estimates of earthquake location, zero time (the time the earthquake began), magnitude, and reliability of the predictions. User of the warning broadcasts have a dedicated receiver that monitors the warning broadcast frequency. The user also has preprogrammed responses that are automatically executed when the warning information packets contain location and magnitude estimates above a facility`s tolerance.

  11. Earthquake Alert System feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.

    1991-12-01

    An Earthquake Alert System (EAS) could give several seconds to several tens of seconds warning before the strong motion from a large earthquake arrives. Such a system would include a large network of sensors distributed within an earthquake-prone region. The sensors closest to the epicenter of a particular earthquake would transmit data at the speed of light to a central processing center, which would broadcast an area-wide alarm in advance of the spreading elastic wave energy from the earthquake. This is possible because seismic energy travels slowly (3--6 km/s) compared to the speed of light. Utilities, public and private institutions, businesses, and the general public would benefit from an EAS. Although many earthquake protection systems exist that automatically shut down power, gas mains, etc. when ground motion at a facility reaches damaging levels, not EAS -- that is, a system that can provide warning in advance of elastic wave energy arriving at a facility -- has ever been developed in the United States. A recent study by the National Academy of Sciences (NRC, 1991) concludes that an EAS is technically feasible and strongly recommends installing a prototype system that makes use of existing microseismic stations as much as possible. The EAS concept discussed here consists of a distributed network of remote seismic stations that measure weak and strong earth motion and transmit the data in real time to central facility. This facility processes the data and issues warning broadcasts in the form of information packets containing estimates of earthquake location, zero time (the time the earthquake began), magnitude, and reliability of the predictions. User of the warning broadcasts have a dedicated receiver that monitors the warning broadcast frequency. The user also has preprogrammed responses that are automatically executed when the warning information packets contain location and magnitude estimates above a facility's tolerance.

  12. Central Energy System Modernization at Fort Jackson, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daryl R.; Chvala, William D.; Dirks, James A.

    2006-11-29

    An evaluation of technology options was conducted for the central energy systems at Fort Jackson, South Carolina. There were two objectives in conducting this study. From a broader viewpoint, the Army would like to develop a systematic approach to management of its central energy systems and selected Fort Jackson for this ''pilot'' study for a prospective Central Energy System Modernization Program. From a site-specific perspective, the objective was to identify the lowest life-cycle cost energy supply option(s) at Fort Jackson for buildings currently served by central boilers and chillers. This study was co-funded by the Army's Southeast Region and the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program.

  13. Energy Storage Applications in Power Systems with Renewable Energy Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghofrani, Mahmoud

    In this dissertation, we propose new operational and planning methodologies for power systems with renewable energy sources. A probabilistic optimal power flow (POPF) is developed to model wind power variations and evaluate the power system operation with intermittent renewable energy generation. The methodology is used to calculate the operating and ramping reserves that are required to compensate for power system uncertainties. Distributed wind generation is introduced as an operational scheme to take advantage of the spatial diversity of renewable energy resources and reduce wind power fluctuations using low or uncorrelated wind farms. The POPF is demonstrated using the IEEE 24-bus system where the proposed operational scheme reduces the operating and ramping reserve requirements and operation and congestion cost of the system as compared to operational practices available in the literature. A stochastic operational-planning framework is also proposed to adequately size, optimally place and schedule storage units within power systems with high wind penetrations. The method is used for different applications of energy storage systems for renewable energy integration. These applications include market-based opportunities such as renewable energy time-shift, renewable capacity firming, and transmission and distribution upgrade deferral in the form of revenue or reduced cost and storage-related societal benefits such as integration of more renewables, reduced emissions and improved utilization of grid assets. A power-pool model which incorporates the one-sided auction market into POPF is developed. The model considers storage units as market participants submitting hourly price bids in the form of marginal costs. This provides an accurate market-clearing process as compared to the 'price-taker' analysis available in the literature where the effects of large-scale storage units on the market-clearing prices are neglected. Different case studies are provided to

  14. Thermoelectric power generation system optimization studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karri, Madhav A.

    A significant amount of energy we consume each year is rejected as waste heat to the ambient. Conservative estimates place the quantity of energy wasted at about 70%. Converting the waste heat into electrical power would be convenient and effective for a number of primary and secondary applications. A viable solution for converting waste heat into electrical energy is to use thermoelectric power conversion. Thermoelectric power generation is based on solid state technology with no moving parts and works on the principle of Seebeck effect. In this work a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system simulator was developed to perform various parametric and system optimization studies. Optimization studies were performed to determine the effect of system size, exhaust and coolant ow conditions, and thermoelectric material on the net gains produced by the TEG system and on the optimum TEG system design. A sports utility vehicle was used as a case study for the application of TEG in mobile systems.

  15. Ocean, Wave and Tidal Energy Systems; (USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Raridon, M.H.; Hicks, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Ocean, Wave, and Tidal Energy Systems (OES) announces on a biomonthly basis the current worldwide information available on all aspects of ocean thermal energy conversion systems based on exploitation of the temperature difference between the surface water and ocean depth. All aspects of salinity gradient power systems based on extracting energy from mixing fresh water with seawater are included, along with information on wave and tidal power. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past two months. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements.

  16. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 2: Materials considerations. [materials used in boilers and heat exchangers of energy conversion systems for electric power plants using coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Extensive studies are presented which were carried out on materials behavior in nine advanced energy conversion systems employing coal and coal-derived fuels. The areas of materials behavior receiving particular attention in this regard are: (1) fireside corrosion and erosion in boiler and heat exchanger materials, (2) oxidation and hot corrosion of gas turbine materials, (3) liquid metal corrosion and mass transport, (4) high temperature steam corrosion, (5) compatability of materials with coal slag and MHD seed, (6) reaction of materials with impure helium, (7) allowable stresses for boiler and heat exchanger materials, (8) environmental effects on mechanical properties, and (9) liquid metal purity control and instrumentation. Such information was then utilized in recommending materials for use in the critical components of the power systems, and at the same time to identify materials problem areas and to evaluate qualitatively the difficulty of solving those problems. Specific materials recommendations for critical components of the nine advanced systems under study are contained in summary tables.

  17. Energy optimization of water distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    Energy costs associated with pumping treated water into the distribution system and boosting water pressures where necessary is one of the largest expenditures in the operating budget of a municipality. Due to the size and complexity of Detroit`s water transmission system, an energy optimization project has been developed to better manage the flow of water in the distribution system in an attempt to reduce these costs.

  18. Renewable Energy Positioning System: Energy Positioning: Control and Economics

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-01

    GENI Project: The University of Washington and the University of Michigan are developing an integrated system to match well-positioned energy storage facilities with precise control technologies so the electric grid can more easily include energy from renewable power sources like wind and solar. Because renewable energy sources provide intermittent power, it is difficult for the grid to efficiently allocate those resources without developing solutions to store their energy for later use. The two universities are working with utilities, regulators, and the private sector to position renewable energy storage facilities in locations that optimize their ability to provide and transmit electricity where and when it is needed most. Expanding the network of transmission lines is prohibitively expensive, so combining well-placed storage facilities with robust control systems to efficiently route their power will save consumers money and enable the widespread use of safe, renewable sources of power.

  19. The NASA Energy and Water cycle Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, P. R.; Entin, J. K.; Schiffer, R. A.; Belvedere, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    In 2003 NASA established the NASA Energy and Water-cycle Study (NEWS), whose long-term grand challenge is to document and enable improved, observationally based, predictions of water and energy cycle consequences of Earth system variability and change. Over the past two years, the NEWS team has been working on how to refine its approach to science integration . To this end, NEWS has created four working groups that identify integration needs and make the needed connections to partner and coordinate with water & energy cycle research and application activities going on at other organizations within NASA, nationally, and internationally. The four groups are: (1) Drought & Flood Extremes- including water and energy aspects of abrupt climate change, (2) Evaporation & Latent Heating - including both land and ocean, (3) Water and Energy Cycle Climatology - to exploit and influence evolving observing systems, and (4) Modeling & Water Cycle Prediction - foster interaction with the global modeling community. The first phase of NEWS focuses on the first coordinated attempt to describe the complete global energy and water cycle using existing and forthcoming satellite and ground based observations, and laying the foundation for essential NEWS developments in model representations of atmospheric energy and water exchange processes. This comprehensive energy and water data analysis program must exploit crucial datasets, some still requiring complete re-processing, and new satellite measurements. These data products will then be evaluated for accuracy and consistency, in part by using them in the first diagnosis of the weather-scale (space and time) variations of the global energy and water cycle over the past one-two decades. The primary objective is to ensure that results of this analysis effort serve as a recognized data basis to compare with corresponding climate statistics produced by existing climate models, quantify systematic deficiencies, and identify needed

  20. Fusion-fission energy systems evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Teofilo, V.L.; Aase, D.T.; Bickford, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    This report serves as the basis for comparing the fusion-fission (hybrid) energy system concept with other advanced technology fissile fuel breeding concepts evaluated in the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP). As such, much of the information and data provided herein is in a form that meets the NASAP data requirements. Since the hybrid concept has not been studied as extensively as many of the other fission concepts being examined in NASAP, the provided data and information are sparse relative to these more developed concepts. Nevertheless, this report is intended to provide a perspective on hybrids and to summarize the findings of the rather limited analyses made to date on this concept.

  1. The Department of Energy's Energy Integrated Farm System program

    SciTech Connect

    Breckenridge, R.P.; Corrigan, M.K.; Thompson, W.N.; Price, D.R.; Bramwell, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) recently completed a program investigating the feasibility of integrating diverse energy production and energy conservation practices to reduce agriculture's dependence on fossil fuels. The Energy Integrated Farm System (EIFS) program was established in 1980 in response to the hardship imposed on US farmers by high fuel costs and unreliable fuel supplies. Seven farms located in various geographical regions of the US and Puerto Rico participated in the program. Each of these farms developed an energy integrated farm system project that used a unique combination of energy production and energy conservation methods to supply energy to the farm and reduce the farm's dependence on energy produced from nonrenewable sources such as coal and oil. Methods used at these projects included conservation tillage, solar heating, waste heat recovery, methane production from the anaerobic digestion of animal manure, electricity production from biogas, alcohol fuel production, fluidized-bed combustion of crop wastes, and computer-aided conservation irrigation. This paper gives a summarized report of the work done at the seven projects. It presents highlights and results, provides an overview of successes and problems and lists recommendations. 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Rehrig, Paul W. (Inventor); Hackenberger, Wesley S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system includes: (a) first and second symmetric, pre-curved piezoelectric elements mounted separately on a frame so that their concave major surfaces are positioned opposite to each other; and (b) a linear piezoelectric element mounted separately on the frame and positioned between the pre-curved piezoelectric elements. The pre-curved piezoelectric elements and the linear piezoelectric element are spaced from one another and communicate with energy harvesting circuitry having contact points on the frame. The hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system has a higher electromechanical energy conversion efficiency than any known piezoelectric transducer.

