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Sample records for energy-saving hepatoprotective compound

  1. A comprehensive overview of hepatoprotective natural compounds: mechanism of action and clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Domitrović, Robert; Potočnjak, Iva

    2016-01-01

    Hepatoprotective effects of natural compounds have been frequently attributed to their antioxidant properties and the ability to mobilize endogenous antioxidant defense system. Because of involvement of oxidative stress in virtually all mechanisms of liver injury, it is a reasonable presumption that antioxidant properties of these compounds may play a key role in the mechanism of their hepatoprotective activity. Nevertheless, growing evidence suggests that other pharmacological activities of natural compounds distinct from antioxidant are responsible for their therapeutic effects. In this review, we discussed currently known molecular mechanisms of the hepatoprotective activity of 27 most intensively studied phytochemicals. These compounds have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antisteatotic, antiapoptotic, cell survival and antiviral activity through interference with multiple molecular targets and signaling pathways. Additionally, antifibrotic properties of phytochemicals have been closely associated with apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells and stimulation of extracellular matrix degradation. However, although these compounds exhibit a pronounced hepatoprotective effects in animal and cell culture models, the lack of clinical studies remains a bottleneck for their official acceptance by medical experts and physicians. Therefore, controlled clinical trials have an imperative in confirmation of the therapeutic activity of potentially hepatoprotective compounds. Understanding the principles of the hepatoprotective activity of phytochemicals could guide future drug development and help prevention of clinical trial failure. Also, the use of new delivery systems that enhances bioavailability of poorly water soluble compounds may improve the results already obtained. Most importantly, available data suggest that phytochemicals possess a various degree of modulation of specific signaling pathways, pointing out a need for usage of combinations of several

  2. Extraction, identification, fractionation and isolation of phenolic compounds in plants with hepatoprotective effects.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-03-15

    The liver is one of the most important organs of human body, being involved in several vital functions and regulation of physiological processes. Given its pivotal role in the excretion of waste metabolites and drugs detoxification, the liver is often subjected to oxidative stress that leads to lipid peroxidation and severe cellular damage. The conventional treatments of liver diseases such as cirrhosis, fatty liver and chronic hepatitis are frequently inadequate due to side effects caused by hepatotoxic chemical drugs. To overcome this problematic paradox, medicinal plants, owing to their natural richness in phenolic compounds, have been intensively exploited concerning their extracts and fraction composition in order to find bioactive compounds that could be isolated and applied in the treatment of liver ailments. The present review aimed to collect the main results of recent studies carried out in this field and systematize the information for a better understanding of the hepatoprotective capacity of medicinal plants in in vitro and in vivo systems. Generally, the assessed plant extracts revealed good hepatoprotective properties, justifying the fractionation and further isolation of phenolic compounds from different parts of the plant. Twenty-five phenolic compounds, including flavonoids, lignan compounds, phenolic acids and other phenolic compounds, have been isolated and identified, and proved to be effective in the prevention and/or treatment of chemically induced liver damage. In this perspective, the use of medicinal plant extracts, fractions and phenolic compounds seems to be a promising strategy to avoid side effects caused by hepatotoxic chemicals. PMID:26333346

  3. The use of marine-derived bioactive compounds as potential hepatoprotective agents

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Dileep G; Weiskirchen, Ralf; Al-Musharafi, Salma K

    2015-01-01

    The marine environment may be explored as a rich source for novel drugs. A number of marine-derived compounds have been isolated and identified, and their therapeutic effects and pharmacological profiles are characterized. In the present review, we highlight the recent studies using marine compounds as potential hepatoprotective agents for the treatment of liver fibrotic diseases and discuss the proposed mechanisms of their activities. In addition, we discuss the significance of similar studies in Oman, where the rich marine life provides a potential for the isolation of novel natural, bioactive products that display therapeutic effects on liver diseases. PMID:25500871

  4. Effects of Hepatoprotective Compounds from the Leaves of Lumnitzera racemosa on Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Damage in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Ahmed Gomaa Gomaa; Samy, Mamdouh Nabil; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Otsuka, Hideaki; Abdel-Salam, Hosni; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the n-BuOH fraction of the mangrove plant Lumnitzera racemosa WILLD. (Combretaceae) led to the isolation of one new flavonoid glycoside; myrcetin 3-O-methyl glucuronate (1), one new phenolic glycoside; lumniracemoside (2) and one new aliphatic alcohol glycoside; n-hexanol 1-O-rutinoside (3), in addition to seven known compounds (4-10). The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, high resolution-electrospray ionization (HR-ESI)-MS, one- and two-dimensional (1D- and 2D)-NMR). Compound 7 showed the highest hepatoprotective activity against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity using human HepG2 cells at protection % value of 34.2±3.1%, while compounds 1, 2, 3, 6, and 9 showed weak to moderate hepatoprotective activity (11.6-18.9%). Almost all of these compounds showed stronger 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity compared with the standard Trolox. These results suggest the usefulness of this plant extract and the isolated compounds as promising hepatoprotective agents. PMID:27039833

  5. Plugging into Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrigan, Merrilee

    1999-01-01

    The nonprofit Alliance to Save Energy has been helping schools reduce energy consumption through a combination of retrofits, classroom instruction, and behavior. Lists eight small steps to big energy savings, among them: involve the whole school, stop leaks, turn off computers, and recycle. (MLF)

  6. Save Energy: Save Money!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccli, Eugene; And Others

    This publication is a collection of inexpensive energy saving tips and home improvements for home owners, particularly in low-income areas or in older homes. Section titles are: (1) Keeping Warm; (2) Getting Heat Where You Need It; (3) Using the Sun; (4) Furnaces, Stoves, and Fireplaces; (5) Insulation and Other Energy Needs; (6) Do-It-Yourself…

  7. Hepatoprotective Herbs, Avicenna Viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Shamsi-Baghbanan, Hamid; Sharifian, Afsaneh; Esmaeili, Somayeh; Minaei, Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Background: Liver injury or dysfunction is considered as a serious health problem. The available synthetic drugs to treat liver disorders are expensive and cause further damage. Hence, hepatoprotective effects of some herbal drugs have been investigated, and one of the methods to choose herbs in order to study their biological effects is to search in ancient medical texts. Avicenna who is known as the prince of physicians had collected and classified Greek, Persian and Islamic medicine in the best possible way in the book of Canon in Arabic. Objectives: Avicenna’s book of The Canon of Medicine was reviewed to find the hepatoprotective herbs. Patients and Methods: Three different versions of the Canon were prepared and utilized. To find scientific names of plants we took advantage of three botany references. All of the herbs were investigated on the basis of scientific data from hepatoprotective effects point of view. The searched term was “hepatoprotective” without narrowing and limiting. The searched databases included Cochrane library, Web of science, SID, Irandoc and IranMedex. Results: 18 plants were found. 85% of the presented species, genus or families of plants were reported to have hepatoprotective properties and in the remaining 15% there were no reports of hepatoprotective effect. Flowers and fruits were the most used part of the plants. Most of the plants had simultaneous protective effects on multiple organs but the protective effect on the liver was mostly accompanied by protective effect on the stomach (83%). The average temperament of these herbs is "hot" in the 2nd phase of the 2nd grade, and "dry" in the 3rd phase of the 2nd grade. Hepatoprotective herbs mostly prescribed as a part of hepatoprotective compound drugs formula or other formula for liver diseases are Crocus sativus, Pistacia lentiscus, and Cinnamomum spp. Conclusions: Maybe there is common mechanism for protecting both liver and stomach. Aquilaria agallocha, Aquilaria malaccensis

  8. Remanufacturing and energy savings.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, Timothy G; Sahni, Sahil; Boustani, Avid; Graves, Stephen C

    2011-05-15

    Remanufactured products that can substitute for new products are generally claimed to save energy. These claims are made from studies that look mainly at the differences in materials production and manufacturing. However, when the use phase is included, the situation can change radically. In this Article, 25 case studies for eight different product categories were studied, including: (1) furniture, (2) clothing, (3) computers, (4) electric motors, (5) tires, (6) appliances, (7) engines, and (8) toner cartridges. For most of these products, the use phase energy dominates that for materials production and manufacturing combined. As a result, small changes in use phase efficiency can overwhelm the claimed savings from materials production and manufacturing. These use phase energy changes are primarily due to efficiency improvements in new products, and efficiency degradation in remanufactured products. For those products with no, or an unchanging, use phase energy requirement, remanufacturing can save energy. For the 25 cases, we found that 8 cases clearly saved energy, 6 did not, and 11 were too close to call. In some cases, we could examine how the energy savings potential of remanufacturing has changed over time. Specifically, during times of significant improvements in energy efficiency, remanufacturing would often not save energy. A general design trend seems to be to add power to a previously unpowered product, and then to improve on the energy efficiency of the product over time. These trends tend to undermine the energy savings potential of remanufacturing. PMID:21513286

  9. Hepatoprotective Activity.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The liver performs a vital role in metabolism, secretion, storage, and detoxification of endogenous and exogenous substances. Oxidative stress and free radicals enhance the severity of hepatic damage, which can be overcome by the antioxidant mechanism. Plant extracts can be the best source of such antioxidants and mediate hepatoprotective activity. In this chapter, high-dose paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rat model is discussed with explanations of biochemical and histopathological studies. PMID:26939279

  10. Lighting Control Energy Savings

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1985-01-01

    CONTROLITE 1.0 is a lighting energy analysis program designed to calculate the energy savings and cost benefits obtainable using lighting controls in buildings. The program can compute the lighting energy reductions that result from using daylighting, scheduling, and other control strategies. When modeling daylight control systems, the program uses QUICKLITE to compute the daylight illuminances at specified points 5 times a day, 12 days a year (the 21st of each month), and for two skymore » conditions (clear and overcast skies). Fourier series techniques are used to fit a continuous curve through the computed illuminance points. The energy use for each of the 12 days is then computed given user-specified power-in/light-out characteristics of the modeled control system. The monthly and annual energy usage for overcast and clear conditions are found separately by fitting two long-term Fourier series curves to the energy use computed for each of the 12 days. Finally, the monthly energy use is calculated by taking a weighted average for the monthly energy use computed for the overcast and clear sky conditions. The program only treats the energy use directly attributable to lighting. The impact of lighting control strategies on building thermal loads is not computed. The program allows input of different control schedules (i.e., on/off times for the lighting system) for each day of the week, but every week of the year is treated the same; thus, holidays cannot be modeled explicitly. When used for daylighting purposes, CONTROLITE1.0 understands only clear and overcast conditions. User-supplied values for the proportion of clear and overcast hours for each month of the year are required to accommodate different climatic conditions.« less

  11. Estimation of Bioactive Compound, Maslinic Acid by HPTLC, and Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity on Fruit Pulp of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Cultivars in India

    PubMed Central

    Rajopadhye, Anagha; Upadhye, Anuradha S.

    2016-01-01

    Fruits of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (family: Rhamnaceae), known as Indian jujube or “Ber,” are of potential nutritional and medicinal value. The objectives of the present study were to estimate bioactive compound maslinic acid by HPTLC method and to evaluate in vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of eight cultivars of Indian jujube. Maslinic acid and the fruit pulp of various cultivars of Indian jujube, namely, Gola, Sannur, Umaran, Mehrun, and Chhuhara, exhibited significantly high antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity. HPTLC-densitometric method was developed for quantification of maslinic acid from fruits of Indian jujube cultivars. The trend of occurrence of maslinic acid in fruits pulp extracts was as follows: Gola > Sannur > Umaran > Mehrun > Chhuhara > Wild > Kadaka > Apple. A significant correlation was shown by maslinic acid content and prevention of oxidative stress induced by CCl4 in liver slice culture cell treated with extract. Maslinic acid along with its other phytoconstituents like phenols, flavonoids, and ascorbic acid may act as a possible therapeutic agent for preventing hepatotoxicity caused by oxidative stress generated due to the prooxidants like CCl4. This is the first report of fruit pulp extracts of Z. jujube cultivars in India and maslinic acid preventing CCl4 induced damage in liver slice culture cell of mice. PMID:26904143

  12. Energy Control Systems: Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The installation of proper control systems is estimated as saving up to 25 percent of the energy used in schools. Other potential energy-saving areas are transmission (heat loss or gain through walls, especially ceilings); internal load (heat from students, lights, and machinery); ventilation; and equipment maintenance. (Author/MLF)

  13. Four Steps to Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellar, Arthur

    2000-01-01

    An upstate New York district's energy-conservation measures over the past 19 months have saved $376,000 that can be invested in academic and additional energy-saving programs. The district advises developing people-oriented strategies; updating structures, systems, and equipment; finding appropriate resources; and investing in the future. (MLH)

  14. Energy savings in Polish buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, L.C.; Gula, A.; Reeves, G.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration of low-cost insulation and weatherization techniques was a part of phase 1 of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficient Project. The objectives were to identify a cost-effective set of measures to reduce energy used for space heating, determine how much energy could be saved, and foster widespread implementation of those measures. The demonstration project focused on 4 11-story buildings in a Krakow housing cooperative. Energy savings of over 20% were obtained. Most important, the procedures and materials implemented in the demonstration project have been adapted to Polish conditions and applied to other housing cooperatives, schools, and hospitals. Additional projects are being planned, in Krakow and other cities, under the direction of FEWE-Krakow, the Polish Energie Cities Network, and Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa.

  15. Herbal extracts as hepatoprotectants against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Jaeschke, Hartmut; Williams, C David; McGill, Mitchell R; Farhood, Anwar

    2010-05-21

    Many plant-derived natural products have the potential to be hepatoprotective and therefore can be used to treat acute and chronic liver diseases. The challenge is to identify the most promising compounds and evaluate their protective mechanism. In a recently published article, Wang et al evaluated extracts of the plant Gentiana manshurica Kitagawa (GM) in a model of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. The authors concluded that GM is hepatoprotective against acetaminophen-induced liver injury due to its antioxidant properties and anti-apoptotic capacity. We would like to discuss the limitations of this experimental approach and question the conclusion based on the data presented in this manuscript and the published literature. PMID:20480535

  16. Herbal extracts as hepatoprotectants against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Jaeschke, Hartmut; Williams, C David; McGill, Mitchell R; Farhood, Anwar

    2010-01-01

    Many plant-derived natural products have the potential to be hepatoprotective and therefore can be used to treat acute and chronic liver diseases. The challenge is to identify the most promising compounds and evaluate their protective mechanism. In a recently published article, Wang et al evaluated extracts of the plant Gentiana manshurica Kitagawa (GM) in a model of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. The authors concluded that GM is hepatoprotective against acetaminophen-induced liver injury due to its antioxidant properties and anti-apoptotic capacity. We would like to discuss the limitations of this experimental approach and question the conclusion based on the data presented in this manuscript and the published literature. PMID:20480535

  17. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Sean; Booten, Chuck

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  18. Energy Savings Measure Packages: Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, S.; Booten, C.

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the US. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for given source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home. The dollar value of the maximum annual savings varies significantly by location but typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  19. Energy Savings Performance Contract Success Stories

    SciTech Connect

    2009-07-27

    Three case study success stories showcasing energy savings performance contract projects at Dyess Air Force Base, Food and Drug Administration White Oaks Campus, and the Harold Washington Social Security Administration Center.

  20. Silybum marianum: Beyond Hepatoprotection.

    PubMed

    Bahmani, Mahmood; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Rafieian, Samira; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2015-10-01

    Silybum marianum is a medicinal plant that has long been used as hepatoprotective remedy. It has been used for the treatment of numerous liver disorders characterized by functional impairment or degenerative necrosis. Its hepatoprotective activity is unique and acts in different ways, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, cell permeability regulator and membrane stabilizer, stimulation of liver regeneration and inhibition of deposition in collagen fibers, which may lead to cirrhosis. Most of documented data with Silybum marianum are about liver disorders; however, recently several beneficial properties on a wide variety of other disorders such as renal protection, hypolipidemic and anti-atherosclerosis activities, cardiovascular protection, prevention of insulin resistance, especially in cirrhotic patients, cancer, and Alzheimer prevention. It is also used as a food remedy. This review article aims to present different aspects of Silybum marianum, especially the data in recently published articles about its effects on different diseases, apart from presenting the aspects of its hepatoprotection. PMID:25686616

  1. Risk transfer via energy savings insurance

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2001-10-01

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency improvements are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and apprehension about potential disputes over these savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building commissioning), financial risk transfer techniques are less developed in the energy management arena than in other more mature segments of the economy. Energy Savings Insurance (ESI) - formal insurance of predicted energy savings - is one method of transferring financial risks away from the facility owner or energy services contractor. ESI offers a number of significant advantages over other forms of financial risk transfer, e.g. savings guarantees or performance bonds. ESI providers manage risk via pre-construction design review as well as post-construction commissioning and measurement and verification of savings. We found that the two mos t common criticisms of ESI - excessive pricing and onerous exclusions - are not born out in practice. In fact, if properly applied, ESI can potentially reduce the net cost of energy savings projects by reducing the interest rates charged by lenders, and by increasing the level of savings through quality control. Debt service can also be ensured by matching loan payments to projected energy savings while designing the insurance mechanism so that payments are made by the insurer in the event of a savings shortfall. We estimate the U.S. ESI market potential of $875 million/year in premium income. From an energy-policy perspective, ESI offers a number of potential benefits: ESI transfers performance risk from the balance sheet of the entity implementing the energy savings project, thereby freeing up capital otherwise needed to ''self-insure'' the savings. ESI reduces barriers to market entry of smaller energy services firms who do not have sufficiently strong balance sheets to self

  2. Energy saving concepts relating to induction generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Energy saving concepts relating to induction generators are presented. The first describes a regenerative scheme using an induction generator as a variable load for prime movers under test is described. A method for reducing losses in induction machines used specifically as wind driven generators is also described.

  3. 78 FR 20097 - Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... ESPCs at 10 CFR part 436, Subpart B. (See, 60 FR 18334.) To facilitate and accelerate the use of ESPCs... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Savings Performance Contracts AGENCY: Office...

  4. Remodeling kitchens: A smorgasbord of energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, B.

    1995-09-01

    The kitchen is often the busiest room in the house and is most likely to remodeled repeatedly over the life of a house. The kitchen also represents a concentration of household energy use. Remodeling a kitchen can mean introducing a host of new energy-saving features or making major energy blunders. This article discusses ways to utilized the best features: layout and design; appliances; lighting; windows and skylights; ventilation; insulation and air sealing; water; household recycling; green building materials.

  5. Energy Savings Potential of Radiative Cooling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Wang, Weimin; Alvine, Kyle J.; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2015-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), conducted a study to estimate, through simulation, the potential cooling energy savings that could be achieved through novel approaches to capturing free radiative cooling in buildings, particularly photonic ‘selective emittance’ materials. This report documents the results of that study.

  6. Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) ENABLE Program

    SciTech Connect

    2012-06-01

    The Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) ENABLE program, a new project funding approach, allows small Federal facilities to realize energy and water savings in six months or less. ESPC ENABLE provides a standardized and streamlined process to install targeted energy conservation measures (ECMs) such as lighting, water, and controls with measurement and verification (M&V) appropriate for the size and scope of the project. This allows Federal facilities smaller than 200,000 square feet to make progress towards important energy efficiency and water conservation requirements.

  7. Economic Energy Savings Potential in Federal Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Hunt, Diane M.

    2000-09-04

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the current life-cycle cost-effective (i.e., economic) energy savings potential in Federal buildings and the corresponding capital investment required to achieve these savings, with Federal financing. Estimates were developed for major categories of energy efficiency measures such as building envelope, heating system, cooling system, and lighting. The analysis was based on conditions (building stock and characteristics, retrofit technologies, interest rates, energy prices, etc.) existing in the late 1990s. The potential impact of changes to any of these factors in the future was not considered.

  8. Chinese hotel general managers' perspectives on energy-saving practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yidan

    As hotels' concern about sustainability and budget-control is growing steadily, energy-saving issues have become one of the important management concerns hospitality industry face. By executing proper energy-saving practices, previous scholars believed that hotel operation costs can decrease dramatically. Moreover, they believed that conducting energy-saving practices may eventually help the hotel to gain other benefits such as an improved reputation and stronger competitive advantage. The energy-saving issue also has become a critical management problem for the hotel industry in China. Previous research has not investigated energy-saving in China's hotel segment. To achieve a better understanding of the importance of energy-saving, this document attempts to present some insights into China's energy-saving practices in the tourist accommodations sector. Results of the study show the Chinese general managers' attitudes toward energy-saving issues and the differences among the diverse hotel managers who responded to the study. Study results indicate that in China, most of the hotels' energy bills decrease due to the implementation of energy-saving equipments. General managers of hotels in operation for a shorter period of time are typically responsible for making decisions about energy-saving issues; older hotels are used to choosing corporate level concerning to this issue. Larger Chinese hotels generally have official energy-saving usage training sessions for employees, but smaller Chinese hotels sometimes overlook the importance of employee training. The study also found that for the Chinese hospitality industry, energy-saving practices related to electricity are the most efficient and common way to save energy, but older hotels also should pay attention to other ways of saving energy such as water conservation or heating/cooling system.

  9. Energy Savings Potential and Research & Development Opportunities for Commercial Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-09-01

    This study documents the energy consumption of commercial refrigeration equipment (CRE) in the U.S. and evaluated the energy savings potential of various technologies and energy efficiency measures that could be applied to such equipment. The study provided an overview of CRE applications, assessed the energy-savings potential of CRE in the U.S., outline key barriers to adoption of energy-savings technologies, and recommended opportunities for advanced energy saving technology research. The study was modeled after an earlier 1996 report by Arthur D. Little, Inc., and updated key information, examined more equipment types, and outlined long-term research and development opportunities.

  10. Hepatoprotective triterpenes from the gum resin of Boswellia carterii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Gai; Ma, Qin-Ge; Tian, Jin; Ren, Jin; Wang, Ai-Guo; Ji, Teng-Fei; Yang, Jian-Bo; Su, Ya-Lun

    2016-03-01

    Ten tirucallane-type triterpenes named boscartene A-J and a nor-tetracyclic triterpene boscartene K, together with ten known compounds were isolated from the gum resin of Boswellia carterii Birdw. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. In vitro assay, some of these compounds (10 μM) showed moderate hepatoprotective activities against d-galactosamine-induced HL-7702 cell damage. PMID:26739386

  11. E-SMARRT: Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    This factsheet describes the Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT) program developed by Advanced Technology Institute (ATI). E-SMARRT is a balanced portfolio of projects to address energy-saving opportunities in the metalcasting industry.

  12. Hepatoprotective Limonoids from Andiroba (Carapa guianensis).

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Miyazawa, Seiya; Ozeki, Kaiten; Matsuo, Natsuko; Muraoka, Osamu; Kikuchi, Takashi; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko; Morikawa, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Three gedunin-type limonoids, gedunin (1), 6α-acetoxygedunin (2), and 7-deacetoxy-7-oxogedunin (3), which were isolated from the seed and flower oils of andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aublet, Meliaceae), exhibited hepatoprotective effects at doses of 25 mg/kg, p.o. against d-galactosamine (d-GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in mice. To characterize the mechanisms of action of 1-3 and clarify the structural requirements for their hepatoprotective effects, 17 related limonoids (1-17) isolated from the seed and/or flower oils of C. guianensis were examined in in vitro studies assessing their effects on (i) d-GalN-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes, (ii) LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse peritoneal macrophages, and (iii) tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced cytotoxicity in L929 cells. The mechanisms of action of 1-3 are likely to involve the inhibition of LPS-induced macrophage activation and reduced sensitivity of hepatocytes to TNF-α; however, these compounds did not decrease the cytotoxicity caused by d-GalN. In addition, the structural requirements of limonoids (1-17) for inhibition of LPS-induced NO production in mouse peritoneal macrophages and TNF-α-induced cytotoxicity in L929 cells were evaluated. PMID:27104518

  13. Hepatoprotective Limonoids from Andiroba (Carapa guianensis)

    PubMed Central

    Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Miyazawa, Seiya; Ozeki, Kaiten; Matsuo, Natsuko; Muraoka, Osamu; Kikuchi, Takashi; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko; Morikawa, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Three gedunin-type limonoids, gedunin (1), 6α-acetoxygedunin (2), and 7-deacetoxy-7-oxogedunin (3), which were isolated from the seed and flower oils of andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aublet, Meliaceae), exhibited hepatoprotective effects at doses of 25 mg/kg, p.o. against d-galactosamine (d-GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in mice. To characterize the mechanisms of action of 1–3 and clarify the structural requirements for their hepatoprotective effects, 17 related limonoids (1–17) isolated from the seed and/or flower oils of C. guianensis were examined in in vitro studies assessing their effects on (i) d-GalN-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes, (ii) LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse peritoneal macrophages, and (iii) tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced cytotoxicity in L929 cells. The mechanisms of action of 1–3 are likely to involve the inhibition of LPS-induced macrophage activation and reduced sensitivity of hepatocytes to TNF-α; however, these compounds did not decrease the cytotoxicity caused by d-GalN. In addition, the structural requirements of limonoids (1–17) for inhibition of LPS-induced NO production in mouse peritoneal macrophages and TNF-α-induced cytotoxicity in L929 cells were evaluated. PMID:27104518

  14. Will Renewable Energy Save Our Planet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojić, Milorad

    2010-06-01

    This paper discusses some important fundamental issues behind application of renewable energy (RE) to evaluate its impact as a climate change mitigation technology. The discussed issues are the following: definition of renewable energy, concentration of RE by weight and volume, generation of electrical energy and its power at unit area, electrical energy demand per unit area, life time approach vs. layman approach, energy return time, energy return ratio, CO2 return time, energy mix for RES production and use, geographical distribution of RES use, huge scale of energy shift from RES to non-RES, increase in energy consumption, Thermodynamic equilibrium of earth, and probable solutions for energy future of our energy and environmental crisis of today. The future solution (that would enable to human civilization further welfare, and good living, but with lower release of CO2 in atmosphere) may not be only RES. This will rather be an energy mix that may contain nuclear energy, non-nuclear renewable energy, or fossil energy with CO2 sequestration, efficient energy technologies, energy saving, and energy consumption decrease.

  15. Hepatoprotective activity of Amaranthus spinosus in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Zeashan, Hussain; Amresh, G; Singh, Satyawan; Rao, Chandana Venkateswara

    2008-11-01

    The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of 50% ethanolic extract of whole plant of Amaranthus spinosus (ASE) was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. The ASE at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were administered orally once daily for fourteen days. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) and total bilirubin were restored towards normalization significantly by the ASE in a dose dependent manner. Higher dose exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. Meanwhile, in vivo antioxidant activities as malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroperoxides, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were also screened which were also found significantly positive in a dose dependent manner. The results of this study strongly indicate that whole plants of A. spinosus have potent hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in experimental animals. This study suggests that possible mechanism of this activity may be due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolics compound in the ASE which may be responsible to hepatoprotective activity. PMID:18783728

  16. Demonstration of energy savings of cool roofs

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Gartland, L.; Akbari, H.; Rainer, L.

    1998-06-01

    Dark roofs raise the summertime air-conditioning demand of buildings. For highly-absorptive roofs, the difference between the surface and ambient air temperatures can be as high as 90 F, while for highly-reflective roofs with similar insulative properties, the difference is only about 20 F. For this reason, cool roofs are effective in reducing cooling energy use. Several experiments on individual residential buildings in California and Florida show that coating roofs white reduces summertime average daily air-conditioning electricity use from 2--63%. This demonstration project was carried out to address some of the practical issues regarding the implementation of reflective roofs in a few commercial buildings. The authors monitored air-conditioning electricity use, roof surface temperature, plenum, indoor, and outdoor air temperatures, and other environmental variables in three buildings in California: two medical office buildings in Gilroy and Davis and a retail store in San Jose. Coating the roofs of these buildings with a reflective coating increased the roof albedo from an average of 0.20--0.60. The roof surface temperature on hot sunny summer afternoons fell from 175 F--120 F after the coating was applied. Summertime average daily air-conditioning electricity use was reduced by 18% (6.3 kWh/1000ft{sup 2}) in the Davis building, 13% (3.6 kWh/1000ft{sup 2}) in the Gilroy building, and 2% (0.4 kWh/1000ft{sup 2}) in the San Jose store. In each building, a kiosk was installed to display information from the project in order to educate and inform the general public about the environmental and energy-saving benefits of cool roofs. They were designed to explain cool-roof coating theory and to display real-time measurements of weather conditions, roof surface temperature, and air-conditioning electricity use. 55 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of standardized herbal extracts

    PubMed Central

    Hiraganahalli, Bhaskarmurthy Deepak; Chinampudur, Velusami Chandrasekaran; Dethe, Shekhar; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Pandre, Manoj Kumar; Balachandran, Jaya; Agarwal, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Background: Phyllanthus emblica, Camellia sinensis, Mangifera indica, Punica granatum, and Acacia catechu have been shown to possess widespread pharmacological application against multitude of diseases namely cancer, diabetes, liver disorders, and oxidative stress. Objective: We evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of the standardized herbal extracts against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BH) induced toxicity and their mechanism of hepatoprotective action in human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2 cell line). Materials and Methods: The hepatoprotective activity was studied by observing the effect of these herbal extracts on t-BH induced reduction in cell viability of HepG2 cells. In addition, the reducing power of the extracts and their ability to scavenge free radicals were evaluated using two antioxidant assay systems: cell free [oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and [2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid)] (ABTS)] and cell based [cellular antioxidant activity (CAA)]. Results and Discussion: The results obtained showed that these extracts possess significant hepatoprotective activity. This may indicate that the plant extracts contain compounds, which can remove toxic metabolites following t-BH induced toxicity. The extracts exhibited significant antioxidant property as evident by the Trolox values and effective scavenging of DPPH and ABTS radicals. The extracts also demonstrated inhibition of AAPH-induced fluorescence in HepG2 cells. These results indicate the ability of the plant extracts to protect the liver cells from chemical-induced damage, which might be correlated to their radical scavenging potential. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that these extracts have potential hepatoprotective activity which is mainly attributed to the antioxidant potential, which might occur by reduction of lipid peroxidation and cellular damage. PMID:22701284

  18. General Merchandise 50% Energy Savings Technical Support Document

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, E.; Leach, M.; Hirsch, A.; Torcellini, P.

    2009-09-01

    This report documents technical analysis for medium-box general merchandise stores aimed at providing design guidance that achieves whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004.

  19. Energy saving in industry: Italian methods and experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallavalle, F.; Denard, C.

    The usefulness and characteristics of the energy audits practiced by a research and technology transfer center (CISE) in industry are described. Italian public financial incentives to energy saving are discussed. The qualification of CISE in energy auditing is commented on.

  20. Implementation of Energy Saving Controller for Electromagnetic Ballast Fluorescent Lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Zhi; Barsoum, Cheong; Barsoum, N. N.

    2010-06-01

    Fluorescent lamps have proven to be the most efficient lighting device. However, energy losses have been found in electromagnetic ballast due to high harmonic distortion and low power factor so energy is consumed unnecessarily. In today's energy demanding environment, energy efficiency of fluorescent lamps can be improved by introducing an energy saving controller in the electromagnetic ballast. The energy saving controller limits the supply voltage to an optimum level which tends to reduce the power losses in electromagnetic ballasts and fluorescent lamps. It is also anticipated that the energy saving controller has desirable characteristics of high power factor with dimmable illuminance level control. In comparison to electronic dimmable ballast, integration an energy saving controller with electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps results in less power consumption, dimmable illuminance control and longer life span at a much lower installation cost. Furthermore, there is no replacement cost for integrating the energy saving controller with existing electromagnetic fluorescent lamps system. In this paper, experimental works have been performed to investigate hardware implementation of the system which further supported by simulation on MATLAB Simulink. Experimental results based on the proposed energy saving controller showed that electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps can be dimmed without any problems down to 50% illuminance level output. In addition, experimental results show that 37.5% power consumption can be saved by reducing 15% of the supply voltage.

  1. Breakthrough Energy Savings with Waterjet Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lee W. Saperstein; R. Larry Grayson; David A. Summers; Jorge Garcia-Joo; Greg Sutton; Mike Woodward; T.P. McNulty

    2007-05-15

    Experiments performed at the University of Missouri-Rolla's Waterjet Laboratory have demonstrated clearly the ability of waterjets to disaggregate, in a single step, four different mineral ores, including ores containing iron, lead and copper products. The study focused mainly on galena-bearing dolomite, a lead ore, and compared the new technology with that of traditional mining and milling to liberate the valuable constituent for the more voluminous host rock. The technical term for the disintegration of the ore to achieve this liberation is comminution. The potential for energy savings if this process can be improved, is immense. Further, if this separation can be made at the mining face, then the potential energy savings include avoidance of transportation (haulage and hoisting) costs to move, process and store this waste at the surface. The waste can, instead, be disposed into the available cavities within the mine. The savings also include the elimination of the comminution, crushing and grinding, stages in the processing plant. Future prototype developments are intended to determine if high-pressure waterjet mining and processing can be optimized to become cheaper than traditional fragmentation by drilling and blasting and to optimize the separation process. The basic new mining process was illustrated in tests on two local rock types, a low-strength sandstone with hematite inclusions, and a medium to high-strength dolomite commonly used for construction materials. Illustrative testing of liberation of minerals, utilized a lead-bearing dolomite, and included a parametric study of the optimal conditions needed to create a size distribution considered best for separation. The target goal was to have 50 percent of the mined material finer than 100 mesh (149 microns). Of the 21 tests that were run, five clearly achieved the target. The samples were obtained as run-of-mine lumps of ore, which exhibited a great deal of heterogeneity within the samples. This, in

  2. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effect of Bauhinia hookeri Extract against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice and Characterization of Its Bioactive Compounds by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sayed, Eman; Seif el-Din, Sayed H.; Sabra, Abdel-Nasser A.; Hammam, Olfat A.; El-Lakkany, Naglaa M.; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M.

    2014-01-01

    The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Bauhinia hookeri ethanol extract (BHE) against CCl4-induced liver injury was investigated in mice. BHE was administered (500 and 1000 mg/kg/day) along with CCl4 for 6 weeks. The hepatic marker enzymes: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined in the serum. The antioxidant parameters: glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione transferase (GST), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were estimated in the liver homogenate. BHE treatment significantly inhibited the CCl4-induced increase in ALT (44 and 64%), AST (36 and 46%), ALP (28 and 42%), and MDA (39 and 51%) levels at the tested doses, respectively. Moreover, BHE treatment markedly increased the activity of antioxidant parameters GSH, GPx, GR, GST, and SOD. Histological observations confirmed the strong hepatoprotective activity. These results suggest that a dietary supplement of BHE could exert a beneficial effect against oxidative stress and various liver diseases by enhancing the antioxidant defense status, reducing lipid peroxidation, and protecting against the pathological changes of the liver. The hepatoprotective activity of BHE is mediated, at least in part, by the antioxidant effect of its constituents. The active constituents of BHE were identified by HPLC-PDA-ESI/MS/MS. PMID:24955350

  3. Pharmacological screening of Coriandrum sativum Linn. for hepatoprotective activity

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, A.; Bigoniya, P.; Raj, V.; Patel, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Coriandrum sativum (Linn.), a glabrous, aromatic, herbaceous annual plant, is well known for its use in jaundice. Essential oil, flavonoids, fatty acids, and sterols have been isolated from different parts of C. sativum. The plant has a very effective antioxidant profile showing 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, lipoxygenase inhibition, phospholipid peroxidation inhibition, iron chelating activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutation, glutathione reduction and antilipid peroxidation due to its high total phenolic content with the presence of constituents like pyrogallol, caffeic acid, glycitin, etc. Materials and Methods: This study was aimed at investigating the hepatoprotective activity of C. sativum against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), with estimation of serum serum glutamyl oxaloacetic acid transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaine phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin, and with liver histopathology. Results: Ethanolic extract was found to be rich in alkaloids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting showed the presence of iso-quercetin and quercetin. C. sativum signifies hepatoprotection by reducing the liver weight, activities of SGOT, SGPT, and ALP, and direct bilirubin of CCl4 intoxicated animals. Administration of C. sativum extract at 300 mg/kg dose resulted in disappearance of fatty deposit, ballooning degeneration and necrosis, indicating antihepatotoxic activity. Conclusion: The results of this study have led to the conclusion that ethanolic extract of C. sativum possesses hepatoprotective activity which may be due to the antioxidant potential of phenolic compounds. PMID:21966166

  4. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Boswellia ovalifoliolata bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, Bandari Uma; Shrivastava, Shweta; Pragada, Rajeswara Rao; Naidu, V G M; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2014-09-01

    Paracetamol (PCM) hepatotoxicity is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and excessive oxidative stress; natural antioxidant compounds have been tested as an alternative therapy. This study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of an alcoholic extract of Boswellia ovalifoliolata (BO) bark against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity. BO extract also demonstrated antioxidant activity in vitro, as well as scavenger activity against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Administration of PCM caused a significant increase in the release of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase in serum. Significant enhancement in hepatic lipid peroxidation and marked depletion in reduced glutathione were observed after parac intoxication with severe alterations in liver histology. BO treatment was able to mitigate hepatic damage induced by acute intoxication of PCM and showed a pronounced protective effect against lipid peroxidation, deviated serum enzymatic variables, and maintained glutathione status toward control. The results clearly demonstrate the hepatoprotective effect of BO against the toxicity induced by PCM. PMID:25263977

  5. Potential energy savings from aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.R.; Weijo, R.O.

    1988-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory researchers developed an aggregate-level model to estimate the short- and long-term potential energy savings from using aquifer thermal storage (ATES) in the United States. The objectives of this effort were to (1) develop a basis from which to recommend whether heat or chill ATES should receive future research focus and (2) determine which market sector (residential, commercial, or industrial) offers the largest potential energy savings from ATES. Information was collected on the proportion of US land area suitable for ATES applications. The economic feasibility of ATES applications was then evaluated. The potential energy savings from ATES applications was calculated. Characteristic energy use in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors was examined, as was the relationship between waste heat production and consumption by industrial end-users. These analyses provided the basis for two main conclusions: heat ATES applications offer higher potential for energy savings than do chill ATES applications; and the industrial sector can achieve the highest potential energy savings for the large consumption markets. Based on these findings, it is recommended that future ATES research and development efforts be directed toward heat ATES applications in the industrial sector. 11 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Large Hospital 50% Energy Savings: Technical Support Document

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, E.; Studer, D.; Parker, A.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-09-01

    This Technical Support Document documents the technical analysis and design guidance for large hospitals to achieve whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 and represents a step toward determining how to provide design guidance for aggressive energy savings targets. This report documents the modeling methods used to demonstrate that the design recommendations meet or exceed the 50% goal. EnergyPlus was used to model the predicted energy performance of the baseline and low-energy buildings to verify that 50% energy savings are achievable. Percent energy savings are based on a nominal minimally code-compliant building and whole-building, net site energy use intensity. The report defines architectural-program characteristics for typical large hospitals, thereby defining a prototype model; creates baseline energy models for each climate zone that are elaborations of the prototype models and are minimally compliant with Standard 90.1-2004; creates a list of energy design measures that can be applied to the prototype model to create low-energy models; uses industry feedback to strengthen inputs for baseline energy models and energy design measures; and simulates low-energy models for each climate zone to show that when the energy design measures are applied to the prototype model, 50% energy savings (or more) are achieved.

  7. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings for Small Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Brian A.; Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Lane, Michael D.; Liu, Bing

    2010-04-30

    The Technical Support Document (TSD) for 50% energy savings in small office buildings documents the analysis and results for a recommended package of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) referred to as the advanced EEMs. These are changes to a building design that will reduce energy usage. The package of advanced EEMs achieves a minimum of 50% energy savings and a construction area weighted average energy savings of 56.6% over the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 for 16 cities which represent the full range of climate zones in the United States. The 50% goal is for site energy usage reduction. The weighted average is based on data on the building area of construction in the various climate locations. Cost-effectiveness of the EEMs is determined showing an average simple payback of 6.7 years for all 16 climate locations. An alternative set of results is provided which includes a variable air volume HVAC system that achieves at least 50% energy savings in 7 of the 16 climate zones with a construction area weighted average savings of 48.5%. Other packages of EEMs may also achieve 50% energy savings; this report does not consider all alternatives but rather presents at least one way to reach the goal. Design teams using this TSD should follow an integrated design approach and utilize additional analysis to evaluate the specific conditions of a project.

  8. Achieving Deeper Energy Savings in Federal Energy Performance Contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, John A.; Nasseri, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Legislation requires each agency of the US federal government to reduce the aggregate energy use index of its buildings by 30% by 2015, with respect to a 2003 baseline. The declining availability of appropriated funding means that energy performance contracting will be key to achieving this goal. Historically however, energy performance contracts have been able to reduce energy use by only about 20% over baseline. Achieving 30% energy reductions using performance contracting will require new approaches and a specific focus on achieving higher energy savings, both by ESCOs and by agencies. This paper describes some of the ways federal agencies are meeting this challenge, and presents results from the efforts of one agency the US General Services Administration -- to achieve deeper energy savings in conventional energy savings performance contracts.

  9. Achieving Deeper Energy Savings in Federal Energy Performance Contracts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shonder, John A.; Nasseri, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Legislation requires each agency of the US federal government to reduce the aggregate energy use index of its buildings by 30% by 2015, with respect to a 2003 baseline. The declining availability of appropriated funding means that energy performance contracting will be key to achieving this goal. Historically however, energy performance contracts have been able to reduce energy use by only about 20% over baseline. Achieving 30% energy reductions using performance contracting will require new approaches and a specific focus on achieving higher energy savings, both by ESCOs and by agencies. This paper describes some of the ways federal agenciesmore » are meeting this challenge, and presents results from the efforts of one agency the US General Services Administration -- to achieve deeper energy savings in conventional energy savings performance contracts.« less

  10. VO2 thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-10-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner.

  11. Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

  12. VO₂ thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-01-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner. PMID:24157625

  13. VO2 thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-01-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner. PMID:24157625

  14. 3,4,5-Trihydroxy benzoic acid (gallic acid), the hepatoprotective principle in the fruits of Terminalia belerica-bioassay guided activity.

    PubMed

    Anand, K K; Singh, B; Saxena, A K; Chandan, B K; Gupta, V N; Bhardwaj, V

    1997-10-01

    Compound I isolated from fraction TB5 of Terminalia belerica and finally identified as 3,4,5-trihydroxy benzoic acid (gallic acid) was evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced physiological and biochemical alterations in the liver. The main parameters studied were hexobarbitone-induced sleep, zoxazolamine induced paralysis, serum levels of transaminases and bilirubin. The hepatic markers assessed were lipid peroxidation, drug metabolising enzymes, glucose-6-phosphatase and triglycerides. Administration of Compound I led to significant reversal of majority of the altered parameters. Our results confirm the presence of hepatoprotective activity in altered parameters. Our results confirm the presence of hepatoprotective activity in Compound I. PMID:9425622

  15. Energy saving opportunities of energy efficient air nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slootmaekers, Tim; Slaets, Peter; Bartsoen, Tom; Malfait, Lieven; Vanierschot, Maarten

    2015-12-01

    Compressed air is a common energy medium. The production of compressed air itself is not a very efficient process. Avoiding any unnecessary losses of air can lead to large reductions in electricity consumption. Since blowing applications are one of the main domains were compressed-air is used, any reduction in the mass flow needed for operation can lead to significant energy savings. In this paper the normal volumetric flow rate and generated impact force are compared between a stepped nozzle and a so called energy saving nozzle which allows extra air from the surroundings to be entrained. These two different nozzle geometries are used in industrial blowing applications. Until now there was no study available which compares the impact forces and volumetric flow rates for these types of nozzles. The flow field of the two nozzles was calculated by CFD simulations. The impact forces and volumetric flow rates are calculated out of this flow field. Each nozzle was simulated with three different input pressures. The nozzles were simulated with an input pressure of 3, 4 and 5 barg. The energy saving nozzle consumes only 1 % less volumetric flow rate then the stepped nozzle at the same inlet pressure. The replacement of a stepped nozzle with an energy saving nozzle will not immediately result in a decrease in input volumetric flow rate. The pressure at the inlet of the energy saving nozzle has to be reduced as well. After reducing the input pressure the energy saving nozzle generates the same impact force than the stepped nozzle. Hereby a decrease of 4.5 % in input volumetric flow rate was possible. The energy cost will decrease with 4.5 % as well because the normal volumetric flow rate is directly proportional to the energy cost. The replacement of a stepped nozzle with an energy saving nozzle while maintaining the same inlet pressure is only useful when the impact force from the stepped nozzle is not sufficient. The energy saving nozzle can generate 5.6 % more impact

  16. Delivering energy savings through community-based Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, David

    2010-11-15

    To achieve greater energy savings through energy efficiency programs, participation in those programs must increase. Community-based organizations provide a potentially effective way to reach more residential and small commercial consumers and increase the adoption of energy efficiency measures. (author)

  17. 48 CFR 23.205 - Energy-savings performance contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.205 Energy-savings... savings that result. (2) Except as provided in 10 CFR 436.34, ESPC's are subject to subpart 17.1. (c)...

  18. Intrinsic Changes: Energy Saving Behaviour among Resident University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Rosemary; Davidson, Penny; Retra, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that explored the effectiveness of three intervention strategies in facilitating energy saving behaviour among resident undergraduate university students. In contrast to a dominant practice of motivating with rewards or competition this study sought to appeal to students' intrinsic motivations. An…

  19. Compact cities: energy saving strategies for the eighties

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    This report is concerned with energy and urban form. One specific focus is on energy-saving land use patterns: how to halt urban sprawl with its excessive energy consumption. The second focus is on appropriate renewable energy sources and conservation incentives for cities.

  20. Geothermal energy savings for a New Zealand alfalfa drying plant

    SciTech Connect

    van de Wydeven, F.; Freeston, D.H.

    1980-12-01

    The existing alfalfa drying plant was analyzed to determine the efficiency and cost of energy use per unit of production. Further studies are reported of possibilities for energy savings both in the existing plant and in the future development which will incorporate a second dryer and treble the output. (MHR)

  1. An evaluation of the Fort Polk energy savings performance contract

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.J.; Shonder, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    The US Army, in cooperation with an energy services company (ESCO), used private capital to retrofit 4,003 family housing units on the Fort Polk, Louisiana, military base with geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). The project was performed under an energy savings performance contract (ESPC) that provides for the Army and the ESCO to share the cost savings realized through the energy retrofit over the 20-year life of the contract. Under the terms of the contract, the ESCO is responsible for maintaining the GHPs and provides ongoing measurement and verification (M and V) to assure cost and energy savings to the Army. An independent evaluation conducted by the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory indicates that the GHP systems in combination with other energy retrofit measures have reduced annual whole-community electrical consumption by 33%, and natural gas consumption by 100%. These energy savings correspond to an estimated reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions of 22,400 tons per year. Peak electrical demand has been reduced by 43%. The electrical energy and demand savings correspond to an improvement in the whole-community annual electric load factor from 0.52 to 0.62. As a result of the project, Fort Polk saves about $450,000 annually and benefits from complete renewal of the major energy consuming systems in family housing and maintenance of those systems for 20 years. Given the magnitude of the project, the cost and energy savings achieved, and the lessons learned during its design and implementation, the Fort Polk ESPC can provide a model for other housing-related energy savings performance contracts in both the public and private sectors.

  2. A novel hepatoprotective saponin from Celosia cristata L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Lou, Ziyang; Wu, Qing-Bin; Guo, Mei-Li

    2010-12-01

    A new saponin, cristatain (1), together with four other saponins, celosin A (2), celosin B (3), celosin C (4) and celosin D (5) were isolated from the seeds of Celosia cristata L. (Amaranthaceae). Their structures were established by chemical and spectroscopic analyses. For the first time, the saponins were found in C. cristata L. In addition, compound 1 exhibited significant hepatoprotective effect on carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))- and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice, which were evidenced by significant decreases in the values of asparate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of serum and histopathological examinations compared to controls. PMID:20804825

  3. Hepatoprotective diterpenoids from the roots of Salvia grandifolia.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jie; Zhang, Ting; Li, Li; Sun, Hua; Wang, Ding-Ding; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2016-05-01

    One new diterpenoid, grandifolia G (1), together with a known diterpenoid (6,7,8,8a-tetrahydro-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxonaphtho[1,8-bc]furan-3-yl)-4-methylfuran-3-carboxylic acid (2), was isolated from 70% EtOH extract of root of Salvia grandifolia. Their structures were determined by UV, IR, HRESIMS, NMR spectra. Compounds 1 and 2 (10 μM) exhibited hepatoprotective activities (61 and 55%) against DL-galactosamine-induced cell damage in HL-7702 cells. PMID:27086714

  4. An Investigation on the Energy Saving Potential of Electromagnetic Ballast Fluorescent Lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Z. X.; Barsoum, N. N.

    2009-08-01

    Energy saving issue is a matter of great concern for industry and electrical utilities. Energy saving from fluorescent lamp system can be achieved by means of optimizing lighting level, reducing power consumption and improving the efficiency of fluorescent lamps. This paper presents an alternative energy saving control method for electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps. Non-linearity characteristics of fluorescent lamps and the effect of energy saving controller are taken into account in the proposed energy saving controller. The proposed energy saving controller provides energy saving feature and dimmable illuminance level control for electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps. In comparison to electronic ballast, integration of an energy saving controller with electromagnetic ballast results in less power consumption, less green house gas emission and longer lifespan at a much lower installation cost. Experiment results based on the proposed controller showed that 37.5% energy can be saved by reducing 15% of the AC line voltage.

