Science.gov

Sample records for energy vision drawn

  1. Conclusions drawn from actions implemented within the first stage of the Cracow program of energy conservation and clean fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Bieda, J.; Bardel, J.; Pierce, B.

    1995-12-31

    Since 1992 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), acting on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, executed the first stage of the Cracow Program of Energy Conservation and Clean Fossil Fuels, called also American-Polish Program of Actions for Elimination of Low Emission Sources in Cracow. The main contractor for BNL and PNL was the Cracow Development Office (BRK). The interest in improving the condition of Cracow air results from the fact that the standard for permissible air pollution was exceeded several times in Cracow and especially within the central part of the town. Therefore, air pollution appeared one of the most important problems that faced the municipal authorities. It followed from monitoring investigations that the high level of air pollutant concentration is caused by in-home coal-fired tile stoves operated in winter seasons and by coal- and coke-fired boiler houses simulated mainly in the central part of the town. The results obtained in first stage are presented. This paper is an attempt to formulate conclusions drawn from these works and recommendations with regard to the future policy of the town authorities; selected results are presented to clarify or illustrate the conclusions.

  2. Virtual Simulation of Vision 21 Energy Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Syamlal, Madhava; Felix, Paul E.; Osawe, Maxwell O.; Fiveland, Woodrow A.; Sloan, David G.; Zitney, Stephen E.; Joop, Frank; Cleetus, Joseph; Lapshin, Igor B.

    2001-11-06

    The Vision 21 Energy plants will be designed by combining several individual power, chemical, and fuel-conversion technologies. These independently developed technologies or technology modules can be interchanged and combined to form the complete Vision 21 plant that achieves the needed level of efficiency and environmental performance at affordable costs. The knowledge about each technology module must be captured in computer models so that the models can be linked together to simulate the entire Vision 21 power plant in a Virtual Simulation environment. Eventually the Virtual Simulation will find application in conceptual design, final design, plant operation and control, and operator training. In this project we take the first step towards developing such a Vision 21 Simulator. There are two main knowledge domains of a plant--the process domain (what is in the pipes), and the physical domain (the pipes and equipment that make up the plant). Over the past few decades, commercial software tools have been developed for each of these functions. However, there are three main problems that inhibit the design and operation of power plants: (1) Many of these tools, largely developed for chemicals and refining, have not been widely adopted in the power industry. (2) Tools are not integrated across functions. For example, the knowledge represented by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of equipment is not used in process-level simulations. (3) No tool exists for readily integrating the design and behavioral knowledge about components. These problems must be overcome to develop the Vision 21 Simulator. In this project our major objective is to achieve a seamless integration of equipment-level and process-level models and apply the integrated software to power plant simulations. Specifically we are developing user-friendly tools for linking process models (Aspen Plus) with detailed equipment models (FLUENT CFD and other proprietary models). Such integration will

  3. A Vision for Systems Engineering Applied to Wind Energy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, F.; Dykes, K.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation was given at the Third Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop on January 14, 2015. Topics covered include the importance of systems engineering, a vision for systems engineering as applied to wind energy, and application of systems engineering approaches to wind energy research and development.

  4. Relationship between dislocations and residual stresses in cold-drawn pearlitic steel analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Shigeo; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki; Suzuki, Shigeru; Kumagai, Masayoshi; Imafuku, Muneyuki; Tashiro, Hitoshi; Kajiwara, Kentaro; Shobu, Takahiasa

    2013-09-15

    We analyzed the dislocation distribution of cold-drawn pearlitic-steel wire by using the line-profile analysis based on the energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXD). Although this line-profile analysis requires a high resolution in reciprocal space, the resolution for EDXD is generally poor due to the energy resolution of the detector. Our analysis demonstrated that the resolution in the reciprocal space can be maximized at small scattering angles. Using the line-profile analysis based on the EDXD, the microstructural parameters such as the crystallite size and the dislocation density of the ferrite phase in the pearlitic steel were successfully analyzed. In addition, the distribution of the residual stress of the ferrite phase of a pearlitic steel wire was also analyzed using the EDXD measurement. - Highlights: • Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction is applied to the line-profile analysis. • Distribution of dislocations in ferrite in the pearlitic steel wire is analyzed. • Relationship between dislocations and residual stress is discussed.

  5. National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap: A National Hydrogen Vision (CD-ROM)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-12-01

    ''The National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap'' was unveiled by the Secretary of Energy, Spencer Abraham, November 12, 2002. The Roadmap provides a blueprint for the coordinated, long-term, public and private efforts required for hydrogen energy development. This CD-ROM also includes''A National Vision of America's Transition to a Hydrogen Economy-to 2030 and Beyond'', which was published in February 2002 as a result of the Hydrogen Vision Meeting. This document summarizes the potential role for hydrogen systems in America's energy future, outlining the common vision of the ''hydrogen economy.''

  6. Tribal Energy Program, Assisting Tribes to Realize Their Energy Visions (Brochure), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    This 12-page brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Tribal Energy Program and describes the financial, technical, and educational assistance it provides to help tribes develop their renewable energy resources and reduce their energy consumption.

  7. Energy/environment/technology two visions, two directions

    SciTech Connect

    Fox-Penner, P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper compares the energy policies proposed by the U.S. Congress and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Connections between energy, economy, environment, and technology are discussed in some detail. The National Energy Policy Plan of the DOE is summarized, and the impact of budget cuts proposed by Congress are projected. Aspects of the DOE plan which are emphasized include research and development, minimization of regulation, and eliminating redundant government and private industry efforts. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Wind Vision: Updating the DOE 20% Wind Energy by 2030 Report (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2014-04-01

    The 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report was developed as part of the Advanced Energy Initiative. Published in 2008, the report was largely based on information collected and analyzed in 2006. Much has changed since then, including shifts in technology, markets, and policy. The industry needs a new, clear, vision for wind power that is shared among stakeholders from the U.S. government, industry, academia, and NGO communities. At WINDPOWER 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy, in partnership with the American Wind Energy Association and the Wind Energy Foundation, launched a project to update the 20% report with new objectives. This conference poster outlines the elements of the new Wind Vision.

  9. Angular glass tubing drawn from round tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Round glass tubing softened in a furnace is drawn over a shaped plug or mandel to form shapes with other than a circular cross section. Irregularly shaped tubing is formed without limitations on tube length or wall thickness.

  10. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Schwartz

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the work performed, accomplishments and conclusion obtained from the project entitled ''Novel Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation in Gasification Processes in Vision 21 Energy Plants'' under the United States Department of Energy Contract DE-FC26-01NT40973. ITN Energy Systems was the prime contractor. Team members included: the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory; Nexant Consulting; Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair. The objective of the program was to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The separation technology module is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of the proposed technology will benefit the deployment of ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant processes by improving the energy efficiency, flexibility and environmental performance of these plants. Of particular importance is that this technology will also produce a stream of pure carbon dioxide. This allows facile sequestration or other use of this greenhouse gas. These features will benefit the U.S. in allowing for the continued use of domestic fossil fuels in a more energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner. The program developed and evaluated composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules were fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed Ion Conducting Ceramic Membrane (ICCM) approach, including system integration issues, were also assessed. This resulted in a comprehensive evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of integration schemes of ICCM hydrogen separation technology within Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Several results and conclusion were obtained during this program. In the area of materials synthesis, novel

  11. Wind Vision: A New Era for Wind Power in the United States (Highlights); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    This is a four-part Wind Vision project, consisting of Wind Vision Highlights, Executive Summary, a Full Report, and Appendix. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Program, in close cooperation with the wind industry, led a comprehensive analysis to evaluate future pathways for the wind industry. The Wind Vision report updates and expands upon the DOE's 2008 report, 20% Wind Energy by 2030, and defines the societal, environmental, and economic benefits of wind power in a scenario with wind energy supplying 10% of national end-use electricity demand by 2020, 20% by 2030, and 35% by 2050.

  12. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Schwartz

    2004-01-01

    ITN Energy Systems, along with its team members, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Nexant Consulting, Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair, propose to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The ITN team is taking a novel approach to hydrogen separation membrane technology where fundamental engineering material development is fully integrated into fabrication designs; combining functionally graded materials, monolithic module concept and plasma spray manufacturing techniques. The technology is based on the use of Ion Conducting Ceramic Membranes (ICCM) for the selective transport of hydrogen. The membranes are comprised of composites consisting of a proton conducting ceramic and a second metallic phase to promote electrical conductivity. Functional grading of the membrane components allows the fabrication of individual membrane layers of different materials, microstructures and functions directly into a monolithic module. Plasma spray techniques, common in industrial manufacturing, are well suited for fabricating ICCM hydrogen separation modules inexpensively, yielding compact membrane modules that are amenable to large scale, continuous manufacturing with low costs. This program will develop and evaluate composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules will be fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed ICCM approach, including system integration issues, will also be assessed. This will result in a complete evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of ICCM hydrogen separation for implementation within the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The ICCM hydrogen separation technology is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of

  13. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Schwartz

    2003-10-01

    ITN Energy Systems, along with its team members, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Nexant Consulting, Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair, propose to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The ITN team is taking a novel approach to hydrogen separation membrane technology where fundamental engineering material development is fully integrated into fabrication designs; combining functionally graded materials, monolithic module concept and plasma spray manufacturing techniques. The technology is based on the use of Ion Conducting Ceramic Membranes (ICCM) for the selective transport of hydrogen. The membranes are comprised of composites consisting of a proton conducting ceramic and a second metallic phase to promote electrical conductivity. Functional grading of the membrane components allows the fabrication of individual membrane layers of different materials, microstructures and functions directly into a monolithic module. Plasma spray techniques, common in industrial manufacturing, are well suited for fabricating ICCM hydrogen separation modules inexpensively, yielding compact membrane modules that are amenable to large scale, continuous manufacturing with low costs. This program will develop and evaluate composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules will be fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed ICCM approach, including system integration issues, will also be assessed. This will result in a complete evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of ICCM hydrogen separation for implementation within the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The ICCM hydrogen separation technology is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of

  14. Vision problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... which nothing can be seen) Vision loss and blindness are the most severe vision problems. Causes Vision ... that look faded. The most common cause of blindness in people over age 60. Eye infection, inflammation, ...

  15. Numerical model and analysis of an energy-based system using microwaves for vision correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pertaub, Radha; Ryan, Thomas P.

    2009-02-01

    A treatment system was developed utilizing a microwave-based procedure capable of treating myopia and offering a less invasive alternative to laser vision correction without cutting the eye. Microwave thermal treatment elevates the temperature of the paracentral stroma of the cornea to create a predictable refractive change while preserving the epithelium and deeper structures of the eye. A pattern of shrinkage outside of the optical zone may be sufficient to flatten the central cornea. A numerical model was set up to investigate both the electromagnetic field and the resultant transient temperature distribution. A finite element model of the eye was created and the axisymmetric distribution of temperature calculated to characterize the combination of controlled power deposition combined with surface cooling to spare the epithelium, yet shrink the cornea, in a circularly symmetric fashion. The model variables included microwave power levels and pulse width, cooling timing, dielectric material and thickness, and electrode configuration and gap. Results showed that power is totally contained within the cornea and no significant temperature rise was found outside the anterior cornea, due to the near-field design of the applicator and limited thermal conduction with the short on-time. Target isothermal regions were plotted as a result of common energy parameters along with a variety of electrode shapes and sizes, which were compared. Dose plots showed the relationship between energy and target isothermic regions.

  16. The quality transformation: A catalyst for achieving energy`s strategic vision

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This plan describes the initial six corporate quality goals for DOE. It also includes accompanying performance measures which will help DOE determine progress towards meeting these goals. The six goals are: (1) There is effective use of performance measurement based on regular assessment of Energy operations using the Presidential Award for Quality, the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, or equivalent criteria. (2) All managers champion continuous quality improvement training for all employees through planning, attendance, and active application. (3) The Department leadership has provided the environment in which employees are enabled to satisfy customer requirements and realize their full potential. (4) The Department management practices foster employee involvement, development and recognition. (5) The Department continuously improves customer service and satisfaction, and internal and external customers recognize Energy as an excellent service provider. (6) The Department has a system which aligns strategic and operational planning with strategic intent, ensures this planning drives resource allocation, provides for regular evaluation of results, and provides feedback.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell Osawe; Madhave Symlal; Krishna Thotapalli; and Stephen Zitney

    2003-04-30

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40954. The goal of the project is to develop and demonstrate a software framework to enable virtual simulation of Vision 21 plants. During the last quarter much progress was made in software development. The CO wrapper template was developed for the integration of Alstom Power proprietary code INDVU. The session management tasks were completed. The multithreading capability was made functional so that user of the integrated simulation may directly interact with the CFD software. The V21-Controller and the Fluent CO wrapper were upgraded to CO v.1.0. The testing and debugging of the upgraded software is ongoing. Testing of the integrated software was continued. A list of suggested GUI enhancements was made. Remote simulation capability was successfully tested using two networked Windows machines. Work on preparing the release version progressed: CFD database was enhanced, a convergence detection capability was implemented, a Configuration Wizard for low-order models was developed, and the Configuration Wizard for Fluent was enhanced. During the last quarter good progress was made in software demonstration. Various simplified versions of Demo Case 1 were used to debug Configuration Wizard and V21-Controller. The heat exchanger model in FLUENT was calibrated and the energy balance was verified. The INDVU code was integrated into the V21-Controller, and the integrated model is being debugged. A sensitivity loop was inserted into Demo Case 2 to check whether the simulation converges over the desired load range. Work on converting HRSGSIM code to run in batch mode was started. Work on calibrating Demo Case 2 was started.

  18. Low Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cases of Low Vision (in thousands) by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2010 U.S. Prevalent ... Cases of Low Vision (in thousands) by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2000 U.S. Prevalent ...

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal; Maxwell Osawe; Stephen Zitney; Lewis Collins; David Sloan; Woodrow Fiveland; Frank Joop; Philip Simon; K. Joseph Cleetus

    2005-04-01

    To accelerate the development of advanced power plants, DOE's Vision 21 program identified the need for an integrated suite of software tools that could be used to simulate and visualize new plant concepts. Existing process simulation software did not meet this objective of virtual-plant simulation. Sophisticated models of many individual equipment items are available; however, a seamless coupling capability that would integrate the advanced equipment (component) models to the process (system) simulation software remained to be developed. The inability to use models in an integrated manner causes knowledge loss (e.g., knowledge captured in detailed equipment models is usually not available in process simulation) and modeling inconsistencies (e.g., physical properties and reaction kinetics data in different models are not the same). A team consisting of Fluent Inc., ALSTOM Power Inc., Aspen Technology Inc., Intergraph Corporation, and West Virginia University, in collaboration with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), addressed this challenge in a project performed over the period from October 2000 through December 2004. In this project the integration of the cycle analysis software was based on widely used commercial software: Aspen Plus{reg_sign} for process simulation and FLUENT{reg_sign} for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of equipment items. The integration software was designed to also include custom (in-house, proprietary, legacy) equipment models that often encapsulate the experience from the many years of designing and operating the equipment. The team adopted CAPE-OPEN (CO) interfaces, the de facto international standard for communication among process models, for exchanging information between software. The software developed in this project is the first demonstration of the use of CO interfaces to link CFD and custom equipment models with process simulators. New interface requirements identified during this project were

  20. 41. PENCIL DRAWING OF SELECTED DESIGN Drawn by project architect ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. PENCIL DRAWING OF SELECTED DESIGN Drawn by project architect Alfred Eichler, undated. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  1. 32. 'WATCHMAN'S SHELTER,' drawn by project architect Alfred Eichler, March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. 'WATCHMAN'S SHELTER,' drawn by project architect Alfred Eichler, March 28, 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  2. Seeing the Light: End-of-Life Experiences-Visions, Energy Surges, and Other Death Bed Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Wholihan, Dorothy

    2016-09-01

    Spiritual care is an integral part of multidimensional palliative care and a major domain of care identified in definitions and guidelines. Death bed phenomena include visions, dreams, hallucinations, and premortem energy surges, which can be deeply spiritual experiences. Death bed occurrences are often a source of consolation. However, they have been underrecognized. The last hours of life are sacred; as holistic, multidimensional practitioners, nurses should remain open to experiences not easily explained within a traditional medical model. As the most consistent caregivers, nurses assess, recognize, and validate such experiences to assist patients in finding meaning, comfort, and a peaceful end-of-life. PMID:27497021

  3. All Vision Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jobs Home > Statistics and Data > All Vision Impairment All Vision Impairment Vision Impairment Defined Vision impairment is ... being blind by the U.S. definition.) The category “All Vision Impairment” includes both low vision and blindness. ...

  4. Low Vision FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jobs Home > Low Vision > Low Vision FAQs Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Low Vision FAQs What is low vision? Low vision is ...

  5. Living with vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss ... Low vision is a visual disability. Wearing regular glasses or contacts does not help. People with low vision have ...

  6. 77 FR 64545 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... respect to electronic filing have been amended. The amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR... COMMISSION Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China Scheduling of the final phase of countervailing duty and... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of drawn stainless...

  7. 78 FR 21417 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ..., Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register on October 22, 2012 (77 FR 64545). The... COMMISSION Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... drawn stainless steel sinks from China, provided for in subheading 7324.10.00 of the Harmonized...

  8. 77 FR 23752 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... the notice in the Federal Register of March 7, 2012 (77 FR 13631). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... (April 2012), entitled Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks from China: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-489 and...

  9. Leading Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Gay

    2004-01-01

    The current educational landscape makes it imperative that a vision statement become more than a fine-sounding statement that is laminated, hung on the wall, and quickly forgotten. If educators do not have a clear image of the future they wish to create, then someone will be ready to create it for them. But with a clear vision of the future, a…

  10. Learning Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Margaret S.; And Others

    This paper describes LEARNing Visions, a K-12 intervention program for at-risk youth in Jackson County, Tennessee, involving a partnership between the schools, local businesses, Tennessee Technological University, and Visions Five (a private company). Jackson County is characterized by an undereducated population, a high employment rate, and a low…

  11. 31. 'LAMP STANDARD, DETAIL OF UPPER PART,' drawn by project ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. 'LAMP STANDARD, DETAIL OF UPPER PART,' drawn by project architect Alfred Eichler, April 2, 1934, revised April 23, 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  12. 30. DETAIL, TOP OF LAMP STANDARD, drawn by project architect ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. DETAIL, TOP OF LAMP STANDARD, drawn by project architect Alfred Eichler, February 15, 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  13. 42. 'TOWER BRIDGE, SACRAMENTO, LINOLEUM BLOCK PRINT DRAWN & MADE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. 'TOWER BRIDGE, SACRAMENTO, LINOLEUM BLOCK PRINT DRAWN & MADE BY DOYT EARLY, CIRCA 1936.' - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  14. 28. 'TOWER DESIGN NO. 11, ADAPTED FROM NO. 9,' drawn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. 'TOWER DESIGN NO. 11, ADAPTED FROM NO. 9,' drawn by project architect Alfred Eichler, undated, ca. 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  15. 29. 'LAMP STANDARD ON CONCRETE PARAPET,' drawn by project architect ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. 'LAMP STANDARD ON CONCRETE PARAPET,' drawn by project architect Alfred Eichler, April 14, 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  16. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, drawn by Pierre du Simitiere ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, drawn by Pierre du Simitiere (papers in Philadelphia Library) DRAWING OF REDWOOD LIBRARY IN 1768. - Redwood Library, 50 Bellevue Avenue, Newport, Newport County, RI

  17. 8. Photocopy of drawing (from California State Library) 'Drawn from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of drawing (from California State Library) 'Drawn from Nature by Hugo Hochholzer,' ca. 1860s 'VIEW OF BENICIA ARSENAL GROUNDS LOOKING S.E.' - Benicia Arsenal, Benicia Industrial Park, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  18. Bed Bugs Drawn to Red and Black Colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158493.html Bed Bugs Drawn to Red and Black Colors Critters strongly prefer those bedroom hues to ... the little blood suckers strongly preferred red and black and avoided green and yellow. Does that mean ...

  19. Bed Bugs Drawn to Red and Black Colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Bed Bugs Drawn to Red and Black Colors Critters strongly prefer those bedroom hues to green ... 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Bed bugs have favorite colors, new research has discovered. In a series of ...

  20. 31. VIEW LOOKING INSIDE 'BRAVO' SILO OLIVE DRAB SHIELD, DRAWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW LOOKING INSIDE 'BRAVO' SILO OLIVE DRAB SHIELD, DRAWN IN DISTORTED WAY TO FIT ON STAIRWELL Everett Weinreb, photographer, April 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.

    2001-10-20

    DOE Vision 21 project requirements for the support of Global CAPE-OPEN Reaction Kinetics interfaces in Aspen Plus 12 was written (Task 2.4). The software design document was written and posted on the project web site. Intergraph started work on a proof of concept demo of the physical domain software (Task 2.6). The COM-side (Aspen Plus) and CORBA-side (Fluent) pieces of the Vision 21 controller code were written and independently verified. The two pieces of the code were then combined. Debugging of the combined code is underway (Task 2.7). Papers on fuel cell processes were read in preparation for developing an example based on a fuel cell process (Task 2.8). The INDVU code has been used to replace the boiler component in the Aspen Plus flowsheet of the RP&L power plant. The INDVU code receives information from Aspen Plus and iterates on the split backpass LTSH bypass and excess air quantities until the stipulated superheat outlet temperature is satisfied. The combined INDVU-Aspen Plus model has been run for several load conditions (Task 2.14). Work on identifying a second demonstration case involving an advanced power cycle has been started (Task 3.2). Plans for the second Advisory Board meeting in November were made (Task 5.0). Intergraph subcontract was signed and work on a physical domain software demo was started. A second teleconference with Norsk Hydro was conducted to discuss Global CAPE-OPEN standards and issues related to COM-CORBA Bridge (Task 7.0).

  2. Computational vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrow, H. G.; Tenenbaum, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The range of fundamental computational principles underlying human vision that equally apply to artificial and natural systems is surveyed. There emerges from research a view of the structuring of vision systems as a sequence of levels of representation, with the initial levels being primarily iconic (edges, regions, gradients) and the highest symbolic (surfaces, objects, scenes). Intermediate levels are constrained by information made available by preceding levels and information required by subsequent levels. In particular, it appears that physical and three-dimensional surface characteristics provide a critical transition from iconic to symbolic representations. A plausible vision system design incorporating these principles is outlined, and its key computational processes are elaborated.

  3. Computer vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gennery, D.; Cunningham, R.; Saund, E.; High, J.; Ruoff, C.

    1981-01-01

    The field of computer vision is surveyed and assessed, key research issues are identified, and possibilities for a future vision system are discussed. The problems of descriptions of two and three dimensional worlds are discussed. The representation of such features as texture, edges, curves, and corners are detailed. Recognition methods are described in which cross correlation coefficients are maximized or numerical values for a set of features are measured. Object tracking is discussed in terms of the robust matching algorithms that must be devised. Stereo vision, camera control and calibration, and the hardware and systems architecture are discussed.

  4. National Hydrogen Vision Meeting Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2001-11-01

    This document provides presentations and summaries of the notes from the National Hydrogen Vision Meeting''s facilitated breakout sessions. The Vision Meeting, which took place November 15-16, 2001, kicked off the public-private partnership that will pave the way to a more secure and cleaner energy future for America. These proceedings were compiled into a formal report, A National Vision of America''s Transition to a Hydrogen Economy - To 2030 and Beyond, which is also available online.

  5. Improving Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Many people are familiar with the popular science fiction series Star Trek: The Next Generation, a show featuring a blind character named Geordi La Forge, whose visor-like glasses enable him to see. What many people do not know is that a product very similar to Geordi's glasses is available to assist people with vision conditions, and a NASA engineer's expertise contributed to its development. The JORDY(trademark) (Joint Optical Reflective Display) device, designed and manufactured by a privately-held medical device company known as Enhanced Vision, enables people with low vision to read, write, and watch television. Low vision, which includes macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, describes eyesight that is 20/70 or worse, and cannot be fully corrected with conventional glasses.

  6. Vision problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... in dealing with eye emergencies if: You experience partial or complete blindness in one or both eyes, ... a family history of diabetes Eye itching or discharge Vision changes that seem related to medication (DO ...

  7. Vision Underwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Joseph S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides information regarding underwater vision. Includes a discussion of optically important interfaces, increased eye size of organisms at greater depths, visual peculiarities regarding the habitat of the coastal environment, and various pigment visual systems. (CS)

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.

    2001-01-23

    To complete project planning, various project groups conducted several meetings and teleconferences. As a result a draft project management plan was written and circulated. The plan will be finalized in a project kick off meeting to be held on January 16, 2001 in Lebanon, NH, which will be attended by all project participants (Task 1.0). Various project personnel have been trained in the use of Fluent and Aspen Plus, which completes all the training tasks except for Aspen Plus and IDL training for Alstom Power (Task 2.1). A preliminary version of User Requirements Document (preURD) was written. This document will be sent to key users of Aspen Plus and FLUENT and their responses will be collected in January (Task 2.3). A prototype of Fluent integration with Aspen Plus was constructed for understanding the required software design. The development of a general architecture for the integrated software suite has been started (Task 2.6). Invitation letters for participation in an Advisory Board were sent out to several Vision 21 contractors. Their responses will be used to form an Advisory Board in January (Task 5.0). Fluent has awarded subcontracts to Alstom Power, CERC, and Aspen Tech and negotiations with Intergraph are underway. Aspen Plus and FLUENT were installed on a computer at CERC. The design of a project web site was completed, and the site setup was started (Task 7.0).

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell Osawe; Madhava Syamlal; Krishna Thotapalli; and Stephen Zitney

    2003-10-30

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40954. The goal of the project is to develop and demonstrate a software framework to enable virtual simulation of Vision 21 plants. During the last quarter the software development was completed and the testing of the integrated software was completed. A user manual was written to complete software documentation. An installation CD-ROM including the following items was written: software installer, controller source code, proprietary CORBA wrapper templates for building local and remote servers, publicly available source code of the ACE/TAO CORBA library that needs to be built before compiling the controller source code, pre-built binaries of the publicly available XERCES XML library, and a PDF version of the software user's manual. The software was delivered to DOE. During the last quarter software demonstration tasks were completed. A few additional load points of Demo Case 1 were solved. Integrated simulations of Demo Case 2 with the proprietary HRSGSIM code and FLUENT CFD model were completed. The final task report describing Demo Case1 and Demo Case 2 simulation results was written and delivered to DOE.

  10. Vision-based building energy diagnostics and retrofit analysis using 3D thermography and building information modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Youngjib

    localization issues of 2D thermal image-based inspection, a new computer vision-based method is presented for automated 3D spatio-thermal modeling of building environments from images and localizing the thermal images into the 3D reconstructed scenes, which helps better characterize the as-is condition of existing buildings in 3D. By using these models, auditors can conduct virtual walk-through in buildings and explore the as-is condition of building geometry and the associated thermal conditions in 3D. Second, to address the challenges in qualitative and subjective interpretation of visual data, a new model-based method is presented to convert the 3D thermal profiles of building environments into their associated energy performance metrics. More specifically, the Energy Performance Augmented Reality (EPAR) models are formed which integrate the actual 3D spatio-thermal models ('as-is') with energy performance benchmarks ('as-designed') in 3D. In the EPAR models, the presence and location of potential energy problems in building environments are inferred based on performance deviations. The as-is thermal resistances of the building assemblies are also calculated at the level of mesh vertex in 3D. Then, based on the historical weather data reflecting energy load for space conditioning, the amount of heat transfer that can be saved by improving the as-is thermal resistances of the defective areas to the recommended level is calculated, and the equivalent energy cost for this saving is estimated. The outcome provides building practitioners with unique information that can facilitate energy efficient retrofit decision-makings. This is a major departure from offhand calculations that are based on historical cost data of industry best practices. Finally, to improve the reliability of BIM-based energy performance modeling and analysis for existing buildings, a new model-based automated method is presented to map actual thermal resistance measurements at the level of 3D vertexes to the

  11. Shape memory characteristics of cold drawn Ti-Ni wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Otsuka, K.; Yoshida, H.; Nagai, H.; Oishi, R.; Horikawa, H.; Kishi, T.

    2003-10-01

    With the aim of the applications for smart composite, the influence of cold drawing on the shape systematically. It was found that the reverse transformation temperatures increased significantly, while the martensitic transformation temperatures decreased with increasing amount of cold drawing. Both the temperature range for reverse and martenistic transformations became larger with increasing amount of cold drawing. A recovery strain above 2% and a recovery stress up to 300MPa can be obtained in cold drawn wires. A two-way shape memory effect was observed in as-cold drawn TiNi wires. These results indicate that cold drawn TiNi wires have many unique shape memory properties which can be applicable for smart composites.

  12. Miniaturized Imager for Low Energy Neutral Atoms (MILENA) Flown Feb. 7, 2013 on the VISIONS Sounding Rocket Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLain, J.; Collier, M. R.; Keller, J. W.; Rowland, D. E.; Kujawski, J. T.; Chornay, D. J.; Dobson, N.; Rozmarynowski, P.; Simms, K.; Pfaff, R. F.; Clemmons, J.; Hecht, J. H.; Lemon, C.; Klenzing, J.

    2013-12-01

    Two MILENA imagers flown during the VISIONS (VISualizing Ion Outflow via Neutral atom imaging during a Substorm) Mission imaged energetic neutral atoms (ENA's) during the onset of an auroral substorm, Feb. 7, 2013. MILENA imagers are high energy resolution top-hat analyzers that use a polished tungsten venetian-blind assembly to convert ENA's into ions that are then energy analyzed via an electrostatic toroidal deflection analyzer. An ENA energy spectrum in the range 0.01 to 10 keV can be acquired. The top-hat analyzer enables a 360 degree field-of-view incorporating 6 individual sectors to spatially resolve active regions with an azimuthal span of approximately 10 degrees. The evaluation of the instrument sensitivity as a function of the effective geometric factor will be discussed. By design, the MILENA instruments minimize background from UV photons and rejects ions and electrons. The small size, low weight and power requirements makes MILENA ideal for sounding rocket missions, and an important flight instrument for advancing planetary science.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell Osawe; Madhava Syamlal; Krishna Thotapalli; Stephen Zitney

    2003-07-30

    This is the eleventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40954. The goal of the project is to develop and demonstrate a software framework to enable virtual simulation of Vision 21 plants. During the last quarter much progress was made in software development. The CO wrapper for the integration of Alstom Power proprietary code INDVU was upgraded to CO V1.0.0 and was successfully integrated with an Aspen Plus flowsheet. The V21-Controller and the Fluent CO wrapper were upgraded to CO V.1.0.0, and the testing and debugging of the upgraded V21-Controller was completed. Two Aspen Plus analysis tools (sensitivity analysis and optimization) were successfully tested in an integrated simulation. Extensive testing of the integrated software was continued. A list of suggested enhancements was given to the software development team. Work on software documentation was started. Work on preparing the release version progressed: Several enhancements were made in the V21-Controller and the Fluent Configuration Wizard GUIs. Work to add persistence functionality to the V21-Controller was started. During the last quarter good progress was made in software demonstration. Demo Case 1 simulations were completed. This case, a conventional steam cycle with a CFD model representing the boiler module, was successfully demonstrated at 9 distinct load points from 33 MW to 19 MW. Much progress was made with Demo Case 2. Work on adding a CO wrapper to the HRSGSIM code was completed, and integrated simulations with the HRSGSIM code were conducted. The CFD heat exchanger model for Demo Case 2 was calibrated with HRSGSIM results. An Advisory Board meeting was held in Manchester, NH on May 6 during the Fluent Users Group Meeting. The preparation of the project final report was started.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31

    A software design review meeting was conducted (Task 2.0). A CFD Viewer was developed, to allow the process analyst to view CFD results from the process simulator (Task 2.14). Work on developing a CO wrapper for the INDVU code was continued (Task 2.15). The model-edit GUI was modified to allow the user to specify a solution strategy. Enhancements were made to the solution strategy implementation (Task 2.16). Testing of the integrated software was continued and several bug fixes and enhancements were made: ability to expose CFD parameters to the process analyst and support for velocity and pressure inlet boundary conditions (Task 2.21). Work on preparing the release version progressed: Version 0.3 of V21 Controller was released, a global configuration dialog was implemented, and a code review process was initiated (Task 2.24). The calibration of the tube bank CFD model for the RP&L case was completed. While integrating the tube bank CFD model into the flow sheet model, several development requirements were identified and communicated to the developers. The requirements of porting V21 Controller and Configuration Wizard to FLUENT 6.1, turning off the transfer of temperature dependent properties, exposing CFD parameters in Aspen Plus and supporting velocity boundary conditions have been implemented (Task 4.1). An initial grid for the HRSG component has been prepared (Task 4.2). A web-based advisory board meeting was conducted on December 18, 2003 (Task 5.0). Project personnel attended and gave presentations at the Aspen World Conference, October 28-30, 2002; AIChE Annual Meeting, November 8, 2002; and the Vision 21 Simulation meeting at Iowa State University, November 19-20, 2002 (Task 7.0).

  15. Astrophysical Implications Drawn from Advanced LIGO's First Observing Run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogera, Vassiliki; Nelemans, Gijs; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Following a major instrumentation upgrade, the Advanced LIGO detectors recently completed the first observing run. In this talk I will highlight constraints expected to be drawn from the analysis of this observational data set, in the context of astrophysical models for the formation and eventual mergers of binary compact objects in a wide range of stellar environments.

  16. 15. Photocopy of map, drawn by Henry Hagey, circa 1900 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of map, drawn by Henry Hagey, circa 1900 (from Willing Inhabitants, original in possession of author, Joyce Munro). FRANCONIA TOWNSHIP MAP. BRIDGE LOCATION IN BOTTOM CENTER - Allentown Road Bridge, Spanning Skippack Creek on Allentown Road, Franconia, Montgomery County, PA

  17. 53. Photocopy of the original conception of Tao House drawn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photocopy of the original conception of Tao House drawn by architect Frederick L. Confer and inscribed by Mrs. O'Neill to the builder, Lloyd C. Simpson. Dated 1937. - Eugene O'Neill House, Kuss Road, Danville, Contra Costa County, CA

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Galen Richards, Ph.D.; David Sloan, Ph.D.; Woodrow Fiveland, Ph.D.

    2002-08-31

    The goal of this DOE Vision-21 project work scope is to develop an integrated suite of software tools that can be used to simulate and visualize advanced plant concepts. Existing process simulation software does not meet the DOE's objective of ''virtual simulation'' which is needed to evaluate complex cycles. The overall intent of the DOE is to improve predictive tools for cycle analysis, and to improve the component models that are used in turn to simulate the cycle. Advanced component models are available; however, a generic coupling capability that will link the advanced component models to the cycle simulation software remains to be developed. In the current project, the coupling of the cycle analysis and cycle component simulation software will be based on an existing suite of programs. The challenge is to develop a general-purpose software and communications link between the cycle analysis software Aspen Plus{reg_sign} (marketed by Aspen Technology, Inc.), and specialized component modeling packages, as exemplified by industrial proprietary codes (utilized by ALSTOM Power Inc.) and the FLUENT{trademark} CFD code (provided by Fluent Inc). ALSTOM Power has a task responsibility to select and run a combined cycle test case (designated as Demonstration Case 2) to demonstrate the feasibility of the linkage concept. This report summarizes and documents the unit selected to represent Case 2, a 250 MW, natural gas-fired, combined cycle power plant. An analogous document for Demonstration Case 1 was previously submitted on April 30, 2001. Sufficient information is available from the plant to adequately benchmark the model. Hence, the proposed unit is deemed to be well suited as a demonstration case. However, as the combined cycle plant selected for this study contains recent technology, sensitivity to the commercial implications of this study prevents the release of the plant name and limits the quantity of operating/design information that can be presented. These

  19. Energy Usage in an Embedded Space Vision Application on a Tiled Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogge, Peter M.; Bornstein, Benjamin J.; Estlin, Tara A.

    2011-01-01

    The need for greater autonomy in platforms such as planetary rovers is driving rapidly to codes that far overwhelm the capabilities of conventional space-qualified single core processors to run them in real-time. However, a new generation of potentially space-qualified 2D "tiled" multi-core microprocessor chips is emerging with significant performance potential. Leveraging such inherently parallel hardware for space platforms requires consideration of both time and power limitations - the latter of which is not normally done in conventional parallel computing. This paper takes one such application, Rockster, and analyzes it for energy usage when ported to a multi-core tiled chip such as may come from the Maestro program. The results demonstrate not only the criticality of memory and interconnect in the energy of real-time parallel codes, but also the effects of possible "energy-aware" changes in partitioning and algorithm design.

  20. Presidential Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallin, Alice, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This journal issue is devoted to the theme of university presidents and their visions of the future. It presents the inaugural addresses and speeches of 16 Catholic college and university presidents focusing on their goals, ambitions, and reasons for choosing to become higher education leaders at this particular time in the history of education in…

  1. Visions 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Victor; Norman, Michele

    2001-01-01

    Reports on the views of 18 educational leaders regarding their vision on the future of education in an information age. Topics include people's diverse needs; relationships between morality, ethics, values, and technology; leadership; parental involvement; online courses from multiple higher education institutions; teachers' role; technology…

  2. Training Visions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In this article, "Training" asks the 2011 winners to give their predictions for what training--either in general or specifically at their companies--will look like in the next five to 10 years. Perhaps their "training visions" will spark some ideas in one's organization--or at least help prepare for what might be coming in the next decade or so.

  3. Agrarian Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul

    A new feature in "Country Teacher,""Agrarian Visions" reminds rural teachers that they can do something about rural decline. Like to populism of the 1890s, the "new populism" advocates rural living. Current attempts to address rural decline are contrary to agrarianism because: (1) telecommunications experts seek to solve problems of rural…

  4. Bio-inspired vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, C.

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  5. Vision Loss, Sudden

    MedlinePlus

    ... of age-related macular degeneration. Spotlight on Aging: Vision Loss in Older People Most commonly, vision loss ... Some Causes and Features of Sudden Loss of Vision Cause Common Features* Tests Sudden loss of vision ...

  6. Blindness and vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye ( chemical burns or sports injuries) Diabetes Glaucoma Macular degeneration The type of partial vision loss may differ, ... tunnel vision and missing areas of vision With macular degeneration, the side vision is normal but the central ...

  7. Vision-based building energy diagnostics and retrofit analysis using 3D thermography and building information modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Youngjib

    localization issues of 2D thermal image-based inspection, a new computer vision-based method is presented for automated 3D spatio-thermal modeling of building environments from images and localizing the thermal images into the 3D reconstructed scenes, which helps better characterize the as-is condition of existing buildings in 3D. By using these models, auditors can conduct virtual walk-through in buildings and explore the as-is condition of building geometry and the associated thermal conditions in 3D. Second, to address the challenges in qualitative and subjective interpretation of visual data, a new model-based method is presented to convert the 3D thermal profiles of building environments into their associated energy performance metrics. More specifically, the Energy Performance Augmented Reality (EPAR) models are formed which integrate the actual 3D spatio-thermal models ('as-is') with energy performance benchmarks ('as-designed') in 3D. In the EPAR models, the presence and location of potential energy problems in building environments are inferred based on performance deviations. The as-is thermal resistances of the building assemblies are also calculated at the level of mesh vertex in 3D. Then, based on the historical weather data reflecting energy load for space conditioning, the amount of heat transfer that can be saved by improving the as-is thermal resistances of the defective areas to the recommended level is calculated, and the equivalent energy cost for this saving is estimated. The outcome provides building practitioners with unique information that can facilitate energy efficient retrofit decision-makings. This is a major departure from offhand calculations that are based on historical cost data of industry best practices. Finally, to improve the reliability of BIM-based energy performance modeling and analysis for existing buildings, a new model-based automated method is presented to map actual thermal resistance measurements at the level of 3D vertexes to the

  8. Students' reasoning about "high-energy bonds" and ATP: A vision of interdisciplinary education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyfus, Benjamin W.; Sawtelle, Vashti; Turpen, Chandra; Gouvea, Julia; Redish, Edward F.