  3. Tunisia Renewable Energy Project systems description report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scudder, L. R.; Martz, J. E.; Ratajczak, A. F.

    1986-01-01

    In 1979, the Agency for International Development (AID) initiated a renewable energy project with the Government of Tunisia to develop an institutional capability to plan and institute renewable energy technologies in a rural area. The specific objective of the district energy applications subproject was to demonstrate solar and wind energy systems in a rural village setting. The NASA Lewis Research Center was asked by the AID Near East Bureau to manage and implement this subproject. This report describes the project and gives detailed desciptions of the various systems.

  4. Nonlinear and Nonparametric Stochastic Model to Represent Uncertainty of Renewable Generation in Operation and Expansion Planning Studies of Electrical Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, T. M.; Alberto, J.

    2015-12-01

    The uncertainties of wind and solar generation patterns tends to be a critical factor in operation and expansion planning studies of electrical energy systems, as these generations are highly dependent on atmospheric variables which are difficult to predict. Traditionally, the uncertainty of renewable generation has been represented through scenarios generated by autoregressive parametric models (ARMA, PAR(p), SARIMA, etc.), that have been widely used for simulating the uncertainty of inflows and electrical demand. These methods have 3 disadvantages: (i) it is assumed that the random variables can be modelled through a known probability distribution, usually Weibull, log-normal, or normal, which are not always adequate; (ii) the temporal and spatial coupling of the represented variables are generally constructed from the Pearson Correlation, strictly requiring the hypothesis of data normality, that in the case of wind and solar generation is not met; (iii) there is an exponential increase in the model complexity due to its dimensionality. This work proposes the use of a stochastic model built from the combination of a non-parametric approach of a probability density function (the kernel density estimation method) with a dynamic Bayesian network framework. The kernel density estimation method is used to obtain the probability density function of the random variables directly from historical records, eliminating the need of choosing prior distributions. The Bayesian network allows the representation of nonlinearities in the temporal coupling of the time series, since they allow reproducing a compact probability distribution of a variable, subject to preceding stages. The proposed model was used to the generate wind power scenarios in long-term operation studies of the Brazilian Electric System, in which inflows of major rivers were also represented. The results show a considerable quality gain when compared to scenarios generated by traditional approaches.

  5. Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR) System Study

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, Robert D; Miller, Laurence F

    2014-04-01

    Can the hybrid system combination of (1) a critical fission Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) having a thermal spectrum and a high Conversion Ratio (CR) with (2) an external source of high energy neutrons provide an attractive solution to the world's expanding demand for energy? The present study indicates the answer is an emphatic yes.

  6. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  7. Energy and Environmental Systems Division 1981 research review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    To effectively manage the nation's energy and natural resources, government and industry leaders need accurate information regarding the performance and economics of advanced energy systems and the costs and benefits of public-sector initiatives. The Energy and Environmental Systems Division (EES) of Argonne National Laboratory conducts applied research and development programs that provide such information through systems analysis, geophysical field research, and engineering studies. During 1981, the division: analyzed the production economics of specific energy resources, such as biomass and tight sands gas; developed and transferred to industry economically efficient techniques for addressing energy-related resource management and environmental protection problems, such as the reclamation of strip-mined land; determined the engineering performance and cost of advanced energy-supply and pollution-control systems; analyzed future markets for district heating systems and other emerging energy technologies; determined, in strategic planning studies, the availability of resources needed for new energy technologies, such as the imported metals used in advanced electric-vehicle batteries; evaluated the effectiveness of strategies for reducing scarce-fuel consumption in the transportation sector; identified the costs and benefits of measures designed to stabilize the financial condition of US electric utilities; estimated the costs of nuclear reactor shutdowns and evaluated geologic conditions at potential sites for permanent underground storage of nuclear waste; evaluated the cost-effectiveness of environmental regulations, particularly those affecting coal combustion; and identified the environmental effects of energy technologies and transportation systems.

  8. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Greg; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  9. Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, DR

    2011-02-14

    A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed ECOR system at the Southern Great Plains (SGP), North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), ARM Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1), and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2). The surface energy balance system consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes.

  10. Comparative analysis of net energy balance for satellite power systems (SPS) and other energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cirillo, R.R.; Cho, B.S.; Monarch, M.R.; Levine, E.P.

    1980-04-01

    The net energy balance of seven electric energy systems is assessed: two coal-based, one nuclear, two terrestrial solar, and two solar power satellites, with principal emphasis on the latter two systems. Solar energy systems require much less operating energy per unit of electrical output. However, on the basis of the analysis used here, coal and nuclear systems are two to five times more efficient at extracting useful energy from the primary resource base than are the solar energy systems. The payback period for all systems is less than 1.5 years, except for the terrestrial photovoltaic (19.8 yr) and the solar power satellite system (6.4 yr), both of which rely on energy-intensive silicon cells.

  11. Adaptive, full-spectrum solar energy system

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.

    2003-08-05

    An adaptive full spectrum solar energy system having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one hybrid luminaire, at least one hybrid photobioreactor, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator, each hybrid luminaire, and each hybrid photobioreactor. A lighting control system operates each component.

  12. An Expertise Based Energy Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, S.

    This paper describes an intelligent decision support system for information on petroleum resources and use currently being designed by the Information Methodology Research Project as the first step in the development of a comprehensive intelligent information system for dealing with energy resources in the United States. The system draws on…

  13. Studies in medium energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Green, A.; Hoffmann, G.W.; McDonough, J.; Purcell, M.J.; Ray, R.L.; Read, D.E.; Worn, S.D.

    1991-12-01

    This document constitutes the (1991--1992) technical progress report and continuation proposal for the ongoing medium energy nuclear physics research program supported by the US Department of Energy through special Research Grant DE-FG05-88ER40444. The experiments discussed are conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) and the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The overall motivation for the work discussed in this document is driven by three main objectives: (1) provide hadron-nucleon and hadron-nucleus scattering data which serve to facilitate the study of effective two-body interactions, test (and possibly determine) nuclear structure, and help study reaction mechanisms and dynamics; (2) provide unique, first-of-a-kind exploratory'' hadron-nucleus scattering data in the hope that such data will lead to discovery of new phenomena and new physics; and (3) perform precision tests of fundamental interactions, such as rare decay searches, whose observation would imply fundamental new physics.

  14. Pulp and Paper Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-08-01

    The study provides energy estimates for the following four cases: current average mill energy consumption, state-of-the-art art mill energy consumption, mill energy consumption if advanced technologies requiring further R&D were employed, and theoretical minimum mill energy consumption.

  15. High Energy Density Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems for Terrestrial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    1999-01-01

    Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) technology for energy storage has been a NASA power system concept for many years. Compared to battery-based energy storage systems, RFCS has received relatively little attention or resources for development because the energy density and electrical efficiency were not sufficiently attractive relative to advanced battery systems. Even today, RFCS remains at a very low technology readiness level (TRL of about 2 indicating feasibility has been demonstrated). Commercial development of the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells for automobiles and other terrestrial applications and improvements in lightweight pressure vessel design to reduce weight and improve performance make possible a high energy density RFCS energy storage system. The results from this study of a lightweight RFCS energy storage system for a remotely piloted, solar-powered, high altitude aircraft indicate an energy density up to 790 w-h/kg with electrical efficiency of 53.4% is attainable. Such an energy storage system would allow a solar-powered aircraft to carry hundreds of kilograms of payload and remain in flight indefinitely for use in atmospheric research, earth observation, resource mapping. and telecommunications. Future developments in the areas of hydrogen and oxygen storage, pressure vessel design, higher temperature and higher- pressure fuel cell operation, unitized regenerative fuel cells, and commercial development of fuel cell technology will improve both the energy density and electrical efficiency of the RFCS.

  16. Army Energy and Water Reporting System Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Deprez, Peggy C.; Giardinelli, Michael J.; Burke, John S.; Connell, Linda M.

    2011-09-01

    There are many areas of desired improvement for the Army Energy and Water Reporting System. The purpose of system is to serve as a data repository for collecting information from energy managers, which is then compiled into an annual energy report. This document summarizes reported shortcomings of the system and provides several alternative approaches for improving application usability and adding functionality. The U.S. Army has been using Army Energy and Water Reporting System (AEWRS) for many years to collect and compile energy data from installations for facilitating compliance with Federal and Department of Defense energy management program reporting requirements. In this analysis, staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory found that substantial opportunities exist to expand AEWRS functions to better assist the Army to effectively manage energy programs. Army leadership must decide if it wants to invest in expanding AEWRS capabilities as a web-based, enterprise-wide tool for improving the Army Energy and Water Management Program or simply maintaining a bottom-up reporting tool. This report looks at both improving system functionality from an operational perspective and increasing user-friendliness, but also as a tool for potential improvements to increase program effectiveness. The authors of this report recommend focusing on making the system easier for energy managers to input accurate data as the top priority for improving AEWRS. The next major focus of improvement would be improved reporting. The AEWRS user interface is dated and not user friendly, and a new system is recommended. While there are relatively minor improvements that could be made to the existing system to make it easier to use, significant improvements will be achieved with a user-friendly interface, new architecture, and a design that permits scalability and reliability. An expanded data set would naturally have need of additional requirements gathering and a focus on integrating

  17. Energy integrated farm system technical summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Breckenridge, R.P.; Price, D.R.; Sherwood, R.K.; Thompson, W.N.

    1987-03-01

    The Energy Integrated Farm System program was established by the Department of Energy in 1980 in response to the hardship imposed on US farmers by high fuel costs and unreliable fuel supplies. The program investigated the feasibility of integrating energy conservation practices with on-farm energy production to reduce farm energy consumption and make farms more energy self-sufficient. Seven farms located in various geographical regions in the US and Puerto Rico participated in the program. Each of these farms developed an energy integrated farm system project that used a unique combination of energy production and energy conservation methods to supply energy to the farm and reduce the farm's dependence on energy produced from nonrenewable sources such as coal and oil. Methods used at these projects included conservation tillage, solar heating, waste heat recovery, methane digestion, electricity production from biogas, alcohol fuel production, fluidized-bed combustion of crop wastes, and computer-aided conservation irrigation. This report is a summary of the seven technical manuals prepared at the conclusion of the projects. It presents highlights and results, provides an overview of successes and problems, and lists recommendations.