  5. Review of natural products with hepatoprotective effects.

    PubMed

    Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Álvarez-González, Isela; Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; Bautista, Mirandeli; Morales-González, Ángel; García-Luna y González-Rubio, Manuel; Aguilar-Faisal, J Leopoldo; Morales-González, José A

    2014-10-28

    The liver is one of the most important organs in the body, performing a fundamental role in the regulation of diverse processes, among which the metabolism, secretion, storage, and detoxification of endogenous and exogenous substances are prominent. Due to these functions, hepatic diseases continue to be among the main threats to public health, and they remain problems throughout the world. Despite enormous advances in modern medicine, there are no completely effective drugs that stimulate hepatic function, that offer complete protection of the organ, or that help to regenerate hepatic cells. Thus, it is necessary to identify pharmaceutical alternatives for the treatment of liver diseases, with the aim of these alternatives being more effective and less toxic. The use of some plants and the consumption of different fruits have played basic roles in human health care, and diverse scientific investigations have indicated that, in those plants and fruits so identified, their beneficial effects can be attributed to the presence of chemical compounds that are called phytochemicals. The present review had as its objective the collecting of data based on research conducted into some fruits (grapefruit, cranberries, and grapes) and plants [cactus pear (nopal) and cactus pear fruit, chamomile, silymarin, and spirulina], which are consumed frequently by humans and which have demonstrated hepatoprotective capacity, as well as an analysis of a resin (propolis) and some phytochemicals extracted from fruits, plants, yeasts, and algae, which have been evaluated in different models of hepatotoxicity. PMID:25356040

  6. Review of natural products with hepatoprotective effects

    PubMed Central

    Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Álvarez-González, Isela; Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; Bautista, Mirandeli; Morales-González, Ángel; García-Luna y González-Rubio, Manuel; Aguilar-Faisal, J Leopoldo; Morales-González, José A

    2014-01-01

    The liver is one of the most important organs in the body, performing a fundamental role in the regulation of diverse processes, among which the metabolism, secretion, storage, and detoxification of endogenous and exogenous substances are prominent. Due to these functions, hepatic diseases continue to be among the main threats to public health, and they remain problems throughout the world. Despite enormous advances in modern medicine, there are no completely effective drugs that stimulate hepatic function, that offer complete protection of the organ, or that help to regenerate hepatic cells. Thus, it is necessary to identify pharmaceutical alternatives for the treatment of liver diseases, with the aim of these alternatives being more effective and less toxic. The use of some plants and the consumption of different fruits have played basic roles in human health care, and diverse scientific investigations have indicated that, in those plants and fruits so identified, their beneficial effects can be attributed to the presence of chemical compounds that are called phytochemicals. The present review had as its objective the collecting of data based on research conducted into some fruits (grapefruit, cranberries, and grapes) and plants [cactus pear (nopal) and cactus pear fruit, chamomile, silymarin, and spirulina], which are consumed frequently by humans and which have demonstrated hepatoprotective capacity, as well as an analysis of a resin (propolis) and some phytochemicals extracted from fruits, plants, yeasts, and algae, which have been evaluated in different models of hepatotoxicity. PMID:25356040

  7. Evaluation of the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of Rubus parvifolius L.*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Sun, Cui-rong; Yang, Jie-hong; Shi, Jian-mei; Du, Yue-guang; Zhang, Yu-yan; Li, Jin-hui; Wan, Hai-tong

    2011-01-01

    The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the n-butanol extract of Rubus parvifolius L. (RPL), a widely used medicinal plant, were evaluated. Results demonstrated that RPL extract possessed pronounced hepatoprotective effects against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury in mice, which was at least partially attributed to its strong antioxidant capacity. Treatment with RPL extract markedly attenuated the increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels caused by CCl4 intoxication. It also significantly prevented the decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content of liver tissue. Meanwhile, histopathological changes of hepatic damage were also remarkably ameliorated. Phytochemical analysis based on high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) revealed the presence of various phenolic compounds, including caffeic acid conjugates, ellagic acid glycosides, and flavonol glycosides, which might be responsible for the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of RPL. PMID:21265045

  8. Aerodynamic Drag and Drag Reduction: Energy and Energy Savings (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    An assessment of the role of fluid dynamic resistance and/or aerodynamic drag and the relationship to energy use in the United States is presented. Existing data indicates that up to 25% of the total energy consumed in the United States is used to overcome aerodynamic drag, 27% of the total energy used in the United States is consumed by transportation systems, and 60% of the transportation energy or 16% of the total energy consumed in the United States is used to overcome aerodynamic drag in transportation systems. Drag reduction goals of 50% are proposed and discussed which if realized would produce a 7.85% total energy savings. This energy savings correlates to a yearly cost savings in the $30Billion dollar range.

  9. Energy saving through trail following in a marine snail.

    PubMed

    Davies, Mark S; Blackwell, Janine

    2007-05-01

    Most snails and slugs locomote over a layer of mucus and although the resultant mucus trail is expensive to produce, we show that this expense can be reduced by trail following. When tracking over fresh conspecific trails, the marine intertidal snail Littorina littorea (L.) produced only approximately 27% of the mucus laid by marker snails. When tracking over weathered trails, snails adjusted their mucus production to recreate a convex trail profile of similar shape and thickness to the trail as originally laid. Maximum energy saving occurs when following recently laid trails which are little weathered. Many and diverse ecological roles for trail following have been proposed. Energy saving is the only role that applies across the Gastropoda and so may help to explain why trail following is such a well-established behaviour. PMID:17327203

  10. Investigating Energy-Saving Potentials in the Cloud

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Collecting webpage messages can serve as a sensor for investigating the energy-saving potential of buildings. Focusing on stores, a cloud sensor system is developed to collect data and determine their energy-saving potential. The owner of a store under investigation must register online, report the store address, area, and the customer ID number on the electric meter. The cloud sensor system automatically surveys the energy usage records by connecting to the power company website and calculating the energy use index (EUI) of the store. Other data includes the chain store check, company capital, location price, and the influence of weather conditions on the store; even the exposure frequency of store under investigation may impact the energy usage collected online. After collecting data from numerous stores, a multi-dimensional data array is constructed to determine energy-saving potential by identifying stores with similarity conditions. Similarity conditions refer to analyzed results that indicate that two stores have similar capital, business scale, weather conditions, and exposure frequency on web. Calculating the EUI difference or pure technical efficiency of stores, the energy-saving potential is determined. In this study, a real case study is performed. An 8-dimensional (8D) data array is constructed by surveying web data related to 67 stores. Then, this study investigated the savings potential of the 33 stores, using a site visit, and employed the cloud sensor system to determine the saving potential. The case study results show good agreement between the data obtained by the site visit and the cloud investigation, with errors within 4.17%. Among 33 the samples, eight stores have low saving potentials of less than 5%. The developed sensor on the cloud successfully identifies them as having low saving potential and avoids wasting money on the site visit. PMID:24561405

  11. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio-Frequency Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Shulman, Holly S.; Allan, Shawn M.

    2009-11-11

    This Inventions and Innovations program supported the technical and commercial research and development needed to elevate Ceralink's energy saving process for flat glass lamination from bench scale to a self-supporting technology with significant potential for growth. Radio-frequency heating was any un-explored option for laminating glass prior to this program. With significant commercial success through time and energy savings in the wood, paper, and plastics industries, RF heating was found to have significant promise for the energy intensive glass lamination industry. A major technical goal of the program was to demonstrate RF lamination across a wide range of laminate sizes and materials. This was successfully accomplished, dispelling many skeptics' concerns about the abilities of the technology. Ceralink laminated panels up to 2 ft x 3 ft, with four sets processed simultaneously, in a 3 minute cycle. All major categories of interlayer materials were found to work with RF lamination. In addition to laminating glass, other materials including photovoltaic silicon solar cells, light emitting diodes, metallized glass, plastics (acrylic and polycarbonate), and ceramics (alumina) were found compatible with the RF process. This opens up a wide range of commercial opportunities beyond the initially targeted automotive industry. The dramatic energy savings reported for RF lamination at the bench scale were found to be maintained through the scale up of the process. Even at 2 ft x 3 ft panel sizes, energy savings are estimated to be at least 90% compared to autoclaving or vacuum lamination. With targeted promotion through conference presentations, press releases and internet presence, RF lamination has gained significant attention, drawing large audiences at American Ceramic Society meetings. The commercialization success of the project includes the establishment of a revenue-generating business model for providing process development and demonstrations for potential RF

  12. Investigating energy-saving potentials in the cloud.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Collecting webpage messages can serve as a sensor for investigating the energy-saving potential of buildings. Focusing on stores, a cloud sensor system is developed to collect data and determine their energy-saving potential. The owner of a store under investigation must register online, report the store address, area, and the customer ID number on the electric meter. The cloud sensor system automatically surveys the energy usage records by connecting to the power company website and calculating the energy use index (EUI) of the store. Other data includes the chain store check, company capital, location price, and the influence of weather conditions on the store; even the exposure frequency of store under investigation may impact the energy usage collected online. After collecting data from numerous stores, a multi-dimensional data array is constructed to determine energy-saving potential by identifying stores with similarity conditions. Similarity conditions refer to analyzed results that indicate that two stores have similar capital, business scale, weather conditions, and exposure frequency on web. Calculating the EUI difference or pure technical efficiency of stores, the energy-saving potential is determined. In this study, a real case study is performed. An 8-dimensional (8D) data array is constructed by surveying web data related to 67 stores. Then, this study investigated the savings potential of the 33 stores, using a site visit, and employed the cloud sensor system to determine the saving potential. The case study results show good agreement between the data obtained by the site visit and the cloud investigation, with errors within 4.17%. Among 33 the samples, eight stores have low saving potentials of less than 5%. The developed sensor on the cloud successfully identifies them as having low saving potential and avoids wasting money on the site visit. PMID:24561405

  13. The Energy Savings in Reroll Casting From Primary Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. F.; Fitzpatrick, N. P.

    1981-11-01

    Recent developments in the continuous casting of strip by belt casting, associated with the primary production of aluminum, offer substantial advantages in energy saving, through the direct conversion of molten metal into strip and through the reduction of melt loss. The total energy content (electrical and thermal) of the continuous casting route is compared to that involved in the conventional ingot casting and hot-rolling route for a typical semi-fabricated product.

  14. A preliminary review of energy savings from EADC plant audits

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Kinzey, B.R.; Kaae, P.S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the long-term energy savings attributed to industrial plant energy audits conducted under the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADC) Program. By the end of FY91, this program is expected to have performed over 3600 plant energy audits since it began in late 1976. During FY91, 500 of the 3600 are expected to be completed. Currently, 18 universities participate in the program. DOE's expansion plan, as specified in the National Energy Strategy, calls for adding three universities to the program during FY92. This review, requested by the OIT as part of their program planning effort, is preliminary and limited in scope. The primary purpose of this paper is to independently assess the accuracy of past energy savings reporting, specifically: whether a 2-year assessment horizon for identifying implemented ECOs captures all the ECOs implemented under the program whether the number of implemented ECOs and thus, the energy savings associated with program audits, significantly decrease in years 3 through 7 after the audit.

  15. A preliminary review of energy savings from EADC plant audits

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Kinzey, B.R.; Kaae, P.S.

    1993-03-01

    This paper reviews the long-term energy savings attributed to industrial plant energy audits conducted under the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADC) Program. By the end of FY91, this program is expected to have performed over 3600 plant energy audits since it began in late 1976. During FY91, 500 of the 3600 are expected to be completed. Currently, 18 universities participate in the program. DOE`s expansion plan, as specified in the National Energy Strategy, calls for adding three universities to the program during FY92. This review, requested by the OIT as part of their program planning effort, is preliminary and limited in scope. The primary purpose of this paper is to independently assess the accuracy of past energy savings reporting, specifically: whether a 2-year assessment horizon for identifying implemented ECOs captures all the ECOs implemented under the program whether the number of implemented ECOs and thus, the energy savings associated with program audits, significantly decrease in years 3 through 7 after the audit.

  16. Decreased apoptosis during CAR-mediated hepatoprotection against lithocholic acid-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Beilke, Lisa D; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Olson, Erik R; Besselsen, David G; Klaassen, Curtis D; Dvorak, Katerina; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2009-07-10

    Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) is an anti-apoptotic protein that is regulated by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Activation of CAR can protect the liver against bile acid-induced toxicity and it may have a role in cell death via apoptosis by altering expression of Bcl-2 family proteins such as myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1). Our aim was to determine if activation of CAR reduces hepatocellular apoptosis during cholestasis as a mechanism of hepatoprotection. CAR(+/+) (WT) and CAR(-/-) (CAR-null) mice were pre-treated with compounds known to activate CAR prior to induction of intrahepatic cholestasis using the secondary bile acid lithocholic acid (LCA). Pre-treatment with the CAR activators phenobarbital (PB) and TCPOBOP (TC), as well as the non-CAR activator pregnenolone 16alpha-carbontrile (PCN), protected against LCA-induced liver injury in WT mice, whereas liver injury was more extensive without CAR (CAR-null). Unexpectedly, expression of anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 and Bcl-x(L) was not increased in hepatoprotected mice. Compared to unprotected groups, apoptosis was decreased in hepatoprotected mice as evidenced by the absence of cleaved caspase 3 (cCasp3). In contrast to the cytoplasmic localization in the injured livers (LCA and oltipraz), Mcl-1 protein was localized in the nucleus of hepatoprotected livers to potentially promote cell survival. This study demonstrates that although apoptosis is reduced in hepatoprotected mice pre-treated with CAR and non-CAR activators; hepatoprotection is not directly a result of CAR-induced Mcl-1 expression. PMID:19433268

  17. Hepatoprotective constituents of Firmiana simplex stem bark against ethanol insult to primary rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Wha; Yang, Heejung; Cho, Namki; Kim, Bitnarae; Kim, Young Choong; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ethanol causes hepatic cellular damage by alterations in biological functions. This study evaluated the hepatoprotective potential of the methanolic extract originating from Firmiana simplex (Sterculiaceae) stem bark against the ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rat primary hepatocytes. Materials and Methods: The extract of F. simplex stem bark was successively fractionated into n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol. Column chromatography with silica gel and sephadex LH-20 was used to isolate the EtOAc fraction. Rat primary hepatocytes were cultured to study the hepatoprotective activity of isolated substances against ethanol-induced toxicity. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, the antioxidant activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) enzymes, and the GSH content were measured to examine the antioxidative property of the isolated compounds. Results: Two flavonoid glycosides, quercitrin (1) and tamarixetin 3-O-rhamnopyranoside (2), were isolated from the active EtOAc fraction. Compound 1 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced oxidative stress by reducing the intracellular ROS level and preserving antioxidative defense systems such as GR, GSH-PX, and total GSH. Conclusion: This is the first report on the hepatoprotective activities of the extract of F. simplex. The EtOAc fraction of F. simplex stem bark and its major constituent quercitrin (1) could function as hepatoprotective agents to attenuate the development of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:25709211

  18. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment cost and pay back periods were calculated.

  19. Energy savings in aluminum production, use, and recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, A.S.

    1983-07-01

    Aluminum and energy have been intertwined since the initial isolation of the metal from its ore, and industry growth has depended on great quantities of inexpensive, available energy. In response to the modern need, the industry has significantly decreased the energy required for the chemical steps in aluminum production. That aggressive effort is catalogued here. The energy saving potential of a new smelting process is mentioned. The tremendous energy reduction achieved by recycling and improved design of the aluminum beverage can is detailed, and the potential for similar advantages for other products is presented. Finally, the important role of light weight aluminum in decreasing the nation's energy requirement for transportation is discussed.

  20. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment costmore » and pay back periods were calculated.« less

  1. New Energy-Saving Technologies Use Induction Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F.

    1982-01-01

    Two energy-saving technologies tested recently at Marshall Space Flight Center use an induction motor operated in reverse (as an induction generator). In the first, energy ordinarily dissipated during load testing of machinery is recovered and returned to powerline. In the second, efficiency of wind-driven induction generator is improved, and useful range of windspeed is broadened. Both technologies take advantage of ac voltage developed across terminals of an induction motor when rotated at higher than-synchronous speed in the direction it normally turns when power is appled.

  2. Energy-Saving Topology Control for Heterogeneous Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Xuehui

    Topology control with per-node transmission power adjustment in wireless ad hoc networks has been shown to be effective with respect to prolonging network lifetime and increasing network capacity. In this paper, we propose a fully distributed, asynchronous and localized energy-saving topology control algorithm for heterogeneous ad hoc networks with non-uniform transmission ranges. We prove the topology derived from the algorithm preserves the network connectivity and bi-directionality. It need not the position system support and dramatically reduces the communication overhead compared to other topology control algorithms. Simulation results show the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm.

  3. Hepatoprotective activity of twelve novel 7'-hydroxy lignan glucosides from Arctii Fructus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-Nan; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Feng, Zi-Ming; Jiang, Jian-Shuang; Zhang, Pei-Cheng

    2014-09-17

    Twelve novel 7'-hydroxy lignan glucosides (1-12), including two benzofuran-type neolignans, two 8-O-4' neolignans, two dibenzylbutyrolactone lignans, and six tetrahydrofuranoid lignans, together with six known lignan glucosides (13-18), were isolated from the fruit of Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), commonly known as Arctii Fructus. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopy (1D and 2D NMR, MS, IR, ORD, and UV) and on the basis of chemical evidence. The absolute configurations of compounds 1-12 were confirmed using rotating frame nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy (ROESY), the circular dichroic (CD) exciton chirality method, and Rh2(OCOCF3)4-induced CD spectrum analysis. All of the isolated compounds were tested for hepatoprotective effects against D-galactosamine-induced cytotoxicity in HL-7702 hepatic cells. Compounds 1, 2, 7-12, and 17 showed significantly stronger hepatoprotective activity than the positive control bicyclol at a concentration of 1 × 10(-5) M. PMID:25180661

  4. Energy-saving approaches to solid state street lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitta, Pranciškus; Stanikūnas, Rytis; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Reklaitis, Ignas; Stonkus, Andrius; Petrulis, Andrius; Vaitkevičius, Henrikas; Žukauskas, Artūras

    2011-10-01

    We consider the energy-saving potential of solid-state street lighting due to improved visual performance, weather sensitive luminance control and tracking of pedestrians and vehicles. A psychophysical experiment on the measurement of reaction time with a decision making task was performed under mesopic levels of illumination provided by a highpressure sodium (HPS) lamp and different solid-state light sources, such as daylight and warm-white phosphor converted light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and red-green-blue LED clusters. The results of the experiment imply that photopic luminances of road surface provided by solid-state light sources with an optimized spectral power distribution might be up to twice as low as those provided by the HPS lamp. Dynamical correction of road luminance against road surface conditions typical of Lithuanian climate was estimated to save about 20% of energy in comparison with constant-level illumination. The estimated energy savings due to the tracking of pedestrians and vehicles amount at least 25% with the cumulative effect of intelligent control of at least 40%. A solid-state street lighting system with intelligent control was demonstrated using a 300 m long test ground consisting of 10 solid-state street luminaires, a meteorological station and microwave motion sensor network operated via power line communication.

  5. An Energy Saving System for a Beam Pumping Unit

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Hongqiang; Liu, Jun; Han, Jiuqiang; Jiang, An

    2016-01-01

    Beam pumping units are widely used in the oil production industry, but the energy efficiency of this artificial lift machinery is generally low, especially for the low-production well and high-production well in the later stage. There are a number of ways for energy savings in pumping units, with the periodic adjustment of stroke speed and rectification of balance deviation being two important methods. In the paper, an energy saving system for a beam pumping unit (ESS-BPU) based on the Internet of Things (IoT) was proposed. A total of four types of sensors, including load sensor, angle sensor, voltage sensor, and current sensor, were used to detect the operating conditions of the pumping unit. Data from these sensors was fed into a controller installed in an oilfield to adjust the stroke speed automatically and estimate the degree of balance in real-time. Additionally, remote supervision could be fulfilled using a browser on a computer or smartphone. Furthermore, the data from a practical application was recorded and analyzed, and it can be seen that ESS-BPU is helpful in reducing energy loss caused by unnecessarily high stroke speed and a poor degree of balance. PMID:27187402

  6. Energy Savings Assessment for Digital-to-Analog Converter Boxes

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Hoi Ying Iris; Meier, Alan; Brown, Richard

    2011-01-18

    The Digital Television (DTV) Converter Box Coupon Program was administered by the U.S. government to subsidize purchases of digital-to-analog converter boxes, with up to two $40 coupons for each eligible household. In order to qualify as Coupon Eligible Converter Boxes (CECBs), these devices had to meet a number of minimum performance specifications, including energy efficiency standards. The Energy Star Program also established voluntary energy efficiency specifications that are more stringent than the CECB requirements. In this study, we measured the power and energy consumptions for a sample of 12 CECBs (including 6 Energy Star labeled models) in-use in homes and estimated aggregate energy savings produced by the energy efficiency policies. Based on the 35 million coupons redeemed through the end of the program, our analysis indicates that between 2500 and 3700 GWh per year are saved as a result of the energy efficiency policies implemented on digital-to-analog converter boxes. The energy savings generated are equivalent to the annual electricity use of 280,000 average US homes.

  7. An Energy Saving System for a Beam Pumping Unit.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hongqiang; Liu, Jun; Han, Jiuqiang; Jiang, An

    2016-01-01

    Beam pumping units are widely used in the oil production industry, but the energy efficiency of this artificial lift machinery is generally low, especially for the low-production well and high-production well in the later stage. There are a number of ways for energy savings in pumping units, with the periodic adjustment of stroke speed and rectification of balance deviation being two important methods. In the paper, an energy saving system for a beam pumping unit (ESS-BPU) based on the Internet of Things (IoT) was proposed. A total of four types of sensors, including load sensor, angle sensor, voltage sensor, and current sensor, were used to detect the operating conditions of the pumping unit. Data from these sensors was fed into a controller installed in an oilfield to adjust the stroke speed automatically and estimate the degree of balance in real-time. Additionally, remote supervision could be fulfilled using a browser on a computer or smartphone. Furthermore, the data from a practical application was recorded and analyzed, and it can be seen that ESS-BPU is helpful in reducing energy loss caused by unnecessarily high stroke speed and a poor degree of balance. PMID:27187402

  8. Energy Savings from GSA's National Deep Retrofit Program

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, John A

    2014-09-01

    Under its National Deep Energy Retrofit (NDER) program, the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) awarded 10 ESPC projects with the objectives of using innovative technologies and renewable energy technologies, and moving buildings toward net zero energy consumption. This report analyzes data on energy savings from the 10 NDER projects, and compares them with the savings of a sample of other recently awarded Federal ESPC projects. It is shown that by emphasizing the need for deeper energy savings, and by the establishment of a central Project Management Office (PMO) to provide authoritative contracting, technical and pricing assistance, the NDER projects achieved an average level of savings more than twice that of the other Federal ESPC projects. The level of savings achieved in each project seems to be dependent more on the availability of ECMs at the site than on energy price, energy cost per square foot, pre-retrofit EUI or the length of the contract term. This suggests that GSA can achieve similar results in a wide variety of building

  9. Incorporating Non-energy Benefits into Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Gilligan, Donald; Singer, Terry

    2012-06-01

    This paper evaluates the issue of non-energy benefits within the context of the U.S. energy services company (ESCO) industry?a growing industry comprised of companies that provide energy savings and other benefits to customers through the use of performance-based contracting. Recent analysis has found that ESCO projects in the public/institutional sector, especially at K-12 schools, are using performance-based contracting, at the behest of the customers, to partially -- but not fully -- offset substantial accumulated deferred maintenance needs (e.g., asbestos removal, wiring) and measures that have very long paybacks (roof replacement). This trend is affecting the traditional economic measures policymakers use to evaluate success on a benefit to cost basis. Moreover, the value of non-energy benefits which can offset some or all of the cost of the non-energy measures -- including operations and maintenance (O&M) savings, avoided capital costs, and tradable pollution emissions allowances-- are not always incorporated into a formal cost-effectiveness analysis of ESCO projects. Nonenergy benefits are clearly important to customers, but state and federal laws that govern the acceptance of these types of benefits for ESCO projects vary widely (i.e., 0-100percent of allowable savings can come from one or more non-energy categories). Clear and consistent guidance on what types of savings are recognized in Energy Savings agreements under performance contracts is necessary, particularly where customers are searching for deep energy efficiency gains in the building sector.

  10. Study and Development of near-Infrared Reflective and Absorptive Materials for Energy Saving Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yu Xing

    Near-Infrared (NIR) materials find applications in the field of energy saving. Both NIR reflective and absorptive materials can be used as energy saving materials with different working principles. The reflective materials can reflect the NIR light preventing it from being transmitted. Silver thin films are the best option as reflective films based on its reflectivity and cost. On the other hand, NIR absorptive materials can effectively convert the absorbed NIR light from sunlight to heat or electric energy. The first part of this research explored methods of preparing silver thin films that could be processed at low cost. The second part involved the design, synthesis and characterization of nickel coordination polymers as NIR absorptive materials. In part 1, different solution based methods of preparing silver thin films were studied. A silver nanoparticles solution was used to make thin film by a spray-pyrolysis process. Another method involved the surface activation with a fluoro-compound or silver nanoparticles followed by electroless silver plating on different substrates. Both methods could be processed at low cost. The obtained silver films showed NIR reflection of 50˜90% with transmission of 15-28% in the visible region. In part 2, two Nickel coordination polymers were explored. Tetraamino compounds were used as bridging ligands to increase the scope of electronic delocalization and metal-ligand orbital overlap which would reduce the energy gap to the NIR region. As a result, both polymers showed broad NIR absorption with maximum of 835 and 880 nm, respectively. In addition, the polymer showed NIR halochromism. This ground study pointed out both Ni coordination polymers as NIR absorptive materials with NIR halochromism.

  11. Mission aware energy saving strategies for Army ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattathreya, Macam S.

    Fuel energy is a basic necessity for this planet and the modern technology to perform many activities on earth. On the other hand, quadrupled automotive vehicle usage by the commercial industry and military has increased fuel consumption. Military readiness of Army ground vehicles is very important for a country to protect its people and resources. Fuel energy is a major requirement for Army ground vehicles. According to a report, a department of defense has spent nearly $13.6 billion on fuel and electricity to conduct ground missions. On the contrary, energy availability on this plant is slowly decreasing. Therefore, saving energy in Army ground vehicles is very important. Army ground vehicles are embedded with numerous electronic systems to conduct missions such as silent and normal stationary surveillance missions. Increasing electrical energy consumption of these systems is influencing higher fuel consumption of the vehicle. To save energy, the vehicles can use any of the existing techniques, but they require complex, expensive, and time consuming implementations. Therefore, cheaper and simpler approaches are required. In addition, the solutions have to save energy according to mission needs and also overcome size and weight constraints of the vehicle. Existing research in the current literature do not have any mission aware approaches to save energy. This dissertation research proposes mission aware online energy saving strategies for stationary Army ground vehicles to save energy as well as to meet the electrical needs of the vehicle during surveillance missions. The research also proposes theoretical models of surveillance missions, fuzzy logic models of engine and alternator efficiency data, and fuzzy logic algorithms. Based on these models, two energy saving strategies are proposed for silent and normal surveillance type of missions. During silent mission, the engine is on and batteries power the systems. During normal surveillance mission, the engine is

  12. Energy conservation, energy efficiency and energy savings regulatory hypotheses - taxation, subsidies and underlying economics

    SciTech Connect

    Trumpy, T.

    1995-12-01

    More efficient use of energy resources can be promoted by various regulatory means, i.e., taxation, subsidies, and pricing. Various incentives can be provided by income and revenue tax breaks-deductible energy audit fees, energy saving investment credits, breaks for energy saving entrepreneurs, and energy savings accounts run through utility accounts. Value added and excise taxes can also be adjusted to reward energy saving investments and energy saving entrepreneurial activity. Incentives can be provided in the form of cash refunds, including trade-in-and-scrap programs and reimbursements or subsidies on audit costs and liability insurance. Pricing incentives include lower rates for less energy use, prepayment of deposit related to peak load use, electronically dispatched multiple tariffs, savings credits based on prior peak use, and subsidized {open_quotes}leasing{close_quotes} of more efficient appliances and lights. Credits, with an emphasis on pooling small loans, and 5-year energy savings contracts are also discussed.

  13. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Savings Opportunities in U.S. Petroleum Refining

    SciTech Connect

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas, representing 68% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  14. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Chemical Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. chemical manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in the production of 74 individual chemicals, representing 57% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual chemicals and for 15 subsectors of chemicals manufacturing are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  15. A CLS-based survivable and energy-saving WDM-PON architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Min; Zhong, Wen-De; Zhang, Zhenrong; Luan, Feng

    2013-11-01

    We propose and demonstrate an improved survivable and energy-saving WDM-PON with colorless ONUs. It incorporates both energy-saving and self-healing operations. A simple effective energy-saving scheme is proposed by including an energy-saving control unit in the OLT and a control unit at each ONU. The energy-saving scheme realizes both dozing and sleep (offline) modes, which greatly improves the energy-saving efficiency for WDM-PONs. An intelligent protection switching scheme is designed in the OLT, which can distinguish if an ONU is in dozing/sleep (offline) state or a fiber is faulty. Moreover, by monitoring the optical power of each channel on both working and protection paths, the OLT can know the connection status of every fiber path, thus facilitating an effective protection switching and a faster failure recovery. The improved WDM-PON architecture not only significantly reduces energy consumption, but also performs self-healing operation in practical operation scenarios. The scheme feasibility is experimentally verified with 10 Gbit/s downstream and 1.25 Gbit/s upstream transmissions. We also examine the energy-saving efficiency of our proposed energy-saving scheme by simulation, which reveals that energy saving mainly arises from the dozing mode, not from the sleep mode when the ONU is in the online state.

  16. [Energy saving and LED lamp lighting and human health].

    PubMed

    Deĭnego, V N; Kaptsov, V A

    2013-01-01

    The appearance of new sources of high-intensity with large proportion of blue light in the spectrum revealed new risks of their influence on the function of the eye and human health, especially for children and teenagers. There is an urgent need to reconsider the research methods of vision hygiene in conditions of energy-saving and LED bulbs lighting. On the basis of a systematic approach and knowledge of the newly discovered photosensitive receptors there was built hierarchical model of the interaction of "light environment - the eye - the system of formation of visual images - the hormonal system of the person - his psycho-physiological state." This approach allowed us to develop a range of risk for the negative impact of spectrum on the functions of the eye and human health, as well as to formulate the hygiene requirements for energy-efficient high-intensity light sources. PMID:24624829

  17. Measured energy savings from using night temperature setback

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Wrench, L.E.; O'Neill, P.J. ); Paton, J.B. )

    1993-01-01

    The measured energy savings resulting from using night temperature setback in typical light-construction wooden office buildings was determined. Researchers installed monitoring equipment in a six-building sample of two-story wooden buildings at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. Data obtained during both single-setting and night-setback operating modes were used to develop models of each building's heat consumption as a function of the difference between inside and outside temperature. These models were used to estimate seasonal savings that could be obtained from the use of night-setback thermostat control. The measured savings in heating energy from using night temperature setback for the six Fort Devens buildings ranged from 14% to 25%; the mean savings was 19.2%. Based on an energy cost of $0.65/therm of natural gas, the estimated average cost savings of using automatic setback thermostats in these buildings is $780 per year per building.

  18. Measured energy savings from using night temperature setback

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Wrench, L.E.; O`Neill, P.J.; Paton, J.B.

    1992-10-01

    The measured energy savings resulting from using night temperature setback in typical light-construction wooden office buildings was determined. Researchers installed monitoring equipment in a six-building sample of two-story wooden buildings at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. Data obtained during both single-setting and night-setback operating modes were used to develop models of each building`s heat consumption as a function of the difference between inside and outside temperature. These models were used to estimate seasonal savings that could be obtained from the use of night-setback thermostat control. The measured savings in heating energy from using night temperature setback for the six Fort Devens buildings ranged from 14% to 25%; the mean savings was 19.2%. Based on an energy cost of $0.65/therm of natural gas, the estimated average cost savings of using automatic setback thermostats in these buildings is $780 per year per building.

  19. Measured energy savings from using night temperature setback

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Wrench, L.E.; O'Neill, P.J. ); Paton, J.B. )

    1992-10-01

    The measured energy savings resulting from using night temperature setback in typical light-construction wooden office buildings was determined. Researchers installed monitoring equipment in a six-building sample of two-story wooden buildings at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. Data obtained during both single-setting and night-setback operating modes were used to develop models of each building's heat consumption as a function of the difference between inside and outside temperature. These models were used to estimate seasonal savings that could be obtained from the use of night-setback thermostat control. The measured savings in heating energy from using night temperature setback for the six Fort Devens buildings ranged from 14% to 25%; the mean savings was 19.2%. Based on an energy cost of $0.65/therm of natural gas, the estimated average cost savings of using automatic setback thermostats in these buildings is $780 per year per building.

  20. Measured energy savings from using night temperature setback

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Wrench, L.E.; O`Neill, P.J.; Paton, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    The measured energy savings resulting from using night temperature setback in typical light-construction wooden office buildings was determined. Researchers installed monitoring equipment in a six-building sample of two-story wooden buildings at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. Data obtained during both single-setting and night-setback operating modes were used to develop models of each building`s heat consumption as a function of the difference between inside and outside temperature. These models were used to estimate seasonal savings that could be obtained from the use of night-setback thermostat control. The measured savings in heating energy from using night temperature setback for the six Fort Devens buildings ranged from 14% to 25%; the mean savings was 19.2%. Based on an energy cost of $0.65/therm of natural gas, the estimated average cost savings of using automatic setback thermostats in these buildings is $780 per year per building.

  1. Considerations for Emerging Markets for Energy Savings Certificates

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, B.; Bird, L.; Barbose, G.

    2008-10-01

    Early experiences with energy savings certificates (ESCs) have revealed both their merit and the challenges associated with them. In the United States, there has been little activity to date, so any lessons must be drawn from experiences in Italy, the United Kingdom (UK), France, and elsewhere. The staying power of European examples, particularly in Italy, demonstrates that ESCs can help initiate more efficiency projects. Although a robust market for renewable energy certificates (RECs) has emerged in both the voluntary and policy compliance contexts in the United States, ESCs have yet to gain significant traction. This report looks at the opportunity presented by ESCs, the unique challenges they bring, a comparison with RECs that can inform expectations about ESC market development, and the solutions and best practices early ESC market experience have demonstrated. It also examines whether there are real market barriers that have kept ESCs from being adopted and what structural features are necessary to develop effective trading programs.

  2. Potential for energy savings in old and new auto engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, John R.

    1985-11-01

    This paper disucsses the potential for energy savings in the transportation sector through the use of both improved and entirely new automotive engines. Although spark-ignition and diesel internal combustion engines will remain the dominant choices for passenger-car use throughout the rest of this century, improved versions of these engines (lean-burn, low-friction spark-ignition and adiabatic, low-friction diesel engines) could, in the long term, provide a 20-30 percent improvement in fuel economy over what is currently available. The use of new materials, and modifications to both vehicle structure and vehicle transmissions may yield further improvements. Over a longer time frame, the introduction of the high-temperature gas-turbine engine and the use of new synfuels may provide further opportunities for energy conservation.

  3. Energy Savings Certificate Markets: Opportunities and Implementation Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, B.; Bird, L.; Barbose, G.

    2009-07-01

    Early experiences with energy savings certificates (ESCs) have revealed their merits and the challenges associated with them. While in the United States ESC markets have yet to gain significant traction, lessons can be drawn from early experiences in the states of Connecticut and New York, as well as from established markets in Italy, France, and elsewhere. The staying power of European examples demonstrates that ESCs can help initiate more efficiency projects. This article compares ESCs with renewable energy certificates (RECs), looks at the unique opportunities and challenges they present, and reviews solutions and best practices demonstrated by early ESC markets. Three major potential ESC market types are also reviewed: compliance, voluntary, and carbon. Additionally, factors that will benefit ESC markets in the United States are examined: new state EEPS policies, public interest in tools to mitigate climate change, and the growing interest in a voluntary market for ESCs.

  4. Energy Saving in DC Electric Railways by Battery Substation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Takeshi

    New rolling vehicles used in dc electric railways are of the regenerative type. At less busy time a part of regenerative power is not used for powering vehicles, and canceled by changed air brake. Recently, significant attention has been paid to the development of secondary batteries for hybrid and electric motorcars. The use of this battery enables reduction in electric power consumption. Because we can charge excess regenerative power and use for powering vehicles after. Before the fact we compared the actual and simulated effective coefficient of regenerative energy, we confirmed the suitability of the simulation model. In this simulation, we studied the energy-saving effect of the battery substations and determined the battery capacity at which maximum power saving is achieved. We found that the power consumption could be reduced remarkably by using a 15-20kWh battery substation.

  5. Energetic and Ecological Analysis of Energy Saving and Passive Houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanytsky, Myroslav; Sekret, Robert; Wojcikiewicz, Mariusz

    2012-06-01

    In this paper results of influence of building-installation system parameters on value of energetic coefficients were calculated. Three types of buildings (standard, energy saving and low energy) with heating surface of 100, 150 i 200 m2 were used. The above types of buildings differ on thermal barrier and heating system efficiency. The influence of the gravity and mechanical ventilation systems on the final heat energy of different kinds of houses was shown. Parameters of the certificate for energy characteristics of building were used. Mathematics models of influence of thermal barrier parameters and heating surface on the value of energy characteristics, namely final energy EF, primary energy EP and useful energy EU were established. Influence of such parameters as heating energy factors, ventilation system and energy sources on the energy efficiency improvement of buildings was analyzed. The building environmental assessment system was proposed on the base of energetic and ecological analysis of houses.

  6. Biopulping: A new energy-saving technology for papermaking

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, G.M.; Akhtar, M.; Lentz, M.J.; Kirk, T.K.; Swaney, R.; Shipley, D.F.

    1997-07-01

    Biopulping is defined as the treatment of wood chips with lignin-degrading fungi prior to pulping. Fungal pretreatment prior to mechanical pulping reduces electrical energy requirements during refining or increases mill throughput, improves paper strength, reduces the pitch content, reduces cooking time for sulfite pulping, and reduces the environmental impact of pulping. The recent work involved scaling up the biopulping process towards the industrial level, investigating both the engineering and economic feasibility of the technology. The authors envision the process to be done in either a chip-pile or silo-based system for which several factors need to be considered. These factors include the degree of decontamination, a hospitable environment for the fungus, and the overall process economics. Currently, treatment of the chips with low pressure steam is sufficient for decontamination. Furthermore, a simple, forced ventilation system can be used to maintain the proper temperature, humidity, and moisture content throughout the chip bed, thus promoting uniform growth of the fungus. The pilot-scale trial resulted in the successful treatment of 4 tons, of wood chips (dry weight basis) with results comparable to those on a laboratory scale. For mechanical pulping, a 2-week treatment results in approximately 30% energy savings that, considering the additional equipment and operating costs, results in an overall savings of $9 to $20/ton of pulp in a chip-pile system. The other benefits that biopulping confers improve the economics considerably A larger, 40-ton trial was also successful, with energy savings and paper properties comparable with the laboratory scale.

  7. LED traffic lights: New technology signals major energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, D.

    1994-12-31

    Using light-emitting diode technology to replace incandescent lamps in traffic signals promises energy savings upwards of 60 percent for each of the estimated quarter of a million controlled intersections in the United States. LED units use only 9 to 25 watts instead of the 67 to 150 watts used by each incandescent lamp. Though their first cost is relatively high, energy savings result in paybacks of 1 to 5 years. LED retrofit kits are available for red signal disks and arrows, and installations in several states have proven successful, although minor improvements are addressing concerns about varying light output and controller circuitry. Retrofitting green lamps is not yet feasible, because color standards of the Institute of Traffic Engineers cannot be met with existing LED technology. Yellow lamps have such low duty factors (they`re on only 3 percent of the time) that retrofitting with LED signals is not cost-effective. LEDs last much longer than incandescents, allowing municipalities to not only reduce their electricity bills, but to save on maintenance costs as well. As further incentive, some utilities are beginning to implement rebate programs for LED traffic signal retrofits. Full approval of LED units is still awaited from the Institute of Traffic Engineers (ITE), the standard-setting body for traffic safety devices. Local and state governments ultimately decide what specifications to require for traffic lights, and the growing body of successful field experience with LEDs appears to be raising their comfort level with the technology. The California Department of Transportation is developing an LED traffic light specification, and two California utilities, Southern California Edison and Pacific Gas and Electric, have provided rebates for some pilot installations.

  8. Structures of two new phenolic glycosides, kaempferiaosides A and B, and hepatoprotective constituents from the rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora.

    PubMed

    Chaipech, Saowanee; Morikawa, Toshio; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Pongpiriyadacha, Yutana; Hayakawa, Takao; Muraoka, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Two new phenolic glycosides, kaempferiaosides A and B were isolated from the rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora (Zingiberaceae) together with 24 known compounds. Their structures including absolute stereochemistry were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence. Among the isolates, 5,3'-dihydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone showed higher activity than silybin, a commercial hepatoprotective agent. PMID:22223376

  9. A New Octadecenoic Acid Derivative from Caesalpinia gilliesii Flowers with Potent Hepatoprotective Activity

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Samir M.; El-Haddad, Alaadin E.; El-Raey, Mohamed A.; Abd El-Khalik, Soad M.; Koheil, Mahmoud A.; Wink, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Caesalpinia gilliesii Hook is an ornamental shrub with showy yellow flowers. It was used in folk medicine due to its contents of different classes of secondary metabolites. In our previous study, dichloromethane extract of C. gilliesii flowers showed a good antioxidant activity. Aim of the Study: Isolation and identification of bioactive hepatoprotective compounds from C. gilliesii flowers dichloromethane fraction. Materials and Methods: The hepatoprotective activity of dichloromethane fraction and isolated compounds were studied in CCl4-intoxicated rat liver slices by measuring liver injury markers (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutathione [GSH]). All compounds were structurally elucidated on the basis of electron ionization-mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. Results: A new 12,13,16-trihydroxy-14(Z)-octadecenoic acid was identified in addition to the known β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl, daucosterol, isorhamnetin, isorhamnetin-3-O-rhamnoside, luteolin-7,4’-dimethyl ether, genistein-5-methyl ether, luteolin-7-O-rhamnoside, isovanillic acid, and p-methoxybenzoic acid. Dichloromethane fraction and isorhamnetin were able to significantly protect the liver against intoxication. Moreover, the dichloromethane fraction and the isolated phytosterols induced GSH above the normal level. Conclusion: The hepatoprotective activity of C. gilliesii may be attributed to its high content of phytosterols and phenolic compounds. SUMMARY Bioactive Hepatoprotective phytosterols and phenolics from chloroform extract of Caesalpinia gilliesii Abbreviations used: ALT: Alanine Aminotransferase; AST: Aspartate aminotransferase; GSH: Glutathione; SC50: Scavenging Capacity 50 (SC 50); COSY: Correlation spectroscopy; NMR: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance; CC: Column chromatography; EI-MS: Electron-impact mass spectrometry; HSQC: Heteronuclear single-quantum correlation.

  10. A Review of Hepatoprotective Plants Used in Saudi Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K.; Al-Elaiwi, Abdulrahman M.; Athar, Md Tanwir; Tariq, Mohammad; Al Eid, Ahmed; Al-Asmary, Saeed M.

    2014-01-01

    Liver disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality across the world. According to WHO estimates, about 500 million people are living with chronic hepatitis infections resulting in the death of over one million people annually. Medicinal plants serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat liver problems. Moreover herbal products have the advantage of better affordability and acceptability, better compatibility with the human body, and minimal side effects and is easier to store. In this review attempt has been made to summarize the scientific data published on hepatoprotective plants used in Saudi Arabian traditional medicine. The information includes medicinal uses of the plants, distribution in Saudi Arabia, ethnopharmacological profile, possible mechanism of action, chemical constituents, and toxicity data. Comprehensive scientific studies on safety and efficacy of these plants can revitalise the treatment of liver diseases. PMID:25587347

  11. Investigation of the Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potential of Hypericum mysorense

    PubMed Central

    Hariharapura, Raghu C.; Srinivasan, Ramamurthy; Ashok, Godavarthi; Dongre, Santoshkumar H.; Jagani, Hitesh V.; Vijayan, Pottekkad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypericum is a well-known plant genus in herbal medicine. Hypericum mysorense (Family: Hypericaceae), a plant belonging to the same genus, is well known in folklore medicine for its varied therapeutic potential. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the different parts of the plant for antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. Materials and Methods: The methanol extracts of Hypericum mysorense prepared from various parts of the plant were tested in vitro for their free radical scavenging activity against ABTS• (diammonium salt), DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), NO•, O2•− and •OH radicals, using standard systems of assays. The total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and total flavonoid content of the extracts were analyzed. Further, the leaf and flowering top extracts were tested for their in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities on Wistar rats using a carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury model. Results: The leaf and flowering top extract showed potent antioxidant activity and also possessed highest total phenolic and flavonoid content. The antioxidant activity and the total phenolic and flavonoid content present in these extracts showed a good correlation. The leaf and flowering top extracts at 200 mg/kg restored aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), alanine amino transferase (ALAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin and protein levels significantly in CCl4-intoxicated rats. The tested extracts also showed a significant (p < 0.001) reduction in 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels with an increase in SOD and CAT levels. The histopathology of liver did not show any toxicity after the treatment with the extracts. The active extracts were standardized using two marker compounds, hyperoside and rutin, which were isolated from the plant by HPLC. HPLC studies revealed that the maximum concentration of hyperoside and rutin is present in the flowering top extract. PMID

  12. Facilitating Energy Savings through Enhanced Usability of Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2011-05-23

    Residential thermostats play a key role in controlling heating and cooling systems. Occupants often find the controls of programmable thermostats confusing, sometimes leading to higher heating consumption than when the buildings are controlled manually. A high degree of usability is vital to a programmable thermostat's effectiveness because, unlike a more efficient heating system, occupants must engage in specific actions after installation to obtain energy savings. We developed a procedure for measuring the usability of thermostats and tested this methodology with 31 subjects on five thermostats. The procedure requires first identifying representative tasks associated with the device and then testing the subjects ability to accomplish those tasks. The procedure was able to demonstrate the subjects wide ability to accomplish tasks and the influence of a device's usability on success rates. A metric based on the time to accomplish the tasks and the fraction of subjects actually completing the tasks captured the key aspects of each thermostat's usability. The procedure was recently adopted by the Energy Star Program for its thermostat specification. The approach appears suitable for quantifying usability of controls in other products, such as heat pump water heaters and commercial lighting.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A ENERGY SAVING GRAIN DRYING INVENTION

    SciTech Connect

    STEVE SHIVVERS

    2005-09-30

    The project goal is to develop the world's best grain dryer, where best is defined in terms of energy efficiency, grain quality protection, and minimal environmental impact. A technique was developed to recapture enthalpy from a continuous flow drying system and to carry that energy back into the grain kernels. Process design assures that the recaptured energy is used to provide latent heat for evaporation of moisture from the kernels. Maximum kernel temperatures are tightly controlled by the design and can be selected through the system controls. The drying system process has been simulated, the mechanical design for a prototype was completed, and the prototype has been fabricated and installed. Simulation results show energy use that is a fraction of that required by the most efficient heat assisted grain dryer systems available at this time. Unfortunately, project time has expired, funding has been exhausted, and the system has yet to be fully run in order to validate the process design. Additional development work is required to run tests with the prototype, improve the simulation model, optimize the process and mechanical design, and bring this energy saving system to market.

  14. Comparison of software models for energy savings from cool roofs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    New, Joshua; Miller, William A.; Huang, Yu; Levinson, Ronnen

    2015-06-07

    For this study, a web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. RSC simulates multiple roof and attic technologies for side-by-side comparison including reflective roofs, different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. Annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance are used to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings from reduced HVAC use. While RSC reported similar cooling savingsmore » to other simulation engines, heating penalty varied significantly. RSC results show reduced cool roofing cost-effectiveness, thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC's projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus. Also included are comparisons to previous simulation-based studies, analysis of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model. Finally, radiant heat transfer and duct interaction not previously modeled is considered a major contributor to heating penalties.« less

  15. Comparison of software models for energy savings from cool roofs

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua; Miller, William A.; Huang, Yu; Levinson, Ronnen

    2015-06-07

    For this study, a web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. RSC simulates multiple roof and attic technologies for side-by-side comparison including reflective roofs, different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. Annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance are used to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings from reduced HVAC use. While RSC reported similar cooling savings to other simulation engines, heating penalty varied significantly. RSC results show reduced cool roofing cost-effectiveness, thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC's projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus. Also included are comparisons to previous simulation-based studies, analysis of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model. Finally, radiant heat transfer and duct interaction not previously modeled is considered a major contributor to heating penalties.

  16. Resonance versus aerodynamics for energy savings in agile natural flyers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kok, Jia M.; Chahl, Javaan

    2014-03-01

    Insects are the most diverse natural flyers in nature, being able to hover and perform agile manoeuvres. Dragon- flies in particular are aggressive flyers, attaining accelerations of up to 4g. Flight in all insects requires demanding aerodynamic and inertial loads be overcome. It has been proposed that resonance is a primary mechanism for reducing energy costs associated with flapping flight, by storing energy in an elastic thorax and releasing it on the following half-stroke. Certainly in insect flight motors dominated by inertial loads, such a mechanism would be extremely beneficial. However in highly manoeuvrable, aerodynamically dominated flyers, such as the dragonfly, the use of elastic storage members requires further investigation. We show that employing resonant mechanisms in a real world configuration produces minimal energy savings that are further reduced by 50 to 133% across the operational flapping frequency band of the dragonfly. Using a simple harmonic oscillator analysis to represent the dynamics of a dragonfly, we further demonstrate a reduction in manoeuvring limits of ˜1.5 times for a system employing elastic mechanisms. This is in contrast to the potential power reductions of √2/2 from regulating aerodynamics via active wing articulation. Aerodynamic means of energy storage provides flexibility between an energy efficient hover state and a manoeuvrable state capable of large accelerations. We conclude that active wing articulation is preferable to resonance for aerodynamically dominated natural flyers.

  17. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Shawn M. Allan; Patricia M. Strickland; Holly S. Shulman

    2009-11-11

    Ceralink Inc. developed FastFuse™, a rapid, new, energy saving process for lamination of glass and composites using radio frequency (RF) heating technology. The Inventions and Innovations program supported the technical and commercial research and development needed to elevate the innovation from bench scale to a self-supporting technology with significant potential for growth. The attached report provides an overview of the technical and commerical progress achieved for FastFuse™ during the course of the project. FastFuse™ has the potential to revolutionize the laminate manufacturing industries by replacing energy intensive, multi-step processes with an energy efficient, single-step process that allows higher throughput. FastFuse™ transmits RF energy directly into the interlayer to generate heat, eliminating the need to directly heat glass layers and the surrounding enclosures, such as autoclaves or vacuum systems. FastFuse™ offers lower start-up and energy costs (up to 90% or more reduction in energy costs), and faster cycles times (less than 5 minutes). FastFuse™ is compatible with EVA, TPU, and PVB interlayers, and has been demonstrated for glass, plastics, and multi-material structures such as photovoltaics and transparent armor.

  18. Comparison of Software Models for Energy Savings from Cool Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan; Miller, William A; Huang, Yu; Levinson, Ronnen

    2016-01-01

    A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. RSC simulates multiple roof and attic technologies for side-by-side comparison including reflective roofs, different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. Annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance are used to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings from reduced HVAC use. While RSC reported similar cooling savings to other simulation engines, heating penalty varied significantly. RSC results show reduced cool roofing cost-effectiveness, thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC s projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus. Also included are comparisons to previous simulation-based studies, analysis of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model. Radiant heat transfer and duct interaction not previously modeled is considered a major contributor to heating penalties.

  19. Carbon and energy saving markets in compressed air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipollone, R.

    2015-08-01

    CO2 reduction and fossil fuel saving represent two of the cornerstones of the environmental commitments of all the countries of the world. The first engagement is of a medium to long term type, and unequivocally calls for a new energetic era. The second delays in time the fossil fuel technologies to favour an energetic transition. In order to sustain the two efforts, new immaterial markets have been established in almost all the countries of the world, whose exchanges (purchases and sales) concern CO2 emissions and equivalent fossil fuels that have not been emitted or burned. This paper goes deep inside two aspects not yet exploited: specific CO2 emissions and equivalent fossil fuel burned, as a function of compressed air produced. Reference is made to the current compressor technology, carefully analysing CAGI's (Compressed Air Gas Institute) data and integrating it with the PNUEROP (European Association of manufacturers of compressors, vacuum pumps, pneumatic tools and allied equipment) contribution on the compressor European market. On the base of energy saving estimates that could be put in place, this article also estimates the financial value of the CO2 emissions and fossil fuels avoided.