    2014-06-01

    As interdisciplinary courses are developed, instructors and researchers have to grapple with questions of how students should make connections across disciplines. We explore the issue of interdisciplinary reconciliation (IDR): how students reconcile seemingly contradictory ideas from different disciplines. While IDR has elements in common with other frameworks for the reconciliation of ideas across contexts, it differs in that each disciplinary idea is considered canonically correct within its own discipline. The setting for the research is an introductory physics course for biology majors that seeks to build greater interdisciplinary coherence and therefore includes biologically relevant topics such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and chemical bond energy. In our case-study data, students grapple with the apparent contradiction between the energy released when the phosphate bond in ATP is broken and the idea that an energy input is required to break a bond. We see students justifying context-dependent modeling choices, showing nuance in articulating how system choices may be related to disciplinary problems of interest. This represents a desired end point of IDR, in which students can build coherent connections between concepts from different disciplines while understanding each concept in its own disciplinary context. Our case study also illustrates elements of the instructional environment that play roles in the process of IDR.

  9. Pencil it in: pencil drawn electrochemical sensing platforms.

    PubMed

    Foster, Christopher W; Brownson, Dale A C; Ruas de Souza, Ana P; Bernalte, Elena; Iniesta, Jesus; Bertotti, Mauro; Banks, Craig E

    2016-06-20

    Inspired by recent reports concerning the utilisation of hand drawn pencil macroelectrodes (PDEs), we report the fabrication, characterisation (physicochemical and electrochemical) and implementation (electrochemical sensing) of various PDEs drawn upon a flexible polyester substrate. Electrochemical characterisation reveals that there are no quantifiable electrochemical responses upon utilising these PDEs with an electroactive analyte that requires an electrochemical oxidation step first, therefore the PDEs have been examined towards the electroactive redox probes hexaammineruthenium(iii) chloride, potassium ferricyanide and ammonium iron(ii) sulfate. For the first time, characterisation of the number of drawn pencil layers and the grade of pencil are examined; these parameters are commonly overlooked when utilising PDEs. It is demonstrated that a PDE drawn ten times with a 6B pencil presented the most advantageous electrochemical platform, in terms of electrochemical reversibility and peak height/analytical signal. In consideration of the aforementioned limitation, analytes requiring an electrochemical reduction as the first process were solely analysed. We demonstrate the beneficial electroanalytical capabilities of these PDEs towards p-benzoquinone and the simultaneous detection of heavy metals, namely lead(ii) and cadmium(ii), all of which are explored for the first time utilising PDEs. Initially, the detection limits of this system were higher than desired for electroanalytical platforms, however upon implementation of the PDEs in a back-to-back configuration (in which two PDEs are placed back-to-back sharing a single connection to the potentiostat), the detection limits for lead(ii) and cadmium(ii) correspond to 10 μg L(-1) and 98 μg L(-1) respectively within model aqueous (0.1 M HCl) solutions. PMID:27271819

  10. 38. Photograph of plans for alterations to IBM facilities, drawn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photograph of plans for alterations to IBM facilities, drawn by U.S. Navy Bureau of Yards and Docks, c. 1960. Drawing on file at Caretaker Site Office, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, New London. Copyright-free. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  11. High energy physics advisory panel`s subpanel on vision for the future of high-energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This report was requested by the Secretary of Energy to (1) define a long-term program for pursuing the most important high-energy physics goals since the termination of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project, (2) assess the current US high-energy physics program, and (3) make recommendations regarding the future of the field. Subjects on which recommendations were sought and which the report addresses were: high-energy physics funding priorities; facilitating international collaboration for future construction of large high-energy physics facilities; optimizing uses of the investment made in the SSC; how to encourage displaced scientists and engineers to remain in high-energy physics and to attract young scientists to enter the field in the future. The report includes a description of the state of high-energy physics research in the context of history, a summary of the SSC project, and documentation of the report`s own origins and development.

  12. Pencil Drawn Strain Gauges and Chemiresistors on Paper

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Wei; Zhao, Zhibo; Kim, Jaemyung; Huang, Jiaxing

    2014-01-01

    Pencil traces drawn on print papers are shown to function as strain gauges and chemiresistors. Regular graphite/clay pencils can leave traces composed of percolated networks of fine graphite powders, which exhibit reversible resistance changes upon compressive or tensile deflections. Flexible toy pencils can leave traces that are essentially thin films of graphite/polymer composites, which show reversible changes in resistance upon exposure to volatile organic compounds due to absorption/desorption induced swelling/recovery of the polymer binders. Pencil-on-paper devices are low-cost, extremely simple and rapid to fabricate. They are light, flexible, portable, disposable, and do not generate potentially negative environmental impact during processing and device fabrication. One can envision many other types of pencil drawn paper electronic devices that can take on a great variety of form factors. Hand drawn devices could be useful in resource-limited or emergency situations. They could also lead to new applications integrating art and electronics. PMID:24448478

  13. Human motion retrieval from hand-drawn sketch.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-Hung; Assa, Jackie; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2012-05-01

    The rapid growth of motion capture data increases the importance of motion retrieval. The majority of the existing motion retrieval approaches are based on a labor-intensive step in which the user browses and selects a desired query motion clip from the large motion clip database. In this work, a novel sketching interface for defining the query is presented. This simple approach allows users to define the required motion by sketching several motion strokes over a drawn character, which requires less effort and extends the users’ expressiveness. To support the real-time interface, a specialized encoding of the motions and the hand-drawn query is required. Here, we introduce a novel hierarchical encoding scheme based on a set of orthonormal spherical harmonic (SH) basis functions, which provides a compact representation, and avoids the CPU/processing intensive stage of temporal alignment used by previous solutions. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can well retrieve the motions, and is capable of retrieve logically and numerically similar motions, which is superior to previous approaches. The user study shows that the proposed system can be a useful tool to input motion query if the users are familiar with it. Finally, an application of generating a 3D animation from a hand-drawn comics strip is demonstrated. PMID:21383410

  14. Applied machine vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on robot vision. Topics considered at the conference included the link between fixed and flexible automation, general applications of machine vision, the development of a specification for a machine vision system, machine vision technology, machine vision non-contact gaging, and vision in electronics manufacturing.

  15. Present Vision--Future Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitterman, L. Jeffrey

    This paper addresses issues of current and future technology use for and by individuals with visual impairments and blindness in Florida. Present technology applications used in vision programs in Florida are individually described, including video enlarging, speech output, large inkprint, braille print, paperless braille, and tactual output…

  16. A New Vision for Fusion Energy Research: Fusion Rocket Engines for Planetary Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Wurden, G. A.; Weber, T. E.; Turchi, P. J.; Parks, P. B.; Evans, T. E.; Cohen, S. A.; Cassibry, J. T.; Campbell, E. M.

    2015-11-16

    Here, we argue that it is essential for the fusion energy program to identify an imagination-capturing critical mission by developing a unique product which could command the marketplace. We also lay out the logic that this product is a fusion rocket engine, to enable a rapid response capable of deflecting an incoming comet, to prevent its impact on the planet Earth, in defense of our population, infrastructure, and civilization. Deep space solar system exploration, with greater speed and orders-of-magnitude greater payload mass is also be possible.

  17. A new vision for fusion energy research: Fusion rocket engines for planetary defense

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wurden, G. A.; Weber, T. E.; Turchi, P. J.; Parks, P. B.; Evans, T. E.; Cohen, S. A.; Cassibry, J. T.; Campbell, E. M.

    2015-11-16

    Here, we argue that it is essential for the fusion energy program to identify an imagination-capturing critical mission by developing a unique product which could command the marketplace. We lay out the logic that this product is a fusion rocket engine, to enable a rapid response capable of deflecting an incoming comet, to prevent its impact on the planet Earth, in defense of our population, infrastructure, and civilization. As a side benefit, deep space solar system exploration, with greater speed and orders-of-magnitude greater payload mass would also be possible.

  18. NASA's Vision for Potential Energy Reduction from Future Generations of Propulsion Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haller, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Through a robust partnership with the aviation industry, over the past 50 years NASA programs have helped foster advances in propulsion technology that enabled substantial reductions in fuel consumption for commercial transports. Emerging global trends and continuing environmental concerns are creating challenges that will very likely transform the face of aviation over the next 20-40 years. In recognition of this development, NASA Aeronautics has established a set of Research Thrusts that will help define the future direction of the agency's research technology efforts. Two of these thrusts, Ultra-Efficient Commercial Vehicles and Transition to Low-Carbon Propulsion, serve as cornerstones for the Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) project. The AATT project is exploring and developing high-payoff technologies and concepts that are key to continued improvement in energy efficiency and environmental compatibility for future generations of fixed-wing, subsonic transports. The AATT project is primarily focused on the N+3 timeframe, or 3 generations from current technology levels. As should be expected, many of the propulsion system architectures technologies envisioned for N+3 vary significantly from todays engines. The use of batteries in a hybrid-electric configuration or deploying multiple fans distributed across the airframe to enable higher bypass ratios are just two examples of potential advances that could enable substantial energy reductions over current propulsion systems.

  19. Computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses material from areas such as artificial intelligence, psychology, computer graphics, and image processing. The intent is to assemble a selection of this material in a form that will serve both as a senior/graduate-level academic text and as a useful reference to those building vision systems. This book has a strong artificial intelligence flavour, emphasising the belief that both the intrinsic image information and the internal model of the world are important in successful vision systems. The book is organised into four parts, based on descriptions of objects at four different levels of abstraction. These are: generalised images-images and image-like entities; segmented images-images organised into subimages that are likely to correspond to interesting objects; geometric structures-quantitative models of image and world structures; relational structures-complex symbolic descriptions of image and world structures. The book contains author and subject indexes.

  20. Pleiades Visions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pleiades Visions (2012) is my new musical composition for organ that takes inspiration from traditional lore and music associated with the Pleiades (Seven Sisters) star cluster from Australian Aboriginal, Native American, and Native Hawaiian cultures. It is based on my doctoral dissertation research incorporating techniques from the fields of ethnomusicology and cultural astronomy; this research likely represents a new area of inquiry for both fields. This large-scale work employs the organ's vast sonic resources to evoke the majesty of the night sky and the expansive landscapes of the homelands of the above-mentioned peoples. Other important themes in Pleiades Visions are those of place, origins, cosmology, and the creation of the world.

  1. Lambda Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowski, Michael

    2014-06-01

    There is an explosion in the quantity and quality of IMINT data being captured in Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) today. While automated exploitation techniques involving computer vision are arriving, only a few architectures can manage both the storage and bandwidth of large volumes of IMINT data and also present results to analysts quickly. Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (ATL) has been actively researching in the area of applying Big Data cloud computing techniques to computer vision applications. This paper presents the results of this work in adopting a Lambda Architecture to process and disseminate IMINT data using computer vision algorithms. The approach embodies an end-to-end solution by processing IMINT data from sensors to serving information products quickly to analysts, independent of the size of the data. The solution lies in dividing up the architecture into a speed layer for low-latent processing and a batch layer for higher quality answers at the expense of time, but in a robust and fault-tolerant way. This approach was evaluated using a large corpus of IMINT data collected by a C-130 Shadow Harvest sensor over Afghanistan from 2010 through 2012. The evaluation data corpus included full motion video from both narrow and wide area field-of-views. The evaluation was done on a scaled-out cloud infrastructure that is similar in composition to those found in the Intelligence Community. The paper shows experimental results to prove the scalability of the architecture and precision of its results using a computer vision algorithm designed to identify man-made objects in sparse data terrain.

  2. Vision for cross-layer optimization to address the dual challenges of energy and reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Heather M; Dehon, Andre; Carter, Nicholas P

    2009-01-01

    We are rapidly approaching an inflection point where the conventional target of producing perfect, identical transistors that operate without upset can no longer be maintained while continuing to reduce the energy per operation. With power requirements already limiting chip performance, continuing to demand perfect, upset-free transistors would mean the end of scaling benefits. The big challenges in device variability and reliability are driven by uncommon tails in distributions, infrequent upsets, one-size-fits-all technology requirements, and a lack of information about the context of each operation. Solutions co-designed across traditional layer boundaries in our system stack can change the game, allowing architecture and software (a) to compensate for uncommon variation, environments, and events, (b) to pass down invariants and requirements for the computation, and (c) to monitor the health of collections of deVices. Cross-layer codesign provides a path to continue extracting benefits from further scaled technologies despite the fact that they may be less predictable and more variable. While some limited multi-layer mitigation strategies do exist, to move forward redefining traditional layer abstractions and developing a framework that facilitates cross-layer collaboration is necessary.

  3. Structural Analysis of Hand Drawn Bumblebee Bombus terrestris Silk.

    PubMed

    Woodhead, Andrea L; Sutherland, Tara D; Church, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    Bombus terrestris, commonly known as the buff-tailed bumblebee, is native to Europe, parts of Africa and Asia. It is commercially bred for use as a pollinator of greenhouse crops. Larvae pupate within a silken cocoon that they construct from proteins produced in modified salivary glands. The amino acid composition and protein structure of hand drawn B. terrestris, silk fibres was investigated through the use of micro-Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were obtained from single fibres drawn from the larvae salivary gland at a rate of 0.14 cm/s. Raman spectroscopy enabled the identification of poly(alanine), poly(alanine-glycine), phenylalanine, tryptophan, and methionine, which is consistent with the results of amino acid analysis. The dominant protein conformation was found to be coiled coil (73%) while the β-sheet content of 10% is, as expected, lower than those reported for hornets and ants. Polarized Raman spectra revealed that the coiled coils were highly aligned along the fibre axis while the β-sheet and random coil components had their peptide carbonyl groups roughly perpendicular to the fibre axis. The protein orientation distribution is compared to those of other natural and recombinant silks. A structural model for the B. terrestris silk fibre is proposed based on these results. PMID:27447623

  4. Structural Analysis of Hand Drawn Bumblebee Bombus terrestris Silk

    PubMed Central

    Woodhead, Andrea L.; Sutherland, Tara D.; Church, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Bombus terrestris, commonly known as the buff-tailed bumblebee, is native to Europe, parts of Africa and Asia. It is commercially bred for use as a pollinator of greenhouse crops. Larvae pupate within a silken cocoon that they construct from proteins produced in modified salivary glands. The amino acid composition and protein structure of hand drawn B. terrestris, silk fibres was investigated through the use of micro-Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were obtained from single fibres drawn from the larvae salivary gland at a rate of 0.14 cm/s. Raman spectroscopy enabled the identification of poly(alanine), poly(alanine-glycine), phenylalanine, tryptophan, and methionine, which is consistent with the results of amino acid analysis. The dominant protein conformation was found to be coiled coil (73%) while the β-sheet content of 10% is, as expected, lower than those reported for hornets and ants. Polarized Raman spectra revealed that the coiled coils were highly aligned along the fibre axis while the β-sheet and random coil components had their peptide carbonyl groups roughly perpendicular to the fibre axis. The protein orientation distribution is compared to those of other natural and recombinant silks. A structural model for the B. terrestris silk fibre is proposed based on these results. PMID:27447623

  5. On Drawn K-In-A-Row Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Sheng-Hao; Wu, I.-Chen; Lin, Ping-Hung

    In 2005, Wu and Huang [9] presented a generalized family of k-in-a-row games. The current paper simplifies the family to Connect(k, p). Two players alternately place p stones on empty squares of an infinite board in each turn. The player who first obtains k consecutive stones of his own horizontally, vertically, diagonally wins. A Connect(k, p)game is drawn if both have no winning strategy. Given p, this paper derives the value k draw(p), such that Connect(k draw(p), p) is drawn, as follows. (1) k draw(2) = 11. (2) For all p ≥ 3, k draw(p) = 3p+3d+8, where d is a logarithmic function of p. So, the ratio k draw(p)/p is approximate to 3 for sufficiently large p. To our knowledge, our k draw(p) are currently the smallest for all 2 ≤ p < 1000, except for p = 3.

  6. 2015 Enterprise Strategic Vision

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    This document aligns with the Department of Energy Strategic Plan for 2014-2018 and provides a framework for integrating our missions and direction for pursuing DOE’s strategic goals. The vision is a guide to advancing world-class science and engineering, supporting our people, modernizing our infrastructure, and developing a management culture that operates a safe and secure enterprise in an efficient manner.

  7. Pediatric Low Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Pediatric Low Vision What is Low Vision? Partial vision loss that cannot be corrected causes ... and play. What are the signs of Low Vision? Some signs of low vision include difficulty recognizing ...

  8. Vision Therapy News Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    The booklet provides an overview on vision therapy to aid writers, editors, and broadcasters help parents, teachers, older adults, and all consumers learn more about vision therapy. Following a description of vision therapy or vision training, information is provided on how and why vision therapy works. Additional sections address providers of…

  9. Low temperature annealing of cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Bech, J. I.; Hansen, N.

    2015-08-01

    Cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires are nanostructured and the flow stress at room temperature can reach values above 6 GPa. A typical characteristic of the nanostructured metals, is the low ductility and thermal stability. In order to optimize both the processing and application of the wires, the thermal behaviour is of interest. This has been studied by annealing the wires for 1h at temperatures from ambient temperature to 300 °C (573 K). It is expected that a raising temperature may lead to structural changes and a reduction in strength. The change in strength is however not expected to be large. For this reason we have applied a very precise technique to measure the tensile properties of the wires from a strain of 10-4 to the maximum strain of about 1-2%. The structural changes have also been followed to estimate and relate strength changes to changes in structural parameters and morphology.

  10. Springback in Deep Drawn High Purity Niobium for Superconductor Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Ganapati Rao Myneni; Peter Kneisel

    2005-09-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made from deep drawn high-purity niobium have become a popular approach for the design of particle accelerators. A number of current accelerators use this technology and it is a leading candidate for future designs. The development of this technology has required significant advances in many scientific fields including metallurgy, high vacuum physics, surface science, and forming. Recently proposed modifications to the current process for fabrication of these cavities has resulted in increased concern about the distribution of deformation, residual stress patterns, and springback. This presentation will report on the findings of a recently initiated program to study plastic flow and springback in the fabrication of these cavities and the influence of metallurgical variables including grain size and impurity content.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of thermally drawn fiber capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestoquoy, Guillaume; Chocat, Noémie; Wang, Zheng; Joannopoulos, John D.; Fink, Yoel

    2013-04-01

    We report on the fabrication of all-in-fiber capacitors with poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) as the dielectric material. Electrodes made of conductive polymer are separated by a PVDF thin film within a polycarbonate casing that is thermally drawn into multiple meters of light-weight, readily functional fiber. Capacitive response up to 20 kHz is measured and losses at higher-frequencies are accounted for in a materials-based model. A multilayered architecture in which a folded PVDF film separates interdigitated electrodes over an increased area is fabricated. This structure greatly enhances the capacitance, which scales linearly with the fiber length and is unaffected by fiber dimension fluctuations.

  12. Impairments to Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... an external Non-Government web site. Impairments to Vision Normal Vision Diabetic Retinopathy Age-related Macular Degeneration In this ... pictures, fixate on the nose to simulate the vision loss. In diabetic retinopathy, the blood vessels in ...

  13. Retinal Detachment Vision Simulator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Retina Treatment Retinal Detachment Vision Simulator Retinal Detachment Vision Simulator Mar. 01, 2016 How does a detached or torn retina affect your vision? If a retinal tear is occurring, you may ...

  14. Binocular Vision

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Randolph; Wilson, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    This essay reviews major developments –empirical and theoretical –in the field of binocular vision during the last 25 years. We limit our survey primarily to work on human stereopsis, binocular rivalry and binocular contrast summation, with discussion where relevant of single-unit neurophysiology and human brain imaging. We identify several key controversies that have stimulated important work on these problems. In the case of stereopsis those controversies include position versus phase encoding of disparity, dependence of disparity limits on spatial scale, role of occlusion in binocular depth and surface perception, and motion in 3D. In the case of binocular rivalry, controversies include eye versus stimulus rivalry, role of “top-down” influences on rivalry dynamics, and the interaction of binocular rivalry and stereopsis. Concerning binocular contrast summation, the essay focuses on two representative models that highlight the evolving complexity in this field of study. PMID:20951722

  15. Vision Screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Visi Screen OSS-C, marketed by Vision Research Corporation, incorporates image processing technology originally developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Its advantage in eye screening is speed. Because it requires no response from a subject, it can be used to detect eye problems in very young children. An electronic flash from a 35 millimeter camera sends light into a child's eyes, which is reflected back to the camera lens. The photorefractor then analyzes the retinal reflexes generated and produces an image of the child's eyes, which enables a trained observer to identify any defects. The device is used by pediatricians, day care centers and civic organizations that concentrate on children with special needs.

  16. Robot Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutro, L. L.; Lerman, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    The operation of a system is described that is built both to model the vision of primate animals, including man, and serve as a pre-prototype of possible object recognition system. It was employed in a series of experiments to determine the practicability of matching left and right images of a scene to determine the range and form of objects. The experiments started with computer generated random-dot stereograms as inputs and progressed through random square stereograms to a real scene. The major problems were the elimination of spurious matches, between the left and right views, and the interpretation of ambiguous regions, on the left side of an object that can be viewed only by the left camera, and on the right side of an object that can be viewed only by the right camera.

  17. Low Vision Aids and Low Vision Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... The future will offer even more solutions. Newer technology for low vision aids While low vision devices ... magnifiers have long been the standard in assistive technology, advances in consumer electronics are also improving quality ...

  18. International computer vision directory

    SciTech Connect

    Flora, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains information on: computerized automation technologies. State-of-the-art computer vision systems for many areas of industrial use are covered. Other topics discussed include the following automated inspection systems; robot/vision systems; vision process control; cameras (vidicon and solid state); vision peripherals and components; and pattern processor.

  19. (Computer vision and robotics)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.P.

    1989-02-13

    The traveler attended the Fourth Aalborg International Symposium on Computer Vision at Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark. The traveler presented three invited lectures entitled, Concurrent Computer Vision on a Hypercube Multicomputer'', The Butterfly Accumulator and its Application in Concurrent Computer Vision on Hypercube Multicomputers'', and Concurrency in Mobile Robotics at ORNL'', and a ten-minute editorial entitled, It Concurrency an Issue in Computer Vision.'' The traveler obtained information on current R D efforts elsewhere in concurrent computer vision.

  20. 7 CFR 52.34 - How samples are drawn by inspectors or licensed samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How samples are drawn by inspectors or licensed... Sampling § 52.34 How samples are drawn by inspectors or licensed samplers. An inspector or a licensed... regulations in this part, as to secure a representative sample of the lot. Samples drawn for inspection...

  1. 7 CFR 52.36 - How officially drawn samples are to be identified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How officially drawn samples are to be identified. 52.36 Section 52.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Sampling § 52.36 How officially drawn samples are to be identified. Officially drawn samples shall...

  2. 50 CFR 260.57 - How samples are drawn by inspectors or licensed samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How samples are drawn by inspectors or... drawn by inspectors or licensed samplers. An inspector or a licensed sampler shall select samples, upon... representative sample of the lot. Samples drawn for inspection shall be furnished by the applicant at no cost...

  3. 7 CFR 52.36 - How officially drawn samples are to be identified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How officially drawn samples are to be identified. 52.36 Section 52.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Sampling § 52.36 How officially drawn samples are to be identified. Officially drawn samples shall...

  4. 50 CFR 260.57 - How samples are drawn by inspectors or licensed samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How samples are drawn by inspectors or... drawn by inspectors or licensed samplers. An inspector or a licensed sampler shall select samples, upon... representative sample of the lot. Samples drawn for inspection shall be furnished by the applicant at no cost...

  5. 7 CFR 52.36 - How officially drawn samples are to be identified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How officially drawn samples are to be identified. 52.36 Section 52.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Sampling § 52.36 How officially drawn samples are to be identified. Officially drawn samples shall...

  6. 50 CFR 260.57 - How samples are drawn by inspectors or licensed samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How samples are drawn by inspectors or... drawn by inspectors or licensed samplers. An inspector or a licensed sampler shall select samples, upon... representative sample of the lot. Samples drawn for inspection shall be furnished by the applicant at no cost...

  7. 50 CFR 260.59 - How officially drawn samples are to be identified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How officially drawn samples are to be identified. 260.59 Section 260.59 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC... drawn samples are to be identified. Officially drawn samples shall be marked by the inspector...

  8. 7 CFR 52.36 - How officially drawn samples are to be identified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How officially drawn samples are to be identified. 52... Inspection and Certification Sampling § 52.36 How officially drawn samples are to be identified. Officially drawn samples shall be marked by the inspector or licensed sampler so such samples can be...

  9. 50 CFR 260.57 - How samples are drawn by inspectors or licensed samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How samples are drawn by inspectors or... drawn by inspectors or licensed samplers. An inspector or a licensed sampler shall select samples, upon... representative sample of the lot. Samples drawn for inspection shall be furnished by the applicant at no cost...

  10. 7 CFR 52.34 - How samples are drawn by inspectors or licensed samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How samples are drawn by inspectors or licensed... Sampling § 52.34 How samples are drawn by inspectors or licensed samplers. An inspector or a licensed... regulations in this part, as to secure a representative sample of the lot. Samples drawn for inspection...

  11. 50 CFR 260.59 - How officially drawn samples are to be identified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How officially drawn samples are to be identified. 260.59 Section 260.59 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC... drawn samples are to be identified. Officially drawn samples shall be marked by the inspector...

  12. 7 CFR 52.34 - How samples are drawn by inspectors or licensed samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How samples are drawn by inspectors or licensed... Sampling § 52.34 How samples are drawn by inspectors or licensed samplers. An inspector or a licensed... regulations in this part, as to secure a representative sample of the lot. Samples drawn for inspection...

  13. 50 CFR 260.59 - How officially drawn samples are to be identified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How officially drawn samples are to be identified. 260.59 Section 260.59 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC... drawn samples are to be identified. Officially drawn samples shall be marked by the inspector...

  14. 77 FR 60673 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... International Trade Administration Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping...'') preliminarily determines that drawn stainless steel sinks (``drawn sinks'') from the People's Republic of China... unfinished, regardless of type of finish, gauge, or grade of stainless steel. Mounting clips,...

  15. Vision Algorithm for the Solar Aspect System of the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, Alexander Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    This work covers the design and test of a machine vision algorithm for generating high- accuracy pitch and yaw pointing solutions relative to the sun on a high altitude balloon. It describes how images were constructed by focusing an image of the sun onto a plate printed with a pattern of small cross-shaped fiducial markers. Images of this plate taken with an off-the-shelf camera were processed to determine relative position of the balloon payload to the sun. The algorithm is broken into four problems: circle detection, fiducial detection, fiducial identification, and image registration. Circle detection is handled by an "Average Intersection" method, fiducial detection by a matched filter approach, and identification with an ad-hoc method based on the spacing between fiducials. Performance is verified on real test data where possible, but otherwise uses artificially generated data. Pointing knowledge is ultimately verified to meet the 20 arcsecond requirement.

  16. Eyeglasses for Vision Correction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Glasses & Contacts Eyeglasses for Vision Correction Dec. 12, 2015 Wearing eyeglasses is an easy way to correct refractive errors. Improving your vision with eyeglasses offers the opportunity to select from ...

  17. Chemicals Industry Vision

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  18. Color vision test

    MedlinePlus

    ... from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... test -- color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Adams AJ, Verdon WA, Spivey BE. ...

  19. Robot Vision Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses

  20. Inferences drawn from shock-enhanced turbulent mixing analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Buckingham, A.C.

    1987-10-16

    This discussion concerns analyses of physical shock-tube and shock-boundary layer interaction experiments, supplemented by computations. The basic issue is that of evaluating the influence of reflected shock waves on enhancing the balance of turbulent kinetic energy and resultant turbulent materials mixing during implosion and shock reflection intervals. Increases in random velocity amplitudes of a factor of 5 or greater implying turbulent kinetic energy increases of a factor of 12 or more have been observed in some low Mach Number shock-tube and boundary-layer shock wave interaction experiments. These results are analyzed to estimate their influence on increased turbulent material mixing subsequent to shock interaction. The analyses are developed with the assistance of two-dimensional, pseudospectral free turbulent field shock interaction numerical simulations as well as compressible turbulent boundary-layer shock interaction calculations. Of particular interest is the influence of Mach Number and pre-existing turbulent intensity on the enhancement ratios. 24 refs., 8 figs.

  1. The Secretary's Vision of the Cleanup Program

    SciTech Connect

    Golan, Paul

    2003-02-24

    This paper discusses the Secretary of Energy's vision of the cleanup program. Topics include development a new plan to swiftly clean up serious problems at sites and reduce the risks to human health, safety and the environment.

  2. Microwave vision for robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Leon; Struckman, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Microwave Vision (MV), a concept originally developed in 1985, could play a significant role in the solution to robotic vision problems. Originally our Microwave Vision concept was based on a pattern matching approach employing computer based stored replica correlation processing. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) processor technology offers an attractive alternative to the correlation processing approach, namely the ability to learn and to adapt to changing environments. This paper describes the Microwave Vision concept, some initial ANN-MV experiments, and the design of an ANN-MV system that has led to a second patent disclosure in the robotic vision field.

  3. Programming parallel vision algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    Computer vision requires the processing of large volumes of data and requires parallel architectures and algorithms to be useful in real-time, industrial applications. The INSIGHT dataflow language was designed to allow encoding of vision algorithms at all levels of the computer vision paradigm. INSIGHT programs, which are relational in nature, can be translated into a graph structure that represents an architecture for solving a particular vision problem or a configuration of a reconfigurable computational network. The authors consider here INSIGHT programs that produce a parallel net architecture for solving low-, mid-, and high-level vision tasks.

  4. Computational approaches to vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrow, H. G.; Tenenbaum, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Vision is examined in terms of a computational process, and the competence, structure, and control of computer vision systems are analyzed. Theoretical and experimental data on the formation of a computer vision system are discussed. Consideration is given to early vision, the recovery of intrinsic surface characteristics, higher levels of interpretation, and system integration and control. A computational visual processing model is proposed and its architecture and operation are described. Examples of state-of-the-art vision systems, which include some of the levels of representation and processing mechanisms, are presented.

  5. Night Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan-Robinson, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. William Herschel opens up the invisible universe; 3. 1800-1950: slow progress - the moon, planets, bright stars, and the discovery of interstellar dust; 4. Dying stars shrouded in dust and stars being born: the emergence of infrared astronomy in the 60s and 70s; 5. Birth of far infrared and submillimetre astronomy: clouds of dust and molecules in our Galaxy; 6. The cosmic microwave background, echo of the Big Bang; 7. The Infrared Astronomical Satellite and the opening up of extragalactic infrared astronomy: starbursts and active galactic nuclei; 8. The Cosmic Background Explorer and the ripples, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Explorer, and dark energy; 9. Giant ground-based infrared and submillimetre telescopes; 10. The Infrared Space Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope: the star-formation history of the universe and infrared galaxy populations; 11. Our dusty Solar System, debris disks and the search for exoplanets; 12. The future: pioneering space missions and giant ground-based telescopes; Notes; Credits for illustrations; Further reading; Bibliography; Glossary; Index of names; Index.

  6. Effect of Reduction in Three-Drawn and Two-Drawn Single-Run Technology on Roughness of Inner Surface of Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridzoň, Martin; Eleková, Ľubica; Lišková, Jana; Bílik, Jozef

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the production of could drawn precision seamless steel tubes with three-drawn and two-drawn single-run technology. The aim of experiment is to verify the possibility of drawing rolled tubes of size ∅ 70 × 6.3 mm (material E355) with three-draw single-run technology without intermediate recrystallising annealing on the final size ∅ 44 × 3 mm in the fixed reduction and two-draw single-run technology ∅ 70 × 6.3 mm without intermediate recrystallising annealing on the final size ∅ 50 × 3.75 mm in the fixed reduction and with size ∅ 70 × 6.3 mm without intermediate recrystallising annealing on the final size ∅45 × 3.75 mm in the fixed reduction. Advise the impact choice of the reduction on roughness of inner surface of tubes.

  7. Piezoresistivity of mechanically drawn single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin films-: mechanism and optimizing principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obitayo, Waris

    The individual carbon nanotube (CNT) based strain sensors have been found to have excellent piezoresistive properties with a reported gauge factor (GF) of up to 3000. This GF on the other hand, has been shown to be structurally dependent on the nanotubes. In contrast, to individual CNT based strain sensors, the ensemble CNT based strain sensors have very low GFs e.g. for a single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin film strain sensor, GF is ~1. As a result, studies which are mostly numerical/analytical have revealed the dependence of piezoresistivity on key parameters like concentration, orientation, length and diameter, aspect ratio, energy barrier height and Poisson ratio of polymer matrix. The fundamental understanding of the piezoresistive mechanism in an ensemble CNT based strain sensor still remains unclear, largely due to discrepancies in the outcomes of these numerical studies. Besides, there have been little or no experimental confirmation of these studies. The goal of my PhD is to study the mechanism and the optimizing principle of a SWCNT thin film strain sensor and provide experimental validation of the numerical/analytical investigations. The dependence of the piezoresistivity on key parameters like orientation, network density, bundle diameter (effective tunneling area), and length is studied, and how one can effectively optimize the piezoresistive behavior of a SWCNT thin film strain sensors. To reach this goal, my first research accomplishment involves the study of orientation of SWCNTs and its effect on the piezoresistivity of mechanically drawn SWCNT thin film based piezoresistive sensors. Using polarized Raman spectroscopy analysis and coupled electrical-mechanical test, a quantitative relationship between the strain sensitivity and SWCNT alignment order parameter was established. As compared to randomly oriented SWCNT thin films, the one with draw ratio of 3.2 exhibited ~6x increase on the GF. My second accomplishment involves studying the

  8. 77 FR 41754 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ...'s Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 77 FR 18207 (March 27, 2012). On... International Trade Administration Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Postponement...'') initiated an antidumping duty investigation on drawn stainless steel sinks from the People's Republic...

  9. 78 FR 21596 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... Countervailing Duty Determination, 78 FR 13017 (February 26, 2013). \\2\\ See Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks from... From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 77 FR... International Trade Administration Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of...

  10. 7 CFR 52.34 - How samples are drawn by inspectors or licensed samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How samples are drawn by inspectors or licensed... Governing Inspection and Certification Sampling § 52.34 How samples are drawn by inspectors or licensed... inconsistent with the regulations in this part, as to secure a representative sample of the lot. Samples...

  11. 77 FR 13631 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China; Institution and Scheduling of Preliminary Phase...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... COMMISSION Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China; Institution and Scheduling of Preliminary Phase... the United States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of drawn stainless steel... amended. The amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the...

  12. 77 FR 58355 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Countervailing Duty Determination: Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China, 77 FR 46717...: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation, 77 FR 18211 (March 27, 2012), and, also, see Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 77...

  13. Hand-Drawn Resistors and a Simple Tester Using a Light-Emitting Diode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamata, Masahiro; Abe, Mayumi

    2012-01-01

    A thick line drawn on a sheet of paper with a 6B pencil is electrically conductive and its resistance can be roughly estimated using a simple tester made of a light-emitting diode (LED) and a lithium coin-type cell. Using this hand-drawn resistor and the LED tester, we developed teaching materials that help students to understand how electrical…

  14. Social Gender in the Pictures Drawn by Students about Physical Education Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temel, Cenk; Güllü, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to analyze the social gender perception in physical education classes in Turkey through the pictures drawn by students about the physical education class. The document analysis technique, which is a qualitative research method, was used in the study. In the light of this aim, the pictures drawn by a total of 394 students…

  15. Mathematical leadership vision.

    PubMed

    Hamburger, Y A

    2000-11-01

    This article is an analysis of a new type of leadership vision, the kind of vision that is becoming increasingly pervasive among leaders in the modern world. This vision appears to offer a new horizon, whereas, in fact it delivers to its target audience a finely tuned version of the already existing ambitions and aspirations of the target audience. The leader, with advisors, has examined the target audience and has used the results of extensive research and statistical methods concerning the group to form a picture of its members' lifestyles and values. On the basis of this information, the leader has built a "vision." The vision is intended to create an impression of a charismatic and transformational leader when, in fact, it is merely a response. The systemic, arithmetic, and statistical methods employed in this operation have led to the coining of the terms mathematical leader and mathematical vision. PMID:11092414

  16. FPGA Vision Data Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfopoulos, Arin C.; Pham, Thang D.

    2013-01-01

    JPL has produced a series of FPGA (field programmable gate array) vision algorithms that were written with custom interfaces to get data in and out of each vision module. Each module has unique requirements on the data interface, and further vision modules are continually being developed, each with their own custom interfaces. Each memory module had also been designed for direct access to memory or to another memory module.

  17. Vision Changes in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    This Human Research Program 'Research to Outreach' video featuring NASA Clinical Translational Scientist Jennifer Fogarty explains the risk of vision impairment both during and after spaceflight, i...

  18. Artificial human vision camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudou, J.-F.; Maggio, S.; Fagno, M.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we present a real-time vision system modeling the human vision system. Our purpose is to inspire from human vision bio-mechanics to improve robotic capabilities for tasks such as objects detection and tracking. This work describes first the bio-mechanical discrepancies between human vision and classic cameras and the retinal processing stage that takes place in the eye, before the optic nerve. The second part describes our implementation of these principles on a 3-camera optical, mechanical and software model of the human eyes and associated bio-inspired attention model.

  19. How Cholesterol Could Be Drawn to the Cytoplasmic Leaf of the Plasma Membrane by Phosphatidylethanolamine

    PubMed Central

    Giang, Ha; Schick, M.

    2014-01-01

    In the mammalian plasma membrane, cholesterol can translocate rapidly between the exoplasmic and cytoplasmic leaves, so that its distribution between them should be given by the equality of its chemical potential in the leaves. Due to its favorable interaction with sphingomyelin, which is almost entirely in the outer leaf, one expects the great majority of cholesterol to be there also. Experimental results do not support this, implying that there is some mechanism attracting cholesterol to the inner leaf. We hypothesize that it is drawn there to reduce the bending free energy of the membrane caused by the presence of PE (phosphatidylethanolamine). It does this in two ways: first by simply diluting the amount of PE in the inner leaf, and second by ordering the tails of the PE to reduce its spontaneous curvature. Incorporating this mechanism into a model free energy for the bilayer, we find that between 50 and 60% of the total cholesterol should be in the inner leaf of human erythrocytes. PMID:25418302

  20. Federal regulation of vision enhancement devices for normal and abnormal vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drum, Bruce

    2006-09-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) evaluates the safety and effectiveness of medical devices and biological products as well as food and drugs. The FDA defines a device as a product that is intended, by physical means, to diagnose, treat, or prevent disease, or to affect the structure or function of the body. All vision enhancement devices fulfill this definition because they are intended to affect a function (vision) of the body. In practice, however, FDA historically has drawn a distinction between devices that are intended to enhance low vision as opposed to normal vision. Most low vision aids are therapeutic devices intended to compensate for visual impairment, and are actively regulated according to their level of risk to the patient. The risk level is usually low (e.g. Class I, exempt from 510(k) submission requirements for magnifiers that do not touch the eye), but can be as high as Class III (requiring a clinical trial and Premarket Approval (PMA) application) for certain implanted and prosthetic devices (e.g. intraocular telescopes and prosthetic retinal implants). In contrast, the FDA usually does not actively enforce its regulations for devices that are intended to enhance normal vision, are low risk, and do not have a medical intended use. However, if an implanted or prosthetic device were developed for enhancing normal vision, the FDA would likely decide to regulate it actively, because its intended use would entail a substantial medical risk to the user. Companies developing such devices should contact the FDA at an early stage to clarify their regulatory status.