  18. System-of-Systems Approach for Integrated Energy Systems Modeling and Simulation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Saurabh; Ruth, Mark; Pratt, Annabelle; Lunacek, Monte; Krishnamurthy, Dheepak; Jones, Wesley

    2015-08-21

    Today’s electricity grid is the most complex system ever built—and the future grid is likely to be even more complex because it will incorporate distributed energy resources (DERs) such as wind, solar, and various other sources of generation and energy storage. The complexity is further augmented by the possible evolution to new retail market structures that provide incentives to owners of DERs to support the grid. To understand and test new retail market structures and technologies such as DERs, demand-response equipment, and energy management systems while providing reliable electricity to all customers, an Integrated Energy System Model (IESM) is being developed at NREL. The IESM is composed of a power flow simulator (GridLAB-D), home energy management systems implemented using GAMS/Pyomo, a market layer, and hardware-in-the-loop simulation (testing appliances such as HVAC, dishwasher, etc.). The IESM is a system-of-systems (SoS) simulator wherein the constituent systems are brought together in a virtual testbed. We will describe an SoS approach for developing a distributed simulation environment. We will elaborate on the methodology and the control mechanisms used in the co-simulation illustrated by a case study.

  19. A new wind energy conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.

    1975-01-01

    It is presupposed that vertical axis wind energy machines will be superior to horizontal axis machines on a power output/cost basis and the design of a new wind energy machine is presented. The design employs conical cones with sharp lips and smooth surfaces to promote maximum drag and minimize skin friction. The cones are mounted on a vertical axis in such a way as to assist torque development. Storing wind energy as compressed air is thought to be optimal and reasons are: (1) the efficiency of compression is fairly high compared to the conversion of mechanical energy to electrical energy in storage batteries; (2) the release of stored energy through an air motor has high efficiency; and (3) design, construction, and maintenance of an all-mechanical system is usually simpler than for a mechanical to electrical conversion system.

  20. Decentralized energy systems for clean electricity access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alstone, Peter; Gershenson, Dimitry; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-04-01

    Innovative approaches are needed to address the needs of the 1.3 billion people lacking electricity, while simultaneously transitioning to a decarbonized energy system. With particular focus on the energy needs of the underserved, we present an analytic and conceptual framework that clarifies the heterogeneous continuum of centralized on-grid electricity, autonomous mini- or community grids, and distributed, individual energy services. A historical analysis shows that the present day is a unique moment in the history of electrification where decentralized energy networks are rapidly spreading, based on super-efficient end-use appliances and low-cost photovoltaics. We document how this evolution is supported by critical and widely available information technologies, particularly mobile phones and virtual financial services. These disruptive technology systems can rapidly increase access to basic electricity services and directly inform the emerging Sustainable Development Goals for quality of life, while simultaneously driving action towards low-carbon, Earth-sustaining, inclusive energy systems.

  1. Economic Evaluation of Observatory Solar-Energy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Long-term economic performance of a commercial solar-energy system was analyzed and used to predict economic performance at four additional sites. Analysis described in report was done to demonstrate viability of design over a broad range of environmental/economic conditions. Topics covered are system description, study approach, economic analysis and system optimization.

  2. Local energy governance in vermont: an analysis of energy system transition strategies and actor capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowse, Tarah

    While global, national, and regional efforts to address climate and energy challenges remain essential, local governments and community groups are playing an increasingly stronger and vital role. As an active state in energy system policy, planning and innovation, Vermont offers a testing ground for research into energy governance at the local level. A baseline understanding of the energy planning and energy organizing activities initiated at the local level can support efforts to foster a transition to a sustainable energy system in Vermont. Following an inductive, applied and participatory approach, and grounded in the fields of sustainability transitions, energy planning, and community energy, this research project identifies conditions for change, including opportunities and challenges, within Vermont energy system decision-making and governance at the local level. The following questions are posed: What are the main opportunities and challenges for sustainable energy development at the town level? How are towns approaching energy planning? What are the triggers that will facilitate a faster transition to alternative energy systems, energy efficiency initiatives, and localized approaches? In an effort to answer these questions two studies were conducted: 1) an analysis of municipal energy plans, and 2) a survey of local energy actors. Study 1 examined Vermont energy planning at the state and local level through a review and comparison of 40 municipal plan energy chapters with the state 2011 Comprehensive Energy Plan. On average, municipal plans mentioned just over half of the 24 high-level strategies identified in the Comprehensive Energy Plan. Areas of strong and weak agreement were examined. Increased state and regional interaction with municipal energy planners would support more holistic and coordinated energy planning. The study concludes that while municipalities are keenly aware of the importance of education and partnerships, stronger policy mechanisms

  3. A study on the effect of low energy ion beam irradiation on Au/TiO2 system for its application in photoelectrochemical splitting of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Anuradha; Srivastav, Anupam; Sharma, Dipika; Banerjee, Anamika; Sharma, Shailja; Satsangi, Vibha Rani; Shrivastav, Rohit; Avasthi, Devesh Kumar; Dass, Sahab

    2016-07-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 thin films were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate via sol-gel technique and were modified by plasmonic Au layer. The plasmonic Au modified TiO2 (Au/TiO2) thin films were then irradiated with 500 keV Ar2+ ion beam at different ion fluences viz. 1 × 1016, 3 × 1016 and 1 × 1017 to study the effect of nuclear energy deposition on the morphology, crystallinity, band gap, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak exhibited by Au particles and photoelectrochemical properties of the system. Prepared thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) measurements and UV-visible spectroscopy. The photoelectrochemical measurements revealed that both Au/TiO2 and Au/TiO2 thin film irradiated at 1 × 1016 fluence exhibits enhanced photoelectrochemical response in comparison to pristine TiO2. The film irradiated at 1 × 1016 fluence offered maximum applied bias photon-to-current efficiency (ABPE) and shows 6 times increment in photocurrent density which was attributed to more negative flat band potential, maximum decrease in band gap, high open circuit voltage (Voc) and reduced charge transfer resistance.

  4. Energy management study for lunar oxygen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazzolare, R. A.; Wong-Swanson, B. G.

    1989-01-01

    Energy management opportunities in the process of hydrogen reduction of ilmenite for lunar oxygen production are being investigated. An optimal energy system to supply the power requirements for the process will be determined.

  5. MULTIFUNCTIONAL SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Byard Wood, Lance Seefeldt, Ronald Sims, Bradley Wahlen, and Dan Dye

    2012-06-29

    The solar energy available within the visible portion of the solar spectrum is about 300 W/m2 (43%) and that available in the UV and IR portion is about 400 W/m2 (57%). This provides opportunities for developing integrated energy systems that capture and use specific wavelengths of the solar spectrum for different purposes. For example: biofuels from photosynthetic microbes use only the visible light; solar cells use a narrow band of the solar spectrum that could be either mostly in the visible or in the IR regions of the solar spectrum, depending on the photovoltaic materials, e.g., gallium antimonide (GaSb) cells utilize predominately IR radiation; and finally, solar panels that heat water utilize a broad range of wavelengths (visible plus IR). The basic idea of this research is that sunlight has many possible end-use applications including both direct use and energy conversion schemes; it is technically feasible to develop multifunctional solar energy systems capable of addressing several end-use needs while increasing the overall solar energy utilization efficiency when compared to single-purpose solar technologies. Such a combination of technologies could lead to more cost-competitive ?multifunctional? systems that add value and broaden opportunities for integrated energy systems. The goal of this research is to increase the overall energy efficacy and cost competitiveness of solar systems. The specific objectives of this research were: 1) Evaluate the efficacy of a combined photobioreactor and electric power system; 2) Improve the reliability and cost effectiveness of hybrid solar lighting systems ? a technology in which sunlight is collected and distributed via optical fibers into the interior of a building; 3) Evaluate the efficacy of using filtered light to increase the production of biomass in photobioreactors and provide more solar energy for other uses; 4) Evaluates several concepts for wavelength shifting such that a greater percentage of the solar

  6. Energy landscapes and functions of supramolecular systems.

    PubMed

    Tantakitti, Faifan; Boekhoven, Job; Wang, Xin; Kazantsev, Roman V; Yu, Tao; Li, Jiahe; Zhuang, Ellen; Zandi, Roya; Ortony, Julia H; Newcomb, Christina J; Palmer, Liam C; Shekhawat, Gajendra S; de la Cruz, Monica Olvera; Schatz, George C; Stupp, Samuel I

    2016-04-01

    By means of two supramolecular systems-peptide amphiphiles engaged in hydrogen-bonded β-sheets, and chromophore amphiphiles driven to assemble by π-orbital overlaps-we show that the minima in the energy landscapes of supramolecular systems are defined by electrostatic repulsion and the ability of the dominant attractive forces to trap molecules in thermodynamically unfavourable configurations. These competing interactions can be selectively switched on and off, with the order of doing so determining the position of the final product in the energy landscape. Within the same energy landscape, the peptide-amphiphile system forms a thermodynamically favoured product characterized by long bundled fibres that promote biological cell adhesion and survival, and a metastable product characterized by short monodisperse fibres that interfere with adhesion and can lead to cell death. Our findings suggest that, in supramolecular systems, functions and energy landscapes are linked, superseding the more traditional connection between molecular design and function. PMID:26779883

  7. Energy Systems Integration: NREL + Solectria (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This fact sheet describes the collaboration between NREL and Solectria at the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) to to develop 500- and 750-kilowatt photovoltaic (PV) inverters with advanced features that can support the electric grid.

  8. Characteristic Energy Scales of Quantum Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Michael J.; Jakovidis, Greg

    1994-01-01

    Provides a particle-in-a-box model to help students understand and estimate the magnitude of the characteristic energy scales of a number of quantum systems. Also discusses the mathematics involved with general computations. (MVL)

  9. Energy Consumption Monitoring System for Large Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorge, André; Guerreiro, João; Pereira, Pedro; Martins, João; Gomes, Luís

    This paper describes the development of an open source system for monitoring and data acquisition of several energy analyzers. The developed system is based on a computer with Internet/Intranet connection by means of RS485 using Modbus RTU as communication protocol. The monitoring/metering system was developed for large building complexes and was validated in the Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia University campus. The system considers two distinct applications. The first one allows the user to verify, in real time, the energy consumption of any department in the complex, produce load diagrams, tables and print, email or save all available data. The second application keeps records of active/reactive energy consumption in order to verify the existence of some anomalous situation, and also monthly charge energy consumption to each corresponding department.

  10. Energy landscapes and functions of supramolecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantakitti, Faifan; Boekhoven, Job; Wang, Xin; Kazantsev, Roman V.; Yu, Tao; Li, Jiahe; Zhuang, Ellen; Zandi, Roya; Ortony, Julia H.; Newcomb, Christina J.; Palmer, Liam C.; Shekhawat, Gajendra S.; de La Cruz, Monica Olvera; Schatz, George C.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2016-04-01

    By means of two supramolecular systems--peptide amphiphiles engaged in hydrogen-bonded β-sheets, and chromophore amphiphiles driven to assemble by π-orbital overlaps--we show that the minima in the energy landscapes of supramolecular systems are defined by electrostatic repulsion and the ability of the dominant attractive forces to trap molecules in thermodynamically unfavourable configurations. These competing interactions can be selectively switched on and off, with the order of doing so determining the position of the final product in the energy landscape. Within the same energy landscape, the peptide-amphiphile system forms a thermodynamically favoured product characterized by long bundled fibres that promote biological cell adhesion and survival, and a metastable product characterized by short monodisperse fibres that interfere with adhesion and can lead to cell death. Our findings suggest that, in supramolecular systems, functions and energy landscapes are linked, superseding the more traditional connection between molecular design and function.