  20. Calibrated energy simulations of potential energy savings in actual retail buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhafi, Zuhaira

    Retail stores are commercial buildings with high energy consumption due to their typically large volumes and long hours of operation. This dissertation assesses heating, ventilating and air conditioning saving strategies based on energy simulations with input parameters from actual retail buildings. The dissertation hypothesis is that "Retail store buildings will save a significant amount of energy by (1) modifying ventilation rates, and/or (2) resetting set point temperatures. These strategies have shown to be beneficial in previous studies. As presented in the literature review, potential energy savings ranged from 0.5% to 30% without compromising indoor thermal comfort and indoor air quality. The retail store buildings can be ventilated at rates significantly lower than rates called for in the ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010 while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. Therefore, two dissertation objectives are addressed: (1) Investigate opportunities to reduce ventilation rates that do not compromise indoor air quality in retail stores located in Central Pennsylvania, (2) Investigate opportunities to increase (in summer) and decrease (in winter) set point temperatures that do not compromise thermal comfort. This study conducted experimental measurements of ventilation rates required to maintain acceptable air quality and indoor environmental conditions requirements for two retail stores using ASHRAE Standard 62.1_2012. More specifically, among other parameters, occupancy density, indoor and outdoor pollutant concentrations, and indoor temperatures were measured continuously for one week interval. One of these retail stores were tested four times for a yearlong time period. Pollutants monitored were formaldehyde, carbon dioxide, particle size distributions and concentrations, as well as total volatile organic compounds. As a part of the base protocol, the number of occupants in each store was hourly counted during the test, and the results reveal that the occupant

  1. Comparison of Software Models for Energy Savings from Cool Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan; Miller, William A; Huang, Yu; Levinson, Ronnen

    2014-01-01

    A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs modern web technologies, usability design, and national average defaults as an interface to annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim in order to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings. In addition to cool reflective roofs, RSC simulates multiple roof and attic configurations including different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. A base case and energy-efficient alternative can be compared side-by-side to estimate monthly energy. RSC was benchmarked against field data from demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, California; while cooling savings were similar, heating penalty varied significantly across different simulation engines. RSC results reduce cool roofing cost-effectiveness thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC s projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus, and presents preliminary analyses. RSC s algorithms for capturing radiant heat transfer and duct interaction in the attic assembly are considered major contributing factors to increased cooling savings and heating penalties. Comparison to previous simulation-based studies, analysis on the force multiplier of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model are included.

  2. Energy savings through retrofits in a large medical center

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, P.F.

    1997-06-01

    A 600,000-square-foot medical center in the southeastern United States is presently undergoing major renovations which will result in savings of energy use and costs. The current project, funded for FY96 includes a number of modifications to the Heating and Cooling Plant and the hospital itself. These upgrades include: (1) High efficiency chillers, (2) Cooling tower replacement, (3) High efficiency condenser and chilled water pump motors, (4) New chilled water and condenser pumps and piping, (5) Condenser water reset controls, (6) Electricity demand reduction using gas-fired absorption chiller, (7) Secondary chilled water variable speed flow, (8) Boiler controls improvements, (9) Feedwater pump replacements, (10) Repair of air-side economizer HVAC system, (11) New 2x4 parabolic troffers with T-8 lamps and electronic ballasts, and (12) DDC controls. The current hospital energy use was modeled using Trane`s TRACE 600{reg_sign} computer simulation program to agree with recent historical energy use data. A second model was created implementing the energy conservation improvements listed above to quantify the associated energy and cost savings. Additional energy saving ideas were evaluated for cost effectiveness. These are: (1) New unattended boilers, (2) Boiler pressure reduction, (3) Boiler economizer, (4) Additional boiler controls, (5) Exhaust air heat recovery, (6) Domestic hot water decentralization, (7) Desiccant cooling, (8) Supply air reduction scheduling, (9) Compact fluorescents, (10) Variable air volume HVAC systems, and (11) Occupancy sensors. Another interesting aspect of this project was an evaluation of harmonic distortion due to electronic ballasts. Direct field measurements were made on similar lighting circuits to compare the harmonic currents generated by electronic and magnetic ballasts. A graphical as well as quantitative analysis is presented.

  3. Analysis of energy saving lamps for use by photosensitive individuals.

    PubMed

    Fenton, L; Ferguson, J; Moseley, H

    2012-08-01

    Due to European legislation, the British government has begun the phase out of incandescent bulbs, to be replaced by energy-saving alternatives. The alternatives that are available on the market are Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL), Energy-Efficient Halogens (EEH) and Light Emitting Diodes (LED). Whilst previous research has shown that CFLs emit UVC, UVB and UVA, there is conflicting data available on whether double enveloped CFLs are a safer alternative to single enveloped CFLs for individuals suffering from photosensitivity. The emission spectra of 106 single enveloped CFLs and 65 double enveloped CFLs were measured. There were 17 different models of single enveloped CFLs, including lamps from 6 different manufacturers (ranging from 8-20 W) and 9 models of double enveloped CFLs from 6 different manufacturers (7-15 W). In addition, the emission spectra of 53 LEDs and 56 EEHs were also analysed. The LEDs consisted of 8 different models, from 3 manufacturers, spanning between 2.5 and 12 W. There were 11 models of EEH from 6 different manufacturers with wattages ranging from 28-70 W. In order to reduce sample bias, some bulbs were provided by the lighting industry federation and others were purchased randomly from local retailers. The results validate previous research in that considerable variation exists in the UV emitted from CFLs. This variation in UV levels is true, not only within different makes and models but also, surprisingly, within a box of 8 seemingly identical bulbs supplied by a single manufacturer. It was concluded that double enveloped CFLs do reduce the levels of UVC and UVB and therefore are a safer alternative for photosensitive individuals. However, as some double enveloped CFLs and EEHs do emit UVA at levels that provoke a reaction in the skin of UVA sensitive individuals, newly emerging LEDs that have minimal UV levels may provide a safer alternative. PMID:22674231

  4. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Grocery Stores--50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, E. T.; Macumber, D. L.; Long, N. L.; Griffith, B. T.; Benne, K. S.; Pless, S. D.; Torcellini, P. A.

    2008-09-01

    This report provides recommendations that architects, designers, contractors, developers, owners, and lessees of grocery store buildings can use to achieve whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004.

  5. Saint-Gobain Shows the Way on Effectively Preparing for Energy Savings Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-10

    Saint-Gobain developed an approach to help guide other companies on effectively preparing for an Energy Savings Assessment in a manner that will maximize its value and ensure implementation of efficiency improvement recommendations. Learn about Saint-Gobain's approach.

  6. Alternative Energy Saving Technology Analysis Report for Richland High School Renovation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bing

    2004-08-09

    On July 8, 2004, L&S Engineering, Inc. submitted a technical assistance request to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to help estimate the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of the solar energy and daylighting design alternatives for Richland High School Renovation Project in Richland, WA. L&S Engineering expected PNNL to evaluate the potential energy savings and energy cost savings, the probable installation costs, incentives or grants to reduce the installed costs and simple payback for the following alternative measures: (1) Daylighting in New Gym; (2) Solar Photovoltaics; (3) Solar Domestic Hot Water Pre-Heat; and (4) Solar Outside Air Pre-Heat Following are the findings of the energy savings and cost-effectiveness analysis of above alternative energy saving technologies.

  7. NREL Technical Reports Guide the Way to 50% Energy Savings in Hospitals, Office Buildings (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have developed two technical reports that provide recommendations to help designers and operators of large office buildings and hospitals achieve at least a 50% energy savings using existing technology.

  8. ESPC Overview. Cash Flows, Scenarios, and Associated Diagrams for Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Tetreault, T.; Regenthal, S.

    2011-05-01

    This document is meant to inform state and local decision makers about the process of energy savings performance contracts, and how projected savings and allocated energy-related budgets can be impacted by changes in utility prices.

  9. K2 Urbancorp, LLC.: Hot, Humid Climate Region 40+% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-13

    This case study describes a community of historically inspired energy efficient homes that met the 40% whole-house source energy savings by focusing primarily on tightening the building envelope and sealing ductwork.

  10. Greater Energy Savings through Building Energy Performance Policy: Four Leading Policy and Program Options

    SciTech Connect

    SEE Action Existing Commercial Buildings Working Group

    2014-05-30

    This paper lays out recommendations for linking existing policies and developing new policies, such that their success is based on the real energy savings achieved in buildings. This approach has the potential to affect the entire building lifecycle.

  11. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings for Quick-Service Restaurants

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Schrock, D. W.; Fisher, D. R.; Livchak, A.; Zabrowski, D. A.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Liu, Bing

    2010-09-30

    Document describing PNNL's project to develop a package of energy efficiency measures that demonstrate the feasibility of achieving a 50% energy savings for quick-service restaurants with a simple payback of 5 years or less.

  12. ESPC Overview: Cash Flows, Scenarios, and Associated Diagrams for Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Tetreault, T.; Regenthal, S.

    2011-05-01

    This document is meant to inform state and local decision makers about the process of energy savings performance contracts, and how projected savings and allocated energy-related budgets can be impacted by changes in utility prices.

  13. Hepatoprotection of sesquiterpenoids: a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approach.

    PubMed

    Vinholes, Juliana; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Gonçalves, Pedro; Martel, Fátima; Coimbra, Manuel A; Rocha, Sílvia M

    2014-03-01

    The relative hepatoprotection effect of fifteen sesquiterpenoids, commonly found in plants and plant-derived foods and beverages was assessed. Endogenous lipid peroxidation (assay A) and induced lipid peroxidation (assay B) were evaluated in liver homogenates from Wistar rats by the thiobarbituric acid reactive species test. Sesquiterpenoids with different chemical structures were tested: trans,trans-farnesol, cis-nerolidol, (-)-α-bisabolol, trans-β-farnesene, germacrene D, α-humulene, β-caryophyllene, isocaryophyllene, (+)-valencene, guaiazulene, (-)-α-cedrene, (+)-aromadendrene, (-)-α-neoclovene, (-)-α-copaene, and (+)-cyclosativene. Ascorbic acid was used as a positive antioxidant control. With the exception of α-humulene, all the sesquiterpenoids under study (1mM) were effective in reducing the malonaldehyde levels in both endogenous and induced lipid peroxidation up to 35% and 70%, respectively. The 3D-QSAR models developed, relating the hepatoprotection activity with molecular properties, showed good fit (Radj(2) 0.819 and 0.972 for the assays A and B, respectively) with good prediction power (Q(2)>0.950 and SDEP<2%, for both models A and B). A network of effects associated with structural and chemical features of sesquiterpenoids such as shape, branching, symmetry, and presence of electronegative fragments, can modulate the hepatoprotective activity observed for these compounds. PMID:24176316

  14. Phytochemistry and hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. roots

    PubMed Central

    Aneja, Simran; Vats, Manisha; Aggarwal, Sushma; Sardana, Satish

    2013-01-01

    Background: The genus Amaranthus has potential activity as a hepatoprotective agent. Objective: The present pharmacological investigation focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extract of roots of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. for their protection against paracetamol (PCM) overdose induced hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of roots of A. tricolor Linn. was prepared and phytochemical screening was done. The biochemical investigation viz. serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total Bilirubin (TB) was done against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. The histopathological studies of liver were also done. Results: The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, amino acids, proteins, fixed oil, saponins and tannins, and phenolic compounds. Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of root significantly prevented the physical, biochemical, histological, and functional changes induced by paracetamol in the liver. The extract showed significant hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and TB, which was supported by histopathological studies of liver. The aqueous extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard drug silymarin as well as hepatotoxin drug PCM. Conclusion: From these results, it is concluded that the A. tricolor has potential effectiveness in treating liver damage in a dose dependent manner. PMID:24459387

  15. Using oily wastewater emulsified fuel in boiler: energy saving and reduction of air pollutant emissions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Lee, Wen-Jhy

    2008-01-01

    The limited data for using emulsified oil have demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing flue gas pollutant emissions. The presence of a high concentration of toxic organic compounds in industrial wastewaters always presents significant problems. Therefore, this study was undertaken by using wastewater with COD of 9600 mg/L and total petroleum hydrocarbons-gasoline 440 mg/L for making an emulsified oil (wastewater content 20% with 0.1% surfactant) to evaluate the extent of reductions in both criteria pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For comparison, two other systems (heavy oil fuel and water-emulsified oil) were also conducted. The wastewater-emulsified oil fuel results in significant reductions in particulate matter (PM), NO(x), SO2, and CO as compared to heavy oil fuel and similar to those from water/oil emulsified fuel; for PM, it is better in wastewater-emulsified oil. The reductions of total PAH flue gas emissions are 38 and 30% for wastewater- and water-emulsified fuel, respectively; they are 63 and 44% for total BaP(eq), respectively. In addition to reducing flue gas pollutant emissions, the results also demonstrate that the use of wastewater-emulsified fuel in boiler operation provides several advantages: (1) safe disposal of industrial wastewater; and (2) energy savings of about 13%. Thus, wastewater/oil-emulsified fuel is highly suitable for use in boilers. PMID:18350907

  16. Persistence of energy savings: What do we know and how can it be ensured?

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.

    1992-05-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework for analyzing persistence of energy savings, summarizes the limited experience of what we know about persistence, provides guidance for conducting retrospective and prospective persistence studies, and suggests strategies for ensuring persistence. Because this area of research is in its infancy, unequivocal conclusions about persistence would be premature. Accordingly, this paper provides guidance for both conducting research in this area and developing policies and mechanisms to help ensure the persistence of energy savings.

  17. Persistence of energy savings: What do we know and how can it be ensured

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.

    1992-05-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework for analyzing persistence of energy savings, summarizes the limited experience of what we know about persistence, provides guidance for conducting retrospective and prospective persistence studies, and suggests strategies for ensuring persistence. Because this area of research is in its infancy, unequivocal conclusions about persistence would be premature. Accordingly, this paper provides guidance for both conducting research in this area and developing policies and mechanisms to help ensure the persistence of energy savings.

  18. Geothermal Heat Pump Energy Savings Performance Contract at Fort Polk, LA: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Patrick; Shonder, John A; Gordon, Richard; Giffin, Tom

    1997-06-01

    At Fort Polk, Louisiana, the space-conditioning systems of 4,003 military family housing units have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures, such as compact fluorecent lights, low-flow shower heads, and attic insulation, were installed. An independent evaluation of the Fort Polk energy savings performance contract was carried out. Findings indicate that the project has resulted in a 25.6 million kWh savings in electrical energy use, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption in family housing, for a typical meteorological year. Peak electrical demand has also been reduced by about 6,761 kW, which is 40.2% of the pre-retrofit peak demand. Natural gas savings are about 260,000 therms per year. In addition, the energy savings performance contract has allowed the Army to effectively cap its future expenditures for family housing HVAC maintenance at about 77% of its previous costs. Given these successful results, the Fort Polk performance contract can provide a model for other contracts in both the public and private sectors. The purpose of this paper is to outline the method by which the contract was engineed and implemented, both from the standpoint of the facility owner (the U.S. Army) and the energy services company that is carrying out the contract. The lessons learned from this experience should be useful to other owners, service companies, and investors in the implementation of future service contracts. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the 'apparent' energy savings observed in the monitored data and not to be mistaken for the 'contract' energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the 'contracted' energy savings, the 'apparent' energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in the indoor temperature performance criteria, additions of ceiling fans, and other factors.

  19. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan; Lane, Michael D.; Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-28

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process, methodology and assumptions for development of the 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings, a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in highway lodging properties over the energy-efficiency levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  20. An energy saving mechanism of EPON networks for real time video transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chien-Ping; Wu, Ho-Ting; Chiang, Yun-Ting; Chien, Shieh-Chieh; Ke, Kai-Wei

    2015-07-01

    Modern access networks are constructed widely by passive optical networks (PONs) to meet the growing bandwidth demand. However, higher bandwidth means more energy consumption. To save energy, a few research works propose the dual-mode energy saving mechanism that allows the ONU to operate between active and sleep modes periodically. However, such dual-mode energy saving design may induce unnecessary power consumption or packet delay increase in the case where only downstream data exist for most of the time. In this paper, we propose a new tri-mode energy saving scheme for Ethernet PON (EPON). The new tri-mode energy saving design, combining the dual-mode saving mechanism with the doze mode, allows the ONU to switch among these three modes alternatively. In the doze mode, the ONU may receive downstream data while keeping its transmitter close. Such scenario is often observed for real time video downstream transmission. Furthermore, the low packet delay of high priority upstream data can be attained through the use of early wake-up mechanism employed in both energy saving modes. The energy saving and system efficiency can thus be achieved jointly while maintaining the differentiated QoS for data with various priorities. Performance results via simulation have demonstrated the effectiveness of such mechanism.

  1. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effect of Aqueous Extract of Germinated and Fermented Mung Bean on Ethanol-Mediated Liver Damage

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Ali, Norlaily; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Long, Kamariah; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Koh, Soo Peng; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2013-01-01

    Mung bean is a hepatoprotective agent in dietary supplements. Fermentation and germination processes are well recognized to enhance the nutritional values especially the concentration of active compounds such as amino acids and GABA of various foods. In this study, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of freeze-dried mung bean and amino-acid- and GABA-enriched germinated and fermented mung bean aqueous extracts were compared. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), nitric oxide (NO) levels, and serum biochemical profile such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), triglycerides (TG), and cholesterol and histopathological changes were examined for the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of these treatments. Germinated and fermented mung bean have recorded an increase of 27.9 and 7.3 times of GABA and 8.7 and 13.2 times of amino acid improvement, respectively, as compared to normal mung bean. Besides, improvement of antioxidant levels, serum markers, and NO level associated with better histopathological evaluation indicated that these extracts could promote effective recovery from hepatocyte damage. These results suggested that freeze-dried, germinated, and fermented mung bean aqueous extracts enriched with amino acids and GABA possessed better hepatoprotective effect as compared to normal mung bean. PMID:23484140

  2. Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO)

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, Jane; Schumacher, Leon

    2014-10-23

    The Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO) program brought together a team of representatives from government, academia, and private industry to enhance the availability of energy efficiency services for small livestock producers in the State of Missouri. The Missouri Department of Agriculture (MDA) managed the project via a subcontract with the University of Missouri (MU), College of Agriculture Food and Natural Resources, MU Extension, the MU College of Human Environmental Sciences, the MU College of Engineering, and the Missouri Agricultural and Small Business Development Authority (MASBDA). MU teamed with EnSave, Inc, a nationally-recognized expert in agricultural energy efficiency to assist with marketing, outreach, provision of farm energy audits and customer service. MU also teamed with independent home contractors to facilitate energy audits of the farm buildings and homes of these livestock producers. The goals of the project were to: (1) improve the environment by reducing fossil fuel emissions and reducing the total energy used on small animal farms; (2) stimulate the economy of local and regional communities by creating or retaining jobs; and (3) improve the profitability of Missouri livestock producers by reducing their energy expenditures. Historically, Missouri scientists/engineers conducted programs on energy use in agriculture, such as in equipment, grain handling and tillage practices. The MAESTRO program was the first to focus strictly on energy efficiency associated with livestock production systems in Missouri and to investigate the applicability and potential of addressing energy efficiency in animal production from a building efficiency perspective. A. Project Objectives The goal of the MAESTRO program was to strengthen the financial viability and environmental soundness of Missouri's small animal farms by helping them implement energy efficient technologies for the production facility, farm buildings

  3. A Novel Sensor Platform Matching the Improved Version of IPMVP Option C for Measuring Energy Savings

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yen-Chieh; Lee, Da-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Fang; Chang, Ching-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    It is easy to measure energy consumption with a power meter. However, energy savings cannot be directly computed by the powers measured using existing power meter technologies, since the power consumption only reflects parts of the real energy flows. The International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) was proposed by the Efficiency Valuation Organization (EVO) to quantify energy savings using four different methodologies of A, B, C and D. Although energy savings can be estimated following the IPMVP, there are limitations on its practical implementation. Moreover, the data processing methods of the four IPMVP alternatives use multiple sensors (thermometer, hygrometer, Occupant information) and power meter readings to simulate all facilities, in order to determine an energy usage benchmark and the energy savings. This study proposes a simple sensor platform to measure energy savings. Using usually the Electronic Product Code (EPC) global standard, an architecture framework for an information system is constructed that integrates sensors data, power meter readings and occupancy conditions. The proposed sensor platform is used to monitor a building with a newly built vertical garden system (VGS). A VGS shields solar radiation and saves on energy that would be expended on air-conditioning. With this platform, the amount of energy saved in the whole facility is measured and reported in real-time. The data are compared with those obtained from detailed measurement and verification (M&V) processes. The discrepancy is less than 1.565%. Using measurements from the proposed sensor platform, the energy savings for the entire facility are quantified, with a resolution of ±1.2%. The VGS gives an 8.483% daily electricity saving for the building. Thus, the results show that the simple sensor platform proposed by this study is more widely applicable than the four complicated IPMVP alternatives and the VGS is an effective tool in reducing the carbon

  4. Methods for assessing the energy-saving efficiency of industrial symbiosis in industrial parks.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenfeng; Cui, Zhaojie; Han, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The available energy resources are being depleted worldwide. Industrial symbiosis (IS) provides a promising approach for increasing the efficiency of energy utilization, with numerous studies reporting the superiority of this technology. However, studies quantifying the energy-saving efficiency of IS remain insufficient. This paper proposes an index system for the quantitative evaluation of the energy-saving efficiency of IS. Both energy-saving and financial indexes were selected, the former include the IS energy-saving index, the contribution rate of energy saved through IS, fractional energy savings, and cut rate of energy consumption per total output value; and the latter include the IS investment payback period, IS input-output ratio, net present value (NPV), and internal rate of return (IRR) of IS. The proposed methods were applied to a case study on the XF Industrial Park (XF IP), in the city of Liaocheng in Shandong Province of China. Three energy-saving channels using IS were found in the XF IP: (a) utilizing the energy of high-temperature materials among industrial processes, (b) recovering waste heat and steam between different processes, and (c) saving energy by sharing infrastructures. The results showed that the energy efficiency index of IS was 0.326, accounting for 34.6% of the comprehensive energy-saving index in 2011, and the fractional energy-savings were 12.42%. The index of energy consumption per total industrial output value varied from 90.9 tce/MRMB to 51.6 tce/MRMB. Thus, the cut rate of energy consumption per total industrial output value was 43.42%. The average values of the IS input-output ratio was 406.2 RMB/tce, 57.2% lower than the price of standard coal. Static investment payback period in the XF IP was 8.5 months, indicating that the XF IP began to earn profit 8.5 months after the construction of all IS modes. The NVP and IRR of each IS mode in the XF IP were greater than zero, with average values equal to 1,789.96 MRMB and 140

  5. Energy saving mechanisms, collective behavior and the variation range hypothesis in biological systems: A review.

    PubMed

    Trenchard, Hugh; Perc, Matjaž

    2016-09-01

    Energy saving mechanisms are ubiquitous in nature. Aerodynamic and hydrodynamic drafting, vortice uplift, Bernoulli suction, thermoregulatory coupling, path following, physical hooks, synchronization, and cooperation are only some of the better-known examples. While drafting mechanisms also appear in non-biological systems such as sedimentation and particle vortices, the broad spectrum of these mechanisms appears more diversely in biological systems that include bacteria, spermatozoa, various aquatic species, birds, land animals, semi-fluid dwellers like turtle hatchlings, as well as human systems. We present the thermodynamic framework for energy saving mechanisms, and we review evidence in favor of the variation range hypothesis. This hypothesis posits that, as an evolutionary process, the variation range between strongest and weakest group members converges on the equivalent energy saving quantity that is generated by the energy saving mechanism. We also review self-organized structures that emerge due to energy saving mechanisms, including convective processes that can be observed in many systems over both short and long time scales, as well as high collective output processes in which a form of collective position locking occurs. PMID:27288936

  6. Design of energy-saving control system for LED street lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xiao; Jin, Wenguang

    2013-10-01

    Based on the energy-saving and safe-driving requirements of road lighting, a kind of energy-saving system is proposed for street lamps in this paper, which is handled by two controllers. At daybreak and dusk, the lamps are turned on or off according to local sunrise and sunset. And at night, it is controlled by a fuzzy controller. Traffic flow and its variation rate, the highest road speed limit are taken as the inputs of the controller, at the same time, the lighting comfort and the experience of driver are defined as the fuzzy sets and control rules. LED lamps are used in the system as illuminant. The numerical simulation in MATLAB and analysis on the practical measured data show that the system is effective in energy-saving for road lighting.

  7. Study of State Energy Conservation Program: 1979 energy savings indicators. [Estimated Btu's and dollars

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    This study reviewed 1979 energy savings reports provided by states for conservation measures in four major categories of State Energy Conservation Program services, namely: (1) industrial, commercial, and institutional; (2) residential; (3) thermal and lighting; and (4) transportation. Conservation measures in these categories constitute a major portion of the total estimated 1980 savings for the State Energy Conservation Program. This study only addressed measures in these categories for which usable documentation had been submitted by states. Based on a review of measures supported by available documentation, the study estimates that energy savings associated with the conservation measures reviewed were 108 TBtu's for the calendar year 1979. These estimated energy savings for 1979 were converted into 540 million dollars for 1979 and 2.8 billion dollars over the projected life of the conservation measures.

  8. Energy savings from repair of uncontrolled airflow in 18 small commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Withers, C.R. Jr.; Cummings, J.B.; Fairey, P.W.; McKendry, B.B.; Moyer, N.A.

    1996-12-31

    Uncontrolled airflow, including duct leakage, pressure imbalances caused by closed interior doors, and exhaust/intake airflow imbalance, was characterized in 70 commercial buildings. In 18 of these buildings, uncontrolled airflows were repaired and energy savings from these repairs were monitored. In most buildings, the retrofit was duct repair. In other cases, outdoor airflow was reduced and return air transfers were provided. Cooling energy use was reduced by an average 15.1% in these 18 buildings. With an average repair cost of $455 and average cooling energy savings of $195 per year, uncontrolled airflow retrofits proved to be very cost-effective. Various factors indicate that greater energy savings could be achieved in the future.

  9. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. pulp and paper manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas, representing 52% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity

  10. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Iron and Steel Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Jamison, Caroline Kramer, Sabine Brueske, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. iron and steel manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas and select subareas, representing 82% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes and subareas are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  11. A study on energy saving rate for variable speed condition of multistage centrifugal pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Sang-Ho; Rakibuzzaman; Kim, Kyung-Wuk; Kim, Hyoung-Ho; Yoon, In Sik; Cho, Min-Tae

    2015-11-01

    Centrifugal pumps are being widely used in many industrial and commercial applications. Many of these pumps are being operated at constant speed but could provide energy savings through adjustable speed operations. The purpose of this study was to get the energy saving rates of the multistage centrifugal pump with variable speed conditions. For this investigation an experimental set up of variable flow and pressure system was made to get energy saving rates and numerical analyses are applied to validate the pump performance. The energy saving and therefore the cost saving depends on the specific duty cycle of which the machine operates. Duty cycle is the proportion of time during which a component, device and system is operated. The duty cycle segmented into different flow rates and weighting the average value for each segment by the interval time. The system was operated at 50% or less of the pump capacity. The input power of the system was carried out by pump characteristics curve of each operating point. The energy consumption was done by the product of specific duty cycle and the input power of the system for constant speed and variable speed drive operation. The total energy consumed for constant speed drive pump was 75,770 kW.hr and for variable speed drive pump was 31,700 kW.hr. The total energy saving of the system was 44,070 kW.hr or 58.16% annually. So, this paper suggests a method of implementing an energy saving on variable-flow and pressure system of the multistage centrifugal pump.

  12. Geothermal heat pump energy savings performance contract at Fort Polk, LA: Lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.; Gordon, R.; Giffin, T.

    1997-08-01

    At Fort Polk, LA the space conditioning systems of 4,003 military family housing units have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHP) under an energy savings performance contract (ESPC). At the same time, other efficiency measures, such as compact fluorescent lights (CFLs), low-flow shower heads, and attic insulation, were installed. An independent evaluation of the Fort Polk ESPC was carried out. Findings indicate that the project has resulted in a 25.6 million kWh savings in electrical energy use, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption in family housing, for a typical meteorological year. Peak electrical demand has also been reduced by 6,541 kW, which is 39.6% of the pre-retrofit peak demand. Natural gas savings are about 260,000 therms per year. In addition, the ESPC has allowed the Army to effectively cap its future expenditures for family housing HVAC maintenance at about 77% of its previous costs. Given these successful results, the Fort Polk ESPC can provide a model for other ESPCs in both the public and the private sectors. The purpose of this paper is to outline the method by which the ESPC was engineered and implemented, both from the standpoint of the facility owner (the US Army) and the energy services company (ESCO) which is carrying out the contract. The lessons learned from this experience should be useful to other owners, ESCOs and investors in the implementation of future ESPCs. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the apparent energy savings observed in the monitored data, and are not to be confused with the contracted energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the contracted energy savings, the apparent energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in indoor temperature performance criteria, additions of ceiling fans, and other factors.

  13. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Zogg, Robert; Goetzler, William; Ahlfeldt, Christopher; Hiraiwa, Hirokazu; Sathe, Amul; Sutherland, Timothy

    2009-12-01

    This study characterizes and assesses the appliances used in commercial buildings. The primary objectives of this study were to document the energy consumed by commercial appliances and identify research, development and demonstration (RD&D) opportunities for efficiency improvements, excluding product categories such as HVAC, building lighting, refrigeration equipment, and distributed generation systems. The study included equipment descriptions, characteristics of the equipment’s market, national energy consumption, estimates of technical potential for energy-saving technologies, and recommendations for U.S. Department of Energy programs that can promote energy savings in commercial appliances.

  14. Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-08-29

    With declining production costs and increasing technical capabilities, LED adoption has recently gained momentum in general illumination applications. This is a positive development for our energy infrastructure, as LEDs use significantly less electricity per lumen produced than many traditional lighting technologies. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications examines the expected market penetration and resulting energy savings of light-emitting diode, or LED, lamps and luminaires from today through 2030.

  15. Isolation, structure elucidation and in vivo hepatoprotective potential of trans-tetracos-15-enoic acid from Indigofera tinctoria Linn.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Chandan, B K; Sharma, N; Bhardwaj, V; Satti, N K; Gupta, V N; Gupta, B D; Suri, K A; Suri, O P

    2006-10-01

    The bioassay guided fractionation of the dried aerial part of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. led to the identification of an active fraction labelled as indigotin. On further chemical analysis, a compound isolated from indigotin was identified and characterized as trans-tetracos-15-enoic acid (TCA). The chemical structure of this compound was established on the basis of physical properties and spectral data, including NMR. It afforded significant hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in experimental models. Silymarin, a well known plant based hepatoprotective agent, and N-acetylcysteine, which has proven efficacy as a replenisher of sulfhydryls, were used for relative efficacy. TCA was found to reverse the altered hepatic parameters in experimental liver damage. In the safety evaluation study the oral LD50 was found to be more than 2000 mg/kg, with no signs of abnormalities or any mortality for the 15 day period of observation after administration of a single dose of drug in mice. The studies revealed significant and concentration dependent hepatoprotective potential of TCA as it reversed the majority of the altered hepatic parameters in experimental liver damage in rats and mice and may be useful in the management of liver disorders. PMID:16841368

  16. Measured Field Performance and Energy Savings of Occupancy Sensors: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, David B.; Parker, Danny S.; Sherwin, John R.

    A study determined the performance levels, energy savings, and occupant acceptance of occupancy sensors that were installed in a Florida small office building and two elementary schools. Performance data was collected in 15-minute intervals. Aggregate time-of-day lighting load profiles were compared before and after the installation and throughout…

  17. The energy saving potential of precooling incoming outdoor air by indirect evaporative cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.; Qin, H.; Huang, Y.J.; Wu, H.; Blumstein, C.

    1992-09-01

    This paper investigates the energy saving potentials of using indirect evaporative coolers to precool incoming outdoor air as the first stage of a standard cooling system. For dry and moderately humid locations, either exhaust room air or outdoor air can be used as the secondary air to the indirect evaporative precooler with similar energy savings. Under these conditions, the use of outdoor air is recommended due to the simplicity in installing the duct system. For humid locations, the use of exhaust room air is recommended because the precooling capacity and energy savings will be greatly increased. For locations with short cooling seasons, the use of indirect evaporative coolers for precooling may not be worthwhile. The paper also gives some simplified indices for easily predicting the precooling capacity, energy savings and water consumption of an indirect evaporative precooler. These indices can be used for cooling systems with continuous operation, but further work is needed to determine whether the same indices are also suitable for cooling systems with intermittent operations.

  18. Group Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit for 30% Energy Savings: Washington, D.C. (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes - such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost-effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study's results will be used to identify cost effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  19. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  20. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, Jeff; Burch, Jay; Merrigan, Tim; Ong, Sean

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  1. DYNAMIC ENERGY SAVING IN BUILDINGS WITH UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM – EXPERIMENTAL AND SIMULATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study is aimed at seeking a better understanding of the thermodynamics involved with the air distribution strategies associated with UFAD systems and its impact on the energy saving dynamics.
    Thus objectives are:

    • Experiment...

    • Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Agricultural Economics. Planning for Energy Savings.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Utley, Michael; Scanlon, Dennis C.

      This unit of instruction on farm management for energy savings was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their…

    • Technical Support Document: Strategies for 50% Energy Savings in Large Office Buildings

      SciTech Connect

      Leach, M.; Lobato, C.; Hirsch, A.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

      2010-09-01

      This Technical Support Document (TSD) documents technical analysis that informs design guidance for designing and constructing large office buildings that achieve 50% net site energy savings over baseline buildings defined by minimal compliance with respect to ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004. This report also represents a step toward developing a methodology for using energy modeling in the design process to achieve aggressive energy savings targets. This report documents the modeling and analysis methods used to identify design recommendations for six climate zones that capture the range of U.S. climate variability; demonstrates how energy savings change between ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 and Standard 90.1-2004 to determine baseline energy use; uses a four-story 'low-rise' prototype to analyze the effect of building aspect ratio on energy use intensity; explores comparisons between baseline and low-energy building energy use for alternate energy metrics (net source energy, energy emissions, and energy cost); and examines the extent to which glass curtain construction limits achieve energy savings by using a 12-story 'high-rise' prototype.

    • A Save-Energy, Save-Money Program That Pays Off

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Embersits, John F.

      1976-01-01

      Suggested guidelines for energy saving on campus include a 3-phase plan: (1) Quick Fix--effective management of what you already have; (2) Refitting--modification of existing systems and installation of simple controls; (3) Systems Convert--installation of computerized controls, waste-heat recovery, solid-waste recovery utilization and other…

    • Measure Guideline: Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

      SciTech Connect

      Hunt, A.; Easley, S.

      2012-05-01

      The report evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provide a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

    • Measure Guideline. Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

      SciTech Connect

      Hunt, A.; Easley, S.

      2012-05-01

      This measure guideline evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provides a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

    • Development of Design Guidance for K-12 Schools from 30% to 50% Energy Savings: Preprint

      SciTech Connect

      Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.; Long, N.

      2008-07-01

      This paper describes the development of energy efficiency recommendations for achieving 30% whole-building energy savings in K-12 schools over levels achieved by following the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1. These design recommendations look at building envelope, fenestration, lighting systems (including electrical lights and daylighting), HVAC systems, building automation and controls, outside air treatment, and service water heating.

    • 77 FR 23373 - Small Business Investment Companies-Energy Saving Qualified Investments

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2012-04-19

      ... also ask SBA to determine whether a concern is ``primarily engaged'' in Energy Saving Activities based... Enterprises. This final rule includes changes based on public comments received on the proposed rule published... implement the SBIC-related provisions of the Energy Act (76 FR 2029). SBA received eleven sets of...

    • 76 FR 2029 - Small Business Investment Companies-Energy Saving Qualified Investments

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2011-01-12

      ... accommodate activities based on technologies or practices that may emerge in the future. Paragraph (4... allow SBA to determine that a small business is primarily engaged in Energy Saving Activities based on... presumed to be ``primarily engaged'' in those activities based on the source of its revenues, the SBIC...

    • Cost and Energy Savings Opportunities with Heating, Air Conditioning and Lighting Systems in Schools.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Electric Energy Association, New York, NY.

      Great potential exists for saving energy and operating costs with a wide variety of heat conservation systems. Two major electric services--space conditioning and lighting--afford cost and energy savings opportunities. These services are detailed in checklist fashion in this brochure, with the suggestions included under space conditioning…

    • Durability of high-albedo roof coatings and implications for cooling energy savings. Final report

      SciTech Connect

      Bretz, S.E.; Akbari, H.

      1994-06-01

      Twenty-six spot albedo measurements of roofs were made using a calibrated pyranometer. The roofs were surfaced with either an acrylic elastomeric coating, a polymer coating with an acrylic base, or a cementitious coating. Some of the roofs` albedos were measured before and after washing to determine whether the albedo decrease was permanent. Data indicated that most of the albedo degradation occurred within the first year, and even within the first two months. On one roof, 70% of one year`s albedo degradation occurred in the first two months. After the first year, the degradation slowed, with data indicating small losses in albedo after the second year. Measurements of seasonal cooling energy savings by Akbari et al. (1993) included the effects of over two months of albedo degradation. We estimated {approximately}20% loss in cooling-energy savings after the first year because of dirt accumulation. For most of the roofs we cleaned, the albedo was restored to within 90% of its initial value. Although washing is effective at restoring albedo, the increase in energy savings is temporary and labor costs are significant in comparison to savings. By our calculations, it is not cost-effective to hire someone to clean a high-albedo roof only to achieve energy savings. Thus, it would be useful to develop and identify dirt-resistant high-albedo coatings.

    • Analysis of Energy Saving Impacts of New Residential Energy Codes for the Gulf Coast

      SciTech Connect

      Lucas, Robert G.

      2007-01-01

      At the request of the Government Accountability Office (GAO), DOE’s Building Energy Codes Program performed an analysis of the energy savings and cost impacts associated with the use of newer and more efficient residential building energy codes in the states of Louisiana and Mississippi.

    • 3M's Model Rewards and Recognition Program Engages Employees and Drives Energy Savings Efforts

      SciTech Connect

      2010-06-11

      3M has implemented more than 1,900 employee-inspired projects that have realized a 22% improvement in energy efficiency and yielded $100 million in energy savings. This case study provides information about 3M's approach to energy efficiency.

    • Up Close and Personal: The Value of Feedback in Implementing an Individual Energy-Saving Adaptation

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Pollard, Carol Elaine

      2016-01-01

      Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore the drivers of computer-related sustainability behavior at a medium-sized US university and the extent to which an inexpensive energy-saving device installed on 146 administrator, faculty and general staff workstations achieved significant savings in kWh, CO[subscript 2] kg and dollars.…

    • Green Energy in New Construction: Maximize Energy Savings and Minimize Cost

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Ventresca, Joseph

      2010-01-01

      People often use the term "green energy" to refer to alternative energy technologies. But green energy doesn't guarantee maximum energy savings at a minimum cost--a common misconception. For school business officials, green energy means getting the lowest energy bills for the lowest construction cost, which translates into maximizing green energy…

    • Determining Energy Saving Behavior and Energy Awareness of Secondary School Students According to Socio-Demographic Characteristics

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Aktamis, Hilal

      2011-01-01

      The aim of this study was to determine energy saving behavior and energy awareness of secondary school students and the effects of socio-demographic characteristics (gender, residential area and grade level) on energy saving and energy awareness. The research is a survey model with an approach that aims to describe the current status. A total of…

    • Hepatoprotective effect of Rhodiola imbricata rhizome against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats

      PubMed Central

      Senthilkumar, Ravichandran; Chandran, Rahul; Parimelazhagan, Thangaraj

      2014-01-01

      Rhodiola imbricata is a perennial herb of the family Crassulaceae, which has significant traditional usage as medicine and is also known to biosynthesize phytochemicals such as flavonoids, coumarins and phenyl glycosides. The present investigation was aimed to estimate the hepatoprotective activity of R. imbricata rhizome acetone extract against paracetamol (2 g/kg) induced liver toxicity. Paracetamol was administered to induce hepatic damage in Wistar rats. 200 and 400 mg/kg doses of rhizome acetone extract and silymarin (25 mg/kg) were used as treatment groups. The blood samples were analyzed for biochemical markers of hepatic injury and tissue samples were subjected for estimation of liver antioxidants and histopathological studies. Analysis of the extract treated rats (400 mg/kg) showed an elevation of superoxide dismutase (0.326 units/min/mg protein), catalase (185.03 μmole of H2O2 consumed/min/mg protein), glutothione peroxidase (19.26 mg GSH consumed/min/mg protein) and reduced glutathione (16.2 μmole of GSH/mg protein). Moreover, the biochemical parameters in serum like alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and lipid profiles were also improved in treated groups compared to the control. The oral administration of different doses of rhizome acetone extract significantly protected the hepatic cells from damage. The hematological and biochemical parameters were also normal in extract treated rats compared to the control and standard (silymarin) groups. The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of some important phenolic compounds which could be responsible for the hepatoprotective activity. This study proved that R. imbricata could be taken as a good natural source of the hepatoprotective agent. PMID:25313275

    • Energy Saving Effects of Wireless Sensor Networks: A Case Study of Convenience Stores in Taiwan

      PubMed Central

      Chen, Chih-Sheng; Lee, Da-Sheng

      2011-01-01

      Wireless sensor network (WSN) technology has been successfully applied to energy saving applications in many places, and plays a significant role in achieving power conservation. However, previous studies do not discuss WSN costs and cost-recovery. The application of WSNs is currently limited to research and laboratory experiments, and not mass industrial production, largely because business owners are unfamiliar with the possible favorable return and cost-recovery on WSN investments. Therefore, this paper focuses on the cost-recovery of WSNs and how to reduce air conditioning energy consumption in convenience stores. The WSN used in this study provides feedback to the gateway and adopts the predicted mean vote (PMV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to allow customers to shop in a comfortable yet energy-saving environment. Four convenience stores in Taipei have used the proposed WSN since 2008. In 2008, the experiment was initially designed to optimize air-conditioning for energy saving, but additions to the set-up continued beyond 2008, adding the thermal comfort and crowds peak, off-peak features in 2009 to achieve human-friendly energy savings. Comparison with 2007 data, under the same comfort conditions, shows that the power savings increased by 40% (2008) and 53% (2009), respectively. The cost of the WSN equipment was 500 US dollars. Experimental results, including three years of analysis and calculations, show that the marginal energy conservation benefit of the four convenience stores achieved energy savings of up to 53%, recovering all costs in approximately 5 months. The convenience store group participating in this study was satisfied with the efficiency of energy conservation because of the short cost-recovery period. PMID:22319396

    • IMPACT EVALUATION OF AN ENERGY SAVINGS PLAN PROJECT AT THE LINDE DIVISION OF UNION CARBIDE CORPORATION

      SciTech Connect

      Spanner, G. E.; Sullivan, G. P.

      1992-04-01

      This impact evaluation of an energy conservation measure (ECM) that was recently installed at the Linde Division of Union Carbide Corporation (Linde) was conducted far the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy Savings Plan (ESP) Program. The Program makes acquisition payments to firms that install energy conservation measures in their industrial processes. The objective of this impact evaluation was to assess how much electrical energy is being saved at Linde as a result of the ESP and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. The impact of the ECM was evaluated with a combination of engineering analysis, financial analysis, site visit and interviews, and submittal reviews (Linde's Completion Report and Abstract). The ECM itself consists of replacing the plant's nitrogen feed compressor with a larger unit, which allows the plant to meet its argon demand using less compressed air and which results in net energy savings. Energy savings resulting from this ECM were 4,376,500 kWh/yr for the first two years after installation, but, because of a change in Linde's market position, long-term savings are expected to be lower at 2,549,200 kWh/yr. Linde considers energy consumption and savings on a per ton basis to be proprietary, so they are not reported here. The ECM cost $361,4.96 to install, and Linde received payment of $161,426 from Bonneville for the acquisition of energy savings. This ECM would not have been implemented without the acquisition payment from Bonneville. The levelized cost of these energy savings to Bonneville will be 4.5 mills/kWh over the ECM's expected 15-year life, and the levelized cost to th.e region will be 5.9 mills/kWh.

    • Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of polysaccharides from Anoectochilus roxburghii.

      PubMed

      Zeng, Biyu; Su, Minghua; Chen, Qingxi; Chang, Qiang; Wang, Wei; Li, Huihua

      2016-11-20

      The physicochemical properties (molecular weights and monosaccharide compositions), antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of polysaccharides (ARPPs: ARPP30, ARPP60 and ARPP80) isolated from Anoectochilus roxburghii were investigated. ARPP80 exhibited relatively strong antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner. In mice subjected to carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity, ARPP80 pretreatment significantly (p<0.01) reduced the levels of aspartate and alanine amino transferases and malonyldialdehyde, prominently (p<0.01) restored the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione in serum or liver homogenate. These hepatoprotective effects were comparable to those of the standard drug silymarin at the same dose (200mg/kg). The study clearly demonstrated that ARPPs, especially ARPP80, might be suitable as functional foods or hepatoprotective drugs. PMID:27561510

  1. Hepatoprotective activity of Hepax-A polyherbal formulation

    PubMed Central

    Devaraj, VC; Krishna, B Gopala; Viswanatha, GL; Kamath, Jagadish V; Kumar, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of Hepax, a polyherbal formulation, against three experimentally induced hepatotoxicity models in rats. Methods Hepatoprotective activity of Hepax was studied against three experimentally induced hepatotoxicity models, namely, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), paracetamol and thiocetamide induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Results Administration of hepatotoxins (CCl4, paracetamol and thiocetamide) showed significant morphological, biochemical and histological deteriorations in the liver of experimental animals. Pretreatment with Hepax had significant protection against hepatic damage by maintaining the morphological parameters (liver weight and liver weight to organ weight ratio) within normal range and normalizing the elevated levels of biochemical parameters (SGPT, SGOT, ALP and total bilirubin), which were evidently showed in histopathological study. Conclusions The Hepax has highly significant hepatoprotective effect at 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. on the liver of all the three experimental animal models. PMID:23569745

  2. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of Desmodium Triquetrum DC

    PubMed Central

    Kalyani, G. A.; Ramesh, C. K.; Krishna, V.

    2011-01-01

    The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of ethanol extract of Desmodium triquetrum DC leaf were investigated against carbon tetrachloride (1 ml/kg i.p) induced hepatic damage in rats at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight p.o. The test extract significantly (P<0.05) reduced the elevated levels of serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and reversed the antioxidant enzyme and non-enzyme levels. It dose dependently inhibited thiobarbuturic acid induced lipid peroxidation in vitro (IC50=59.9 μg/ml). Histopathological studies provided supportive evidence for biochemical analysis. Silymarin (25 mg/kg) is a known hepatoprotective drug used as a reference drug. The results indicated that D. triquetrum has potent hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity that may be due to the presence of flavonoids in the plant. PMID:22707836

  3. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Clerodendrum serratum L.

    PubMed

    Vidya, S M; Krishna, V; Manjunatha, B K; Mankani, K L; Ahmed, Manzoor; Singh, S D Jagadeesh

    2007-06-01

    The ethanol extract of C. serratum roots and ursolic acid isolated from it were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in male Wistar strain rats. The parameters studied were estimation of liver function serum markers such as serum total bilirubin, total protein, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities. The ursolic acid showed more significant hepatoprotective activity than crude extract. The histological profile of the liver tissue of the root extract and ursolic acid treated animal showed the presence of normal hepatic cords, absence of necrosis and fatty infiltration as similar to the controls. The results when compared with the standard drug silymarin, revealed that the hepatoprotective activity of the constituent ursolic acid is significant as similar to the standard drug. PMID:17585689

  4. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of Desmodium Triquetrum DC.

    PubMed

    Kalyani, G A; Ramesh, C K; Krishna, V

    2011-07-01

    The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of ethanol extract of Desmodium triquetrum DC leaf were investigated against carbon tetrachloride (1 ml/kg i.p) induced hepatic damage in rats at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight p.o. The test extract significantly (P<0.05) reduced the elevated levels of serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and reversed the antioxidant enzyme and non-enzyme levels. It dose dependently inhibited thiobarbuturic acid induced lipid peroxidation in vitro (IC(50)=59.9 μg/ml). Histopathological studies provided supportive evidence for biochemical analysis. Silymarin (25 mg/kg) is a known hepatoprotective drug used as a reference drug. The results indicated that D. triquetrum has potent hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity that may be due to the presence of flavonoids in the plant. PMID:22707836

  5. Simultaneous Energy Savings and IEQ Improvements in Relocatable Classrooms

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, Michael G.; Dibartolomeo, Dennis; Hotchi, Toshi; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Lee, Seung-Min; Liff, Shawna M.; Rainer, Leo I.; Shendell, Derek G.; Sullivan, Doug P.; Fisk, William J.

    2003-05-22

    Relocatable classrooms (RCs) are commonly used by school districts with changing demographics and enrollment sizes. We designed and constructed four energy-efficient RCs for this study to demonstrate technologies with the potential to simultaneously improve energy efficiency and indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Two were installed at each of two school districts, and energy use and IEQ parameters were monitored during occupancy. Two RCs (one per school) were finished with materials selected for reduced emissions of toxic and odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Each had two HVAC systems, operated on alternate weeks, consisting of a standard heat-pump system and an indirect-direct evaporative cooling (IDEC) system with gas-fired hydronic heating. The IDEC system provides continuous outside air ventilation at {sup 3}15 CFM (7.5 L s-1) person-1, efficient particle filtration while using significantly less energy for cooling. School year long measurements included: carbon dioxide (CO2), particles, VOCs, temperature, humidity, thermal comfort, noise, meteorology, and energy use. IEQ monitoring results indicate that important ventilation-relevant indoor CO2 and health-relevant VOC concentration reductions were achieved while average cooling and heating energy costs were simultaneously reduced by 50 percent and 30 percent, respectively.