  1. NASA's Vision for 21st Century Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, Woodrow, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents NASA's Vision for the 21st Century Aircraft. The contents include: 1) NASA Vision; 2) NASA Installations; 3) Research and Technology Products; 4) Future Plans; 5) Revolutionary Vehicles; 6) Aeropropulsion-NASA's Future Direction; 7) Gas Turbine Revolution; 8) Variable Capability, Ultra High Bypass Ratio Intelligent Engines: Fundamental Technologies; 9) Distributed Vectored Propulsion; and 10) Alternative Energy Propulsion. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  2. Color vision deficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannorren, D.

    1982-04-01

    Congenital and acquired color vision defects are described in the context of physiological data. Light sources, photometry, color systems and test methods are described. A list of medicines is also presented. The practical social consequences of color vision deficiencies are discussed.

  3. Home vision tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... peripheral vision. All the lines, both vertical and horizontal, should appear straight and unbroken. They should meet ... You need a well-lit area at least 10 feet long for the distance vision test, and the following: Measuring tape or a ...

  4. Overview of computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Gevarter, W.B.

    1982-09-01

    An overview of computer vision is provided. Image understanding and scene analysis are emphasized, and pertinent aspects of pattern recognition are treated. The basic approach to computer vision systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the current existing systems and state-of-the-art issues and research requirements, who is doing it and who is funding it, and future trends and expectations are reviewed.

  5. Synthesized night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haixian

    2000-06-01

    A Synthesized Night Vision Goggle that will be described int his paper is a new type of night vision goggle with multiple functions. It consists of three parts: main observing system, picture--superimposed system (or Cathode Ray Tube system) and Charge-Coupled Device system.

  6. INSIGHT: Vision & Leadership, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Tammy, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This publication focuses on promising new and emerging technologies and what they might mean to the future of K-12 schools. Half of the volume contains articles devoted in some way to "Vision," and articles in the other half are under the heading of "Leadership." Contents in the "Vision" section include: "The Future of Reading and Learning To…

  7. New Term, New Vision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    2011-01-01

    During the affluent noughties it was sometimes said of government that it had "more visions than Mystic Meg and more pilots than British Airways". In 2011, the pilots, the pathfinders, the new initiatives are largely gone--implementation is the name of the game--but the visions remain. The latest one, as it affects adult learners, is in the…

  8. Evolution of colour vision in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Gerald H.

    2009-01-01

    Colour vision allows animals to reliably distinguish differences in the distributions of spectral energies reaching the eye. Although not universal, a capacity for colour vision is sufficiently widespread across the animal kingdom to provide prima facie evidence of its importance as a tool for analysing and interpreting the visual environment. The basic biological mechanisms on which vertebrate colour vision ultimately rests, the cone opsin genes and the photopigments they specify, are highly conserved. Within that constraint, however, the utilization of these basic elements varies in striking ways in that they appear, disappear and emerge in altered form during the course of evolution. These changes, along with other alterations in the visual system, have led to profound variations in the nature and salience of colour vision among the vertebrates. This article concerns the evolution of colour vision among the mammals, viewing that process in the context of relevant biological mechanisms, of variations in mammalian colour vision, and of the utility of colour vision. PMID:19720656

  9. 2D nanocomposite photoconductive sensors fully dry drawn on regular paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brus, V. V.; Maryanchuk, P. D.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Abashyn, S. L.

    2015-06-01

    We proposed a new type of low-cost and environmentally friendly photoconductive sensor, based on GaSe/graphite nanocomposite fully dry drawn on paper. The proposed fully-drawn nanocomposite sensors successfully utilize the unique combination of structural and electrical properties of a layered semiconductor and graphite. In spite of the relatively pure photosensitivity of the proposed photodetectors, we believe that this work is the first step for the further development and enhancement of extremely simple and low-cost paper-based dry drawn layered semiconductor/graphite nanocomposite sensors.

  10. Taking Care of Your Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? Taking Care of Your Vision KidsHealth > For Teens > Taking Care of Your Vision ... are important parts of keeping your peepers perfect. Vision Basics One of the best things you can ...

  11. Clinical Trials in Vision Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials in Vision Research Clinical Trials in Vision Research Clinical studies depend on people who volunteer. ... about the treatment. How are clinical trials in vision different from other clinical trials? Eyes are one ...

  12. (Computer) Vision without Sight

    PubMed Central

    Manduchi, Roberto; Coughlan, James

    2012-01-01

    Computer vision holds great promise for helping persons with blindness or visual impairments (VI) to interpret and explore the visual world. To this end, it is worthwhile to assess the situation critically by understanding the actual needs of the VI population and which of these needs might be addressed by computer vision. This article reviews the types of assistive technology application areas that have already been developed for VI, and the possible roles that computer vision can play in facilitating these applications. We discuss how appropriate user interfaces are designed to translate the output of computer vision algorithms into information that the user can quickly and safely act upon, and how system-level characteristics affect the overall usability of an assistive technology. Finally, we conclude by highlighting a few novel and intriguing areas of application of computer vision to assistive technology. PMID:22815563

  13. Light Vision Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valberg, Arne

    2005-04-01

    Light Vision Color takes a well-balanced, interdisciplinary approach to our most important sensory system. The book successfully combines basics in vision sciences with recent developments from different areas such as neuroscience, biophysics, sensory psychology and philosophy. Originally published in 1998 this edition has been extensively revised and updated to include new chapters on clinical problems and eye diseases, low vision rehabilitation and the basic molecular biology and genetics of colour vision. Takes a broad interdisciplinary approach combining basics in vision sciences with the most recent developments in the area Includes an extensive list of technical terms and explanations to encourage student understanding Successfully brings together the most important areas of the subject in to one volume

  14. (Computer) Vision without Sight.

    PubMed

    Manduchi, Roberto; Coughlan, James

    2012-01-01

    Computer vision holds great promise for helping persons with blindness or visual impairments (VI) to interpret and explore the visual world. To this end, it is worthwhile to assess the situation critically by understanding the actual needs of the VI population and which of these needs might be addressed by computer vision. This article reviews the types of assistive technology application areas that have already been developed for VI, and the possible roles that computer vision can play in facilitating these applications. We discuss how appropriate user interfaces are designed to translate the output of computer vision algorithms into information that the user can quickly and safely act upon, and how system-level characteristics affect the overall usability of an assistive technology. Finally, we conclude by highlighting a few novel and intriguing areas of application of computer vision to assistive technology. PMID:22815563

  15. Panoramic stereo sphere vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Weijia; Zhang, Baofeng; Röning, Juha; Zong, Xiaoning; Yi, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Conventional stereo vision systems have a small field of view (FOV) which limits their usefulness for certain applications. While panorama vision is able to "see" in all directions of the observation space, scene depth information is missed because of the mapping from 3D reference coordinates to 2D panoramic image. In this paper, we present an innovative vision system which builds by a special combined fish-eye lenses module, and is capable of producing 3D coordinate information from the whole global observation space and acquiring no blind area 360°×360° panoramic image simultaneously just using single vision equipment with one time static shooting. It is called Panoramic Stereo Sphere Vision (PSSV). We proposed the geometric model, mathematic model and parameters calibration method in this paper. Specifically, video surveillance, robotic autonomous navigation, virtual reality, driving assistance, multiple maneuvering target tracking, automatic mapping of environments and attitude estimation are some of the applications which will benefit from PSSV.

  16. Membrane scaling and flux decline during fertiliser-drawn forward osmosis desalination of brackish groundwater.

    PubMed

    Phuntsho, Sherub; Lotfi, Fezeh; Hong, Seungkwan; Shaffer, Devin L; Elimelech, Menachem; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2014-06-15

    Fertiliser-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) desalination has been recently studied as one feasible application of forward osmosis (FO) for irrigation. In this study, the potential of membrane scaling in the FDFO process has been investigated during the desalination of brackish groundwater (BGW). While most fertilisers containing monovalent ions did not result in any scaling when used as an FO draw solution (DS), diammonium phosphate (DAP or (NH4)2HPO4) resulted in significant scaling, which contributed to severe flux decline. Membrane autopsy using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the reverse diffusion of DAP from the DS to the feed solution was primarily responsible for scale formation during the FDFO process. Physical cleaning of the membrane with deionised water at varying crossflow velocities was employed to evaluate the reversibility of membrane scaling and the extent of flux recovery. For the membrane scaled using DAP as DS, 80-90% of the original flux was recovered when the crossflow velocity for physical cleaning was the same as the crossflow velocity during FDFO desalination. However, when a higher crossflow velocity or Reynolds number was used, the flux was recovered almost completely, irrespective of the DS concentration used. This study underscores the importance of selecting a suitable fertiliser for FDFO desalination of brackish groundwater to avoid membrane scaling and severe flux decline. PMID:24721664

  17. Machine vision is not computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.; Charlier, Jean-Ray

    1998-10-01

    The identity of Machine Vision as an academic and practical subject of study is asserted. In particular, the distinction between Machine Vision on the one hand and Computer Vision, Digital Image Processing, Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence on the other is emphasized. The article demonstrates through four cases studies that the active involvement of a person who is sensitive to the broad aspects of vision system design can avoid disaster and can often achieve a successful machine that would not otherwise have been possible. This article is a transcript of the key- note address presented at the conference. Since the proceedings are prepared and printed before the conference, it is not possible to include a record of the response to this paper made by the delegates during the round-table discussion. It is hoped to collate and disseminate these via the World Wide Web after the event. (A link will be provided at http://bruce.cs.cf.ac.uk/bruce/index.html.).

  18. Vision Aspects of Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manuel, Keith; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Vision, being one of our most important senses, is critically important in the unique working environment of space flight. Critical evaluation of the astronauts visual system begins with pre-selection examinations resulting in an average of 65% of all medical disqualification's caused by ocular findings. With an average age of 42, approximately 60% of the astronaut corps requires vision correction. Further demands of the unique training and working environment of microgravity, variable lighting from very poor to extreme brightness of sunlight and exposure to extremes of electromagnetic energy results in unique eyewear and contact lens applications. This presentation will describe some of those unique eyewear and contact lens applications used in space flight and training environments. Additionally, ocular findings from 26 shuttle and 5 MIR mission post-flight examinations will be presented.

  19. Misperception, illusion and epistemological optimism: vision studies in early nineteenth-century Britain and Germany.

    PubMed

    Schickore, Jutta

    2006-09-01

    This article compares investigations of the process of vision that were made in early nineteenth-century Britain and the German lands. It is argued that vision studies differed significantly east and west of the North Sea. Most of the German investigators had a medical background and many of them had a firm grasp of contemporary philosophy. In contrast, the British studies on vision emerged from the context of optics. This difference manifested itself in the conceptual tools for the analysis of vision, deception and illusion and shaped the experiments on visual phenomena that were carried out. Nevertheless, both in Britain and in the German lands vision studies were driven by the same impetus, by epistemological concerns with the nature and reliability of knowledge acquisition in experience. The general epistemological conclusions drawn from researches on vision and deception were optimistic. Precisely because mechanisms of deception and illusion could be uncovered, the possibility of acquiring empirical knowledge could be secured. PMID:17147137

  20. Near Vision Test for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eyes Education Series Online Training and Certification Patient Education Materials Star Pupils ... Test for Adults Testing Near Vision and Distance Vision Prevent Blindness does NOT recommend that you ...

  1. 10. 28'X40' original vellum, VariableAngle Launcher, 'PROJECT PLOT PLAN' drawn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. 28'X40' original vellum, Variable-Angle Launcher, 'PROJECT PLOT PLAN' drawn at no scale (P.W.DWG.NO. 1781). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 11. 28'X40' original vellum, VariableAngle Launcher, 'INDEX TO Drawings' drawn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. 28'X40' original vellum, Variable-Angle Launcher, 'INDEX TO Drawings' drawn at no scale (P.W.DWG.No. 1781). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. Transfer color to night vision images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shaoyuan; Jing, Zhongliang; Liu, Gang; Li, Zhenhua

    2005-08-01

    Natural color appearance is the key problem of color night vision field. In this paper, the color mood of daytime color image is transferred to the monochromic night vision image. This method gives the night image a natural color appearance. For each pixel in the night vision image, the best matching pixel in the color image is found based on texture similarity measure. Entropy, energy, contrast, homogeneity, and correlation features based on co-occurrence matrix are combined as texture similarity measure to find the corresponding pixels between the two images. We use a genetic algorithm (GA) to find the optimistic weighting factors assigned to the five different features. GA is also employed in searching the matching pixels to make the color transfer algorithm faster. When the best matching pixel in the color image is found, the chromaticity values are transferred to the corresponding pixel of the night vision image. The experiment results demonstrate the efficiency of this natural color transfer technique.

  4. Stereo vision and strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Read, J C A

    2015-01-01

    Binocular stereopsis, or stereo vision, is the ability to derive information about how far away objects are, based solely on the relative positions of the object in the two eyes. It depends on both sensory and motor abilities. In this review, I briefly outline some of the neuronal mechanisms supporting stereo vision, and discuss how these are disrupted in strabismus. I explain, in some detail, current methods of assessing stereo vision and their pros and cons. Finally, I review the evidence supporting the clinical importance of such measurements. PMID:25475234

  5. Vision and Driving

    PubMed Central

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Driving is the primary means of personal travel in many countries and is relies heavily on vision for its successful execution. Research over the past few decades has addressed the role of vision in driver safety (motor vehicle collision involvement) and in driver performance (both on-road and using interactive simulators in the laboratory). Here we critically review what is currently known about the role of various aspects of visual function in driving. We also discuss translational research issues on vision screening for licensure and re-licensure and rehabilitation of visually impaired persons who want to drive. PMID:20580907

  6. Stereo vision and strabismus.

    PubMed

    Read, J C A

    2015-02-01

    Binocular stereopsis, or stereo vision, is the ability to derive information about how far away objects are, based solely on the relative positions of the object in the two eyes. It depends on both sensory and motor abilities. In this review, I briefly outline some of the neuronal mechanisms supporting stereo vision, and discuss how these are disrupted in strabismus. I explain, in some detail, current methods of assessing stereo vision and their pros and cons. Finally, I review the evidence supporting the clinical importance of such measurements. PMID:25475234

  7. Building Technologies Program Vision, Mission, and Goals

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-15

    The Vision, Mission, and Goals of the Building Technologies Program (BTP) focus on short term energy efficiency outcomes such as improved economic environment, enhanced comfort, and affordability that collectively benefit our nation. Long-term goals focus on helping secure our nation's energy independence.

  8. The Earth Science Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark; Rychekewkitsch, Michael; Andrucyk, Dennis; McConaughy, Gail; Meeson, Blanche; Hildebrand, Peter; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Enterprise's long range vision is to enable the development of a national proactive environmental predictive capability through targeted scientific research and technological innovation. Proactive environmental prediction means the prediction of environmental events and their secondary consequences. These consequences range from disasters and disease outbreak to improved food production and reduced transportation, energy and insurance costs. The economic advantage of this predictive capability will greatly outweigh the cost of development. Developing this predictive capability requires a greatly improved understanding of the earth system and the interaction of the various components of that system. It also requires a change in our approach to gathering data about the earth and a change in our current methodology in processing that data including its delivery to the customers. And, most importantly, it requires a renewed partnership between NASA and its sister agencies. We identify six application themes that summarize the potential of proactive environmental prediction. We also identify four technology themes that articulate our approach to implementing proactive environmental prediction.

  9. Information architecture. Volume 4: Vision

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Vision document marks the transition from definition to implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture Program. A description of the possibilities for the future, supported by actual experience with a process model and tool set, points toward implementation options. The directions for future information technology investments are discussed. Practical examples of how technology answers the business and information needs of the organization through coordinated and meshed data, applications, and technology architectures are related. This document is the fourth and final volume in the planned series for defining and exhibiting the DOE information architecture. The targeted scope of this document includes DOE Program Offices, field sites, contractor-operated facilities, and laboratories. This document paints a picture of how, over the next 7 years, technology may be implemented, dramatically improving the ways business is conducted at DOE. While technology is mentioned throughout this document, the vision is not about technology. The vision concerns the transition afforded by technology and the process steps to be completed to ensure alignment with business needs. This goal can be met if those directing the changing business and mission-support processes understand the capabilities afforded by architectural processes.

  10. Artificial Vision: Vision of a Newcomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikado, Takashi; Sawai, Hajime; Tano, Yasuo

    The Japanese Consortium for an Artificial Retina has developed a new stimulating method named Suprachoroidal-Transretinal Stimulation (STS). Using STS, electrically evoked potentials (EEPs) were effectively elicited in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats and in rabbits and cats with normal vision, using relatively small stimulus currents, such that the spatial resolution appeared to be adequate for a visual prosthesis. The histological analysis showed no damage to the rabbit retina when electrical currents sufficient to elicit distinct EEPs were applied. It was also shown that transcorneal electrical stimulation (TES) to the retina prevented the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). STS, which is less invasive than other retinal prostheses, could be one choice to achieve artificial vision, and the optimal parameters of electrical stimulation may also be effective for the neuroprotection of residual RGCs.

  11. Home vision tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... testing. AMSLER GRID TEST This test helps detect macular degeneration . This is a disease that causes blurred vision, ... eye exam. People who are at risk of macular degeneration may be told by their ophthalmologist to perform ...

  12. Vision Impairment and Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... blindness in the United States are age-related eye diseases: macular degeneration, cataract and glaucoma. Other eye disorders, ... and braille books. The sooner vision loss or eye disease is found and treated, the greater your chances ...

  13. Blindness and vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause: With cataracts , vision may be cloudy or fuzzy, and bright light may cause glare With diabetes, ... used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed ...

  14. Living with vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... EH, Katz PR, Malone ML, eds. Practice of Geriatrics . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap ... Shega JW. Vision loss. In: Wachtel TJ, ed. Geriatric Clinical Advisor: Instant diagnosis and treatment . Philadelphia, PA: ...

  15. Kids' Quest: Vision Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... important job. Â Return to Steps World-Wide Web Search Kids Health: What is Vision Impairment What ... for the Blind (AFB) created the Braille Bug web site to teach sighted children about braille, and ...

  16. Vision and Motion Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambo, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    Presents activities on persistence of vision that involve students in a hands-on approach to the study of early methods of creating motion pictures. Students construct flip books, a Zoetrope, and an early movie machine. (DDR)

  17. Synthetic Vision Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, L.J.; Kramer, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    A synthetic vision system is an aircraft cockpit display technology that presents the visual environment external to the aircraft using computer-generated imagery in a manner analogous to how it would appear to the pilot if forward visibility were not restricted. The purpose of this chapter is to review the state of synthetic vision systems, and discuss selected human factors issues that should be considered when designing such displays.

  18. VISION 21 SYSTEMS ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    G.S. Samuelsen; A. Rao; F. Robson; B. Washom

    2003-08-11

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into power plant systems that meet performance and emission goals of the Vision 21 program. The study efforts have narrowed down the myriad of fuel processing, power generation, and emission control technologies to selected scenarios that identify those combinations having the potential to achieve the Vision 21 program goals of high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. The technology levels considered are based on projected technical and manufacturing advances being made in industry and on advances identified in current and future government supported research. Included in these advanced systems are solid oxide fuel cells and advanced cycle gas turbines. The results of this investigation will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  19. Biofeedback for Better Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Biofeedtrac, Inc.'s Accommotrac Vision Trainer, invented by Dr. Joseph Trachtman, is based on vision research performed by Ames Research Center and a special optometer developed for the Ames program by Stanford Research Institute. In the United States, about 150 million people are myopes (nearsighted), who tend to overfocus when they look at distant objects causing blurry distant vision, or hyperopes (farsighted), whose vision blurs when they look at close objects because they tend to underfocus. The Accommotrac system is an optical/electronic system used by a doctor as an aid in teaching a patient how to contract and relax the ciliary body, the focusing muscle. The key is biofeedback, wherein the patient learns to control a bodily process or function he is not normally aware of. Trachtman claims a 90 percent success rate for correcting, improving or stopping focusing problems. The Vision Trainer has also proved effective in treating other eye problems such as eye oscillation, cross eyes, and lazy eye and in professional sports to improve athletes' peripheral vision and reaction time.

  20. Agile automated vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fandrich, Juergen; Schmitt, Lorenz A.

    1994-11-01

    The microelectronic industry is a protagonist in driving automated vision to new paradigms. Today semiconductor manufacturers use vision systems quite frequently in their fabs in the front-end process. In fact, the process depends on reliable image processing systems. In the back-end process, where ICs are assembled and packaged, today vision systems are only partly used. But in the next years automated vision will become compulsory for the back-end process as well. Vision will be fully integrated into every IC package production machine to increase yields and reduce costs. Modem high-speed material processing requires dedicated and efficient concepts in image processing. But the integration of various equipment in a production plant leads to unifying handling of data flow and interfaces. Only agile vision systems can act with these contradictions: fast, reliable, adaptable, scalable and comprehensive. A powerful hardware platform is a unneglectable requirement for the use of advanced and reliable, but unfortunately computing intensive image processing algorithms. The massively parallel SIMD hardware product LANTERN/VME supplies a powerful platform for existing and new functionality. LANTERN/VME is used with a new optical sensor for IC package lead inspection. This is done in 3D, including horizontal and coplanarity inspection. The appropriate software is designed for lead inspection, alignment and control tasks in IC package production and handling equipment, like Trim&Form, Tape&Reel and Pick&Place machines.

  1. Air-structured optical fibre drawn from a 3D-printed preform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Kevin; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Canning, John; Reid, Zane; Hossain, Md. Arafat; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2015-09-01

    We report the first optical fibre drawn from a 3D-printed preform. An air-structured polymer preform is printed using a modified butadiene plastic called Bendlay as opposed to the more-common Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS). The preform is subsequently drawn to fibre form at a relatively low temperature of 160 °C and maintains its air-structured cladding holes. Such ability to freely-design and 3D-print complex preform structures, such as photonic bandgap and photonic crystal structures, opens up an exciting new front in optical fibre fabrication.

  2. Contact stress analysis with application to drawn cup roller bearing with aluminum housing

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Y.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and some computer-aided procedures for analyzing the contact of roller and a drawn cup bearing ring inside a housing material of low tensile strength. The analysis can be used to predict the onset of plastic yielding in the housing. It also discusses the role of stresses arising from the press fit between the cup and the housing in preventing the relative slippage at the cup/housing interface and fretting corrosion. Illustrative examples are shown for a heavy duty drawn cup bearing with aluminum housing for a multitude of loads and cup thicknesses.

  3. Insect vision as model for machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, D.; Sobey, Peter J.

    1992-11-01

    The neural architecture, neurophysiology and behavioral abilities of insect vision are described, and compared with that of mammals. Insects have a hardwired neural architecture of highly differentiated neurons, quite different from the cerebral cortex, yet their behavioral abilities are in important respects similar to those of mammals. These observations challenge the view that the key to the power of biological neural computation is distributed processing by a plastic, highly interconnected, network of individually undifferentiated and unreliable neurons that has been a dominant picture of biological computation since Pitts and McCulloch's seminal work in the 1940's.

  4. [Quality system Vision 2000].

    PubMed

    Pasini, Evasio; Pitocchi, Oreste; de Luca, Italo; Ferrari, Roberto

    2002-12-01

    A recent document of the Italian Ministry of Health points out that all structures which provide services to the National Health System should implement a Quality System according to the ISO 9000 standards. Vision 2000 is the new version of the ISO standard. Vision 2000 is less bureaucratic than the old version. The specific requests of the Vision 2000 are: a) to identify, to monitor and to analyze the processes of the structure, b) to measure the results of the processes so as to ensure that they are effective, d) to implement actions necessary to achieve the planned results and the continual improvement of these processes, e) to identify customer requests and to measure customer satisfaction. Specific attention should be also dedicated to the competence and training of the personnel involved in the processes. The principles of the Vision 2000 agree with the principles of total quality management. The present article illustrates the Vision 2000 standard and provides practical examples of the implementation of this standard in cardiological departments. PMID:12611210

  5. 77 FR 27437 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation, 77 FR 18211 (March 27, 2012). Currently... the Tariff Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). Accordingly, the deadline for... International Trade Administration Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China:...

  6. 50 CFR 260.59 - How officially drawn samples are to be identified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How officially drawn samples are to be identified. 260.59 Section 260.59 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCESSED FISHERY PRODUCTS, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED...

  7. 75 FR 95 - Endorsement and Payment of Checks Drawn on the United States Treasury

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ...The Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Service (FMS), is proposing to amend its regulation governing the endorsement and payment of checks drawn on the United States Treasury, to provide that Treasury may direct Federal Reserve Banks to debit a financial institution's account at the financial institution's servicing Federal Reserve Bank for all check reclamations that the......

  8. Axel Honneth's Idea of a Drawn-Out Process of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanhela, Teemu

    2014-01-01

    This article examines Axel Honneth's interpretation of Hegel's "ethical life" as a conception of a "drawn-out" process of education. Honneth's formulations of ethical life, namely "personal relationships", "market economy" and "the democratic will-formation", are an interesting…

  9. 78 FR 13019 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Investigation, Final Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Investigation, 77 FR... Preliminary Determination, 77 FR at 60675. \\5\\ See Memorandum to the Record from Paul Piquado, Assistant... Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). Period of Investigation The period of investigation (``POI'') is...

  10. 78 FR 13017 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... Countervailing Duty Determination, 77 FR 46717 (August 6, 2012) (``Preliminary Determination''). On August 7... Investigation, 77 FR 58355 (September 20, 2012). We conducted verification of Yingao's, Superte's and the GOC's...; Countervailing Duties, 62 FR 27296, 27323 (May 19, 1997). \\6\\ See Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the...

  11. 100. 28'X40' original vellum, VariableAngle Launcher '32 INCH BREECH' drawn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. 28'X40' original vellum, Variable-Angle Launcher '32 INCH BREECH' drawn at 2'=1'-0', 3'=1'-0' and full size. (P.W. DWG. NO. 1787). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. VARIATION OF SURFACE SOIL QUALITY BY INTENSIVE DONKEY-DRAWN TILLAGE ON A STEEP SLOPE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The progressive but relatively rapid redistribution of soil from uplands to field depressions or lower field boundaries by tillage has the potential to modify soil properties. However, few direct measurements have been made for this effect. We conducted 50 plowing operations using a donkey-drawn mol...

  13. The Impact of Anxious and Calm Emotional States on Color Usage in Pre-Drawn Mandalas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Andrea; van der Vennet, Renee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this single-subject experiment was to test whether a link exists between emotional state and color usage in a common art therapy technique. The researchers hypothesized that when coloring a pre-drawn mandala, participants would choose warm colors when they were anxious and cool colors when they were calm. The non-random sample…

  14. Periodontium bestows vision!!

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Minkle; Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Anand, Vishal; Jain, Nikil; Pandey, Suraj

    2016-01-01

    The role of periodontium in supporting the tooth structures is well-known. However, less is known about its contribution to the field of ophthalmology. Corneal diseases are among major causes of blindness affecting millions of people worldwide, for which synthetic keratoprosthesis was considered the last resort to restore vision. Yet, these synthetic keratoprosthesis suffered from serious limitations, especially the foreign body reactions invoked by them resulting in extrusion of the whole prosthesis from the eye. To overcome these shortcomings, an autologous osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis utilizing intraoral entities was introduced that could positively restore vision even in cases of severely damaged eyes. The successful functioning of this prosthesis, however, predominantly depended on the presence of a healthy periodontium for grafting. Therefore, the following short communication aims to acknowledge this lesser-known role of the periodontium and other oral structures in bestowing vision to the blind patients.

  15. Overview of sports vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Linda A.; Ferreira, Jannie T.

    2003-03-01

    Sports vision encompasses the visual assessment and provision of sports-specific visual performance enhancement and ocular protection for athletes of all ages, genders and levels of participation. In recent years, sports vision has been identified as one of the key performance indicators in sport. It is built on four main cornerstones: corrective eyewear, protective eyewear, visual skills enhancement and performance enhancement. Although clinically well established in the US, it is still a relatively new area of optometric specialisation elsewhere in the world and is gaining increasing popularity with eyecare practitioners and researchers. This research is often multi-disciplinary and involves input from a variety of subject disciplines, mainly those of optometry, medicine, physiology, psychology, physics, chemistry, computer science and engineering. Collaborative research projects are currently underway between staff of the Schools of Physics and Computing (DIT) and the Academy of Sports Vision (RAU).

  16. Periodontium bestows vision!!

    PubMed

    Gulati, Minkle; Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Anand, Vishal; Jain, Nikil; Pandey, Suraj

    2016-01-01

    The role of periodontium in supporting the tooth structures is well-known. However, less is known about its contribution to the field of ophthalmology. Corneal diseases are among major causes of blindness affecting millions of people worldwide, for which synthetic keratoprosthesis was considered the last resort to restore vision. Yet, these synthetic keratoprosthesis suffered from serious limitations, especially the foreign body reactions invoked by them resulting in extrusion of the whole prosthesis from the eye. To overcome these shortcomings, an autologous osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis utilizing intraoral entities was introduced that could positively restore vision even in cases of severely damaged eyes. The successful functioning of this prosthesis, however, predominantly depended on the presence of a healthy periodontium for grafting. Therefore, the following short communication aims to acknowledge this lesser-known role of the periodontium and other oral structures in bestowing vision to the blind patients. PMID:27563213

  17. Integrating National Space Visions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines value proposition assumptions for various models nations may use to justify, shape, and guide their space programs. Nations organize major societal investments like space programs to actualize national visions represented by leaders as investments in the public good. The paper defines nine 'vision drivers' that circumscribe the motivations evidently underpinning national space programs. It then describes 19 fundamental space activity objectives (eight extant and eleven prospective) that nations already do or could in the future use to actualize the visions they select. Finally the paper presents four contrasting models of engagement among nations, and compares these models to assess realistic pounds on the pace of human progress in space over the coming decades. The conclusion is that orthogonal engagement, albeit unlikely because it is unprecedented, would yield the most robust and rapid global progress.

  18. Night Vision Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    PixelVision, Inc. developed the Night Video NV652 Back-illuminated CCD Camera, based on the expertise of a former Jet Propulsion Laboratory employee and a former employee of Scientific Imaging Technologies, Inc. The camera operates without an image intensifier, using back-illuminated and thinned CCD technology to achieve extremely low light level imaging performance. The advantages of PixelVision's system over conventional cameras include greater resolution and better target identification under low light conditions, lower cost and a longer lifetime. It is used commercially for research and aviation.

  19. Telescopic vision contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.

    2011-03-01

    We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

  20. Low Vision Enhancement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center worked with the Johns Hopkins Wilmer Eye Institute in Baltimore, Md., to incorporate NASA software originally developed by NASA to process satellite images into the Low Vision Enhancement System (LVES). The LVES, referred to as 'ELVIS' by its users, is a portable image processing system that could make it possible to improve a person's vision by enhancing and altering images to compensate for impaired eyesight. The system consists of two orientation cameras, a zoom camera, and a video projection system. The headset and hand-held control weigh about two pounds each. Pictured is Jacob Webb, the first Mississippian to use the LVES.

  1. Machine vision - Automated visual inspection and robot vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernon, David

    The subject of machine vision is treated with emphasis on fundamental tools for image acquisition, processing, and analysis. Topics discussed include an introduction to computer vision, illumination and sensors, image acquisition and representation, fundamentals of digital image processing, the segmentation problem, and image analysis. The book also covers techniques for shape description, robot programming and robot vision, and an introduction to image understanding.

  2. Grounding Our Vision: Brain Research and Strategic Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Mike

    2011-01-01

    While recognizing the value of "vision," it could be argued that vision alone--at least in schools--is not enough to rally the financial and emotional support required to translate an idea into reality. A compelling vision needs to reflect substantive, research-based knowledge if it is to spark the kind of strategic thinking and insight capable of…

  3. Object tracking with stereo vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Eric

    1994-01-01

    A real-time active stereo vision system incorporating gaze control and task directed vision is described. Emphasis is placed on object tracking and object size and shape determination. Techniques include motion-centroid tracking, depth tracking, and contour tracking.

  4. Contact Lenses for Vision Correction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Contact Lenses for Vision Correction Written by: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by: Brenda ... on the surface of the eye. They correct vision like eyeglasses do and are safe when used ...

  5. Do You Have Low Vision?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Education Program Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Spanish-language ... FAQ Watch out for your vision! Glossary Resources Glaucoma Glaucoma Home How Much Do You Know? What ...

  6. Low Vision Bicycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, M.

    1992-01-01

    This article considers bicycling as a means of transportation, not recreation, for individuals with low vision. Considered are evaluation of capabilities, watching for child cyclists, central and peripheral field loss, necessary equipment, potential problems, seasonal and weather considerations, night riding, route planning, basic visual skills…

  7. Unconventional colour vision.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Justin; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2014-12-15

    Butterflies and stomatopods are certainly outliers in their unconventional colour sense and despite some similarities at first glance, in fact sample the world of colour very differently. In one way, butterflies are relatively conventional, possessing either tri-or tetrachromatic colour vision, then just adding one or several task-specific sub-mechanisms onto this. It is the stomatopods so far that have really pushed the boat out into a different colour vision mechanism. Over 400 million years of independent evolution they have arrived at a solution with more in common with the way a satellite sensor examines the colours of the earth than other animals. Remember, however, that unconventional colour vision is not just the realm of the serially polychromatic. Apparently waterfleas with four classes of spectral receptors living in ponds operate a task-specific spectral sense with no need, or indeed neural processing power, to construct a complex discriminatory mechanism. It seems they have the butterfly added-extra set without the more complex comparative chromatic mechanisms, although in truth, conclusive behavioural proof is lacking. Behavioural observation of colour vision in the ecological context of each animal is vital before making the distinction between conventional and unconventional. Just counting spectral sensitivities is never enough. PMID:25514002

  8. Two Visions of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capaldi, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Since the seventeenth century, there have been two narratives about modernity in general and America in particular. The author uses the term "narrative" to include (a) facts, (b) arguments, and most important, (c) a larger vision of how one sees the world and chooses to engage the world. The first and originalist narrative is the Lockean Liberty…

  9. What Is Low Vision?

    MedlinePlus

    ... clothing? Performing tasks at work or home because lights now seem dimmer ? Reading street and bus signs, or the names of stores? Vision changes like these could be early warning signs of eye disease. Usually, the earlier your problem is diagnosed, ...

  10. VISION AND READING ABILITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANGRUM, CHARLES T.

    SIGNIFICANT RESEARCH ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF VISION AND READING DISABILITY IS SURVEYED. CONCLUSIONS BASED ON THE LITERATURE IN THE FIELD ARE DISCUSSED. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 70 REFERENCES AND A GLOSSARY OF TERMS ARE APPENDED. A TABLE SUMMARIZING REFRACTIVE ERRORS AND EYE DEFECTS CONTRIBUTING TO READING DISABILITY IS INCLUDED.…

  11. Dance: Verities, Values, Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorman, Joyce, Ed.; Harris, Dorothy, Ed.

    The Binational Dance Conference was organized into three focal themes--verities, values, and visions in dance--to emphasize the known and accepted worth and value of dance, and to stimulate through knowledge and idea exchange, imaginative directions for dance in the future of both the United States and Canada. This thematic structure is also the…

  12. Vision - night blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms do you have? Do you have unusual stress, anxiety, or a fear of the dark? The eye exam will include: Color vision testing Pupil light reflex Refraction Retinal exam Slit lamp examination Visual acuity Other tests may be done: Electroretinogram ( ...

  13. A Colour Vision Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, David; Hore, Kevin

    1991-01-01

    The model for color vision put forward by Edwin Land is explained. The aspects of the theory that can be demonstrated within the classroom are described. A random arrangement of straight-edged colored areas mounted on a screen, called a Mondrian, projectors, and a computer are used to calculate reflectance. (KR)

  14. Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Bryan K.

    2007-01-01

    Vision tasks include: a) Complete the International Space Station; b) Safely fly the Space Shuttle until 2010; c) Develop and fly the Crew Exploration Vehicle (by 2014); d) Return to the moon (by 2020); e) Sustained and affordable human and robotic program; f) Develop innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures; and g) Promote international and commercial participation.

  15. Vision: The Leadership Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Elise R.

    1986-01-01

    The author states that all types of leaders share four qualities: (1) intensity of vision, (2) ability to communicate agenda, (3) conviction in their beliefs, and (4) positive self-regard. She interviews Warren Bennis, an author on this subject, about the differences between business and volunteer leaders. (CH)

  16. Visions of Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    T.H.E. Journal, 2011

    2011-01-01

    It is almost a foregone conclusion that the mobile device will become an indispensable tool for learning in the future. That's why "T.H.E. Journal" asked a number of educators to let their imaginations go wild and conjure up visions of the future of the device in the classroom. This paper presents the views of educators who conjure up the mobile…

  17. Vision and the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Trachtman, Joseph N

    2010-02-01

    For nearly 2 millennia, signs of hypothalamic-related vision disorders have been noticed as illustrated by paintings and drawings of that time of undiagnosed Horner's syndrome. It was not until the 1800s, however, that specific connections between the hypothalamus and the vision system were discovered. With a fuller elaboration of the autonomic nervous system in the early to mid 1900s, many more pathways were discovered. The more recently discovered retinohypothalamic tracts show the extent and influence of light stimulation on hypothalamic function and bodily processes. The hypothalamus maintains its myriad connections via neural pathways, such as with the pituitary and pineal glands; the chemical messengers of the peptides, cytokines, and neurotransmitters; and the nitric oxide mechanism. As a result of these connections, the hypothalamus has involvement in many degenerative diseases. A complete feedback mechanism between the eye and hypothalamus is established by the retinohypothalamic tracts and the ciliary nerves innervating the anterior pole of the eye and the retina. A discussion of hypothalamic-related vision disorders includes neurologic syndromes, the lacrimal system, the retina, and ocular inflammation. Tables and figures have been used to aid in the explanation of the many connections and chemicals controlled by the hypothalamus. The understanding of the functions of the hypothalamus will allow the clinician to gain better insight into the many pathologies associated between the vision system and the hypothalamus. In the future, it may be possible that some ocular disease treatments will be via direct action on hypothalamic function. PMID:20152784

  18. Synthetic Vision Workshop 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The second NASA sponsored Workshop on Synthetic/Enhanced Vision (S/EV) Display Systems was conducted January 27-29, 1998 at the NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for interested parties to discuss topics in the Synthetic Vision (SV) element of the NASA Aviation Safety Program and to encourage those interested parties to participate in the development, prototyping, and implementation of S/EV systems that enhance aviation safety. The SV element addresses the potential safety benefits of synthetic/enhanced vision display systems for low-end general aviation aircraft, high-end general aviation aircraft (business jets), and commercial transports. Attendance at this workshop consisted of about 112 persons including representatives from industry, the FAA, and other government organizations (NOAA, NIMA, etc.). The workshop provided opportunities for interested individuals to give presentations on the state of the art in potentially applicable systems, as well as to discuss areas of research that might be considered for inclusion within the Synthetic Vision Element program to contribute to the reduction of the fatal aircraft accident rate. Panel discussions on topical areas such as databases, displays, certification issues, and sensors were conducted, with time allowed for audience participation.