  11. Junior High Gets Energy Efficient VAV System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Minnesota's Isanti Junior High, designed with an energy efficient variable air volume system, is an innovative school selected for display at the 1977 Exhibition of School Architecture in Las Vegas. (Author/MLF)

  12. Passive Earth Entry Vehicle Energy Absorbing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellas, S.; Maddock, R. W.

    2014-06-01

    A critical element of a passive EEV performance is the energy absorbing system required to attenuate the dynamic landing loads. Two design approaches are described and the pros and cons based on particular mission requirements are discussed.

  13. Energy landscapes and function of supramolecular systems

    PubMed Central

    Tantakitti, Faifan; Boekhoven, Job; Wang, Xin; Kazantsev, Roman; Yu, Tao; Li, Jiahe; Zhuang, Ellen; Zandi, Roya; Ortony, Julia H.; Newcomb, Christina J.; Palmer, Liam C.; Shekhawat, Gajendra S.; de la Cruz, Monica Olvera; Schatz, George C.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2015-01-01

    By means of two supramolecular systems - peptide amphiphiles engaged in hydrogen-bonded β-sheets, and chromophore amphiphiles driven to assemble by π-orbital overlaps - we show that the minima in the energy landscapes of supramolecular systems are defined by electrostatic repulsion and the ability of the dominant attractive forces to trap molecules in thermodynamically unfavourable configurations. These competing interactions can be selectively switched on and off, with the order of doing so determining the position of the final product in the energy landscape. Within the same energy landscape, the peptide-amphiphile system forms a thermodynamically favoured product characterized by long bundled fibres that promote biological cell adhesion and survival, and a metastable product characterized by short monodisperse fibres that interfere with adhesion and can lead to cell death. Our findings suggest that, in supramolecular systems, function and energy landscape are linked, superseding the more traditional connection between molecular design and function. PMID:26779883

  14. Mechanical Devices and Systems. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in mechanical devices and systems is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  15. Energy Integrated Lighting-Heating-Cooling System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meckler, Gershon; And Others

    1964-01-01

    Energy balance problems in the design of office buildings are analyzed. Through the use of integrated systems utilizing dual purpose products, a controlled environment with minimum expenditure of energy, equipment and space can be provided. Contents include--(1) office building occupancy loads, (2) office building heating load analysis, (3) office…

  16. Fluid Power Systems. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in fluid power systems is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in company-sponsored…

  17. Electronic Devices and Systems. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Centre-Southwest, Waco, TX.

    This course in electronic devices and systems is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  18. The National Energy Modeling System: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of US energy markets for the midterm period of 1990 to 2010. NEMS projects the production, imports, conversion, consumption, and prices of energy, subject to assumptions on macroeconomic and financial factors, world energy markets, resource availability and costs, behavioral and technological choice criteria, cost and performance characteristics of energy technologies, and demographics. This report presents an overview of the structure and methodology of NEMS and each of its components. The first chapter provides a description of the design and objectives of the system. The second chapter describes the modeling structure. The remainder of the report summarizes the methodology and scope of the component modules of NEMS. The model descriptions are intended for readers familiar with terminology from economics, operations research, and energy modeling. Additional background on the development of the system is provided in Appendix A of this report, which describes the EIA modeling systems that preceded NEMS. More detailed model documentation reports for all the NEMS modules are also available from EIA.

  19. High energy density propulsion systems and small engine dynamometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Scope and Method of Study. This study investigates all possible methods of powering small unmanned vehicles, provides reasoning for the propulsion system down select, and covers in detail the design and production of a dynamometer to confirm theoretical energy density calculations for small engines. Initial energy density calculations are based upon manufacturer data, pressure vessel theory, and ideal thermodynamic cycle efficiencies. Engine tests are conducted with a braking type dynamometer for constant load energy density tests, and show true energy densities in excess of 1400 WH/lb of fuel. Findings and Conclusions. Theory predicts lithium polymer, the present unmanned system energy storage device of choice, to have much lower energy densities than other conversion energy sources. Small engines designed for efficiency, instead of maximum power, would provide the most advantageous method for powering small unmanned vehicles because these engines have widely variable power output, loss of mass during flight, and generate rotational power directly. Theoretical predictions for the energy density of small engines has been verified through testing. Tested values up to 1400 WH/lb can be seen under proper operating conditions. The implementation of such a high energy density system will require a significant amount of follow-on design work to enable the engines to tolerate the higher temperatures of lean operation. Suggestions are proposed to enable a reliable, small-engine propulsion system in future work. Performance calculations show that a mature system is capable of month long flight times, and unrefueled circumnavigation of the globe.

  20. Power Contro Energy Management and Market Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Addison; Andrew Stanbury

    2005-12-15

    More efficient use of the nation's electrical energy infrastructure will result in minimizing the cost of energy to the end user. Using real time electrical market information coupled with defined rules, market opportunities can be identified that provide economic benefit for both users and marketers of electricity. This report describes the design of one such system and the features a fully functional system would provide. This report documents several investigated methods of controlling load diversity or shifting.

  1. Optical Energy Transfer and Conversion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, William C. (Inventor); Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An optical power transfer system comprising a fiber spooler, a fiber optic rotary joint mechanically connected to the fiber spooler, and an electrical power extraction subsystem connected to the fiber optic rotary joint with an optical waveguide. Optical energy is generated at and transferred from a base station through fiber wrapped around the spooler, through the rotary joint, and ultimately to the power extraction system at a remote mobility platform for conversion to another form of energy.

  2. Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

  3. Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF): Golden, CO - Energy Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppy, Michael; VanGeet, Otto; Pless, Shanti; Gaul, Chris

    2015-03-01

    At NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) in Golden, Colo., scientists and engineers work to overcome challenges related to how the nation generates, delivers and uses energy by modernizing the interplay between energy sources, infrastructure, and data. Test facilities include a megawatt-scale ac electric grid, photovoltaic simulators and a load bank. Additionally, a high performance computing data center (HPCDC) is dedicated to advancing renewable energy and energy efficient technologies. A key design strategy is to use waste heat from the HPCDC to heat parts of the building. The ESIF boasts an annual EUI of 168.3 kBtu/ft2. This article describes the building's procurement, design and first year of performance.

  4. Improving energy efficiency via smart building energy management systems. A comparison with policy measures

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Paula; Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael

    2014-12-09

    In this study, to foster the transition to more sustainable energy systems, policymakers have been approving measures to improve energy efficiency as well as promoting smart grids. In this setting, building managers are encouraged to adapt their energy operations to real-time market and weather conditions. Yet, most fail to do so as they rely on conventional building energy management systems (BEMS) that have static temperature set points for heating and cooling equipment. In this paper, we investigate how effective policy measures are at improving building-level energy efficiency compared to a smart BEMS with dynamic temperature set points. To this end, we present an integrated optimisation model mimicking the smart BEMS that combines decisions on heating and cooling systems operations with decisions on energy sourcing. Using data from an Austrian and a Spanish building, we find that the smart BEMS results in greater reduction in energy consumption than a conventional BEMS with policy measures.

  5. Hydrogen energy - An inexhaustible abundant clean energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayar, M. G.

    1981-04-01

    A review is presented of various hydrogen production processes from possible primary energy resources. The processes covered are nuclear coal gasification, thermochemical hydrogen production, and hydrogen production by electrolysis, which includes solid polymer electrolyte-based electrolyzers, high-temperature electrolyzers, and photoelectrochemical decomposition of water. Attention is given to hydrogen transport and storage (in metal hydride systems) and to its application as an automotive fuel. Hydrogen as a secondary energy source is also discussed, and its uses as an off-peak power storage medium and as an energy transmission medium are described. Costs, flow diagrams and chemical formulas are analyzed in detail.

  6. Aeronautics systems technology studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauchspies, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    Data collection and analysis in the areas of air transportation, aircraft manufacturing and sales, airline operations, market projections, internal trade, and energy consumption; legislation and regulations, technology needs; surveys; decision-making; cost analyses; and technology transfer are discussed.

  7. Hybrid coding systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odenwalder, J. P.; Gilhousen, K. S.; Heller, J. A.; Jacobs, I. M.; Jelinek, F.; Viterbi, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    The state of efficiency improvement available with high speed decoders presently in operation or under development is summarized. The required ratio of bit-energy-to-noise-density is given in each case for bit error probabilities.

  8. Carbonless Transportation and Energy Storage in Future Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lamont, A.D.; Berry, G.D.

    2001-01-17

    By 2050 world population is projected to stabilize near 10 billion. Global economic development will outpace this growth, achieving present European per capita living standards by quintupling the size of the global economy--and increasing energy use, especially electricity, substantially. Even with aggressive efficiency improvements, global electricity use will at least triple to 30 trillion kWh/yr in 2050. Direct use of fuels, with greater potential for efficiency improvement, may be held to 80 trillion kWh (289 EJ) annually, 50% above present levels (IPCC, 1996). Sustaining energy use at these or higher rates, while simultaneously stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels, will require massive deployment of carbon-conscious energy systems for electricity generation and transportation by the mid 21st Century. These systems will either involve a shift to non-fossil primary energy sources (such as solar, wind, biomass, nuclear, and hydroelectric) or continue to rely on fossil primary energy sources and sequester carbon emissions (Halmann, 1999). Both approaches share the need to convert, transmit, store and deliver energy to end-users through carbonless energy carriers.

  9. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems -- Energy Storage (SEGIS-ES).

    SciTech Connect

    Hanley, Charles J.; Ton, Dan T.; Boyes, John D.; Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the concept for augmenting the SEGIS Program (an industry-led effort to greatly enhance the utility of distributed PV systems) with energy storage in residential and small commercial applications (SEGIS-ES). The goal of SEGIS-ES is to develop electrical energy storage components and systems specifically designed and optimized for grid-tied PV applications. This report describes the scope of the proposed SEGIS-ES Program and why it will be necessary to integrate energy storage with PV systems as PV-generated energy becomes more prevalent on the nation's utility grid. It also discusses the applications for which energy storage is most suited and for which it will provide the greatest economic and operational benefits to customers and utilities. Included is a detailed summary of the various storage technologies available, comparisons of their relative costs and development status, and a summary of key R&D needs for PV-storage systems. The report concludes with highlights of areas where further PV-specific R&D is needed and offers recommendations about how to proceed with their development.