  6. Estimation of Energy Savings Resulting From the BestPractices Program, Fiscal Year 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, LF

    2003-09-24

    Within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) has a vision of a future with clean, abundant, reliable, and affordable energy. Within EERE, the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP), formerly the Office of Industrial Technologies, works in partnership with industry to increase energy efficiency, improve environmental performance, and boost productivity. The BestPractices (BP) Program, within ITP, works directly with industries to encourage energy efficiency. The purpose of the BP Program is to improve energy utilization and management practices in the industrial sector. The program targets distinct technology areas, including pumps, process heating, steam, compressed air, motors, and insulation. This targeting is accomplished with a variety of delivery channels, such as computer software, printed publications, Internet-based resources, technical training, technical assessments, and other technical assistance. A team of program evaluators from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked to evaluate the fiscal year 2002 (FY02) energy savings of the program. The ORNL assessment enumerates levels of program activity for technology areas across delivery channels. In addition, several mechanisms that target multiple technology areas--e.g., Plant-wide Assessments (PWAs), the ''Energy Matters'' newsletter, and special events--are also evaluated for their impacts. When possible, the assessment relies on published reports and the Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) database for estimates of energy savings that result from particular actions. Data were also provided by ORNL, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Project Performance Corporation (PPC), the ITP Clearinghouse at Washington State University, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Energetics Inc., and the Industrial Technologies Program Office. The estimated energy savings in FY02 resulting from activities of the BP Program are almost

  7. Actual and Estimated Energy Savings Comparison for Deep Energy Retrofits in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, Jeremy; Widder, Sarah H.; Giever, Elisabeth L.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-10-01

    Seven homes from the Pacific Northwest were selected to evaluate the differences between estimated and actual energy savings achieved from deep energy retrofits. The energy savings resulting from these retrofits were estimated, using energy modeling software, to save at least 30% on a whole-house basis. The modeled pre-retrofit energy use was trued against monthly utility bills. After the retrofits were completed, each of the homes was extensively monitored, with the exception of one home which was monitored pre-retrofit. This work is being conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program as part of the Building America Program. This work found many discrepancies between actual and estimated energy savings and identified the potential causes for the discrepancies. The differences between actual energy use and modeled energy use also suggest improvements to improve model accuracy. The difference between monthly whole-house actual and estimated energy savings ranged from 75% more energy saved than predicted by the model to 16% less energy saved for all the monitored homes. Similarly, the annual energy savings difference was between 36% and -14%, which was estimated based on existing monitored savings because an entire year of data is not available. Thus, on average, for all six monitored homes the actual energy use is consistently less than estimates, indicating home owners are saving more energy than estimated. The average estimated savings for the eight month monitoring period is 43%, compared to an estimated savings average of 31%. Though this average difference is only 12%, the range of inaccuracies found for specific end-uses is far greater and are the values used to directly estimate energy savings from specific retrofits. Specifically, the monthly post-retrofit energy use differences for specific end-uses (i.e., heating, cooling, hot water, appliances, etc.) ranged from 131% under

  8. Hepatoprotective, antinociceptive and antioxidant activities of cimetidine, ranitidine and famotidine as histamine H2 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Amirhossein; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Ahmad-Ashrafi, Saeb; Karami, Mohammad; Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Saravi, Seyed Soheil Saeedi

    2011-02-01

    The antioxidant, antinociceptive and hepatoprotective effects of H(2) receptor blockers were examined with different experimental models. Antioxidant activities were determined by employing various in vitro assay systems such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity assays, reducing power determination assays, nitric oxide-scavenging activity assays and hydrogen peroxide-scavenging activity assays. Antinociceptive effects were determined using the hot plate test in mice. The hepatoprotective effects of cimetidine, ranitidine and famotidine against hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4) ) were determined by measuring the levels of serum enzymes alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in mice. We found that the IC(50) values of cimetidine, ranitidine and famotidine on DPPH radical-scavenging activity were 671±28, 538±21 and 955±43 μg/mL, respectively. Famotidine showed very strong nitric oxide-scavenging activity. All three compounds showed very weak hydrogen peroxide-scavenging activity. Moreover, the compounds did not exhibit any reducing power activity until concentrations of 1.6 mg/mL. All compounds also showed a dose-dependent and marked analgesic activity in mice relative to controls. Pretreatment of mice with cimetidine, ranitidine or famotidine for three consecutive days reduced CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Treatment with 200 mg/kg ranitidine reduced AST, AST and ALP serum levels, while 200 and 40 mg/kg of cimetidine and famotidine, respectively, reduced AST and ALP serum levels. H(2) blockers exhibited varying levels of antioxidant activities in various assays. Our results indicate that the antioxidant activities of H(2) blockers have an analgesic activity and protective effect on CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. These effects were greater with ranitidine than with the other compounds. PMID:20070855

  9. Hepatoprotective and Cytotoxic Activities of Abietic Acid from Isodon wightii (Bentham) H. Hara

    PubMed Central

    Ramnath, Madhusudhanan Gogul; Thirugnanasampandan, Ramaraj; Mathusalini, Sadasivam; Mohan, Palathurai Subramanium

    2016-01-01

    Isodon (Lamiaceae) is a known source of bioactive terpenoids. Diterpenoids isolated from Isodon wightii (Bentham) H. Hara showed antibacterial, antiacetylcholinesterase, antioxidant, anticancer, and anticarcinogenic activities, etc., Hepatoprotective activity of ABA against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced liver injury in BALB/c mice was studied. Cytotoxic activity of ABA was tested against cervical cancer cells (HeLa) using MTT assay followed by propidium iodide (PI) staining to identify apoptosis. Histopathological analysis revealed that 1.5 ॖg/mL LPS induced liver damage was attenuated by ABA in a dose dependent manner. ABA showed cytotoxicity with IC50 value of 176.28 ± 0.02 ॖg/mL and PI staining of treated cells showed apoptosis. This study proves that ABA would be a promising natural compound for herbal drug preparation. SUMMARY In the present study, abietic acid isolated from I. wightii had potent hepatoprotective effect on LPS induced liver damage in BALB/c mice. Abietic acid also showed cytotoxic activity on HeLa cells followed by apoptosis induction confirmed by PI staining. Abbreviation Used: ABA: Abietic acid; LPS: Lipopolysacharride; PBS: Phosphate buffer saline; PI: Propidium iodide; NMR: Nuclear magnetic resonance; COSY: Correlation spectroscopy; HSQC: Heteronuclear single quantum correlation; HMBC: Heteronuclear multi - bond correlation; MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide PMID:27365991

  10. Hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant activities of Glossogyne tenuifolia against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Tien, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Bing-Huei; Wang Hsu, Guoo-Shyng; Lin, Wan-Teng; Huang, Jui-Hua; Lu, Yi-Fa

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the anti-oxidative and hepatoprotective effects of Glossogyne tenuifolia (GT) Cassini, against acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in BALB/c mice. The extracts of GT by various solvents (hot water, 50% ethanol and 95% ethanol) were compared for their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, total phenolic content, and total anti-oxidant capacity. The results showed that hot water (HW) extracts of GT contained high levels of phenolics and exerted an excellent anti-oxidative capacity; thus, these were used in the animal experiment. The male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into control group, acetaminophen (APAP) group, positive control group and two GT groups at low (GT-L) and high (GT-H) dosages. The results showed that mice treated with GT had significantly decreased serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). GT-H increased glutathione levels and the ratios of reduced glutathione and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in the liver, and inhibited serum and lipid peroxidation. This experiment was the first to determine phenolic compounds, chlorogenic acid and luteolin-7-glucoside in HW extract of GT. In conclusion, HW extract of GT may have potential anti-oxidant capacity and show hepatoprotective capacities in APAP-induced liver damaged mice. PMID:25384447

  11. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of vitex honey against paracetamol induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Li, Dan; Cheng, Ni; Gao, Hui; Xue, Xiaofeng; Cao, Wei; Sun, Liping

    2015-07-01

    Fourteen vitex honeys from China were investigated to evaluate its antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol-induced liver damage. All honey samples exhibited high total phenolic content (344-520 mg GAE per kg), total flavonoid content (19-31 mg Rutin per kg), and strong antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power and Ferrous ion-chelating ability. Nine phenolic acids were detected in vitex honey samples, in which caffeic acid was the main compound. Honey from Heibei Zanhuang (S2) ranked the highest antioxidant activity was orally administered to mice (5 g kg(-1), 20 g kg(-1)) for 70 days. In high-dose (20 g kg(-1)), vitex honey pretreatment resulting in significant increase in serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity (15.07%) and decrease in Cu(2+)-mediate lipoprotein oxidation (80.07%), and suppression in alanine aminotransferase (75.79%) and aspartate aminotransferase (74.52%), enhancement in the superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and reduction in malondialdehyde (36.15%) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (19.6%) formation compared with paracetamol-intoxicated group. The results demonstrated the hepatoprotection of vitex honey against paracetamol-induced liver damage might attribute to its antioxidant and/or perhaps pro-oxidative property. PMID:26084988

  12. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  13. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals - 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.

    2013-06-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-LH) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-LH is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in large hospitals over levels achieved by following Standard 90.1-2004. The AEDG-LH was created for a 'standard' mid- to large-size hospital, typically at least 100,000 ft2, but the strategies apply to all sizes and classifications of new construction hospital buildings. Its primary focus is new construction, but recommendations may be applicable to facilities undergoing total renovation, and in part to many other hospital renovation, addition, remodeling, and modernization projects (including changes to one or more systems in existing buildings).

  14. Energy saving characteristics of a new type of road-heating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, N.; Hokari, K.; Watanabe, T.; Sugawara, H.

    In order to drive safely and smoothly in winter, there is a need to clear the snow and ice accumulated on steep slopes and at congested intersections. For this purpose a large number of road-heating systems are installed at such places. However the operating costs of electrical road-heating systems to melt snow on pavement are high compared to mechanical and chemical ways. Therefore the development of efficient electrical road-heating systems is needed. In this paper, we describe the energy saving characteristics of a new type of road-heating system electrical output of which is based on snowfall probabilities. This new type of road-heating system was tested on an actual road from December 1992 to March 1994 in winter. The energy consumption of this system was compared with those of present-day energy saving road-heating systems.

  15. A simple tool for estimating city-wide annual electrical energy savings from cooler surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pomerantz, Melvin; Rosado, Pablo J.; Levinson, Ronnen M.

    2015-06-27

    We present a simple method to estimate the maximum possible electrical energy saving that might be achieved by increasing the albedo of surfaces in a large city. We restrict this to the “indirect effect”, the cooling of outside air that lessens the demand for air conditioning (AC). Given the power demand of the electric utilities and data about the city, we can use a single linear equation to estimate the maximum savings. For example, the result for an albedo change of 0.2 of pavements in a typical warm city in California, such as Sacramento, is that the saving is less than about 2 kWh per m2 per year. This may help decision makers choose which heat island mitigation techniques are economical from an energy-saving perspective.

  16. Replacement of chemical intensive water treatment processes with energy saving membrane. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mickley, M.C.; Goering, S.W.

    1983-11-01

    The project investigated the use of charged ultrafiltration membranes to treat hard water. More specifically, the work was undertaken to (1) make charged ultrafiltration membranes to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the chemical grafting approach; (2) evaluate the market potential for charged ultrafiltration membranes; and (3) evaluate the cost and energy savings for using charged ultrafiltration as compared to lime-based clarification and other treatment methods. The results suggest that chemical grafting is a relatively simple, reproducible and low-cost way to modify existing substrate materials to give them enhanced transport performance. Process studies lead to the identification of good market potential for membrane processes using charged ultrafiltration membranes. Capital and operating costs relative to lime-based clarification are favorable for low- and medium-sized treatment plants. Finally, substantial energy savings are apparent as compared to lime-based precipitation systems which incur substantial energy consumption in the lime production and transportation steps.

  17. Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 Schools -- 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2013-02-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-K12) (ASHRAE et al. 2011a). The AEDG-K12 provides recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in K-12 schools over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-K12 was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  18. Assessment of energy saving technologies with potential for applications in US industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess and evaluate information on energy technologies displayed at international trade shows was assessed and evaluated. Technologies that had potential for saving energy in applications in US industries were identified. These technologies are identified and concise summaries on potential energy savings, economics, basic operational considerations, and potential applications are prepared. An objective of this study was to determine whether international trade shows can provide a convenient and useful forum for the identification of energy saving technologies which could have wider applications in US industry. Forty-four technologies were chosen for inclusion which are grouped into the following categories: heat recovery devices, heat exchangers, heat pumps, and various other technologies. Some of the technologies include: a low energy drying system, solid waste in cement manufacturing, boiler fuel optimization system, multifuel boiler plant and coal combustion efficiency improvements.

  19. Relationship Between Liquor Yield, Plant Capacity Increases, and Energy Savings in Alumina Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter Weer, Peter-Hans

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms of alumina trihydrate precipitation and controlling parameters, and the methods and technologies affecting liquor yield/productivity in alumina refining, have been described in several publications [e.g., Refs. Alamdari et al. ( Light Metals 1998, pp. 133-137, 1998), Moretto and Power ( Proc. 1990 Alumina Quality Workshop, Perth, Australia, pp. 154-165, 1990)]. However, the relationship between increasing liquor yield, on the one hand, and plant production capacity increases and related energy savings, on the other, has been under-emphasized. This article addresses this issue and provides estimates of plant production capacity increases and steam and power energy savings as a function of precipitation yield increases resulting from the implementation of plant adaptations. Conclusions are that increasing precipitation yield in an alumina refinery results overall in a significant improvement of project economics and interestingly improves a refinery's direct and indirect environmental performance, thus, addressing two of the three "pillars" of sustainable development (economic, environmental, and social).

  20. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of Hamelia patens extracts.

    PubMed

    Perez-Meseguer, Jonathan; Delgado-Montemayor, Cecilia; Ortíz-Torres, Tania; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Cordero-Perez, Paula; de Torres, Noemí Waksman

    2016-01-01

    Hamelia patens is widely used in the traditional medicine of Mexico and Central America for the treatment of illnesses associated with inflammatory processes. In this study, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity were assayed on the methanolic crude (ME), hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (AE), and butanol (BE) extracts of H. patens. The total phenolic content (TPC) as mg of gallic acid equivalents per g of dry extract was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu's method (ME=141.58±11.99, HE=33.96±1.13, AE=375.18±13.09, BE=132.08±3.62), and antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging method (EC(50) ME=77.87±5.67, HE=236.64±26.32, AE=45.87±2.24, BE=50.97±0.85μg/mL). Hepatoprotective activity was evaluated through AST activity on HepG2 cells subjected to damage with CCl(4) (ME=62.5±3.41, HE=72.25±2.87, AE=63.50±4.20, BE=43.74±4.03). BE showed the greater hepatoprotective activity and a good antioxidant capacity, while HE did not show hepatoprotective or antioxidant activity. Cytotoxicity was evaluated on Vero cells cultures; none showed significant toxicity. PMID:27005511

  1. Hepatoprotective activity of Mammea africana ethanol stem bark extract

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Jude Efiom; Bawo, Michael Burata; Mbagwu, Herbert Orji

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The stem bark of Mammea africana Sabine (Guttiferae), (M. africana) a common plant that has been traditionally used to treat various diseases and ailments was evaluated for hepatoprotective potentials against paracetamol-induced liver injury in rats. Materials and Methods: The hepatoprotective effect of the stem bark extract (30-90 mg/kg) was evaluated by the assay of liver function parameters, namely total and direct bilirubin, serum protein and albumin, total cholesterol, alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase activities (ALP), antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) and histopathological study of the liver. Results: Administration of the stem bark extract caused a significant (p<0.05 – 0.001) dose-dependent reduction of high levels of liver enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP), total cholesterol, direct and total bilirubin as well as elevation of serum levels of total protein, albumin and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH). Histology of the liver sections of extract and silymarin-treated animals showed reductions in the pathological features compared to the paracetamol-treated animals. The chemical pathological changes were consistent with histopathological observations suggesting marked hepatoprotective effect of the stem bark extract of M. africana. Conclusion: The results show that the stem bark extract of M. africana has hepatoprotective potential which may be due to its antioxidant activity. PMID:27222838

  2. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of the commerson's anchovy (Stolephorus commersonnii)

    PubMed Central

    Varkey, Jeffy A.; Vahab, A. Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In the present study, we have chosen a fish Stolephorus commersonnii which is abundant in whitebait catches along Kerala coast. This fish is reported to contain higher content of essential amino acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and minerals. The medicinal values of this species have not been reported and remain unexplored. Hence, there is a necessity to explore their uses and to conduct the pharmacological studies to ascertain their therapeutic properties. Based on literature search, no study has been carried out to scientifically validate the fish S. commersonnii possesses hepatoprotective property. Hence, this study was carried out to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of the S. commersonnii. Materials and Methods: The fish was purchased from the fish market, Ernakulam, Kerala, India. The fish were kept on ice until processed in the lab. Fish is washed and cleaned properly. The tissue is homogenized and extracted with chloroform: methanol solvent system. The extract is transferred to a dark glass container and stored in a freezer. The preliminary analysis of fish extract was carried out by simple qualitative methods. The hepatoprotective activity of Stolephorus commersonnii (SC) extract at 300 mg/kg is carried out in isoniazid induced hepatotoxic model. The albino rats of either sex were used for these studies. Results: The results of hepatoprotective study revealed that the SC extract showed a liver protective action against isoniazid induced toxicity. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the extract of S. commersonnii fish has therapeutic potential in the management of drug induced liver toxicity. PMID:26997726

  3. Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Highway Lodging Buildings: Development of 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan; Thornton, Brian A.; Liu, Bing

    2010-06-30

    This paper presents the process, methodology, and assumptions for development of the 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings, a design guidance document that provides specific recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in roadside motels (highway lodging) above the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004. This 50% solution represents a further step toward realization of the U.S. Department of Energy’s net-zero energy building goal, and go beyond the 30% savings in the Advanced Energy Design Guide series (upon which this work was built). This work can serve as the technical feasibility study for the development of a 50% saving Advanced Energy Design Guide for highway lodging, and thus should greatly expedite the development process. The purpose of this design package is to provide user-friendly design assistance to designers, developers, and owners of highway lodging properties. It is intended to encourage energy-efficient design by providing prescriptive energy-efficiency recommendations for each climate zone that attains the 50% the energy savings target. This paper describes the steps that were taken to demonstrate the technical feasibility of achieving a 50% reduction in whole-building energy use with practical and commercially available technologies. The energy analysis results are presented, indicating the recommended energy-efficient measures achieved a national-weighted average energy savings of 55%, relative to Standard 90.1-2004. The cost-effectiveness of the recommended technology package is evaluated and the result shows an average simple payback of 11.3 years.

  4. Analysis of Installed Measures and Energy Savings for Single-Family Residential Better Buildings Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Heaney, M.; Polly, B.

    2015-04-30

    This report presents an analysis of data for residential single-family projects reported by 37 organizations that were awarded federal financial assistance (cooperative agreements or grants) by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Neighborhood Program.1 The report characterizes the energy-efficiency measures installed for single-family residential projects and analyzes energy savings and savings prediction accuracy for measures installed in a subset of those projects.

  5. Analysis of Energy Saving Impacts of ASHRAE 90.1-2004 for New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gowri, Krishnan; Halverson, Mark A.; Richman, Eric E.

    2007-08-03

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and New York State Department of State (DOS) requested the help of DOE’s Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) in estimating the annual building energy savings and cost impacts of adopting ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 (ASHRAE 2004) requirements. This report summarizes the analysis methodology and results of energy simulation in response to that request.

  6. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Medium Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Brian A.; Wang, Weimin; Lane, Michael D.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium Offices (AEDG-MO or the Guide), a design guidance document which intends to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in medium office buildings that just meet the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  7. 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct highly energy-efficient homes, while addressing building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the hot-humid climate can build homes that achieve whole house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark (the 1993 Model Energy Code) with no added overall costs for consumers.

  8. 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, T. L.; Hefty, M. G.; Cole, P. C.; Adams, K.; Butner, R. S.; Ortiz, S. J.; Love, Pat M.

    2011-09-01

    This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct highly energy-efficient homes, while addressing building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the mixed-humid climate can build homes that achieve whole house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark (the 1993 Model Energy Code) with no added overall costs for consumers.

  9. Advertising energy saving programs: The potential environmental cost of emphasizing monetary savings.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Daniel; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Lave, Lester

    2015-06-01

    Many consumers have monetary or environmental motivations for saving energy. Indeed, saving energy produces both monetary benefits, by reducing energy bills, and environmental benefits, by reducing carbon footprints. We examined how consumers' willingness and reasons to enroll in energy-savings programs are affected by whether advertisements emphasize monetary benefits, environmental benefits, or both. From a normative perspective, having 2 noteworthy kinds of benefit should not decrease a program's attractiveness. In contrast, psychological research suggests that adding external incentives to an intrinsically motivating task may backfire. To date, however, it remains unclear whether this is the case when both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are inherent to the task, as with energy savings, and whether removing explicit mention of extrinsic motivation will reduce its importance. We found that emphasizing a program's monetary benefits reduced participants' willingness to enroll. In addition, participants' explanations about enrollment revealed less attention to environmental concerns when programs emphasized monetary savings, even when environmental savings were also emphasized. We found equal attention to monetary motivations in all conditions, revealing an asymmetric attention to monetary and environmental motives. These results also provide practical guidance regarding the positioning of energy-saving programs: emphasize intrinsic benefits; the extrinsic ones may speak for themselves. PMID:25581089

  10. Life-cycle energy savings potential from aluminum-intensive vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Stodolsky, F.; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.; Gaines, L.

    1995-07-01

    The life-cycle energy and fuel-use impacts of US-produced aluminum-intensive passenger cars and passenger trucks are assessed. The energy analysis includes vehicle fuel consumption, material production energy, and recycling energy. A model that stimulates market dynamics was used to project aluminum-intensive vehicle market shares and national energy savings potential for the period between 2005 and 2030. We conclude that there is a net energy savings with the use of aluminum-intensive vehicles. Manufacturing costs must be reduced to achieve significant market penetration of aluminum-intensive vehicles. The petroleum energy saved from improved fuel efficiency offsets the additional energy needed to manufacture aluminum compared to steel. The energy needed to make aluminum can be reduced further if wrought aluminum is recycled back to wrought aluminum. We find that oil use is displaced by additional use of natural gas and nonfossil energy, but use of coal is lower. Many of the results are not necessarily applicable to vehicles built outside of the United States, but others could be used with caution.

  11. The Conservation Nexus: Valuing Interdependent Water and Energy Savings in Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, M.; Bartos, M.

    2013-12-01

    Energy and water resources are intrinsically linked, yet they are managed separately--even in the water-scarce American southwest. This study develops a spatially-explicit model of water-energy interdependencies in Arizona, and assesses the potential for co-beneficial conservation programs. Arizona consumes 2.8% of its water demand for thermoelectric power and 8% of its electricity demand for water infrastructure--roughly twice the national average. The interdependent benefits of investments in 7 conservation strategies are assessed. Deployment of irrigation retrofits and new reclaimed water facilities dominate potential water savings, while residential and commercial HVAC improvements dominate energy savings. Water conservation policies have the potential to reduce statewide electricity demand by 1.0-2.9%, satisfying 5-14% of mandated energy-efficiency goals. Likewise, adoption of energy-efficiency measures and renewable generation portfolios can reduce non-agricultural water demand by 2.0-2.6%. These co-benefits of conservation investments are typically not included in conservation plans or benefit-cost analyses. Residential water conservation measures produce significant water and energy savings, but are generally not cost-effective at current water prices. An evaluation of the true cost of water in Arizona would allow future water and energy savings to be compared objectively, and would help policymakers allocate scarce resources to the highest-value conservation measures. Water Transfers between Water Cycle Components in Arizona in 2008 Cumulative embedded energy in water cycle components in Arizona in 2008

  12. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Aging of Graphitic Cast Irons and Machinability

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Von L.

    2012-09-19

    The objective of this task was to determine whether ductile iron and compacted graphite iron exhibit age strengthening to a statistically significant extent. Further, this effort identified the mechanism by which gray iron age strengthens and the mechanism by which age-strengthening improves the machinability of gray cast iron. These results were then used to determine whether age strengthening improves the machinability of ductile iron and compacted graphite iron alloys in order to develop a predictive model of alloy factor effects on age strengthening. The results of this work will lead to reduced section sizes, and corresponding weight and energy savings. Improved machinability will reduce scrap and enhance casting marketability. Technical Conclusions: Age strengthening was demonstrated to occur in gray iron ductile iron and compacted graphite iron. Machinability was demonstrated to be improved by age strengthening when free ferrite was present in the microstructure, but not in a fully pearlitic microstructure. Age strengthening only occurs when there is residual nitrogen in solid solution in the Ferrite, whether the ferrite is free ferrite or the ferrite lamellae within pearlite. Age strengthening can be accelerated by Mn at about 0.5% in excess of the Mn/S balance Estimated energy savings over ten years is 13.05 trillion BTU, based primarily on yield improvement and size reduction of castings for equivalent service. Also it is estimated that the heavy truck end use of lighter castings for equivalent service requirement will result in a diesel fuel energy savings of 131 trillion BTU over ten years.

  13. An energy-saving nonlinear position control strategy for electro-hydraulic servo systems.

    PubMed

    Baghestan, Keivan; Rezaei, Seyed Mehdi; Talebi, Heidar Ali; Zareinejad, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    The electro-hydraulic servo system (EHSS) demonstrates numerous advantages in size and performance compared to other actuation methods. Oftentimes, its utilization in industrial and machinery settings is limited by its inferior efficiency. In this paper, a nonlinear backstepping control algorithm with an energy-saving approach is proposed for position control in the EHSS. To achieve improved efficiency, two control valves including a proportional directional valve (PDV) and a proportional relief valve (PRV) are used to achieve the control objectives. To design the control algorithm, the state space model equations of the system are transformed to their normal form and the control law through the PDV is designed using a backstepping approach for position tracking. Then, another nonlinear set of laws is derived to achieve energy-saving through the PRV input. This control design method, based on the normal form representation, imposes internal dynamics on the closed-loop system. The stability of the internal dynamics is analyzed in special cases of operation. Experimental results verify that both tracking and energy-saving objectives are satisfied for the closed-loop system. PMID:26520165

  14. Wastewater treatment process impact on energy savings and greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Mamais, D; Noutsopoulos, C; Dimopoulou, A; Stasinakis, A; Lekkas, T D

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the energy consumption of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), to apply a mathematical model to evaluate their carbon footprint, and to propose energy saving strategies that can be implemented to reduce both energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Greece. The survey was focused on 10 WWTPs in Greece with a treatment capacity ranging from 10,000 to 4,000,000 population equivalents (PE). Based on the results, annual specific energy consumption ranged from 15 to 86 kWh/PE. The highest energy consumer in all the WWTPs was aeration, accounting for 40-75% of total energy requirements. The annual GHG emissions varied significantly according to the treatment schemes employed and ranged between 61 and 161 kgCO₂e/PE. The highest values of CO₂emissions were obtained in extended aeration systems and the lowest in conventional activated sludge systems. Key strategies that the wastewater industry could adopt to mitigate GHG emissions are identified and discussed. A case study is presented to demonstrate potential strategies for energy savings and GHG emission reduction. Given the results, it is postulated that the reduction of dissolved oxygen (DO) set points and sludge retention time can provide significant energy savings and decrease GHG emissions. PMID:25633956

  15. Development of an Energy-Savings Calculation Methodology for Residential Miscellaneous Electric Loads: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.

    2006-08-01

    In order to meet whole-house energy savings targets beyond 50% in residential buildings, it will be essential that new technologies and systems approaches be developed to address miscellaneous electric loads (MELs). These MELs are comprised of the small and diverse collection of energy-consuming devices found in homes, including what are commonly known as plug loads (televisions, stereos, microwaves), along with all hard-wired loads that do not fit into other major end-use categories (doorbells, security systems, garage door openers). MELs present special challenges because their purchase and operation are largely under the control of the occupants. If no steps are taken to address MELs, they can constitute 40-50% of the remaining source energy use in homes that achieve 60-70% whole-house energy savings, and this percentage is likely to increase in the future as home electronics become even more sophisticated and their use becomes more widespread. Building America (BA), a U.S. Department of Energy research program that targets 50% energy savings by 2015 and 90% savings by 2025, has begun to identify and develop advanced solutions that can reduce MELs.

  16. Enolate-Forming Phloretin Pharmacophores: Hepatoprotection in an Experimental Model of Drug-Induced Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Geohagen, Brian C; Vydyanathan, Amaresh; Kosharskyy, Boleslav; Shaparin, Naum; Gavin, Terrence; LoPachin, Richard M

    2016-06-01

    Drug-induced toxicity is often mediated by electrophilic metabolites, such as bioactivation of acetaminophen (APAP) to N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI). We have shown that APAP hepatotoxicity can be prevented by 2-acetylcyclopentanone (2-ACP). This 1,3-dicarbonyl compound ionizes to form an enolate nucleophile that scavenges NAPQI and other electrophilic intermediates. In this study, we expanded our investigation of enolate-forming compounds to include analyses of the phloretin pharmacophores, 2',4',6'-trihydroxyacetophenone (THA) and phloroglucinol (PG). Studies in a mouse model of APAP overdose showed that THA provided hepatoprotection when given either by intraperitoneal injection or oral administration, whereas PG was hepatoprotective only when given intraperitoneally. Corroborative research characterized the molecular pharmacology (efficacy, potency) of 2-ACP, THA, and PG in APAP-exposed isolated mouse hepatocytes. For comparative purposes, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) cytoprotection was also evaluated. Measurements of multiple cell parameters (e.g., cell viability, mitochondrial membrane depolarization) indicated that THA and, to a lesser extent, PG provided concentration-dependent protection against APAP toxicity, which exceeded that of 2-ACP or NAC. The enolate-forming compounds and NAC truncated ongoing APAP exposure and thereby returned intoxicated hepatocytes toward normal viability. The superior ability of THA to protect is related to multifaceted modes of action that include metal ion chelation, free radical trapping, and scavenging of NAPQI and other soft electrophiles involved in oxidative stress. The rank order of potency for the tested cytoprotectants was consistent with that determined in a parallel mouse model. These data suggest that THA or a derivative might be useful in treating drug-induced toxicities and other conditions that involve electrophile-mediated pathogenesis. PMID:27029584

  17. Using Revolving Loan Funds to Finance Energy Savings Performance Contracts in State and Local Agency Applications (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, S.; Doris, E.; Knutson, D.; Regenthal, S.

    2011-07-01

    This document is meant to assist state and local decision makers in understanding how the financing of energy savings performance contract projects can effectively fit into the structure of a revolving loan fund.

  18. Chemical structures and hepatoprotective effects of constituents from the leaves of Salacia chinensis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Seikou; Zhang, Yi; Matsuda, Hisashi; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Muraoka, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    The methanolic extract from the leaves of Salacia chinensis collected in Thailand was found to show a protective effect on D-galactosamine-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes. From the methanolic extract, eight new glycosides, named foliachinenosides E, F, G, H, and I, and foliasalaciosides J, K and L, were isolated together with 26 known constituents. The structures of new glycosides were determined on the basis of physicochemical and chemical evidence. In addition, the hepatoprotective effects of the isolated compounds on D-galactosamine-induced cytotoxicity were examined. Among them, lignans, eleutheroside E₂ and 7R,8S-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, were found to show the protective effects [inhibition (%) 41.4 ± 3.6 (p < 0.01), 45.5 ± 2.7 (p < 0.01) at 100 µM, respectively]. PMID:21804248

  19. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Design Support for Tooling Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dongtao

    2011-09-23

    High pressure die casting is an intrinsically efficient net shape process and improvements in energy efficiency are strongly dependent on design and process improvements that reduce scrap rates so that more of the total consumed energy goes into acceptable, usable castings. Computer simulation has become widely used within the industry but use is not universal. Further, many key design decisions must be made before the simulation can be run and expense in terms of money and time often limits the number of decision iterations that can be explored. This work continues several years of work creating simple, very fast, design tools that can assist with the early stage design decisions so that the benefits of simulation can be maximized and, more importantly, so that the chances of first shot success are maximized. First shot success and better running processes contributes to less scrap and significantly better energy utilization by the process. This new technology was predicted to result in an average energy savings of 1.83 trillion BTUs/year over a 10 year period. Current (2011) annual energy saving estimates over a ten year period, based on commercial introduction in 2012, a market penetration of 30% by 2015 is 1.89 trillion BTUs/year by 2022. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2022 is 0.037 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  20. Measured energy savings of light colored roofs: Results from three California demonstration sites

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Gartland, L.; Konopacki, S.

    1998-06-01

    Measured data and computer simulations have demonstrated the impact of roof albedo in reducing cooling energy use in buildings. Savings are a function of both climate and the amount of roof insulation. The cooling energy savings for reflective roofs are highest in hot climates. A reflective roof may also lead to higher heating energy use. Reflective coatings are also used in commercial buildings to protect the roofing membrane, and hence, maintain and prolong the useful life of the roof. Reflectivity of coatings changes with weathering and aging which in turn could have an effect on building cooling-energy savings. For that reason, reflective roof coatings are not primarily marketed for their energy savings potential. To monitor the field performance of reflective coatings, the authors initiated a demonstration project where three commercial buildings in California were painted with light-colored roof coatings. The buildings are two medical care centers and one drug store. At all sites, the roof reflectance, both fresh and aged, and cooling energy use were monitored. In addition, they measured temperature throughout the roof systems and inside the conditioned space. In the monitored buildings, increasing the roof reflectance from an initial value of about 20% to 60%, dropped the roof temperature on hot summer afternoons by about 45 F. Summertime standard-weekday average daily air-conditioning savings were 18% (198 kWh) in the first medical office building, 13% (86 kWh) in the second medical office building, and 2% (13 kWh) in the drug store. The overall u-value of the roofs had dictated the impact of roof reflectance.

  1. Energy-saving scheme based on downstream packet scheduling in ethernet passive optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lincong; Liu, Yejun; Guo, Lei; Gong, Xiaoxue

    2013-03-01

    With increasing network sizes, the energy consumption of Passive Optical Networks (PONs) has grown significantly. Therefore, it is important to design effective energy-saving schemes in PONs. Generally, energy-saving schemes have focused on sleeping the low-loaded Optical Network Units (ONUs), which tends to bring large packet delays. Further, the traditional ONU sleep modes are not capable of sleeping the transmitter and receiver independently, though they are not required to transmit or receive packets. Clearly, this approach contributes to wasted energy. Thus, in this paper, we propose an Energy-Saving scheme that is based on downstream Packet Scheduling (ESPS) in Ethernet PON (EPON). First, we design both an algorithm and a rule for downstream packet scheduling at the inter- and intra-ONU levels, respectively, to reduce the downstream packet delay. After that, we propose a hybrid sleep mode that contains not only ONU deep sleep mode but also independent sleep modes for the transmitter and the receiver. This ensures that the energy consumed by the ONUs is minimal. To realize the hybrid sleep mode, a modified GATE control message is designed that involves 10 time points for sleep processes. In ESPS, the 10 time points are calculated according to the allocated bandwidths in both the upstream and the downstream. The simulation results show that ESPS outperforms traditional Upstream Centric Scheduling (UCS) scheme in terms of energy consumption and the average delay for both real-time and non-real-time packets downstream. The simulation results also show that the average energy consumption of each ONU in larger-sized networks is less than that in smaller-sized networks; hence, our ESPS is better suited for larger-sized networks.

  2. Energy saving control circuit for a light switch and a method therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, H. H.

    1985-09-10

    An energy saving light switch is disclosed. The light switch includes a human actuable switch and a control circuit responsive thereto. The control circuit operates a light in a first timed mode in which the light is turned on for a predetermined period of time responsive to an initial actuation of the switch and operates the light in a second untimed mode in which the light is turned on for an indefinite period of time responsive to the actuation of the switch during a predetermined time window forming part of the predetermined time period.

  3. Chiller Controls-related Energy Saving Opportunities in FederalFacilities

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Chillers are a significant component of large facility energy use. The focus of much of the development of chilled water systems in recent years has been on optimization of set point and staging controls, improvements in chiller design to increase efficiency and accommodate chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerant replacements. Other improvements have been made by upgrading controls to the latest digital technologies, improving access and monitoring via communications and sophisticated liquid crystal displays (LCD), more robust fault diagnostics and operating and maintenance information logging. Advances have also been made in how chiller plant systems are designed and operated, and in the diversity of chiller products that are available to support innovative approaches. As in many industries, these improvements have been facilitated by advances in, and lower costs for, enabling technologies, such as refrigerants, compressor design, electronics for controls and variable frequency drives (VFD). Along with the improvements in electronics one would expect that advances have also been made in the functionality of unit controls included with chillers. Originally, the primary purpose of this project was to investigate the state of practice of chiller unit controllers in terms of their energy saving capabilities. However, early in the study it was discovered that advances in this area did not include incorporation of significantly different capabilities than had existed 10-15 years ago. Thus the scope has been modified to provide an overview of some of the basic controls-related energy saving strategies that are currently available along with guideline estimates of their potential and applicability. We have minimized consideration of strategies that could be primarily implemented via design practices such as chiller selection and plant design, and those that can only be implemented by a building management system (BMS). Also, since most of the floor space of federal buildings

  4. Protocol for Maximizing Energy Savings and Indoor Environmental Quality Improvements when Retrofiting Apartments

    SciTech Connect

    Noris, Federico; Delp, William W.; Vermeer, Kimberly; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Singer, Brett C.; Fisk, William J.

    2012-06-18

    The current focus on building energy retrofit provides an opportunity to simultaneously improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Toward this end, we developed a protocol for selecting packages of retrofits that both save energy and improve IEQ in apartments. The protocol specifies the methodology for selecting retrofits from a candidate list while addressing expected energy savings, IEQ impacts, and costs in an integrated manner. Interviews, inspections and measurements are specified to collect the needed input information. The protocol was applied to 17 apartments in three buildings in two different climates within California. Diagnostic measurements and surveys conducted before and after retrofit implementation indicate enhanced apartment performance.

  5. Protocol for maximizing energy savings and indoor environmental quality improvements when retrofitting apartments

    SciTech Connect

    Noris, Federico; Delp, William W.; Vermeer, Kimberly; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Singer, Brett C.; Fisk, William J.

    2013-06-01

    The current focus on building energy retrofit provides an opportunity to simultaneously improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Toward this end, we developed a protocol for selecting packages of retrofits that both save energy and improve IEQ in apartments. The protocol specifies the methodology for selecting retrofits from a candidate list while addressing expected energy savings, IEQ impacts, and costs in an integrated manner. Interviews, inspections and measurements are specified to collect the needed input information. The protocol was applied to 17 apartments in three buildings in two different climates within California. Diagnostic measurements and surveys conducted before and after retrofit implementation indicate enhanced apartment performance.

  6. Yield Improvement and Energy Savings Uing Phosphonates as Additives in Kraft pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrike W. Tschirner; Timothy Smith

    2007-03-31

    Project Objective: Develop a commercially viable modification to the Kraft process resulting in energy savings, increased yield and improved bleachability. Evaluate the feasibility of this technology across a spectrum of wood species used in North America. Develop detailed fundamental understanding of the mechanism by which phosphonates improve KAPPA number and yield. Evaluate the North American market potential for the use of phosphonates in the Kraft pulping process. Examine determinants of customer perceived value and explore organizational and operational factors influencing attitudes and behaviors. Provide an economic feasibility assessment for the supply chain, both suppliers (chemical supply companies) and buyers (Kraft mills). Provide background to most effectively transfer this new technology to commercial mills.

  7. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Sutherland, Timothy; Reis, Callie

    2013-12-04

    This report describes the current state of motor technology and estimates opportunities for energy savings through application of more advanced technologies in a variety of residential and commercial end uses. The objectives of this report were to characterize the state and type of motor technologies used in residential and commercial appliances and equipment and to identify opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of electric motor-driven systems in the residential and commercial sectors through the use of advanced motor technologies. After analyzing the technical savings potential offered by motor upgrades and variable speed technologies, recommended actions are presented.

  8. Benchmarking and Energy Saving Tool for Low Carbon Cities (BEST Cities)

    SciTech Connect

    2014-02-01

    BEST-Cities is designed to provide city authorities with strategies they can follow to reduce city-wide carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions. The tool quickly assesses local energy use and energy-related CO2 emissions across nine sectors (i.e., industry, public and commercial buildings, residential buildings, transportation, power and heat, street lighting, water & wastewater, solid waste, and urban green space), giving officials a comprehensive perspective on their local carbon performance. Cities can also use the tool to benchmark their energy and emissions performance to other cities inside and outside China, and identify those sectors with the greatest energy saving and emissions reduction potential.

  9. Energy Savings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies in Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2000-03-01

    In 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'', to quantify the potential benefits of Heat Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective to investigate the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City. This paper summarizes our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance and annual C02 reduction of HIR strategies in the three initial cities. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer most savings potential: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by old or new construction and with a gas furnace or an electric heat pump. We defined prototypical building characteristics for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling and heating energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.IE model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings [direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on building [direct effect], (3) combined strategies I and 2 [direct effect], (4) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces [indirect effect] and (5) combined strategies 1, 2 and 4 [direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air-conditioned buildings in each city using readily obtainable data to calculate the metropolitan-wide impact of HIR strategies. The results show, that in Baton Rouge, potential annual energy savings of $15M could be realized by rate-payers from

  10. Analysis of energy saving ability in dimming VLC systems using LEDs with optimized SAHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fang; Wu, Kan; Zou, Weiwen; Chen, Jianping

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the energy saving capability of dimming visible light communication (VLC) systems employing SC-4 PPM modulation scheme. We design different optimizations to maximize the energy efficiency according to the different illuminance efficiency with respect to LED's semi-angle at half power (SAHP) for four different LED alignments. Tradeoff between energy efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) uniformity are also investigated to achieve better overall performance. The results show that more than 40% energy can be saved over the existing dimmed VLC system employing SC-4 PPM modulation scheme when optimized SAHP LEDs are used.

  11. Energy-saving technology of vector controlled induction motor based on the adaptive neuro-controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, E.; Kovalev, I. V.; Karandeev, D.

    2015-10-01

    The ongoing evolution of the power system towards a Smart Grid implies an important role of intelligent technologies, but poses strict requirements on their control schemes to preserve stability and controllability. This paper presents the adaptive neuro-controller for the vector control of induction motor within Smart Gird. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed energy-saving technology of vector controlled induction motor based on adaptive neuro-controller are verified by simulation results at different operating conditions over a wide speed range of induction motor.

  12. Run-Curve Design for Energy Saving Operation in a Modern DC-Electrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koseki, Takafumi; Noda, Takashi

    Mechanical brakes are often used by electric trains. These brakes have a few problems like response speed, coefficient of friction, maintenance cost and so on. As a result, methods for actively using regenerative brakes are required. In this paper, we propose the useful pure electric braking, which would involve ordinary brakes by only regenerative brakes without any mechanical brakes at high speed. Benefits of our proposal include a DC-electrification system with regenerative substations that can return powers to the commercial power system and a train that can use the full regenerative braking force. We furthermore evaluate the effects on running time and energies saved by regenerative substations in the proposed method.

  13. Tillage energy savings from zone burial of shredded and whole cotton stalks

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, L.; Chesson, J.; Thacker, G.; Penner, V.

    1996-04-01

    Two prototypes of a stalk burial implement were tested for energy requirements at the University of California, Shafter Research Station. Both versions of the implement are designed to bury the cotton stalks in a concentrated Zone and reform the bed in the same location. To plow under shredded stalks, both versions of the implement required less energy than a conventional tillage systems typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Both stalk burial implements were also used to plow under whole cotton stalks. This offers additional energy savings by eliminating the stalk shredding operation.

  14. Optimizing Energy Savings from Direct-DC in U.S. Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, Karina; Vossos, Vagelis; Sanstad, Alan; Burch, Gabriel

    2011-10-13

    An increasing number of energy efficient appliances operate on direct current (DC) internally, offering the potential to use DC from renewable energy systems directly and avoiding the losses inherent in converting power to alternating current (AC) and back. This paper investigates that potential for net-metered residences with on-site photovoltaics (PV) by modeling the net power draw of the ‘direct-DC house’ with respect to today’s typical configuration, assuming identical DC-internal loads. Power draws were modeled for houses in 14 U.S. cities, using hourly, simulated PV-system output and residential loads. The latter were adjusted to reflect a 33% load reduction, representative of the most efficient DC-internal technology, based on an analysis of 32 electricity end-uses. The model tested the effect of climate, electric vehicle (EV) loads, electricity storage, and load shifting on electricity savings; a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine how future changes in the efficiencies of power system components might affect savings potential. Based on this work, we estimate that net-metered PV residences could save 5% of their total electricity load for houses without storage and 14% for houses with storage. Based on residential PV penetration projections for year 2035 obtained from the National Energy Modeling System (2.7% for the reference case and 11.2% for the extended policy case), direct-DC could save the nation 10 trillion Btu (without storage) or 40 trillion Btu (with storage). Shifting the cooling load by two hours earlier in the day (pre-cooling) has negligible benefits for energy savings. Direct-DC provides no energy savings benefits for EV charging, to the extent that charging occurs at night. However, if charging occurred during the day, for example with employees charging while at work, the benefits would be large. Direct-DC energy savings are sensitive to power system and appliance conversion efficiencies but are not significantly

  15. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Final Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    White, Thornton C

    2014-03-31

    Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT) is a balanced portfolio of R&D tasks that address energy-saving opportunities in the metalcasting industry. E-SMARRT was created to: • Improve important capabilities of castings • Reduce carbon footprint of the foundry industry • Develop new job opportunities in manufacturing • Significantly reduce metalcasting process energy consumption and includes R&D in the areas of: • Improvements in Melting Efficiency • Innovative Casting Processes for Yield Improvement/Revert Reduction • Instrumentation and Control Improvement • Material properties for Casting or Tooling Design Improvement The energy savings and process improvements developed under E-SMARRT have been made possible through the unique collaborative structure of the E-SMARRT partnership. The E-SMARRT team consisted of DOE’s Office of Industrial Technology, the three leading metalcasting technical associations in the U.S: the American Foundry Society; the North American Die Casting Association; and the Steel Founders’ Society of America; and SCRA Applied R&D, doing business as the Advanced Technology Institute (ATI), a recognized leader in distributed technology management. This team provided collaborative leadership to a complex industry composed of approximately 2,000 companies, 80% of which employ less than 100 people, and only 4% of which employ more than 250 people. Without collaboration, these new processes and technologies that enable energy efficiencies and environment-friendly improvements would have been slow to develop and had trouble obtaining a broad application. The E-SMARRT R&D tasks featured low-threshold energy efficiency improvements that are attractive to the domestic industry because they do not require major capital investment. The results of this portfolio of projects are significantly reducing metalcasting process energy consumption while improving the important capabilities of metalcastings. Through June

  16. Hepatoprotective activity of Musa paradisiaca on experimental animal models

    PubMed Central

    Nirmala, M; Girija, K; Lakshman, K; Divya, T

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of stem of Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) in CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity models in rats. Methods Hepatoprotective activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of stem of M. paradisiaca was demonstrated by using two experimentally induced hepatotoxicity models. Results Administration of hepatotoxins (CCl4 and paracetamol) showed significant biochemical and histological deteriorations in the liver of experimental animals. Pretreatment with alcoholic extract (500 mg/kg), more significantly and to a lesser extent the alcoholic extract (250 mg/kg) and aqueous extract (500 mg/kg), reduced the elevated levels of the serum enzymes like serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin levels and alcoholic and aqueous extracts reversed the hepatic damage towards the normal, which further evidenced the hepatoprotective activity of stem of M. paradisiaca. Conclusions The alcoholic extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. and aqueous extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg, p.o. of stem of M. paradisiaca have significant effect on the liver of CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity animal models. PMID:23569826

  17. Performance analysis of TCP traffic and its influence on ONU's energy saving in energy efficient TDM-PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaelddin, Fuad Yousif Mohammed; Newaz, S. H. Shah; Lee, Joohyung; Uddin, Mohammad Rakib; Lee, Gyu Myoung; Choi, Jun Kyun

    2015-12-01

    The majority of the traffic over the Internet is TCP based, which is very sensitive to packet loss and delay. Existing research efforts in TDM-Passive Optical Networks (TDM-PONs) mostly evaluate energy saving and traffic delay performances under different energy saving solutions. However, to the best of our knowledge, how energy saving mechanisms could affect TCP traffic performance in TDM-PONs has hardly been studied. In this paper, by means of our state-of-art OPNET Modular based TDM-PON simulator, we evaluate TCP traffic delay, throughput, and Optical Network Unit (ONU) energy consumption performances in a TDM-PON where energy saving mechanisms are employed in ONUs. Here, we study the performances under commonly used energy saving mechanisms defined in standards for TDM-PONs: cyclic sleep and doze mode. In cyclic sleep mode, we evaluate the performances under two well-known sleep interval length deciding algorithms (i.e. fixed sleep interval (FSI) and exponential sleep interval deciding (ESID)) that an OLT uses to decide sleep interval lengths for an ONU. Findings in this paper put forward the strong relationship among TCP traffic delay, throughput and ONU energy consumption under different sleep interval lengths. Moreover, we reveal that under high TCP traffic, both FSI and ESID will end up showing similar delay, energy and throughput performance. Our findings also show that doze mode can offer better TCP throughput and delay performance at the price of consuming more energy than cyclic sleep mode. In addition, our results provide a glimpse on understanding at what point doze mode becomes futile in improving energy saving of an ONU under TCP traffic. Furthermore, in this paper, we highlight important research issues that should be studied in future research to maximize energy saving in TDM-PONs while meeting traffic Quality of Service requirements.

  18. Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Enscoe, Abby

    2010-04-19

    An installation in a Federal building tested the effectiveness of a highly-controlled, workstation-specific lighting retrofit. The study took place in an open-office area with 86 cubicles and low levels of daylight. Each cubicle was illuminated by a direct/indirectpendant luminaire with three 32 watt lamps, two dimmable DALI ballasts, and an occupancy sensor. A centralized control system programmed all three lamps to turn on and off according to occupancy on a workstation-by-workstation basis. Field measurements taken over the course of several monthsdemonstrated 40% lighting energy savings compared to a baseline without advanced controls that conforms to GSA's current retrofit standard. A photometric analysis found that the installation provided higher desktop light levels than the baseline, while an occupant survey found that occupants in general preferred the lighting system to thebaseline.Simple payback is fairly high; projects that can achieve lower installation costs and/or higher energy savings and those in which greenhouse gas reduction and occupant satisfaction are significant priorities provide the ideal setting for workstation-specific lighting retrofits.

  19. Energy Savings From System Efficiency Improvements in Iowa's HVAC SAVE Program

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, S.; Baker, J.; Brand, L.; Wells, J.

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this project is to explore the energy savings potential of maximizing furnace and distribution system performance by adjusting operating, installation, and distribution conditions. The goal of the Iowa HVAC System Adjusted and Verified Efficiency (SAVE) program is to train contractors to measure installed system efficiency as a diagnostic tool to ensure that the homeowner achieves the energy reduction target for the home rather than simply performing a tune-up on the furnace or having a replacement furnace added to a leaky system. The PARR research team first examined baseline energy usage from a sample of 48 existing homes, before any repairs or adjustments were made, to calculate an average energy savings potential and to determine which system deficiencies were prevalent. The results of the baseline study of these homes found that, on average, about 10% of the space heating energy available from the furnace was not reaching the conditioned space. In the second part of the project, the team examined a sample of 10 homes that had completed the initial evaluation for more in-depth study. For these homes, the diagnostic data shows that it is possible to deliver up to 23% more energy from the furnace to the conditioned space by doing system tune ups with or without upgrading the furnace. Replacing the furnace provides additional energy reduction. The results support the author's belief that residential heating and cooling equipment should be tested and improved as a system rather than a collection of individual components.

  20. Design single-motor AC drive for energy savings in centrifugal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    This article is an evaluation of a single- motor with AC drive that saves energy with increased efficiency and reliability in a wide variety of pump, fan, compressor, and other centrifugal applications. Drives deliver adjustable speed for adjustable flow and will satisfy a number of particular objectives. A principal benefit of the drive is its efficiency. The drives also offer regenerative capability without modification, built-in memory for first-fault indication, and easy troubleshooting with comprehensive self-diagnostics. The drive controls flow in centrifugal applications by adjusting the pumps or fan speed. This provides energy savings over conventional flow control systems. Slip devices, also used to produce variable speed in centrifugal equipment, vary the ''slip'' between the constant-speed motor shaft and the pump or fan shaft. The speed which is not transmitted is dissipated as heat within the slip device itself. The drives are available from stock (100-250 hp) for immediate energy savings on both new and retrofit spplications, with a number of standard features: a remote operator control station provides start-stop and speed selection; acceleration/deceleration are separately adjustable over a range of 2.5 to 35 seconds with 5- to 70-second range available using simple jumper selection; and a coast-to-rest is also available using simple jumper selection. The drive can be operated automatically from an ungrounded 4-20 mA process control signal.