  19. Giving Machines the Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Amherst Systems manufactures foveal machine vision technology and systems commercially available to end-users and system integrators. This technology was initially developed under NASA contracts NAS9-19335 (Johnson Space Center) and NAS1-20841 (Langley Research Center). This technology is currently being delivered to university research facilities and military sites. More information may be found in www.amherst.com.

  20. Vision: Essential Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph; Torre, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Few concepts are more noted in the leadership effects research than vision. It is a cardinal element in the school improvement equation as well. Yet, it remains one of the least well-specified components of that algorithm. Based on a comprehensive review of the research on effective leadership and school improvement from 1995 to 2012, we bring…

  1. Computer Vision Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    Food quality is of paramount consideration for all consumers, and its importance is perhaps only second to food safety. By some definition, food safety is also incorporated into the broad categorization of food quality. Hence, the need for careful and accurate evaluation of food quality is at the forefront of research and development both in the academia and industry. Among the many available methods for food quality evaluation, computer vision has proven to be the most powerful, especially for nondestructively extracting and quantifying many features that have direct relevance to food quality assessment and control. Furthermore, computer vision systems serve to rapidly evaluate the most readily observable foods quality attributes - the external characteristics such as color, shape, size, surface texture etc. In addition, it is now possible, using advanced computer vision technologies, to “see” inside a food product and/or package to examine important quality attributes ordinarily unavailable to human evaluators. With rapid advances in electronic hardware and other associated imaging technologies, the cost-effectiveness and speed of computer vision systems have greatly improved and many practical systems are already in place in the food industry.

  2. Chapter 3: Develop a Vision

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Loretta; Meade, Barbara; Norris, Keith; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Jones, Felica; Moini, Moraya; Jones, Andrea; Koegel, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The Vision stage is the development of the agreed-upon framework for the study, including identifying the issue, the community, the stakeholders, and major aspects of the approach. Achieving the Vision requires planning through a Framing Committee, agreeing on a vision by sharing perspectives and identifying commonalities or “win-wins” that hold the partnership together for community benefit, and evaluating the emergence of the Vision and the partnership. Here, we review tools and strategies. PMID:20088078

  3. What You Should Know (Low Vision)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Low Vision > What You Should Know Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... Diabetic retinopathy Glaucoma Macular degeneration What is low vision? When you have low vision, eyeglasses, contact lenses, ...

  4. Vision Screening For Head Starters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Celia

    To determine which children in the Head Start program may have vision problems, Head Start teachers and staff do vision "screening." This booklet demonstrates how to do the screening using the Snellen "E Chart." Trouble signs that the test administrator should be aware of are listed, and vision scores are explained simply. Amblyopia is defined,…

  5. Registration of Vision 30 Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vision 30’ (Reg. No. CV-1062, PI 661153) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and tested as VA06HRW-49 and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2010. Vision 30 was derived from the cross 92PAN1#33/VA97W-414. Vision 30 is high yielding, awned,...

  6. Registration of Vision 45 Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vision 45’ (Reg. No. CV-1110, PI 667642), is a hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar that was developed and tested as VA07HRW-45 and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in 2012. Vision 45 was derived from the cross ‘Provinciale’/‘Vision 10’ using a modifie...

  7. Ductile Chromium in Heavily Cold-Drawn Cu75Cr25 Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yanli; Zhou, Zhiming; Guo, Ziqin; Wang, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Microstructure evolution, gas content, and properties of the heavily cold-drawn Cu75Cr25 alloy were studied. Results showed that the oxygen and nitrogen contents of Cu75Cr25 alloy prepared by vacuum induction melting in calcia crucibles were low, about 320 and 20 ppm, respectively. The Cu75Cr25 material with low gas content can be cold drawn to lines with diameter less than 0.1 mm, in which Cr phase displays thin and curving morphology. The coherent interface, forming between Cu(111) and Cr(110) during the heavily cold-drawing process, constrained Cr phase and greatly improved its deformability as well as increased the strength of the Cu-Cr alloy. The breaking strength and electrical conductivity of the Cu75Cr25 alloy were about 577 MPa and 60 pct IACS, respectively.

  8. Multigraphene growth on lead-pencil drawn sliver halide print paper irradiated by scanning femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Satoru; Shimizu, Yoshitada; Rachi, Takeshi; Kato, Chihiro; Tanaka, Satomi; Naganuma, Yasuhiro; Katakura, Toru; Satoh, Kazuo; Ushiyama, Mikio; Konuma, Seiji; Itou, Yuko; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Tan, Goon; Matsuda, Akifumi; Yoshimoto, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Drawings were made on various types of paper using lead pencils of grades from 4H through 10B. Raman spectroscopy verified both G and D peaks on all the drawings on PC print paper, PC photopaper, kent paper, and paper for silver halide print. After irradiation with a scanning femtosecond laser, silver halide paper drawn on with a 10B lead pencil maintained its surface flatness compared with the other types of paper. Raman spectroscopy on silver print paper showed a high-intensity G peak and a low-intensity D peak. After irradiating the scanning femtosecond laser on silver halide paper drawn on with a 10B lead pencil, Raman spectroscopy showed a high-intensity G peak and less intense of D peak together with a 2D peak around 2,700 cm-1 corresponding to the existence of multigraphene.

  9. Radon Content in Ground Waters Drawn From the Metamorphic Basement, Eastern Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, F. D.; Brenha Ribeiro, F.

    2007-05-01

    Ground water drawn from granitic and metamorphic rocks frequently presents relatively high radioactivity, mostly due to the presence of uranium, radium and radon isotopes. In particular, the radon isotope 222Rn seems to have particular significance since it is normally much enriched in ground water in relation to other uranium series isotopes and is in large disequilibrium with its 226Ra mother isotope. Furthermore, radon is one of the main agents of radioactivity transfer from crust uppermost layers to lower atmosphere. At the eastern part of Sao Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, it outcrops a metamorphic terrain with a large number water bearing fractures that composes a set of fractured aquifers. Ground water is drawn from these aquifers through a large number of relatively shallow drilled wells, mostly less than 200 m deep. The radioactivity, and in particular the radon activity concentration, of the ground waters drawn from this metamorphic terrain has not yet been investigated in detail. The 222Rn activity concentration was measured in ground waters drawn from three wells drilled in different rocks of this metamorphic basement. The first well cuts a K-feldspar bearing granite, the second well cuts a granite- gneiss and the third well cuts a gneiss. The ground water samples were collected between July, 2005 and August, 2006 with a time interval of about one month between sampling campaigns. The year long mean activity concentrations were, (76 +/- 7) Bq/L for the first well, (26 +/- 3) Bq/L for the second well and (39 +/- 4) Bq/L for the third one. The activity concentrations show a time dependent variability that is interpreted as consequence of rain fall seasonal variations.

  10. Influence of aging on the relaxation and internal friction properties of cold drawn pearute

    SciTech Connect

    Ravera, P.P.; Colombo, R.L.; Firrao, D.

    1984-11-01

    Rolled wire of eutectoid steel containing approximately 0.8% carbon is particularly suitable for hardening by cold drawing. When drawn it acquires exceptional mechanical strength, so that it can transform int the strongest material known, apart from the thinnest metal wiskers. Lamellar pearlite is obtained by isothermally annealing (patenting) austenite at temperatures between 720 and 450/sup 0/ C, the interlamellar spacing being a decreasing function of the transformation temperature. The strength of a patented wire cold drawn to a given reduction has been the subject of almost exhaustive studies of Embury and Fischer, later re-interpreted by Langford, in terms of a modified Petch argument. Drawn pearlitic wires are used as a reinforcement in pre-stressed concrete, and, under the name of ''music wire'', to make springs. Under these conditions, the mechanical strength, though important, is not the most interesting property, which is, instead, the capacity to show a small load (or stress) relaxation rate under constant extension. The relaxation will be called parabolic, logarithmic or hyperbolic. Usually the three alternatives take place successively in the course of a sufficiently long relaxation test. It has to be appreciated that a relaxation test is similar in many respects, but by no means identical, to a low temperature creep test. The work done up to 1970 in the entire field of microplasticity of steel wires has been extensively reviewed by Lehnert.

  11. Overview of NETL In-House Vision 21 Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, David J.

    2001-11-06

    The Office of Science and Technology at the National Energy Technology Laboratory, conducts research in support of Department of Energy's Fossil Energy Program. The research is funded through a variety of programs with each program focusing on a particular aspect of fossil energy. Since the Vision 21 Concept is based on the Advanced Power System Programs (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Pressurized Fluid Bed, HIPPS, Advanced Turbine Systems, and Fuel Cells) it is not surprising that much of the research supports the Vision 21 Concept. The research is classified and presented according to ''enabling technologies'' and ''supporting technologies'' as defined by the Vision 21 Program. Enabling technology include fuel flexible gasification, fuel flexible combustion, hydrogen separation from fuel gas, advanced combustion systems, circulating fluid bed technology, and fuel cells. Supporting technologies include development of advanced materials, computer simulations, computation al fluid dynamics modeling, and advanced environmental control. An overview of Vision 21 related research is described, emphasizing recent accomplishments and capabilities.

  12. Vision Care and the Nation's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    Aspects of vision and vision care considered are the following: extent and types of vision defects of American children; importance of vision care in pre-school years, elementary, and secondary school and beyond; and manpower resources in vision care today, the extent of vision testing and care, special problem areas, and governmental support.…

  13. Review of night vision metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    2015-06-01

    A review of night vision metrology is presented in this paper. A set of reasons that create a rather chaotic metrologic situation on night vision market is presented. It is shown that there has been made a little progress in night vision metrology during last decades in spite of a big progress in night vision technology at the same period of time. It is concluded that such a big discrep- ancy between metrology development level and technology development can be an obstacle in the further development of night vision technology.

  14. Colour vision in marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Justin; Carleton, Karen L; Cronin, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Colour vision in the marine environment is on average simpler than in terrestrial environments with simple or no colour vision through monochromacy or dichromacy. Monochromacy is found in marine mammals and elasmobranchs, including whales and sharks, but not some rays. Conversely, there is also a greater diversity of colour vision in the ocean than on land, examples being the polyspectral stomatopods and the many colour vision solutions found among reef fish. Recent advances in sequencing reveal more opsin (visual pigment) types than functionally useful at any one time. This diversity arises through opsin duplication and conversion. Such mechanisms allow pick-and-mix adaptation that tunes colour vision on a variety of very short non-evolutionary timescales. At least some of the diversity in marine colour vision is best explained as unconventional colour vision or as neutral drift. PMID:25725325

  15. Conscious Vision in Action.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Robert; Schwenkler, John

    2015-09-01

    It is natural to assume that the fine-grained and highly accurate spatial information present in visual experience is often used to guide our bodily actions. Yet this assumption has been challenged by proponents of the Two Visual Systems Hypothesis (TVSH), according to which visuomotor programming is the responsibility of a "zombie" processing stream whose sources of bottom-up spatial information are entirely non-conscious (Clark, 2007, 2009; Goodale & Milner, 1992, 2004a; Milner & Goodale, 1995/2006, 2008). In many formulations of TVSH, the role of conscious vision in action is limited to "recognizing objects, selecting targets for action, and determining what kinds of action, broadly speaking, to perform" (Clark, 2007, p. 570). Our aim in this study is to show that the available evidence not only fails to support this dichotomous view but actually reveals a significant role for conscious vision in motor programming, especially for actions that require deliberate attention. PMID:25845648

  16. Advanced night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thacker, Clinton

    2003-02-01

    The Advanced Night Vision Goggle (ANVG) program is developing integrated wide field of view (WFOV) helmet-mounted image intensifier night vision goggle systems. ANVG will provide a FOV of approximately 40° (vertical) × 100° (horizontal) and an integrated heads-up display for overlay of flight symbology and/or FLIR imagery. The added FLIR complements the I2 imagery in out of the window or ground applications. ANVG will significantly improve safety, situational awareness, and mission capabilities in differing environments. ANVG achieves the ultra wide FOV using four image intensifier tubes in a head-mounted configuration. Additional features include a miniature flat panel display and a lightweight uncooled FLIR. The integrated design will demonstrate the capability of helmet-mounted I2 and FLIR image fusion. Fusion will be accomplished optically and will offer significant opportunities for ground applications. This paper summarizes the basic technologies, lessons learned, and program status.

  17. Robotic Vision for Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Vision system for robotic welder looks at weld along axis of welding electrode. Gives robot view of most of weld area, including yet-unwelded joint, weld pool, and completed weld bead. Protected within welding-torch body, lens and fiber bundle give robot closeup view of weld in progress. Relayed to video camera on robot manipulator frame, weld image provides data for automatic control of robot motion and welding parameters.

  18. Bird Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Bird Vision system is a multicamera photogrammerty software application that runs on a Microsoft Windows XP platform and was developed at Kennedy Space Center by ASRC Aerospace. This software system collects data about the locations of birds within a volume centered on the Space Shuttle and transmits it in real time to the laptop computer of a test director in the Launch Control Center (LCC) Firing Room.

  19. Vision without the Image

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Perona, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Novel image sensors transduce the stream of photons directly into asynchronous electrical pulses, rather than forming an image. Classical approaches to vision start from a good quality image and therefore it is tempting to consider image reconstruction as a first step to image analysis. We propose that, instead, one should focus on the task at hand (e.g., detection, tracking or control) and design algorithms that compute the relevant variables (class, position, velocity) directly from the stream of photons. We discuss three examples of such computer vision algorithms and test them on simulated data from photon-counting sensors. Such algorithms work just-in-time, i.e., they complete classification, search and tracking with high accuracy as soon as the information is sufficient, which is typically before there are enough photons to form a high-quality image. We argue that this is particularly useful when the photons are few or expensive, e.g., in astronomy, biological imaging, surveillance and night vision. PMID:27058543

  20. Vision without the Image.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Perona, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Novel image sensors transduce the stream of photons directly into asynchronous electrical pulses, rather than forming an image. Classical approaches to vision start from a good quality image and therefore it is tempting to consider image reconstruction as a first step to image analysis. We propose that, instead, one should focus on the task at hand (e.g., detection, tracking or control) and design algorithms that compute the relevant variables (class, position, velocity) directly from the stream of photons. We discuss three examples of such computer vision algorithms and test them on simulated data from photon-counting sensors. Such algorithms work just-in-time, i.e., they complete classification, search and tracking with high accuracy as soon as the information is sufficient, which is typically before there are enough photons to form a high-quality image. We argue that this is particularly useful when the photons are few or expensive, e.g., in astronomy, biological imaging, surveillance and night vision. PMID:27058543

  1. Photographic but not line-drawn faces show early perceptual neural sensitivity to eye gaze direction

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Alejandra; Parada, Francisco J.; Latinus, Marianne; Puce, Aina

    2015-01-01

    Our brains readily decode facial movements and changes in social attention, reflected in earlier and larger N170 event-related potentials (ERPs) to viewing gaze aversions vs. direct gaze in real faces (Puce et al., 2000). In contrast, gaze aversions in line-drawn faces do not produce these N170 differences (Rossi et al., 2014), suggesting that physical stimulus properties or experimental context may drive these effects. Here we investigated the role of stimulus-induced context on neurophysiological responses to dynamic gaze. Sixteen healthy adults viewed line-drawn and real faces, with dynamic eye aversion and direct gaze transitions, and control stimuli (scrambled arrays and checkerboards) while continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded. EEG data from 2 temporo-occipital clusters of 9 electrodes in each hemisphere where N170 activity is known to be maximal were selected for analysis. N170 peak amplitude and latency, and temporal dynamics from Event-Related Spectral Perturbations (ERSPs) were measured in 16 healthy subjects. Real faces generated larger N170s for averted vs. direct gaze motion, however, N170s to real and direct gaze were as large as those to respective controls. N170 amplitude did not differ across line-drawn gaze changes. Overall, bilateral mean gamma power changes for faces relative to control stimuli occurred between 150–350 ms, potentially reflecting signal detection of facial motion. Our data indicate that experimental context does not drive N170 differences to viewed gaze changes. Low-level stimulus properties, such as the high sclera/iris contrast change in real eyes likely drive the N170 changes to viewed aversive movements. PMID:25914636

  2. Machine vision - Automated visual inspection and robot vision

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, D. )

    1991-01-01

    The subject of machine vision is treated with emphasis on fundamental tools for image acquisition, processing, and analysis. Topics discussed include an introduction to computer vision, illumination and sensors, image acquisition and representation, fundamentals of digital image processing, the segmentation problem, and image analysis. The book also covers techniques for shape description, robot programming and robot vision, and an introduction to image understanding. 250 refs.

  3. 77 FR 22561 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Correction to Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... International Trade Administration Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Correction..., the Department of Commerce (``Department'') published the notice Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation, 77 FR 18211 (March 27,...

  4. 78 FR 21592 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ...Based on affirmative final determinations by the Department of Commerce (the ``Department'') and the International Trade Commission (``ITC''), the Department is issuing an antidumping duty order on drawn stainless steel sinks (``drawn sinks'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). In addition, the Department is amending its final determination to correct a ministerial...

  5. Knowledge and Motivation as Mediators in Mathematics Teaching Practice: The Case of Drawn Models for Fraction Arithmetic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Erik; Izsák, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have suggested that in light of recent curriculum standards, many US teachers make limited use of drawn models in their mathematics instruction. To gain insight into this phenomenon, we investigated relationships between US teachers' opportunities to learn about, knowledge of, motivation for, and instructional use of drawn models for…

  6. Review of night vision technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    2013-06-01

    Night vision based on technology of image intensifier tubes is the oldest electro-optical surveillance technology. However, it receives much less attention from international scientific community than thermal imagers or visible/NIR imagers due to series of reasons. This paper presents a review of a modern night vision technology and can help readers to understand sophisticated situation on the international night vision market.

  7. Intelligent robots and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on artificial intelligence and robot vision. Topics considered at the conference included pattern recognition, image processing for intelligent robotics, three-dimensional vision (depth and motion), vision modeling and shape estimation, spatial reasoning, the symbolic processing visual information, robotic sensors and applications, intelligent control architectures for robot systems, robot languages and programming, human-machine interfaces, robotics applications, and architectures of robotics.

  8. Conscious vision for action versus unconscious vision for action?

    PubMed

    Brogaard, Berit

    2011-08-01

    David Milner and Melvyn Goodale's dissociation hypothesis is commonly taken to state that there are two functionally specialized cortical streams of visual processing originating in striate (V1) cortex: a dorsal, action-related "unconscious" stream and a ventral, perception-related "conscious" stream. As Milner and Goodale acknowledge, findings from blindsight studies suggest a more sophisticated picture that replaces the distinction between unconscious vision for action and conscious vision for perception with a tripartite division between unconscious vision for action, conscious vision for perception, and unconscious vision for perception. The combination excluded by the tripartite division is the possibility of conscious vision for action. But are there good grounds for concluding that there is no conscious vision for action? There is now overwhelming evidence that illusions and perceived size can have a significant effect on action (Bruno & Franz, 2009; Dassonville & Bala, 2004; Franz & Gegenfurtner, 2008; McIntosh & Lashley, 2008). There is also suggestive evidence that any sophisticated visual behavior requires collaboration between the two visual streams at every stage of the process (Schenk & McIntosh, 2010). I nonetheless want to make a case for the tripartite division between unconscious vision for action, conscious vision for perception, and unconscious vision for perception. My aim here is not to refute the evidence showing that conscious vision can affect action but rather to argue (a) that we cannot gain cognitive access to action-guiding dorsal stream representations, and (b) that these representations do not correlate with phenomenal consciousness. This vindicates the semi-conservative view that the dissociation hypothesis is best understood as a tripartite division. PMID:21790744

  9. Mining Industry of the Future Vision: The Future Begins with Mining

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-09-01

    The Mining Industry of the Future was started in June 1998 when the Chairman of the National Mining Association and the Secretary of Energy entered into a Compact to pursue a collaborative technology research partnership. After the Compact signing, the mining industry developed its vision document, The Future Begins with Mining, A Vision of the Mining Industry of the Future, in September 1998. This vision document lists long-term goals for the mining industry. Stemming from this vision document, targeted technology roadmaps were developed that describe pathways of research to achieve the vision goals.

  10. Coherent laser vision system

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastion, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  11. Industrial robot's vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iureva, Radda A.; Raskin, Evgeni O.; Komarov, Igor I.; Maltseva, Nadezhda K.; Fedosovsky, Michael E.

    2016-03-01

    Due to the improved economic situation in the high technology sectors, work on the creation of industrial robots and special mobile robotic systems are resumed. Despite this, the robotic control systems mostly remained unchanged. Hence one can see all advantages and disadvantages of these systems. This is due to lack of funds, which could greatly facilitate the work of the operator, and in some cases, completely replace it. The paper is concerned with the complex machine vision of robotic system for monitoring of underground pipelines, which collects and analyzes up to 90% of the necessary information. Vision Systems are used to identify obstacles to the process of movement on a trajectory to determine their origin, dimensions and character. The object is illuminated in a structured light, TV camera records projected structure. Distortions of the structure uniquely determine the shape of the object in view of the camera. The reference illumination is synchronized with the camera. The main parameters of the system are the basic distance between the generator and the lights and the camera parallax angle (the angle between the optical axes of the projection unit and camera).

  12. 2020 Vision Project Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, K.W.; Scott, K.P.

    2000-11-01

    Since the 2020 Vision project began in 1996, students from participating schools have completed and submitted a variety of scenarios describing potential world and regional conditions in the year 2020 and their possible effect on US national security. This report summarizes the students' views and describes trends observed over the course of the 2020 Vision project's five years. It also highlights the main organizational features of the project. An analysis of thematic trends among the scenarios showed interesting shifts in students' thinking, particularly in their views of computer technology, US relations with China, and globalization. In 1996, most students perceived computer technology as highly beneficial to society, but as the year 2000 approached, this technology was viewed with fear and suspicion, even personified as a malicious, uncontrollable being. Yet, after New Year's passed with little disruption, students generally again perceived computer technology as beneficial. Also in 1996, students tended to see US relations with China as potentially positive, with economic interaction proving favorable to both countries. By 2000, this view had transformed into a perception of China emerging as the US' main rival and ''enemy'' in the global geopolitical realm. Regarding globalization, students in the first two years of the project tended to perceive world events as dependent on US action. However, by the end of the project, they saw the US as having little control over world events and therefore, we Americans would need to cooperate and compromise with other nations in order to maintain our own well-being.

  13. Python and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Doak, J. E.; Prasad, Lakshman

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of Python in a computer vision (CV) project. We begin by providing background information on the specific approach to CV employed by the project. This includes a brief discussion of Constrained Delaunay Triangulation (CDT), the Chordal Axis Transform (CAT), shape feature extraction and syntactic characterization, and normalization of strings representing objects. (The terms 'object' and 'blob' are used interchangeably, both referring to an entity extracted from an image.) The rest of the paper focuses on the use of Python in three critical areas: (1) interactions with a MySQL database, (2) rapid prototyping of algorithms, and (3) gluing together all components of the project including existing C and C++ modules. For (l), we provide a schema definition and discuss how the various tables interact to represent objects in the database as tree structures. (2) focuses on an algorithm to create a hierarchical representation of an object, given its string representation, and an algorithm to match unknown objects against objects in a database. And finally, (3) discusses the use of Boost Python to interact with the pre-existing C and C++ code that creates the CDTs and CATS, performs shape feature extraction and syntactic characterization, and normalizes object strings. The paper concludes with a vision of the future use of Python for the CV project.

  14. Can machine vision be helped from insights into human vision?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlidis, Theo

    1992-08-01

    Machine vision has exhibited rather slow progress over the last 25 years compared to other areas of Computer Technology and an interesting question is whether more progress will be made by continuing intensively the current approaches in research or instead by searching for new directions. I will present a thesis that more research along some of the prevailing lines will lead to best to marginal advances. For example, current edge detectors are very good at finding step edges. The problem is that their major objective, finding object outlines, is not equivalent to step edge finding. It seems that people find object outlines by a process of simultaneous interpretation and low level processing of the image. Such integration should be contrasted to one of the prevailing models in machine vision which assumes a linear sequence of a few distinct processes from low level to high level vision. (When researches talk about 'interpretation guide segmentation' they usually refer to the labeling of already obtained features using high level models of the scene.) If the levels interact strongly, then optimizing the processing techniques for each level separately (for example edge detection for low level vision) is not going to be fruitful. Since human vision is the reason that we believe that machine vision is even possible, a deeper examination of the human or animal vision recognition process is essential to the further progress of machine vision.

  15. Benchmarking neuromorphic vision: lessons learnt from computer vision

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cheston; Lallee, Stephane; Orchard, Garrick

    2015-01-01

    Neuromorphic Vision sensors have improved greatly since the first silicon retina was presented almost three decades ago. They have recently matured to the point where they are commercially available and can be operated by laymen. However, despite improved availability of sensors, there remains a lack of good datasets, while algorithms for processing spike-based visual data are still in their infancy. On the other hand, frame-based computer vision algorithms are far more mature, thanks in part to widely accepted datasets which allow direct comparison between algorithms and encourage competition. We are presented with a unique opportunity to shape the development of Neuromorphic Vision benchmarks and challenges by leveraging what has been learnt from the use of datasets in frame-based computer vision. Taking advantage of this opportunity, in this paper we review the role that benchmarks and challenges have played in the advancement of frame-based computer vision, and suggest guidelines for the creation of Neuromorphic Vision benchmarks and challenges. We also discuss the unique challenges faced when benchmarking Neuromorphic Vision algorithms, particularly when attempting to provide direct comparison with frame-based computer vision. PMID:26528120

  16. Fully-drawn carbon-based chemical sensors on organic and inorganic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Kelvin M; Mirica, Katherine A; Walish, Joseph J; Swager, Timothy M

    2014-10-21

    Mechanical abrasion is an extremely simple, rapid, and low-cost method for deposition of carbon-based materials onto a substrate. However, the method is limited in throughput, precision, and surface compatibility for drawing conductive pathways. Selective patterning of surfaces using laser-etching can facilitate substantial improvements to address these current limitations for the abrasive deposition of carbon-based materials. This study demonstrates the successful on-demand fabrication of fully-drawn chemical sensors on a wide variety of substrates (e.g., weighing paper, polymethyl methacrylate, silicon, and adhesive tape) using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as sensing materials and graphite as electrodes. Mechanical mixing of SWCNTs with solid or liquid selectors yields sensors that can detect and discriminate parts-per-million (ppm) quantities of various nitrogen-containing vapors (pyridine, aniline, triethylamine). PMID:25170814

  17. Comparison of automatic segmentation of full polarimetric SAR sea ice images with manually drawn ice charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moen, M.-A. N.; Doulgeris, A. P.; Anfinsen, S. N.; Renner, A. H. H.; Hughes, N.; Gerland, S.; Eltoft, T.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we investigate the performance of an algorithm for automatic segmentation of full polarimetric, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sea ice scenes. The algorithm uses statistical and polarimetric properties of the backscattered radar signals to segment the SAR image into a specified number of classes. This number was determined in advance from visual inspection of the SAR image and by available in-situ measurements. The segmentation result was then compared to ice charts drawn by ice service analysts. The comparison revealed big discrepancies between the charts of the analysts, and between the manual and the automatic segmentations. In the succeeding analysis, the automatic segmentation chart was labeled into ice types by sea ice experts, and the SAR features used in the segmentation were interpreted in terms of physical sea ice properties. Studies of automatic and robust estimation of the number of ice classes in SAR sea ice scenes will be highly relevant for future work.

  18. Fully-Drawn Carbon-Based Chemical Sensors on Organic and Inorganic Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Kelvin M.; Mirica, Katherine A.; Walish, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical abrasion is an extremely simple, rapid, and low cost method for deposition of carbon-based materials onto a substrate. However, the method is limited in throughput, precision, and surface compatibility for drawing conductive pathways. Selective patterning of surfaces using laser etching can facilitate substantial improvements to address these current limitations for the abrasive deposition of carbon-based materials. This study demonstrates the successful on-demand fabrication of fully-drawn chemical sensors on a wide variety of substrates (e.g., weighing paper, polymethyl methacrylate, silicon, and adhesive tape) using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as sensing materials and graphite as electrodes. Mechanical mixing of SWCNTs with solid or liquid selectors yields sensors that can detect and discriminate parts-per-million (ppm) quantities of various nitrogen-containing vapors (pyridine, aniline, triethylamine). PMID:25170814

  19. Measurement and Modeling of Dispersive Pulse Propagation in Drawn Wire Waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric I.; Kohl, Thomas W.; Rogers, Wayne P.

    1995-01-01

    An analytical model of dispersive pulse propagation in semi-infinite cylinders due to transient axially symmetric end conditions has been experimentally investigated. Specifically, the dispersive propagation of the first axially symmetric longitudinal mode in thin wire waveguides, which have ends in butt contact with longitudinal piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers, is examined. The method allows for prediction of a propagated waveform given a measured source waveform, together with the material properties of the cylinder. Alternatively, the source waveform can be extracted from measurement of the propagated waveform. The material properties required for implementation of the pulse propagation model are determined using guided wave phase velocity measurements. Hard tempered aluminum 1100 and 304 stainless steel wires, with 127, 305, and 406 micron diam., were examined. In general, the drawn wires were found to behave as transversely isotropic media.

  20. Vision by Man and Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poggio, Tomaso

    1984-01-01

    Studies of stereo vision guide research on how animals see and how computers might accomplish this human activity. Discusses a sequence of algorithms to first extract information from visual images and then to calculate the depths of objects in the three-dimensional world, concentrating on stereopsis (stereo vision). (JN)

  1. Towards Measurement of School Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, William D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Draws on Blumberg and Greenfield's studies of effective principals to offer an operational definition of school vision, based on teacher perceptions. The instrument developed consists of three subscales (vision exchange, internalization, and sacrifice). The perceived robustness of the principal's role was significantly correlated with two School…

  2. Putting the Vision into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    2010-01-01

    It's almost a year since the revolution--the "Learning Revolution," that is. This was the Government's long-term vision for the development of "informal adult learning", as laid out in the White Paper of March 2009. The vision was expansive, embracing informal learning in the workplace, promoting a "new" culture of involving the arts, broadcasting…

  3. An overview of computer vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    An overview of computer vision is provided. Image understanding and scene analysis are emphasized, and pertinent aspects of pattern recognition are treated. The basic approach to computer vision systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the current existing systems and state-of-the-art issues and research requirements, who is doing it and who is funding it, and future trends and expectations are reviewed.

  4. VISION Digital Video Library System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusk, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the VISION Digital Library System, a project implemented by the University of Kansas that uses locally developed applications to segment and automatically index video clips. Explains that the focus of VISION is to make possible the gathering and indexing of large amounts of video material, storing material on a database system, and…

  5. Vision Is More than Sight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getzell, Jeffrey H.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the burgeoning field of behavioral optometry, which specializes in promoting the use of both vision systems (focal and ambient) so they can work together to produce optimum visual efficiency, and in concentrating much of its work on developing or remediating the ambient vision system. Includes a simple test to determine need for a…

  6. Educational Leadership with a Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calder, Wm. Berry

    2006-01-01

    By answering one fundamental question--"What will success look like?"--an educational institution has begun a process of defining its vision. It is undeniable that an institution will ever be greater than its dream; therefore, what is needed first and foremost is an articulated vision to propel an educational institution into a preferred future.…

  7. Your Child's Vision Is Important.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beverstock, Caroline

    Part of a series of booklets designed to provide practical ideas parents can use to help their children become readers, this booklet focuses on children's eyesight. The booklet's seven sections are as follows: (1) How Does Vision Affect Children's Progress in School? (2) What Kinds of Problems Affect These Demands for Vision? (3) How Can I Spot…

  8. Management Matters. Nurture Your Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2005-01-01

    In many professional roles, long-term vision may help guide short-term decisions. This is especially true for school library professionals as library media programs are constantly evolving. This author suggests strategies to assist library media specialists to nurture their vision and provides reviews of several sources and experts in the field…

  9. The IT Vision in FM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NeSmith, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    Provides a forward-looking vision, including goals, objectives, and principles, of information technology (IT) use within facilities management (FM). This vision includes the evolution of the FM/IT organization from an operational role to a strategic role--from an FM divisional role to an enterprise role. (EV)

  10. Vision in albinism.

    PubMed Central

    Summers, C G

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to study vision in albinism from 3 perspectives: first, to determine the characteristics of grating acuity development in children with albinism; second, to study the effect of illumination on grating acuity; and third, to define the effect of melanin pigment in the macula on visual acuity. METHODS: I. Binocular and monocular grating acuity was measured with the acuity card procedure in 40 children with albinism during the first 3 years of life. Recognition acuity was eventually measured in 27 of these patients. Ocular pigment was documented by a previously established method of grading iris transillumination and macular transparency. II. Grating acuity under standard and increased illumination levels was measured in 20 adults with albinism (group I) compared with that in 20 adults with nystagmus due to conditions other than albinism (group II) and 20 adults without ocular abnormalities (group III). Recognition acuity measured with the ETDRS charts was also recorded for each group. III. Best-corrected binocular acuity was measured in 29 patients with albinism who were identified with melanin pigment in their maculas by direct ophthalmoscopy. RESULTS: I. Both binocular and monocular grating acuity was reduced 2 to 3 octaves below the norm for ages 6 months to 3 years. Limited data available in the first 6 months of life did not show failure of vision to develop. Grating acuity measurements overestimated eventual recognition acuity. Mean recognition acuity was 20/111. A relationship between grating acuity development and presence or absence of ocular pigment was not found. II. Grating acuity was significantly better for groups I and II under the condition of increased illumination (P < .03). For patients with albinism, grating acuity under standard illumination was significantly better than recognition acuity (P < .001). For all groups, grating acuity under increased illumination was significantly better than recognition

  11. Vision-based force measurement.

    PubMed

    Greminger, Michael A; Nelson, Bradley J

    2004-03-01

    This paper demonstrates a method to visually measure the force distribution applied to a linearly elastic object using the contour data in an image. The force measurement is accomplished by making use of the result from linear elasticity that the displacement field of the contour of a linearly elastic object is sufficient to completely recover the force distribution applied to the object. This result leads naturally to a deformable template matching approach where the template is deformed according to the governing equations of linear elasticity. An energy minimization method is used to match the template to the contour data in the image. This technique of visually measuring forces we refer to as vision-based force measurement (VBFM). VBFM has the potential to increase the robustness and reliability of micromanipulation and biomanipulation tasks where force sensing is essential for success. The effectiveness of VBFM is demonstrated for both a microcantilever beam and a microgripper. A sensor resolution of less than +/- 3 nN for the microcantilever and +/- 3 mN for the microgripper was achieved using VBFM. Performance optimizations for the energy minimization problem are also discussed that make this algorithm feasible for real-time applications. PMID:15376877

  12. Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Vision Simulator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diabetic Retinopathy Vision Simulator Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Vision Simulator Mar. 03, 2014 How does non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy affect your vision? Nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, also known as background retinopathy, ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: color vision deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... represents a group of conditions that affect the perception of color. Red-green color vision defects are ... two forms of color vision deficiency disrupt color perception but do not affect the sharpness of vision ( ...

  14. Exercise for People with Low Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... Be a Partner Exercise for People with Low Vision People with low vision can be active in many ways! Before you ... your orientation. Learn more about living with low vision from the National Eye Institute on NIH . Find ...

  15. Understanding Your Vision: The "Imperfect Eye"

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Vision Understanding Your Vision: The "Imperfect Eye" Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table ... are different and so are the types of vision that we have. Understanding how some of us ...

  16. Corneoplastique™: Art of vision surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gulani, Arun C

    2014-01-01

    Corneoplastique incorporates the entire spectrum of Vision corrective surgery including Lasik, premium cataract surgery, corneal surgery, ocular surface surgery and the full range of anterior segment surgery itself in manipulating the optics of every eye towards unaided emmetropia to define each and every eye surgeon as a “Vision Corrective Surgeon”. This concept of approaching each case individually and designing vision therewith enables surgeons to correct not only virgin eyes but also approach complex cases and complications with the goal of 20/20 vision. Armed with this holistic approach, eye surgeons can use minimally invasive, aesthetically pleasing and visually focused surgery in single or staged process aiming for each patient's Best Vision Potential (BVP) raising eye surgery itself then to an Art! PMID:24492495

  17. Multiparameter vision testing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, S. R., Jr.; Homkes, R. J.; Poteate, W. B.; Sturgis, A. C. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    Compact vision testing apparatus is described for testing a large number of physiological characteristics of the eyes and visual system of a human subject. The head of the subject is inserted into a viewing port at one end of a light-tight housing containing various optical assemblies. Visual acuity and other refractive characteristics and ocular muscle balance characteristics of the eyes of the subject are tested by means of a retractable phoroptor assembly carried near the viewing port and a film cassette unit carried in the rearward portion of the housing (the latter selectively providing a variety of different visual targets which are viewed through the optical system of the phoroptor assembly). The visual dark adaptation characteristics and absolute brightness threshold of the subject are tested by means of a projector assembly which selectively projects one or both of a variable intensity fixation target and a variable intensity adaptation test field onto a viewing screen located near the top of the housing.

  18. IPPF's strategic vision 2000.

    PubMed

    Mahler, H

    1994-09-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) supports the objectives of the International Conference on Population and Development. The draft conference document displays the linkages between women's rights, poverty, population, and sustainable development. In the next two to three decades the global population will grow by a staggering 50% and that reality requires sustained socioeconomic growth. The 6 components of IPPF's Strategic Vision 2000 and the action agenda for meeting these challenges are as follows: 1) The small family is rapidly becoming the cultural norm everywhere, as more than 60% of all fertile women and men are using safe and effective contraceptive methods. 2) Sexual and reproductive health is becoming an integral part of the physical, mental, and social health culture and not just the absence of pregnancy, disease or injury. The members of IPPF have been developing programs concentrating on adolescent sexuality. IPPF is also concerned about HIV, AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases as they relate to the work undertaken by family planning associations. 3) The quality of care has been heightened by the right of informed choice, service sustainability, and the maintenance of the highest standards. 4) Vigorous programs are in place to eliminate unsafe abortion and to increase access to safe abortion. 5) Young people are systematically supported to give voice to the need for understanding their sexuality and services. There are currently more than 500 million young women and men between the ages of 15 and 19, and their numbers increase for a long time to come. 6) Women are fast moving towards full participation in all aspects of local and global development demanding reproductive rights. IPPF and its associations, through Vision 2000, are committed to the objective of sexual and reproductive health at the national and international levels. PMID:12288265

  19. Vision Sensors and Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Silicon charge-coupled-device (CCD) imagers have been and are a specialty market ruled by a few companies for decades. Based on CMOS technologies, active-pixel sensors (APS) began to appear in 1990 at the 1 μm technology node. These pixels allow random access, global shutters, and they are compatible with focal-plane imaging systems combining sensing and first-level image processing. The progress towards smaller features and towards ultra-low leakage currents has provided reduced dark currents and μm-size pixels. All chips offer Mega-pixel resolution, and many have very high sensitivities equivalent to ASA 12.800. As a result, HDTV video cameras will become a commodity. Because charge-integration sensors suffer from a limited dynamic range, significant processing effort is spent on multiple exposure and piece-wise analog-digital conversion to reach ranges >10,000:1. The fundamental alternative is log-converting pixels with an eye-like response. This offers a range of almost a million to 1, constant contrast sensitivity and constant colors, important features in professional, technical and medical applications. 3D retino-morphic stacking of sensing and processing on top of each other is being revisited with sub-100 nm CMOS circuits and with TSV technology. With sensor outputs directly on top of neurons, neural focal-plane processing will regain momentum, and new levels of intelligent vision will be achieved. The industry push towards thinned wafers and TSV enables backside-illuminated and other pixels with a 100% fill-factor. 3D vision, which relies on stereo or on time-of-flight, high-speed circuitry, will also benefit from scaled-down CMOS technologies both because of their size as well as their higher speed.