  10. Biomass energy systems and the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunstein, H. M.; Kanciruk, P.; Roop, R. D.; Sharples, F. E.; Tatum, J. S.; Oakes, K. M.

    The technology, resources, applied, and experimental features of biomass energy resources are explored, with an emphasis on environmental and social implications of large-scale biomass development. The existing land and water based biomass resource is described in terms of available energy, ecological concerns, agricultural crops, livestock production, freshwater systems, and ocean systems. Attention is given to proposed systems of biomass energy production from forestry and silviculture, agricultural crops, livestock wastes, and freshwater and ocean systems. A survey is made of various biomass materials, techniques for conversion to gas, liquid fuels, or for direct combustion, and impacts of large-scale biomass production and harvest are examined. Particular note is made of the effects of scaling biomass conversion systems, including near- and long-term applications, and ethics and aesthetic concerns.

  11. Cost projections for Redox Energy storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaels, K.; Hall, G.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary design and system cost analysis was performed for the redox energy storage system. A conceptual design and cost estimate was prepared for each of two energy applications: (1) electric utility 100-MWh requirement (10-MW for ten hours) for energy storage for utility load leveling application, and (2) a 500-kWh requirement (10-kW for 50 hours) for use with a variety of residential or commercial applications, including stand alone solar photovoltaic systems. The conceptual designs were based on cell performance levels, system design parameters, and special material costs. These data were combined with estimated thermodynamic and hydraulic analysis to provide preliminary system designs. Results indicate that the redox cell stack to be amenable to mass production techniques with a relatively low material cost.

  12. The Endocannabinoid System: Role in Energy Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Gamage, Thomas F.; Lichtman, Aron H.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis sativa has been used since antiquity to treat many ailments, including eating disorders. The primary psychoactive constituent of this plant, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is an FDA approved medication to treat nausea and emesis caused by cancer chemotherapeutic agents as well as to stimulate appetite in AIDS patients suffering from cachexia. The effects of THC are mediated through the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which promotes a positive energy balance through stimulation of appetite as well as shifting homeostatic mechanisms toward energy storage. Here we discuss the physiological function of the ECS in energy balance and the therapeutic potential of targeting this system. PMID:22076835

  13. State energy-price system: 1981 update

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.M.; Imhoff, K.L.; Hood, L.J.

    1983-08-01

    This report updates the State Energy Price Data System (STEPS) to include state-level energy prices by fuel and by end-use sectors for 1981. Both physical unit prices and Btu prices are presented. Basic documentation of the data base remains generally the same as in the original report: State Energy Price System; Volume 1: Overview and Technical Documentation (DOE/NBB-0029 Volume 1 of 2, November 1982). The present report documents only the changes in procedures necessitated by the update to 1981 and the corrections to the basic documentation.

  14. The endocannabinoid system: role in energy regulation.

    PubMed

    Gamage, Thomas F; Lichtman, Aron H

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis sativa has been used since antiquity to treat many ailments, including eating disorders. The primary psychoactive constituent of this plant, Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is an FDA approved medication to treat nausea and emesis caused by cancer chemotherapeutic agents as well as to stimulate appetite in AIDS patients suffering from cachexia. The effects of THC are mediated through the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which promotes a positive energy balance through stimulation of appetite as well as shifting homeostatic mechanisms toward energy storage. Here we discuss the physiological function of the ECS in energy balance and the therapeutic potential of targeting this system. PMID:22076835

  15. Synchronous generator wind energy conversion control system

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, A.L.R.; Lima, A.M.N.; Jacobina, C.B.; Simoes, F.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the performance evaluation and the design of the control system of a WECS (Wind Energy Conversion System) that employs a synchronous generator based on its digital simulation. The WECS discussed in this paper is connected to the utility grid through two Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) power converters. The structure of the proposed WECS enables us to achieve high performance energy conversion by: (i) maximizing the wind energy capture and (ii) minimizing the reactive power flowing between the grid and the synchronous generator. 8 refs., 19 figs.

  16. Energy-beam-driven rapid fabrication system

    DOEpatents

    Keicher, David M.; Atwood, Clinton L.; Greene, Donald L.; Griffith, Michelle L.; Harwell, Lane D.; Jeantette, Francisco P.; Romero, Joseph A.; Schanwald, Lee P.; Schmale, David T.

    2002-01-01

    An energy beam driven rapid fabrication system, in which an energy beam strikes a growth surface to form a molten puddle thereon. Feed powder is then injected into the molten puddle from a converging flow of feed powder. A portion of the feed powder becomes incorporated into the molten puddle, forcing some of the puddle contents to freeze on the growth surface, thereby adding an additional layer of material. By scanning the energy beam and the converging flow of feed powder across the growth surface, complex three-dimensional shapes can be formed, ready or nearly ready for use. Nearly any class of material can be fabricated using this system.

  17. Electric utility applications of hydrogen energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-10-15

    This report examines the capital cost associated with various energy storage systems that have been installed for electric utility application. The storage systems considered in this study are Battery Energy Storage (BES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Flywheel Energy Storage (FES). The report also projects the cost reductions that may be anticipated as these technologies come down the learning curve. This data will serve as a base-line for comparing the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen energy storage (HES) systems in the electric utility sector. Since pumped hydro or compressed air energy storage (CAES) is not particularly suitable for distributed storage, they are not considered in this report. There are no comparable HES systems in existence in the electric utility sector. However, there are numerous studies that have assessed the current and projected cost of hydrogen energy storage system. This report uses such data to compare the cost of HES systems with that of other storage systems in order to draw some conclusions as to the applications and the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen as a electricity storage alternative.

  18. The Dark Energy Survey Data Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, Joseph J.; Barkhouse, Wayne; Beldica, Cristina; Bertin, Emmanuel; Dora Cai, Y.; Nicolaci da Costa, Luiz A.; Darnell, J.Anthony; Daues, Gregory E.; Jarvis, Michael; Gower, Michelle; Lin, Huan; /Fermilab /Rio de Janeiro Observ.

    2008-07-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration will study cosmic acceleration with a 5000 deg2 griZY survey in the southern sky over 525 nights from 2011-2016. The DES data management (DESDM) system will be used to process and archive these data and the resulting science ready data products. The DESDM system consists of an integrated archive, a processing framework, an ensemble of astronomy codes and a data access framework. We are developing the DESDM system for operation in the high performance computing (HPC) environments at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) and Fermilab. Operating the DESDM system in an HPC environment offers both speed and flexibility. We will employ it for our regular nightly processing needs, and for more compute-intensive tasks such as large scale image coaddition campaigns, extraction of weak lensing shear from the full survey dataset, and massive seasonal reprocessing of the DES data. Data products will be available to the Collaboration and later to the public through a virtual-observatory compatible web portal. Our approach leverages investments in publicly available HPC systems, greatly reducing hardware and maintenance costs to the project, which must deploy and maintain only the storage, database platforms and orchestration and web portal nodes that are specific to DESDM. In Fall 2007, we tested the current DESDM system on both simulated and real survey data. We used TeraGrid to process 10 simulated DES nights (3TB of raw data), ingesting and calibrating approximately 250 million objects into the DES Archive database. We also used DESDM to process and calibrate over 50 nights of survey data acquired with the Mosaic2 camera. Comparison to truth tables in the case of the simulated data and internal crosschecks in the case of the real data indicate that astrometric and photometric data quality is excellent.

  19. Compressed air system upgrade results in substantial energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-01-01

    This case study highlights a compressed air system upgrade at BWX Technologies manufacturing plant in Lynchburg, Virginia, which replaced antiquated compressors and dryers and implemented an improved control strategy, resulting in improved energy efficiency and savings in energy and maintenance costs.

  20. Wind Energy Conversion Systems. A Unit of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Martin

    The number of secondary schools, colleges, and universities offering courses in wind energy machine construction, repair, and installation, continues to increase. It is the purpose of this unit to include the study of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) as an integral part of related vocational and technical curriculum materials. The unit's…

  1. SMR Handbook: Hybrid Energy Systems Involving SMRs

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton

    2014-09-01

    Large-scale nuclear reactors are traditionally operated for a singular purpose: steady-state production of dispatchable baseload electricity that is distributed broadly on the electric grid. While this implementation is key to a sustainable, reliable energy grid, SMRs offer new opportunities for increased use of clean nuclear energy for both electric and thermal applications in more locations – while still accommodating the desire to support renewable production sources. This chapter considers a scenario in which renewable generation would be tightly coupled with the nuclear generation source – behind the grid – to meet the grid demand as an integrated energy system while simultaneously producing other commodities with the available thermal energy.

  2. A sustainable legume biomass energy farming system

    SciTech Connect

    Neathery, J.; Rubel, A.; Stencel, J.; Collins, M.

    1996-12-31

    Before environmentally sensitive areas are converted to biomass energy production, the production, the potential for sustainability of such systems must be assessed. The focus has been on woody or grass crops because of their high potential yields; however, yield sustainability is dependent on the application of fertilizer and lining materials, which in turn contribute to large costs. Growing legumes or mixtures of legumes with grasses could lower or alleviate the need for nitrate fertilizers. The incorporation of legumes into energy cropping systems could: (1) add soil organic matter; (2) introduce biologically fixed N; (3) improve soil structure and texture; (4) reduce soil erosion; (5) reduce production costs; and (6) decrease nitrate run-off in surface waters. Through the {open_quotes}rotation effect{close_quotes}, legumes cause increases in yield of subsequent non-legume crops beyond that accounted for by biologically-fixed N alone. In this paper, we describe a biomass energy system combining legume and grass biomass energy with fertilizer production from these same materials. Preliminary agronomic and engineering assessments for this type of biomass system are presented. The technologies needed to integrate nitrate production with legume energy farming and energy production through legume energy conversion are identified.

  3. Solar energy system economic evaluation: IBM System 2, Togus, Maine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The economic analysis of the solar energy system, is developed for Torgus and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. This analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f-chart design procedure with inputs taken on the characteristics of the installed system and local conditions. The results are expressed in terms of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over a projected twenty year life, life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated. Results demonstrate that the solar energy system is economically viable at all of the five sites for which the analysis was conducted.

  4. Total energy based flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An integrated aircraft longitudinal flight control system uses a generalized thrust and elevator command computation (38), which accepts flight path angle, longitudinal acceleration command signals, along with associated feedback signals, to form energy rate error (20) and energy rate distribution error (18) signals. The engine thrust command is developed (22) as a function of the energy rate distribution error and the elevator position command is developed (26) as a function of the energy distribution error. For any vertical flight path and speed mode the outerloop errors are normalized (30, 34) to produce flight path angle and longitudinal acceleration commands. The system provides decoupled flight path and speed control for all control modes previously provided by the longitudinal autopilot, autothrottle and flight management systems.