  1. Posture, gait and the ecological relevance of locomotor costs and energy-saving mechanisms in tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Stephen M; McElroy, Eric J; Biknevicius, Audrone R

    2007-01-01

    A reanalysis of locomotor data from functional, energetic, mechanical and ecological perspectives reveals that limb posture has major effects on limb biomechanics, energy-saving mechanisms and the costs of locomotion. Regressions of data coded by posture (crouched vs. erect) reveal nonlinear patterns in metabolic cost, limb muscle mass, effective mechanical advantage, and stride characteristics. In small crouched animals energy savings from spring and pendular mechanisms are inconsequential and thus the metabolic cost of locomotion is driven by muscle activation costs. Stride frequency appears to be the principal functional parameter related to the decreasing cost of locomotion in crouched animals. By contrast, the shift to erect limb postures invoked a series of correlated effects on the metabolic cost of locomotion: effective mechanical advantage increases, relative muscle masses decrease, metapodial limb segments elongate dramatically (as limbs shift from digitigrade to unguligrade designs) and biological springs increase in size and effectiveness. Each of these factors leads to decreases in the metabolic cost of locomotion in erect forms resulting from real and increasing contributions of pendular savings and spring savings. Comparisons of the relative costs and ecological relevance of different gaits reveal that running is cheaper than walking in smaller animals up to the size of dogs but running is more expensive than walking in horses. Animals do not necessarily use their cheapest gaits for their predominant locomotor activity. Therefore, locomotor costs are driven more by ecological relevance than by the need to optimize locomotor economy. PMID:17482802

  2. Aerosol corrosion prevention and energy-saving strategies in the design of green data centers.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Luca; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Ferrini, Barbara S; Perrone, Maria G; Moscatelli, Marco; D'Angelo, Luca; Rovelli, Grazia; Ariatta, Alberto; Truccolo, Redy; Bolzacchini, Ezio

    2013-04-16

    The energy demands of data centers (DCs) worldwide are rapidly increasing, as are their environmental and economic costs. This paper presents a study conducted at Sannazzaro de' Burgondi (Po Valley), Italy, specifically aimed at optimizing the operating conditions of a DC designed for the Italian Oil and Gas Company (Eni) (5200 m(2) of Information Technology installed, 30 MW) and based on a direct free cooling (DFC) system. The aim of the study was to save the largest possible quantity of energy, while at the same time preventing aerosol corrosion. The aerosol properties (number size distribution, chemical composition, deliquescence relative humidity (DRH), acidity) and meteorological parameters were monitored and utilized to determine the potential levels of aerosol entering the DC (equivalent ISO class), together with its DRH. These data enabled us both to select the DC's filtering system (MERV13 filters) and to optimize the cooling cycle through calculation of the most reliable humidity cycle (60% of maximum allowed RH) applicable to the DFC. A potential energy saving of 81%, compared to a traditional air conditioning cooling system, was estimated: in one year, for 1 kW of installed information technology, the estimated energy saving is 7.4 MWh, resulting in 2.7 fewer tons of CO2 being emitted, and a financial saving of € 1100. PMID:23495934

  3. Energy-Saving Tunnel Illumination System Based on LED's Intelligent Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shanshan; Gu, Hanting; Wu, Lan; Jiang, Shuixiu

    2011-02-01

    At present there is a lot of electric energy wastage in tunnel illumination, whose design is based on the maximum brightness outside and the maximum vehicle speed all year round. LED's energy consumption is low, and the control of its brightness is simple and effective. It can be quickly adjusted between 0-100% of its maximum brightness, and will not affect the service life. Therefore, using LED as tunnel's illumination source, we can achieve a good energy saving effect. According to real-time data acquisition of vehicle speed, traffic flow and brightness outside the tunnel, the auto real-time control of tunnel illumination can be achieved. And the system regulated the LED luminance by means of combination of LED power module and intelligent control module. The tunnel information was detected by inspection equipments, which included luminometer, vehicle detector, and received by RTU(Remote Terminal Unit), then synchronously transmitted to PC. After data processing, RTU emitted the dimming signal to the LED driver to adjust the brightness of LED. Despite the relatively high cost of high-power LED lights, the enormous energy-saving effect and the well-behaved controllability is beyond compare to other lighting devices.

  4. Measurement of Exterior Foundation Insulation to Assess Durability in Energy-Saving Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrer, Manfred; Christian, Jeff

    2012-04-01

    The foundation of a house is a sometimes ignored component of the building because of its low visibility. It is increasingly evident, however, that attention to good foundation design and construction significantly benefits the homeowner and the builder by mitigating future problems. Good foundation design and construction practice involves not only insulating to save energy but also providing effective structural design as well as moisture, termite, and radon control techniques as appropriate. Energy efficiency in housing is augmented by use of exterior slab and basement insulation, but high moisture content in the insulation material has led to concerns about its durability. The activity under this task was to extract six different exterior insulation systems that were characterized at installation and have been in the ground for 9 months to 15 years. R-value and moisture content were measured and inspections conducted for evidence of termite intrusion or deterioration. Based on the results, the durability of the various systems has been documented and assessments made of which systems appear to be best practice. Heat flux and temperature measurement data had been archived for some of the exterior insulation tests, thereby providing a unique opportunity to assess energy-saving performance and durability over the long term. The results show that the durability of foundation insulation systems depends on insulation type as well as on foundation type and local boundary conditions, the latter of which may have a marked influence on the durability of energy-saving performance.

  5. Antioxidant activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oil and its hepatoprotective potential

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Natural antioxidant products are increasingly being used to treat various pathological liver conditions considering the role of oxidative stress in their pathogenesis. Rosemary essential oil has already being used as a preservative in food industry due to its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, but it was shown to possess additional health benefits. The aim of our study was to evaluate the protective effect of rosemary essential oil on carbon tetrachloride - induced liver injury in rats and to explore whether its mechanism of action is associated with modulation of hepatic oxidative status. Methods Chemical composition of isolated rosemary essential oil was determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Antioxidant activity was determined in vitro using DPPH assay. Activities of enzyme markers of hepatocellular damage in serum and antioxidant enzymes in the liver homogenates were measured using the kinetic spectrophotometric methods. Results In this research, we identified 29 chemical compounds of the studied rosemary essential oil, and the main constituents were 1,8-cineole (43.77%), camphor (12.53%), and α-pinene (11.51%). Investigated essential oil was found to exert hepatoprotective effects in the doses of 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg by diminishing AST and ALT activities up to 2-fold in serum of rats with carbon tetrachloride - induced acute liver damage. Rosemary essential oil prevented carbon tetrachloride - induced increase of lipid peroxidation in liver homogenates. Furthermore, pre-treatment with studied essential oil during 7 days significantly reversed the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in liver homogenates, especially in the dose of 10 mg/kg. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that rosemary essential oil, beside exhibiting free radical scavenging activity determined by DPPH assay, mediates its hepatoprotective effects also through activation of

  6. Potent hepatoprotective effect in CCl4-induced hepatic injury in mice of phloroacetophenone from Myrcia multiflora

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Eduardo Antonio; Gris, Eliana Fortes; Felipe, Karina Bettega; Correia, João Francisco Gomes; Cargnin-Ferreira, Eduardo; Wilhelm Filho, Danilo; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi

    2010-01-01

    Background This study investigated the hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant properties of phloroacetophenone (2′,4′,6′-trihydroxyacetophenone – THA), an acetophenone derived from the plant Myrcia multiflora. Material & Method The free radical scavenging activity in vitro and induction of oxidative hepatic damage by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) (0.5 ml/kg, i.p.) were tested in male Swiss mice (25±5 g). Results This compound exhibited in vitro antioxidant effects on FeCl2–ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) in mouse liver homogenate, scavenging hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The in vivo assays showed that THA significantly (p<0.01) prevented the increases of hepatic LPO as measured by the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, mitochondrial swelling. It also protected hepatocytes against protein carbonylation and oxidative DNA damage. Consistent with these observations, THA pre-treatment normalized the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase, and increased the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in CCl4-treated mice. In addition, THA treatment significantly prevented the elevation of serum enzymatic activities of alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, and lactate dehydrogenase, as well as histological alterations induced by CCl4. Silymarin (SIL) (24 mg/kg), a known hepatoprotective drug used for comparison, led to a significant decrease (p<0.01) in activities of theses enzymes in way very similar to that observed in pre-treatment with THA. Conclusion These results suggest that the protective effects are due to reduction of oxidative damage induced by CCl4 resulting from the antioxidant properties of THA. PMID:21483585

  7. An Analysis of Energy Savings Possible Through Advances in Automotive Tooling Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Schmoyer, RLS

    2004-12-03

    The use of lightweight and highly formable advanced materials in automobile and truck manufacturing has the potential to save fuel. Advances in tooling technology would promote the use of these materials. This report describes an energy savings analysis performed to approximate the potential fuel savings and consequential carbon-emission reductions that would be possible because of advances in tooling in the manufacturing of, in particular, non-powertrain components of passenger cars and heavy trucks. Separate energy analyses are performed for cars and heavy trucks. Heavy trucks are considered to be Class 7 and 8 trucks (trucks rated over 26,000 lbs gross vehicle weight). A critical input to the analysis is a set of estimates of the percentage reductions in weight and drag that could be achieved by the implementation of advanced materials, as a consequence of improved tooling technology, which were obtained by surveying tooling industry experts who attended a DOE Workshop, Tooling Technology for Low-Volume Vehicle Production, held in Seattle and Detroit in October and November 2003. The analysis is also based on 2001 fuel consumption totals and on energy-audit component proportions of fuel use due to drag, rolling resistance, and braking. The consumption proportions are assumed constant over time, but an allowance is made for fleet growth. The savings for a particular component is then the product of total fuel consumption, the percentage reduction of the component, and the energy audit component proportion. Fuel savings estimates for trucks also account for weight-limited versus volume-limited operations. Energy savings are assumed to be of two types: (1) direct energy savings incurred through reduced forces that must be overcome to move the vehicle or to slow it down in braking. and (2) indirect energy savings through reductions in the required engine power, the production and transmission of which incur thermodynamic losses, internal friction, and other

  8. Empirical impact evaluation of the energy savings resulting from BPA's Stage II irrigation system retrofit program: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, B.J.; Tawil, J.W.; Lyke, A.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Edin, E.S.; Bailey, B.M.

    1987-07-01

    This report documents the results of an evaluation of the impacts on irrigation system energy consumption of conservation measures installed under the Bonneville Power Administration's Stage II retrofit program. Historical billing data and other farm records provided the basis for this evaluation. A number of different statistical techniques were used to estimate the actual energy savings resulting from the Stage II conservation measures. Results of the study reveal that the methodology used in predicting energy savings resulting from the Stage II program is accurate. The basis for energy savings predictions in the Stage II program are changes in brake horsepower, and, in this study, a 1% change in brake horsepower was found to result in slightly more than a 1% change in energy consumption. Overall, Stage II program conservation measures were found to reduce irrigation system energy use by an average of 34%. The average costs of obtaining these savings were 6 mills (.6 cents) per kWh saved.

  9. Electrical energy and demand savings from a geothermal heat pump energy savings performance contract at Ft. Polk, LA

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.

    1997-06-01

    At Fort Polk, LA the space conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHP) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures such as compact fluorescent lights (CFLs), low-flow hot water outlets, and attic insulation were installed. Pre- and post-retrofit data were taken at 15-minute intervals on energy flows through the electrical distribution feeders that serve the family housing areas of the post. 15-minute interval data was also taken on energy use from a sample of the residences. This paper summarizes the electrical energy and demand savings observed in this data. Analysis of feeder-level data shows that for a typical year, the project will result in a 25.6 million kWh savings in electrical energy use, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption in family housing. Results from analysis of building-level data compare well with this figure. Analysis of feeder-level data also shows that the project has resulted in a reduction of peak electrical demand of 6,541 kW, which is 39.6% of the pre-retrofit peak electrical demand. In addition to these electrical savings, the facility is also saving an estimated 260,000 therms per year of natural gas. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the apparent energy savings observed in the monitored data, and are not to be confused with the contracted energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the contracted energy savings, the apparent energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in indoor temperature performance criteria, additions of ceiling fans, and other factors.

  10. Energy Savings Modeling of Standard Commercial Building Re-tuning Measures: Large Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Liu, Guopeng

    2012-06-01

    Today, many large commercial buildings use sophisticated building automation systems (BASs) to manage a wide range of building equipment. While the capabilities of BASs have increased over time, many buildings still do not fully use the BAS's capabilities and are not properly commissioned, operated or maintained, which leads to inefficient operation, increased energy use, and reduced lifetimes of the equipment. This report investigates the energy savings potential of several common HVAC system retuning measures on a typical large office building prototype model, using the Department of Energy's building energy modeling software, EnergyPlus. The baseline prototype model uses roughly as much energy as an average large office building in existing building stock, but does not utilize any re-tuning measures. Individual re-tuning measures simulated against this baseline include automatic schedule adjustments, damper minimum flow adjustments, thermostat adjustments, as well as dynamic resets (set points that change continuously with building and/or outdoor conditions) to static pressure, supply air temperature, condenser water temperature, chilled and hot water temperature, and chilled and hot water differential pressure set points. Six combinations of these individual measures have been formulated - each designed to conform to limitations to implementation of certain individual measures that might exist in typical buildings. All of these measures and combinations were simulated in 16 cities representative of specific U.S. climate zones. The modeling results suggest that the most effective energy savings measures are those that affect the demand-side of the building (air-systems and schedules). Many of the demand-side individual measures were capable of reducing annual HVAC system energy consumption by over 20% in most cities that were modeled. Supply side measures affecting HVAC plant conditions were only modestly successful (less than 5% annual HVAC energy savings for

  11. Energy savings modelling of re-tuning energy conservation measures in large office buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Nick; Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Liu, Guopeng

    2014-10-20

    Today, many large commercial buildings use sophisticated building automation systems (BASs) to manage a wide range of building equipment. While the capabilities of BASs have increased over time, many buildings still do not fully use the BAS’s capabilities and are not properly commissioned, operated or maintained, which leads to inefficient operation, increased energy use, and reduced lifetimes of the equipment. This paper investigates the energy savings potential of several common HVAC system re-tuning measures on a typical large office building, using the Department of Energy’s building energy modeling software, EnergyPlus. The baseline prototype model uses roughly as much energy as an average large office building in existing building stock, but does not utilize any re-tuning measures. Individual re-tuning measures simulated against this baseline include automatic schedule adjustments, damper minimum flow adjustments, thermostat adjustments, as well as dynamic resets (set points that change continuously with building and/or outdoor conditions) to static pressure, supply-air temperature, condenser water temperature, chilled and hot water temperature, and chilled and hot water differential pressure set points. Six combinations of these individual measures have been formulated – each designed to conform to limitations to implementation of certain individual measures that might exist in typical buildings. All the individual measures and combinations were simulated in 16 climate locations representative of specific U.S. climate zones. The modeling results suggest that the most effective energy savings measures are those that affect the demand-side of the building (air-systems and schedules). Many of the demand-side individual measures were capable of reducing annual total HVAC system energy consumption by over 20% in most cities that were modeled. Supply side measures affecting HVAC plant conditions were only modestly successful (less than 5% annual HVAC energy

  12. Measured energy savings and performance of power-managed personal computers and monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Nordman, B.; Piette, M.A.; Kinney, K.

    1996-08-01

    Personal computers and monitors are estimated to use 14 billion kWh/year of electricity, with power management potentially saving $600 million/year by the year 2000. The effort to capture these savings is lead by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Energy Star program, which specifies a 30W maximum demand for the computer and for the monitor when in a {open_quote}sleep{close_quote} or idle mode. In this paper the authors discuss measured energy use and estimated savings for power-managed (Energy Star compliant) PCs and monitors. They collected electricity use measurements of six power-managed PCs and monitors in their office and five from two other research projects. The devices are diverse in machine type, use patterns, and context. The analysis method estimates the time spent in each system operating mode (off, low-, and full-power) and combines these with real power measurements to derive hours of use per mode, energy use, and energy savings. Three schedules are explored in the {open_quotes}As-operated,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Standardized,{close_quotes} and `Maximum` savings estimates. Energy savings are established by comparing the measurements to a baseline with power management disabled. As-operated energy savings for the eleven PCs and monitors ranged from zero to 75 kWh/year. Under the standard operating schedule (on 20% of nights and weekends), the savings are about 200 kWh/year. An audit of power management features and configurations for several dozen Energy Star machines found only 11% of CPU`s fully enabled and about two thirds of monitors were successfully power managed. The highest priority for greater power management savings is to enable monitors, as opposed to CPU`s, since they are generally easier to configure, less likely to interfere with system operation, and have greater savings. The difficulties in properly configuring PCs and monitors is the largest current barrier to achieving the savings potential from power management.

  13. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 Schools--30% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.; Long, N.

    2007-09-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings (K-12 AEDG), a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 30% energy savings in K-12 Schools over levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. The 30% energy savings target is the first step toward achieving net-zero energy schools; schools that, on an annual basis, draw from outside sources less or equal energy than they generate on site from renewable energy sources.

  14. Mechanisms of the hepatoprotective effects of tamoxifen against drug-induced and chemical-induced acute liver injuries

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Yukitaka; Miyashita, Taishi; Higuchi, Satonori; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Endo, Shinya; Tsukui, Tohru; Toyoda, Yasuyuki; Fukami, Tatsuki; Nakajima, Miki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2012-10-01

    Although estrogen receptor (ER)α agonists, such as estradiol and ethinylestradiol (EE2), cause cholestasis in mice, they also reduce the degree of liver injury caused by hepatotoxicants as well as ischemia–reperfusion. The functional mechanisms of ERα have yet to be elucidated in drug-induced or chemical-induced liver injury. The present study investigated the effects of an ERα agonist, selective ER modulators (SERMs) and an ER antagonist on drug-induced and chemical-induced liver injuries caused by acetaminophen, bromobenzene, diclofenac, and thioacetamide (TA). We observed hepatoprotective effects of EE2, tamoxifen (TAM) and raloxifene pretreatment in female mice that were exposed to a variety of hepatotoxic compounds. In contrast, the ER antagonist did not show any hepatoprotective effects. DNA microarray analyses suggested that monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated 2 (Mmd2) protein, which has an unknown function, is commonly increased by TAM and RAL pretreatment, but not by pretreatment with the ER antagonist. In ERα-knockout mice, the hepatoprotective effects of TAM and the increased expression of Mmd2 mRNA were not observed in TA-induced liver injury. To investigate the function of Mmd2, the expression level of Mmd2 mRNA was significantly knocked down to approximately 30% in mice by injection of siRNA for Mmd2 (siMmd2). Mmd2 knockdown resulted in a reduction of the protective effects of TAM on TA-induced liver injury in mice. This is the first report of the involvement of ERα in drug-induced or chemical-induced liver injury. Upregulation of Mmd2 protein in the liver was suggested as the mechanism of the hepatoprotective effects of EE2 and SERMs. -- Highlights: ► Liver injury induced by drugs or chemicals was investigated in mice. ► Liver injury was suppressed by pretreatment with tamoxifen in female mice. ► Mmd2, whose function was unknown, could be a candidate gene for liver protection. ► Tamoxifen up-regulated Mmd2 mRNA expression

  15. Benchmarking and Energy Saving Tool for Low Carbon Cities (BEST Cities)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-02-01

    BEST-Cities is designed to provide city authorities with strategies they can follow to reduce city-wide carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions. The tool quickly assesses local energy use and energy-related CO2 emissions across nine sectors (i.e., industry, public and commercial buildings, residential buildings, transportation, power and heat, street lighting, water & wastewater, solid waste, and urban green space), giving officials a comprehensive perspective on their local carbon performance. Cities can also use the toolmore » to benchmark their energy and emissions performance to other cities inside and outside China, and identify those sectors with the greatest energy saving and emissions reduction potential.« less

  16. Energy savings and economics of advanced control strategies for packaged air conditioners with gas heat

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the potential energy savings from adding advanced control to existing packaged air conditioners. Advanced control options include air-side economizer, multi-speed fan control, demand control ventilation and staged cooling. The energy and cost savings from the different control strategies individually and in combination are estimated using the EnergyPlus detailed energy simulation program for four building types, namely, a small office building, a stand-alone retail building, a strip mall building and a supermarket building. For each of the four building types, the simulation was run for 16 locations covering all 15 climate zones in the U.S. The maximum installed cost of a replacement controller that provides acceptable payback periods to owners is estimated.

  17. Approaches to 30 Percent Energy Savings at the Community Scale in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas-Rees, S.; Beal, D.; Martin, E.

    2013-03-01

    BA-PIRC has worked with several community-scale builders within the hot humid climate zone to improve performance of production, or community scale, housing. Tommy Williams Homes (Gainesville, FL), Lifestyle Homes (Melbourne, FL), and Habitat for Humanity (various locations, FL) have all been continuous partners of the Building America program and are the subjects of this report to document achievement of the Building America goal of 30% whole house energy savings packages adopted at the community scale. Key aspects of this research include determining how to evolve existing energy efficiency packages to produce replicable target savings, identifying what builders' technical assistance needs are for implementation and working with them to create sustainable quality assurance mechanisms, and documenting the commercial viability through neutral cost analysis and market acceptance. This report documents certain barriers builders overcame and the approaches they implemented in order to accomplish Building America (BA) Program goals that have not already been documented in previous reports.

  18. Energy Savings of Low-E Storm Windows and Panels across US Climate Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, Thomas D.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2015-10-01

    This report builds off of previous modeling work related to low-e storm windows used to create a "Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows." This work updates similar studies using new fuel costs and examining the separate contributions of reduced air leakage and reduced coefficients of overall heat transfer and solar heat gain. In this report we examine the energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates, excluding the impact from infiltration reductions, which tend to vary using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by climate zone.

  19. Energy efficiency monitoring and economic analysis for energy saving potential in UNITEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyasudin Basir Khan, M.; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh; Yew, Kang Chin; Azwa Shaaya, Sharifah

    2013-06-01

    This paper discusses on energy efficiency survey for typical buildings in Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN). Undeniably, wastage of energy will cause the increase of operation cost and depletion of fossil fuel resources which contributes to the climate change issue in the world. UNITEN was commenced in the late 1990s and most of the buildings in this university are not equipped with energy management system. Such system is the solution to reduce energy use while maximizing the comfort levels of the occupants. Disregard to the energy management system, the implementation of other energy saving measures is the main objective of this paper. By taking the right measures, the energy wastage in the buildings of this university can be reduced.

  20. California Federal Facilities: Rate-Responsive Building Operation for Deeper Cost and Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-01

    Dynamic pricing electricity tariffs, now the default for large customers in California (peak demand of 200 kW and higher for PG&E and SCE, and 20 kW and higher for SDG&E), are providing Federal facilities new opportunities to cut their electricity bills and help them meet their energy savings mandates. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) has created this fact sheet to help California federal facilities take advantage of these opportunities through “rate-responsive building operation.” Rate-responsive building operation involves designing your load management strategies around your facility’s variable electric rate, using measures that require little or no financial investment.

  1. R and D of energy saving and new energy utilization in Japanese marine engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isshiki, N.; Tamaki, H.; Murayama, Y.; Tokuda, S.

    Energy saving measures being studied and implemented in Japan to reduce marine diesel fuel consumption are described. Lower ship speeds, bulb bows, better surface paint, a reaction ladder, low speed diesel engines with long stroke cylinders and superchargers are being tried. Large, low speed, controllable pitch propellers, digital engine control, and waste heat recovery with Rankine cycle generators are other methods under investigation. Blade cooling and reheating are being introduced, and a set of computer controlled maneuverable metal sails undergoing sea tests on a commercial tanker as a fuel saving technique have displayed a 20% fuel savings in tests. A windmill is under design for ship propulsion, involving several vertical airfoils revolving around a vertical axis of rotation. Direct connection to a propeller is being considered, noting that operations to windward would be possible.

  2. Energy saving achieved by limited filamentous bulking sludge under low dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian-Hua; Peng, Yong-Zhen; Peng, Cheng-Yao; Wang, Shu-Ying; Chen, Ying; Huang, Hui-Jun; Sun, Zhi-Rong

    2010-02-01

    Limited filamentous bulking caused by low dissolved oxygen (DO) was proposed to establish a low energy consumption wastewater treatment system. This method for energy saving was derived from two full-scale field observations, which showed pollutants removal would be enhanced and energy consumption could be reduced by at least 10% using limited filamentous bulking. Furthermore, preliminary investigation including the abundance evaluation and the identification of filamentous bacteria demonstrated that the limited filamentous bulking could be repeated steadily in a lab-scale anoxic-oxic reactor fed with domestic wastewater. The sludge loss did not occur in the secondary clarifier, while COD and total nitrogen removal efficiencies were improved by controlling DO for optimal filamentous bacterial population. Suspended solids in effluent were negligible and turbidity was lower than 2 NTU, which were distinctly lower than those under no bulking. Theoretical and experimental results indicated the aeration consumption could be saved by the application of limited filamentous bulking. PMID:19837583

  3. Energy-Saving Analysis of Hydraulic Hybrid Excavator Based on Common Pressure Rail

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jihai; Su, Xiaoyu

    2013-01-01

    Energy-saving research of excavators is becoming one hot topic due to the increasing energy crisis and environmental deterioration recently. Hydraulic hybrid excavator based on common pressure rail (HHEC) provides an alternative with electric hybrid excavator because it has high power density and environment friendly and easy to modify based on the existing manufacture process. This paper is focused on the fuel consumption of HHEC and the actuator dynamic response to assure that the new system can save energy without sacrificing performance. Firstly, we introduce the basic principle of HHEC; then, the sizing process is presented; furthermore, the modeling period which combined mathematical analysis and experiment identification is listed. Finally, simulation results show that HHEC has a fast dynamic response which can be accepted in engineering and the fuel consumption can be reduced 21% to compare the original LS excavator and even 32% after adopting another smaller engine. PMID:24194683

  4. Market analysis, energy savings potential, and future development requirements for Radiance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy (CE), Building Equipment Division has funded the development of a sophisticated computer rendering program called Radiance at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories (LBL). The project review study included: (1) Surveys of the lighting profession to determine how designers would use an improved, user-friendly Radiance, (2) Elucidation of features, including how Radiance could be used to save energy, which could be incorporated into Radiance to facilitate its more widespread use, (3) Outline of a development plan and determination of what costs the DOE might incur if it were to proceed with the development of an improved version, and (4) Weighing the anticipated development costs against anticipated energy-saving benefits.

  5. Experimental assessment of energy saving due to trains regenerative braking in an electrified subway line

    SciTech Connect

    Adinolfi, A.; Lamedica, R.; Modesto, C.; Prudenzi, A.; Vimercati, S.

    1998-10-01

    The paper deals with the research activity conducted in order to determine the impact of regenerative braking techniques adopted on board of trains operating in subway electrified systems. Even though systems adopting this technique are very diffuse world wide, experimental results demonstrating the impact on energy consumption are rarely made available for the scientific community. The paper reports the results of an extensive experimental activity conducted on an electrified subway line in Rome, in order to estimate the energy saving due to the techniques above mentioned. Since the monitoring activity of the system demand in absence of regenerative braking had to be limited to the traffic peak hours of only two subsequent days, an available model, being able to simulate the instantaneous demand profile of DC electrified subway power systems, has been used in order to extend the numerical evaluations based on the experimental activity to a whole day of operation.

  6. Energy-saving options for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from the Mongolian energy sector

    SciTech Connect

    Dorjpurev, J.; Purevjal, O.; Erdenechimeg, Ch.

    1996-12-31

    The Energy sector is the largest contributor to GHG emission in Mongolia. The Energy sector emits 54 percent of CO2 and 4 percent of methane. All emissions of other greenhouse gases are accounted from energy related activities. The activities in this sector include coal production, fuel combustion, and biomass combustion at the thermal power stations and in private houses (stoves) for heating purposes. This paper presents some important Demand-side options considered for mitigation of CO2 emissions from energy sector such as Energy Conservation in Industrial Sector and in Buildings. Changes in energy policies and programmes in the Mongolian situation that promote more efficient and sustainable practices are presented in the paper. These energy saving measures will not only help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but will also promote economic development and alleviate other environmental problems.

  7. Energy-saving EPON Bandwidth Allocation Algorithm Supporting ONU's Sleep Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinfa; Ren, Shuai; Liao, Xiaomin; Fang, Yuanyuan

    2014-09-01

    A new bandwidth allocation algorithm was presented by combining merits of the IPACT algorithm and the cyclic DBA algorithm based on the DBA algorithm for ONU's sleep mode. Simulation results indicate that compared with the normal mode ONU, the ONU's sleep mode can save about 74% of energy. The new algorithm has a smaller average packet delay and queue length in the upstream direction. While in the downstream direction, the average packet delay of the new algorithm is less than polling cycle Tcycle and the average queue length is less than the product of Tcycle and the maximum link rate. The new algorithm achieves a better compromise between energy-saving and ensuring quality of service.

  8. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Non-Vapor-Compression HVAC Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-03-01

    While vapor-compression technologies have served heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) needs very effectively, and have been the dominant HVAC technology for close to 100 years, the conventional refrigerants used in vapor-compression equipment contribute to global climate change when released to the atmosphere. This Building Technologies Office report: --Identifies alternatives to vapor-compression technology in residential and commercial HVAC applications --Characterizes these technologies based on their technical energy savings potential, development status, non-energy benefits, and other factors affecting end-user acceptance and their ability to compete with conventional vapor-compression systems --Makes specific research, development, and deployment (RD&D) recommendations to support further development of these technologies, should DOE choose to support non-vapor-compression technology further.

  9. Selected bibliography: cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of reports on the cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy applications throughout the United States. It is part of an overall effort to inform utilities of technological developments in conservation and renewable energy technologies and so aid utilities in their planning process to determine the most effective and economic combination of capital investments to meet customer needs. Department of Energy assessments of the applications, current costs and cost goals for the various technologies included in this bibliography are presented. These assessments are based on analyses performed by or for the respective DOE Program Offices. The results are sensitive to a number of variables and assumptions; however, the estimates presented are considered representative. These assessments are presented, followed by some conclusions regarding the potential role of the conservation and renewable energy alternative. The approach used to classify the bibliographic citations and abstracts is outlined.

  10. Using Revolving Loan Funds to Finance Energy Savings Performance Contracts in State and Local Agency Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, S.; Doris, E.; Knutson, D.; Regenthal, S.

    2011-05-01

    Numerous pre-existing and newly emerging state- and locally-managed revolving loan funds (RLFs) are being used in conjunction with energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) as an option for financing of energy efficiency projects. This document presents an overview of ESPCs and how they fit within the RLF framework. There are a variety of options available to state and local governments to catalyze the disbursement of available capital from RLFs and increase the number of ESPC projects within their jurisdictions. To demonstrate the implementation of this type of financing program in action, this report concludes with four program case studies of state-sponsored RLFs where ESPCs are an allowed use of funds.

  11. Analyzing the Life Cycle Energy Savings of DOE Supported Buildings Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Hostick, Donna J.; Dirks, James A.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2009-08-31

    This report examines the factors that would potentially help determine an appropriate analytical timeframe for measuring the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technology (BT) benefits and presents a summary-level analysis of the life cycle savings for BT’s Commercial Buildings Integration (CBI) R&D program. The energy savings for three hypothetical building designs are projected over a 100-year period using Building Energy Analysis and Modeling System (BEAMS) to illustrate the resulting energy and carbon savings associated with the hypothetical aging buildings. The report identifies the tasks required to develop a long-term analytical and modeling framework, and discusses the potential analytical gains and losses by extending an analysis into the “long-term.”

  12. Energy savings opportunity survey, Energy Engineering Analysis Program, Fort Gordon, Georgia: Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1988-09-01

    This is the pre-final submittal of an Energy Savings Opportunity Survey (ESOS) performed at Fort Gordon, GA. This report presents potential energy conservation projects for this Installation. These projects, consisting of Energy Conservation Opportunities (ECOs), are summarized in Tables 1 and 2. The projects were developed based on project packaging instructions from the Installation and on follow-up phone calls with The Directorate of Installation Support (DIS). The ECOs have been extended to include buildings similar to those surveyed by the architect/engineer. Similarity was based on instructions from the Installation and on follow-up phone calls with DIS. Table 3 lists the buildings surveyed. Thirty nine buildings were surveyed totaling approximately 800,000 square feet. Of these, one was an example of Family Housing and 38 were examples of non-housing buildings. Over one hundred ECOs were considered at Fort Gordon. Of these 39 were applicable in non-housing and 5 in Family Housing.

  13. DOE's Energy Savings Performance Contracts Stretch Budgets in the Bureau of Indian Affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2001-10-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Indian Affairs has found a good way to reduce energy costs, replace inefficient lighting and aging building equipment, and install renewable energy systems-all without huge increases in the BIA budget. The agency is doing this by making use of the U.S. Department of Energy's Super Energy Savings Performance Contracts (Super ESPCs) at BIA schools and other facilities throughout the country. This two-page case study describes how one BIA facility-the Sherman Indian School in Riverside, California-is cutting its energy costs with badly needed new lighting and heating and cooling equipment, and installing a new photovoltaic energy system, under a DOE Super ESPC, in which the energy services provider pays up-front costs and is repaid out of the facility's resulting energy cost savings.

  14. Application of white LED lighting to energy-saving-type street lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Tsunemasa; Uchida, Yuji; Setomoto, Tatsumi; Kobashi, Katsuya

    2001-05-01

    We describe the lighting characteristics and systems of the power energy-saving type street lamp which consists of white light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and a solar-cell and battery system. The prototype street lamp has been constructed by two LED light sources, each of which includes a total of 700 units of 10 cd-class white LEDs. The white LED lighting system is mainly divided into three components which are the control, the electric-power supply and LED lighting divisions. The illuminance is normally 80 lx. When a person approaches within 2 m near the lamp, the body sensor catches the situation. The illuminance then increases to about 660 lx, which is about 50 times brighter than that of a white incandescent lamp. The color rendering index is estimated to be 85 which is similar to that of three color fluorescent tube. The illuminance distribution can be analyzed by our recently developed 'multi sources of LED light' theory.

  15. Hepatoprotective and antihyperliposis activities of in vitro cultured Anoectochilus formosanus.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiao-Ming; Sun, Ning-Yi; Hayashi, Jun; Chen, Yang; Sugiura, Minoru; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2003-01-01

    The pharmacological effects of an aqueous extract of the whole plants of in vitro cultured Anoectochilus formosanus were investigated experimentally for hepatoprotective and antihyperliposis activities. The extract showed significant antihepatotoxic activity against carbon tetrachloride induced cytotoxicity in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. In an assay for antihyperliposis using aurothioglucose-induced obese mice, the extract suppressed significantly the increase in the weights of body and liver, ameliorated triglyceride levels in the liver and serum, and also significantly reduced the deposition of adipose tissue. PMID:12557243

  16. Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, Karina; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Bolduc, Christopher; Burch, Gabriel; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Saltiel, Seth

    2011-05-06

    This study surveyed the technical potential for efficiency improvements in 150 categories of appliances and equipment representing 33 quads of primary energy use across the US economy in 2010 and (1) documented efficient product designs, (2) identified the most promising cross-cutting strategies, and (3) ranked national energy savings potential by end use. Savings were estimated using a method modeled after US Department of Energy priority-setting reports - simplified versions of the full technical and economic analyses performed for rulemakings. This study demonstrates that large savings are possible by replacing products at the end-of-life with ultra-efficient models that use existing technology. Replacing the 50 top energy-saving end-uses (constituting 30 quads of primary energy consumption in 2010) with today's best-on-market equivalents would save {approx}200 quads of US primary energy over 30 years (25% of consumption anticipated there from). For the 29 products for maximum feasible savings potential could be estimated, the savings were twice as high. These results demonstrate that pushing ultra-efficient products to market could significantly escalate carbon emission reductions and is a viable strategy for sustaining large emissions reductions through standards. The results of this analysis were used by DOE for new coverage prioritization, to identify key opportunities for product prototyping and market development, and will leverage future standards rulemakings by identifying the full scope of maximum feasible technology options. High leverage products include advances lighting systems, HVAC, and televisions. High leverage technologies include electronic lighting, heat pumps, variable speed motors, and a host of controls-related technologies.

  17. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building occupants and

  18. Extension to phase 2 energy savings evaluation of the commercial direct investment program

    SciTech Connect

    Trumble, D.; MacDonald, M.

    1994-08-01

    The results of an analysis of the commercial direct investment program of the Commonwealth Energy System (COM/Electric) is presented. The analysis extends results obtained in a previous impact evaluation of energy savings. The analysis includes over 1,000 buildings that participated in the program. The previous evaluation showed net program savings, using simple, aggregate annual measures of energy use and a control group adjustment, of about 8.7 GWh/yr (14% of pre-retrofit energy use) for an investment of $4.4 million, which leads to an investment cost ratio (investment divided by first year savings) of about $0.50/kWh. Inherent difficulties with simple, aggregate calculations, with the PRInceton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM), and with econometric approaches for these types of evaluations are discussed and an extension to PRISM proposed as an alternative. Energy savings for this program are estimated using both simple, aggregate data and the extended PRISM approach (two-stage regression modeling). The aggregate data provide important insight about program performance, while the two-stage regression modeling helps reduce variability in results. Overall, the impact evaluation results indicate that the net program investment cost ratio, the ratio of total costs to net electricity savings, is close to $0.60/kWh when weather and cost factors are included. Economic factors were included in savings estimate calculations, but the results indicated either data endogeneity or high variance problems, so economic effects cannot be inferred as being estimable for the data set on this small C/I program with the methods used here. Program performance is at the margin of acceptable performance, and because of this marginality, improvements in program execution are desirable. Program performance at the margin could be improved significantly by controlling for potentially poor retrofit choices.

  19. Color tunable low cost transparent heat reflector using copper and titanium oxide for energy saving application.

    PubMed

    Dalapati, Goutam Kumar; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Chua, Sing Teng; Sharma, Mohit; Wong, Ten It; Tan, Hui Ru; Chi, Dongzhi

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer coating structure comprising a copper (Cu) layer sandwiched between titanium dioxide (TiO2) were demonstrated as a transparent heat reflecting (THR) coating on glass for energy-saving window application. The main highlight is the utilization of Cu, a low-cost material, in-lieu of silver which is widely used in current commercial heat reflecting coating on glass. Color tunable transparent heat reflecting coating was realized through the design of multilayer structure and process optimization. The impact of thermal treatment on the overall performance of sputter deposited TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayer thin film on glass substrate is investigated in detail. Significant enhancement of transmittance in the visible range and reflectance in the infra-red (IR) region has been observed after thermal treatment of TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayer thin film at 500 °C due to the improvement of crystal quality of TiO2. Highest visible transmittance of 90% and IR reflectance of 85% at a wavelength of 1200 nm are demonstrated for the TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayer thin film after annealing at 500 °C. Performance of TiO2/Cu/TiO2 heat reflector coating decreases after thermal treatment at 600 °C. The wear performance of the TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayer structure has been evaluated through scratch hardness test. The present work shows promising characteristics of Cu-based THR coating for energy-saving building industry. PMID:26846687

  20. Energy saving processes in huddling emperor penguins: from experiments to theory.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Caroline; Blanc, Stéphane; Le Maho, Yvon; Ancel, André

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the energy savings of male emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri linked to their huddling behaviour, the key factor that allows them to assume their incubating task while undergoing a long fast. Drawing on new studies by our team, this review examines the energetic benefits accrued from huddling and estimates the respective contributions of wind protection, exposure to mild ambient temperatures, reduction in cold-exposed body surfaces and body temperature adjustments in these energy savings. The metabolic rate of 'loosely grouped' birds (restrained in small groups of 5-10 individuals, which are unable to huddle effectively) is reduced by 39% compared to metabolic rate of 'isolated' birds, with 32% of these energetic benefits due to wind protection. In addition, metabolic rate of 'free-ranging' emperors, i.e. able to move freely and to huddle, is on average 21% lower than that of 'loosely grouped' birds. Exposure to mild ambient temperatures within the groups and reduction in cold-exposed body surfaces while huddling, though overestimated, would represent a 38% metabolic reduction. About two thirds of metabolic lowering is attributable to the reduction in cold-exposed body surfaces and one third to the mild microclimate created within the groups. Moreover, body temperature adjustments contribute to these energetic benefits: maintaining body temperatures 1 degrees C lower would represent a 7-17% reduction in energy expenditure. These processes, linked together, explain how huddling emperors save energy and maintain a constant body temperature, which ensures a successful incubation in the midst of the austral winter. PMID:18083725

  1. Color tunable low cost transparent heat reflector using copper and titanium oxide for energy saving application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalapati, Goutam Kumar; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Chua, Sing Teng; Sharma, Mohit; Wong, Ten It; Tan, Hui Ru; Chi, Dongzhi

    2016-02-01

    Multilayer coating structure comprising a copper (Cu) layer sandwiched between titanium dioxide (TiO2) were demonstrated as a transparent heat reflecting (THR) coating on glass for energy-saving window application. The main highlight is the utilization of Cu, a low-cost material, in-lieu of silver which is widely used in current commercial heat reflecting coating on glass. Color tunable transparent heat reflecting coating was realized through the design of multilayer structure and process optimization. The impact of thermal treatment on the overall performance of sputter deposited TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayer thin film on glass substrate is investigated in detail. Significant enhancement of transmittance in the visible range and reflectance in the infra-red (IR) region has been observed after thermal treatment of TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayer thin film at 500 °C due to the improvement of crystal quality of TiO2. Highest visible transmittance of 90% and IR reflectance of 85% at a wavelength of 1200 nm are demonstrated for the TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayer thin film after annealing at 500 °C. Performance of TiO2/Cu/TiO2 heat reflector coating decreases after thermal treatment at 600 °C. The wear performance of the TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayer structure has been evaluated through scratch hardness test. The present work shows promising characteristics of Cu-based THR coating for energy-saving building industry.

  2. Color tunable low cost transparent heat reflector using copper and titanium oxide for energy saving application

    PubMed Central

    Dalapati, Goutam Kumar; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Chua, Sing Teng; Sharma, Mohit; Wong, Ten It; Tan, Hui Ru; Chi, Dongzhi

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer coating structure comprising a copper (Cu) layer sandwiched between titanium dioxide (TiO2) were demonstrated as a transparent heat reflecting (THR) coating on glass for energy-saving window application. The main highlight is the utilization of Cu, a low-cost material, in-lieu of silver which is widely used in current commercial heat reflecting coating on glass. Color tunable transparent heat reflecting coating was realized through the design of multilayer structure and process optimization. The impact of thermal treatment on the overall performance of sputter deposited TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayer thin film on glass substrate is investigated in detail. Significant enhancement of transmittance in the visible range and reflectance in the infra-red (IR) region has been observed after thermal treatment of TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayer thin film at 500 °C due to the improvement of crystal quality of TiO2. Highest visible transmittance of 90% and IR reflectance of 85% at a wavelength of 1200 nm are demonstrated for the TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayer thin film after annealing at 500 °C. Performance of TiO2/Cu/TiO2 heat reflector coating decreases after thermal treatment at 600 °C. The wear performance of the TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayer structure has been evaluated through scratch hardness test. The present work shows promising characteristics of Cu-based THR coating for energy-saving building industry. PMID:26846687

  3. Thermodynamics of greenhouse systems for the northern latitudes: analysis, evaluation and prospects for primary energy saving.

    PubMed

    Bronchart, Filip; De Paepe, Michel; Dewulf, Jo; Schrevens, Eddie; Demeyer, Peter

    2013-04-15

    In Flanders and the Netherlands greenhouse production systems produce economically important quantities of vegetables, fruit and ornamentals. Indoor environmental control has resulted in high primary energy use. Until now, the research on saving primary energy in greenhouse systems has been mainly based on analysis of energy balances. However, according to the thermodynamic theory, an analysis based on the concept of exergy (free energy) and energy can result in new insights and primary energy savings. Therefore in this paper, we analyse the exergy and energy of various processes, inputs and outputs of a general greenhouse system. Also a total system analysis is then performed by linking the exergy analysis with a dynamic greenhouse climate growth simulation model. The exergy analysis indicates that some processes ("Sources") lie at the origin of several other processes, both destroying the exergy of primary energy inputs. The exergy destruction of these Sources is caused primarily by heat and vapour loss. Their impact can be compensated by exergy input from heating, solar radiation, or both. If the exergy destruction of these Sources is reduced, the necessary compensation can also be reduced. This can be accomplished through insulating the greenhouse and making the building more airtight. Other necessary Sources, namely transpiration and loss of CO2, have a low exergy destruction compared to the other Sources. They are therefore the best candidate for "pump" technologies ("vapour heat pump" and "CO2 pump") designed to have a low primary energy use. The combination of these proposed technologies results in an exergy efficient greenhouse with the highest primary energy savings. It can be concluded that exergy analyses add additional information compared to only energy analyses and it supports the development of primary energy efficient greenhouse systems. PMID:23474336

  4. Maximizing Energy Savings Reliability in BC Hydro Industrial Demand-side Management Programs: An Assessment of Performance Incentive Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosman, Nathaniel

    For energy utilities faced with expanded jurisdictional energy efficiency requirements and pursuing demand-side management (DSM) incentive programs in the large industrial sector, performance incentive programs can be an effective means to maximize the reliability of planned energy savings. Performance incentive programs balance the objectives of high participation rates with persistent energy savings by: (1) providing financial incentives and resources to minimize constraints to investment in energy efficiency, and (2) requiring that incentive payments be dependent on measured energy savings over time. As BC Hydro increases its DSM initiatives to meet the Clean Energy Act objective to reduce at least 66 per cent of new electricity demand with DSM by 2020, the utility is faced with a higher level of DSM risk, or uncertainties that impact the costeffective acquisition of planned energy savings. For industrial DSM incentive programs, DSM risk can be broken down into project development and project performance risks. Development risk represents the project ramp-up phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not materialize due to low customer response to program incentives. Performance risk represents the operational phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not persist over the effective measure life. DSM project development and performance risks are, in turn, a result of industrial economic, technological and organizational conditions, or DSM risk factors. In the BC large industrial sector, and characteristic of large industrial sectors in general, these DSM risk factors include: (1) capital constraints to investment in energy efficiency, (2) commodity price volatility, (3) limited internal staffing resources to deploy towards energy efficiency, (4) variable load, process-based energy saving potential, and (5) a lack of organizational awareness of an operation's energy efficiency over time (energy performance). This research assessed the capacity

  5. The Effect of Hands-on '"Energy-Saving House" Learning Activities on Elementary School Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Regarding Energy Saving and Carbon-Emissions Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Lin, Kuen-Yi; Guu, Yunn-Horng; Chang, Liang-Te; Lai, Chih-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Energy saving and carbon-emissions reduction (ESCER) are widely regarded as important issues for progress towards ensuring sustainable forms of economic development. This Taiwanese study focuses on the effects of a series of educational activities about ESCER on students' knowledge, attitudes and behavior. Sixty fifth-grade students from two…

  6. Duration-dependent hepatoprotective effects of propolis extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Bhadauria, Monika; Nirala, Satendra Kumar; Shukla, Sangeeta

    2007-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product produced by bees that was discovered through the study of traditional cures and knowledge of indigenous people throughout the world. It is rich in vitamins A, B, C, and E, and in amino acids, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc. The investigators studied the duration-dependent hepatoprotective effects of propolis extract (200 mg/kg, orally) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4; 1.5 mL/kg, intraperitoneally)-induced liver damage in rats. Administration of CCl 4 caused a sharp elevation in the activity of serum transaminases and serum alkaline phosphatase. A significant depletion in hepatically reduced glutathione was observed with significantly enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation. After CCl 4 administration, glycogen contents and activities of alkaline phosphatase, adenosine triphosphatase, and succinic dehydrogenase were significantly decreased, whereas total protein contents and activity of acid phosphatase were increased in the liver and kidney. Propolis extract reversed alterations in all parameters when administered within 6, 12, and 24 h of toxicant exposure. Propolis therapy produced duration-dependent protection, with maximal protection achieved at 24 h after CCl 4 exposure. It is believed that propolis in its natural form has general pharmacologic value and marked hepatoprotective potential because of its composition of minerals, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds. PMID:18029340

  7. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves in Carbon Tetrachloride-Intoxicated Rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dharmendra; Arya, Priya Vrat; Aggarwal, Ved Prakash; Gupta, Radhey Shyam

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the extract of Moringa oleifera leaves were investigated against CCl₄-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Hepatotoxic rats were treated with ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera for a period of 60 days at the following three dose levels; 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day, orally. The activities were studied by assaying the serum marker enzymes like SGOT, SGPT, GGT, LDH, ALP, ACP, as well as total bilirubin, total protein and albumin in serum concomitantly with the activities of LPO, SOD, CAT, GSH, GR and GPx in liver. The activities of all parameters registered a significant (p ≤ 0.001) alteration in CCl₄ treated rats, which were significantly recovered towards an almost normal level in rats co-administered with M. oleifera extract in a dose-dependent manner. All the biochemical investigations were confirmed by the histopathological observations and compared with the standard drug. silymarin. Results suggest that the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of M. oleifera leaves are possibly related to the free radical scavenging activity which might be due to the presence of total phenolics and flavonoids in the extract and/or the purified compounds β-sitosterol, quercetin and kaempferol, which were isolated from the ethanol extract of M. oleifera leaves. PMID:26785072

  8. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves in Carbon Tetrachloride-Intoxicated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dharmendra; Arya, Priya Vrat; Aggarwal, Ved Prakash; Gupta, Radhey Shyam

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the extract of Moringa oleifera leaves were investigated against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Hepatotoxic rats were treated with ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera for a period of 60 days at the following three dose levels; 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day, orally. The activities were studied by assaying the serum marker enzymes like SGOT, SGPT, GGT, LDH, ALP, ACP, as well as total bilirubin, total protein and albumin in serum concomitantly with the activities of LPO, SOD, CAT, GSH, GR and GPx in liver. The activities of all parameters registered a significant (p ≤ 0.001) alteration in CCl4 treated rats, which were significantly recovered towards an almost normal level in rats co-administered with M. oleifera extract in a dose-dependent manner. All the biochemical investigations were confirmed by the histopathological observations and compared with the standard drug. silymarin. Results suggest that the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of M. oleifera leaves are possibly related to the free radical scavenging activity which might be due to the presence of total phenolics and flavonoids in the extract and/or the purified compounds β-sitosterol, quercetin and kaempferol, which were isolated from the ethanol extract of M. oleifera leaves. PMID:26785072

  9. Realization of the Energy Saving of the Environmental Examination Device Temperature Control System in Consideration of Temperature Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onogaki, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Shuichi

    The temperature control of the environmental examination device has loss of the energy consumption to cool it while warming it. This paper proposed a tempareture control system method with energy saving for the enviromental examination device without using cooling in consideration of temperature characteristics.