  20. Bilateral vision loss associated with radiofrequency exposure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dianna; Cruz, Franz Marie; Subramanian, Prem S

    2012-01-01

    A 57-year-old otherwise healthy woman presented with painless binocular vision loss 1 week after direct application of radiofrequency energy to her orbits. She had no light perception bilaterally. Pupils were dilated and not reactive to light. Fundoscopic exam initially showed optic disc swelling in the right eye and a normal-appearing disc in the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and orbits showed gadolinium enhancement of both intraorbital optic nerves. She underwent a course of high-dose steroid treatment without recovery of vision. Optic discs were pale 11 weeks after injury. With exclusion of other possible causes, this represents a unique case of irreversible binocular optic nerve damage and blindness secondary to radiofrequency exposure. PMID:23271888

  1. Visions for the future of particle accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    The ambitions of accelerator based science, technology and applications far exceed the present accelerator possibilities. Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. The paper presents a digest of the research results and visions for the future in the domain of accelerator science and technology in Europe, shown during the final fourth annual meeting of the EuCARD - European Coordination of Accelerator Research and Development. The conference concerns building of the research infrastructure, including advanced photonic and electronic systems for servicing large high energy physics experiments. There are debated a few basic groups of such systems like: measurement - control networks of large geometrical extent, multichannel systems for large amounts of metrological data acquisition, precision photonic networks of reference time, frequency and phase distribution. The main subject is however the vision for the future of particle accelerators and next generation light sources.

  2. The World Water Vision: From Developing a Vision to Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, S.; Cosgrove, W.; Rijsberman, F.; Strzepek, K.; Strzepek, K.

    2001-05-01

    The World Water Vision exercise was initiated by the World Water Commission under the auspices of the World Water Council. The goal of the World Water Vision project was to develop a widely shared vision on the actions required to achieve a common set of water-related goals and the necessary commitment to carry out these actions. The Vision should be participatory in nature, including input from both developed and developing regions, with a special focus on the needs of the poor, women, youth, children and the environment. Three overall objectives were to: (i)raise awareness of water issues among both the general population and decision-makers so as to foster the necessary political will and leadership to tackle the problems seriously and systematically; (ii) develop a vision of water management for 2025 that is shared by water sector specialists as well as international, national and regional decision-makers in government, the private sector and civil society; and (iii) provide input to a Framework for Action to be elaborated by the Global Water Partnership, with steps to go from vision to action, including recommendations to funding agencies for investment priorities. This exercise was characterized by the principles of: (i) a participatory approach with extensive consultation; (ii) Innovative thinking; (iii) central analysis to assure integration and co-ordination; and (iv) emphasis on communication with groups outside the water sector. The primary activities included, developing global water scenarios that fed into regional consultations and sectoral consultations as water for food, water for people - water supply and sanitation, and water and environment. These consultations formulated the regional and sectoral visions that were synthesized to form the World Water Vision. The findings from this exercise were reported and debated at the Second World Water Forum and the Ministerial Conference held in The Hague, The Netherlands during April 2000. This paper

  3. A national vision of America's transition to a hydrogen economy. To 2030 and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-02-01

    This document outlines a vision for America’s energy future -- a more secure nation powered by clean, abundant hydrogen. This vision can be realized if the Nation works together to fully understand hydrogen’s potential, to develop and deploy hydrogen technologies, and to produce and deliver hydrogen energy in an affordable, safe, and convenient manner.

  4. Color vision characteristics of visually impaired children.

    PubMed

    Kalloniatis, M; Johnston, A W

    1990-03-01

    A classroom assessment of color vision characteristics of children with low vision was conducted using a battery of tests. The results showed 75% of the children failed one or more tests, although only 24% had a moderate or severe color vision defect. Comparisons with the low vision clinic color vision assessment showed that many of the children were not identified as being color vision defective. Considering the use of color-coded information in education, greater emphasis on color vision evaluations in routine low vision examinations is recommended. PMID:2320360

  5. Wind Vision. A New Era for Wind Power in the United States (Executive Summary, Full Report, and Appendices); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-03-02

    The Wind Vision analysis demonstrates the economic value that wind power can bring to the nation, a value exceeding the costs of deployment. Wind’s environmental benefits can address key societal challenges such as climate change, air quality and public health, and water scarcity. Wind deployment can provide U.S. jobs, U.S. manufacturing, and lease and tax revenues in local communities to strengthen and support a transition of the nation’s electricity sector towards a low-carbon U.S. economy. The path needed to achieve 10% wind by 2020, 20% by 2030, and 35% by 2050 requires new tools, priorities, and emphases beyond those forged by the wind industry in growing to 4.5% of current U.S. electricity demand. Consideration of new strategies and updated priorities as identified in the Wind Vision could provide substantial positive outcomes for future generations.

  6. Machine vision for digital microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Bong

    2010-01-01

    Machine vision is widely used in an industrial environment today. It can perform various tasks, such as inspecting and controlling production processes, that may require humanlike intelligence. The importance of imaging technology for biological research or medical diagnosis is greater than ever. For example, fluorescent reporter imaging enables scientists to study the dynamics of gene networks with high spatial and temporal resolution. Such high-throughput imaging is increasingly demanding the use of machine vision for real-time analysis and control. Digital microfluidics is a relatively new technology with expectations of becoming a true lab-on-a-chip platform. Utilizing digital microfluidics, only small amounts of biological samples are required and the experimental procedures can be automatically controlled. There is a strong need for the development of a digital microfluidics system integrated with machine vision for innovative biological research today. In this paper, we show how machine vision can be applied to digital microfluidics by demonstrating two applications: machine vision-based measurement of the kinetics of biomolecular interactions and machine vision-based droplet motion control. It is expected that digital microfluidics-based machine vision system will add intelligence and automation to high-throughput biological imaging in the future. PMID:20113117

  7. Fundamental principles of robot vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Ernest L.

    1993-08-01

    Robot vision is a specialty of intelligent machines which describes the interaction between robotic manipulators and machine vision. Early robot vision systems were built to demonstrate that a robot with vision could adapt to changes in its environment. More recently attention is being directed toward machines with expanded adaptation and learning capabilities. The use of robot vision for automatic inspection and recognition of objects for manipulation by an industrial robot or for guidance of a mobile robot are two primary applications. Adaptation and learning characteristics are often lacking in industrial automation and if they can be added successfully, result in a more robust system. Due to a real time requirement, the robot vision methods that have proven most successful have been ones which could be reduced to a simple, fast computation. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the fundamental concepts in sufficient detail to provide a starting point for the interested engineer or scientist. A detailed example of a camera system viewing an object and for a simple, two dimensional robot vision system is presented. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for further study are presented.

  8. ERGONOMIC ANALYSIS OF A HORSE-DRAWN CARRIAGE USED FOR A JOY RIDE IN INDIA.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Prabir; Vinzuda, Vipul; Naik, Suhas; Karthikeyan, Vignesh; Kumar, Pawan

    2014-06-01

    Horse-drawn carriages popularly known as Tanga in India provide a popularjoy ride. Such vehicles were selected from two cites in Central India and the other from a city in Western India, based on complaints from the users that these vehicles were not comfortable to ride. Twelve male and twelve female participants were selected for the user study. Two of the members of the research team travelled on the vehicle on twelve trips over a 7 kilometer stretch (considered to be the maximum stretch for a Tanga ride). The study comprised three phases; direct observation and activity analysis, a questionnaire study and another questionnaire study of body part discomfort, with the aim to get an insight into the ergonomic design issues of the vehicle. There were gross mismatches in the design and human anthropometric dimensions together with other issues like safety and reliability involved. Based on the initial observations, four concept prototypes were developed which were later handed to the respective authorities for further implementation. PMID:26182669

  9. Blended fertilizers as draw solutions for fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis desalination.

    PubMed

    Phuntsho, Sherub; Shon, Ho Kyong; Majeed, Tahir; El Saliby, Ibrahim; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Kandasamy, Jaya; Hong, Seungkwan; Lee, Sangyoup

    2012-04-17

    In fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) desalination, the final nutrient concentration (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (NPK)) in the product water is essential for direct fertigation and to avoid over fertilization. Our study with 11 selected fertilizers indicate that blending of two or more single fertilizers as draw solution (DS) can achieve significantly lower nutrient concentration in the FDFO product water rather than using single fertilizer alone. For example, blending KCl and NH(4)H(2)PO(4) as DS can result in 0.61/1.35/1.70 g/L of N/P/K, which is comparatively lower than using them individually as DS. The nutrient composition and concentration in the final FDFO product water can also be adjusted by selecting low nutrient fertilizers containing complementary nutrients and in different ratios to produce prescription mixtures. However, blending fertilizers generally resulted in slightly reduced bulk osmotic pressure and water flux in comparison to the sum of the osmotic pressures and water fluxes of the two individual DSs as used alone. The performance ratio or PR (ratio of actual water flux to theoretical water flux) of blended fertilizer DS was observed to be between the PR of the two fertilizer solutions tested individually. In some cases, such as urea, blending also resulted in significant reduction in N nutrient loss by reverse diffusion in presence of other fertilizer species. PMID:22404621

  10. A Major Intermediate Component in Drawn High-Density Polyethylene Identified by Solid-State NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mowery, Daniel; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2001-03-01

    In a commercial polyethylene (HDPE) highly drawn at 295 K, a distinct morphological component intermediate to the crystalline and the almost isotropic amorphous phases has been identified by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). This intermediate component accounts for nearly 25% of the material bulk, exceeding the amorphous fraction at the highest draw ratios. In the neat isotropic material examined for reference, the NMR-derived composition shows excellent agreement with other techniques. 13C NMR isotropic chemical shifts of the intermediate component, whose signal was selected using an “inverse T1,C filter”, prove chains of nearly all-trans conformations; the line width indicates significant disorder. Reduction of dipolar couplings and the chemical-shift anisotropy show fast rotations of 30 50 deg. amplitude around the chain axes. The degree of orientation of the chain axes is high. Spin diffusion experiments suggest that the intermediate component consists mostly of extended chain bundles closely associated with the amorphous phase (tie-molecule bundles ?).

  11. Neutron Stress Imaging of Drawn Copper Tube: Comparison with Finite-Element Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirling, T.; Carradò, A.; Brück, S.; Palkowski, H.

    2008-12-01

    Seamless tubes are used for various mechanical applications, often produced by several cold drawing steps to reach the required dimensions. The first process step, for example, extrusion or rolling, typically results in ovality and eccentricity of the tube caused by nonsymmetric material flow and being present during the cold drawing process, i.e., no homogeneous deformation. Because of this nonsymmetrical deformation, and deviations over the length of the tube caused by moving tools, this process step generates inhomogeneous residual stresses. To understand the interconnection between geometrical changes in the tubes and the resulting residual stresses, the residual strain distribution in a copper tube was measured by neutron diffraction. The aim of this study is to evaluate residual stresses generated during cold drawing of copper tubes. This research comprises experimental measurements and numerical analysis. An industrially produced copper tube was cold drawn, and the profile of residual strain over circumference and across wall thickness was measured by neutron diffraction. In parallel, a three-dimensional finite-element model (FEM) was developed to calculate the residual macrostress state generated by the forming process. Good agreement between experimental results and numerical computations was obtained.

  12. Is Tit-for-Tat the Answer? On the Conclusions Drawn from Axelrod's Tournaments

    PubMed Central

    Rapoport, Amnon; Seale, Darryl A.; Colman, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Axelrod’s celebrated Prisoner’s Dilemma computer tournaments, published in the early 1980s, were designed to find effective ways of acting in everyday interactions with the strategic properties of the iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma game. The winner of both tournaments was tit-for-tat, a program that cooperates on the first round and then, on every subsequent round, copies the co-player’s choice from the previous round. This has been interpreted as evidence that tit-for-tat is an effective general-purpose strategy. By re-analyzing data from the first tournament and some more recent data, we provide new results suggesting that the efficacy of tit-for-tat is contingent on the design of the tournament, the criterion used to determine success, and the particular values chosen for the Prisoner’s Dilemma payoff matrix. We argue that this places in doubt the generality of the results and the policy implications drawn from them. PMID:26225422

  13. Elastic yielding after γ-irradiation of cold-drawn polymer glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Panpan; Xu, Quan; Joy, Abraham; Wang, Shi-Qing

    Elastic yielding shows up when a considerable retractive stress rises from a piece of cold-drawn polymer glass during annealing at temperatures above storage temperature .............. This phenomenon indicates significant chain tension built up during cold drawing. To explore the role of chain networking, we applied γ-irradiation to produce chain scission and cause partial breakdown of the chain network in the pre-necked polymer glasses. To demonstrate universality, four different glasses, i.e., polycarbonate (PC), polystyrene (PS), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPE) were first subjected to uniaxial extension at room temperature before the irradiation. Our data shows that the retractive stress significantly decreases in magnitude with increasing dosage of the γ-irradiation. The diminishing elastic yielding effect may be due to the loss of chain tension by chain scission brought about by the irradiation. This work is support, in part, by ACS-PRF (54047-ND7).

  14. Computer_Vision

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-10-04

    The Computer_Vision software performs object recognition using a novel multi-scale characterization and matching algorithm. To understand the multi-scale characterization and matching software, it is first necessary to understand some details of the Computer Vision (CV) Project. This project has focused on providing algorithms and software that provide an end-to-end toolset for image processing applications. At a high-level, this end-to-end toolset focuses on 7 coy steps. The first steps are geometric transformations. 1) Image Segmentation. Thismore » step essentially classifies pixels in foe input image as either being of interest or not of interest. We have also used GENIE segmentation output for this Image Segmentation step. 2 Contour Extraction (patent submitted). This takes the output of Step I and extracts contours for the blobs consisting of pixels of interest. 3) Constrained Delaunay Triangulation. This is a well-known geometric transformation that creates triangles inside the contours. 4 Chordal Axis Transform (CAT) . This patented geometric transformation takes the triangulation output from Step 3 and creates a concise and accurate structural representation of a contour. From the CAT, we create a linguistic string, with associated metrical information, that provides a detailed structural representation of a contour. 5.) Normalization. This takes an attributed linguistic string output from Step 4 and balances it. This ensures that the linguistic representation accurately represents the major sections of the contour. Steps 6 and 7 are implemented by the multi-scale characterization and matching software. 6) Multi scale Characterization. This takes as input the attributed linguistic string output from Normalization. Rules from a context free grammar are applied in reverse to create a tree-like representation for each contour. For example, one of the grammar’s rules is L -> (LL ). When an (LL) is seen in a string, a parent node is created that points to

  15. Computer_Vision

    SciTech Connect

    Justin Doak, LANL

    2002-10-04

    The Computer_Vision software performs object recognition using a novel multi-scale characterization and matching algorithm. To understand the multi-scale characterization and matching software, it is first necessary to understand some details of the Computer Vision (CV) Project. This project has focused on providing algorithms and software that provide an end-to-end toolset for image processing applications. At a high-level, this end-to-end toolset focuses on 7 coy steps. The first steps are geometric transformations. 1) Image Segmentation. This step essentially classifies pixels in foe input image as either being of interest or not of interest. We have also used GENIE segmentation output for this Image Segmentation step. 2 Contour Extraction (patent submitted). This takes the output of Step I and extracts contours for the blobs consisting of pixels of interest. 3) Constrained Delaunay Triangulation. This is a well-known geometric transformation that creates triangles inside the contours. 4 Chordal Axis Transform (CAT) . This patented geometric transformation takes the triangulation output from Step 3 and creates a concise and accurate structural representation of a contour. From the CAT, we create a linguistic string, with associated metrical information, that provides a detailed structural representation of a contour. 5.) Normalization. This takes an attributed linguistic string output from Step 4 and balances it. This ensures that the linguistic representation accurately represents the major sections of the contour. Steps 6 and 7 are implemented by the multi-scale characterization and matching software. 6) Multi scale Characterization. This takes as input the attributed linguistic string output from Normalization. Rules from a context free grammar are applied in reverse to create a tree-like representation for each contour. For example, one of the grammar’s rules is L -> (LL ). When an (LL) is seen in a string, a parent node is created that points to the four

  16. Bayesian Vision for Shape Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalobeanu, Andre

    2004-01-01

    We present a new Bayesian vision technique that aims at recovering a shape from two or more noisy observations taken under similar lighting conditions. The shape is parametrized by a piecewise linear height field, textured by a piecewise linear irradiance field, and we assume Gaussian Markovian priors for both shape vertices and irradiance variables. The observation process. also known as rendering, is modeled by a non-affine projection (e.g. perspective projection) followed by a convolution with a piecewise linear point spread function. and contamination by additive Gaussian noise. We assume that the observation parameters are calibrated beforehand. The major novelty of the proposed method consists of marginalizing out the irradiances considered as nuisance parameters, which is achieved by Laplace approximations. This reduces the inference to minimizing an energy that only depends on the shape vertices, and therefore allows an efficient Iterated Conditional Mode (ICM) optimization scheme to be implemented. A Gaussian approximation of the posterior shape density is computed, thus providing estimates both the geometry and its uncertainty. We illustrate the effectiveness of the new method by shape reconstruction results in a 2D case. A 3D version is currently under development and aims at recovering a surface from multiple images, reconstructing the topography by marginalizing out both albedo and shading.

  17. Social Visions and Educational Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundy, Robert

    1977-01-01

    Two conflicting tendencies in society are the superindustrial society and the postindustrial alternative. If we pursue the postindustrial vision, schooling will foster an understanding of the nature of the world. (Author/MLF)

  18. A New View of Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Christopher

    1988-01-01

    Reviews research done on the nature of vision from a neurologic perspective. Proposes a multiplex filter model to explain patterns in the signals transmitted to the brain from the retina. Describes experiments done to test the model. (CW)

  19. Social impact of computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baetjer, Howard

    1997-02-01

    From the viewpoint of the economic growth theorist, the broad social impact of improving computer vision should be to improve people's material well-being. Developing computer vision entails building knowledge of perception and interpretation into new devices which enhance the scope and depth of human capability. Some worry that saving lives and replacing tedious jobs through computer vision will burden society with increasing population and unemployment; such worries are unjustified because humans are 'the ultimate resource.' Because development of computer vision has costs as well as benefits, developers who wish to have a positive social impact should pursue projects that promise to pay off in the open market, and should seek private instead of government funding as much as possible.

  20. 46 CFR 10.305 - Vision requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vision requirements. 10.305 Section 10.305 Shipping... CREDENTIAL Medical Certification § 10.305 Vision requirements. (a) Deck standard. (1) A mariner must have correctable vision to at least 20/40 in one eye and uncorrected vision of at least 20/200 in the same eye....

  1. Intelligent robots and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference which examined artificial intelligence and image processing in relation to robotics. Topics considered at the conference included feature extraction and pattern recognition for computer vision, image processing for intelligent robotics, robot sensors, image understanding and artificial intelligence, optical processing techniques in robotic applications, robot languages and programming, processor architectures for computer vision, mobile robots, multisensor fusion, three-dimensional modeling and recognition, intelligent robots applications, and intelligent robot systems.

  2. Aircraft cockpit vision: Math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashir, J.; Singh, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe the field of vision of a pilot seated in an aircraft. Given the position and orientation of the aircraft, along with the geometrical configuration of its windows, and the location of an object, the model determines whether the object would be within the pilot's external vision envelope provided by the aircraft's windows. The computer program using this model was implemented and is described.

  3. Adaptive machine vision. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, W.W.; Brill, M.H.; Bergeron, D.W.

    1988-03-08

    The mission of the Strategic Defense Initiative is to develop defenses against threatening ballistic missiles. There are four distinct phases to the SDI defense; boost, post-boost, midcourse and terminal. In each of these phases, one or more machine-vision functions are required, such as pattern recognition, stereo image fusion, clutter rejection and discrimination. The SDI missions of coarse track, stereo track and discrimination are examined here from the point of view of a machine-vision system.

  4. An algorithm for automated layout of process description maps drawn in SBGN

    PubMed Central

    Genc, Begum; Dogrusoz, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Evolving technology has increased the focus on genomics. The combination of today’s advanced techniques with decades of molecular biology research has yielded huge amounts of pathway data. A standard, named the Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN), was recently introduced to allow scientists to represent biological pathways in an unambiguous, easy-to-understand and efficient manner. Although there are a number of automated layout algorithms for various types of biological networks, currently none specialize on process description (PD) maps as defined by SBGN. Results: We propose a new automated layout algorithm for PD maps drawn in SBGN. Our algorithm is based on a force-directed automated layout algorithm called Compound Spring Embedder (CoSE). On top of the existing force scheme, additional heuristics employing new types of forces and movement rules are defined to address SBGN-specific rules. Our algorithm is the only automatic layout algorithm that properly addresses all SBGN rules for drawing PD maps, including placement of substrates and products of process nodes on opposite sides, compact tiling of members of molecular complexes and extensively making use of nested structures (compound nodes) to properly draw cellular locations and molecular complex structures. As demonstrated experimentally, the algorithm results in significant improvements over use of a generic layout algorithm such as CoSE in addressing SBGN rules on top of commonly accepted graph drawing criteria. Availability and implementation: An implementation of our algorithm in Java is available within ChiLay library (https://github.com/iVis-at-Bilkent/chilay). Contact: ugur@cs.bilkent.edu.tr or dogrusoz@cbio.mskcc.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26363029

  5. Computer vision syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Blehm, Clayton; Vishnu, Seema; Khattak, Ashbala; Mitra, Shrabanee; Yee, Richard W

    2005-01-01

    As computers become part of our everyday life, more and more people are experiencing a variety of ocular symptoms related to computer use. These include eyestrain, tired eyes, irritation, redness, blurred vision, and double vision, collectively referred to as computer vision syndrome. This article describes both the characteristics and treatment modalities that are available at this time. Computer vision syndrome symptoms may be the cause of ocular (ocular-surface abnormalities or accommodative spasms) and/or extraocular (ergonomic) etiologies. However, the major contributor to computer vision syndrome symptoms by far appears to be dry eye. The visual effects of various display characteristics such as lighting, glare, display quality, refresh rates, and radiation are also discussed. Treatment requires a multidirectional approach combining ocular therapy with adjustment of the workstation. Proper lighting, anti-glare filters, ergonomic positioning of computer monitor and regular work breaks may help improve visual comfort. Lubricating eye drops and special computer glasses help relieve ocular surface-related symptoms. More work needs to be done to specifically define the processes that cause computer vision syndrome and to develop and improve effective treatments that successfully address these causes. PMID:15850814

  6. Application of artificial intelligence to robotic vision

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, P.S.; Frick, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    A brief introduction to artificial intelligence (AI) and the general vision process is provided. Two samples of AI researchers' work toward general computer vision are given. The first is a model-based vision system while the second is based on results of studies on human vision. The current state of machine vision in industrial robotics is demonstrated using a well known vision algorithm developed at SRI International. A part of a prototype robotic assembly project with vision is sketched to show the application of some AI tools to practical work. 8 references.

  7. Role of vision in the optics learning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesa, Marta; Colombo, Elisa M.; de Cudmani, Leonor C.

    1995-10-01

    Most of the time, in the teaching of geometrical and physical optics, the visual system is not considered in the analysis of different phenomena. This situation is often reflected in the physic texts and is responsible of a limited comprehension of physic concepts involved. It is so natural for us to see that it is sometimes difficult for the physic teachers to give up intuitive conceptions about what and how we see. The authors propose that the common sense is not enough. It is necessary to start from a scientific point of view considering contributions from diverse fields of analysis, avoiding the temptation of reducing the behavior of the vision system to a photographic camera. To see is much more than just to record images. Vision seems effortless. Objects are recognized in the environment and actions are carried out accordingly. However, current thinking suggest that the task is performed by the cooperative action of many different modules, each with specific task. These modules may represent different parts of the brain, or different routines in a computer program. This article stands out significant contributions from different approaches: Theory of information processing, Artificial vision, Computational vision, Cognitive psychology theory of learning. These interdisciplinary contributions lead to the conclusion that the vision is an intended process. It is also able to make use of light propagation in the environment. This energy is processed constructing useful visual representations and symbols. The conclusion is that the vision is a cognitive process.

  8. 77 FR 2342 - Seventeenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision/Synthetic Vision Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Seventeenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision... Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision/ Synthetic Vision... meeting of RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision/Synthetic Vision Systems (EFVS/SVS)....

  9. Theory underlying the peripheral vision horizon device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Money, K. E.

    1984-01-01

    Peripheral Vision Horizon Device (PVHD) theory states that the likelihood of pilot disorientation in flight is reduced by providing an artificial horizon that provides orientation information to peripheral vision. In considering the validity of the theory, three areas are explored: the use of an artificial horizon device over some other flight instrument; the use of peripheral vision over foveal vision; and the evidence that peripheral vision is well suited to the processing of orientation information.

  10. Improving the Transparency of Ultra-Drawn Melt-Crystallized Polyethylenes: Toward High-Modulus/High-Strength Window Application.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lihua; Nickmans, Koen; Severn, John; Bastiaansen, Cees W M

    2016-07-13

    Highly transparent, ultradrawn high-density polyethylene (HDPE) films were successfully prepared using compression molding and solid-state drawing techniques. The low optical transmittance (<50%) of the pure drawn HDPE films can be drastically improved (>90%) by incorporating a small amount (>1 wt %/wt) of specific additives to HDPE materials prior to drawing. It is shown that additives with relatively high refractive index result in an increased optical transmittance in the visible light wavelength which illustrates that the improvement in optical characteristics probably originates from refractive index matching between the crystalline and noncrystalline regions in the drawn films. Moreover, the optically transparent drawn HDPE films containing additives maintain their physical and mechanical properties, especially their high modulus and high strength, which make these films potentially useful in a variety of applications, such as high-impact windows. PMID:27314927

  11. Evolutionary replacement of UV vision by violet vision in fish

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Takashi; Altun, Ahmet; Yokoyama, Shozo

    2009-01-01

    The vertebrate ancestor possessed ultraviolet (UV) vision and many species have retained it during evolution. Many other species switched to violet vision and, then again, some avian species switched back to UV vision. These UV and violet vision are mediated by short wavelength-sensitive (SWS1) pigments that absorb light maximally (λmax) at approximately 360 and 390–440 nm, respectively. It is not well understood why and how these functional changes have occurred. Here, we cloned the pigment of scabbardfish (Lepidopus fitchi) with a λmax of 423 nm, an example of violet-sensitive SWS1 pigment in fish. Mutagenesis experiments and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) computations show that the violet-sensitivity was achieved by the deletion of Phe-86 that converted the unprotonated Schiff base-linked 11-cis-retinal to a protonated form. The finding of a violet-sensitive SWS1 pigment in scabbardfish suggests that many other fish also have orthologous violet pigments. The isolation and comparison of such violet and UV pigments in fish living in different ecological habitats will open an unprecedented opportunity to elucidate not only the molecular basis of phenotypic adaptations, but also the genetics of UV and violet vision. PMID:19805066

  12. Vision Loss in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Allen L; Rojas-Roldan, Ledy; Coffin, Janis

    2016-08-01

    Vision loss affects 37 million Americans older than 50 years and one in four who are older than 80 years. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concludes that current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for impaired visual acuity in adults older than 65 years. However, family physicians play a critical role in identifying persons who are at risk of vision loss, counseling patients, and referring patients for disease-specific treatment. The conditions that cause most cases of vision loss in older patients are age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, ocular complications of diabetes mellitus, and age-related cataracts. Vitamin supplements can delay the progression of age-related macular degeneration. Intravitreal injection of a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor can preserve vision in the neovascular form of macular degeneration. Medicated eye drops reduce intraocular pressure and can delay the progression of vision loss in patients with glaucoma, but adherence to treatment is poor. Laser trabeculoplasty also lowers intraocular pressure and preserves vision in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, but long-term studies are needed to identify who is most likely to benefit from surgery. Tight glycemic control in adults with diabetes slows the progression of diabetic retinopathy, but must be balanced against the risks of hypoglycemia and death in older adults. Fenofibrate also slows progression of diabetic retinopathy. Panretinal photocoagulation is the mainstay of treatment for diabetic retinopathy, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors slow vision loss resulting from diabetic macular edema. Preoperative testing before cataract surgery does not improve outcomes and is not recommended. PMID:27479624

  13. 77 FR 56254 - Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision Systems/Synthetic Vision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision... of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision... of the twentieth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision...

  14. 77 FR 36331 - Nineteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision Systems/Synthetic Vision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Nineteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision... of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision... of the nineteenth meeting of RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision...

  15. Reliable vision-guided grasping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicewarner, Keith E.; Kelley, Robert B.

    1992-01-01

    Automated assembly of truss structures in space requires vision-guided servoing for grasping a strut when its position and orientation are uncertain. This paper presents a methodology for efficient and robust vision-guided robot grasping alignment. The vision-guided grasping problem is related to vision-guided 'docking' problems. It differs from other hand-in-eye visual servoing problems, such as tracking, in that the distance from the target is a relevant servo parameter. The methodology described in this paper is hierarchy of levels in which the vision/robot interface is decreasingly 'intelligent,' and increasingly fast. Speed is achieved primarily by information reduction. This reduction exploits the use of region-of-interest windows in the image plane and feature motion prediction. These reductions invariably require stringent assumptions about the image. Therefore, at a higher level, these assumptions are verified using slower, more reliable methods. This hierarchy provides for robust error recovery in that when a lower-level routine fails, the next-higher routine will be called and so on. A working system is described which visually aligns a robot to grasp a cylindrical strut. The system uses a single camera mounted on the end effector of a robot and requires only crude calibration parameters. The grasping procedure is fast and reliable, with a multi-level error recovery system.

  16. Molecular basis for color vision.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, T

    1994-05-01

    Amino acid sequences of four kinds of chicken cone pigments and two kinds of nocturnal gecko visual pigment were determined. Calculations of amino acid identities indicate that gecko pigments should be cone pigments. A phylogenetic tree of visual pigments constructed demonstrated that cone pigments evolved earlier than rod pigments (rhodopsins), indicating that daylight vision including color vision appeared earlier than twilight vision. The divergence of cone pigments to rhodopsins would be caused by replacing basic amino acid residues to acidic ones according to net charge calculations. A comparison between chicken rhodopsin and cone pigments (chicken green and red) displayed that the cone pigments are faster in regeneration from 11-cis retinal and opsin, faster in formation of meta II-intermediate and shorter in lifetime of meta II-intermediate than rhodopsin. These facts would partly explain the rapid dark adaptation, the rapid light response and the low photosensitivity of cones compared with rods. In comparison with di- and tri-chromatic color visions, chicken tetra-chromatic vision was discussed on the basis of both absorption spectra of cone pigments and filtering effect of oil droplets. PMID:8011932

  17. Reliable vision-guided grasping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicewarner, Keith E.; Kelley, Robert B.

    1992-01-01

    Automated assembly of truss structures in space requires vision-guided servoing for grasping a strut when its position and orientation are uncertain. This paper presents a methodology for efficient and robust vision-guided robot grasping alignment. The vision-guided grasping problem is related to vision-guided 'docking' problems. It differs from other hand-in-eye visual servoing problems such as tracking in that the distance from the target is a relevant servo parameter. The methodology described in this paper is a hierarchy of levels in which the vision/robot interface is decreasingly 'intelligent', and increasingly fast. Speed is achieved primarily by information reduction. This reduction exploits the use of region-of-interest windows in the image plane and feature motion prediction. These reductions invariably require stringent assumptions about the image. Therefore, at a higher level, these assumptions are verified using slower, more reliable methods. This hierarchy provides for robust error recovery in that when a lower-level routine fails, the next-higher routine will be called and so on. A working system is described which visually aligns a robot to grasp a cylindrical strut. The system uses a single camera mounted on the end effector of a robot and requires only crude calibration parameters. The grasping procedure is fast and reliable, with a multi-level error recovery system.

  18. [Ophthalmologist and "computer vision syndrome"].

    PubMed

    Barar, A; Apatachioaie, Ioana Daniela; Apatachioaie, C; Marceanu-Brasov, L

    2007-01-01

    The authors had tried to collect the data available on the Internet about a subject that we consider as being totally ignored in the Romanian scientific literature and unexpectedly insufficiently treated in the specialized ophthalmologic literature. Known in the specialty literature under the generic name of "Computer vision syndrome", it is defined by the American Optometric Association as a complex of eye and vision problems related to the activities which stress the near vision and which are experienced in relation, or during, the use of the computer. During the consultations we hear frequent complaints of eye-strain - asthenopia, headaches, blurred distance and/or near vision, dry and irritated eyes, slow refocusing, neck and backache, photophobia, sensation of diplopia, light sensitivity, and double vision, but because of the lack of information, we overlooked them too easily, without going thoroughly into the real motives. In most of the developed countries, there are recommendations issued by renowned medical associations with regard to the definition, the diagnosis, and the methods for the prevention, treatment and periodical control of the symptoms found in computer users, in conjunction with an extremely detailed ergonomic legislation. We found out that these problems incite a much too low interest in our country. We would like to rouse the interest of our ophthalmologist colleagues in the understanding and the recognition of these symptoms and in their treatment, or at least their improvement, through specialized measures or through the cooperation with our specialist occupational medicine colleagues. PMID:18064965

  19. Shaping the First-Year Experience: Assessment of the Vision Planning Seminar at Nagoya University of Commerce and Business in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Learning assessments of the First-Year Experience (FYE) at universities have drawn increasing attention. Despite its current popularity, few pieces of literature on the FYE learning assessment exist in Japan. To present a case of FYE in the context of Japan, this paper examines the FYE course called the Vision Planning Seminar (VPS) at the Nagoya…

  20. The Medawar Lecture 2001 Knowledge for vision: vision for knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    An evolutionary development of perception is suggested—from passive reception to active perception to explicit conception—earlier stages being largely retained and incorporated in later species. A key is innate and then individually learned knowledge, giving meaning to sensory signals. Inappropriate or misapplied knowledge produces rich cognitive phenomena of illusions, revealing normally hidden processes of vision, tentatively classified here in a ‘peeriodic table’. Phenomena of physiology are distinguished from phenomena of general rules and specific object knowledge. It is concluded that vision uses implicit knowledge, and provides knowledge for intelligent behaviour and for explicit conceptual understanding including science. PMID:16147519

  1. Older adults coping with vision loss.

    PubMed

    Weber, Joseph A; Wong, Karen B

    2010-07-01

    Age-related vision loss is one of the most commonly cited disabling impairments of adult life. Stressors presented by vision loss can create barriers, threatening the well-being of the individual. This qualitative study of 30 older adults (65 to 95 years of age) investigated vision loss and coping strategies. All participants experienced unexpected sight loss during their adult years. The Adaptation to Age-Related Vision Loss (AVL) Scale was used in this study to examine psychosocial adaptation to vision impairment. The coping strategies of vision impairment were assessed by collecting self-reported reflections toward vision loss and how the change impacted the participant's life. Given the correct balance of support, confidence, and acceptance, older adults can confront the existing barriers and focus on the ability to optimize function with vision loss. Health care service providers and practitioners can provide needed assistance and a helpful guide to assist older adults in successfully coping with vision impairment. PMID:20845173

  2. 78 FR 72864 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... Antidumping Duty Order, 78 FR 21592 (April 11, 2013). \\2\\ See Letter from Success entitled ``Drawn Stainless...). \\11\\ See Antidumping Duties; Countervailing Duties; Final Rule, 62 FR 27296, 27319-320 (May 19, 1997...) of the Act and 19 CFR 351.214(e). To assist in its analysis of the bona fides of this company's...

  3. Night vision device technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, H.; Nordholt, J.; Suszcynsky, D.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop microchannel plate (MCP) technologies for enhancement of night vision device (NVD) capabilities. First, segmented microchannel plates with independent gain control to minimize loss of low level light images in the presence of a bright light source (e.g., battlefield lasers, flares, and headlights) need to be developed. This enables, for example, enhanced vision capabilities during night operations in, for example, a city environment and continuous capability of aviators to see the horizon, nearground obstructions, and ground targets. Furthermore, curved microchannel plate technology to increase the field of view of NVDs while minimizing optical aberrations needs to be developed and applied. This development would significantly enhance peripheral vision capabilities of aviators and result in easier adaptation of the human eye to NVDs.

  4. Coherent laser vision system (CLVS)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-13

    The purpose of the CLVS research project is to develop a prototype fiber-optic based Coherent Laser Vision System suitable for DOE`s EM Robotics program. The system provides three-dimensional (3D) vision for monitoring situations in which it is necessary to update geometric data on the order of once per second. The CLVS project plan required implementation in two phases of the contract, a Base Contract and a continuance option. This is the Base Program Interim Phase Topical Report presenting the results of Phase 1 of the CLVS research project. Test results and demonstration results provide a proof-of-concept for a system providing three-dimensional (3D) vision with the performance capability required to update geometric data on the order of once per second.

  5. Photogrammetric stations for robot vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggren, Henrik G. A.

    1992-03-01

    Photogrammetric stations are used for vision based dynamic control of 3-D related phenomena. The vision sensors are fixed solid-state cameras which are permanently mounted and set up for a specific control task. The on-site calibration of the station allows the continuous processing of the 3-D space coordinates for all object points according to their actual 2-D image locations For automated control processes the object points are targeted using predefined templates extracted from the perspective images. The precision of an object point measured by the station is better than 1:10,000 of the object volume in all three coordinates. The vision application presented here is the locating of car bodies in the 3-D space of a robotic sealing cell.

  6. Motion vision for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrb, Matthieu

    The problem of using computer vision in mobile robots is dealt with. The datacube specialized cards and a parallel machine using a transputer network are studied. The tracking and localization of a three dimensional object in a sequence of images is examined, using first order prediction of the motion in the image plane and verification by a maximal clique search in the graph of mutually compatible matchings. A dynamic environment modeling module, using numerical fusion between trinocular stereovision and tracking of stereo matched primitives is presented. The integration of this perception system in the control architecture of a mobile robot is examined to achieve various functions, such as vision servo motion and environment modeling. The functional units implementing vision tasks and the data exchanged with other units are outlined. Experiments realized with the mobile robot Hilare 1.5 allowed the proposed algorithms and concepts to be validated.

  7. Robotic vision. [process control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. S.; Wilf, J. M.; Cunningham, R. T.; Eskenazi, R.