  5. Bioenergy systems report. Special issue: cane energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    The report examines the use of cane to produce energy. It focuses primarily on two recent proposals for the production of electric power for the grid using cane residues and supplementary fuels. It also reviews use of cane juice or molasses to produce ethanol for blending with gasoline. In both types of cane energy systems, the objective is the production of energy as well as sugar or sugar products. The report is divided into sections on growing and harvesting biomass fuels in cane fields, producing power for the grid with these fuels, the uses of the cane juice produced in cane energy systems, the costs and revenues associated with these systems, and the national benefits derived from these systems.

  6. RETHINKING THE FUTURE GRID: INTEGRATED NUCLEAR-RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    S.M. Bragg-Sitton; R. Boardman

    2014-12-01

    integrate two or more energy resources to generate two or more products, one of which must be an energy commodity, such as electricity or transportation fuel. Subsystems would be integrated ‘‘behind’’ the electrical transmission bus and would be comprised of two or more energy conversion subsystems that have traditionally been separate or isolated. Energy flows would be dynamically apportioned as necessary to meet grid demand via a single, highly responsive connection to the grid that provides dispatchable electricity while capital-intensive generation assets operate at full capacity. Candidate region-specific hybrid energy systems selected for further study and figures of merit that will be used to assess system performance will be presented.

  7. Infrared radiative energy transfer in gaseous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, Surendra N.

    1991-01-01

    Analyses and numerical procedures are presented to investigate the radiative interactions in various energy transfer processes in gaseous systems. Both gray and non-gray radiative formulations for absorption and emission by molecular gases are presented. The gray gas formulations are based on the Planck mean absorption coefficient and the non-gray formulations are based on the wide band model correlations for molecular absorption. Various relations for the radiative flux and divergence of radiative flux are developed. These are useful for different flow conditions and physical problems. Specific plans for obtaining extensive results for different cases are presented. The procedure developed was applied to several realistic problems. Results of selected studies are presented.

  8. Symmetry energy of warm nuclear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, B. K.; De, J. N.; Samaddar, S. K.; Centelles, M.; Viñas, X.

    2014-02-01

    The temperature dependence of the symmetry energy and symmetry free energy coefficients of infinite nuclear matter and of finite nuclei is investigated. For infinite matter, both these coefficients are found to have a weaker dependence on temperature at densities close to saturation; at low but homogeneous densities, the temperature dependence becomes stronger. For finite systems, different definitions of symmetry energy coefficients are encountered in the literature yielding different values. A resolution to this problem is suggested from a global liquid-drop-inspired fit of the energies and free energies of a host of nuclei covering the entire periodic table. The hot nucleus is modeled in a subtracted finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi framework, with dynamical surface phonon coupling to nucleonic motion plugged in. Contrary to infinite nuclear matter, a substantial change in the symmetry energy coefficients is observed for finite nuclei with temperature.

  9. Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP) Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Patrick; Beach, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The scope of this study was to (1) review and analyze the state-of-art in beamed-energy propulsion (BEP) by identifying potential game-changing applications, (2) formulate a roadmap of technology development, and (3) identify key near-term technology demonstrations to rapidly advance elements of BEP technology to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 6. The two major areas of interest were launching payloads and space propulsion. More generally, the study was requested and structured to address basic mission feasibility. The attraction of beamed-energy propulsion (BEP) is the potential for high specific impulse while removing the power-generation mass. The rapid advancements in high-energy beamed-power systems and optics over the past 20 years warranted a fresh look at the technology. For launching payloads, the study concluded that using BEP to propel vehicles into space is technically feasible if a commitment to develop new technologies and large investments can be made over long periods of time. From a commercial competitive standpoint, if an advantage of beamed energy for Earth-to-orbit (ETO) is to be found, it will rest with smaller, frequently launched payloads. For space propulsion, the study concluded that using beamed energy to propel vehicles from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous Earth orbit (LEO-GEO) and into deep space is definitely feasible and showed distinct advantages and greater potential over current propulsion technologies. However, this conclusion also assumes that upfront infrastructure investments and commitments to critical technologies will be made over long periods of time. The chief issue, similar to that for payloads, is high infrastructure costs.

  10. Dormitory Solar-Energy-System Economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    102-page report analyzes long-term economic performance of a prepackaged solar energy assembly system at a dormitory installation and extrapolates to four additional sites about the U.S. Method of evaluation is f-chart procedure for solar-heating and domestic hotwater systems.

  11. Energy implications of integrated solid waste management systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Little, R.E.; McClain, G.; Becker, M.; Ligon, P.; Shapiro, K.

    1994-07-01

    This study develops estimates of energy use and recovery from managing municipal solid waste (MSW) under various collection, processing, and disposal scenarios. We estimate use and recovery -- or energy balance -- resulting from MSW management activities such as waste collection, transport, processing, and disposal, as well as indirect use and recovery linked to secondary materials manufacturing using recycled materials. In our analysis, secondary materials manufacturing displaces virgin materials manufacturing for 13 representative products. Energy implications are expressed as coefficients that measure the net energy saving (or use) of displacing products made from virgin versus recycled materials. Using data developed for the 1992 New York City Master Plan as a starting point, we apply our method to an analysis of various collection systems and 30 types of facilities to illustrate bow energy balances shift as management systems are modified. In sum, all four scenarios show a positive energy balance indicating the energy and advantage of integrated systems versus reliance on one or few technology options. That is, energy produced or saved exceeds the energy used to operate the solid waste system. The largest energy use impacts are attributable to processing, including materials separation and composting. Collection and transportation energy are relatively minor contributors. The largest two contributors to net energy savings are waste combustion and energy saved by processing recycled versus virgin materials. An accompanying spatial analysis methodology allocates energy use and recovery to New York City, New York State outside the city, the U.S., and outside the U.S. Our analytical approach is embodied in a spreadsheet model that can be used by energy and solid waste analysts to estimate impacts of management scenarios at the state and substate level.

  12. HVAC systems and energy conservation in hotels

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect that the design of the basic HVAC has on the relative success of energy conservation efforts in hotels. The unusual nature of a hotel is explained along with the impact that it has on the HVAC system. The paper stresses the practical considerations which must be made by the HVAC system designer when he designs the guest rooms, public areas, back-of-the-house areas, temperature control system, and energy management system. The advantages of providing separate air-handling systems are presented. The benefits of line voltage electric controls for guest room fan coil units are explained. General recommendations for arrangement of ventilation systems and possible opportunities for heat recovery are included.

  13. Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering Curriculum Development

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, Jon G.; Manwell, James F.; Lackner, Matthew A.

    2012-12-31

    Utility-scale electricity produced from offshore wind farms has the potential to contribute significantly to the energy production of the United States. In order for the U.S. to rapidly develop these abundant resources, knowledgeable scientists and engineers with sound understanding of offshore wind energy systems are critical. This report summarizes the development of an upper-level engineering course in "Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering." This course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive knowledge of both the technical challenges of offshore wind energy and the practical regulatory, permitting, and planning aspects of developing offshore wind farms in the U.S. This course was offered on a pilot basis in 2011 at the University of Massachusetts and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), TU Delft, and GL Garrad Hassan have reviewed its content. As summarized in this report, the course consists of 17 separate topic areas emphasizing appropriate engineering fundamentals as well as development, planning, and regulatory issues. In addition to the course summary, the report gives the details of a public Internet site where references and related course material can be obtained. This course will fill a pressing need for the education and training of the U.S. workforce in this critically important area. Fundamentally, this course will be unique due to two attributes: an emphasis on the engineering and technical aspects of offshore wind energy systems, and a focus on offshore wind energy issues specific to the United States.

  14. Energy Efficient Operation of Ammonia Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed, Abdul Qayyum; Wenning, Thomas J; Sever, Franc; Kissock, Professor Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia refrigeration systems typically offer many energy efficiency opportunities because of their size and complexity. This paper develops a model for simulating single-stage ammonia refrigeration systems, describes common energy saving opportunities, and uses the model to quantify those opportunities. The simulation model uses data that are typically available during site visits to ammonia refrigeration plants and can be calibrated to actual consumption and performance data if available. Annual electricity consumption for a base-case ammonia refrigeration system is simulated. The model is then used to quantify energy savings for six specific energy efficiency opportunities; reduce refrigeration load, increase suction pressure, employ dual suction, decrease minimum head pressure set-point, increase evaporative condenser capacity, and reclaim heat. Methods and considerations for achieving each saving opportunity are discussed. The model captures synergistic effects that result when more than one component or parameter is changed. This methodology represents an effective method to model and quantify common energy saving opportunities in ammonia refrigeration systems. The results indicate the range of savings that might be expected from common energy efficiency opportunities.

  15. World Energy Projection System model documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Hutzler, M.J.; Anderson, A.T.

    1997-09-01

    The World Energy Projection System (WEPS) was developed by the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting within the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the independent statistical and analytical agency of the US Department of Energy. WEPS is an integrated set of personal computer based spreadsheets containing data compilations, assumption specifications, descriptive analysis procedures, and projection models. The WEPS accounting framework incorporates projections from independently documented models and assumptions about the future energy intensity of economic activity (ratios of total energy consumption divided by gross domestic product GDP), and about the rate of incremental energy requirements met by natural gas, coal, and renewable energy sources (hydroelectricity, geothermal, solar, wind, biomass, and other renewable resources). Projections produced by WEPS are published in the annual report, International Energy Outlook. This report documents the structure and procedures incorporated in the 1998 version of the WEPS model. It has been written to provide an overview of the structure of the system and technical details about the operation of each component of the model for persons who wish to know how WEPS projections are produced by EIA.

  16. Battery energy storage market feasibility study -- Expanded report

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, S.; Akhil, A.

    1997-09-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the battery energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed battery storage as an important technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  17. Manzanita Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Trisha Frank

    2004-09-30

    The Manzanita Indian Reservation is located in southeastern San Diego County, California. The Tribe has long recognized that the Reservation has an abundant wind resource that could be commercially utilized to its benefit. Manzanita has explored the wind resource potential on tribal land and developed a business plan by means of this wind energy feasibility project, which enables Manzanita to make informed decisions when considering the benefits and risks of encouraging large-scale wind power development on their lands. Technical consultant to the project has been SeaWest Consulting, LLC, an established wind power consulting company. The technical scope of the project covered the full range of feasibility assessment activities from site selection through completion of a business plan for implementation. The primary objectives of this feasibility study were to: (1) document the quality and suitability of the Manzanita Reservation as a site for installation and long-term operation of a commercially viable utility-scale wind power project; and, (2) develop a comprehensive and financeable business plan.