  10. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Group Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit for 30% Energy Savings, Washington, D.C.

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes – such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost-effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study’s results will be used to identify cost effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  11. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy SMARRT): Manufacturing Advanced Engineered Components Using Lost Foam Casting Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Littleton, Harry; Griffin, John

    2011-07-31

    This project was a subtask of Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy SMARRT) Program. Through this project, technologies, such as computer modeling, pattern quality control, casting quality control and marketing tools, were developed to advance the Lost Foam Casting process application and provide greater energy savings. These technologies have improved (1) production efficiency, (2) mechanical properties, and (3) marketability of lost foam castings. All three reduce energy consumption in the metals casting industry. This report summarizes the work done on all tasks in the period of January 1, 2004 through June 30, 2011. Current (2011) annual energy saving estimates based on commercial introduction in 2011 and a market penetration of 97% by 2020 is 5.02 trillion BTU's/year and 6.46 trillion BTU's/year with 100% market penetration by 2023. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.03 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  12. Occupant-in-Place Energy Efficiency Retrofit in a Group Home for 30% Energy Savings in Climate Zone 4

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Mike

    2013-08-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes – such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study’s results will be used to identify cost-effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  13. Occupant-in-Place Energy Efficiency Retrofit in a Group Home for 30% Energy Savings in Climate Zone 4

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M.

    2013-08-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes - such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost-effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study's results will be used to identify cost effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  14. Hands-on solutions to improve your profits and productivity: Energy-saving tips for small businesses

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This booklet leads small business owners to examine the energy consumption of their business and implement significant energy saving modifications and practices. The topics of the booklet include evaluating energy use and suggestions for energy conservation in lighting systems, building envelope and materials, space conditioning, equipment and machines, motors, and vehicles.

  15. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluating Energy Savings in All-Electric Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    2014-03-01

    This project analyzes the cost effectiveness of energy-saving measures installed by a large public housing authority in Salishan, and evaluates those solutions to improve efficiency of affordable housing for new and existing homes. Research focuses on the modeled and measured energy usage of the first six phases of construction, and compares the energy usage of those phases to phase 7.

  16. A Review on Hepatoprotective and Immunomodulatory Herbal Plants.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, Uorakkottil; Katare, Deepshikha P; Aeri, Vidhu; Naseef, Punnooth Poonguzi

    2016-01-01

    The liver is the most important organ that plays an important role in maintaining various physiological processes in the body. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver and is characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. There are five main viruses, referred to as types A, B, C, D, and E. These five types are of the greatest concern because of the burden of illness and death. Liver injury or liver dysfunction is a major health problem that challenges not only health care professionals but also the drug regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. Herbal medicines have been used in the treatment of liver disease for a long time. The immune system is the part of body that diagnoses the pathogen by using a specific receptor to reveal immediate response by the activation of immune components cells, chemokines, and cytokines, and also the release of the inflammatory mediator. They potentiate and modulate the immune system. The plant-derived phytoconstituents (polysaccharides, proteins and flavanoids, lignans, rotenoids, etc.) stimulate the immune system and maintained hepatic diseases. There are a number of hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory herbs that have been reported. The present review is aimed at compiling data on promising phytochemicals from hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory herbs. PMID:27041876

  17. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Anoectochilus formosanus and Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

    PubMed

    Lin, C C; Huang, P C; Lin, J M

    2000-01-01

    Anoectochilus formosanus Hay. and Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino are popular folk medicines that have been used for treating hepatitis, hypertension and cancer in Taiwan. Our previous studies showed that these crude drugs exert antiinflammatory activity and hepatoprotective activity against CC14-induced liver damage. In this study, the antioxidant effect of these crude drugs and their hepatoprotective activity on acetaminophen-induced liver injury in rat was evaluated. Our results suggest that A. formosanus and G. pentaphyllum do have antioxidant effects. On acetaminophen-intoxicated model, the increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) by acetaminophen administration were reduced by treatment with these two herbs. In histological observation, gross necrosis in the centribular area, sinusoidal congestion, infiltration of the lymphocytes and Kupffer cells around the hepatic central vein, and loss of cell boundaries and ballooning degeneration were reduced with herbal treatment. However, the effect of A. formosanus and G. pentaphyllum is biphasic. Methanol extract (100 and 300 mg/kg) and water extract (300 and 500 mg/kg) of A formosanus and water extract (100, 300 and 500 mg/kg) of G. pentaphyllum enhanced the recovery of liver injury while treatment with 500 mg/kg of A. formosanus methanol extract resulted in serious hepatic injury. PMID:10794120

  18. Hepatoprotective effect of aged black garlic extract in rodents.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung Hyu; Lee, Chang Woo; Oh, Soo Jin; Yun, Jieun; Kang, Moo Rim; Han, Sang-Bae; Park, Heungsik; Jung, Jae Chul; Chung, Yoon Hoo; Kang, Jong Soon

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of aged black garlic (ABG) in rodent models of liver injury. ABG inhibited carbon tetrachloride-induced elevation of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), which are markers of hepatocellular damage, in SD rats. D-galactosamineinduced hepatocellular damage was also suppressed by ABG treatment. However, ABG does not affect the elevation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a marker of hepatobilliary damage, in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride or D-galactosamine. We also examined the effect of ABG on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced fatty liver and subsequent liver damage. ABG had no significant effect on body weight increase and plasma lipid profile in HFD-fed mice. However, HFD-induced increase in AST and ALT, but not ALP, was significantly suppressed by ABG treatment. These results demonstrate that ABG has hepatoprotective effects and suggest that ABG supplementation might be a good adjuvant therapy for the management of liver injury. PMID:24795800

  19. Hepatoprotective actions of melatonin: Possible mediation by melatonin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mathes, Alexander M

    2010-01-01

    Melatonin, the hormone of darkness and messenger of the photoperiod, is also well known to exhibit strong direct and indirect antioxidant properties. Melatonin has previously been demonstrated to be a powerful organ protective substance in numerous models of injury; these beneficial effects have been attributed to the hormone’s intense radical scavenging capacity. The present report reviews the hepatoprotective potential of the pineal hormone in various models of oxidative stress in vivo, and summarizes the extensive literature showing that melatonin may be a suitable experimental substance to reduce liver damage after sepsis, hemorrhagic shock, ischemia/reperfusion, and in numerous models of toxic liver injury. Melatonin’s influence on hepatic antioxidant enzymes and other potentially relevant pathways, such as nitric oxide signaling, hepatic cytokine and heat shock protein expression, are evaluated. Based on recent literature demonstrating the functional relevance of melatonin receptor activation for hepatic organ protection, this article finally suggests that melatonin receptors could mediate the hepatoprotective actions of melatonin therapy. PMID:21182223

  20. A Review on Hepatoprotective and Immunomodulatory Herbal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ilyas, Uorakkottil; Katare, Deepshikha P.; Aeri, Vidhu; Naseef, Punnooth Poonguzi

    2016-01-01

    The liver is the most important organ that plays an important role in maintaining various physiological processes in the body. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver and is characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. There are five main viruses, referred to as types A, B, C, D, and E. These five types are of the greatest concern because of the burden of illness and death. Liver injury or liver dysfunction is a major health problem that challenges not only health care professionals but also the drug regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. Herbal medicines have been used in the treatment of liver disease for a long time. The immune system is the part of body that diagnoses the pathogen by using a specific receptor to reveal immediate response by the activation of immune components cells, chemokines, and cytokines, and also the release of the inflammatory mediator. They potentiate and modulate the immune system. The plant-derived phytoconstituents (polysaccharides, proteins and flavanoids, lignans, rotenoids, etc.) stimulate the immune system and maintained hepatic diseases. There are a number of hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory herbs that have been reported. The present review is aimed at compiling data on promising phytochemicals from hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory herbs. PMID:27041876

  1. Hepatoprotective activity of Abutilon indicum on experimental liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Porchezhian, E; Ansari, S H

    2005-01-01

    The aqueous extract of Abutilon indicum was tested for hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride- and paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicities in rats. A. indicum exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity by reducing carbon tetrachloride- and paracetamol-induced change in bio-chemical parameters that was evident by enzymatic examination. The plant extract may interfere with free-radical formation, which may conclude in hepatoprotective action. Acute toxicity studies revealed that the LD50 value is more than the dose of 4 g/kg body wt. PMID:15693709

  2. TASK 2.5.4 DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENERGY SAVINGS CALCULATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A; New, Joshua Ryan; Desjarlais, Andre Omer; Huang, Joe; Erdem, Ender; Ronnen, Levinson

    2010-03-01

    California s major energy utilities and the California Energy Commission (CEC) are seeking to allocate capital that yields the greatest return on investment for energy infrastructure that meets any part of the need for reliable supplies of energy. The utilities are keenly interested in knowing the amount of electrical energy savings that would occur if cool roof color materials are adopted in the building market. To meet this need the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have been collaborating on a Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) project to develop an industry-consensus energy-savings calculator. The task was coordinated with an ongoing effort supported by the DOE to develop one calculator to achieve both the DOE and the EPA objectives for deployment of cool roof products. Recent emphasis on domestic building energy use has made the work a top priority by the Department of Energy s (DOE) Building Technologies Program. The Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) tool is designed to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and practitioners easily run complex simulations. The latest web technologies and usability design were employed to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned based on the best available statistical evidence and can provide energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than the building location. A key goal for the tool is to promote the energy benefits of cool color tile, metal and asphalt shingle roof products and other energy saving systems. The RSC tool focuses on applications for the roof and attic; however, the code conducts a whole building simulation that puts the energy and heat flows of the roof and attic into the perspective of the whole house. An annual simulation runs in about 30 sec. In addition to cool

  3. A new Energy Saving method of manufacturing ceramic products from waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Haun Labs

    2002-07-05

    This final report summarizes the activities of the DOE Inventions and Innovations sponsored project, ''A New Energy Saving Method of Manufacturing Ceramic Products from Waste Glass.'' The project involved an innovative method of lowering energy costs of manufacturing ceramic products by substituting traditional raw materials with waste glass. The processing method is based on sintering of glass powder at {approx}750 C to produce products which traditionally require firing temperatures of >1200 C, or glass-melting temperatures >1500 C. The key to the new method is the elimination of previous processing problems, which have greatly limited the use of recycled glass as a ceramic raw material. The technology is aligned with the DOE-OIT Glass Industry Vision and Roadmap, and offers significant energy savings and environmental benefits compared to current technologies. A U.S. patent (No. 6,340,650) covering the technology was issued on January 22, 2002. An international PCT Patent Application is pending with designations made for all PCT regions and countries. The goal of the project was to provide the basis for the design and construction of an energy-efficient manufacturing plant that can convert large volumes of waste glass into high-quality ceramic tile. The main objectives of the project were to complete process development and optimization; construct and test prototype samples; and conduct market analysis and commercialization planning. Two types of ceramic tile products were targeted by the project. The first type was developed during the first year (Phase I) to have a glazed-like finish for applications where slip resistance is not critical, such as wall tile. The processing method optimized in Phase I produces a glossy surface with a translucent appearance, without the extra glazing steps required in traditional tile manufacturing. The second type of product was developed during the second year (Phase II). This product was designed to have an unglazed appearance

  4. Hepatoprotective potential of Fumaria indica Pugsley whole plant extracts, fractions and an isolated alkaloid protopine.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Anshu; Srivastava, Arvind Kumar; Shirwaikar, Annie; Singh Rawat, Ajay Kumar; Mehrotra, Shanta

    2008-06-01

    The present investigation demonstrates the hepatoprotective potential of 50% ethanolic water extract of whole plant of Fumaria indica and its three fractions viz., hexane, chloroform and butanol against d-galactosamine induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The hepatoprotection was assessed in terms reduction in histological damage, changes in serum enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, ALP) and metabolites bilirubin, reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (MDA content). Among fractions more than 90% protection was found with butanol fraction in which alkaloid protopine was quantified as highest i.e. about 0.2mg/g by HPTLC. The isolated protopine in doses of 10-20mg p.o. also proved equally effective hepatoprotectants as standard drug silymarine (single dose 25mg p.o.). In general all treatments excluding hexane fraction proved hepatoprotective at par with silymarine (p

  5. Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of a traditional medicinal plant of Chile, Peumus boldus.

    PubMed

    Lanhers, M C; Joyeux, M; Soulimani, R; Fleurentin, J; Sayag, M; Mortier, F; Younos, C; Pelt, J M

    1991-04-01

    Dried hydro-alcoholic extract of Peumus boldus (Monimiaceae) has been evaluated for hepatoprotective, choleretic and anti-inflammatory effects in mice and rats, in order to validate or to invalidate traditional therapeutic indications. This extract exerted a significant hepatoprotection of tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatotoxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes (in vitro technique) by reducing the lipid peroxidation and the enzymatic leakage of LDH; this in vitro efficacy was reinforced by a significant hepatoprotection on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice (in vivo technique), the plant extract reducing the enzymatic leakage of ALAT. Boldine, the main alkaloid of P. boldus appears to be implicated in this hepatoprotective activity. Choleretic effects, often mentioned in traditional indications, have not been confirmed in rats. Finally, significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects were obtained on an acute inflammatory process (carrageenan-induced edema test in rats). Boldine does not appear to be involved in such properties. PMID:1891491

  6. Evidences of hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of Citrullus colocynthis fruits in paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Vakiloddin, Syed; Fuloria, Neeraj; Fuloria, Shivkanya; Dhanaraj, Sokkalingam Arumugam; Balaji, Kaveti; Karupiah, Sundram

    2015-05-01

    The objective of present study was to explore the hepatoprotective and antioxidant profile of Citrullus colocynthis fruits. Hepatoprotective profile of methanolic extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruits (MECCF) was investigated on rats, which were made hepatotoxic using paracetamol. The antioxidant profile of MECCF was evaluated by conducting Catalase, Super oxide Dismutase, Lipid Peroxidation and Diphenyl Picryl Hydrazyl tests. During hepatoprotective investigation, the Paracetamol treated group II showed significant increase in total bilirubin (TB), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level. The results so obtained showed that pretreatment of rats with MECCF 300mg/kg p.o. decreases the elevated TB, SGOT, SGPT and ALP serum levels. Also, MECCF inhibitory profile was found comparable with toxicant group (Paracetamol 2g/kg, p.o.). The present study concludes that MECCF fruit possess significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity. PMID:26004728

  7. Comparison of actual and predicted energy savings in Minnesota gas-heated single-family homes

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Goeltz, R.

    1984-03-01

    Data available from a recent evaluation of a home energy audit program in Minnesota are sufficient to allow analysis of the actual energy savings achieved in audited homes and of the relationship between actual and predicted savings. The program, operated by Northern States Power in much of the southern half of the state, is part of Minnesota's version of the federal Residential Conservation Service. NSP conducted almost 12 thousand RCS audits between April 1981 (when the progam began) and the end of 1982. The data analyzed here, available for 346 homes that obtained an NSP energy audit, include monthly natural gas bills from October 1980 through April 1983; heating degree day data matched to the gas bills; energy audit reports; and information on household demographics, structure characteristics, and recent conservation actions from mail and telephone surveys. The actual reduction in weather-adjusted natural gas use between years 1 and 3 averaged 19 MBtu across these homes (11% of preprogram consumption); the median value of the saving was 16 MBtu/year. The variation in actual saving is quite large: gas consumption increased in almost 20% of the homes, while gas consumption decreased by more than 50 MBtu/year in more than 10% of the homes. These households reported an average expenditure of almost $1600 for the retrofit measures installed in their homes; the variation in retrofit cost, while large, was not as great as the variation in actual natural gas savings.

  8. Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high performance relocatable classrooms

    SciTech Connect

    Rainer, Leo I.; Hoeschele, Marc A.; Apte, Michael G.; Shendell, Derek G.; Fisk, Wlliam J.

    2003-12-01

    This report addresses the results of detailed monitoring completed under Program Element 6 of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's High Performance Commercial Building Systems (HPCBS) PIER program. The purpose of the Energy Simulations and Projected State-Wide Energy Savings project is to develop reasonable energy performance and cost models for high performance relocatable classrooms (RCs) across California climates. A key objective of the energy monitoring was to validate DOE2 simulations for comparison to initial DOE2 performance projections. The validated DOE2 model was then used to develop statewide savings projections by modeling base case and high performance RC operation in the 16 California climate zones. The primary objective of this phase of work was to utilize detailed field monitoring data to modify DOE2 inputs and generate performance projections based on a validated simulation model. Additional objectives include the following: (1) Obtain comparative performance data on base case and high performance HVAC systems to determine how they are operated, how they perform, and how the occupants respond to the advanced systems. This was accomplished by installing both HVAC systems side-by-side (i.e., one per module of a standard two module, 24 ft by 40 ft RC) on the study RCs and switching HVAC operating modes on a weekly basis. (2) Develop projected statewide energy and demand impacts based on the validated DOE2 model. (3) Develop cost effectiveness projections for the high performance HVAC system in the 16 California climate zones.

  9. The conservation nexus: valuing interdependent water and energy savings in Arizona.

    PubMed

    Bartos, Matthew D; Chester, Mikhail V

    2014-02-18

    Water and energy resources are intrinsically linked, yet they are managed separately--even in the water-scarce American southwest. This study develops a spatially explicit model of water-energy interdependencies in Arizona and assesses the potential for cobeneficial conservation programs. The interdependent benefits of investments in eight conservation strategies are assessed within the context of legislated renewable energy portfolio and energy efficiency standards. The cobenefits of conservation are found to be significant. Water conservation policies have the potential to reduce statewide electricity demand by 0.82-3.1%, satisfying 4.1-16% of the state's mandated energy-efficiency standard. Adoption of energy-efficiency measures and renewable generation portfolios can reduce nonagricultural water demand by 1.9-15%. These conservation cobenefits are typically not included in conservation plans or benefit-cost analyses. Many cobenefits offer negative costs of saved water and energy, indicating that these measures provide water and energy savings at no net cost. Because ranges of costs and savings for water-energy conservation measures are somewhat uncertain, future studies should investigate the cobenefits of individual conservation strategies in detail. Although this study focuses on Arizona, the analysis can be extended elsewhere as renewable portfolio and energy efficiency standards become more common nationally and internationally. PMID:24460528

  10. Crystal growth technology CGT for energy: saving energy and renewable energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheel, Hans J.

    2005-02-01

    The fast-growing worldwide demand for energy, due to population growth and increasing standard of living, is in contrast with the limited fossil energy resources, with the political problems of nuclear fission energy, with the demand to reduce CO 2 production for climate control (Kyoto protocol), and with the slow advances of renewable energy sources. It will be shown how crystal growth technology (including epitaxy technology) can contribute to reduce the energy problem. CGT is the rate-determining factor for progress in energy-saving electrical technologies with high-temperature/high-power electrical technology and illumination from GaN-based devices as examples. Progress in CGT is also essential for the development of renewable energy sources like economic high-efficiency solar cells and in future laser-fusion energy where large laser and nonlinear-optic crystals of high radiation hardness are required. Education of CGT engineers and scientific development of CGT, using normally one optimum technology for industrial fabrication of specific crystals and one technology for specific epitaxial layers "epilayers", are needed.

  11. Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Software, Anyhere; Fernandes, Luis; Lee, Eleanor; Ward, Greg

    2013-03-15

    A simulation study was conducted to evaluate lighting energy savings of split-pane electrochromic (EC) windows controlled to satisfy key visual comfort parameters. Using the Radiance lighting simulation software, interior illuminance and luminance levels were computed for a south-facing private office illuminated by a window split into two independently-controlled EC panes. The transmittance of these was optimized hourly for a workplane illuminance target while meeting visual comfort constraints, using a least-squares algorithm with linear inequality constraints. Blinds were successively deployed until visual comfort criteria were satisfied. The energy performance of electrochromics proved to be highly dependent on how blinds were controlled. With hourly blind position adjustments, electrochromics showed significantly higher (62percent and 53percent, respectively without and with overhang) lighting energy consumption than clear glass. With a control algorithm designed to better approximate realistic manual control by an occupant, electrochromics achieved significant savings (48percent and 37percent, respectively without and with overhang). In all cases, energy consumption decreased when the workplace illuminance target was increased. In addition, the fraction of time during which the occupant had an unobstructed view of the outside was significantly greater with electrochromics: 10 months out of the year versus a handful of days for the reference case.

  12. Approaches to 30% Energy Savings at the Community Scale in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas-Rees, S.; Beal, D.; Martin, E.; Fonorow, K.

    2013-03-01

    BA-PIRC has worked with several community-scale builders within the hot humid climate zone to improve performance of production, or community scale, housing. Tommy Williams Homes (Gainesville, FL), Lifestyle Homes (Melbourne, FL), and Habitat for Humanity (various locations, FL) have all been continuous partners of the BA Program and are the subjects of this report to document achievement of the Building America goal of 30% whole house energy savings packages adopted at the community scale. The scope of this report is to demonstrate achievement of these goals though the documentation of production-scale homes built cost-effectively at the community scale, and modeled to reduce whole-house energy use by 30% in the Hot Humid climate region. Key aspects of this research include determining how to evolve existing energy efficiency packages to produce replicable target savings, identifying what builders' technical assistance needs are for implementation and working with them to create sustainable quality assurance mechanisms, and documenting the commercial viability through neutral cost analysis and market acceptance. This report documents certain barriers builders overcame and the approaches they implemented in order to accomplish Building America (BA) Program goals that have not already been documented in previous reports.

  13. First Results of Energy Saving at Process Redesign of Die Forging Al-Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Pepelnjak, Tomaz; Kuzman, Karl; Kokol, Anton

    2011-05-04

    The contribution deals with eco-friendly solutions for shortened production chains of forging light alloys. During the die forging operations a remarkable amount of material goes into the flash and later on into chips during finish machining. These low value side products are rich with embedded energy therefore recycling or reprocessing could be very energy saving procedure.In cooperation with a die forging company a shortened reprocessing cycle has been studied starting from re-melting the forging flash and without additional heating to cast preforms for subsequent die forging. As such preforms have not as good formability characteristics as those done from extruded billets the isothermal forging process has been adopted. First results showed that without cracks and other defects the formability is sufficient for a broad spectrum of forgings.To improve the formability a homogenization process of cast preforms has been implemented. As the process started immediately after casting, amount of additional energy for heating was minimized. To reduce voids forging process was redesigned in a way to assure greater hydrostatic pressures in parts during forging. First results were promising therefore research is going towards improving processes without adding significantly more energy as it is needed for casting with homogenization and die forging.

  14. Energy saving due to natural ventilation in housing blocks in Madrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Lezcano, RA; Hormigos-Jiménez, S.

    2016-07-01

    Getting a healthy and comfortable indoor environment in homes in southern Europe is a complicated task. In continental climates, with very cold temperatures in winter and very hot in summer, energy consumption greatly increases with air conditioning significant spending. To propose action guidelines for use of natural ventilation and to develop effective design strategies is essential. Therefore, and given a specific building type block of flats in Madrid, this article focuses on establishing what periods of the year natural ventilation is required to reduce energy consumption in air conditioning, also considering the quality of the outdoor environment and the design of the building. To develop this, a statistical study of the chosen type, that allows studying the direction and the wind speed in the area, is performed. Analysis of wind pressures in holes in the facade is performed by means of numerical simulations of fluid flow (CFD) inside to later infer in the natural ventilation rate required within policy parameters. With the data obtained, a study of energy saving is made as a function of natural ventilation rate established for the building type.

  15. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Program: Summary of Building Envelope Retrofits, Planned HVAC Equipment Upgrades, and Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehagen, J.; Del Bianco, M.; Mallay, D.

    2015-05-01

    In the fall of 2010, a multiyear pilot energy efficiency retrofit project was undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 home cooperative of circa 1930 and 1940 homes in Greenbelt, Maryland. GHI established this pilot project to serve as a basis for decision making for the rollout of a decade-long community-wide upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency improvements to the building envelope and mechanical equipment. It presents a unique opportunity to evaluate and prioritize the wide-range of benefits of high-performance retrofits based on member experience with and acceptance of the retrofit measures implemented during the pilot project. Addressing the complex interactions between benefits, trade-offs, construction methods, project management implications, realistic upfront costs, financing, and other considerations, serves as a case study for energy retrofit projects to include high-performance technologies based on the long-term value to the homeowner. The pilot project focused on identifying the added costs and energy savings benefits of improvements.

  16. Evidence for energy savings from aerial running in the Svalbard rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta hyperborea)

    PubMed Central

    Nudds, R. L.; Folkow, L. P.; Lees, J. J.; Tickle, P. G.; Stokkan, K.-A.; Codd, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    Svalbard rock ptarmigans were walked and run upon a treadmill and their energy expenditure measured using respirometry. The ptarmigan used three different gaits: a walking gait at slow speeds (less than or equal to 0.75 m s−1), grounded running at intermediate speeds (0.75 m s−1 < U < 1.67 m s−1) and aerial running at high speeds (greater than or equal to 1.67 m s−1). Changes of gait were associated with reductions in the gross cost of transport (COT; J kg−1 m−1), providing the first evidence for energy savings with gait change in a small crouched-postured vertebrate. In addition, for the first time (excluding humans) a decrease in absolute metabolic energy expenditure (rate of O2 consumption) in aerial running when compared with grounded running was identified. The COT versus U curve varies between species and the COT was cheaper during aerial running than grounded running, posing the question of why grounded running should be used at all. Existing explanations (e.g. stability during running over rocky terrain) amount to just so stories with no current evidence to support them. It may be that grounded running is just an artefact of treadmill studies. Research investigating the speeds used by animals in the field is sorely needed. PMID:21288943

  17. A self-sensing approach to the energy-saving operation of electromagnetic locking devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babakeshizadeh, Vahid; Jeon, Soo; McMillan, Ryan

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports an energy-efficient operation of electromagnetic (EM) locking devices using the inductive self-sensing technique, i.e. employing the existing actuation coil as a sensing medium. EM locking devices such as EM locks and locking solenoids have been increasingly used as new security devices in industrial and commercial buildings due to their fully electronic operation. One of the drawbacks of such EM devices is that a significant amount of energy is often wasted through their continual use, especially in applications where the maximum holding power is seldom needed. The main idea of this paper is to operate an EM locking device in such a way that its full power is supplied only when needed. More specifically, we propose running the existing coil as an inductive sensor using significantly less power during normal operation. Any imminent attempt to disengage an EM lock can be instantly detected by the self-sensing coil and its full locking power can then be engaged to prevent it from unlocking. This paper presents a detailed electromagnetic analysis for the self-sensing functionality of the existing EM lock. Besides, a stochastic detection method called the generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) has been implemented to improve the energy-saving operation of the EM device. Proposed strategies are experimentally verified using a commercial EM lock, which demonstrated that more than 75% of the original power can be saved by the proposed method while keeping the same locking performance.

  18. Validation of a supervisory control system for energy savings in membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Huyskens, Celine; Brauns, Etienne; Van Hoof, Erwin; Diels, Ludo; De Wever, Heleen

    2011-01-01

    The application of fixed operational protocols and settings for membrane bioreactors (MBR) often leads to suboptimal filtration conditions due to the dynamic nature of mixed liquor characteristics. With regard to process optimization and energy savings, the potential benefits of a dynamic control system, enabling to adapt fouling control actions (ACS outputs) in an automated way to the actual mixed liquor fouling propensity, are thus obvious. In this paper, the pilot-scale validation of such an advanced control system (ACS) is elaborated. A specific on-line fouling measurement method, the MBR-VFM (VITO Fouling Measurement), was used for the evaluation of the mixed liquor's reversible fouling propensity, which was used as a primary ACS input parameter. A first series of tests with a gradual increase in complexity of the selected input and output parameters indicated the functionality of the ACS and demonstrated a substantial reduction of aeration, however sometimes at the expense of a higher fouling rate. The ACS was further fine-tuned and subsequently tested for a longer period under more dynamic operating conditions. A significant correlation was found between the reversible fouling potential measured by the MBR-VFM and the on-line permeability, indicating that the MBR-VFM is a suitable ACS input. Furthermore, an average 22% reduction in aeration flow to the membranes could be achieved without any obvious negative effect on filtration performance. This indicates that this approach is promising to optimize energy consumption in MBRs. PMID:21112605

  19. Energy saving potential of residential HVAC options at Fort Irwin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, D.L.; Stucky, D.J.

    1995-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated heating and cooling system options for existing family housing at Fort Irwin, California. The purpose of this work was to quantify the energy conservation potential of alternative system types and to identify the most cost-effective technology available. The conventional residential heating/cooling systems at Fort Irwin are separate propane forced-air furnaces and central air conditioners. The options examined included air- and ground-source heat pumps, a natural gas furnace with central air conditioning, and a natural-gas-fired heat pump. The most cost-effective technology applicable to Fort Irwin was found to be the high-efficiency ground-source heat pumps. If all conventional units were replaced immediately, the net energy savings would be 76,660 MBtu (80.9 TJ) per year and a reduction in electrical demand of approximately 15,000 kW-month. The initial investment for implementing this technology would be approximately $7.1 million, with a savings-to-investment ratio of 1.74.

  20. Energy-saving framework for passive optical networks with ONU sleep/doze mode.

    PubMed

    Van, Dung Pham; Valcarenghi, Luca; Dias, Maluge Pubuduni Imali; Kondepu, Koteswararao; Castoldi, Piero; Wong, Elaine

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes an energy-saving passive optical network framework (ESPON) that aims to incorporate optical network unit (ONU) sleep/doze mode into dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithms to reduce ONU energy consumption. In the ESPON, the optical line terminal (OLT) schedules both downstream (DS) and upstream (US) transmissions in the same slot in an online and dynamic fashion whereas the ONU enters sleep mode outside the slot. The ONU sleep time is maximized based on both DS and US traffic. Moreover, during the slot, the ONU might enter doze mode when only its transmitter is idle to further improve energy efficiency. The scheduling order of data transmission, control message exchange, sleep period, and doze period defines an energy-efficient scheme under the ESPON. Three schemes are designed and evaluated in an extensive FPGA-based evaluation. Results show that whilst all the schemes significantly save ONU energy for different evaluation scenarios, the scheduling order has great impact on their performance. In addition, the ESPON allows for a scheduling order that saves ONU energy independently of the network reach. PMID:25836235

  1. Energy-saving quality road lighting with colloidal quantum dot nanophosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, Talha; Kelestemur, Yusuf; Soran-Erdem, Zeliha; Ji, Yun; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2014-12-01

    Here the first photometric study of road-lighting white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) integrated with semiconductor colloidal quantum dots (QDs) is reported enabling higher luminance than conventional light sources, specifically in mesopic vision regimes essential to street lighting. Investigating over 100 million designs uncovers that quality road-lighting QD-WLEDs, with a color quality scale and color rendering index ≥85, enables 13-35% higher mesopic luminance than the sources commonly used in street lighting. Furthermore, these QD-WLEDs were shown to be electrically more efficient than conventional sources with power conversion efficiencies ≥16-29%. Considering this fact, an experimental proof-of-concept QD-WLED was demonstrated, which is the first account of QD based color conversion custom designed for street lighting applications. The obtained white LED achieved the targeted mesopic luminance levels in accordance with the road lighting standards of the USA and the UK. These results indicate that road-lighting QD-WLEDs are strongly promising for energy-saving quality road lighting.

  2. FEMP fiscal year 1999 ESPC business strategy development summary report[Energy Saving Performance Contract

    SciTech Connect

    KL McMordie-Stoughton; WDM Hunt

    2000-05-04

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to reduce the cost of Government by advancing energy efficiency, water conservation, and the use of solar and other renewable technologies. This is accomplished by creating partnerships, leveraging resources, transferring technology, and providing training and technical guidance and assistance to agencies. Each of these activities is directly related to achieving requirements set forth in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the goals that have been established in Executive Order 13123 (June 1999), but also those that are inherent in sound management of Federal financial and personnel resources. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) supports the FEMP mission in all activity areas. This responsibility includes working with various Federal energy managers to identify, monitor, and evaluate the performance of new energy efficiency technologies suitable for installation at Federal sites. This report provides the results of a Energy Saving Performance Contracting (ESPC) Business Strategy Development project that PNNL conducted for FEMP. The project provides information regarding the development of Federal market scenarios for FEMP Super-ESPC delivery orders. Two market scenarios were developed. The initial scenario resulted in an estimated delivery order target that was much lower than initially estimated in the spring of 1998. The second scenario yielded a lower estimated number of delivery orders. The main difference between these two scenarios was an estimated increase in utility financed projects in the Federal sector.

  3. Hybrid sunlight/LED illumination and renewable solar energy saving concepts for indoor lighting.

    PubMed

    Tsuei, Chih-Hsuan; Sun, Wen-Shing; Kuo, Chien-Cheng

    2010-11-01

    A hybrid method for using sunlight and light-emitting diode (LED) illumination powered by renewable solar energy for indoor lighting is simulated and presented in this study. We can illuminate an indoor space and collect the solar energy using an optical switching system. When the system is turned off, the full spectrum of the sunlight is concentrated by a concentrator, to be absorbed by solar photovoltaic devices that provide the electricity to power the LEDs. When the system is turned on, the sunlight collected by the concentrator is split into visible and non-visible rays by a beam splitter. The visible rays pass through the light guide into a light box where it is mixed with LED light to ultimately provide uniform illumination by a diffuser. The non-visible rays are absorbed by the solar photovoltaic devices to provide electrical power for the LEDs. Simulation results show that the efficiency of the hybrid sunlight/LED illumination with the renewable solar energy saving design is better than that of LED and traditional lighting systems. PMID:21165097

  4. Energy savings from operation and maintenance training for apartment boiler heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tooze, David

    1992-02-01

    The Portland Energy Office provided operation and maintenance (O M) training to the operators of boiler heating systems for ten low-income apartment complexes in the Fall of 1990. This study tracked energy usage before and after O M training to see if savings occurred. Training was provided on both weatherized and non-weatherized apartments to find out if weatherization impacted the amount of O M savings to be obtained. Also, energy savings from the O M training and building shell weatherization are compared. The O M training averaged about four hours per building. Content was adjusted at each site to match needs of the boiler and operator. The Energy Office also provided a boiler tune-up by a service technician. The training stressed low-cost and no-cost measures which operators could either do themselves or hire service help to implement. It also emphasized boiler safety. Nine of the ten apartment complexes in the study used less energy per heating degree-day after the O M help. Average savings were 10%. Four apartments chosen randomly as controls had negative savings; they used slightly more energy during the same post-O M time frame. Weatherized and unweatherized apartments showed similar savings after the O M help, 10% and 11% percent respectively. Savings from weatherization of six of the apartments in the winter of 1988--1989 were also measured. A low average of only 4% was observed, reflecting negative savings in two buildings.

  5. Further studies on the hepatoprotective effects of Anoectochilus formosanus.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hsun-Lang; Wu, Jin-Bin; Lin, Wei-Lii; Ho, Hui-Ya; Lin, Wen-Chuan

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of Anoectochilus formosanus effective fraction (AFEF) on chronic liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in mice. CCl4 (5%; 0.1 mL/10 g body weight) was given twice a week for 9 weeks, and mice received AFEF throughout the whole experimental period. Plasma GPT, hepatic levels of hydroxyproline and malondialdehyde were significantly lower in mice treated with AFEF compared with those treated with CCl4 only. Liver pathology in the AFEF-treated mice was also improved. RT-PCR analysis showed that AFEF treatment increased the expression of methionine adenosyltransferase 1A and decreased the expression of collagen(alpha1)(I) and transforming growth factor-beta1. These results clearly demonstrated that AFEF reduced the hepatic damage induced by CCl4 in mice. PMID:17886219

  6. Hepatoprotective properties of betulonic acid amide and heptral in toxic liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in combination with ethanol.

    PubMed

    Semenov, D E; Zhukova, N A; Ivanova, E P; Sorokina, I V; Baiev, D S; Nepomnyashchikh, G I; Tolstikova, T G; Biryukova, M S

    2015-01-01

    Toxic liver injury with the development of fibrosis and cirrhosis was modeled in Wistar rats by intragastric administration of 0.1 ml/kg CCl4 in combination with 5% ethanol with glucose 3 times a week for 6 weeks. The animals were treated with betulonic acid amide (50 mg/kg in Tween aqueous solution) and heptral (6 mg/kg) as hepatoprotective compounds. It was found that betulonic acid amide stimulated the regenerative response in hepatocytes under conditions of combined toxic exposure and promoted recovery of their qualitative and quantitative characteristics, which was accompanied by a significant decrease in the severity of liver fibrosis and the absence of cirrhotic transformation of the liver. PMID:25573364

  7. Chemical composition and hepatoprotective effects of polyphenol-rich extract from Houttuynia cordata tea.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lingmin; Shi, Xiaolong; Yu, Linhong; Zhu, Jiao; Ma, Rui; Yang, Xingbin

    2012-05-01

    This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activity, hepatoprotective effect, and phenolic composition of the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) extracted from Houttuynia cordata tea. EAF was shown to exhibit strong ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and scavenging activity against DPPH radical in vitro, and the antioxidant effects were further verified by suppressing CCl₄-induced oxidative stress in mouse liver at three tested doses of EAF (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg bw). Pretreatment with EAF (1000 mg/kg bw) prior to CCl₄ administration significantly (p < 0.001) decreased the CCl₄-elevated levels of serum AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, and hepatic MDA in mice and prevented the increases in GSH, SOD, and CAT caused by CCl₄. HPLC analysis revealed that three predominantly polyphenolic compounds present in EAF were quercitrin (111.7 μg/mg), quercetin (43.8 μg/mg), and hyperoside (29.1 μg/mg). These results combined with liver histopathology indicate that EAF possesses a significant protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by CCl₄, which may be due to the strong antioxidant activity of phenolic components. PMID:22515645

  8. Hepatoprotective activity of two plants belonging to the Apiaceae and the Euphorbiaceae family.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Bahar; Alam, Tanveer; Varshney, Manoj; Khan, Shah Alam

    2002-03-01

    The different extracts of Apium graveolens Linn. (Apiaceae) and Croton oblongifolius Roxb. (Euphorbiaceae) were tested for their hepatoprotective activity against CCl(4) induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The degree of protection was measured by using biochemical parameters like serum transaminases (SGOT and SGPT), alkaline phosphatase, total protein and albumin. The methanolic extracts showed the most significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard drug silymarin. Other extracts namely petroleum ether and acetone also exhibited a potent activity. PMID:11849834

  9. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings - 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, Eric; Leach, Matt; Pless, Shanti

    2013-06-05

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-MBBR) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-MBBR is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in retail stores over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-MBBR was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings - 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.

    2013-06-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-MBBR) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-MBBR is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in retail stores over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-MBBR was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  11. Evaluation of Energy Saving Characteristics of a High-Efficient Cogeneration System Utilizing Gas Engine Exhaust Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Pyong Sik

    A high efficiency cogeneration system (CGS) utilizing high temperature exhaust gas from a gas engine is proposed. In the proposed CGS, saturated steam produced in the gas engine is superheated with a super heater utilizing regenerative burner and used to drive a steam turbine generator. The heat energy is supplied by extracting steam from the steam turbine and turbine outlet low-temperature steam. Both of the energy saving characteristics of the proposed CGS and a CGS constructed by using the original gas engine (GE-CGS) were investigated and compared, by taking a case where energy for office buildings was supplied by the conventional energy systems. It was shown that the proposed CGS has energy saving rate of 24.5%, higher than 1.83 times, compared with that of the original GE-CGS.

  12. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  13. An energy-saving glutathione production method from low-temperature cooked rice using amylase-expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Kim, Songhee; Kiriyama, Kentaro; Yoshida, Hideyo; Arai, Shogo; Ishii, Jun; Ogino, Chiaki; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2012-05-01

    Glutathione is a valuable tripeptide that is widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. Glutathione is industrially produced by fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Before the glutathione fermentation process with S. cerevisiae, a glucose extraction process from starchy materials is required. This glucose extraction is usually carried out by converting starchy materials to starch using high-temperature cooking and subsequent hydrolysis by amylases to convert starch to glucose. In this study, to develop an energy-saving glutathione production process by reducing energy consumption during the cooking step, we efficiently produced glutathione from low-temperature cooked rice using amylase-expressing S. cerevisiae. The combination of the amylase-expressing yeast with low-temperature cooking is potentially applicable to a variety of energy-saving bio-production methods of chemicals from starchy bio-resources. PMID:22294378

  14. Literature Review of the Potential Energy Savings and Retention Water from Green Roofs in Comparison with Conventional Ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tselekis, Kyriakoulis

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study is the comparison of green roof systems with conventional isolated and non-isolated ones in order to identify the potential energy savings of green roofs and the benefits provided in comparison with the cost of construction to the buildings. The region of interest is the Watergraafsmeer area in the city of Amsterdam. The method evaluates literature reports - mostly from 2003 to 2010 - that present the advantages of green roofs. Examples in real implementation of green roofs in USA, UK and Germany, retention of rainfall and a Life Cycle Assessment from a residential construction in Madrid will be introduced, showing the energy savings from insulation and heating/cooling that can be gained. All the reports have shown a reduction in energy costs and in runoff of water. Hence, costs and retrofitting potential completes the research. The age of buildings and the absence of insulation make green roofs an ideal alternative project for the retrofit of Watergraafsmeer.

  15. Evaluation of Modeled and Measured Energy Savings in Existing All Electric Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Andrew; Lubliner, Michael; Howard, Luke; Kunkle, Rick; Salzberg, Emily

    2014-04-01

    This project analyzes the cost effectiveness of energy savings measures installed by a large public housing authority in Salishan, a community in Tacoma Washington. Research focuses on the modeled and measured energy usage of the first six phases of construction, and compares the energy usage of those phases to phase 7. Market-ready energy solutions were also evaluated to improve the efficiency of affordable housing for new and existing (built since 2001) affordable housing in the marine climate of Washington State.

  16. Evaluating Energy Savings in All-Electric Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest, Tacoma, Washington (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-03-01

    This project analyzes the cost effectiveness of energy savings measures installed by a large public housing authority in Salishan, a community in Tacoma Washington. Research focuses on the modeled and measured energy usage of the first six phases of construction, and compares the energy usage of those phases to phase 7. Market-ready energy solutions were also evaluated to improve the efficiency of affordable housing for new and existing (built since 2001) affordable housing in the marine climate of Washington State.

  17. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy SMARRT): Development of CCT Diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Chumbley, L Scott

    2011-08-20

    goal of this study was to accurately characterize the solid-solid phase transformations seen in cast superaustenitic stainless steels. Heat treatments were performed to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formations in alloys CN3MN and CK3McuN. Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, WDS). In this way TTT and CCT diagrams could be developed for the matrix of samples chosen. As this study consisted of basic research into the development of TTT and CCT diagrams as an aid to the US steel casting industry, there is no formal commercialization plan associated with this task other than presentations and publications via the Steel Founders Society of America to their members. The author is confident that the data contained in this report can be used by steel foundries to refine their casting procedures in such a way as to reduce the amount of waste produced and energy wasted by significantly reducing or eliminating the need for remelting or recasting of material due to unwanted, premature intermetallic formation. This development of high alloy steel CCT diagrams was predicted to result in an average energy savings of 0.05 trillion BTU's/year over a 10 year period (with full funding). With 65% of the proposed funding, current (2011) annual energy saving estimates, based on initial dissemination to the casting industry in 2011and market penetration of 97% by 2020, is 0.14 trillion BTU's/year. The reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will also result in a reduction of environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the steel. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.003 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE)

  18. A Study of the Energy-Saving Potential of Metal Roofs Incorporating Dynamic Insulation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Miller, William A; Kriner, Scott; Manlove, Gary

    2013-01-01

    This article presents various metal roof configurations that were tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, U.S. between 2009 and 2013, and describes their potential for reducing the attic-generated space-conditioning loads. These roofs contained different combinations of phase-change material, rigid insulation, low emittance surface, and above-sheathing ventilation with standing-seam metal panels on top. These roofs were designed to be installed on existing roofs decks, or on top of asphalt shingles for retrofit construction. All the tested roofs showed the potential for substantial energy savings compared to an asphalt shingle roof, which was used as a control for comparison. The roofs were constructed on a series of adjacent attics separated at the gables using thick foam insulation. The attics were built on top of a conditioned room. All attics were vented at the soffit and ridge. The test roofs and attics were instrumented with an array of thermocouples. Heat flux transducers were installed in the roof deck and attic floor (ceiling) to measure the heat flows through the roof and between the attic and conditioned space below. Temperature and heat flux data were collected during the heating, cooling and swing seasons over a three-year period. Data from previous years of testing have been published. Here, data from the latest roof configurations being tested in year three of the project are presented. All test roofs were highly effective in reducing the heat flows through the roof and ceiling, and in reducing the diurnal attic-temperature fluctuations.

  19. Approaches for Acquiring Energy Savings in Commercial Sector Buildings : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    Bonneville has carefully considered the potential environmental impacts associated with installation of currently known Energy- efficient Conservation Measures (ECMs) in new and existing commercial buildings, and has implemented specific requirements to minimize those impacts. These Commercial Environmental Requirements would apply to the three proposed conservation approaches outlined in this environmental assessment. The cumulative energy savings from these proposed commercial programs will have a positive impact on the region. These savings will help reduce the region's dependence on other resource types needed to meet Bonneville's load requirements. However, the savings are not large enough to negate or replace other needed resources or other conservation programs. To summarize, the following environmental requirements have been incorporated in all BPA commercial conservation programs, including this proposal. Building owners are required to comply with all Federal, state, and local building and safety codes and environmental regulations. ASHRAE Standard 62-89 has been adopted by Bonneville as the required ventilation standard to improve indoor air quality in commercial buildings. Specific guidelines for installing HPS lighting indoors is provided to program participants. Guidance regarding disposal of fluorescent light ballasts which may contain PCBs is routinely provided to building owners. Bonneville will not fund removal and disposal of asbestos material. The use of urea formaldehyde foam insulation is not permitted in either new construction or in existing building retrofits. The use of toxic transfer fluids is not permitted in any ECM. All commercial buildings over 45 years old will be reviewed in accordance with Bonneville's PMOA with the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation and the State Historic Preservation Offices.

  20. Energy Savings Potential of Flexible and Adaptive HVAC Distribution Systems for Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Loftness, Vivian; Brahme, Rohini; Mondazzi, Michelle; Vineyard, Edward; MacDonald, Michael

    2002-06-01

    . Architects, professional engineers, and commercial real estate developers will benefit from the availability of information that quantifies energy savings, first cost construction differences, and additional operating costs created when office space must be reconfigured to accommodate new tenants.

  1. Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban Heat Island Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem

    2005-08-23

    Urban areas tend to have higher air temperatures than their rural surroundings as a result of gradual surface modifications that include replacing the natural vegetation with buildings and roads. The term ''Urban Heat Island'' describes this phenomenon. The surfaces of buildings and pavements absorb solar radiation and become extremely hot, which in turn warm the surrounding air. Cities that have been ''paved over'' do not receive the benefit of the natural cooling effect of vegetation. As the air temperature rises, so does the demand for air-conditioning (a/c). This leads to higher emissions from power plants, as well as increased smog formation as a result of warmer temperatures. In the United States, we have found that this increase in air temperature is responsible for 5-10% of urban peak electric demand for a/c use, and as much as 20% of population-weighted smog concentrations in urban areas. Simple ways to cool the cities are the use of reflective surfaces (rooftops and pavements) and planting of urban vegetation. On a large scale, the evapotranspiration from vegetation and increased reflection of incoming solar radiation by reflective surfaces will cool a community a few degrees in the summer. As an example, computer simulations for Los Angeles, CA show that resurfacing about two-third of the pavements and rooftops with reflective surfaces and planting three trees per house can cool down LA by an average of 2-3K. This reduction in air temperature will reduce urban smog exposure in the LA basin by roughly the same amount as removing the basin entire onroad vehicle exhaust. Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in U.S. from cool surfaces and shade trees, when fully implemented, is about $5 billion per year (about $100 per air-conditioned house).

  2. Quadrupedal locomotor performance in two species of arboreal squirrels: predicting energy savings of gliding.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Elizabeth A; Ben-David, Merav; Smith, Winston P

    2010-10-01

    Gliding allows mammals to exploit canopy habitats of old-growth forests possibly as a means to save energy. To assess costs of quadrupedal locomotion for a gliding arboreal mammal, we used open-flow respirometry and a variable-speed treadmill to measure oxygen consumption and to calculate cost of transport, excess exercise oxygen consumption, and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption for nine northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) and four fox squirrels (Sciurus niger). Our results indicate that oxygen consumption during exercise by flying squirrels was 1.26-1.65 times higher than predicted based on body mass, and exponentially increased with velocity (from 0.84 ± 0.03 ml O(2) kg(-1) s(-1) at 0.40 m s(-1) to 1.55 ± 0.03 ml O(2) kg(-1) s(-1) at 0.67 m s(-1)). Also, cost of transport in flying squirrels increased with velocity, although excess exercise oxygen consumption and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption did not. In contrast, oxygen consumption during exercise for fox squirrels was similar to predicted, varying from 0.51 (±0.02) ml O(2) kg(-1) s(-1) at 0.63 m s(-1) to 0.54 (±0.03) ml O(2) kg(-1) s(-1) at 1.25 m s(-1). In addition, the cost of transport for fox squirrels decreased with velocity, while excess exercise oxygen consumption and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption did not. Collectively, these observations suggest that unlike fox squirrels, flying squirrels are poorly adapted to prolonged bouts of quadrupedal locomotion. The evolution of skeletal adaptations to climbing, leaping, and landing and the development of a gliding membrane likely has increased the cost of quadrupedal locomotion by >50% while resulting in energy savings during gliding and reduction in travel time between foraging patches. PMID:20361193

  3. Mitochondrial phenotypic flexibility enhances energy savings during winter fast in king penguin chicks.

    PubMed

    Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Marmillot, Vincent; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien

    2014-08-01

    Energy conservation is a key priority for organisms that live in environments with seasonal shortages in resource supplies or that spontaneously fast during their annual cycle. The aim of this study was to determine whether the high fasting endurance of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus) is associated with an adjustment of mitochondrial bioenergetics in pectoralis muscle, the largest skeletal muscle in penguins. The rates of mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and ATP synthesis and mitochondrial efficiency (ATP/O ratio) were measured in winter-acclimatized chicks. We used pyruvate/malate and palmitoyl-l-carnitine/malate as respiratory substrates and results from naturally fasted chicks were compared to experimentally re-fed chicks. Bioenergetics analysis of pectoralis muscle revealed that mitochondria are on average 15% more energy efficient in naturally fasted than in experimentally fed chicks, indicating that fasted birds consume less nutrients to sustain their energy-demanding processes. We also found that moderate reductions in temperature from 38°C to 30°C further increase by 23% the energy coupling efficiency at the level of mitochondria, suggesting that king penguin chicks realize additional energy savings while becoming hypothermic during winter. It has been calculated that this adjustment of mitochondrial efficiency in skeletal muscle may contribute to nearly 25% of fasting-induced reduction in mass-specific metabolic rate measured in vivo. The present study shows that the regulation of mitochondrial efficiency triggers the development of an economical management of resources, which would maximize the conservation of endogenous fuel stores by decreasing the cost of living in fasted winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. PMID:24803465

  4. Energy Saving Method of Manufacturing Ceramic Products from Fiber Glass Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Haun

    2005-07-15

    The U.S. fiber glass industry disposes of more than 260,000 tons of industrial fiber glass waste in landfills annually. New technology is needed to reprocess this industrial waste into useful products. A low-cost energy-saving method of manufacturing ceramic tile from fiber glass waste was developed. The technology is based on sintering fiber glass waste at 700-900 degrees C to produce products which traditionally require firing temperatures of >1200 degrees C, or glass-melting temperatures >1500 degrees C. The process also eliminates other energy intensive processing steps, including mining and transportation of raw materials, spray-drying to produce granulated powder, drying pressed tile, and glazing. The technology completely transforms fiber glass waste into a dense ceramic product, so that all future environmental problems in the handling and disposal of the fibers is eliminated. The processing steps were developed and optimized to produce glossy and matte surface finishes for wall and floor tile applications. High-quality prototype tile samples were processed for demonstration and tile standards testing. A Market Assessment confirmed the market potential for tile products produced by the technology. Manufacturing equipment trials were successfully conducted for each step of the process. An industrial demonstration plant was designed, including equipment and operating cost analysis. A fiber glass manufacturer was selected as an industrial partner to commercialize the technology. A technology development and licensing agreement was completed with the industrial partner. Haun labs will continue working to transfer the technology and assist the industrial partner with commercialization beyond the DOE project.