    1979-01-01

    Robotic vision, involving the use of a vision system to control a process, is discussed. Design and selection of active sensors employing radiation of radio waves, sound waves, and laser light, respectively, to light up unobservable features in the scene are considered, as are design and selection of passive sensors, which rely on external sources of illumination. The segmentation technique by which an image is separated into different collections of contiguous picture elements having such common characteristics as color, brightness, or texture is examined, with emphasis on the edge detection technique. The IMFEX (image feature extractor) system performing edge detection and thresholding at 30 frames/sec television frame rates is described. The template matching and discrimination approach to recognize objects are noted. Applications of robotic vision in industry for tasks too monotonous or too dangerous for the workers are mentioned.

  8. Vision theory guiding Web communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privitera, Claudio M.; Stark, Lawrence W.; Ho, Yuek F.; Weinberger, Adam; Azzariti, Michela; Siminou, Kamran

    2000-12-01

    Eye movements, EMs, are one important component of vision: only specific regions of the visual input are fixated and processed by the brain at high resolution. The rest of the image is viewed at lower and coarser resolution by the retina, but the image is still perceived and recognized uniformly and clearly. We embodied this sampling characteristic of human vision within a computational model, A*, based on a collection of image processing algorithms that are able to predict regions of visual interest. Several web-related applications are presented and discussed in this paper.

  9. A Research Trilogy: American and Mexican Vision Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, Lillian R.

    1983-01-01

    Describes three studies relating to visual functioning. Finds that reading retardation is the result of a clustering of factors, of multiple causation. Discusses the need to determine whether or not a student has the necessary lateral and other functional vision skills to maintain sufficient body energy for the demands of the reading task. (MG)

  10. Precise calibration of binocular vision system used for vision measurement.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yi; Zhou, Fuqiang; Wang, Yexin; Liu, Liu; Gao, He

    2014-04-21

    Binocular vision calibration is of great importance in 3D machine vision measurement. With respect to binocular vision calibration, the nonlinear optimization technique is a crucial step to improve the accuracy. The existing optimization methods mostly aim at minimizing the sum of reprojection errors for two cameras based on respective 2D image pixels coordinate. However, the subsequent measurement process is conducted in 3D coordinate system which is not consistent with the optimization coordinate system. Moreover, the error criterion with respect to optimization and measurement is different. The equal pixel distance error in 2D image plane leads to diverse 3D metric distance error at different position before the camera. To address these issues, we propose a precise calibration method for binocular vision system which is devoted to minimizing the metric distance error between the reconstructed point through optimal triangulation and the ground truth in 3D measurement coordinate system. In addition, the inherent epipolar constraint and constant distance constraint are combined to enhance the optimization process. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, both simulative and real experiments have been carried out and the results show that the proposed method is reliable and efficient to improve measurement accuracy compared with conventional method. PMID:24787804

  11. Visions and Re-Visions of Charles Joseph Minard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friendly, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Describes the contributions of Charles Joseph Minard to statistical graphics, noting the time course of his work and providing background on his famous effort, the flow-map depiction of Napoleon's march on Moscow. Explores some modern re-visions of this famous graphic from an information visualization perspective. (SLD)

  12. Global Perspectives on Teaching Literature: Shared Visions and Distinctive Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Sandra Ward, Ed.; And Others

    This book is a collection of essays designed for high school and college teachers who want to introduce non-Western and other non-canonical texts into their traditional literature courses. The essays in the book explore the kinds of visions encountered when teachers cluster Western texts with those outside the dominant Western tradition. Papers in…

  13. Quality Control by Artificial Vision

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Edmond Y.; Gleason, Shaun Scott; Niel, Kurt S.

    2010-01-01

    Computational technology has fundamentally changed many aspects of our lives. One clear evidence is the development of artificial-vision systems, which have effectively automated many manual tasks ranging from quality inspection to quantitative assessment. In many cases, these machine-vision systems are even preferred over manual ones due to their repeatability and high precision. Such advantages come from significant research efforts in advancing sensor technology, illumination, computational hardware, and image-processing algorithms. Similar to the Special Section on Quality Control by Artificial Vision published two years ago in Volume 17, Issue 3 of the Journal of Electronic Imaging, the present one invited papers relevant to fundamental technology improvements to foster quality control by artificial vision, and fine-tuned the technology for specific applications. We aim to balance both theoretical and applied work pertinent to this special section theme. Consequently, we have seven high-quality papers resulting from the stringent peer-reviewing process in place at the Journal of Electronic Imaging. Some of the papers contain extended treatment of the authors work presented at the SPIE Image Processing: Machine Vision Applications conference and the International Conference on Quality Control by Artificial Vision. On the broad application side, Liu et al. propose an unsupervised texture image segmentation scheme. Using a multilayer data condensation spectral clustering algorithm together with wavelet transform, they demonstrate the effectiveness of their approach on both texture and synthetic aperture radar images. A problem related to image segmentation is image extraction. For this, O'Leary et al. investigate the theory of polynomial moments and show how these moments can be compared to classical filters. They also show how to use the discrete polynomial-basis functions for the extraction of 3-D embossed digits, demonstrating superiority over Fourier

  14. Warning Signs of Vision Problems in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Warning Signs of Vision Problems in Infants & Children Page Content ​Eye exams ... treated successfully. What are warning signs of a vision problem? Babies up to 1 year of age: ...

  15. Understanding Your Vision: The "Imperfect Eye"

    MedlinePlus

    ... away. However, 20/20 does not necessarily mean perfect vision. There are other important vision skills, including ... a variety of styles and can correct a number of problems at once. Refractive surgery reshapes the ...

  16. Vision Problems: How Teachers Can Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desrochers, Joyce

    1999-01-01

    Describes common vision problems in young children such as myopia, strabismus, and amblyopia. Presents suggestions for helping children with vision problems in the early childhood classroom and in outdoor activities. Lists related resources and children's books. (KB)

  17. A Clear Vision for Equity and Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Marge Christensen; Gould, Herman

    2003-01-01

    Describes undetected and uncorrected vision problems for children in poverty associated with juvenile delinquency and poor academic performance. Discusses success of a project offering vision screening and free glasses for at-risk students in Tucson, Arizona. (PKP)

  18. Vision Trouble Can Dim Life's Prospects

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160136.html Vision Trouble Can Dim Life's Prospects But it's not ... THURSDAY, July 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with vision problems may face a higher risk of unemployment, ...

  19. Monitoring the Geneseo Nuclear Structure Lab with VISION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicklaw, R.; Padalino, S.; McLean, J.

    2002-10-01

    VISION (Virtual Instrument System Information) is a LabVIEW based program designed to monitor a 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator in the Geneseo Nuclear Structure Laboratory (GNSL). The purpose of the system is to monitor and notify the user of potentially critical situations in the lab. Main parameters of interest are the water coolant temperatures in the diffusion pumps, pressures within the vacuum chambers, and Van de Graaff operational parameters. LabVIEW reads these values and then displays them on monitors located throughout the laboratory. The user can set alarm limits on the relevant parameters, and when exceeded notifies the user verbally and visually. Recent additions to the VISION program include the water level sensor, calibration of the pressure readings, a web server application, and data logging. The VISION system is Internet accessible ^1, data from the main screen is displayed over the web for remote monitoring of the accelerator. Another useful monitoring tool is the data logger, which writes acquired data to a formatted text document at specified intervals. A future goal for VISION is to not only monitor, but to control aspects of the GNSL with LabVIEW. ^1 Webpage accessible at: http://s69n144.sci.geneseo.edu/vision.htm * Research funded in part by the United States Department of Energy

  20. The Physics of Colour Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Martin

    1985-01-01

    An elementary physical model of cone receptor cells is explained and applied to complexities of human color vision. One-, two-, and three-receptor systems are considered, with the later shown to be the best model for the human eye. Color blindness is also discussed. (DH)

  1. Real-time vision systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee

    1994-11-15

    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  2. SLA: Global Visions, Local Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMattia, Susan S.

    1992-01-01

    Report on the 1992 Special Libraries Association (SLA) conference summarizes keynote addresses on the competitive role of special librarians and on international libraries around the Pacific Rim, the report of the SLA president, the inaugural address of the new president on a vision of the future, and conference exhibits. (MES)

  3. Institutional Vision and Academic Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelman, Robert; Molina, Anthony D.

    2006-01-01

    Quality academic advising in higher education is the product of a multitude of elements not the least of which is institutional vision. By recognizing and embracing an institution's concept of its capabilities and the kinds of educated human beings it is attempting to cultivate, advisors gain an invaluable apparatus to guide the provision of…

  4. The Common Vision. Reviews: Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Marshak's book describing the work of educators Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner, Aurobindo Ghose, and Inayat Khan. Maintains that the book gives clear, concise information on each educator and presents a common vision for children and their education; also maintains that it gives theoretical and practical information and discusses…

  5. Polarization Imaging and Insect Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Adam S.; Ohmann, Paul R.; Leininger, Nick E.; Kavanaugh, James A.

    2010-01-01

    For several years we have included discussions about insect vision in the optics units of our introductory physics courses. This topic is a natural extension of demonstrations involving Brewster's reflection and Rayleigh scattering of polarized light because many insects heavily rely on optical polarization for navigation and communication.…

  6. Neural architectures for stereo vision.

    PubMed

    Parker, Andrew J; Smith, Jackson E T; Krug, Kristine

    2016-06-19

    Stereoscopic vision delivers a sense of depth based on binocular information but additionally acts as a mechanism for achieving correspondence between patterns arriving at the left and right eyes. We analyse quantitatively the cortical architecture for stereoscopic vision in two areas of macaque visual cortex. For primary visual cortex V1, the result is consistent with a module that is isotropic in cortical space with a diameter of at least 3 mm in surface extent. This implies that the module for stereo is larger than the repeat distance between ocular dominance columns in V1. By contrast, in the extrastriate cortical area V5/MT, which has a specialized architecture for stereo depth, the module for representation of stereo is about 1 mm in surface extent, so the representation of stereo in V5/MT is more compressed than V1 in terms of neural wiring of the neocortex. The surface extent estimated for stereo in V5/MT is consistent with measurements of its specialized domains for binocular disparity. Within V1, we suggest that long-range horizontal, anatomical connections form functional modules that serve both binocular and monocular pattern recognition: this common function may explain the distortion and disruption of monocular pattern vision observed in amblyopia.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. PMID:27269604

  7. Neural architectures for stereo vision

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Stereoscopic vision delivers a sense of depth based on binocular information but additionally acts as a mechanism for achieving correspondence between patterns arriving at the left and right eyes. We analyse quantitatively the cortical architecture for stereoscopic vision in two areas of macaque visual cortex. For primary visual cortex V1, the result is consistent with a module that is isotropic in cortical space with a diameter of at least 3 mm in surface extent. This implies that the module for stereo is larger than the repeat distance between ocular dominance columns in V1. By contrast, in the extrastriate cortical area V5/MT, which has a specialized architecture for stereo depth, the module for representation of stereo is about 1 mm in surface extent, so the representation of stereo in V5/MT is more compressed than V1 in terms of neural wiring of the neocortex. The surface extent estimated for stereo in V5/MT is consistent with measurements of its specialized domains for binocular disparity. Within V1, we suggest that long-range horizontal, anatomical connections form functional modules that serve both binocular and monocular pattern recognition: this common function may explain the distortion and disruption of monocular pattern vision observed in amblyopia. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269604

  8. Smart vision chips: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Christof

    1994-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation presents four working analog VLSI vision chips: (1) time-derivative retina, (2) zero-crossing chip, (3) resistive fuse, and (4) figure-ground chip; work in progress on computing motion and neuromorphic systems; and conceptual and practical lessons learned.

  9. Vision Loss With Sexual Activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michele D; Odel, Jeffrey G; Rudich, Danielle S; Ritch, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A 51-year-old white man presented with multiple episodes of transient painless unilateral vision loss precipitated by sexual intercourse. Examination was significant for closed angles bilaterally. His visual symptoms completely resolved following treatment with laser peripheral iridotomies. PMID:25265010

  10. Frame Rate and Human Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the quality of the theatre experience, the film industry is interested in achieving higher frame rates for capture and display. In this talk I will describe the basic spatio-temporal sensitivities of human vision, and how they respond to the time sequence of static images that is fundamental to cinematic presentation.

  11. The Gray-Hobbs Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dokecki, Paul R.; Newbrough, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    Susan Gray and Nicholas Hobbs were influential in the development of the Kennedy Center at Peabody College of Vanderbilt University, which was designed to include an emphasis on research and training in education and human development. This paper describes Gray's and Hobbs' work and explains how their vision extended to the creation of the Kennedy…

  12. Vision Changes, Intelligence, and Aging: Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Edward S.; Eklund, Susan J.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the effects of vision changes on intelligence and explains how intellectual performance may be improved by attempting to compensate for vision loss. Suggests that vision factors can't be ignored when assessing intellectual changes and may account for a large portion of mental impairment previously ascribed to other factors. (JAC)

  13. Topographic Mapping of Residual Vision by Computer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKeben, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    Many persons with low vision have diseases that damage the retina only in selected areas, which can lead to scotomas (blind spots) in perception. The most frequent of these diseases is age-related macular degeneration (AMD), in which foveal vision is often impaired by a central scotoma that impairs vision of fine detail and causes problems with…

  14. The Impact of Vision in Spatial Coding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Koustriava, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the performance in coding and representing of near-space in relation to vision status (blindness vs. normal vision) and sensory modality (touch vs. vision). Forty-eight children and teenagers participated. Sixteen of the participants were totally blind or had only light perception, 16 were blindfolded sighted…

  15. The Efficacy of Optometric Vision Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Optometric Association, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This review aims to document the efficacy and validity of vision therapy for modifying and improving vision functioning. The paper describes the essential components of the visual system and disorders which can be physiologically and clinically identified. Vision therapy is defined as a clinical approach for correcting and ameliorating the effects…

  16. The Development of Low Vision Therapist Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Gale R.; Quillman, R. Dee; Flax, Marshall; Gerritsen, Bryan

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the development and implementation of the low-vision-therapist certification through the Association for Education and Rehabilitation of the Blind and Visually Impaired. Credentials for professionals in low vision are described, along with required written examination, and the role of the low-vision therapist. (CR)

  17. What Aspects of Vision Facilitate Haptic Processing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Susanna; Al-Attar, Zainab

    2005-01-01

    We investigate how vision affects haptic performance when task-relevant visual cues are reduced or excluded. The task was to remember the spatial location of six landmarks that were explored by touch in a tactile map. Here, we use specially designed spectacles that simulate residual peripheral vision, tunnel vision, diffuse light perception, and…

  18. Coaching Peripheral Vision Training for Soccer Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Nelson Kautzner, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Brazilian Soccer began developing its current emphasis on peripheral vision in the late 1950s, by initiative of coach of the Canto do Rio Football Club, in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, a pioneer in the development of peripheral vision training in soccer players. Peripheral vision training gained world relevance when a young talent from Canto do Rio,…

  19. School Vision of Learning: Urban Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Tiffany A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the author develops her school vision of learning. She explains the theories she used to help develop the vision. The author then goes into detail on the methods she will use to make her vision for a school that prepares urban students for a successful life after high school. She takes into account all the stakeholders and how they…

  20. NASA's Aeronautics Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenney, Darrel R.

    2004-01-01

    Six long-term technology focus areas are: 1. Environmentally Friendly, Clean Burning Engines. Focus: Develop innovative technologies to enable intelligent turbine engines that significantly reduce harmful emissions while maintaining high performance and increasing reliability. 2. New Aircraft Energy Sources and Management. Focus: Discover new energy sources and intelligent management techniques directed towards zero emissions and enable new vehicle concepts for public mobility and new science missions. 3. Quiet Aircraft for Community Friendly Service. Focus: Develop and integrate noise reduction technology to enable unrestricted air transportation service to all communities. 4. Aerodynamic Performance for Fuel Efficiency. Focus: Improve aerodynamic efficiency,structures and materials technologies, and design tools and methodologies to reduce fuel burn and minimize environmental impact and enable new vehicle concepts and capabilities for public mobility and new science missions. 5. Aircraft Weight Reduction and Community Access. Focus: Develop ultralight smart materials and structures, aerodynamic concepts, and lightweight subsystems to increase vehicle efficiency, leading to high altitude long endurance vehicles, planetary aircraft, advanced vertical and short takeoff and landing vehicles and beyond. 6. Smart Aircraft and Autonomous Control. Focus: Enable aircraft to fly with reduced or no human intervention, to optimize flight over multiple regimes, and to provide maintenance on demand towards the goal of a feeling, seeing, sensing, sentient air vehicle.

  1. Characterization of blood drawn rapidly for use in blood volume expansion studies: An animal model for simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chenault, V. Michelle; Lynch, Colleen D.; Morris, Mariana; Clodfelter, Jill; Hutchins, Phillip M.

    1990-01-01

    It was demonstrated that up to 8ml of blood can be drawn from donar rats without significantly increasing volume and stress sensitive hormones, and thus can be used for volume expansion studies. Infusion of whole blood allows more physiological changes that can be seen with volume expansion by saline or other ionic solutions. The infusion of whole blood to induce hypervolemia may provide an improved model to study the fluid balance and control mechanisms operative in weightlessness. Blood samples were drawn as quickly as possible from femoral artery catheters chronically implanted in Sprague Dawley rats and analyzed for hematocrit, plasma sodium, potassium, osmolality, corticosterone, epinepherine, norepinephrine, and vasopressin. The levels were found to be comparable to those of normal rats.

  2. Digital Images and Human Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Processing of digital images destined for visual consumption raises many interesting questions regarding human visual sensitivity. This talk will survey some of these questions, including some that have been answered and some that have not. There will be an emphasis upon visual masking, and a distinction will be drawn between masking due to contrast gain control processes, and due to processes such as hypothesis testing, pattern recognition, and visual search.

  3. Retraction of cold-drawn polyethylene - Influence of lamellar thickness and density.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falender, J. R.; Hansen, D.

    1972-01-01

    The role of crystal morphology in the retraction of oriented linear polyethylene was studied utilizing samples crystallized under conditions controlled to vary, separately, lamellar crystal thickness and density. Samples were oriented in a simple shear deformation to a strain of 4.0 prior to measuring retraction tendency in creep- and relaxation-type tests. Characterizations of specimens were made using wide- and small-angle x-ray techniques. The specific morphological variations were chosen to test the hypothesis that a long-range elastic restoring force can originate in conjunction with deformation of lamellar crystals and the consequent increase in lamellar crystal surface area and surface free energy. The results support this hypothesis.

  4. Visions of Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiao, Raymond Y.; Cohen, Marvin L.; Leggett, Anthony J.; Phillips, William D.; Harper, Charles L., Jr.

    2010-10-01

    List of contributors; Foreword Charles H. Townes; Editors' preface; Preface Freeman J. Dyson; Laureates' preface: reflections from four physics Nobelists Roy J. Glauber, John L. Hall, Theodore W. Hänsch and Wolfgang Ketterle; Acknowledgments; Part I. Illumination: The History and Future of Physical Science and Technology: 1. A short history of light in the Western world John L. Heilbron; 2. Tools and innovation Peter L. Galison; 3. The future of science Freeman J. Dyson; 4. The end of everything: will AI replace humans? Will everything die when the universe freezes over? Michio Kaku; Part II. Fundamental Physics and Quantum Mechanics: 5. Fundamental constants Frank Wilczek; 6. New insights on time symmetry in quantum mechanics Yakir Aharonov and Jeffrey Tollaksen; 7. The major unknowns in particle physics and cosmology David J. Gross; 8. The major unknown in quantum mechanics: Is it the whole truth? Anthony J. Leggett; 9. Precision cosmology and the landscape Raphael Bousso; 10. Hairy black holes, phase transitions, and AdS/CFT Steven S. Gubser; Part III. Astrophysics and Astronomy: 11. The microwave background: a cosmic time machine Adrian T. Lee; 12. Dark matter and dark energy Marc Kamionkowski; 13. New directions and intersections for observational cosmology: the case of dark energy Saul Perlmutter; 14. Inward bound: high-resolution astronomy and the quest for black holes and extrasolar planets Reinhard Genzel; 15. Searching for signatures of life beyond the solar system: astrophysical interferometry and the 150 km Exo-Earth Imager Antoine Labeyrie; 16. New directions for gravitational wave physics via 'Millikan oil drops' Raymond Y. Chiao; 17. An 'ultrasonic' image of the embryonic universe: CMB polarization tests of the inflationary paradigm Brian G. Keating; Part IV. New Approaches in Technology and Science: 18. Visualizing complexity: development of 4D microscopy and diffraction for imaging in space and time Ahmed H. Zewail; 19. Is life based on laws of

  5. Cold Drawn Steel Wires-Processing, Residual Stresses and Ductility-Part I: Metallography and Finite Element Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Phelippeau,A.; Pommier, S.; Tsakalakos, T.; Clavel, M.; Prioul, C.

    2006-01-01

    Cold drawing steel wires lead to an increase of their mechanical strength and to a drop of their ductility. The increase of their mechanical strength has long been related to the reduction of the various material scales by plastic deformation, but the mechanisms controlling their elongation to failure have received relatively little attention. It is usually found that heavily deformed materials show a tendency to plastic strain localization and necking. However, in this paper it is shown that, though the steel wires are plastically deformed up to strain levels as high as 3.5, a significant capability of plastic deformation is preserved in as-drawn wires. This apparent contradiction is resolved by the existence of residual stresses inside the wire. Finite element analyses have been conducted in order to show that residual stresses, inherited from the drawing process, are sufficient to produce a significant hardening effect during a post-drawing tensile test, without introducing any hardening in the local material behavior. The main conclusion of this paper is that once the material has lost its hardening capabilities, residual stresses, inherited from the process, control the elongation of cold drawn wires. The finite element method allowed also the determination of the residual stress field that would lead to the best agreement between the simulated and the experimental stress strain curve of as-drawn wires.

  6. Basic design principles of colorimetric vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumzhiu, Alex M.

    1998-10-01

    Color measurement is an important part of overall production quality control in textile, coating, plastics, food, paper and other industries. The color measurement instruments such as colorimeters and spectrophotometers, used for production quality control have many limitations. In many applications they cannot be used for a variety of reasons and have to be replaced with human operators. Machine vision has great potential for color measurement. The components for color machine vision systems, such as broadcast quality 3-CCD cameras, fast and inexpensive PCI frame grabbers, and sophisticated image processing software packages are available. However the machine vision industry has only started to approach the color domain. The few color machine vision systems on the market, produced by the largest machine vision manufacturers have very limited capabilities. A lack of understanding that a vision based color measurement system could fail if it ignores the basic principles of colorimetry is the main reason for the slow progress of color vision systems. the purpose of this paper is to clarify how color measurement principles have to be applied to vision systems and how the electro-optical design features of colorimeters have to be modified in order to implement them for vision systems. The subject of this presentation far exceeds the limitations of a journal paper so only the most important aspects will be discussed. An overview of the major areas of applications for colorimetric vision system will be discussed. Finally, the reasons why some customers are happy with their vision systems and some are not will be analyzed.

  7. VISION User Guide - VISION (Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation) Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Robert F. Jeffers; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; Benjamin A. Baker; Joseph Grimm

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a guide for using the current version of the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) model. This is a complex model with many parameters; the user is strongly encouraged to read this user guide before attempting to run the model. This model is an R&D work in progress and may contain errors and omissions. It is based upon numerous assumptions. This model is intended to assist in evaluating “what if” scenarios and in comparing fuel, reactor, and fuel processing alternatives at a systems level for U.S. nuclear power. The model is not intended as a tool for process flow and design modeling of specific facilities nor for tracking individual units of fuel or other material through the system. The model is intended to examine the interactions among the components of a fuel system as a function of time varying system parameters; this model represents a dynamic rather than steady-state approximation of the nuclear fuel system. VISION models the nuclear cycle at the system level, not individual facilities, e.g., “reactor types” not individual reactors and “separation types” not individual separation plants. Natural uranium can be enriched, which produces enriched uranium, which goes into fuel fabrication, and depleted uranium (DU), which goes into storage. Fuel is transformed (transmuted) in reactors and then goes into a storage buffer. Used fuel can be pulled from storage into either separation of disposal. If sent to separations, fuel is transformed (partitioned) into fuel products, recovered uranium, and various categories of waste. Recycled material is stored until used by its assigned reactor type. Note that recovered uranium is itself often partitioned: some RU flows with recycled transuranic elements, some flows with wastes, and the rest is designated RU. RU comes out of storage if needed to correct the U/TRU ratio in new recycled fuel. Neither RU nor DU are designated as wastes. VISION is comprised of several

  8. Understanding and preventing computer vision syndrome.

    PubMed

    Loh, Ky; Redd, Sc

    2008-01-01

    The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syndrome are extraocular mechanism, accommodative mechanism and ocular surface mechanism. The visual effects of the computer such as brightness, resolution, glare and quality all are known factors that contribute to computer vision syndrome. Prevention is the most important strategy in managing computer vision syndrome. Modification in the ergonomics of the working environment, patient education and proper eye care are crucial in managing computer vision syndrome. PMID:25606136

  9. The Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Vision, announced by President Bush in January 2004, will extend humanity's presence across the solar system, starting with a return to the moon by the end of the next decade, followed by journeys to Mars and beyond. Building on the best of Apollo and shuttle technology, NASA's 21st century exploration system will be affordable, reliable, versatile and safe. The exploratory voyages of the next few decades have the potential, in this lifetime, to answer age-old questions about how life begins, whether life exists elsewhere, and how the inevitable discoveries along the way will help better our lives here on Earth. Over the next century, the Vision for Space Exploration will set in motion activities to improve our understanding of age-old questions, and inspire new generations to pursue math and science. We'll see new industries and technologies evolve and discoveries that will benefit all.

  10. Computer vision in microstructural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Malur N.; Massarweh, W.; Hough, C. L.

    1992-01-01

    The following is a laboratory experiment designed to be performed by advanced-high school and beginning-college students. It is hoped that this experiment will create an interest in and further understanding of materials science. The objective of this experiment is to demonstrate that the microstructure of engineered materials is affected by the processing conditions in manufacture, and that it is possible to characterize the microstructure using image analysis with a computer. The principle of computer vision will first be introduced followed by the description of the system developed at Texas A&M University. This in turn will be followed by the description of the experiment to obtain differences in microstructure and the characterization of the microstructure using computer vision.

  11. Cepstral methods in computational vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandari, Esfandiar; Little, James J.

    1993-05-01

    Many computational vision routines can be regarded as recognition and retrieval of echoes in space or time. Cepstral analysis is a powerful nonlinear adaptive signal processing methodology widely used in many areas such as: echo retrieval and removal, speech processing and phoneme chunking, radar and sonar processing, seismology, medicine, image deblurring and restoration, and signal recovery. The aim of this paper is: (1) To provide a brief mathematical and historical review of cepstral techniques. (2) To introduce computational and performance improvements to power and differential cepstrum for use in detection of echoes; and to provide a comparison between these methods and the traditional cepstral techniques. (3) To apply cepstrum to visual tasks such as motion analysis and trinocular vision. And (4) to draw a brief comparison between cepstrum and other matching techniques. The computational and performance improvements introduced in this paper can e applied in other areas that frequently utilize cepstrum.

  12. Vision Screening by Color Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R.; Richardson, J. R.; Kerr, J.; Hay, S.; Mcbride, R.

    1985-01-01

    Screening test developed for detecting a range of vision defects in eye, including common precursors to amblyopia. Test noninvasive, safe, and administered easily in field by operator with no medical training. Only minimal momentary cooperation of subject required: Thus, test shows promise for use with very young children. Test produces color-slide images of retinas of eyes under specially-controlled lighting conditions. Trained observer screens five children per minute.

  13. Learning disabilities, dyslexia, and vision.

    PubMed

    Handler, Sheryl M; Fierson, Walter M; Section on Ophthalmology

    2011-03-01

    Learning disabilities constitute a diverse group of disorders in which children who generally possess at least average intelligence have problems processing information or generating output. Their etiologies are multifactorial and reflect genetic influences and dysfunction of brain systems. Reading disability, or dyslexia, is the most common learning disability. It is a receptive language-based learning disability that is characterized by difficulties with decoding, fluent word recognition, rapid automatic naming, and/or reading-comprehension skills. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonologic component of language that makes it difficult to use the alphabetic code to decode the written word. Early recognition and referral to qualified professionals for evidence-based evaluations and treatments are necessary to achieve the best possible outcome. Because dyslexia is a language-based disorder, treatment should be directed at this etiology. Remedial programs should include specific instruction in decoding, fluency training, vocabulary, and comprehension. Most programs include daily intensive individualized instruction that explicitly teaches phonemic awareness and the application of phonics. Vision problems can interfere with the process of reading, but children with dyslexia or related learning disabilities have the same visual function and ocular health as children without such conditions. Currently, there is inadequate scientific evidence to support the view that subtle eye or visual problems cause or increase the severity of learning disabilities. Because they are difficult for the public to understand and for educators to treat, learning disabilities have spawned a wide variety of scientifically unsupported vision-based diagnostic and treatment procedures. Scientific evidence does not support the claims that visual training, muscle exercises, ocular pursuit-and-tracking exercises, behavioral/perceptual vision therapy, "training" glasses

  14. Night vision device technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, H.; Nordholt, J.; Suszcynsky, D.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop microchannel plate (MCP) technologies for enhancement of night vision device (NVD) capabilities. First, the authors addressed the need for segmented microchannel plates with independent gain control to minimize loss of low level light images in the presence of a bright light source (e.g., battlefield lasers, flares, and headlights). This would enable, for example, enhanced vision capabilities during night operations in a city environment and continuous capability of aviators to see the horizon, near-ground obstructions, and ground targets. Second, the authors addressed the need for curved microchannel plate technology to increase the field of view of NVDs while minimizing optical aberrations. This development would significantly enhance peripheral vision capabilities of aviators and result in easier adaptation of the human eye to NVDs. The authors have developed two technologies to overcome these problems, and they have initiated a collaborative effort with an industrial partner to develop a proof-of-principle prototype.

  15. Vision-based aircraft guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K.

    1993-01-01

    Early research on the development of machine vision algorithms to serve as pilot aids in aircraft flight operations is discussed. The research is useful for synthesizing new cockpit instrumentation that can enhance flight safety and efficiency. With the present work as the basis, future research will produce low-cost instrument by integrating a conventional TV camera together with off-the=shelf digitizing hardware for flight test verification. Initial focus of the research will be on developing pilot aids for clear-night operations. Latter part of the research will examine synthetic vision issues for poor visibility flight operations. Both research efforts will contribute towards the high-speed civil transport aircraft program. It is anticipated that the research reported here will also produce pilot aids for conducting helicopter flight operations during emergency search and rescue. The primary emphasis of the present research effort is on near-term, flight demonstrable technologies. This report discusses pilot aids for night landing and takeoff and synthetic vision as an aid to low visibility landing.

  16. Ames vision group research overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    A major goal of the reseach group is to develop mathematical and computational models of early human vision. These models are valuable in the prediction of human performance, in the design of visual coding schemes and displays, and in robotic vision. To date researchers have models of retinal sampling, spatial processing in visual cortex, contrast sensitivity, and motion processing. Based on their models of early human vision, researchers developed several schemes for efficient coding and compression of monochrome and color images. These are pyramid schemes that decompose the image into features that vary in location, size, orientation, and phase. To determine the perceptual fidelity of these codes, researchers developed novel human testing methods that have received considerable attention in the research community. Researchers constructed models of human visual motion processing based on physiological and psychophysical data, and have tested these models through simulation and human experiments. They also explored the application of these biological algorithms to applications in automated guidance of rotorcraft and autonomous landing of spacecraft. Researchers developed networks for inhomogeneous image sampling, for pyramid coding of images, for automatic geometrical correction of disordered samples, and for removal of motion artifacts from unstable cameras.

  17. Stereo vision based automated grasp planning

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, K.; Huber, L.; Silva, D.; Grasz, E.; Cadapan, L.

    1995-02-01

    The Department of Energy has a need for treating existing nuclear waste. Hazardous waste stored in old warehouses needs to be sorted and treated to meet environmental regulations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently experimenting with automated manipulations of unknown objects for sorting, treating, and detailed inspection. To accomplish these tasks, three existing technologies were expanded to meet the increasing requirements. First, a binocular vision range sensor was combined with a surface modeling system to make virtual images of unknown objects. Then, using the surface model information, stable grasp of the unknown shaped objects were planned algorithmically utilizing a limited set of robotic grippers. This paper is an expansion of previous work and will discuss the grasp planning algorithm.

  18. AN INVESTIGATION OF VISION PROBLEMS AND THE VISION CARE SYSTEM IN RURAL CHINA.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yunli; Yi, Hongmei; Zhang, Linxiu; Shi, Yaojiang; Ma, Xiaochen; Congdon, Nathan; Zhou, Zhongqiang; Boswell, Matthew; Rozelle, Scott

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the prevalence of vision problems and the accessibility to and quality of vision care in rural China. We obtained data from 4 sources: 1) the National Rural Vision Care Survey; 2) the Private Optometrists Survey; 3) the County Hospital Eye Care Survey; and 4) the Rural School Vision Care Survey. The data from each of the surveys were collected by the authors during 2012. Thirty-three percent of the rural population surveyed self-reported vision problems. Twenty-two percent of subjects surveyed had ever had a vision exam. Among those who self-reported having vision problems, 34% did not wear eyeglasses. Fifty-four percent of those with vision problems who had eyeglasses did not have a vision exam prior to receiving glasses. However, having a vision exam did not always guarantee access to quality vision care. Four channels of vision care service were assessed. The school vision examination program did not increase the usage rate of eyeglasses. Each county-hospital was staffed with three eye-doctors having one year of education beyond high school, serving more than 400,000 residents. Private optometrists often had low levels of education and professional certification. In conclusion, our findings shows that the vision care system in rural China is inadequate and ineffective in meeting the needs of the rural population sampled. PMID:26466433

  19. Beauty and cuteness in peripheral vision

    PubMed Central

    Kuraguchi, Kana; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Guo et al. (2011) showed that attractiveness was detectable in peripheral vision. Since there are different types of attractiveness (Rhodes, 2006), we investigated how beauty and cuteness are detected in peripheral vision with a brief presentation. Participants (n = 45) observed two Japanese female faces for 100 ms, then were asked to respond which face was more beautiful (or cuter). The results indicated that both beauty and cuteness were detectable in peripheral vision, but not in the same manner. Discrimination rates for judging beauty were invariant in peripheral and central vision, while discrimination rates for judging cuteness declined in peripheral vision as compared with central vision. This was not explained by lower resolution in peripheral vision. In addition, for male participants, it was more difficult to judge cuteness than beauty in peripheral vision, thus suggesting that gender differences can have a certain effect when judging cuteness. Therefore, central vision might be suitable for judging cuteness while judging beauty might not be affected by either central or peripheral vision. This might be related with the functional difference between beauty and cuteness. PMID:25999883

  20. Investigation of the structure of cold-drawn high-density polyethylene using solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mowery, Daniel Michael

    In this dissertation, the cold-drawing response of a commercial high-density polyethylene (HDPE) resin has been studied using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and variety of other complementary techniques. Melt-crystallized, isotropic samples of the HDPE have been drawn to various extensions at ambient temperature (21°C) and at a relatively slow strain rate (0.0013 s-1). Using solid-state NMR, the first unambiguous evidence for a major morphological component intermediate to the crystalline and amorphous domains in the cold-drawn HDPE microstructure has been found. Employing an 'inverse 13 C T1 filter' and other filtering techniques, signals from the various components have been selected and compared. The intermediate component comprises chains of all-trans conformation but with significant disorder in packing. The chains show fast, intermediate-amplitude motions about their axes and are generally aligned with the draw direction, but with a greater distribution of orientation angles relative to crystalline phase. A quantitative 13C NMR procedure has been utilized in the analysis of morphological component composition during cold drawing. In the undeformed material, the NMR-derived composition shows excellent agreement with other common techniques. The mass fraction of the intermediate component has been measured by NMR to be as high as 35% in the cold-drawn HDPE, greater than the contributions from the amorphous domains and monoclinic crystals. The intermediate component content dramatically increases by 240% just after necking, along with a doubling in the monoclinic crystals. At the same time, decreases of about 25% in the total crystalline and amorphous phases occur. A general re-ordering in the microstructure takes place during neck propagation and strain hardening. The total crystallinity rises by about 8%, with a corresponding decrease in the monoclinic crystals (50%) and amorphous material (30%). Based on 1H spin diffusion data, a

  1. Artificial vision support system (AVS(2)) for improved prosthetic vision.

    PubMed

    Fink, Wolfgang; Tarbell, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    State-of-the-art and upcoming camera-driven, implanted artificial vision systems provide only tens to hundreds of electrodes, affording only limited visual perception for blind subjects. Therefore, real time image processing is crucial to enhance and optimize this limited perception. Since tens or hundreds of pixels/electrodes allow only for a very crude approximation of the typically megapixel optical resolution of the external camera image feed, the preservation and enhancement of contrast differences and transitions, such as edges, are especially important compared to picture details such as object texture. An Artificial Vision Support System (AVS(2)) is devised that displays the captured video stream in a pixelation conforming to the dimension of the epi-retinal implant electrode array. AVS(2), using efficient image processing modules, modifies the captured video stream in real time, enhancing 'present but hidden' objects to overcome inadequacies or extremes in the camera imagery. As a result, visual prosthesis carriers may now be able to discern such objects in their 'field-of-view', thus enabling mobility in environments that would otherwise be too hazardous to navigate. The image processing modules can be engaged repeatedly in a user-defined order, which is a unique capability. AVS(2) is directly applicable to any artificial vision system that is based on an imaging modality (video, infrared, sound, ultrasound, microwave, radar, etc.) as the first step in the stimulation/processing cascade, such as: retinal implants (i.e. epi-retinal, sub-retinal, suprachoroidal), optic nerve implants, cortical implants, electric tongue stimulators, or tactile stimulators. PMID:25286349

  2. Wind Vision: A New Era for Wind Power in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy

    2015-03-12

    With more than 4.5% of the nation's electricity supplied by wind energy today, the Department of Energy has collaborated with industry, environmental organizations, academic institutions, and national laboratories to develop a renewed Wind Vision, documenting the contributions of wind to date and envisioning a future where wind continues to provide key contributions to the nation’s energy portfolio. Building on and updating the 2008 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report, the new Wind Vision Report quantifies the economic, environmental, and social benefits of a robust wind energy future and the actions that wind stakeholders can take to make it a reality.