  18. Fuzzy systems in high-energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, Marcello; Masulli, Francesco; Penna, Massimo

    1996-06-01

    Decision making is one of the major subjects of interest in physics. This is due to the intrinsic finite accuracy of measurement that leads to the possible results to span a region for each quantity. In this way, to recognize a particle type among the others by a measure of a feature vector, a decision must be made. The decision making process becomes a crucial point whenever a low statistical significance occurs as in space cosmic ray experiments where searching in rare events requires us to reject as many background events as possible (high purity), keeping as many signal events as possible (high efficiency). In the last few years, interesting theoretical results on some feedforward connectionist systems (FFCSs) have been obtained. In particular, it has been shown that multilayer perceptrons (MLPs), radial basis function networks (RBFs), and some fuzzy logic systems (FLSs) are nonlinear universal function approximators. This property permits us to build a system showing intelligent behavior , such as function estimation, time series forecasting, and pattern classification, and able to learn their skill from a set of numerical data. From the classification point of view, it has been demonstrated that non-parametric classifiers based FFCSs holding the universal function approximation property, can approximate the Bayes optimal discriminant function and then minimize the classification error. In this paper has been studied the FBF when applied to a high energy physics problem. The FBF is a powerful neuro-fuzzy system (or adaptive fuzzy logic system) holding the universal function approximation property and the capability of learning from examples. The FBF is based on product-inference rule (P), the Gaussian membership function (G), a singleton fuzzifier (S), and a center average defuzzifier (CA). The FBF can be regarded as a feedforward connectionist system with just one hidden layer whose units correspond to the fuzzy MIMO rules. The FBF can be identified both by

  19. Phase change energy storage for solar dynamic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiaramonte, F. P.; Taylor, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a transient computer simulation that was developed to study phase change energy storage techniques for Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar dynamic (SD) power systems. Such SD systems may be used in future growth SSF configurations. Two solar dynamic options are considered in this paper: Brayton and Rankine. Model elements consist of a single node receiver and concentrator, and takes into account overall heat engine efficiency and power distribution characteristics. The simulation not only computes the energy stored in the receiver phase change material (PCM), but also the amount of the PCM required for various combinations of load demands and power system mission constraints. For a solar dynamic power system in low earth orbit, the amount of stored PCM energy is calculated by balancing the solar energy input and the energy consumed by the loads corrected by an overall system efficiency. The model assumes an average 75 kW SD power system load profile which is connected to user loads via dedicated power distribution channels. The model then calculates the stored energy in the receiver and subsequently estimates the quantity of PCM necessary to meet peaking and contingency requirements. The model can also be used to conduct trade studies on the performance of SD power systems using different storage materials.

  20. On Energy Trading Decision Methods in Distributed Energy Management Systems with Multiple Customers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Toshiyuki; Sugimoto, Yohei; Mori, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Shoichi; Yamamoto, Takaya

    This paper addresses an operation and energy purchase planning problem under the CO2 emissions regulation for corporate entities. Considering energy trading, more efficient energy consumption may be possible. We have studied an agent-based planning system, called Distributed Energy Management Systems (DEMSs), which intends to reduce energy consumption. In the DEMSs, CO2 emissions regulation is imposed on each corporate entity, and electrical and thermal energy trading among the entities are allowed. We have proposed an energy trading decision method based on the Market Oriented Programming (MOP). In this paper, we propose trading decision methods for the group composed of several customers and several suppliers. Experimental results show effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Energy efficiency of a dynamic glazing system

    SciTech Connect

    Lollini, R.; Danza, L.; Meroni, I.

    2010-04-15

    The reduction of air-conditioning energy consumptions is one of the main indicators to act on when improving the energy efficiency in buildings. In the case of advanced technological buildings, a meaningful contribution to the thermal loads and the energy consumptions reduction could depend on the correct configuration and management of the envelope systems. In recent years, the architectural trend toward highly transparent all-glass buildings presents a unique challenge and opportunity to advance the market for emerging, smart, dynamic window and dimmable daylighting control technologies (). A prototype dynamic glazing system was developed and tested at ITC-CNR; it is aimed at actively responding to the external environmental loads. Both an experimental campaign and analyses by theoretical models were carried out, aimed at evaluating the possible configurations depending on different weather conditions in several possible places. Therefore, the analytical models of the building-plant system were defined by using a dynamic energy simulation software (EnergyPlus). The variables that determine the system performance, also influenced by the boundary conditions, were analysed, such as U- and g-value; they concern both the morphology of the envelope system, such as dimensions, shading and glazing type, gap airflow thickness, in-gap airflow rate, and management, in terms of control algorithm parameters tuning fan and shading systems, as a function of the weather conditions. The configuration able to provide the best performances was finally identified by also assessing such performances, integrating the dynamic system in several building types and under different weather conditions. The dynamic envelope system prototype has become a commercial product with some applications in facade systems, curtain walls and windows. The paper describes the methodological approach to prototype development and the main results obtained, including simulations of possible applications on

  2. View southeast of computer controlled energy monitoring system. System replaced ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast of computer controlled energy monitoring system. System replaced strip chart recorders and other instruments under the direct observation of the load dispatcher. - Thirtieth Street Station, Load Dispatch Center, Thirtieth & Market Streets, Railroad Station, Amtrak (formerly Pennsylvania Railroad Station), Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. A system for spacecraft attitude control and energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaughnessy, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A conceptual design for a double-gimbal reaction-wheel energy-wheel device which has three-axis attitude control and electrical energy storage capability is given. A mathematical model for the three-axis gyroscope (TAG) was developed, and a system of multiple units is proposed for attitude control and energy storage for a class of spacecraft. Control laws were derived to provide the required attitude-control torques and energy transfer while minimizing functions of TAG gimbal angles, gimbal rates, reaction-wheel speeds, and energy-wheel speed differences. A control law is also presented for a magnetic torquer desaturation system. A computer simulation of a three-TAG system for an orbiting telescope was used to evaluate the concept. The results of the study indicate that all control and power requirements can be satisfied by using the TAG concept.

  4. Aleutian Pribilof Islands Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce A. Wright

    2012-03-27

    Under this project, the Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association (APIA) conducted wind feasibility studies for Adak, False Pass, Nikolski, Sand Point and St. George. The DOE funds were also be used to continue APIA's role as project coordinator, to expand the communication network quality between all participants and with other wind interest groups in the state and to provide continued education and training opportunities for regional participants. This DOE project began 09/01/2005. We completed the economic and technical feasibility studies for Adak. These were funded by the Alaska Energy Authority. Both wind and hydro appear to be viable renewable energy options for Adak. In False Pass the wind resource is generally good but the site has high turbulence. This would require special care with turbine selection and operations. False Pass may be more suitable for a tidal project. APIA is funded to complete a False Pass tidal feasibility study in 2012. Nikolski has superb potential for wind power development with Class 7 wind power density, moderate wind shear, bi-directional winds and low turbulence. APIA secured nearly $1M from the United States Department of Agriculture Rural Utilities Service Assistance to Rural Communities with Extremely High Energy Costs to install a 65kW wind turbine. The measured average power density and wind speed at Sand Point measured at 20m (66ft), are 424 W/m2 and 6.7 m/s (14.9 mph) respectively. Two 500kW Vestas turbines were installed and when fully integrated in 2012 are expected to provide a cost effective and clean source of electricity, reduce overall diesel fuel consumption estimated at 130,000 gallons/year and decrease air emissions associated with the consumption of diesel fuel. St. George Island has a Class 7 wind resource, which is superior for wind power development. The current strategy, led by Alaska Energy Authority, is to upgrade the St. George electrical distribution system and power plant. Avian studies in Nikolski and

  5. Industrial Scale Energy Systems Integration; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, Mark

    2015-07-28

    The industrial sector consumes 25% of the total energy in the U.S. and produces 18% of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Energy Systems Integration (ESI) opportunities can reduce those values and increase the profitability of that sector. This presentation outlines several options. Combined heat and power (CHP) is an option that is available today for many applications. In some cases, it can be extended to trigeneration by adding absorbtion cooling. Demand response is another option in use by the industrial sector - in 2012, industry provided 47% of demand response capacity. A longer term option that combines the benefits of CHP with those of demand response is hybrid energy systems (HESs). Two possible HESs are described and development implications discussed. extended to trigeneration by adding absorbtion cooling. Demand response is another option in use by the industrial sector - in 2012, industry provided 47% of demand response capacity. A longer term option that combines the benefits of CHP with those of demand response is hybrid energy systems (HESs). Two possible HESs are described and development implications discussed.

  6. Energy Cost of Controlling Mesoscopic Quantum Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Jordan M.; Jacobs, Kurt

    2015-09-01

    We determine the minimum energy required to control the evolution of any mesoscopic quantum system in the presence of arbitrary Markovian noise processes. This result provides the mesoscopic equivalent of the fundamental cost of refrigeration, sets the minimum power consumption of mesoscopic devices that operate out of equilibrium, and allows one to calculate the efficiency of any control protocol, whether it be open-loop or feedback control. As examples, we calculate the energy cost of maintaining a qubit in the ground state and the efficiency of resolved-sideband cooling of nano-mechanical resonators, and discuss the energy cost of quantum information processing.

  7. World energy projection system: Model documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-06-01

    The World Energy Project System (WEPS) is an accounting framework that incorporates projects from independently documented models and assumptions about the future energy intensity of economic activity (ratios of total energy consumption divided by gross domestic product) and about the rate of incremental energy requirements met by hydropower, geothermal, coal, and natural gas to produce projections of world energy consumption published annually by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in the International Energy Outlook (IEO). Two independently documented models presented in Figure 1, the Oil Market Simulation (OMS) model and the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES), provide projections of oil and nuclear power consumption published in the IEO. Output from a third independently documented model, and the International Coal Trade Model (ICTM), is not published in the IEO but is used in WEPS as a supply check on projections of world coal consumption produced by WEPS and published in the IEO. A WEPS model of natural gas production documented in this report provides the same type of implicit supply check on the WEPS projections of world natural gas consumption published in the IEO. Two additional models are included in Figure 1, the OPEC Capacity model and the Non-OPEC Oil Production model. These WEPS models provide inputs to the OMS model and are documented in this report.

  8. System's flips in climate-related energy (CRE) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Maria-Helena; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Engeland, Kolbjørn; François, Baptiste; Renard, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    Several modern environmental questions invite to explore the complex relationships between natural phenomena and human behaviour at a range of space and time scales. This usually involves a number of cause-effect (causal) relationships, linking actions and events. In lay terms, 'effect' can be defined as 'what happened' and 'cause', 'why something happened.' In a changing world or merely moving from one scale to another, shifts in perspective are expected, bringing some phenomena into the foreground and putting others to the background. Systems can thus flip from one set of causal structures to another in response to environmental perturbations and human innovations or behaviors, for instance, as space-time signatures are modified. The identification of these flips helps in better understanding and predicting how societies and stakeholders react to a shift in perspective. In this study, our motivation is to investigate possible consequences of the shift to a low carbon economy in terms of socio-technico systems' flips. The focus is on the regional production of Climate-Related Energy (CRE) (hydro-, wind- and solar-power). We search for information on historic shifts that may help defining the forcing conditions of abrupt changes and extreme situations. We identify and present a series of examples in which we try to distinguish the various tipping points, thresholds, breakpoints and regime shifts that are characteristic of complex systems in the CRE production domain. We expect that with these examples our comprehension of the question will be enriched, providing us the elements needed to better validate modeling attempts, to predict and manage flips of complex CRE production systems. The work presented is part of the FP7 project COMPLEX (Knowledge based climate mitigation systems for a low carbon economy; http://www.complex.ac.uk/).