  5. Modeling Urban Energy Savings Scenarios using Earth System Microclimate and Urban Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. R.; Rose, A. N.; Branstetter, M. L.; Yuan, J.; New, J. R.; Omitaomu, O.; Wilbanks, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    In anticipation of emerging global urbanization, better understanding and quantification of climate effects on energy use are needed, requiring coordinated research of microclimate impacts on and from "human systems." To this end, we analyze and quantify the relationships among climatic conditions, urban morphology, population, land cover, and energy use so that these relationships can be used to inform energy-efficient urban development and planning. The focus of this research is on the analysis of measured and modeled energy efficiency of various building types in selected urban areas and temporal variations in energy use for different morphologies under different microclimatic conditions; implications for different morphologies of future climate and urban growth scenarios; and potential energy projections and savings by morphology for selected climatically distinct US cities. This work considers population projections to inform morphological design by incorporating two new datasets in which these projections have been made for years 2030 and 2050 at 30 arc-second resolution, in order to determine potential siting and design of new urban development. The overarching objective is the integration of different approaches across three research areas: earth system modeling; impacts, adaptation and vulnerability; and urban planning in order to address three major gaps in the existing capability in these areas: i) neighborhood resolution modeling and simulation of urban micrometeorological processes and their effect on and from regional climate; ii) projections for future energy use under urbanization and climate change scenarios identifying best strategies for urban morphological development and energy savings; iii) analysis and visualization tools to help planners optimally use these projections.

  6. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Mechanical Performance of Dies

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller, Principal Investigator; Kabiri-Bamoradian, Contributors: Khalil; Delgado-Garza, Abelardo; Murugesan, Karthik; Ragab, Adham

    2011-09-13

    provided to NADCA for distribution to the industry. Power law based meta-models for predicting machine tie bar loading and for predicting maximum parting surface separation were successfully developed and tested against simulation results for a wide range of machines and experimental data. The models proved to be remarkably accurate, certainly well within the requirements for practical application. In addition to making die structural modeling more accessible, the work advanced the state-of-the-art by developing improved modeling of cavity pressure effects, which is typically modeled as a hydrostatic boundary condition, and performing a systematic analysis of the influence of ejector die design variables on die deflection and parting plane separation. This cavity pressure modeling objective met with less than complete success due to the limits of current finite element based fluid structure interaction analysis methods, but an improved representation of the casting/die interface was accomplished using a combination of solid and shell elements in the finite element model. This approximation enabled good prediction of final part distortion verified with a comprehensive evaluation of the dimensions of test castings produced with a design experiment. An extra deliverable of the experimental work was development of high temperature mechanical properties for the A380 die casting alloy. The ejector side design objective was met and the results were incorporated into the metamodels described above. This new technology was predicted to result in an average energy savings of 2.03 trillion BTU's/year over a 10 year period. Current (2011) annual energy saving estimates over a ten year period, based on commercial introduction in 2009, a market penetration of 70% by 2014 is 4.26 trillion BTU's/year by 2019. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring

  7. Nine new compounds from the whole plants of Rehmannia chingii.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Fei; Shi, Guo-Ru; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Wang, Yan; Chen, Ruo-Yun; Yu, De-Quan

    2016-06-01

    Nine new compounds, together with 16 known analogs, were isolated from the whole plants of Rehmannia chingii. The structures of compounds 1-9 were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. In addition, the new compounds were tested for their hepatoprotective activities against APAP-induced HepG2 cell damage and their ability to inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide production in the murine microglia BV2 cell line. Compounds 2 and 5 exhibited pronounced hepatoprotective activities against APAP-induced HepG2 cell damage at a concentration of 10 μM, and compounds 4 and 9 showed moderate inhibitory activity against microglial inflammation factor with IC50 values of 3.51 and 7.11 μM, respectively. PMID:27140322

  8. Building America Best Practices Series: Builders Challenge Guide to 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Marine Climate (Volume 11)

    SciTech Connect

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2010-09-01

    With the measures described in this guide, builders in the marine climate can build homes that have whole-house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark with no added overall costs for consumers.

  9. Building America Residential System Research Results. Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes Building America research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  10. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2006-12-01

    This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  11. Core-shell VO2@TiO2 nanorods that combine thermochromic and photocatalytic properties for application as energy-saving smart coatings.

    PubMed

    Li, Yamei; Ji, Shidong; Gao, Yanfeng; Luo, Hongjie; Kanehira, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is a Mott phase transition compound that can be applied as a thermochromic smart material for energy saving and comfort, and titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a well-known photocatalyst for self-cleaning coatings. In this paper, we report a VO2@TiO2 core-shell structure, in which the VO2 nanorod core exhibits a remarkable modulation ability for solar infrared light, and the TiO2 anatase shell exhibits significant photocatalytic degradation of organic dye. In addition, the TiO2 overcoating not only increased the luminous transmittance of VO2 based on an antireflection effect, but also modified the intrinsic colour of VO2 films from yellow to light blue. The TiO2 also enhanced the chemical stability of VO2 against oxidation. This is the first report of such a single nanoparticle structure with both thermochromic and photocatalytic properties that offer significant potential for creating a multifunctional smart coating. PMID:23546301

  12. Core-shell VO2@TiO2 nanorods that combine thermochromic and photocatalytic properties for application as energy-saving smart coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yamei; Ji, Shidong; Gao, Yanfeng; Luo, Hongjie; Kanehira, Minoru

    2013-04-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is a Mott phase transition compound that can be applied as a thermochromic smart material for energy saving and comfort, and titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a well-known photocatalyst for self-cleaning coatings. In this paper, we report a VO2@TiO2 core-shell structure, in which the VO2 nanorod core exhibits a remarkable modulation ability for solar infrared light, and the TiO2 anatase shell exhibits significant photocatalytic degradation of organic dye. In addition, the TiO2 overcoating not only increased the luminous transmittance of VO2 based on an antireflection effect, but also modified the intrinsic colour of VO2 films from yellow to light blue. The TiO2 also enhanced the chemical stability of VO2 against oxidation. This is the first report of such a single nanoparticle structure with both thermochromic and photocatalytic properties that offer significant potential for creating a multifunctional smart coating.

  13. Core-shell VO2@TiO2 nanorods that combine thermochromic and photocatalytic properties for application as energy-saving smart coatings

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yamei; Ji, Shidong; Gao, Yanfeng; Luo, Hongjie; Kanehira, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is a Mott phase transition compound that can be applied as a thermochromic smart material for energy saving and comfort, and titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a well-known photocatalyst for self-cleaning coatings. In this paper, we report a VO2@TiO2 core-shell structure, in which the VO2 nanorod core exhibits a remarkable modulation ability for solar infrared light, and the TiO2 anatase shell exhibits significant photocatalytic degradation of organic dye. In addition, the TiO2 overcoating not only increased the luminous transmittance of VO2 based on an antireflection effect, but also modified the intrinsic colour of VO2 films from yellow to light blue. The TiO2 also enhanced the chemical stability of VO2 against oxidation. This is the first report of such a single nanoparticle structure with both thermochromic and photocatalytic properties that offer significant potential for creating a multifunctional smart coating. PMID:23546301

  14. Low-cost, highly transparent flexible low-e coating film to enable electrochromic windows with increased energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Berland, Brian; Hollingsworth, Russell

    2015-03-31

    Five Quads of energy are lost through windows annually in the U.S. Low-e coatings are increasingly employed to reduce the wasted energy. Most commonly, the low-e coating is an oxide material applied directly to the glass at high temperature. With over 100,000,000 existing homes, a retrofit product is crucial to achieve widespread energy savings. Low-e films, i.e. coatings on polymeric substrates, are now also available to meet this need. However, the traditional oxide materials and process is incompatible with low temperature plastics. Alternate high performing low-e films typically incorporate materials that limit visible transmission to 35% or less. Further, the cost is high. The objective of this award was to develop a retrofit, integrated low-e/electrochromic window film to dramatically reduce energy lost through windows. While field testing of state-of-the-art electrochromic (EC) windows show the energy savings are maximized if a low-e coating is used in conjunction with the EC, available low-e films have a low visible transmission (~70% or less) that limits the achievable clear state and therefore, appearance and energy savings potential. Comprehensive energy savings models were completed at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL). A parametric approach was used to project energy usage for windows with a large range of low-e properties across all U.S. climate zones, without limiting the study to materials that had already been produced commercially or made in a lab. The model enables projection of energy savings for low-e films as well as integrated low-e/EC products. This project developed a novel low-e film, optimized for compatibility with EC windows, using low temperature, high deposition rate processes for the growth of low-e coatings on plastic films by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Silica films with good density and optical properties were demonstrated at deposition rates as high as 130Å/sec. A simple bi-layer low-e stack of

  15. Analysis of energy-saving potential in residential buildings in Xiamen City and its policy implications for southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fei

    The buildings sector is the largest energy-consuming sector in the world. Residential buildings consume about three-quarters of the final energy in the buildings sector. Promoting residential energy savings is in consequence critical for addressing many energy-use-related environmental challenges, such as climate change and air pollution. Given China's robust economic growth and fast urbanization, it is now a critical time to develop policy interventions on residential energy use in the nation. With this as a background, this dissertation explores effective policy intervention opportunities in southern China through analyzing the residential energy-saving potential, using the city of Xiamen as a case study. Four types of residential energy-saving potential are analyzed: technical potential, economic potential, maximum achievable potential (MAP), and possible achievable potential (PAP). Of these, the first two types are characterized as static theoretical evaluation, while the last two represent dynamic evaluation within a certain time horizon. The achievable potential analyses are rarely seen in existing literature. The analytical results reveal that there exists a significant technical potential for residential energy savings of about 20.9-24.9% in the city of Xiamen. Of the technical potential, about two-thirds to four-fifths are cost-effective from the government or society perspective. The cost-effectiveness is evaluated by comparing the "Levelized Cost of Conserved Energy (LCOCE)" of available advanced technical measures with the "Actual Cost" of conserved energy. The "Actual Cost" of energy is defined by adding the environmental externalities costs and hidden government subsidies over the retail prices of energy. The achievable potential analyses are particularly based on two key realistic factors: 1) the gradual ramping-up adoption process of advanced technical measures; and 2) individuals' adoption-decision making on them. For implementing the achievable

  16. INCREASING YIELDS AND BROADENING MARKETS: PROCESS INNOVATIONS IN THE MANUFACTURING OF ENERGY-SAVING WINDOW GLAZINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop and implement advanced thin film process technology which would significantly improve the manufacturability of both static and dynamic high performance energy saving coatings for windows. The work done has been aimed at improvements to the process that will result in increases in yield, and this was divided into four main areas, dealing with improvements in substrate preparation methods, reductions in the incidence of problems caused by particulate contamination, use of in-situ optical monitoring to improve process control, and overall system integration to enable simplified, and therefore lower cost operation. Significant progress has been made in each of the areas. In the area of substrate preparation, the enhanced washing techniques which have been developed, in combination with a new inspection technique, have resulted in significant reductions in the number of EC devices which are rejected because of substrate problems. Microscopic inspection of different defects in electrochromic devices showed that many were centered on particles. As a result, process improvements aimed at reducing the incidence of particles throughout the entire process have been implemented. As a result, the average number of defects occurring per unit area has been significantly reduced over the period of this project. The in-situ monitoring techniques developed during this project have become an indispensable part of the processing for EC devices. The deposition of several key layers is controlled as a result of in-situ monitoring, and this has facilitated significant improvements in uniformity and repeatability. Overall system integration has progressed to the stage where the goal of a closed-loop monitoring and control system in within reach, and it is anticipated that this will be achieved during the scale-up phase. There has been a clear increase in the yield occurring over the period of this project (Sept 1999 to September 2003), which is

  17. Development and Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Polyherbal Formulation Containing Some Indigenous Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Dandagi, P. M.; Patil, M. B.; Mastiholimath, V. S.; Gadad, A. P.; Dhumansure, R. H.

    2008-01-01

    The present study explores the hepatoprotective activity of various extracts of Ferula asafoetida, Momordica charantia Linn and Nardostachys jatamansi against experimental hepatotoxicity. Polyherbal suspensions were formulated using extracts showing significant activity and evaluated for both physicochemical and hepatoprotective activity in comparison with LIV-52 as standard. Petroleum ether (60-80°), chloroform, benzene, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Ferula asafetida, Momordica charantia Linn and Nardostachys jatamansi were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver toxicity in Wistar rats. Polyherbal suspensions were prepared by the trituration method using a suspending agent and other excipients. Formulation F3 has shown significant hepatoprotective effect by reducing the elevated serum enzyme levels such as glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Various parameters evaluated for all formulations were within the official specifications. Experimental data suggested that treatment with formulation F3 enhances the recovery from carbon tetra chloride-induced hepatotoxicity. From these results it may be concluded that the F3 formulation (containing chloroform, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts of Ferula asafetida, petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of Momordica charantia Linn. and petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of Nardostachys jatamansi) demonstrated significant hepatoprotective activity, that might be due to combined effect of all these extracts. PMID:20046731

  18. Hepatoprotective Role of Caesalpinia bonduc: A Histopathological and Biochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Sumalatha, Suhani; Pai, K Shridhar R; Kumar, Nitesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hepatotoxicity is one of the inevitable side effects of long term use of medicines in many different disorders, chronic use of alcohol and in certain infectious disorders. Even though there are few effective drugs to treat such hepatotoxicity, mortality due to hepatotoxicity is increasing day by day. Therefore, in search of alternative and more effective medicine we found that Caesalpinia bonduc (CB), a shrub grows in hotter places of south Asia has been effectively used to treat such hepatotoxicity in folk medicine. Aim: Aim of the study is to scientifically evaluate the hepatoprotective nature of aqueous extract of CB using Carbon tetrachloride(CCl4) induced hepatotoxic rat model. Materials and Methods and Result: Elevated levels of blood ALT, AST and ALT enzymes were found in CCl4 induced hepatotoxic rat models. Treating these animals with CB either prior or after the induction of hepatotoxicity, shows significant decrease in the levels of ALP, AST, and ALT in their blood in comparison with the untreated hepatotoxic group. Additionally, histologically, hepatotoxic rats show necrotic changes & vacuolation in their hepatocytes, altered hepatic architecture and congested hepatic sinusoids. However, such histopathological adverse changes were minimized when these animals treated with CB. Conclusion: Results of the present study indicate that CB acts as both preventive and curative hepatoprotector PMID:25584245

  19. Hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Toppo, Reetu; Roy, Birendra Kumar; Gora, Ravuri Halley; Baxla, Sushma Lalita; Kumar, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium-induced toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: For this study, 18 Wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, Group I rats were given cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg and Group II rats were treated with M. oleifera extract @ 500 mg/kg along with cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg (daily oral for 28 days). On 29th day, animals were slaughtered and various parameters were determined. Serum biomarkers, oxidative stress parameters, histomorphological examination were carried out with estimation of cadmium concentration in liver tissues. Results: Oral administration of cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm/kg for 28 days resulted in a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), significant (p≤0.01) increase of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increase in cadmium accumulation in liver. Treatment with M. oleifera @ 500 mg/kg significantly (p<0.01) decreased the elevated ALP, AST, ALT, LPO levels and increase in SOD levels, and as compared to cadmium chloride treated group. However, there was no significant difference in cadmium concentration in liver when compared with cadmium chloride treated group. Conclusion: The study conclude that supplementation of M. oleifera (500 mg/kg), daily oral for 28 days has shown protection against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:27047130

  20. Measured energy savings and economics of retrofitting existing single-family homes: An update of the BECA-B database

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.D.; Goldman, C.A.; Harris, J.P.

    1991-02-01

    The energy bill for US single-family households was over $77 billion in 1987 (excluding auto fuel purchases), accounting for approximately 20% of national energy expenditures. Large sums are spent on residential retrofits by individual homeowners, government agencies, and utilities. As of late 1987, over 21 million households indicated that they had added at least one energy-saving measure in the previous two years, while a recent Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) study estimated that nearly 15 million residential customers have participated in some kind of demand-side management (DSM) program. Given the level of continuing investments in residential energy efficiency, accurate estimates of savings from various conservation measures are increasingly necessary, especially as new technologies become more sophisticated and incremental efficiency gains more difficult to achieve. This report provides a comparative analysis of measured data on the performance and cost-effectiveness of energy-saving measures in existing single-family homes, based on information in the Buildings Energy-Use Compilation and Analysis (BECA) data base. The initial BECA report on measured data for single-family retrofits was completed seven years ago. In updating the single-family database, we have added 135 data points, representing over 33,000 houses, to the original database of 145 retrofit projects. The report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1 provides a summary of energy savings and costs of individual retrofit measures and strategies and results from federal/state low-income and utility weatherization programs. we also discuss measurement issues, predicted versus actual savings, trends in single-family retrofit programs, and implications for the next generation'' of cost-effective single-family retrofits. Volume 2 contains a written summary of each retrofit project and complete data tables. 87 refs., 20 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Air-Conditioning Units with Gas Heat

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2011-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) evaluated a number of control strategies that can be implemented in a controller, to improve the operational efficiency of the packaged air conditioning units. The two primary objectives of this research project are: (1) determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged air conditioning units with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units and (2) estimating what the installed cost of a replacement control with the desired features should be in various regions of the U.S. This document reports results of the study.

  2. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report covers an assessment of 182 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. commercial buildings to identify and provide analysis on 17 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, description of technical maturity, description of non-energy benefits, description of current barriers for market adoption, and description of the technology’s applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  3. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Residential Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Zogg, Robert; Young, Jim; Schmidt, Justin

    2012-10-01

    This report is an assessment of 135 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. residential buildings to identify and provide analysis on 19 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, descriptions of technical maturity, descriptions of non-energy benefits, descriptions of current barriers for market adoption, and descriptions of the technology's applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  4. Improved Hepatoprotective Effect of Liposome-Encapsulated Astaxanthin in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chun-Hung; Chang, Chun-Chao; Lin, Shiang-Ting; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Peng, Robert Y.

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute hepatotoxicity is significantly associated with oxidative stress. Astaxanthin (AST), a xanthophyll carotenoid, is well known for its potent antioxidant capacity. However, its drawbacks of poor aqueous solubility and low bioavailability have limited its utility. Liposome encapsulation is considered as an effective alternative use for the improvement of bioavailability of the hydrophobic compound. We hypothesized that AST encapsulated within liposomes (LA) apparently shows improved stability and transportability compared to that of free AST. To investigate whether LA administration can efficiently prevent the LPS-induced acute hepatotoxicity, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = six per group) were orally administered liposome-encapsulated AST at 2, 5 or 10 mg/kg-day (LA-2, LA-5, and LA-10) for seven days and then were LPS-challenged (i.p., 5 mg/kg). The LA-10 administered group, but not the other groups, exhibited a significant amelioration of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (CRE), hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), IL-6, and hepatic nuclear NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), suggesting that LA at a 10 mg/kg-day dosage renders hepatoprotective effects. Moreover, the protective effects were even superior to that of positive control N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 200 mg/kg-day). Histopathologically, NAC, free AST, LA-2 and LA-5 partially, but LA-10 completely, alleviated the acute inflammatory status. These results indicate that hydrophobic AST after being properly encapsulated by liposomes improves bioavailability and can also function as potential drug delivery system in treating hepatotoxicity. PMID:27428953

  5. Improved Hepatoprotective Effect of Liposome-Encapsulated Astaxanthin in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chun-Hung; Chang, Chun-Chao; Lin, Shiang-Ting; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Peng, Robert Y

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute hepatotoxicity is significantly associated with oxidative stress. Astaxanthin (AST), a xanthophyll carotenoid, is well known for its potent antioxidant capacity. However, its drawbacks of poor aqueous solubility and low bioavailability have limited its utility. Liposome encapsulation is considered as an effective alternative use for the improvement of bioavailability of the hydrophobic compound. We hypothesized that AST encapsulated within liposomes (LA) apparently shows improved stability and transportability compared to that of free AST. To investigate whether LA administration can efficiently prevent the LPS-induced acute hepatotoxicity, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = six per group) were orally administered liposome-encapsulated AST at 2, 5 or 10 mg/kg-day (LA-2, LA-5, and LA-10) for seven days and then were LPS-challenged (i.p., 5 mg/kg). The LA-10 administered group, but not the other groups, exhibited a significant amelioration of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (CRE), hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), IL-6, and hepatic nuclear NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), suggesting that LA at a 10 mg/kg-day dosage renders hepatoprotective effects. Moreover, the protective effects were even superior to that of positive control N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 200 mg/kg-day). Histopathologically, NAC, free AST, LA-2 and LA-5 partially, but LA-10 completely, alleviated the acute inflammatory status. These results indicate that hydrophobic AST after being properly encapsulated by liposomes improves bioavailability and can also function as potential drug delivery system in treating hepatotoxicity. PMID:27428953

  6. Hepatoprotective potential of extracts from seeds of Areca catechu and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria.

    PubMed

    Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Nithitanakool, Saruth; Bavovada, Rapepol

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extracts from seeds of Areca catechu L. (Arecaceae) (AC) and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae) (QI) were investigated for their hepatoprotective potential by studying their antioxidant capacity using four different methods, by determining their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity against 5-lipoxygenase, and by evaluating their hepatoprotective potential against liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in rats. AC and QI extracts exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Treatment of rats with AC and QI extracts reversed oxidative damage in hepatic tissues induced by CCl(4). It is suggested that extracts rich in either condensed or hydrolysable tannins and known for their potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, may potentially confer protection against oxidative stress-induced liver injury. These data should contribute to evidence-based traditional medicines for anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of both extracts. PMID:20032872

  7. Hepatoprotective effect of flavonoids from Cirsium japonicum DC on hepatotoxicity in comparison with silymarin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qin; Wang, Lin-Huan; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2016-05-18

    Cirsium japonicum DC is a perennial plant that is widely distributed throughout China. Flavonoids are the major active constituents of C. japonicum, which has been reported to possess many bioactivities. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of flavonoids from C. japonicum against liver injury using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatocyte injury, with silymarin as a positive control. Silymarin is a mixture of flavonoids from Silybum marianum, a traditional European food plant with clear hepatoprotective effects. The results indicated that the pretreatment with C. japonicum flavonoids could significantly reverse CCl4-induced L02 cell viability decrease similarly to silymarin. Analysis of flavonoids of C. japonicum and silymarin by HPLC showed that these two mixtures may contain one common component, which may be the major active ingredient responsible for their hepatoprotective effects. It is concluded that C. japonicum could be developed into functional foods with hepatoprotective efficacy, similarly to S. marianum. PMID:27094923

  8. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of endo-polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus grown on tofu whey.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zuofa; Lv, Guoying; Pan, Huijuan; Pandey, Ashok; He, Weiqiang; Fan, Leifa

    2012-12-01

    Three fractions of the endo-polysaccharides from the mycelium of Hericium erinaceus (HEP) grown on tofu whey were obtained by the fractional precipitation with gradient concentrations of ethanol (HEP40, HEP60 and HEP80). The chemical and physical characteristics of the three crude polysaccharides were investigated by the combination of chemical and instrumental analysis methods. The studies to evaluate the antioxidant potential and the hepatoprotective effects of the three polysaccharides showed that they had different activities in different evaluation system. HEP80 showed strong activity on antioxidant in vitro and potent hepatoprotective effect in vivo and the hepatoprotective effect may be due to its potent antioxidant capacity. The HEP could be exploited as antioxidant product and a supplement in the prevention of hepatic diseases. The study also opens an avenue for the efficient utilization of tofu whey, which is usually discarded in environment, causing concerns. PMID:22982810

  9. A sexual dimorphism influences bicyclol-induced hepatic heat shock factor 1 activation and hepatoprotection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaosong; Zhang, Jianjian; Han, Conghui; Dai, Huijuan; Kong, Xianming; Xu, Longmei; Xia, Qiang; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Jianjun

    2015-07-01

    Bicyclol [4,4'-dimethoxy-5,6,5',6'-bis(methylenedioxy)-2-hydroxy-methyl-2'-methoxycarbonyl biphenyl] is a synthetic hepatoprotectant widely used in clinical practice, but resistance to this treatment is often observed. We found that the hepatoprotective effect of bicyclol was greatly compromised in female and castrated male mice. This study was to dissect the molecular basis behind the sex difference, which might underlie the clinical uncertainty. We compared bicyclol-induced hepatoprotection between male and female mice using acute liver damage models. Inducible knockout by the Cre/loxp system was used to decipher the role of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1). Functional experiments, western blot, and histopathological analysis were used to determine the key causative factors which might antagonize bicyclol in female livers. HSF1 activation and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression, which were responsible for bicyclol-induced hepatoprotection, were compromised in female and castrated male livers. Compromised HSF1 activation was a result of HSF1 phosphorylation at serine 303, which was catalyzed by glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). Testosterone was necessary for bicyclol to inhibit hepatic GSK3β activity. Administration of testosterone or GSK3β inhibitors restored bicyclol-induced protection in females. Bicyclol induces sex-specific hepatoprotection based on a sex-specific HSF1/Hsp70 response, in which testosterone and GSK3β play key roles. Because a lot of patients suffering from liver diseases have very low testosterone levels, our results give a possible explanation for the clinical variation in bicyclol-induced hepatoprotection, as well as practicable solutions to improve the effect of bicyclol. PMID:25901028

  10. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction (E-SMARRT): Precision Casting of Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Von L. Richards

    2011-09-30

    of the casting opposite the gate. (3) It is recommended that lost foam castings in steel be gated for a quiescent fill in an empty cavity mold to prevent foam occlusion defects from the collapse mode. The energy benefit is primarily in yield savings and lower casting weight per function due to elimination of draft and parting lines for the larger lost foam castings. For the smaller investment casting, scrap losses due to shell cracking will be reduced. Both of these effects will reduce the metal melted per good ton of castings. There will also be less machine stock required per casting which is a yield savings and a small additional energy savings in machining. Downstream savings will come from heavy truck and railroad applications. Application of these processes to heavy truck castings will lighten the heavy truck fleet by about ten pounds per truck. Using ten years to achieve full penetration of the truck fleet at linear rate this will result in a fuel savings of 131 trillion BTU over ten years.

  11. Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction

    SciTech Connect

    Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

    2012-08-28

    evaporated first under vacuum condition at low temperature. Then, the dry woodchips were baked at high temperature (120-130 C) at atmospheric pressure. The qualities of the pulp made with this method were improved compared to that made with method one. The pulp shows higher brightness and lower bulk than Kraft pulping. The tensile strength is significantly higher than the pulp made from the first method. Although the pulp is stronger than that of TMP pulp, it is still lower than conventional Kraft fiber. Method Three: The third dry method was done in a Kraft pulping digester at elevated pressure but without free liquid in the digester. With this method, pulp that has almost the same qualities as conventional Kraft pulp could be produced. The screen yield, Kappa number, fiber brightness, pulp strength and pulp bulk are almost identical to the conventional Kraft pulp. The key advantages of this dry pulping method include ca. 55 % of cooking energy saved during the pulping process, as high as 50 wt% of NaOH saving as well as 3 wt% of Na2S saving comparing to Kraft one. By analyzing fiber properties, yields, chemical and energy consumptions, we concluded that the dry pulping method based on Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP, could be very attractive for the pulp and paper industry. More fundamental studies and scale up trials are needed to fully commercialize the technology. We expect to conduct pilot trials between 12 to 24 months of period if the DOE or industry can provide continual research funding. Based on the technology we demonstrated in this report, several pilot trial facilities in the United States will be available after small modifications. For example, the Herty Foundation in Savannah, Georgia is one of these potential locations. DOE funding for continuous study and final lead to commercialization of the technique is important.

  12. Streamlined energy-savings calculations for heat-island reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steven J.

    2003-03-15

    We have developed summary tables (sorted by heating- and cooling-degree-days) to estimate the potential of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., solar-reflective roofs, shade trees, reflective pavements, and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings. The tables provide estimates of savings for both direct effect (reducing heat gain through the building shell) and indirect effect (reducing the ambient air temperature). In this analysis, we considered three building types that offer the most savings potential : residences, offices, and retail stores. Each building type was characterized in detail by Pre-1980 (old) or 1980+ (new) construction vintage and with natural gas or electricity as heating fuel. We defined prototypical-building characteristics for each building type and simulated the effects of HIR strategies on building cooling and heating energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model and weather data for about 240 locations in the U.S. A statistical analysis of previously completed simulations for five cities was used to estimate the indirect savings. Our simulations included the effect of (1) solar-reflective roofing material on building [direct effect], (2) placement of deciduous shade trees near south and west walls of building [direct effect], and (3) ambient cooling achieved by urban reforestation and reflective building surfaces and pavements [indirect effect]. Upon completion of estimating the direct and indirect energy savings for all the selected locations, we integrated the results in tables arranged by heating- and cooling-degree-days. We considered 15 bins for heating-degree-days, and 11 bins for cooling-degree-days. Energy use and savings are presented per 1000 ft2 of roof area. In residences heated with gas and in climates with greater than 1000 cooling-degree-days, the annual electricity savings in Pre-1980 stock ranged from 650 to 1300 kWh/1000ft2; for 1980+ stock savings ranged 300 to 600 kWh/1000 ft2

  13. Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan; Fuqiu , Zhou; Huawen, Xiong; Xuemin, Zeng; Lan, Wang

    2008-07-30

    The Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool (BEST) Cement is a process-based tool based on commercially available efficiency technologies used anywhere in the world applicable to the cement industry. This version has been designed for use in China. No actual cement facility with every single efficiency measure included in the benchmark will likely exist; however, the benchmark sets a reasonable standard by which to compare for plants striving to be the best. The energy consumption of the benchmark facility differs due to differences in processing at a given cement facility. The tool accounts for most of these variables and allows the user to adapt the model to operational variables specific for his/her cement facility. Figure 1 shows the boundaries included in a plant modeled by BEST Cement. In order to model the benchmark, i.e., the most energy efficient cement facility, so that it represents a facility similar to the user's cement facility, the user is first required to input production variables in the input sheet (see Section 6 for more information on how to input variables). These variables allow the tool to estimate a benchmark facility that is similar to the user's cement plant, giving a better picture of the potential for that particular facility, rather than benchmarking against a generic one. The input variables required include the following: (1) the amount of raw materials used in tonnes per year (limestone, gypsum, clay minerals, iron ore, blast furnace slag, fly ash, slag from other industries, natural pozzolans, limestone powder (used post-clinker stage), municipal wastes and others); the amount of raw materials that are preblended (prehomogenized and proportioned) and crushed (in tonnes per year); (2) the amount of additives that are dried and ground (in tonnes per year); (3) the production of clinker (in tonnes per year) from each kiln by kiln type; (4) the amount of raw materials, coal and clinker that is ground by mill type (in tonnes per year); (5

  14. Hepatoprotective effect of vitamin B12 on dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Isoda, Katsuhiro; Kagaya, Noritaka; Akamatsu, Soichiro; Hayashi, Shinji; Tamesada, Makoto; Watanabe, Aiko; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Tagawa, Yoh-ichi; Kondoh, Masuo; Kawase, Masaya; Yagi, Kiyohito

    2008-02-01

    Vitamin B(12) contains a cobalt complex and accumulates at high levels in the liver. Vitamin B(12) was examined for its hepatoprotective effect on dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver injury in mice. Vitamin B(12) decreased the blood levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and clearly inhibited the overaccumulation of collagen fibrils. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of the liver showed that the gene expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and heat-shock protein 47, which are markers of fibrosis, were suppressed by vitamin B(12) administration. Our findings indicate that vitamin B(12) could be an effective hepatoprotective agent. PMID:18239293

  15. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Crataegus songarica methanol extract.

    PubMed

    Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Dar, Tanveer Ali; Zargar, Bilal; Hamid, Rabia; Zargar, Ovais; Dar, Parvaiz Ahmad; Abeer, Shayaq Ul; Masood, Akbar; Amin, Shajrul; Zargar, Mohammad Afzal

    2014-01-01

    The protective activity of the methanolic extract of the Crataegus songarica leaves was investigated against CCl4- and paracetamol-induced liver damage. On folklore levels, this plant is popularly used to treat various toxicological diseases. We evaluated both in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant activity of C. songarica. At higher concentration of plant extract (700 µg/ml), 88.106% inhibition on DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed and reducing power of extract was increased in a concentration-dependent manner. We also observed its inhibition on Fe2+/ascorbic acid-induced lipid peroxidation on rat liver microsomes in vitro. In addition, C. songarica extract exhibited antioxidant effects on calf thymus DNA damage induced by Fenton reaction. Hepatotoxicity was induced by challenging the animals with CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight, i.p.) and paracetamol (500 mg/kg body weight) and the extract was administered at three concentrations (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight). Hepatoprotection was evaluated by determining the activities of liver function marker enzymes and antioxidant status of liver. Administration of CCl4 elevated the levels of liver function enzymes, SGOT, SGPT, and LDH. We also observed a dramatic increase in ALT, AST, bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase levels in rats administered 500 mg/kg body weight of paracetamol. Decreased antioxidant defense system as glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were observed in rats treated with CCl4 and paracetamol. Pretreatment with the extract decreased the elevated serum GOT, GPT, LDH, bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase activities and increased the antioxidant enzymes in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, C. songarica methanol extract may be an effective hepatic protective agent and viable candidate for treating hepatic disorders and other oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:24941296

  16. Preliminary evaluation of hepatoprotective potential of the polyherbal formulation

    PubMed Central

    Arka, Ghosh; Anindita, Kundu; Ankit, Seth; Kumar, Singh Anil; Kumar, Maurya Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of the polyherbal formulation (PHF)containing Cajanus cajan (L.)Millsp., Lawsonia inermis L. Linn, Mimosa pudica L., Uraria picta (Jacq.)DC. and Operculina turpethum (L.)Silva Manso on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)induced acute liver damage in albino rats. Materials and Methods: The groups of animals were administered with PHF at the doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w. (per oral [p.o.])once in a day for 7 days and at day 6th and 7th the animals were administrated with Carbon tetrachloride (1.0 mL/kg b.w. 50% v/v with olive oil,; p.o.). The effect of PHF on serum glutamine pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamine oxaloacetate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP)and total bilirubin were determined in CCl4 - induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Further, the effects of PHF on glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD)level and lipid peroxidation (LPO)activity were also investigated. Results: The results demonstrated that PHF (400 mg/kg b.w.)significantly reduces the CCl4 induced increase in level of serum SGPT, serum ALP and total bilirubin. PHF (400 mg/kg b.w.)prevents the depletion level of GSH and decrease in the activity of SOD in CCl4 -induced liver injury in rats. In addition, PHF also showed a significant decrease in the LPO levels signifying the potent antioxidant activity. Conclusion: All our findings suggest that PHF could protect the liver cells from CCl4 - induced liver damages and the mechanism may be through the anti-oxidative effect of PHF. PMID:26401397

  17. Energy Saving and GHG Emission Reduction in a Micro-CCHP System by Use of Solar Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ion, Ion V.; Ciocea, Gheorghe; Popescu, Florin

    2012-12-01

    In this work, the reduction of greenhouse gas emission, and the energy saving by integrating solar collectors and photovoltaic panels in a Stirling engine based microcombined cooling, heating and power (mCCHP) system are studied. The mCCHP system consists of a natural gas Stirling CHP and an adsorber chiller. When the thermal outputs of the Stirling CHP and solar collectors are not sufficient to cover the heat demand for domestic hot water (DHW), heating/cooling, an auxiliary heating boiler starts to operate. The energy saving by using solar energy varies from 13.35% in December to 59.62% in April, in the case of solar collectors usage and from 7.47% in December to 28.27% in July, in the case of photovoltaic panels usage. By using solar energy the annual GHG emission decreases by 31.98% and the fuel cost reduction varies from 12.73% in December to 49.78% in June.

  18. A Heuristic Placement Selection of Live Virtual Machine Migration for Energy-Saving in Cloud Computing Environment

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jia; Hu, Liang; Ding, Yan; Xu, Gaochao; Hu, Ming

    2014-01-01

    The field of live VM (virtual machine) migration has been a hotspot problem in green cloud computing. Live VM migration problem is divided into two research aspects: live VM migration mechanism and live VM migration policy. In the meanwhile, with the development of energy-aware computing, we have focused on the VM placement selection of live migration, namely live VM migration policy for energy saving. In this paper, a novel heuristic approach PS-ES is presented. Its main idea includes two parts. One is that it combines the PSO (particle swarm optimization) idea with the SA (simulated annealing) idea to achieve an improved PSO-based approach with the better global search's ability. The other one is that it uses the Probability Theory and Mathematical Statistics and once again utilizes the SA idea to deal with the data obtained from the improved PSO-based process to get the final solution. And thus the whole approach achieves a long-term optimization for energy saving as it has considered not only the optimization of the current problem scenario but also that of the future problem. The experimental results demonstrate that PS-ES evidently reduces the total incremental energy consumption and better protects the performance of VM running and migrating compared with randomly migrating and optimally migrating. As a result, the proposed PS-ES approach has capabilities to make the result of live VM migration events more high-effective and valuable. PMID:25251339

  19. A heuristic placement selection of live virtual machine migration for energy-saving in cloud computing environment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jia; Hu, Liang; Ding, Yan; Xu, Gaochao; Hu, Ming

    2014-01-01

    The field of live VM (virtual machine) migration has been a hotspot problem in green cloud computing. Live VM migration problem is divided into two research aspects: live VM migration mechanism and live VM migration policy. In the meanwhile, with the development of energy-aware computing, we have focused on the VM placement selection of live migration, namely live VM migration policy for energy saving. In this paper, a novel heuristic approach PS-ES is presented. Its main idea includes two parts. One is that it combines the PSO (particle swarm optimization) idea with the SA (simulated annealing) idea to achieve an improved PSO-based approach with the better global search's ability. The other one is that it uses the Probability Theory and Mathematical Statistics and once again utilizes the SA idea to deal with the data obtained from the improved PSO-based process to get the final solution. And thus the whole approach achieves a long-term optimization for energy saving as it has considered not only the optimization of the current problem scenario but also that of the future problem. The experimental results demonstrate that PS-ES evidently reduces the total incremental energy consumption and better protects the performance of VM running and migrating compared with randomly migrating and optimally migrating. As a result, the proposed PS-ES approach has capabilities to make the result of live VM migration events more high-effective and valuable. PMID:25251339

  20. The Analysis on Influence of Main Factors on Theoretical Value of Energy Saving Rate for Energy Efficiency Labeling of Civil Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Zhenling; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Fan; Li, Peng; Cao, Wei

    For typical residential buildings, no-large-scale and large-scale public buildings, according to China's Technical Guide for the Energy Efficiency Labeling of Civil Buildings, makes up missing data of the calculation benchmark and determines the boundary conditions for calculating the theoretical values of civil building energy efficiency. Based on equivalent full load hours method, develops a modular program and calculates building energy consumption for the demands of dynamic cooling and heating and lighting etc., finds out the corresponding relationship between star level's theoretical value of energy saving rate and specified-term limiting value in the Guide. With orthogonal experimental design and multiple linear regression, establishes the quantitative function of both the theoretical value of energy saving rate and main factors parameters, analyzes the impact of the control parameter on energy saving rate, and reveals the law of theoretical value of energy saving rate variation with the control parameter. For building energy efficiency labeling upgrade, presents technical measure need to be taken and analyses its feasibility. The results from the study can provide theoretical guidance for energy-saving design or retrofitting of civil buildings.

  1. Antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and ameliorative effects of methanolic extract of leaves of Grewia mollis Juss. on carbon tetrachloride-treated albino rats.

    PubMed

    Asuku, Oiza; Atawodi, Sunday E; Onyike, Elewechi

    2012-01-01

    The methanolic extract of Grewia mollis leaves was evaluated in vivo for its antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. Oxidative stress was induced in rats by administering carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) intraperitoneally at a dose of 0.6 mL/kg, whereas the crude plant extract and standard antioxidant (vitamin E) were administered at a dose of 5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg, respectively. The effect of G. mollis crude extracts and vitamin E on malondialdehyde (MDA) and liver function parameters such as protein, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were measured spectrophotometrically. The methanolic extract of G. mollis leaves and vitamin E showed a significant (P<.05) hepatoprotective potential by lowering the serum levels of bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase and decreasing MDA levels in rats pretreated or post-treated with CCl(4). Based on these results, it is concluded that G. mollis leaves contain potent antioxidant compounds that could offer protection against hepatotoxicity as well as ameliorate preexisting liver damage and oxidative stress conditions. PMID:21877945

  2. Chemical composition, antioxidant properties and hepatoprotective effects of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) decoction extract against alcohol-induced oxidative stress in rat.

    PubMed

    Sebai, Hichem; Jabri, Mohamed-Amine; Souli, Abdelaziz; Hosni, Karim; Rtibi, Kais; Tebourbi, Olfa; El-Benna, Jamel; Sakly, Mohsen

    2015-07-01

    The present study assessed the chemical composition, antioxidant properties, and hepatoprotective effects of subacute pre-treatment with chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) decoction extract (CDE) against ethanol (EtOH)-induced oxidative stress in rats. The colorimetric analysis demonstrated that the CDE is rich in total polyphenols, total flavonoids and condensed tannins, and exhibited an important in vitro antioxidant activity. The use of LC/MS technique allowed us to identify 10 phenolic compounds in CDE. We found that CDE pretreatment, in vivo, protected against EtOH-induced liver injury evident by plasma transaminases activity and preservation of the hepatic tissue structure. The CDE counteracted EtOH-induced liver lipoperoxidation, preserved thiol -SH groups and prevented the depletion of antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). We also showed that acute alcohol administration increased tissue and plasma hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), calcium and free iron levels. More importantly, CDE pre-treatment reversed all EtOH-induced disturbances in intracellular mediators. In conclusion, our data suggest that CDE exerted a potential hepatoprotective effect against EtOH-induced oxidative stress in rat, at least in part, by negatively regulating Fenton reaction components such as H(2)O(2) and free iron, which are known to lead to cytotoxicity mediated by intracellular calcium deregulation. PMID:25816359

  3. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Amorphophallus campanulatus Roxb. tubers.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sanjay; Dixit, Vinod K; Malviya, Neelesh; Ambawatia, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) tubers were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. The extracts at a dose of 500 mg/kg were administered orally once daily. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels were significantly restored towards normalization by the extracts. Silymarin was used as a standard reference and exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced haptotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) tubers have potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats. The ethanolic extract was found hepatoprotective more potent than the aqueous extract. The antioxidant activity was also screened and found positive for both ethanolic and aqueous extracts. This study suggests that possible mechanism of this activity may be due to free radical scavenging potential caused by the presence of flavonoids in the extracts. PMID:19702175

  4. Hepatoprotective activity of Symplocos racemosa bark on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wakchaure, Dhananjay; Jain, Dilpesh; Singhai, Abhay Kumar; Somani, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanol extract of Symplocos racemosa (EESR) bark on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. CCl4 with olive oil (1 : 1) (0.2 ml/kg, i.p.) was administered for ten days to induce hepatotoxicity. EESR (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and silymarin (100 mg/kg p.o.) were administered concomitantly for fourteen days. The degree of hepatoprotection was measured using serum transaminases (AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, albumin, and total protein levels. Metabolic function of the liver was evaluated by thiopentone-induced sleeping time. Antioxidant activity was assessed by measuring liver malondialdehyde, glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase levels. Histopathological changes of liver sample were also observed. Significant hepatotoxicity was induced by CCl4 in experimental animals. EESR treatment showed significant dose-dependent restoration of serum enzymes, bilirubin, albumin, total proteins, and antioxidant levels. Improvements in hepatoprotection and morphological and histopathological changes were also observed in the EESR treated rats. It was therefore concluded that EESR bark is an effective hepatoprotective agent in CCl4-induced hepatic damage, and has potential clinical applications for treatment of liver diseases. PMID:22022156

  5. A New Type of Liquid Silymarin Proliposome Containing Bile Salts: Its Preparation and Improved Hepatoprotective Effects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Xie, Tingting; Chang, Zhanying; Wang, Ling; Xie, Xiangyun; Kou, Yaohong; Xu, Hongxia; Gao, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Silymarin, a known extract, is used in the treatment of liver diseases with various origins, but its current administration form cannot target the liver because of its poor oral bioavailability. A new type of oral silymarin proliposome aimed at improving silymarin's poor bioavailability and hepatoprotective effects, is introduced in this work. Silymarin-loaded liquid proliposome were prepared using a simple dissolving process. The morphology, particle size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency of the silymarin liposomes were analysed. The everted gut sac transport model was used to measure the intestinal transport of liposomes. The liposomal hepatoprotective activity was evaluated in three types of experimental hepatitis animal models. After staining with haematoxylin and eosin, the livers were microscopically examined to analyse any pathological changes. The prepared silymarin proliposome formed silymarin liposomes with a multilayer liposome structure and improved intestinal transport. In an injured liver, the silymarin liposomes produced a stronger hepatoprotective effect through a significant decrease in both the aminotransferase and MDA levels and a significant increase in the SOD and GSH-PX levels compared to orally administered silymarin tablets. This effect was also confirmed histopathologically. In a word, incorporation of silymarin into a liposomal carrier system increased intestinal absorption and showed better hepatoprotective effects compared to silymarin tablets. PMID:26674103

  6. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Momordica dioica Roxb. leaves.

    PubMed

    Jain, Avijeet; Soni, Manish; Deb, Lokesh; Jain, Anurekha; Rout, S P; Gupta, V B; Krishna, K L

    2008-01-01

    In present study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Momordica dioica Roxb. leaves were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. The extracts at dose of 200mg/kg were administered orally once daily. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) and total bilirubin were restored towards normalization significantly by the extracts. Silymarin was used as standard reference and exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced haptotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that Momordica dioica Roxb. leaves have potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats. Ethanolic extract was found more potent hepatoprotective. Meanwhile, in vivo antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities were also screened which were positive for both ethanolic and aqueous extracts. This study suggests that possible mechanism of this activity may be due to free radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities which may be due to the presence of flavonoids in the extracts. PMID:17983713

  7. A New Type of Liquid Silymarin Proliposome Containing Bile Salts: Its Preparation and Improved Hepatoprotective Effects

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zhanying; Wang, Ling; Xie, Xiangyun; Kou, Yaohong; Xu, Hongxia; Gao, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Silymarin, a known extract, is used in the treatment of liver diseases with various origins, but its current administration form cannot target the liver because of its poor oral bioavailability. A new type of oral silymarin proliposome aimed at improving silymarin’s poor bioavailability and hepatoprotective effects, is introduced in this work. Silymarin-loaded liquid proliposome were prepared using a simple dissolving process. The morphology, particle size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency of the silymarin liposomes were analysed. The everted gut sac transport model was used to measure the intestinal transport of liposomes. The liposomal hepatoprotective activity was evaluated in three types of experimental hepatitis animal models. After staining with haematoxylin and eosin, the livers were microscopically examined to analyse any pathological changes. The prepared silymarin proliposome formed silymarin liposomes with a multilayer liposome structure and improved intestinal transport. In an injured liver, the silymarin liposomes produced a stronger hepatoprotective effect through a significant decrease in both the aminotransferase and MDA levels and a significant increase in the SOD and GSH-PX levels compared to orally administered silymarin tablets. This effect was also confirmed histopathologically. In a word, incorporation of silymarin into a liposomal carrier system increased intestinal absorption and showed better hepatoprotective effects compared to silymarin tablets. PMID:26674103

  8. Hautriwaic acid as one of the hepatoprotective constituent of Dodonaea viscosa.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hamid; Kabir, Nurul; Muhammad, Akhtar; Shah, Mohammad Raza; Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Iqbal, Naveed; Nadeem, Said

    2014-01-15

    It is widely known that hepatitis and its complications such as cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma are one of the major health problems of the world especially since no specific treatment is available. In the present study we investigated the hepatoprotective potential of the methanolic extract of the whole plant of Dodonaea viscosa and its ethyl acetate, aqueous, butanol and n-hexane fractions against carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) induced hepatoxicity in rats. Hepatoprotection was assessed in terms of reduction in serum enzymes (ALT, AST, and ALP) that occur after CCl₄ injury, and by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The methanolic extract reduced the serum enzyme level (ALT, AST, and ALP) down to control levels despite CCl₄ treatment. It also reduced the CCl₄-induced damaged area to 0% as assessed by histopathology. The CD68+ macrophages were also reduced in number around the central vein area by the methanolic extract. These hepatoprotective effects were better than the positive control silymarin. Similar hepatoprotective activities were found with the ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions of the methanolic extract. The butanol and n-hexane fractions showed elevated levels of ALT, AST and ALP as compared to the positive control silymarin. Histopathology showed ∼30% damage to the liver cells with the butanol and n-hexane fractions which still showed some protective activity compared to the CCl₄ treated control. HPLC fingerprinting suggested that hautriwaic acid present in the methanolic extract and its ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions may be responsible for this hepatoprotective activity of Dodonaea viscosa which was confirmed by in vivo experiments. PMID:24075215

  9. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Improved Die Casting Process to Preserve the Life of the Inserts

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam, PI; Xuejun Zhu, Sr. Research Associate

    2012-09-30

    lubricants and technical support. Experiments conducted with these lubricants demonstrated good protection of the substrate steel. Graphite and boron nitride used as benchmarks are capable of completely eliminating soldering and washout. However, because of cost and environmental considerations these materials are not widely used in industry. The best water-based die lubricants evaluated in this program were capable of providing similar protection from soldering and washout. In addition to improved part quality and higher production rates, improving die casting processes to preserve the life of the inserts will result in energy savings and a reduction in environmental wastes. Improving die life by means of optimized cooling line placement, baffles and bubblers in the die will allow for reduced die temperatures during processing, saving energy associated with production. The utilization of optimized die lubricants will also reduce heat requirements in addition to reducing waste associated with soldering and washout. This new technology was predicted to result in an average energy savings of 1.1 trillion BTU's/year over a 10 year period. Current (2012) annual energy saving estimates, based on commercial introduction in 2010, a market penetration of 70% by 2020 is 1.26 trillion BTU's/year. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.025 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  10. Energy savings one and two years after participation in Minnesota home energy audit and retrofit loan programs

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Goeltz, R.