  3. Spatial linear navigation: is vision necessary?

    PubMed

    Israël, I; Capelli, A; Priot, A-E; Giannopulu, I

    2013-10-25

    In order to analyze spatial linear navigation through a task of self-controlled reproduction, healthy participants were passively transported on a mobile robot at constant velocity, and then had to reproduce the imposed distance of 2-8m in two conditions: "with vision" and "without vision". Our hypothesis was that the reproduction of distances would be longer with than without visual information. Indeed, with visual information the reproduction of all distances was overshot. In the "without vision" condition the reproduced distances were quite close to the imposed ones, but only for the shortest distances (2 and 4m) as the longest ones were clearly undershot. With vision the reproduction error was less than 10% for all distances; however the error could be smaller without vision at short distances, and therefore vision was not necessary. PMID:24021798

  4. Standards for vision science libraries: 2014 revision

    PubMed Central

    Motte, Kristin; Caldwell, C. Brooke; Lamson, Karen S.; Ferimer, Suzanne; Nims, J. Chris

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This Association of Vision Science Librarians revision of the “Standards for Vision Science Libraries” aspires to provide benchmarks to address the needs for the services and resources of modern vision science libraries (academic, medical or hospital, pharmaceutical, and so on), which share a core mission, are varied by type, and are located throughout the world. Methods: Through multiple meeting discussions, member surveys, and a collaborative revision process, the standards have been updated for the first time in over a decade. Results: While the range of types of libraries supporting vision science services, education, and research is wide, all libraries, regardless of type, share core attributes, which the standards address. Conclusions: The current standards can and should be used to help develop new vision science libraries or to expand the growth of existing libraries, as well as to support vision science librarians in their work to better provide services and resources to their respective users. PMID:25349547

  5. Model-Based Vision Using Relational Summaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haiyuan; Shapiro, Linda G.

    1989-03-01

    A CAD-to-vision system is a computer system that inputs a CAD model of an object and outputs a vision model and matching procedure by which that object can be recognized and/or its position and orientation determined. CAD-model-based systems are extremely useful for industrial vision tasks where a number of different manufactured parts must be automatically manipulated and/or inspected. Another area where vision systems based on CAD models is becoming important is in the United States space program. Since the space station and space vehicles are recent or even current designs, we can expect to have CAD models of these objects to work with. Vision tasks in space such as docking and tracking of vehicles, guided assembly tasks, and inspection of the space station itself for cracks and other problems can rely on model-directed vision techniques.

  6. Wavelength dependent cis-trans isomerization in vision.

    PubMed

    Kim, J E; Tauber, M J; Mathies, R A

    2001-11-20

    The primary event in vision is the light-driven cis-trans isomerization of the 11-cis-retinal chromophore in the G-protein coupled receptor rhodopsin. Early measurements showed that this photoisomerization has a reaction quantum yield phi of approximately 0.67 [Dartnall (1936) Proc. R. Soc. A 156, 158-170; Dartnall (1968) Vision Res. 8, 339-358] and suggested that the quantum yield was wavelength independent [Schneider (1939) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 170, 102-112]. Here we more accurately determine phi(500) = 0.65 +/- 0.01 and reveal that phi surprisingly depends on the wavelength of the incident light. Although there is no difference in the quantum yield between 450 and 480 nm, the quantum yield falls significantly as the photon energy is reduced below 20 000 cm(-1) (500 nm). At the reddest wavelength measured (570 nm), the quantum yield is reduced by 5 +/- 1% relative to the 500 nm value. These experiments correct the long-held presumption that the quantum yield in vision is wavelength independent, and support the hypothesis that the 200 fs photoisomerization reaction that initiates vision is dictated by nonstationary excited-state vibrational wave packet dynamics. PMID:11705366

  7. Libraries: Drawn to Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havens, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how to make a college library the center of campus activity, explaining how to find the proper balance of technology and tradition (e.g., harnessing new media to teach critical thinking skills, having library staff assume primary responsibility for providing information literacy training, training students to use print as well as…

  8. Vision and vision-related outcome measures in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Balcer, Laura J.; Miller, David H.; Reingold, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Visual impairment is a key manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Acute optic neuritis is a common, often presenting manifestation, but visual deficits and structural loss of retinal axonal and neuronal integrity can occur even without a history of optic neuritis. Interest in vision in multiple sclerosis is growing, partially in response to the development of sensitive visual function tests, structural markers such as optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and quality of life measures that give clinical meaning to the structure-function correlations that are unique to the afferent visual pathway. Abnormal eye movements also are common in multiple sclerosis, but quantitative assessment methods that can be applied in practice and clinical trials are not readily available. We summarize here a comprehensive literature search and the discussion at a recent international meeting of investigators involved in the development and study of visual outcomes in multiple sclerosis, which had, as its overriding goals, to review the state of the field and identify areas for future research. We review data and principles to help us understand the importance of vision as a model for outcomes assessment in clinical practice and therapeutic trials in multiple sclerosis. PMID:25433914

  9. Vision and vision-related outcome measures in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Balcer, Laura J; Miller, David H; Reingold, Stephen C; Cohen, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Visual impairment is a key manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Acute optic neuritis is a common, often presenting manifestation, but visual deficits and structural loss of retinal axonal and neuronal integrity can occur even without a history of optic neuritis. Interest in vision in multiple sclerosis is growing, partially in response to the development of sensitive visual function tests, structural markers such as optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and quality of life measures that give clinical meaning to the structure-function correlations that are unique to the afferent visual pathway. Abnormal eye movements also are common in multiple sclerosis, but quantitative assessment methods that can be applied in practice and clinical trials are not readily available. We summarize here a comprehensive literature search and the discussion at a recent international meeting of investigators involved in the development and study of visual outcomes in multiple sclerosis, which had, as its overriding goals, to review the state of the field and identify areas for future research. We review data and principles to help us understand the importance of vision as a model for outcomes assessment in clinical practice and therapeutic trials in multiple sclerosis. PMID:25433914

  10. Women and the vision thing.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Herminia; Obodaru, Otilia

    2009-01-01

    Are women rated lower than men in evaluations of their leadership capabilities because of lingering gender bias? No, according to an analysis of thousands of 360-degree assessments collected by Insead's executive education program. That analysis showed that women tend to outshine men in all areas but one: vision. Unfortunately, that exception is a big one. At the top tiers of management, the ability to see opportunities, craft strategy based on a broad view of the business, and inspire others is a must-have. To explore the nature of the deficit, and whether it is a perception or reality, Insead professor Ibarra and doctoral candidate Obodaru interviewed female executives and studied the evaluation data. They developed three possible explanations. First, women may do just as much as men to shape the future but go about it in a different way; a leader who is less directive, includes more people, and shares credit might not fit people's mental model of a visionary. Second, women may believe they have less license to go out on a limb. Those who have built careers on detail-focused, shoulder-to-the-wheel execution may hesitate to stray from facts into unprovable assertions about the future. Third, women may choose not to cultivate reputations as big visionaries. Having seen bluster passed off as vision, they may dismiss the importance of selling visions. The top two candidates for the Democratic nomination for U.S. president in 2008 offer an instructive parallel. The runner-up, Hillary Clinton, was viewed as a get-it-done type with an impressive, if uninspiring, grasp of policy detail. The winner, Barack Obama, was seen as a charismatic visionary offering a hopeful, if undetailed, future. The good news is that every dimension of leadership is learned, not inborn. As more women become skilled at, and known for, envisioning the future, nothing will hold them back. PMID:19227409

  11. Expert system modeling of a vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reihani, Kamran; Thompson, Wiley E.

    1992-05-01

    The proposed artificial intelligence-based vision model incorporates natural recognition processes depicted as a visual pyramid and hierarchical representation of objects in the database. The visual pyramid, with based and apex representing pixels and image, respectively, is used as an analogy for a vision system. This paper provides an overview of recognition activities and states in the framework of an inductive model. Also, it presents a natural vision system and a counterpart expert system model that incorporates the described operations.

  12. Quaternions in computer vision and robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Pervin, E.; Webb, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Computer vision and robotics suffer from not having good tools for manipulating three-dimensional objects. Vectors, coordinate geometry, and trigonometry all have deficiencies. Quaternions can be used to solve many of these problems. Many properties of quaternions that are relevant to computer vision and robotics are developed. Examples are given showing how quaternions can be used to simplify derivations in computer vision and robotics.

  13. Night vision: changing the way we drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapper, Stuart H.; Kyle, Robert J. S.; Nicklin, Robert L.; Kormos, Alexander L.

    2001-03-01

    A revolutionary new Night Vision System has been designed to help drivers see well beyond their headlights. From luxury automobiles to heavy trucks, Night Vision is helping drivers see better, see further, and react sooner. This paper describes how Night Vision Systems are being used in transportation and their viability for the future. It describes recent improvements to the system currently in the second year of production. It also addresses consumer education and awareness, cost reduction, product reliability, market expansion and future improvements.

  14. Attitude measurement by artificial vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truchetet, F.; Aubreton, O.; Gorria, P.; Laligant, O.

    2006-01-01

    The recent development of light and low-cost airborne platforms (microlight, drones, kites, balloons,...) has led to the need for simple and low-cost devices allowing attitude measurement with respect to a reference horizon of the platform itself or of an embedded setting. A theoretical study of the conditions for measuring attitude angles from artificial vision is proposed and an original practical algorithm allowing these measurements to be performed in real time is described. An implementation in a CMOS retina circuit is also presented. These points are illustrated by experiments confirming the feasibility of the device.

  15. Vision inspection system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Edward D. (Inventor); Williams, Rick A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An optical vision inspection system (4) and method for multiplexed illuminating, viewing, analyzing and recording a range of characteristically different kinds of defects, depressions, and ridges in a selected material surface (7) with first and second alternating optical subsystems (20, 21) illuminating and sensing successive frames of the same material surface patch. To detect the different kinds of surface features including abrupt as well as gradual surface variations, correspondingly different kinds of lighting are applied in time-multiplexed fashion to the common surface area patches under observation.

  16. Ethics in Darwin's melancholy vision.

    PubMed

    Brown, Bryson

    2011-03-01

    Darwinian natural selection draws on Malthus' harsh vision of human society to explain how organisms come to be adapted to their environments. Natural selection produces the appearance of teleology, but requires only efficient causal processes: undirected, heritable variation combined with effects of the variations on survival and reproduction. This paper draws a sharp distinction between the resulting form of backwards-directed teleology and the future-directed teleology we ascribe to intentional human activity. Rather than dismiss teleology as mere illusion, the paper concludes with an account of how future-directed teleology came to be a justifiable part of how we understand ourselves. PMID:21300312

  17. Industrial Combustion Vision: A Vision by and for the Industrial Combustion Community

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-05-01

    The Industrial Combustion Vision is the result of a collaborative effort by manufacturers and users of burners, boilers, furnaces, and other process heating equipment. The vision sets bold targets for tomorrow's combustion systems.

  18. 77 FR 16890 - Eighteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Visions Systems/Synthetic Vision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eighteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Visions... of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of meeting RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight... public of the eighteenth meeting of RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Visions...

  19. SunShot Vision Study: February 2012 (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the SunShot Vision Study is to provide an in-depth assessment of the potential for solar technologies to meet a significant share of electricity demand in the United States during the next several decades. Specifically, it explores a future in which the price of solar technologies declines by about 75% between 2010 and 2020 - in line with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative's targets.

  20. Virtual Knowledge Center Five Year Vision

    SciTech Connect

    KENNY, N.E.

    2003-06-01

    The vision for Virtual Knowledge Center (VKC) is to make information accessible from one verifiable source, provide an environment for knowledge capture and sharing, and provide for automated business process management. VKC will be the foundation for management and integration of information activities at the Hanford Site for the next 5 years. It provides a distinctive solution that can increase return on investment, increase a facility's efficiency, and reduce a project's cost and schedule. This Five-Year Vision presents a clear path forward to support the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors in their goals of achieving the Site's missions of preparing for the future, restoring the river corridor, and transitioning the central plateau. Diminishing funds and reduced availability of resources has created a direct obligation for the Hanford Site to be more innovative and resourceful in the use of its current information assets. The difficulty and, in some instances, the inability of current systems to effectively and efficiently meet evolving standards and directions, coupled with Hanford's geographical size, pose challenges to information acquisition, sharing, and use. An imbalance exists in the lifecycle process of information between locating information and executing work. The need to capture and retain workers' knowledge for future use was evaluated to identify cost effective alternatives. The VKC is comprised of a suite of technologies that enables seamless access to the information available through integration of databases and systems. The VKC uses web technology to provide the environment for gathering information from disparate data sources. The VKC makes information available to users; allowing them to search, access documents, retain enterprise knowledge, or interact with other users. The VKC provides a single path to electronic information; allows capture of knowledge at its source and makes data and information available for informed decision

  1. Night Mobility Instruction for Child with Low Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapp, Kenneth L.

    1985-01-01

    The challenges of after-dark travel for low vision children are examined in terms of physical effects of low light on normal and abnormal vision and consequences for low vision travel and orientation skills. Techniques for efficient vision use are suggested along with night travel aids and considerations in night driver vision. (CL)

  2. Optics, illumination and image sensing for machine vision

    SciTech Connect

    Svetkoff, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers given at a conference on optics, illumination and image sensing for machine vision. Topics included the following; computer vision in industry; mathematical models of human vision for machines; laser light for machine vision illuminations; illumination methods for machine vision; supercomputers and interferometry; and, computers and depth perception.

  3. The Pedagogy of Teaching Educational Vision: A Vision Coach's Field Notes about Leaders as Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schein, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The emerging field of educational visioning is full of challenges and phenomena worthy of careful analysis and documentation. A relatively neglected phenomenon is the learning curve of the leaders (often lay leaders) involved in the visioning process. This article documents a range of experiences of the author serving as a vision coach to five…

  4. Synthetic vision display evaluation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regal, David M.; Whittington, David H.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research was to help us understand the display requirements for a synthetic vision system for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of different levels of perceptual cue complexity in displays used by pilots in a flare and landing task. Increased levels of texture mapping of terrain and runway produced mixed results, including harder but shorter landings and a lower flare initiation altitude. Under higher workload conditions, increased texture resulted in an improvement in performance. An increase in familiar size cues did not result in improved performance. Only a small difference was found between displays using two patterns of high resolution texture mapping. The effects of increased perceptual cue complexity on performance was not as strong as would be predicted from the pilot's subjective reports or from related literature. A description of the role of a synthetic vision system in the High Speed Civil Transport is provide along with a literature review covering applied research related to perceptual cue usage in aircraft displays.

  5. Vision as a user interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenderink, Jan

    2011-03-01

    The egg-rolling behavior of the graylag goose is an often quoted example of a fixed-action pattern. The bird will even attempt to roll a brick back to its nest! Despite excellent visual acuity it apparently takes a brick for an egg." Evolution optimizes utility, not veridicality. Yet textbooks take it for a fact that human vision evolved so as to approach veridical perception. How do humans manage to dodge the laws of evolution? I will show that they don't, but that human vision is an idiosyncratic user interface. By way of an example I consider the case of pictorial perception. Gleaning information from still images is an important human ability and is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. I will discuss a number of instances of extreme non-veridicality and huge inter-observer variability. Despite their importance in applications (information dissemination, personnel selection,...) such huge effects have remained undocumented in the literature, although they can be traced to artistic conventions. The reason appears to be that conventional psychophysics-by design-fails to address the qualitative, that is the meaningful, aspects of visual awareness whereas this is the very target of the visual arts.

  6. Spatial Vision in Bombus terrestris

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthi, Aravin; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie; Kelber, Almut

    2016-01-01

    Bombus terrestris is one of the most commonly used insect models to investigate visually guided behavior and spatial vision in particular. Two fundamental measures of spatial vision are spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity. In this study, we report the threshold of spatial resolution in B. terrestris and characterize the contrast sensitivity function of the bumblebee visual system for a dual choice discrimination task. We trained bumblebees in a Y-maze experimental set-up to associate a vertical sinusoidal grating with a sucrose reward, and a horizontal grating with absence of a reward. Using a logistic psychometric function, we estimated a resolution threshold of 0.21 cycles deg−1 of visual angle. This resolution is in the same range but slightly lower than that found in honeybees (Apis mellifera and A. cerana) and another bumblebee species (B. impatiens). We also found that the contrast sensitivity of B. terrestris was 1.57 for the spatial frequency 0.090 cycles deg−1 and 1.26 for 0.18 cycles deg−1. PMID:26912998

  7. Spatial Vision in Bombus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthi, Aravin; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie; Kelber, Almut

    2016-01-01

    Bombus terrestris is one of the most commonly used insect models to investigate visually guided behavior and spatial vision in particular. Two fundamental measures of spatial vision are spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity. In this study, we report the threshold of spatial resolution in B. terrestris and characterize the contrast sensitivity function of the bumblebee visual system for a dual choice discrimination task. We trained bumblebees in a Y-maze experimental set-up to associate a vertical sinusoidal grating with a sucrose reward, and a horizontal grating with absence of a reward. Using a logistic psychometric function, we estimated a resolution threshold of 0.21 cycles deg(-1) of visual angle. This resolution is in the same range but slightly lower than that found in honeybees (Apis mellifera and A. cerana) and another bumblebee species (B. impatiens). We also found that the contrast sensitivity of B. terrestris was 1.57 for the spatial frequency 0.090 cycles deg(-1) and 1.26 for 0.18 cycles deg(-1). PMID:26912998

  8. Early vision and focal attention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julesz, Bela

    1991-07-01

    At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.

  9. Evolution of magnetic phase at low aging temperature in a heavily cold-drawn stainless steel fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shun-Tung; Hwang, Weng-Sing; Shyr, Tien-Wei; Cheng, I.-Lin

    2012-08-01

    The evolution of the magnetic phase upon aging at 300-520 °C in a heavily cold-drawn AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel fiber was studied using thermomagnetic analysis (TMA) and magnetic force microscopy with a heating stage. An increasing trend of magnetization from 50 °C to around 470 °C in the heating curves of TMA in austenitic stainless steels after a cold-drawing process was observed. No significant Ms temperature signal in the TMA curve at cooling indicated an increase in magnetization upon cooling period without significant phase transformation. A series of in situ magnetic force microscopy observations reveal a growth of the magnetic domain structure after aging at 300 °C for 2.5 h. Results show that the ferromagnetic increase during aging at lower annealing temperature resulted from the growth of martensite.

  10. Moving Toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC) to Achieve Inclusive and Sustainable Health Development: Three Essential Strategies Drawn From Asian Experience

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ye; Huang, Cheng; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán

    2015-01-01

    Binagwaho and colleagues’ perspective piece provided a timely reflection on the experience of Rwanda in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and a proposal of 5 principles to carry forward in post-2015 health development. This commentary echoes their viewpoints and offers three lessons for health policy reforms consistent with these principles beyond 2015. Specifically, we argue that universal health coverage (UHC) is an integrated solution to advance the global health development agenda, and the three essential strategies drawn from Asian countries’ health reforms toward UHC are: (1) Public financing support and sequencing health insurance expansion by first extending health insurance to the extremely poor, vulnerable, and marginalized population are critical for achieving UHC; (2) Improved quality of delivered care ensures supply-side readiness and effective coverage; (3) Strategic purchasing and results-based financing creates incentives and accountability for positive changes. These strategies were discussed and illustrated with experience from China and other Asian economies. PMID:26673477

  11. Precise study of nonlinear optical coefficients and hyperpolarizabilities in cold-drawn and poled ferroelectric Nylon 11 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, Naoto; Mizutani, Toru; Sakai, Wataru; Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Miyata, Seizo

    1998-06-01

    This paper presents a precise study of second-order optical nonlinearity of uniaxially cold-drawn and poled ferroelectric Nylon 11 films. The effects of drawing and poling on refractive indices and second-order nonlinear optical coefficients have been investigated. Drawing caused increase of refractive index (n) parallel to the drawing direction nX, and decrease of n perpendicular to drawing direction in the plane of film nY, as well as decrease of n on the poling direction parallel to film thickness direction nZ. Poling caused significant increase of nZ and decrease of nY. These n results imply that poling aligns the molecular chains so that carbonyl groups in Nylon backbone orient in the poling direction (Z-axis). Cold-drawn and poled Nylon 11 films belong to the mm2 point group. Dependence of second-order harmonic generation (SHG) intensity on incidence angle, i.e., Maker fringe pattern, could be precisely fitted using five independent nonzero tensor components, d33, d32, d31, d15, and d24. However, Kleinman symmetry was not satisfied: d31≠d15 and d32≠d24. The tensor components d33, d31, d15, and d24 increase with increasing remanent polarization, whereas the value of d32 was negligibly small irrespective of the intensity of the remanent polarization. Tensor components of microscopic first-order hyperpolarizability, βzxx, βzyy, βzzz, βxxz, and βyyz were determined. Tensor component βzzz was the largest and βzxx had negative sign. Second-order nonlinearity was largely suppressed in the vicinity of the melting point of Nylon 11.

  12. Simple pencil-drawn paper-based devices for one-spot electrochemical detection of electroactive species in oil samples.

    PubMed

    Dossi, Nicolò; Toniolo, Rosanna; Terzi, Fabio; Piccin, Evandro; Bontempelli, Gino

    2015-08-01

    We propose here simple electrochemical cells assembled with electrodes pencil drawn on paper for conducting one-spot tests enabling olive oil to be easily distinguished from other vegetable oils. They consist of small circular pads of hydrophilic paper defined by hydrophobic barriers, these last printed by using custom-designed rubber stamps, where working, reference, and counterelectrodes are drawn by pencil leads. These cells were first wetted with a small volume of aqueous electrolyte, avoiding coating of the upper surface of electrodes. A controlled volume of edible oil samples was then applied on top of the moist cell. The results found proved that these devices can be adopted as effective platforms suitable for the detection of electroactive compounds present in edible oils. In fact, they allow voltammetric profiles to be recorded not only for the oxidation of water soluble species (ortho-diphenols, as well as some monophenols and polyphenols) present in olive oils, but also for electroactive hydrophobic components (e.g., α-tocopherol) present in sunflower oils, which were chosen as model of seed oils. The whole of collected findings pointed out that simple one-spot tests performed by these devices enable olive oils to be easily distinguished from other edible oils on the basis of their clearly different voltammetric profiles. A satisfactory interdevice reproducibility (±13%) was estimated by applying strictly similar extra virgin olive oil samples onto seven different cells carefully prepared by the same procedure. An operating mechanism able to account for the detection of also electroactive hydrophobic compounds present in oils is proposed. PMID:25892681

  13. From Academic Vision to Physical Manifestation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walleri, R. Dan; Becker, William E.

    2004-01-01

    This community college-based case study describes and analyzes how a new mission and vision adopted by the college trustees was translated into a facility master plan. The vision is designed to serve the needs of the community and facilitate economic development, especially in the areas of health occupations, biotechnology and…

  14. A Low Vision Reading Comprehension Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, G. R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Fifty adults (ages 28-86) with macular degeneration were given the Low Vision Reading Comprehension Assessment (LVRCA) to test its reliability and validity in evaluating the reading comprehension of those with vision impairments. The LVRCA was found to take only nine minutes to administer and was a valid and reliable tool. (CR)

  15. Professional Vision in Action: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherin, Miriam Gamoran; Russ, Rosemary S.; Sherin, Bruce L.; Colestock, Adam

    2008-01-01

    The study of teachers' professional vision poses some unique challenges. The application of professional vision happens in a manner that is fleeting, and that is distributed through the moments of instruction. Because of the ongoing nature of instruction, it is not realistic to expect that one could "pause" instruction momentarily, ask a teacher…

  16. Reading by Children with Low Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gompel, Marjolein; van Bon, Wim H. J.; Schreuder, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This study of the reading of text found that despite their lower reading speed on a reading-comprehension task, the children with low vision comprehended texts at least as well as did the sighted children. Children with low vision need more time to read and comprehend a text, but they seem to use this time with enough efficiency to process the…

  17. Vision and the End of Racial Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Are we facing the end of racial preferences in America? Mr. Clegg thinks we probably are, and examines the role demographics, law, attraction, and vision may play in their demise. What makes preferences still attractive to so many people? Do most Americans share a vision that includes the continued use of racial preferences? Mr. Clegg offers a…

  18. Protocols for Choosing Low Vision Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NIDRR Consensus Statement, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This consensus statement on best practices for choosing low-vision devices is a product of a 10-member expert panel which brought together a variety of disciplines as well as consumers for the purpose of synthesizing available scientific information to improve services to people with low vision. After an introductory section, the remaining…

  19. INSIGHT: Vision & Leadership Inaugural Issue, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Tammy, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This publication focuses on promising new and emerging technologies and what they might mean to the future of K-12 schools. Half of the volume contains articles devoted in some way to "Vision," and articles in the other half are under the heading of "Leadership." Contents in the "Vision" section include: "Customizable Content" (Walter Koetke);…

  20. Color Vision Deficiencies in Children. United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Presented are prevalence data on color vision deficiencies (color blindness) in noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States, as estimated from the Health Examination Survey findings on a representative sample of over 7,400 children. Described are the two color vision tests used in the survey, the Ishihara Test for Color…

  1. Efficacy of a Low Vision Patient Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemsen, Dennis W.; Bergstrom, A. Ren?e; Hathaway, Julie C.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of obstacles can prevent persons or individuals with low vision from deriving the greatest possible benefit from the rehabilitation process, including inadequate understanding of their visual impairment, lack of knowledge about available services, and misconceptions about low vision devices. This study explores the use of a…

  2. Color Vision Deficits and Literacy Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Sandra Rollins

    1994-01-01

    Shows that color blindness, whether partial or total, inhibits literacy acquisition. Offers a case study of a third grader with impaired color vision. Presents a review of literature on the topic. Notes that people with color vision deficits are often unaware of the handicap. (RS)

  3. Vision impairment in the Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Keeffe, J E; Konyama, K; Taylor, H R

    2002-01-01

    The Western Pacific region is one of great diversity, containing the most populous country, China, and many small Pacific island countries. This review describes the prevalence of blindness and vision loss, illustrates the changing trends in the important causes of vision loss and blindness, and the stages of development of the delivery of eye care services across this region. PMID:12034678

  4. Social Work in a Low Vision Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanning, William A.; McClelland, Gus

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs VICTORS (Vision Impairment Center To Optimize Remaining Sight) Program emphasizes individual independence through the use of low vision devices and training. The social worker's role combines traditional counseling with administrative responsibilities, such as interviewing the patient to identify needs and…

  5. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  6. Computer vision in the poultry industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Computer vision is becoming increasingly important in the poultry industry due to increasing use and speed of automation in processing operations. Growing awareness of food safety concerns has helped add food safety inspection to the list of tasks that automated computer vision can assist. Researc...

  7. Vision: A Conceptual Framework for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkinson, Jennifer Scaturo

    2013-01-01

    Vision is essential to the implementation of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) National Model. Drawing from research in organizational leadership, this article provides a conceptual framework for how school counselors can incorporate vision as a strategy for implementing school counseling programs within the context of practice.…

  8. A vision for modernizing environmental risk assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2007, the US National Research Council (NRC) published a Vision and Strategy for [human health] Toxicity Testing in the 21st century. Central to the vision was increased reliance on high throughput in vitro testing and predictive approaches based on mechanistic understanding o...

  9. Implementing Vision Research in Special Needs Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsen, Gunvor Birkeland; Aanstad, Monica L.; Leirvik, Eva Iren B.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents experiences from vision research implemented in education and argues for the need for teachers with visual competence and insight into suitable methods for stimulation and learning. A new type of continuing professional development (CPD) focuses on the role of vision in children's learning and development, the consequences of…

  10. Our Visions of Possibility for Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Tim; Reinier, Rise; Gallagher, Kevin; Morgan, Bruce; Lopez-Robertson, Julia; Santman, Donna; Wong-Kam, JoAnn; Hill, Sharon; Christensen, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Tim O'Keefe, Rise Reinier and Kevin Gallagher, Bruce Morgan, Julia Lopez-Robertson, Donna Santman, JoAnn Wong-Kam, Sharon Hill, and Linda Christensen provide short essays describing their personal visions of possibility about literacy and how they maintain that passion and vision. Across a range of contexts, they reflect on the ways in which their…

  11. A Strategic Vision for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellings, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Where is the manual on American higher education in the 21st century? In this article, the author argues that there is none and that it is up to the federal government and higher education leaders to provide this strategic vision. She further states that the federal government and higher education leaders must have the vision to see where higher…

  12. Keep Your Vision Healthy: Learn About Comprehensive Dilated Eye Exams

    MedlinePlus

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Keep Your Vision Healthy Learn About Comprehensive Dilated Eye Exams People ... should have their eyesight tested to keep their vision at its best. Children usually have vision screening ...

  13. Helping a Loved One (Who Has Vision Loss)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Low Vision > Helping a Loved One Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? What You Should Know Protecting Against Vision Loss Staying on TRACK Diabetic Eye Disease FAQ ...

  14. 76 FR 25763 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... Federal vision standard applicable to interstate truck and bus drivers and the reasons for the denials. FMCSA has statutory authority to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the...

  15. 75 FR 22175 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... Federal vision standard applicable to interstate truck and bus drivers and the reasons for the denials. FMCSA has statutory authority to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the...

  16. 78 FR 76394 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... Federal vision standard applicable to interstate truck and bus drivers and the reasons for the denials. FMCSA has statutory authority to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the...

  17. 77 FR 12361 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... Federal vision standard applicable to interstate truck and bus drivers and the reasons for the denials. FMCSA has statutory authority to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the...

  18. 76 FR 69793 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... Federal vision standard applicable to interstate truck and bus drivers and the reasons for the denials. FMCSA has statutory authority to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the...

  19. Applying Machine Vision To Robotic Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jay

    1987-10-01

    Machine vision is an integral part in industry automation. This paper will discuss the 3-D vision technology and its applications. A brief description of several turkey automation systems developed and being developed that using 3-D vision technology in the fields of inspection and robotic guidance&control will be presented. The applications range from advanced robotic technology in automotive car production to sophisticated robotic system for U.S. Navy and Air force. This 3-D vision measuring capability has proved to the versatile key to successfully implementing adaptively controlled robot motion and robot path. Other extension of the technology to provide 3-D volumetric sensing and research effort in integrating 3-D vision with CAD/CAM system are examined.

  20. Developing organisational vision in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    al-Shehri, A; Stanley, I; Thomas, P

    1993-01-01

    Vision is a fashionable but ill defined term in management circles. Nevertheless, it embodies a significant concept related to guiding an organisation from present realities, through opportunities and hazards, to a viable future. Until recently a typical general practice could assume a stable external environment, but now it is caught up in the uncertainties stemming from the NHS reforms. For such a practice to undertake effective strategic planning it will have to develop a vision connecting the present with aspirations for the future. While vision is usually considered to be an individual talent, it is possible to develop a collective organisational vision within a general practice, and the small size of general practices makes this relatively easy. The vision needs to be broad; it needs to be continuous; and its capacity to predict the future needs to be monitored. PMID:8343704

  1. Wavefront technology for vision and ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Junzhong

    2003-07-01

    Wavefront technology promises to change the way vision care will be conducted. Wavefront-sensing optometers provide instant, accurate measurement of the total wave aberration of the eye, and that one measurement contains all the information needed for refractive vision diagnosis and refractive vision correction. Wavefront optometers are now being used to create individualized laser vision correction based, not on the coventional sphero-cylindrical correction, but rather on the total wavefront errors in patients' eyes. Comprehensive vision diagnosis based on the wave aberration and the image quality derived from it is far different from the conventional test of visual acuity. Wavefront technology has made it possible to image microscopic features as small as the photoreceptors and to improve resolution of retinal imaging techniques for early diagnosis of retinal diseases. This article is a review covering the hsitory and progress being made in the development of the wavefront technologies.

  2. Development of Moire machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Kevin G.

    1987-10-01

    Three dimensional perception is essential to the development of versatile robotics systems in order to handle complex manufacturing tasks in future factories and in providing high accuracy measurements needed in flexible manufacturing and quality control. A program is described which will develop the potential of Moire techniques to provide this capability in vision systems and automated measurements, and demonstrate artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to take advantage of the strengths of Moire sensing. Moire techniques provide a means of optically manipulating the complex visual data in a three dimensional scene into a form which can be easily and quickly analyzed by computers. This type of optical data manipulation provides high productivity through integrated automation, producing a high quality product while reducing computer and mechanical manipulation requirements and thereby the cost and time of production. This nondestructive evaluation is developed to be able to make full field range measurement and three dimensional scene analysis.

  3. A vision for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, John F.; Callaway, Robert K.; Diogu, Mark K.; Grush, Gene R.; Lancaster, E. M.; Morgan, William C.; Petri, David A.; Roberts, Barney B.; Pieniazek, Lester A.; Polette, Thomas M.

    1992-01-01

    A vision for planetary exploration is proposed which combines historical perspective and current NASA studies with the realities of changing political climates, economic environments, and technological directions. The concepts of Strategic Implementation Architectures (SIA), Open System Infrastructure Standards (OSIS), and Minimum Service Level Infrastructure (MSLI) are presented in order to propose a structure for the SEI which allows the realization of incremental mission objectives, establishes an investment strategy that efficiently uses public resources, and encourages partnerships with the government. The SIA is a hypothetical master plan which will allow the implementation of the complete spectrum of envisioned system capabilities for planetary exploration. OSIS consists of standards for interconnection, interoperability, and administration. MSLI can be defined as the minimum level of services provided by the system that are not justified by profit or parochial motives.

  4. Yarbus, eye movements, and vision

    PubMed Central

    Tatler, Benjamin W; Wade, Nicholas J; Kwan, Hoi; Findlay, John M; Velichkovsky, Boris M

    2010-01-01

    The impact of Yarbus's research on eye movements was enormous following the translation of his book Eye Movements and Vision into English in 1967. In stark contrast, the published material in English concerning his life is scant. We provide a brief biography of Yarbus and assess his impact on contemporary approaches to research on eye movements. While early interest in his work focused on his study of stabilised retinal images, more recently this has been replaced with interest in his work on the cognitive influences on scanning patterns. We extended his experiment on the effect of instructions on viewing a picture using a portrait of Yarbus rather than a painting. The results obtained broadly supported those found by Yarbus. PMID:23396904

  5. New Media Vision for IYA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, P. L.; Koppelman, M.

    2008-11-01

    The International Year of Astronomy New Media Committee seeks to provide and promote online astronomy experiences in the places that people work, play and learn; create content that will expose people to astronomy, provide them regular content, and create special opportunities for learning; distribute content for active (pull) and passive (push) channels and through guerilla marketing technique; use a diverse suite of technologies to reach people on multiple platforms and in diverse online settings. To make these goals a reality we have brought together a diverse group of astronomy new media practitioners to both mentor grass roots efforts and spearhead national initiatives. You are invited to partner you programs with the New Media Task Group. In this paper we lay out are goals and define our vision.

  6. Development of Moire machine vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Kevin G.

    1987-01-01

    Three dimensional perception is essential to the development of versatile robotics systems in order to handle complex manufacturing tasks in future factories and in providing high accuracy measurements needed in flexible manufacturing and quality control. A program is described which will develop the potential of Moire techniques to provide this capability in vision systems and automated measurements, and demonstrate artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to take advantage of the strengths of Moire sensing. Moire techniques provide a means of optically manipulating the complex visual data in a three dimensional scene into a form which can be easily and quickly analyzed by computers. This type of optical data manipulation provides high productivity through integrated automation, producing a high quality product while reducing computer and mechanical manipulation requirements and thereby the cost and time of production. This nondestructive evaluation is developed to be able to make full field range measurement and three dimensional scene analysis.

  7. Space Situational Awareness Architecture Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, D.

    2013-09-01

    Vast amounts of Space Situational data are collected each day. Net-Centric approaches are being developed to expose this data. The need to shift from our closed legacy systems to an open scalable architecture has begun through the JMS efforts. Cloud computing/Big Data concepts are also desired to store and process this data. Architecture insights will be provided to highlight how these apparently competing concepts can work together to provide a robust system of systems. Key items that will be covered include: 1) An overview of the "As-Is" system of JMS and Web Services 2) Definition of "Cloud Computing" and "Big Data" 3) Vision of To-Be SSA system of systems 4) Benefits of future approach 5) Path forward Governance and Oversight

  8. Refractory neural nets and vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, Thomas C.

    2014-02-01

    Biological understandings have served as the basis for new computational approaches. A prime example is artificial neural nets which are based on the biological understanding of the trainability of neural synapses. In this paper, we will investigate features of the biological vision system to see if they can also be exploited. These features are 1) the neuron's refractory period - the period of time after the neuron fires before it can fire again and 2) the ocular microtremor which moves the retinal neural array relative to the image. The short term memory due to the refractory period allows the before and after movement views to be compared. This paper will discuss the investigation of the implications of these two features.

  9. Bioinspired vision sensors with hyperacuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Steven F.; Wright, Cameron H. G.

    2011-04-01

    Musca domestica, the common house fly, possesses a powerful vision system that exhibits features such as fast, analog, parallel operation and motion hyperacuity -- the ability to detect the movement of objects at far better resolution than predicted by their photoreceptor spacing. Researchers at the Wyoming Information, Signal Processing, and Robotics (WISPR) Laboratory have investigated these features for over a decade to develop an analog sensor inspired by the fly. Research efforts have been divided into electrophysiology; mathematical, optical and MATLAB based sensor modeling; physical sensor development; and applications. This paper will provide an in depth review of recent key results in some of these areas including development of a multiple, light adapting cartridge based sensor constructed on both a planar and co-planar surface using off-the-shelf components. Both a photodiode-based approach and a fiber based sensor will be discussed. Applications in UAV obstacle avoidance, long term building monitoring and autonomous robot navigation are also discussed.

  10. Handling qualities comparison of panoramic night vision goggles and 46-deg. night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion; Thorndycraft, David

    2003-09-01

    Night Vision Goggles allow the user to see in extremely low illumination levels but the visual information provided by Night Vision Goggles has a limited field-of-view that diminishes handling-qualities in the night flying environment. Panoramic Night Vision Goggles were designed to correct this problem by providing a 100° horizontal field-of-view which is larger than currently used Night Vision Goggles. However, in the first generation Panoramic Night Vision Goggle, the improved field of view came at the cost of diminished resolution, contrast and central overlap area when compared to conventional Night Vision Goggles. This paper describes an evaluation that was conducted in the variable stability NRC Bell-205 helicopter to examine the influence on system handling qualities of the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles and a 46° field-of-view UK Night Vision Goggle. Five pilots flew the ADS-33D hover, sidestep and pirouette manoeuvres in simulated night conditions with the UK Night Vision Goggle and the Panoramic Night Vision Goggle. Both subjective and objective measures of task performance were obtained. Handling-qualities ratings showed the pirouette was performed better with the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles. This was the only manoeuvre where there was a clear-cut handling qualities improvement when using the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles. Other manoeuvres such as the sidestep and hover did not show definitive handling qualities rating differences between the two Night Vision Goggle types. The flight test results were interpreted in terms of the design trade-offs of the two night vision systems, with regard to the different acuity, binocular overlaps and fields-of-view.

  11. Defect Recovery in Severely Deformed Ferrite Lamellae During Annealing and Its Impact on the Softening of Cold-Drawn Pearlitic Steel Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. Z.; Csiszár, G.; Cizek, J.; Shi, X. H.; Borchers, C.; Li, Y. J.; Liu, F.; Kirchheim, R.

    2016-02-01

    Cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires with a drawing true strain of 3 were annealed at temperatures ( T ann) ranging from 423 K to 723 K (150 °C to 450 °C) with an interval of 50 K. Recovery of the lattice defects in the severely deformed ferrite lamellae were characterized by means of high-energy X-ray diffraction and positron annihilation techniques (including positron annihilation spectroscopy and coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy). Accordingly, the impact of defect recovery on the softening of the annealed wires was investigated. It is found that at low temperatures [ T ann ≤ 523 K (250 °C)], the recovery of the lattice defects in ferrite lamellae is dominated by the agglomeration and annihilation of vacancy clusters, while at T ann > 523 K (250 °C), the recovery process is controlled by the annihilation of dislocations. Further analyses on the softening of the annealed wires indicate that the evolutions of dislocation density and concentration of vacancy clusters, and the strain age hardening in ferrite lamellae play important roles in changing the strength of the wires. The strain aging hardening leads to a maximum strength at 473 K (150 °C). Above 523 K (250 °C), the annihilations of vacancy clusters and dislocations in ferrite lamellae cause a continuous softening of the wires, where the decrease in dislocation density plays a major role.