  9. Energy loss analysis of an integrated space power distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kankam, M. D.; Ribeiro, P. F.

    1992-01-01

    The results of studies related to conceptual topologies of an integrated utility-like space power system are described. The system topologies are comparatively analyzed by considering their transmission energy losses as functions of mainly distribution voltage level and load composition. The analysis is expedited by use of a Distribution System Analysis and Simulation (DSAS) software. This recently developed computer program by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) uses improved load models to solve the power flow within the system. However, present shortcomings of the software with regard to space applications, and incompletely defined characteristics of a space power system make the results applicable to only the fundamental trends of energy losses of the topologies studied. Accountability, such as included, for the effects of the various parameters on the system performance can constitute part of a planning tool for a space power distribution system.

  10. Solar energy grid integration systems "SEGIS"

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-10-01

    The inevitable transformation of the electrical grid to a more distributed generation configuration requires solar system capabilities well beyond simple net-metered, grid-connected approaches. Time-of-use and peak-demand rate structures will require more sophisticated systems designs that integrate energy management and/or energy storage into the system architecture. Controlling power flow into and from the utility grid will be required to ensure grid reliability and power quality. Alternative protection strategies will also be required to accommodate large numbers of distributed energy sources. This document provides an overview of the R&D needs and describes some pathways to promising solutions. The solutions will, in many cases, require R&D of new components, innovative inverter/controllers, energy management systems, innovative energy storage and a suite of advanced control algorithms, technical methodologies, protocols and the associated communications. It is expected that these solutions will help to push the “advanced integrated system” and “smart grid” evolutionary processes forward in a faster but focused manner.

  11. Payload transportation system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A standard size set of shuttle payload transportation equipment was defined that will substantially reduce the cost of payload transportation and accommodate a wide range of payloads with minimum impact on payload design. The system was designed to accommodate payload shipments between the level 4 payload integration sites and the launch site during the calendar years 1979-1982. In addition to defining transportation multi-use mission support equipment (T-MMSE) the mode of travel, prime movers, and ancillary equipment required in the transportation process were also considered. Consistent with the STS goals of low cost and the use of standardized interfaces, the transportation system was designed to commercial grade standards and uses the payload flight mounting interfaces for transportation. The technical, cost, and programmatic data required to permit selection of a baseline system of MMSE for intersite movement of shuttle payloads were developed.

  12. Preparation of the high power laser system PETAL for experimental studies of inertial confinement fusion and high energy density states of matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Humières, E.; Caron, J.; Perego, C.; Raffestin, D.; Dubois, J.-L.; Baggio, J.; Compant La Fontaine, A.; Hulin, S.; Ducret, J.-E.; Lubrano, F.; Gommé, J. C.; Gazave, J.; Ribolzi, J.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Nicolai, P.; Lefebvre, E.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Batani, D.

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes the preparation of the short-pulse high-energy laser PETAL that will be coupled to the French megajoule laser (LMJ) of CEA. The LMJ/PETAL facility will be opened to academic access for the international research community. In parallel diagnostics are being developed within the PETAL project and many physical problems are being addressed ranging from the study of the problems of radiation generation and activation issues to the problem of generation of large amplitude electromagnetic pulses.

  13. Feasibility study of solar energy in residential electricity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, Divyangsinh G.

    With the increasing demand for energy and the concerns about the global environment, along with the steady progress in the field of renewable energy technologies, new opportunities and possibilities are opening up for an efficient utilization of renewable energy sources. Solar energy is undoubtedly the most clean, inexhaustible and abundant source of renewable energy. Photovoltaic (PV) technology is one of the most efficient mean to utilize solar power. The focus of this study was to establish economics of a residential photovoltaic system for a typical home in south Texas. The PV system serves the needs of a typical mid-size home inhibited by a typical family. Assumptions are made for the typical daily energy consumption, and the necessary equipments like solar arrays, batteries, inverter, etc. are sized and evaluated optimally so as to reduce the life cycle cost (LCC) of the system. Calculations are done taking into consideration the economic parameters concerned with the system.

  14. Solar energy control system. [temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, J. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy control system for a hot air type solar energy heating system wherein thermocouples are arranged to sense the temperature of a solar collector, a space to be heated, and a top and bottom of a heat storage unit is disclosed. Pertinent thermocouples are differentially connected together, and these are employed to effect the operation of dampers, a fan, and an auxiliary heat source. In accomplishing this, the differential outputs from the thermocouples are amplified by a single amplifier by multiplexing techniques. Additionally, the amplifier is corrected as to offset by including as one multiplex channel a common reference signal.

  15. An MHD generator energy flow time rate extremal controlling system

    SciTech Connect

    Vasiliev, V.V.

    1993-12-31

    The progress in the development and studying of new methods of producing electric energy, based on direct conversion of heat energy, raises the problem of more effective use of their power characteristics. Disclosure is made of a self-optimizing control system for an object with a unimodal quality function. The system comprises an object, a divider, a band-pass filter, an averaging filter, a multiplier, a final control element, an adder and further includes a search signal generator. The fashion and the system are presented in the USSR No. 684510, in the USA No. 4179730, in France No. 2386854, In Germany No. 2814963, in Japan No. 1369882. The progress in the development and studying of new method of producing electric energy, based on direct conversion of heat in MHD generator into electric energy, raises the problem of more effective use of their power characteristics.

  16. Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Short, W.; Sullivan, P.; Mai, T.; Mowers, M.; Uriarte, C.; Blair, N.; Heimiller, D.; Martinez, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) is a deterministic optimization model of the deployment of electric power generation technologies and transmission infrastructure throughout the contiguous United States into the future. The model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Strategic Energy Analysis Center, is designed to analyze the critical energy issues in the electric sector, especially with respect to potential energy policies, such as clean energy and renewable energy standards or carbon restrictions. ReEDS provides a detailed treatment of electricity-generating and electrical storage technologies and specifically addresses a variety of issues related to renewable energy technologies, including accessibility and cost of transmission, regional quality of renewable resources, seasonal and diurnal generation profiles, variability of wind and solar power, and the influence of variability on the reliability of the electrical grid. ReEDS addresses these issues through a highly discretized regional structure, explicit statistical treatment of the variability in wind and solar output over time, and consideration of ancillary services' requirements and costs.

  17. Automated drawing system of quantum energy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stampoultzis, M.; Sinatkas, J.; Tsakstara, V.; Kosmas, T. S.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to derive an automated system that provides advantageous drawings of energy spectra for quantum systems (nuclei, atoms, molecules, etc.) required in various physical sciences. The automation involves the development of appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system based on raw data insertion, theoretical calculations and experimental or bibliographic data insertion. The system determines the appropriate scale to depict graphically with the best possible way in the available space. The presently developed code operates locally and the results are displayed on the screen and can be exported to a PostScript file. We note its main features to arrange and visualize in the available space the energy levels with their identity, taking care the existence in the final diagram the least auxiliary deviations. Future improvements can be the use of Java and the availability on the Internet. The work involves the automated plotting of energy levels in molecules, atoms, nuclei and other types of quantized energy spectra. The automation involves the development of an appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system.

  18. ACMV Energy Analysis for Academic Building: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hywel, R.; Tee, B. T.; Arifin, M. Y.; Tan, C. F.; Gan, C. K.; Chong, CT

    2015-09-01

    Building energy audit examines the ways actual energy consumption is currently used in the facility, in the case of a completed and occupied building and identifies some alternatives to reduce current energy usage. Implementation of energy audit are practically used to analyze energy consumption pattern, monitoring on how the energy used varies with time in the building, how the system element interrelate, and study the effect of external environment towards building. In this case study, a preliminary energy audit is focusing on Air-Conditioning & Mechanical Ventilation (ACMV) system which reportedly consumed 40% of the total energy consumption in typical building. It is also the main system that provides comfortable and healthy environment for the occupants. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the current ACMV system performance, energy optimization and identifying the energy waste on UTeM's academic building. To attain this, the preliminary data is collected and then analyzed. Based on the data, economic analysis will be determined before cost-saving methods are being proposed.

  19. Air quality and future energy system planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to an increasing number of premature deaths throughout the world. Projected increases in demand for food, energy resources and manufactured products will likely contribute to exacerbate air pollution with an increasing impact on human health, agricultural productivity and climate change. Current events such as tampering emissions tests by VW car manufacturers, failure to comply with EU Air Quality directives and WHO guidelines by many EU countries, the problem of smog in Chinese cities and new industrial emissions regulations represent unique challenges but also opportunities for regulators, local authorities and industry. However current models and practices of energy and resource use do not consider ambient air impacts as an integral part of the planing process. Furthermore the analysis of drivers, sources and impacts of air pollution is often fragmented, difficult to understand and lacks effective visualization tools that bring all of these components together. This work aims to develop a model that links impacts of air quality on human health and ecosystems to current and future developments in the energy system, industrial and agricultural activity and patterns of land use. The model will be added to the ForeseerTM tool, which is an integrated resource analysis platform that has been developed at the University of Cambridge initially with funding from BP and more recently through the EPSRC funded Whole Systems Energy Modeling (WholeSEM) project. The basis of the tool is a set of linked physical models for energy, water and land, including the technologies that are used to transform these resources into final services such as housing, food, transport and household goods. The new air quality model will explore different feedback effects between energy, land and atmospheric systems with the overarching goal of supporting better communication about the drivers of air quality and to incorporate concerns about air quality into

  20. Potential energy studies on silane dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlanen, Riina; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2011-04-01

    Intermolecular interactions and parameters for use in MD studies of large molecule systems have earlier been determined for hydrocarbons, carbon tetrahalides and sulfur. The paper reports a model representing nonbonding interactions between silane molecules, which were examined in the same way as hydrocarbons in an earlier (neopentane, isopropane, propane, and ethane) study. Intermolecular potentials were determined for 11 combinations of silane compound pairs (silane SiH 4, disilane Si 2H 6, trisilane Si 3H 8, isotetrasilane Si 4H 10 and neopentasilane Si 5H 12) with MP2/aug(df)-6-311G ∗ab initio calculations. The most stable dimer configurations were identified. With use of the modified Morse potential model to represent the interactions, 276 new potential energy surfaces were generated for silane dimers. Separate and generic pair potentials were calculated for the silanes. The pair potentials can be used in MD studies of silanes.