  12. Summary of student scenarios: 2020 Vision project, fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, K.W.; Munoz, A.; Scott, K.P.; Rinne, R.

    1997-11-01

    The Strategic Issues Thinking: 2020 Vision project introduces students and teaches to national security issues through the techniques of scenario building, and engages them in an interactive process of creating scenarios relevant to the Department of Energy, Defense Programs (DOE/DP). Starting with the world as it is today, teams of students develop a series of scenarios on international developments over the next 25 years under various circumstances. This report identifies recurrent themes in the student`s scenarios, lists creative ways the students presented their scenarios, compares and contrasts the program`s FY97 results with FY96 results, identifies the benefits of the program, and offers a glimpse of Sandia`s future plans for the 2020 Vision project.

  13. Principles of modern low vision rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Samuel N

    2006-06-01

    Low vision rehabilitation is a new emerging subspecialty drawing from the traditional fields of ophthalmology, optometry, occupational therapy, and sociology, with an ever-increasing impact on our customary concepts of research, education, and services for the visually impaired patient. A multidisciplinary approach and coordinated effort are necessary to take advantage of new scientific advances and achieve optimal results for the patient. Accordingly, the intent of this paper is to outline the principles and details of a modern low vision rehabilitation service. All rehabilitation attempts must start with a first hand interview (the intake) for assessing functionality and priority tasks for rehabilitation, as well as assessing the patient's all-important cognitive skills. The assessment of residual visual functions follows the intake and offers a unique opportunity to measure, evaluate, and document accurately the extent of functional loss sustained by the patient from disease. An accurate assessment of residual visual functions includes assessment of visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, binocularity, refractive errors, perimetry, oculomotor functions, cortical visual integration, and light characteristics affecting visual functions. Functional vision assessment in low vision rehabilitation measures how well one uses residual visual functions to perform routine tasks, using different items under various conditions, throughout the day. Of the many functional vision skills known, reading skills is an obligatory item for all low vision rehabilitation assessments. Results of assessment guide rehabilitation professionals in developing rehabilitation plans for the individual and recommending appropriate low vision devices. The outcome from assessing residual visual functions is detection of visual functions that can be improved with the use of optical devices. Methods for prescribing devices such as image relocation with prisms to a preferred retinal locus, field

  14. Visions and psychopathology in the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Kroll, J; Bachrach, B

    1982-01-01

    Descriptions of visionary experience from written medieval sources are examined from a cross-cultural perspective. The mental states of the persons having the visions range from terminal illnesses, states of starvation, stress-related syndromes, dreams and hypnagogic states, and seemingly unremarkable mental states. Although a few of the visions elicited some skepticism on the part of contemporaries, most reports of visions were accepted at face value as bona fide visions, with no discernible differentiation between starvation visions, dreams, deliria of illnesses, and possible mental illness. Only four of the visions appeared causally related, by today's standards, to mentally illnesses. These persons were not recognized as mentally ill by their contemporaries. Since there was a recognition of mental illness in the Middle Ages, it would appear that such recognition was based on symptoms other than visions or hallucinations. It is also possible that hallucinations, as culturally supported phenomena, were not as available as forms of expression of psychoses in the Middle Ages as they are today. Such a possibility has interesting implications regarding the role of a culture in shaping the forms by which mental illnesses are expressed, recognized, and labeled. PMID:7033474

  15. Synthetic vision system flight test results and lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radke, Jeffrey

    1993-01-01

    Honeywell Systems and Research Center developed and demonstrated an active 35 GHz Radar Imaging system as part of the FAA/USAF/Industry sponsored Synthetic Vision System Technology Demonstration (SVSTD) Program. The objectives of this presentation are to provide a general overview of flight test results, a system level perspective that encompasses the efforts of the SVSTD and Augmented VIsual Display (AVID) programs, and more importantly, provide the AVID workshop participants with Honeywell's perspective on the lessons that were learned from the SVS flight tests. One objective of the SVSTD program was to explore several known system issues concerning radar imaging technology. The program ultimately resolved some of these issues, left others open, and in fact created several new concerns. In some instances, the interested community has drawn improper conclusions from the program by globally attributing implementation specific issues to radar imaging technology in general. The motivation for this presentation is therefore to provide AVID researchers with a better understanding of the issues that truly remain open, and to identify the perceived issues that are either resolved or were specific to Honeywell's implementation.

  16. Perceptual Annotation: Measuring Human Vision to Improve Computer Vision.

    PubMed

    Scheirer, Walter J; Anthony, Samuel E; Nakayama, Ken; Cox, David D

    2014-08-01

    For many problems in computer vision, human learners are considerably better than machines. Humans possess highly accurate internal recognition and learning mechanisms that are not yet understood, and they frequently have access to more extensive training data through a lifetime of unbiased experience with the visual world. We propose to use visual psychophysics to directly leverage the abilities of human subjects to build better machine learning systems. First, we use an advanced online psychometric testing platform to make new kinds of annotation data available for learning. Second, we develop a technique for harnessing these new kinds of information-"perceptual annotations"-for support vector machines. A key intuition for this approach is that while it may remain infeasible to dramatically increase the amount of data and high-quality labels available for the training of a given system, measuring the exemplar-by-exemplar difficulty and pattern of errors of human annotators can provide important information for regularizing the solution of the system at hand. A case study for the problem face detection demonstrates that this approach yields state-of-the-art results on the challenging FDDB data set. PMID:26353347

  17. Selection of suitable fertilizer draw solute for a novel fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis-anaerobic membrane bioreactor hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngjin; Chekli, Laura; Shim, Wang-Geun; Phuntsho, Sherub; Li, Sheng; Ghaffour, Noreddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a protocol for selecting suitable fertilizer draw solute for anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (AnFDFOMBR) was proposed. Among eleven commercial fertilizer candidates, six fertilizers were screened further for their FO performance tests and evaluated in terms of water flux and reverse salt flux. Using selected fertilizers, bio-methane potential experiments were conducted to examine the effect of fertilizers on anaerobic activity due to reverse diffusion. Mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) showed the highest biogas production while other fertilizers exhibited an inhibition effect on anaerobic activity with solute accumulation. Salt accumulation in the bioreactor was also simulated using mass balance simulation models. Results showed that ammonium sulfate and MAP were the most appropriate for AnFDFOMBR since they demonstrated less salt accumulation, relatively higher water flux, and higher dilution capacity of draw solution. Given toxicity of sulfate to anaerobic microorganisms, MAP appears to be the most suitable draw solution for AnFDFOMBR. PMID:26898159

  18. Correlation of filament distortion and RRR degradation in drawn and rolled PIT and RRP Nb3Sn wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M.; Tarantini, C.; Starch, W.; Oates, W.; Lee, P. J.; Larbalestier, D. C.

    2016-08-01

    PIT and RRP® Nb3Sn strands are being developed for high field accelerator magnet upgrades for the high luminosity LHC. Here we report a quantitative study of the shape and position of PIT filaments and RRP® sub-elements after rolling lengths of unreacted PIT and RRP® round wires to simulate cabling deformation. In the as-drawn condition, filament shape distortion occurs preferentially in the outer ring filaments. By contrast, rolling induces non-uniform shear bands that generate greater distortion of inner ring filaments. By making a full digitization of the shapes of all filaments, we find that a critical distortion occurs for thickness reductions between 10% and 20% when filament shapes in inner filament rings heavily degrade, especially in the vicinity of the strong 45° shear bands imposed by the rolling. It is well known that maintaining diffusion barrier integrity is vital to retaining adequate RRR in the stabilizing copper needed for magnet stability. Diffusion barrier breaks occur preferentially in these distorted inner filaments and drive local Sn leakage during reaction, increasing RRR degradation.

  19. Prestressing effect of cold-drawn short NiTi SMA fibres in steel reinforced mortar beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dong Joo; Hwang, Jin-Ha; Kim, Woo Jin

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the prestressing effect of cold-drawn short NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) fibres in steel reinforced mortar beams. The SMA fibres were mixed with 1.5% volume content in a mortar matrix with the compressive strength of 50 MPa. The SMA fibres had an average length of 34 mm, and they were manufactured with a dog-bone shape: the diameters of the end- and middle-parts were 1.024 and 1.0 mm, respectively. Twenty mortar beams with the dimensions of 40 mm × 40 mm × 160 mm (B × H × L) were prepared. Two types of tests were conducted. One was to investigate the prestressing effect of the SMA fibres, and the beams with the SMA fibres were heated at the bottom. The other was to assess the bending behaviour of the beams prestressed by the SMA fibres. The SMA fibres induced upward deflection and cracking at the top surface by heating at the bottom; thus, they achieved an obvious prestressing effect. The beams that were prestressed by the SMA fibres did not show a significant difference in bending behaviour from that of the SMA fibre reinforced beams that were not subjected to heating. Stress analysis of the beams indicated that the prestressing effect decreased in relation to the cooling temperature.

  20. Comparison of feature based segmentation of full polarimetric SAR satellite sea ice images with manually drawn ice charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moen, M.-A. N.; Doulgeris, A. P.; Anfinsen, S. N.; Renner, A. H. H.; Hughes, N.; Gerland, S.; Eltoft, T.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we investigate the performance of an algorithm for automatic segmentation of full polarimetric, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sea ice scenes. The algorithm uses statistical and polarimetric properties of the backscattered radar signals to segment the SAR image into a specified number of classes. This number was determined in advance from visual inspection of the SAR image and by available in situ measurements. The segmentation result was then compared to ice charts drawn by ice service analysts. The comparison revealed big discrepancies between the charts of the analysts, and between the manual and the automatic segmentations. In the succeeding analysis, the automatic segmentation chart was labeled into ice types by sea ice experts, and the SAR features used in the segmentation were interpreted in terms of physical sea ice properties. Utilizing polarimetric information in sea ice charting will increase the efficiency and exactness of the maps. The number of classes used in the segmentation has shown to be of significant importance. Thus, studies of automatic and robust estimation of the number of ice classes in SAR sea ice scenes will be highly relevant for future work.

  1. Correlation of filament distortion and RRR degradation in drawn and rolled PIT and RRP Nb 3 Sn wires

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brown, M.; Tarantini, C.; Starch, W.; Oates, W.; Lee, P. J.; Larbalestier, D. C.

    2016-07-11

    PIT and RRP® Nb3Sn strands are being developed for high field accelerator magnet upgrades for the high luminosity LHC. Here we report a quantitative study of the shape and position of PIT filaments and RRP® sub-elements after rolling lengths of unreacted PIT and RRP® round wires to simulate cabling deformation. In the as-drawn condition, filament shape distortion occurs preferentially in the outer ring filaments. By contrast, rolling induces non-uniform shear bands that generate greater distortion of inner ring filaments. By making a full digitization of the shapes of all filaments, we find that a critical distortion occurs for thickness reductionsmore » between 10% and 20% when filament shapes in inner filament rings heavily degrade, especially in the vicinity of the strong 45° shear bands imposed by the rolling. It is well known that maintaining diffusion barrier integrity is vital to retaining adequate RRR in the stabilizing copper needed for magnet stability. Diffusion barrier breaks occur preferentially in these distorted inner filaments and drive local Sn leakage during reaction, increasing RRR degradation.« less

  2. Machine vision for real time orbital operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinz, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Machine vision for automation and robotic operation of Space Station era systems has the potential for increasing the efficiency of orbital servicing, repair, assembly and docking tasks. A machine vision research project is described in which a TV camera is used for inputing visual data to a computer so that image processing may be achieved for real time control of these orbital operations. A technique has resulted from this research which reduces computer memory requirements and greatly increases typical computational speed such that it has the potential for development into a real time orbital machine vision system. This technique is called AI BOSS (Analysis of Images by Box Scan and Syntax).

  3. Designing vision systems for robotic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Trivedi, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    Intelligent robotic systems utilize sensory information to perceive the nature of their work environment. Of the many sensor modalities, vision is recognized as one of the most important and cost-effective sensors utilized in practical systems. In this paper, we address the problem of designing vision systems to perform a variety of robotic inspection and manipulation tasks. We describe the nature and characteristics of the robotic task domain and discuss the computational hierarchy governing the process of scene interpretation. We also present a case study illustrating the design of a specific vision system developed for performing inspection and manipulation tasks associated with a control panel. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Telerehabilitation for people with low vision

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Ava K; Wykstra, Stephanie L; Yoshinaga, Patrick D; Li, Tianjing

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: Our goal is to systematically review the literature on telerehabilitation’s effectiveness for improving vision-related quality of life and/ or reading speed compared to face-to-face (e.g., in-office or inpatient) low vision rehabilitation services in patients with low vision or visual function loss due to any ocular condition. Secondary objectives are to evaluate compliance with scheduled rehabilitation sessions, VAE device abandonment rates, and/or patient satisfaction ratings in the same studies. PMID:25152693

  5. Stereo vision with distance and gradient recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Suk-Bum; Yang, Tae-Kyu

    2007-12-01

    Robot vision technology is needed for the stable walking, object recognition and the movement to the target spot. By some sensors which use infrared rays and ultrasonic, robot can overcome the urgent state or dangerous time. But stereo vision of three dimensional space would make robot have powerful artificial intelligence. In this paper we consider about the stereo vision for stable and correct movement of a biped robot. When a robot confront with an inclination plane or steps, particular algorithms are needed to go on without failure. This study developed the recognition algorithm of distance and gradient of environment by stereo matching process.

  6. Computer vision based room interior design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Nasir; Hussain, Saddam; Ahmad, Kashif; Conci, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces a new application of computer vision. To the best of the author's knowledge, it is the first attempt to incorporate computer vision techniques into room interior designing. The computer vision based interior designing is achieved in two steps: object identification and color assignment. The image segmentation approach is used for the identification of the objects in the room and different color schemes are used for color assignment to these objects. The proposed approach is applied to simple as well as complex images from online sources. The proposed approach not only accelerated the process of interior designing but also made it very efficient by giving multiple alternatives.

  7. The Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    With last year's budget, NASA released a new Strategic Plan outlining a new approach to space exploration using a 'building block' strategy to explore scientifically valuable destinations across our solar system. At the same time that we released the Strategic Plan, our Nation and the NASA family also suffered the loss of the seven brave astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. The report of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board emphasized the need for a clearer direction from which to drive NASA's human exploration agenda. On January 14, 2004, the President articulated a new vision for space exploration. You hold in your hands a new, bolder framework for exploring our solar system that builds upon the policy that was announced by the President after months of careful deliberations within the Administration. This plan does not undertake exploration merely for the sake of adventure, however exciting that may be, but seeks answers to profound scientific and philosophical questions, responds to recent discoveries, will put in place revolutionary technologies and capabilities for the future, and will genuinely inspire our Nation, the world, and the next generation. Our aim is to explore in a sustainable, affordable, and flexible manner. We believe the principles and roadmap set down in this document will stand the test of time. Its details will be subject to revision and expansion as new discoveries are made, new technologies are applied, and new challenges are met and overcome. This plan is guided by the Administration's new space exploration policy, 'A Renewed Spirit of Discovery: The President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration,' a copy of which is provided on the following pages. NASA is releasing this plan simultaneously with NASA's FY 2005 Budget Justification. This plan is fiscally responsible, consistent with the Administration s goal of cutting the budget deficit in half within the next five years. I cannot overstate how much NASA will change in the

  8. Light, Imaging, Vision: An interdisciplinary undergraduate course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Philip

    The vertebrate eye is fantastically sensitive instrument, capable of registering the absorption of a single photon, and yet generating very low noise.Using eyes as a common thread helps motivate undergraduates to learn a lot of physics, both fundamental and applied to scientific imaging and neuroscience. I'll describe an undergraduate course, for students in several science and engineering majors, that takes students from the rudiments of probability theory to the quantum character of light, including modern experimental methods like fluorescence imaging and Förster resonance energy transfer. After a digression into color vision, we then see how the Feynman principle explains the apparently wavelike phenomena associated to light, including applications like diffraction, subdiffraction imaging, total internal reflection and TIRF microscopy. Then we see how scientists documented the single-quantum sensitivity of the eye seven decades earlier than `ought' to have been possible, and finally close with the remarkable signaling cascade that delivers such outstanding performance.Course materials are available upon request. Partially supported by the NSF under Grants EF-0928048 and DMR-0832802.

  9. A Grand Vision for European Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    Today, and for the first time, astronomers share their global Science Vision for European Astronomy in the next two decades. This two-year long effort by the ASTRONET network of funding agencies, sponsored by the European Commission and coordinated by INSU-CNRS, underscores Europe's ascension to world leadership in astronomy and its will to maintain that position. It will be followed in just over a year by a prioritised roadmap for the observational facilities needed to implement the Vision. Implementation of these plans will ensure that Europe fully contributes to Mankind's ever deeper understanding of the wonders of our Universe. astronet logo "This is a great opportunity to help create a vibrant long-term future for astronomy and science" says Tim de Zeeuw (Leiden Observatory, The Netherlands) who led this community-wide effort. The ASTRONET Science Vision provides a comprehensive overview of the most important scientific questions that European astronomy should address in the next twenty years. The four key questions are the extremes of the Universe, from the nature of the dark matter and dark energy that comprise over 95% of the Universe to the physics of extreme objects such as black holes, neutron stars, and gamma-ray bursts; the formation of galaxies from the first seeds to our Milky Way; the formation of stars and planets and the origin of life; and the crucial question of how do we (and our Solar System) fit in the global picture. These themes reach well beyond the realm of traditional astronomy into the frontiers of physics and biology. The Vision identifies the major new facilities that will be needed to achieve these goals, but also stresses the need for parallel developments in theory and numerical simulations, high-performance computing resources, efficient astronomical data archiving and the European Virtual Observatory, as well as in laboratory astrophysics. "This report is a key input for the even more challenging task of developing a prioritised

  10. Machine vision based teleoperation aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, William A.; Gatrell, Lance B.; Spofford, John R.

    1991-01-01

    When teleoperating a robot using video from a remote camera, it is difficult for the operator to gauge depth and orientation from a single view. In addition, there are situations where a camera mounted for viewing by the teleoperator during a teleoperation task may not be able to see the tool tip, or the viewing angle may not be intuitive (requiring extensive training to reduce the risk of incorrect or dangerous moves by the teleoperator). A machine vision based teleoperator aid is presented which uses the operator's camera view to compute an object's pose (position and orientation), and then overlays onto the operator's screen information on the object's current and desired positions. The operator can choose to display orientation and translation information as graphics and/or text. This aid provides easily assimilated depth and relative orientation information to the teleoperator. The camera may be mounted at any known orientation relative to the tool tip. A preliminary experiment with human operators was conducted and showed that task accuracies were significantly greater with than without this aid.

  11. Space environment robot vision system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, H. John; Eichhorn, William L.

    1990-01-01

    A prototype twin-camera stereo vision system for autonomous robots has been developed at Goddard Space Flight Center. Standard charge coupled device (CCD) imagers are interfaced with commercial frame buffers and direct memory access to a computer. The overlapping portions of the images are analyzed using photogrammetric techniques to obtain information about the position and orientation of objects in the scene. The camera head consists of two 510 x 492 x 8-bit CCD cameras mounted on individually adjustable mounts. The 16 mm efl lenses are designed for minimum geometric distortion. The cameras can be rotated in the pitch, roll, and yaw (pan angle) directions with respect to their optical axes. Calibration routines have been developed which automatically determine the lens focal lengths and pan angle between the two cameras. The calibration utilizes observations of a calibration structure with known geometry. Test results show the precision attainable is plus or minus 0.8 mm in range at 2 m distance using a camera separation of 171 mm. To demonstrate a task needed on Space Station Freedom, a target structure with a movable I beam was built. The camera head can autonomously direct actuators to dock the I-beam to another one so that they could be bolted together.

  12. Adaptive optics for peripheral vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosén, R.; Lundström, L.; Unsbo, P.

    2012-07-01

    Understanding peripheral optical errors and their impact on vision is important for various applications, e.g. research on myopia development and optical correction of patients with central visual field loss. In this study, we investigated whether correction of higher order aberrations with adaptive optics (AO) improve resolution beyond what is achieved with best peripheral refractive correction. A laboratory AO system was constructed for correcting peripheral aberrations. The peripheral low contrast grating resolution acuity in the 20° nasal visual field of the right eye was evaluated for 12 subjects using three types of correction: refractive correction of sphere and cylinder, static closed loop AO correction and continuous closed loop AO correction. Running AO in continuous closed loop improved acuity compared to refractive correction for most subjects (maximum benefit 0.15 logMAR). The visual improvement from aberration correction was highly correlated with the subject's initial amount of higher order aberrations (p = 0.001, R 2 = 0.72). There was, however, no acuity improvement from static AO correction. In conclusion, correction of peripheral higher order aberrations can improve low contrast resolution, provided refractive errors are corrected and the system runs in continuous closed loop.

  13. CFIT Prevention Using Synthetic Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Parrish, Russell V.

    2003-01-01

    In commercial aviation, over 30-percent of all fatal accidents worldwide are categorized as Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) accidents where a fully functioning airplane is inadvertently flown into the ground, water, or an obstacle. An experiment was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center investigating the presentation of a synthetic terrain database scene to the pilot on a Primary Flight Display (PFD). The major hypothesis for the experiment is that a synthetic vision system (SVS) will improve the pilot s ability to detect and avoid a potential CFIT compared to conventional flight instrumentation. All display conditions, including the baseline, contained a Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) and Vertical Situation Display (VSD) enhanced Navigation Display (ND). Sixteen pilots each flew 22 approach - departure maneuvers in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to the terrain challenged Eagle County Regional Airport (EGE) in Colorado. For the final run, the flight guidance cues were altered such that the departure path went into the terrain. All pilots with a SVS enhanced PFD (12 of 16 pilots) noticed and avoided the potential CFIT situation. All of the pilots who flew the anomaly with the baseline display configuration (which included a TAWS and VSD enhanced ND) had a CFIT event.

  14. CFIT prevention using synthetic vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Parrish, Russell V.

    2003-09-01

    In commercial aviation, over 30 percent of all fatal accidents worldwide are categorized as Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) accidents where a fully functioning airplane is inadvertently flown into the ground, water, or an obstacle. An experiment was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center investigating the presentation of a synthetic terrain database scene to the pilot on a Primary Flight Display (PFD). The major hypothesis for the experiment is that a synthetic vision system (SVS) will improve the pilot's ability to detect and avoid a potential CFIT compared to conventional flight instrumentation. All display conditions, including the baseline, contained a Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) and Vertical Situation Display (VSD) enhanced Navigation Display (ND). Sixteen pilots each flew 22 approach / departure maneuvers in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to the terrain challenged Eagle County Regional Airport (EGE) in Colorado. For the final run, the flight guidance cues were altered such that the departure path went into the terrain. All pilots with a SVS enhanced PFD (12 of 16 pilots) noticed and avoided the potential CFIT situation. All of the pilots who flew the anomaly with the baseline display configuration (which included a TAWS and VSD enhanced ND) had a CFIT event.

  15. Machine vision and the OMV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcanulty, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    The orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) is intended to close with orbiting targets for relocation or servicing. It will be controlled via video signals and thruster activation based upon Earth or space station directives. A human operator is squarely in the middle of the control loop for close work. Without directly addressing future, more autonomous versions of a remote servicer, several techniques that will doubtless be important in a future increase of autonomy also have some direct application to the current situation, particularly in the area of image enhancement and predictive analysis. Several techniques are presentet, and some few have been implemented, which support a machine vision capability proposed to be adequate for detection, recognition, and tracking. Once feasibly implemented, they must then be further modified to operate together in real time. This may be achieved by two courses, the use of an array processor and some initial steps toward data reduction. The methodology or adapting to a vector architecture is discussed in preliminary form, and a highly tentative rationale for data reduction at the front end is also discussed. As a by-product, a working implementation of the most advanced graphic display technique, ray-casting, is described.

  16. Progress in color night vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toet, Alexander; Hogervorst, Maarten A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused false color images with large color contrast and preserved the identity of the input signals. This method has been successfully deployed in different areas of research. However, since this color mapping did not produce realistic colors, we continued to develop a statistical color-mapping procedure that would transfer the color distribution of a given example image to a multiband nighttime image. This procedure yields a realistic color rendering. However, it is computationally expensive and achieves no color constancy since the mapping depends on the relative amounts of the different materials in the scene. By applying the statistical mapping approach in a color look-up-table framework, we finally achieved both color constancy and computational simplicity. This sample-based color transfer method is specific for different types of materials in a scene and can be easily adapted for the intended operating theatre and the task at hand. The method can be implemented as a look-up-table transform and is highly suitable for real-time implementations.

  17. Retinoblastoma: One World, One Vision

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Wilson, Mathew W.; Chantada, Guillermo; Fu, Ligia; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Antonelli, Célia; Leal-Leal, Carlos; Sharma, Tarum; Barnoya, Margarita; Epelman, Sidnei; Pizzarello, Louis; Kane, Javier R.; Barfield, Ray; Merchant, Thomas E.; Robison, Leslie L.; Murphree, A. Linn; Chevez-Barrios, Patricia; Dyer, Michael A.; O′Brien, Joan; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Hungerford, John; Helveston, Eugene M.; Haik, Barrett G.; Wilimas, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is curable when diagnosed early and treated appropriately; however, the prognosis is dismal when the basic elements in diagnosis and treatment are lacking. In developing countries, poor education, lower socioeconomic conditions, and inefficient health care systems result in delayed diagnosis and suboptimal care. Furthermore, the complexity of multidisciplinary care required is seldom possible. While ocular salvage is a priority in the Western world, death from retinoblastoma is still a major problem in developing countries. To bring the two ends of this spectrum together and provide a forum for discussion, the One World, One Vision symposium was organized, where clinicians and researchers from various cultural, geographic, and socioeconomic backgrounds converged to discuss their experiences. Strategies for early diagnosis in developing countries were discussed. Elements in the development of retinoblastoma centers in developing countries were discussed, and examples of successful programs were highlighted. An important component in this process is twinning between centers in developing countries and mentor institutions in high-income countries. Global initiatives by nongovernmental organizations such as the International Network for Cancer Treatment and Research, Orbis International, and the International Agency for Prevention of Blindness were presented. Treatment of retinoblastoma in developing countries remains a challenge. However, it is possible to coordinate efforts at multiple levels, including public administrations and nonprofit organizations, to improve the diagnosis and treatment of retinoblastoma and to improve the outcome for these children. PMID:18762512

  18. Connectionist model-based stereo vision for telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, William; Mathis, Donald

    1989-01-01

    Autonomous stereo vision for range measurement could greatly enhance the performance of telerobotic systems. Stereo vision could be a key component for autonomous object recognition and localization, thus enabling the system to perform low-level tasks, and allowing a human operator to perform a supervisory role. The central difficulty in stereo vision is the ambiguity in matching corresponding points in the left and right images. However, if one has a priori knowledge of the characteristics of the objects in the scene, as is often the case in telerobotics, a model-based approach can be taken. Researchers describe how matching ambiguities can be resolved by ensuring that the resulting three-dimensional points are consistent with surface models of the expected objects. A four-layer neural network hierarchy is used in which surface models of increasing complexity are represented in successive layers. These models are represented using a connectionist scheme called parameter networks, in which a parametrized object (for example, a planar patch p=f(h,m sub x, m sub y) is represented by a collection of processing units, each of which corresponds to a distinct combination of parameter values. The activity level of each unit in the parameter network can be thought of as representing the confidence with which the hypothesis represented by that unit is believed. Weights in the network are set so as to implement gradient descent in an energy function.

  19. FLORA™: Phase I development of a functional vision assessment for prosthetic vision users

    PubMed Central

    Geruschat, Duane R; Flax, Marshall; Tanna, Nilima; Bianchi, Michelle; Fisher, Andy; Goldschmidt, Mira; Fisher, Lynne; Dagnelie, Gislin; Deremeik, Jim; Smith, Audrey; Anaflous, Fatima; Dorn, Jessy

    2014-01-01

    Background Research groups and funding agencies need a functional assessment suitable for an ultra-low vision population in order to evaluate the impact of new vision restoration treatments. The purpose of this study was to develop a pilot assessment to capture the functional vision ability and well-being of subjects whose vision has been partially restored with the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System. Methods The Functional Low-Vision Observer Rated Assessment (FLORA) pilot assessment involved a self-report section, a list of functional vision tasks for observation of performance, and a case narrative summary. Results were analyzed to determine whether the interview questions and functional vision tasks were appropriate for this ultra-low vision population and whether the ratings suffered from floor or ceiling effects. Thirty subjects with severe to profound retinitis pigmentosa (bare light perception or worse in both eyes) were enrolled in a clinical trial and implanted with the Argus II System. From this population, twenty-six subjects were assessed with the FLORA. Seven different evaluators administered the assessment. Results All 14 interview questions were asked. All 35 functional vision tasks were selected for evaluation at least once, with an average of 20 subjects being evaluated for each test item. All four rating options -- impossible (33%), difficult (23%), moderate (24%) and easy (19%) -- were used by the evaluators. Evaluators also judged the amount of vision they observed the subjects using to complete the various tasks, with vision only occurring 75% on average with the System ON, and 29% with the System OFF. Conclusion The first version of the FLORA was found to contain useful elements for evaluation and to avoid floor and ceiling effects. The next phase of development will be to refine the assessment and to establish reliability and validity to increase its value as a functional vision and well-being assessment tool. PMID:25675964

  20. Vision in our three-dimensional world.

    PubMed

    Parker, Andrew J

    2016-06-19

    Many aspects of our perceptual experience are dominated by the fact that our two eyes point forward. Whilst the location of our eyes leaves the environment behind our head inaccessible to vision, co-ordinated use of our two eyes gives us direct access to the three-dimensional structure of the scene in front of us, through the mechanism of stereoscopic vision. Scientific understanding of the different brain regions involved in stereoscopic vision and three-dimensional spatial cognition is changing rapidly, with consequent influences on fields as diverse as clinical practice in ophthalmology and the technology of virtual reality devices.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. PMID:27269595

  1. Integration of vision and robotic workcell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bossieux, T. A.

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses the incorporation of vision into a robotic cell to obtain cell status information and use this information to influence the robot operation. It discusses both mechanical and informational solutions to the operational issues which are present. The cell uses a machine vision system to determine information about part presence in the shipping tray, part location in the tray, and tray orientation. The vision system's edge detector algorithm is used to identify the orientation of the packing trays. In addition, different vision tools are used to determine if parts are present in the trays based on the unique configuration of the individual parts. The mechanical solutions discuss the handling of medium weight (10 - 25 lb.) parts at an average cycle time of 3.1 seconds per part. The robot gripper must handle 33 different models, three identical parts at a time. This is accomplished by using stacks of rotary actuators and slides between the stacks.

  2. Vision in our three-dimensional world

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Many aspects of our perceptual experience are dominated by the fact that our two eyes point forward. Whilst the location of our eyes leaves the environment behind our head inaccessible to vision, co-ordinated use of our two eyes gives us direct access to the three-dimensional structure of the scene in front of us, through the mechanism of stereoscopic vision. Scientific understanding of the different brain regions involved in stereoscopic vision and three-dimensional spatial cognition is changing rapidly, with consequent influences on fields as diverse as clinical practice in ophthalmology and the technology of virtual reality devices. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269595

  3. Color Vision Defects: What Teachers Should Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Barbara A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the nature of color vision defects as they relate to reading instruction. Suggests ways that teachers can adapt instruction to help provide maximal learning opportunities for the color deficient child. (RS)

  4. Facilitating Shared Vision in the Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eigeles, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Offers a structured method, the management summit, to help administrators generate a true mission and vision and implement them in the organization. The method includes understanding needs, building futures scenarios, pointing out hurdles, and deciding on action items. (JOW)

  5. Computer Vision Assisted Virtual Reality Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, W.

    1999-01-01

    A computer vision assisted semi-automatic virtual reality (VR) calibration technology has been developed that can accurately match a virtual environment of graphically simulated three-dimensional (3-D) models to the video images of the real task environment.

  6. Vision Changes, Intelligence, and Aging: Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Edward S.; Eklund, Susan J.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the effects of vision changes commonly associated with aging (e.g., cataract, presbyopia, pupil changes) and examines their relationship to intellectual performance. Discusses variables related to intellectual functioning including motivation, education, test anxiety, and fatigue. (LLL)

  7. Colour vision: parallel pathways intersect in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kelber, Almut; Henze, Miriam J

    2013-12-01

    In the last one hundred years, colour vision has been demonstrated in bees and many other insects. But the underlying neural wiring remained elusive. A new study on Drosophila melanogaster combining behavioural and genetic tools yields surprising insights. PMID:24309280

  8. Tips for Living with Low Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... have low vision. A number of agencies and organizations across the country can provide information about support and rehabilitation services, as well as other resources. Call Prevent Blindness America at ...

  9. Light source design for machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieczka, Eric J.; Harding, Kevin G.

    1992-03-01

    There is a lack of commercially available white light sources for machine vision applications. Current commercial sources are typically expensive and primarily designed for workbench use. Because of their benchtop design, these light sources cannot be easily integrated into the inspection system. In most cases a light source must be custom designed and built to suit the needs of the particular machine vision application. The materials being inspected can vary from highly specular to highly diffuse, thus requiring a broad range of illumination levels. Other issues important in machine vision light sources include efficiency, light divergence, spectral content, source size, and packaging. This paper discusses the issues that must be overcome when designing a light source for machine vision applications, and describes the work done by ITI to produce an efficient white light source with computer controlled illumination level.

  10. Development of a vision system for an intelligent ground vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, Robert L.; Perry, Kenneth; Stone, Robert B.; McAdams, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    The development of a vision system for an autonomous ground vehicle designed and constructed for the Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is discussed. The requirements for the vision system of the autonomous vehicle are explored via functional analysis considering the flows (materials, energies and signals) into the vehicle and the changes required of each flow within the vehicle system. Functional analysis leads to a vision system based on a laser range finder (LIDAR) and a camera. Input from the vision system is processed via a ray-casting algorithm whereby the camera data and the LIDAR data are analyzed as a single array of points representing obstacle locations, which for the IGVC, consist of white lines on the horizontal plane and construction markers on the vertical plane. Functional analysis also leads to a multithreaded application where the ray-casting algorithm is a single thread of the vehicle's software, which consists of multiple threads controlling motion, providing feedback, and processing the data from the camera and LIDAR. LIDAR data is collected as distances and angles from the front of the vehicle to obstacles. Camera data is processed using an adaptive threshold algorithm to identify color changes within the collected image; the image is also corrected for camera angle distortion, adjusted to the global coordinate system, and processed using least-squares method to identify white boundary lines. Our IGVC robot, MAX, is utilized as the continuous example for all methods discussed in the paper. All testing and results provided are based on our IGVC robot, MAX, as well.

  11. Vision 2030. A Vision for the U.S. Concrete Industry

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2001-01-01

    On September 27, 2000, the concrete industry's Strategic Development Council hosted a Concrete Vision Workshop in Chicago, Illinois. Meeting participants included over 50 concrete, cement, and other allied industry chief executive officers, presidents, vice-presidents, laboratory and industry research managers, and government representatives. Participants discussed the state of the concrete industry 30 years ago, the state of the current industry, and their vision for the United States concrete industry in 2030. Moreover, they identified specific goals to achieve the industry's Vision 2030. This document, Vision 2030, is the product of that workshop and the comments received after a broad industry review.

  12. Machine Vision Giving Eyes to Robots. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This module introduces machine vision, which can be used for inspection, robot guidance and part sorting. The future for machine vision will include new technology and will bring vision systems closer to the ultimate vision processor, the human eye. Includes a student quiz, outcomes, and activities. (JOW)

  13. Robot vision and sensory controls, V

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    This book covers the expanding and important subjects of robot vision and sensory controls. These advanced industrial techniques are now solving real application problems and improving productivity, quality, reliability and product cost. RoViSeC embraces the whole spectrum of sensing and measurement, including the technologies of machine vision, pattern recognition, artificial intelligence, tactile and other sensing, speech recognition, voice synthesis, sensor based robots, hardware and software. All aspects of the latest research are included while retaining an essentially practical outlook.

  14. Compact Through-The-Torch Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in gas/tungsten-arc welding torch equipped with through-the-torch vision system make it smaller and more resistant to welding environment. Vision subsystem produces image of higher quality, flow of gas enhanced, and parts replaced quicker and easier. Coaxial series of lenses and optical components provides overhead view of joint and weld puddle real-time control. Designed around miniature high-resolution video camera. Smaller size enables torch to weld joints formerly inaccessible.

  15. COHERENT LASER VISION SYSTEM (CLVS) OPTION PHASE

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Clark

    1999-11-18

    The purpose of this research project was to develop a prototype fiber-optic based Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) suitable for DOE's EM Robotic program. The system provides three-dimensional (3D) vision for monitoring situations in which it is necessary to update the dimensional spatial data on the order of once per second. The system has total immunity to ambient lighting conditions.

  16. Human Vision Pathology Diagnostics by Photogrammetrics Means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murynin, A.; Knyaz, V.; Mateev, I.

    2014-06-01

    One of the reasons of such vision pathology as human stereoscopic vision capability dysfunction is an asymmetry of a human face. As a rule, such dysfunctions occur as early as in the babyhood, when diagnostic methods applied for adults are ineffective. Early diagnostics and prophylaxis could help in treatment of such pathology and face 3D modeling is one of the promising ways to solve this problem.

  17. Marking parts to aid robot vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, J. W.; Barker, L. K.

    1981-01-01

    The premarking of parts for subsequent identification by a robot vision system appears to be beneficial as an aid in the automation of certain tasks such as construction in space. A simple, color coded marking system is presented which allows a computer vision system to locate an object, calculate its orientation, and determine its identity. Such a system has the potential to operate accurately, and because the computer shape analysis problem has been simplified, it has the ability to operate in real time.

  18. Robotic Vision With Enhanced Detection Of Edges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, V. L.; Shawaga, L.; Walsh, P.; Kambies, K.

    1993-01-01

    Robotic vision subsystem provides enhanced detection of edges as it preprocesses image of target moving in six degrees of freedom. Subsystem designed to filter out high (spatial) frequency components in image, with frequency response tuned to size of object detected. Blurring and background noise reduced to avoid false detection of moving target. Image produced used by another vision subsystem guiding robot to mate with target. Produces less noise and operates more reliably.

  19. Colour vision deficiency and physics teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maule, Louise; Featonby, David

    2016-05-01

    1 in 12 males suffer from some form of colour vision deficiency (CVD) which in the present colour dominated world of education presentation can be a severe disadvantage. Although aware of ‘colourblindness’ most teachers make little or no adjustment for these pupils for whom tasks may be more difficult. This article examines colour vision deficiency and looks at ways in which we can help the many students who have this problem.

  20. Office of the CIO: Setting the Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinaldi, James J.

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the vision of the Office of JPL's Chief Information Officer for future of information technology (IT) at JPL. This includes a strong working relation with industry to provide cost efficient and effective IT services. This includes a vision of taking desktop to the next level and the process to achieve it and ensuring that JPL becomes a world class IT provider.