    1985-01-01

    Northern States Power (NSP), the largest utility in Minnesota, operates several residential energy conservation programs. This report updates a 1983 detailed quantitative evaluation of two of these programs. The Minnesota Energy Conservation Service (MECS), Minnesota's version of the federal Residential Conservation Service, provides home energy audits and related services to households who live in structures with four or fewer dwelling units and pay gas or electricity bills to a utility participating in MECS. Between April 1981 and December 1982, NSP conducted almost 12 thousand audits. The data collected for this evaluation are described briefly. The factors that affect household energy use and how these factors might be included in models are discussed, from which estimates of program energy savings are derived. These sections focus primarily on differences between the present work and the earlier analysis of the NSP programs. The results of this analysis on total and net natural gas savings are presented.

  11. Energy saving for OpenFlow switch on the NetFPGA platform based on queue engineering.

    PubMed

    Vu, Tran Hoang; Luc, Vu Cong; Quan, Nguyen Trung; Thanh, Nguyen Huu; Nam, Pham Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    Data centers play an important role in our daily activities. The increasing demand on data centers in both scale and size has led to huge energy consumption that rises the cost of data centers. Besides, environmental impacts also increase considerably due to a large amount of carbon emissions. In this paper, we present a design aimed at green networking by reducing the power consumption for routers and switches. Firstly, we design the Balance Switch on the NetFPGA platform to save consumed energy based on Queue Engineering. Secondly, we design the test-bed system to precisely measure the consumed energy of our switches. Experimental results show that energy saving of our switches is about 30% - 35% of power consumption according to variation of input traffic compared with normal Openflow Switch. Finally, we describe performance evaluations. PMID:25717424

  12. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium Box Retail -- 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, E. T.; Macumber, D. L.; Long, N. L.; Griffith, B. T.; Benne, K. S.; Pless, S. D.; Torcellini, P. A.

    2008-09-01

    This report provides recommendations that architects, designers, contractors, developers, owners, and lessees of medium box retail buildings can use to achieve whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The recommendations are given by climate zone and address building envelope, fenestration, lighting systems, HVAC systems, building automation and controls, outside air treatment, service water heating, plug loads, and photovoltaic systems. The report presents several paths to 50% savings, which correspond to different levels of integrated design. These are recommendations only, and are not part of a code or standard. The recommendations are not exhaustive, but we do try to emphasize the benefits of integrated building design, that is, a design approach that analyzes a building as a whole system, rather than as a disconnected collection of individually engineered subsystems.

  13. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Low-Cost Evaluation of Energy Savings at the Community Scale - Fresno, California

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-01

    In this project, IBACOS partnered with builder Wathen-Castanos Hybrid Homes to develop a simple and low-cost methodology by which community-scale energy savings can be evaluated based on results at the occupied test house level.Research focused on the builder and trade implementation of a whole-house systems integrated measures package and the actual utility usage in the houses at the community scale of production. Five occupants participated in this community-scale research by providing utility bills and information on occupancy and miscellaneous gas and electric appliance use for their houses. IBACOS used these utility data and background information to analyze the actual energy performance of the houses. Verification with measured data is an important component in predictive energy modeling. The actual utility bill readings were compared to projected energy consumption using BEopt with actual weather and thermostat set points for normalization.

  14. Two new compounds from Semen celosiae and their protective effects against CCl₄-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Xue, Qian; Sun, Zhen-Liang; Guo, Mei-Li; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Ge; Wang, Xiao-Kang

    2011-04-01

    Two new oleanolic acid saponins, namely celosin A (1) and celosin B (2), together with six known compounds, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, β-daucosterol, hexacosoic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid, were isolated from the ethanolic extract of Semen celosiae. The structures of celosin A (1) and celosin B (2) were determined by spectral analysis (including 1D- and 2D-NMR). The hepatoprotective activity of 1 and 2 with oral doses 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg kg⁻¹ were investigated by carbon tetrachloride CCl₄-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The results indicate that they have significant hepatoprotective effects, and that these hepatoprotective effects may be due to the antioxidant capability. PMID:20306359

  15. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 15: 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Adams, Karen; Noonan, Christine F.

    2011-09-01

    This best practices guide is the 15th in a series of guides for builders produced by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America program. This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct homes that are among the most energy-efficient available, while addressing issues such as building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the hot-humid climate can build homes that have whole-house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark with no added overall costs for consumers. The best practices described in this document are based on the results of research and demonstration projects conducted by Building America’s research teams. Building America brings together the nation’s leading building scientists with over 300 production builders to develop, test, and apply innovative, energy-efficient construction practices. Building America builders have found they can build homes that meet these aggressive energy-efficiency goals at no net increased costs to the homeowners. Currently, Building America homes achieve energy savings of 40% greater than the Building America benchmark home (a home built to mid-1990s building practices roughly equivalent to the 1993 Model Energy Code). The recommendations in this document meet or exceed the requirements of the 2009 IECC and 2009 IRC and those requirements are highlighted in the text. Requirements of the 2012 IECC and 2012 IRC are also noted in text and tables throughout the guide. This document will be distributed via the DOE Building America website: www.buildingamerica.gov.

  16. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 16: 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Adams, Karen; Butner, Ryan S.; Ortiz, Sallie J.

    2011-09-01

    This best practices guide is the 16th in a series of guides for builders produced by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America program. This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct homes that are among the most energy-efficient available, while addressing issues such as building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the mixed-humid climate can build homes that have whole-house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark with no added overall costs for consumers. The best practices described in this document are based on the results of research and demonstration projects conducted by Building America’s research teams. Building America brings together the nation’s leading building scientists with over 300 production builders to develop, test, and apply innovative, energy-efficient construction practices. Building America builders have found they can build homes that meet these aggressive energy-efficiency goals at no net increased costs to the homeowners. Currently, Building America homes achieve energy savings of 40% greater than the Building America benchmark home (a home built to mid-1990s building practices roughly equivalent to the 1993 Model Energy Code). The recommendations in this document meet or exceed the requirements of the 2009 IECC and 2009 IRC and those requirements are highlighted in the text. Requirements of the 2012 IECC and 2012 IRC are also noted in text and tables throughout the guide. This document will be distributed via the DOE Building America website: www.buildingamerica.gov.

  17. A phytochemical and computational study on flavonoids isolated from Trifolium resupinatum L. and their novel hepatoprotective activity.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Emadeldin M; Mahmoud, Ayman M; Ahmed, Sayed A; Lamsabhi, Al Mokhtar

    2016-04-01

    Plants from the genus Trifolium have been utilized in the treatment of chronic diseases by many cultures. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of flavonoids isolated from Trifolium resupinatum L. using an in vitro radical scavenging assay and a computational study of the structure-antioxidant activity relationship (SAR). A phytochemical fractionation of the ethanolic extract of T. resupinatum resulted in the isolation of one new flavonoid along with six known flavonoids. The structure of the isolated compounds was elucidated by data obtained from UV, IR, MS, 1D NMR and 2D NMR spectra. The order of antioxidant efficacies of the isolated flavonoids, obtained by DPPH assay, was correlated to that predicted by the computational analysis. To verify the antioxidant potential, the effect of T. resupinatum on oxidative stress, and the expression of the antioxidant enzymes and the redox sensitive nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), in a cyclophosphamide-induced hepatotoxicity rat model was investigated. T. resupinatum protected against cyclophosphamide-induced liver injury through attenuation of oxidative stress and inflammation, and up-regulation of Nrf2. Therefore, the present study provides the first clarification of the detailed antioxidant SARs of T. resupinatum flavonoids and points to the involvement of Nrf2 in their hepatoprotective activity. PMID:27053086

  18. Parallel Control of Velocity Control and Energy-Saving Control for a Hydraulic Valve-Controlled Cylinder System Using Self-Organizing Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Mao-Hsiung; Chien, Yu-Wei

    Conventional hydraulic valve-controlled systems that incorporate positive displacement pumps and relief valves have a problem of low energy efficiency. The objective of the research is to implement parallel control of energy-saving control in an electro-hydraulic load-sensing system and velocity control in a hydraulic valve-controlled cylinder system to achieve both high velocity control accuracy and low input power simultaneously. The overall control system is a two-input two-output system. For that, the control strategy of self-organizing fuzzy sliding mode control (SOFSMC) is developed in this study to reduce the fuzzy rule number and to self-organize on-line the fuzzy rules. To compare the energy-saving performance, the velocity control is implemented under three different energy-saving control systems, such as load-sensing control system, constant supply pressure control system and conventional hydraulic system. The parallel control of the velocity control and energy-saving control by the SOFSMC is implemented experimentally.

  19. Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Effect of Silymarin Among Under Treatment Tuberculosis Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Marjani, Majid; Baghaei, Parvaneh; Kazempour Dizaji, Mehdi; Gorji Bayani, Pegah; Fahimi, Fanak; Tabarsi, Payam; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic toxicity is the most serious adverse effect of anti-tuberculosis drugs. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of silymarin as a hepatoprotective herbal agent. In a randomized double blind clinical trial, 70 new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis were divided into two groups. The intervention group was assigned to receive silymarin and the control group received placebo. Tuberculosis was treated by classic regimen consisting isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups concerning the frequency of drug induced liver injury or mild elevation of liver enzymes. Silymarin was safe without any major side effect. Our results showed no significant hepatoprotective effect of silymarin among patients on tuberculosis treatment. PMID:27610165

  20. Hepatoprotective Activity of Dried- and Fermented-Processed Virgin Coconut Oil

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Z. A.; Rofiee, M. S.; Somchit, M. N.; Zuraini, A.; Sulaiman, M. R.; Teh, L. K.; Salleh, M. Z.; Long, K.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to determine the hepatoprotective effect of MARDI-produced virgin coconut oils, prepared by dried- or fermented-processed methods, using the paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Liver injury induced by 3 g/kg paracetamol increased the liver weight per 100 g bodyweight indicating liver damage. Histological observation also confirms liver damage indicated by the presence of inflammations and necrosis on the respective liver section. Interestingly, pretreatment of the rats with 10, but not 1 and 5, mL/kg of both VCOs significantly (P < .05) reduced the liver damage caused by the administration of paracetamol, which is further confirmed by the histological findings. In conclusion, VCO possessed hepatoprotective effect that requires further in-depth study. PMID:21318140

  1. Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Effect of Silymarin Among Under Treatment Tuberculosis Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Marjani, Majid; Baghaei, Parvaneh; Kazempour Dizaji, Mehdi; Gorji Bayani, Pegah; Fahimi, Fanak; Tabarsi, Payam; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Hepatic toxicity is the most serious adverse effect of anti-tuberculosis drugs. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of silymarin as a hepatoprotective herbal agent. In a randomized double blind clinical trial, 70 new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis were divided into two groups. The intervention group was assigned to receive silymarin and the control group received placebo. Tuberculosis was treated by classic regimen consisting isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups concerning the frequency of drug induced liver injury or mild elevation of liver enzymes. Silymarin was safe without any major side effect. Our results showed no significant hepatoprotective effect of silymarin among patients on tuberculosis treatment. PMID:27610165

  2. [A pharmacological study of the hepatoprotective activity of fructose-1,6-diphosphate].

    PubMed

    Klouchek, E; Markov, M; Popov, A

    1993-01-01

    A fructose-1,6-diphosphate preparation was tested for hepatoprotective activity through biochemical and morphologic studies in experiments on Wistar rats sustaining D-galactosamine- and paracetamole-induced hepatotoxicity. Findings indicated the modeled hepatic lesions to be readily reproducible, to simulate some characteristics of human liver pathology, and to be suitable for testing substances expected to have hepatoprotective action; intraperitoneal administration of fructose-1,6-diphosphate at a dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight proved moderately protective against liver damage by D-galactosamine; the benefit observed concerned mostly dystrophic and inflammatory changes in the liver; in a number of cases, correlation was noted between biochemical serum parameters and pathomorphologic liver alterations. PMID:7805621

  3. Hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective activity of Rosmarinus officinalis extract in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Kholoud S; Khalil, Olfat A; Danial, Enas N; Alnahdi, Hanan S; Ayaz, Najla O

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined the effect of water extract (200 mg/kg body weight) of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats for 21 days. The hepatoprotective effects were investigated in the liver tissues sections. There was a significant increase in serum liver biochemical parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase), accompanied by a significant decrease in the level of total protein and albumin in the STZ-induced rats when compared with that of the normal group. The high-dose treatment group (200 mg/kg body wt) significantly restored the elevated liver function enzymes near to normal. This study revealed that rosemary extracts exerted a hepatoprotective effect. The results indicate that the extract exhibits the protective effect on tissues and prove its potentials as an antidiabetic agent. PMID:23625639

  4. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of intracellular polysaccharide from Pleurotus eryngii SI-04.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Shangshang; Zhang, Jianjun; Hu, Chunlong; Che, Gen; Zhou, Meng; Jia, Le

    2016-10-01

    In present study, the intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) and its two fractions of IPS-1 and IPS-2 were obtained and purified by DEAE-52 cellulose chromatography from Pleurotus eryngii SI-04 mycelia, and their hepatoprotective effects were also investigated. The results showed that the IPS-2 had superior hepatoprotective effects by increasing the serum enzyme activities and bilirubin (BIL) levels, decreasing the serum albumin (ALB) and triglyceride (TG) levels, improving the hepatic antioxidant status, and ameliorating the hepatic structure damage. Furthermore, the monosaccharide composition and main bond types were also analyzed. These conclusions demonstrated that the both IPS and its fractions might be suitable for functional foods and natural drugs in preventing the acute liver damage. PMID:27259648

  5. Purification, characterization and hepatoprotective activities of mycelia zinc polysaccharides by Pleurotus djamor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Min; Yang, Yongheng; Lin, Lin; Xu, Nuo; Zhao, Huajie; Jia, Le

    2016-01-20

    This study was designed to investigate the physicochemical properties (molecular weights, bond types and monosaccharide compositions), antioxidant activities, and hepatoprotective effects on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver damage of mycelia zinc polysaccharides (MZPSs) and its major fractions (MZPS-1, -2 and -3) separated from Pleurotus djamor. In vitro assays, the MZPS-3 demonstrated relatively strong antioxidant activities in dose-dependent manners. For in vivo hepatoprotective activities, administration of MZPS-3 at 800 mg/kg significantly decreased the levels of AST, ALT, MDA and LPO, remarkably increased the levels of TC, TG and ALB, and prominently restored the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and T-AOC in serum/liver homogenate against CCl4-induced injures. Findings presented in this study clearly demonstrated that MZPSs, especially MZPS-3, might be suitable for functional foods and natural drugs in preventing the CCl4-induced acute liver damage. PMID:26572391

  6. ‘Okra’ Hibiscus esculentus L.: A study of its hepatoprotective activity

    PubMed Central

    Alqasoumi, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to validate the claimed uses of ‘Okra’ Hibiscus esculentus in liver diseases. The preventive action of ethanolic extract of okra (EEO) against liver injury was evaluated in rodents using carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity model. EEO, at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, exerted significant dose-dependent hepatoprotection by decreasing the CCl4-induced elevation of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, GGT, cholesterol, triglycerides and malondialdehyde (MDA) non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and total protein (TP) levels in the liver tissue. A significant reduction was also observed in pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the extract are being comparable to standard silymarin. These findings were supported by histological assessment of the liver biopsy. The ability of okra extract to protect chemically induced liver damage may be attributed to its potent antioxidant property. PMID:23960784

  7. Energy savings and structural changes in the U.S. economy: Evidence from disaggregated data using decomposition techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Murtishaw, Scott; Schipper, Lee

    2001-12-01

    During the period 1973 to 1985, the U.S. economy saved energy in virtually every sector. Much of this period of energy saving was also marked by a significant drop in the ratio of energy use to GDP. However, since 1985 there has been a slowdown in the rate of energy saving, as key energy intensities (space heating, automobile driving, etc.) have declined less rapidly since 1985 than before. This paper examines delivered (or final) energy consumption trends from the early 1970s to 1994 and provides a framework for measuring key changes that affect U.S. energy use. Starting with estimates of outputs or activity levels for thirty major energy end uses, and energy intensities of each end use, we use the Adaptive Weighted Divisia decomposition to measure the impact of changes in the structure of the U.S. economy. In contrast to many similar decomposition studies, we define measures of structural changes for both households and branches of transportation. We find that between 1973 and 1985, lower energy intensities (corrected to average winter heating demand) reduced U.S. energy uses by about 1.7% per year, while structural changes reduced energy uses by 0.4% per year. After 1985, when oil prices declined markedly, intensities fell by only 0.8% per year and structural changes actually increased energy use by 0.4% per year. In the 1990s energy intensities in some industries have even edged upward. Changes in the ratio of energy to GDP (E/GDP) are affected both by intensities and the changes in the demand for energy services relative to GDP. During the first period, from 1973 to 1985, GDP increased faster than the growth in key structural and activity parameters that determine demand for energy services (such as home area, appliance ownership, and motor vehicle use) by 1.5% per year. From 1985 to 1994 the difference dropped to less than 0.3% per year, largely due to the reversal of structural trends. Thus, the sharp fall in the rate of decline in E/GDP from -3.1% to -1

  8. Design and evaluation of herbal hepatoprotective formulation against paracetamol induced liver toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Arti; Sheth, Navin R.; Pandey, Sonia; Shah, Dinesh R.; Yadav, Jitendra S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To isolate and identify the quercetin from polyherbal hepatoprotective formulation. Polyherbal formulations were developed by using five bioactive fractionated extracts of Butea monosperma, Bauhinia variegata and Ocimum gratissimum for treatment of liver disorders by exploiting the knowledge of traditional system of medicine and evaluated for hepatoprotective activity using acute liver toxicity model of paracetamol induced liver damage in rats. Methods Major active fractions were isolated by solvent fractionation and quantified by HPTLC method. Two polyherbal tablet formulations were developed by the wet granulation method using microcrystalline cellulose, aerosil and other excipients and subjected for physicochemical evaluation to assess physical stability followed by pharmacological screening. The prepared tablets were finally subjected to stability testing to assess its shelf-life. The rats were monitored for change in liver morphology, biochemical parameters like serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin for polyherbal tablet formulation at 50 mg/kg and polyherbal tablet formulation at 100 mg/kg. Results Active principle was isolated, quantified by HPTLC and characterized with IR. Both formulations showed significant hepatoprotective activity. The histological studies were also support the biochemical parameters. From the results of biochemical analysis and histopathological studies, it can be accomplished that polyherbal tablet formulation at 100 mg/kg can be effectively formulated into a suitable dosage form with added benefit of no side effects for control and cure of chronic ailments like liver disorders. A comparative histopathological study of liver exhibited almost normal architecture as compared to toxicant group. Conclusion Biochemical marker showed improved results for polyherbal tablet formulation at 100 mg/kg. Polyherbal tablet formulation

  9. Hepatoprotective activity of Centaurium erythraea on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Mroueh, Mohamad; Saab, Yolande; Rizkallah, Raed

    2004-05-01

    The methanol extract of the leaves of Centaurium erythraea L. (Gentianaceae) was evaluated for hepatoprotective activity against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity in rats. An oral dose of 300 mg/kg/day for 6 days or a single dose of 900 mg/kg for 1 day exhibited a significant protective effect by lowering serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The activity of the extract was supported by histopathological examination of liver sections. PMID:15174008

  10. Influence of diabetes on liver injury induced by antitubercular drugs and on silymarin hepatoprotection in rats.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, R K; Sharma, S; Verma, S; Arora, B; Lal, H

    2008-12-01

    Isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide during short-course chemotherapy for tuberculosis can result in liver injury. The coexistence of tuberculosis and diabetes is common in patients who receive inadequate treatment. The risk of hepatotoxicity from many toxicants is increased in diabetic rats. Silymarin provides protection against liver injury caused by many hepatotoxicants, including antitubercular drugs (ATDs). In the wake of increased severity of ATD-induced hepatotoxicity in diabetes we report here the results of a study on the influence of diabetes on silymarin hepatoprotection in rats. Rats with diabetes induced via intraperitoneally injected streptozotocin (50 mg/kg), nondiabetic rats and insulin-treated diabetic rats received isoniazid (7.5 mg/kg/day), rifampicin (10 mg/kg/day) and pyrazinamide (35 mg/kg/day) orally (p.o.) with or without silymarin (100 mg/kg/day p.o.) treatment for 45 days. Compared to nondiabetic rats, liver function tests and histological changes of liver revealed exaggerated liver injury in diabetic rats caused by ATDs which was evident by 5- to 8-fold increases in serum levels of marker enzymes (aspartate and alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase) and 1- to 2-fold increases in bilirubin accompanied by a 2-fold decrease in total serum proteins, intense fatty and inflammatory infiltrations, necrosis and fibrosis. Coadministration of silymarin provided protection against ATD hepatotoxicity in all animals. However, insulin-treated diabetic animals showed greater silymarin-induced hepatoprotection against ATD-induced liver injury, which was characterized by near normal levels of marker enzymes, an increase in total proteins and normal hepatic structure. These results thus indicate that diabetes exaggerates ATD-induced liver injury and attenuates silymarin-induced hepatoprotection. However, insulin treatment for diabetes offers greater silymarin-induced hepatoprotection against ATD-induced liver

  11. Developing Information on Energy Savings and Associated Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies Applicable in California

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang; Slaa, Jan Willem; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world and in California. Successful implementation of applicable emerging technologies not only may help advance productivities, improve environmental impacts, or enhance industrial competitiveness, but also can play a significant role in climate-mitigation efforts by saving energy and reducing the associated GHG emissions. Developing new information on costs and savings benefits of energy efficient emerging technologies applicable in California market is important for policy makers as well as the industries. Therefore, provision of timely evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies applicable to California is the focus of this report. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select a set of emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. Specifically, this report contains the results from performing Task 3 Technology Characterization for California Industries for the project titled Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies, sponsored by

  12. Assessment of China's Energy-Saving and Emission-Reduction Accomplishments and Opportunities During the 11th Five Year Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark D.; Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Aden, Nathaniel; Lu, Hongyou; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Yining, Qin; Yowargana, Ping

    2010-04-28

    During the period 1980 to 2002, China experienced a 5% average annual reduction in energy consumption per unit of gross domestic product (GDP). The period 2002-2005 saw a dramatic reversal of the historic relationship between energy use and GDP growth: energy use per unit of GDP increased an average of 3.8% per year during this period (NBS, various years). China's 11th Five Year Plan (FYP), which covers the period 2006-2010, required all government divisions at different levels to reduce energy intensity by 20% in five years in order to regain the relationship between energy and GDP growth experienced during the 1980s and 1990s. This report provides an assessment of selected policies and programs that China has instituted in its quest to fulfill the national goal of a 20% reduction in energy intensity by 2010. The report finds that China has made substantial progress toward its goal of achieving 20% energy intensity reduction from 2006 to 2010 and that many of the energy-efficiency programs implemented during the 11th FYP in support of China's 20% energy/GDP reduction goal appear to be on track to meet - or in some cases even exceed - their energy-saving targets. It appears that most of the Ten Key Projects, the Top-1000 Program, and the Small Plant Closure Program are on track to meet or surpass the 11th FYP savings goals. China's appliance standards and labeling program, which was established prior to the 11th FYP, has become very robust during the 11th FYP period. China has greatly enhanced its enforcement of new building energy standards but energy-efficiency programs for buildings retrofits, as well as the goal of adjusting China's economic structure to reduce the share of energy consumed by industry, do not appear to be on track to meet the stated goals. With the implementation of the 11th FYP now bearing fruit, it is important to maintain and strengthen the existing energy-saving policies and programs that are successful while revising programs or adding new

  13. Hepatoprotective effect of poly herbal formulation against various hepatotoxic agents in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tatiya, Anil U.; Surana, Sanjay J.; Sutar, Manisha P.; Gamit, Nehal H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Individually Andrographis paniculata Nees. (Acanthaceae), Phyllanthus niruri Linn.(Euphorbiaceae) and Phyllanthus emblica Linn. single plant extracts have been reported to have hepatoprotective activity. However, literature survey shows that no sufficient scientific data has been publish on pharmacological evaluation of these plants in combined form. Method: Hepatoprotective activity of the polyherbal hepatoprotaective formulation (PHF)-containing spray-dried aqueous extracts of Andrographis paniculata Nees. (Acanthaceae), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) and Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (Euphorbiaceae), was screened against paracetamol, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and ethanol-induced hepatic damage in rats. PHF was evaluated by measuring levels of serum marker enzymes like SGOT, SGPT, ALP, direct bilirubin (DB), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The histological studies were also studied support the biochemical parameters. Silymarin was used as standard drug. Results: Administration of PHF (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) significantly inhibited paracetamol, CCl4 and ethanol-induced elevation levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP, DB and LDH. A comparative histopathological study of liver exhibited almost normal architecture as compared to toxicant group. Conclusion: Results suggests that the hepatoprotective effects of PHF might be useful for liver protection due to combined action of all plant extracts along with their phytoconstituents. PMID:22224062

  14. Hepatoprotective Efficacy of Cichorium intybus L. Extract Against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Liver Damage in Rats.

    PubMed

    Elgengaihi, Souad; Mossa, Abdel-Tawab H; Refaie, Amel A; Aboubaker, Doha

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the phytochemical and hepatoprotective activity of different extracts of dried herb of Cichorium intybus L. against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated male albino rats. The hepatoprotective activity of different extracts at 500 mg/kg body weight was compared with carbon tetrachloride-treated animals. The animals were divided into five groups with six animals in each group. The first group represents control, the second group received carbon tetrachloride, the third received C. intybus, and the fourth group received C. intybus plus carbon tetrachloride. The fifth group received silymarin as hepato-slandered drug. There were significant changes in serum biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, albumin, total protein, and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats, which were restored towards normal values in C. intybus-treated animals. Histopathological examination of liver tissues further substantiated these findings. In conclusion, of this investigation, the results ascertain that the herb extracts of C. intybus possess significant hepatoprotective activity. PMID:26913368

  15. Hepatoprotective effect of vitamin C on lithocholic acid-induced cholestatic liver injury in Gulo(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Su Jong; Bae, Seyeon; Kang, Jae Seung; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Yoon Jun; Lee, Wang Jae; Kim, Chung Yong; Lee, Hyo-Suk

    2015-09-01

    Prevention and restoration of hepatic fibrosis from chronic liver injury is essential for the treatment of patients with chronic liver diseases. Vitamin C is known to have hepatoprotective effects, but their underlying mechanisms are unclear, especially those associated with hepatic fibrosis. Here, we analyzed the impact of vitamin C on bile acid induced hepatocyte apoptosis in vitro and lithocholic acid (LCA)-induced liver injury in vitamin C-insufficient Gulo(-/-) mice, which cannot synthesize vitamin C similarly to humans. When Huh-BAT cells were treated with bile acid, apoptosis was induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress-related JNK activation but vitamin C attenuated bile acid-induced hepatocyte apoptosis in vitro. In our in vivo experiments, LCA feeding increased plasma marker of cholestasis and resulted in more extensive liver damage and hepatic fibrosis by more prominent apoptotic cell death and recruiting more intrahepatic inflammatory CD11b(+) cells in the liver of vitamin C-insufficient Gulo(-/-) mice compared to wild type mice which have minimal hepatic fibrosis. However, when vitamin C was supplemented to vitamin C-insufficient Gulo(-/-) mice, hepatic fibrosis was significantly attenuated in the liver of vitamin C-sufficient Gulo(-/-) mice like in wild type mice and this hepatoprotective effect of vitamin C was thought to be associated with both decreased hepatic apoptosis and necrosis. These results suggested that vitamin C had hepatoprotective effect against cholestatic liver injury. PMID:26057690

  16. Antioxidant, Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Hepatoprotective Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Mahonia oiwakensis Stem

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Jung; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Peng, Wen-Huang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Pao, Li-Heng; Cheng, Hao-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacological properties of ethanol extracted from Mahonia oiwakensis Hayata stems (MOSEtOH). The pharmacological properties included antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. The protoberberine alkaloid content of the MOSEtOH was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results revealed that three alkaloids, berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine, could be identified. Moreover, the MOSEtOH exhibited antioxidative activity using the DPPH assay (IC50, 0.743 mg/mL). The DPPH radical scavenging activity of MOSEtOH was five times higher that that of vitamin C. MOSEtOH was also found to inhibit pain induced by acetic acid, formalin, and carrageenan inflammation. Treatment with MOSEtOH (100 and 500 mg/kg) or silymarin (200 mg/kg) decreased the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels compared with the CCl4-treated group. Histological evaluation showed that MOSEtOH reduced the degree of liver injury, including vacuolization, inflammation and necrosis of hepatocytes. The anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effect of MOSEtOH were found to be related to the modulation of antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver and decreases in malondialdehyde (MDA) level and nitric oxide (NO) contents. Our findings suggest that MOSEtOH has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. These effects support the use of MOSEtOH for relieving pain and inflammation in folk medicine. PMID:23364614

  17. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of dried fig against oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Turan, Abdullah; Celik, Ismail

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant role of dried fig (DF) (Ficus carica L.) against ethanol-induced oxidative stress. Experiment was designed as normal Control, 20% ethanol, 10% DF and 10% DF+20% ethanol groups. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant role of the dried DF supplementation feed against ethanol induced oxidatif stress were evaluated by liver histopathological changes, measuring liver damage serum enzymes (LDSE), antioxidant defense system (ADS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in various tissues of rats following the exposure of experimental for 50days. The biochemical analysis showed a considerable increase the LDSE in the ethanol group as compared to that of control group whereas, decreased in 10% DF+20% ethanol group as compared to that of ethanol group. In addition, the DF supplementation diet restored the ethanol-induced MDA and ADS towards to control. The hepatoprotection of DF is further substantiated by the almost normal histologic findings of liver in 10% DF+20% ethanol group against degenerative changes in ethanol group. The results indicated that the DF could be as important as diet-derived antioxidants and antihepatotoxicity in preventing oxidative damage in the tissues by inhibiting the production of ethanol-induced free radicals and hepatotoxicity in rats. PMID:27268385

  18. Hepatoprotective Effect of Houttuynia cordata Thunb Extract against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatic Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H.; Koppula, S.

    2014-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb (Saururaceae) is a traditional medicinal herb used to treat several disease symptoms. The present study was focused on the hepatoprotective effects of H. cordata ethyl acetate extract in experimental mice. Further the antioxidant potential of the extract was also evaluated to substantiate its hepatoprotective properties. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in mice was used to measure the serum biochemical parameters. Morphological changes in hepatocyte architecture were studied by haematoxylin and eosin staining. In vitro alkyl and hydroxyl free radical scavenging assays were performed to evaluate the antioxidant effect. Administration of H. cordata extract significantly reduced the elevated serum levels and regulated the altered levels of serum cholesterol in carbon tetrachloride-treated mice (P<0.05). The morphological changes in hepatocyte architecture were also reversed by H. cordata treatment. Further, the extract showed significant antioxidant actions by scavenging the alkyl and hydroxyl free radicals. The concentration of the extract necessary for 50% scavenging of alkyl and hydroxyl radicals was 15.5 and 410 μg/ml, respectively. H. cordata extract exhibited significant hepatoprotective property in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The strong antioxidant activities possessed by the extract might be responsible for such actions. PMID:25284923

  19. Hepatoprotective Effect of Houttuynia cordata Thunb Extract against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatic Damage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, H; Koppula, S

    2014-07-01

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb (Saururaceae) is a traditional medicinal herb used to treat several disease symptoms. The present study was focused on the hepatoprotective effects of H. cordata ethyl acetate extract in experimental mice. Further the antioxidant potential of the extract was also evaluated to substantiate its hepatoprotective properties. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in mice was used to measure the serum biochemical parameters. Morphological changes in hepatocyte architecture were studied by haematoxylin and eosin staining. In vitro alkyl and hydroxyl free radical scavenging assays were performed to evaluate the antioxidant effect. Administration of H. cordata extract significantly reduced the elevated serum levels and regulated the altered levels of serum cholesterol in carbon tetrachloride-treated mice (P<0.05). The morphological changes in hepatocyte architecture were also reversed by H. cordata treatment. Further, the extract showed significant antioxidant actions by scavenging the alkyl and hydroxyl free radicals. The concentration of the extract necessary for 50% scavenging of alkyl and hydroxyl radicals was 15.5 and 410 μg/ml, respectively. H. cordata extract exhibited significant hepatoprotective property in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The strong antioxidant activities possessed by the extract might be responsible for such actions. PMID:25284923

  20. Differential gene expression in mouse liver associated with the hepatoprotective effect of clofibrate

    SciTech Connect

    Moffit, Jeffrey S.; Koza-Taylor, Petra H.; Holland, Ricky D.; Thibodeau, Michael S.; Beger, Richard D.; Lawton, Michael P.; Manautou, Jose E. . E-mail: jose.manautou@uconn.edu

    2007-07-15

    Pretreatment of mice with the peroxisome proliferator clofibrate (CFB) protects against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity. Previous studies have shown that activation of the nuclear peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is required for this effect. The present study utilizes gene expression profile analysis to identify potential pathways contributing to PPAR{alpha}-mediated hepatoprotection. Gene expression profiles were compared between wild type and PPAR{alpha}-null mice pretreated with vehicle or CFB (500 mg/kg, i.p., daily for 10 days) and then challenged with APAP (400 mg/kg, p.o.). Total hepatic RNA was isolated 4 h after APAP treatment and hybridized to Affymetrix Mouse Genome MGU74 v2.0 GeneChips. Gene expression analysis was performed utilizing GeneSpring (registered) software. Our analysis identified 53 genes of interest including vanin-1, cell cycle regulators, lipid-metabolizing enzymes, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, an acetaminophen binding protein. Vanin-1 could be important for CFB-mediated hepatoprotection because this protein is involved in the synthesis of cysteamine and cystamine. These are potent antioxidants capable of ameliorating APAP toxicity in rodents and humans. HPLC-ESI/MS/MS analysis of liver extracts indicates that enhanced vanin-1 gene expression results in elevated cystamine levels, which could be mechanistically associated with CFB-mediated hepatoprotection.

  1. Hepatoprotective Effects of Panus giganteus (Berk.) Corner against Thioacetamide- (TAA-) Induced Liver Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wei-Lun; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Chua, Kek-Heng; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Tan, Yee-Shin; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2012-01-01

    Panus giganteus, a culinary and medicinal mushroom consumed by selected indigenous communities in Malaysia, is currently being considered for large scale cultivation. This study was undertaken to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of P. giganteus against thioacetamide- (TAA-) induced liver injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were injected intraperitoneally with TAA thrice weekly and were orally administered freeze-dried fruiting bodies of P. giganteus (0.5 or 1 g/kg) daily for two months, while control rats were given vehicle or P. giganteus only. After 60 days, rats administered with P. giganteus showed lower liver body weight ratio, restored levels of serum liver biomarkers and oxidative stress parameters comparable to treatment with the standard drug silymarin. Gross necropsy and histopathological examination further confirmed the hepatoprotective effects of P. giganteus. This is the first report on hepatoprotective effects of P. giganteus. The present study showed that P. giganteus was able to prevent or reduce the severity of TAA-induced liver injury. PMID:22649470

  2. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extracts of leaves of Basella alba in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Das, Saibal; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjib; Ramasamy, Anand; Mondal, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to evaluate possible hepatoprotective effects of aqueous leaf extracts of Basella alba in comparison with silymarin in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Six groups of six albino rats each received orally for 6 weeks, vehicle, paracetamol (2 g/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus silymarin (50 mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (60 mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (80 mg/kg/day) and paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (100 mg/kg/day). Hepatoprotective effect was evaluated by comparing serum bilirubin, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, proteins, alkaline phosphatase and liver histopathology. Results were represented as mean ± SEM. One-way ANOVA was done followed by post hoc Tukey's test with a highly significance level of P < 0.001. Aqueous leaf extracts of B. alba 100 mg/kg/day orally had significant hepatoprotective effect in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The results were well comparable and even in some respects superior to standard drug silymarin. PMID:25347929

  3. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of Indian Sunderban mangrove Bruguiera gymnorrhiza L. leave

    PubMed Central

    Sur, Tapas Kumar; Hazra, Avijit; Hazra, Alok Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bruguiera gymnorrhiza L. (family Rhizophoraceae) is a true mangrove habitat in Indian Sunderban and traditionally uses for liver disorders. Objectives: The aim was to evaluate antioxidant and hepatoprotective actions of leave extract of B. gymnorrhiza L. Materials and Methods: Hydro-methanolic extract of mangrove leaves (BR) was standardized using spectrophotometric and high-performance thin layer chromatography methods. Radical scavenging activities were assessed in different in vitro methods, like 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid +, superoxides, nitric oxides and hydroxyl radicals. Hepatoprotective efficacy of BR (125 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg, p.o) was measured in D-galactosamine (GalN) induced (200 mg/kg, i.p) hepatitis in Wistar rats. Silymarin (25 mg/kg, p.o) was used as known hepatoprotective agent. Results: Polyphenols such as gallic acid, quercetin, and coumarin obtained from BR exhibited powerful antioxidant properties. Moreover, it produced dose-dependent protection against GalN induced hepatitis in rats. It significantly reduced GalN induced elevation of enzymes (alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase) in serum and resist oxidative stress marked by lipid peroxides, glutathione, and catalase in hepatic parenchyma. Conclusions: Polyphenols rich B. gymnorrhiza L. leaves ameliorate hepatic tissue injury through its antioxidant effects. PMID:27330259

  4. Least square based sliding mode control for a quad-rotor helicopter and energy saving by chattering reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumantri, Bambang; Uchiyama, Naoki; Sano, Shigenori

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new control structure for a quad-rotor helicopter that employs the least squares method is introduced. This proposed algorithm solves the overdetermined problem of the control input for the translational motion of a quad-rotor helicopter. The algorithm allows all six degrees of freedom to be considered to calculate the control input. The sliding mode controller is applied to achieve robust tracking and stabilization. A saturation function is designed around a boundary layer to reduce the chattering phenomenon that is a common problem in sliding mode control. In order to improve the tracking performance, an integral sliding surface is designed. An energy saving effect because of chattering reduction is also evaluated. First, the dynamics of the quad-rotor helicopter is derived by the Newton-Euler formulation for a rigid body. Second, a constant plus proportional reaching law is introduced to increase the reaching rate of the sliding mode controller. Global stability of the proposed control strategy is guaranteed based on the Lyapunov's stability theory. Finally, the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed control system are demonstrated experimentally under wind gusts, and are compared with a regular sliding mode controller, a proportional-differential controller, and a proportional-integral-differential controller.

  5. Estimating the energy-saving benefit of reduced-flow and/or multi-speed commercial kitchen ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.; Schmid, F.; Spata, A.J.

    1999-07-01

    Kitchen exhaust ventilation systems are recognized as a major energy user within commercial food service facilities and restaurants. Minimizing the design ventilation rate of an appliance/hood system by optimizing hood performance in the laboratory is a viable strategy for reducing the makeup air heating and cooling loads as well as the exhaust and supply fan energy. Cutting back the exhaust flow under conditions of noncooking (appliance idle) can further reduce the energy load associated with a kitchen ventilation system. An optimized, two-speed exhaust system was installed within the scope of an energy-efficient, quick service restaurant (QSR) design and demonstration project. This paper evaluates the energy benefit of this variable-flow strategy as well as the savings associated with reducing the design ventilation rate (compared to an off-the-shelf exhaust hood). The paper describes a new public-domain software tool for estimating heating and cooling loads associated with the makeup air requirements of commercial kitchens. This bin-based software provides ASHRAE engineers with an alternative to hand calculations or more sophisticated hour-by-hour simulation. The dramatic impact that both makeup air set point and geographic location have on the outdoor air load is illustrated. The paper concludes with an industry-wide projection of energy savings associated with optimizing the design and operation of commercial kitchen ventilation (CKV) systems.

  6. Post Hoc Evaluation of Long-Term Goals for Energy Savings in the Buildings Sector: Lessons from Hindsight

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dave M. ); Hostick, Donna J. )

    2003-04-28

    This report is one of two that re-examines the forecasted impact of individual programs currently within the Buildings Technology Program (BT) and the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program (WIP) that appeared in the FY2000 Presidential Budget request. This report outlines the effects of re-estimating the FY 2000 budget request based on overlaying project data from subsequent years essentially revised out-year forecasts of project benefits. It shows that year-to-year long-term projections of primary energy savings can vary widely as models improve and programs change. Note that the FY2000 budget request was originally analyzed under the former Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS), where BT and WIP were previously combined. Throughout the document, reference will be made to the predecessor of the BT and WIP programs, BTS, as FY2000 reflected that organization. A companion report develops potential methods for allowing inherent risk to be captured in the project benefits analysis. The point estimates in this paper are not influenced by uncertainty or risk. That report develops potential methods for allowing inherent risk to affect the benefits analysis via Monte Carlo simulation.

  7. FY 2000 Buildings Energy Savings Estimates under Uncertainty: Developing Approaches for Incorporating Risk into Buildings Program Energy Efficiency Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dave M.

    2002-11-18

    This report is one of two that re-examines the forecasted impact of individual programs currently within the Buildings Technology Program (BT) and the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program (WIP) that appeared in the FY2000 Presidential Budget request. This report develops potential methods for allowing inherent risk to be captured in the program benefits analysis. Note that the FY2000 budget request was originally analyzed under the former Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS), where BT and WIP were previously combined. Throughout the document, reference will be made to the predecessor of the BT and WIP programs, BTS, as FY2000 reflected that organization. A companion report outlines the effects of re-estimating the FY 2000 budget request based on overlaying program data from subsequent years, essentially revised out-year forecasts. That report shows that year-to-year long-term projections of primary energy savings can vary widely as models improve and programs change. Those point estimates are not influenced by uncertainty or risk. This report develops potential methods for allowing inherent risk to affect the benefits analysis via Monte Carlo simulation.

  8. Building America Case Study: Low-Cost Evaluation of Energy Savings at the Community Scale, Fresno, California (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    A new construction pilot community was constructed by builder-partner Wathen-Castanos Hybrid Homes (WCHH) based on a single occupied test house that was designed to achieve greater than 30% energy savings with respect to the House Simulation Protocols (Hendron, Robert; Engebrecht, Cheryn (2010). Building America House Simulation Protocols. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.). Builders face several key problems when implementing a whole-house systems integrated measures package (SIMP) from a single test house into multiple houses. Although a technical solution already may have been evaluated and validated in an individual test house, the potential exists for constructability failures at the community scale. This report addresses factors of implementation and scalability at the community scale and proposes methodologies by which community-scale energy evaluations can be performed based on results at the occupied test house level. Research focused on the builder and trade implementation of a SIMP and the actual utility usage in the houses at the community scale of production. Five occupants participated in this community-scale research by providing utility bills and information on occupancy and miscellaneous gas and electric appliance use for their houses. IBACOS used these utility data and background information to analyze the actual energy performance of the houses. Verification with measured data is an important component in predictive energy modeling. The actual utility bill readings were compared to projected energy consumption using BEopt with actual weather and thermostat set points for normalization.

  9. Functions and potential applications of glycolipid biosurfactants--from energy-saving materials to gene delivery carriers.

    PubMed

    Kitamoto, Dai; Isoda, Hiroko; Nakahara, Tadaatsu

    2002-01-01

    Biosurfactants (BS) produced by various microorganisms show unique properties (e.g., mild production conditions, lower toxicity, higher biodegradability and environmental compatibility) compared to their chemical counterparts. The numerous advantages of BS have prompted applications not only in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries but in environmental protection and energy-saving technology as well. Glycolipid BS are the most promising, due to high productivity from renewable resources and versatile biochemical properties. Mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL), which are glycolipid BS produced by a yeast Candida antarctrica, exhibit not only excellent interfacial properties but also remarkable differentiation-inducing activities against human leukemia cells. MEL also show a potential anti-agglomeration effect on ice particles in ice slurry used for cold thermal storage. Recently, the cationic liposome bearing MEL has been demonstrated to increase dramatically the efficiency of gene transfection into mammalian cells. These features of BS should broaden its applications in new advanced technologies. The current status of research and development on glycolipid BS, especially their function and potential applications, is discussed. PMID:16233292

  10. Preparation and energy-saving application of polyurethane/phase change composite materials for electrical water heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yougen; Zhao, Tao; Wu, Xiaolin; Lai, Maobai; Jiang, Chengming; Sun, Rong

    2011-11-01

    Thermal energy storage plays an important role in heat management because of the demand for developed energy conservation, and has applications in diverse areas, from buildings to textiles and clothings. In this study, we aimed to improve thermal characteristics of polyurethane rigid foams that have been widely used for thermal insulation in electrical water heaters. Through this work, paraffin waxes with melting point of 55~65°C act as phase change materials. Then the phase change materials were incorporated into the polyurethane foams at certain ratio. The polyurethane/phase change composite materials used as insulation layers in electrical water heaters performed the enthalpy value of 5~15 J/g. Energy efficiency of the electrical water heaters was tested according to the National Standard of China GB 21519-2008. Results show that 24 h energy consumption of the electrical water heaters manufactured by traditional polyurethane rigid foams and polyurethane/phase change material composites was 1.0612 kWh and 0.9833 kWh, respectively. The results further show that the energy-saving rate is 7.36%. These proved that polyurethane/phase change composite materials can be designed as thermal insulators equipped with electrical water heaters and have a significant effect on energy conservation.

  11. Preparation and energy-saving application of polyurethane/phase change composite materials for electrical water heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yougen; Zhao, Tao; Wu, Xiaolin; Lai, Maobai; Jiang, Chengming; Sun, Rong

    2012-04-01

    Thermal energy storage plays an important role in heat management because of the demand for developed energy conservation, and has applications in diverse areas, from buildings to textiles and clothings. In this study, we aimed to improve thermal characteristics of polyurethane rigid foams that have been widely used for thermal insulation in electrical water heaters. Through this work, paraffin waxes with melting point of 55~65°C act as phase change materials. Then the phase change materials were incorporated into the polyurethane foams at certain ratio. The polyurethane/phase change composite materials used as insulation layers in electrical water heaters performed the enthalpy value of 5~15 J/g. Energy efficiency of the electrical water heaters was tested according to the National Standard of China GB 21519-2008. Results show that 24 h energy consumption of the electrical water heaters manufactured by traditional polyurethane rigid foams and polyurethane/phase change material composites was 1.0612 kWh and 0.9833 kWh, respectively. The results further show that the energy-saving rate is 7.36%. These proved that polyurethane/phase change composite materials can be designed as thermal insulators equipped with electrical water heaters and have a significant effect on energy conservation.

  12. Energy savings opportunity survey, Fort Myer, Arlington, Virginia, summer steam shut-down study: Volume 1 - executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    Fort Myer is a permanent United States Army installation located in Arlington County, Virginia, on a site backing Arlington National Cemetery and overlooking the Potomac River and Washington, D.C. The installation consists of offices, family housing, Army Band facilities, supporting facilities, and barracks buildings including those known as the `Old Guard Barracks` which house soldiers that provide services at Arlington National Cemetery. This report consists of the Summer Steam Shut Down Study of an Energy Savings Opportunity Survey (ESOS) at Fort Myer. The purpose of this study is to improve energy efficiency at Fort Myer by analyzing the effects and benefits of closing the central steam producing boiler facility, Building 447, during the non-heating months from mid-May to mid-October. Currently, the central steam plant operates through this period to provide steam for domestic hot water, steam driven laundry presses, air conditioning system reheat, food preparation and dishwashing demands of twenty-two buildings on the base.

  13. Microaerobic DO-induced microbial mechanisms responsible for enormous energy saving in upflow microaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shaokui; Cui, Cancan; Quan, Ying; Sun, Jian

    2013-07-01

    This study experimentally examined the microaerobic dissolved oxygen (DO)-induced microbial mechanisms that are responsible for enormous energy savings in the upflow microaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UMSB) for domestic wastewater treatment. Phylogenetic and kinetic analyses (as determined by clone library analyses and sludge oxygen affinity analyses) showed that the microaerobic conditions in the UMSB led to the proliferation and dominance of microaerophilic bacteria that have higher oxygen affinities (i.e., lower sludge oxygen half-saturation constant values), which assured efficient COD and NH3-N removals and sludge granulation in the UMSB similar as those achieved in the aerobic control. However, the microaerobic DO level in the UMSB achieved significant short-cut nitrification, a 50-90% reduction in air supply, and an 18-28% reduction in alkali consumption. Furthermore, the disappearance of sludge bulking in the UMSB when it was dominated by "bulking-induced" filamentous bacteria should be attributed to its upflow column-type configuration. PMID:23693146

  14. Measuring savings in energy savings performance contracts using in-place energy management systems -- A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemeier, K.E.; Akbari, H.; Kromer, S.

    1996-08-01

    Energy Management Control Systems (EMCSs) have been used in many projects as a monitoring device to provide information necessary for estimating savings from efficiency measures. This paper discusses a case study that looked in great depth at that use for evaluating savings in Energy Savings Performance Contracting (ESPC). ESPC is one of the increasingly important mechanisms for profiting from energy efficiency in commercial buildings. With ESPC, a contractor finances and installs energy-conversion measures, and the resulting savings in energy bills are shared between the contractor and the building owner. Hence, the method used for determining savings is key to the success of this financing scheme. As a part of their effort to establish measurement and verification methods, the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) carried out a pilot study of ESPC, and the EMCS was used in the savings verification for this ESPC contract. This case study also serves as a detailed and quantitative comparison of EMCS and conventional monitoring techniques, according to the guidelines developed in earlier work. This paper discusses the concept of different levels of monitoring savings for ESPC and presents an assessment of the use of EMCS for these levels of monitoring.

  15. Electric load monitoring to support a shared energy savings procurement at the US Maritime Administration Merchant Marine Academy

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Parker, G.B.

    1992-06-01

    Equipment from the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing and application program supported by the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (DOE-FEMP) was applied to measure three-phase power demand of three large buildings at the US Merchant Marine Academy (MMA) on Long Island, New York. The selected buildings were Bowditch Hall, Fulton-Gibbs Hall, and the Library. The MEL equipment was installed on March 17, 1991. Instruments to monitor the Bowditch Hall chiller as a separate load were added on June 2, 1991. MEL Test Procedure {number_sign}1, Building Energy Monitoring, was followed in the installation and operation of the monitoring equipment. The monitoring objectives were to (1) provide a baseline for assessing energy savings resulting from future energy conservation measures that are to be implemented in the monitored buildings, and (2) provide information for recommending cost-effective energy conservation opportunities. Results of the long-term, whole building monitoring project at the MMA are presented in this report.

  16. Electric load monitoring to support a shared energy savings procurement at the US Maritime Administration Merchant Marine Academy

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Parker, G.B.

    1992-06-01

    Equipment from the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing and application program supported by the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (DOE-FEMP) was applied to measure three-phase power demand of three large buildings at the US Merchant Marine Academy (MMA) on Long Island, New York. The selected buildings were Bowditch Hall, Fulton-Gibbs Hall, and the Library. The MEL equipment was installed on March 17, 1991. Instruments to monitor the Bowditch Hall chiller as a separate load were added on June 2, 1991. MEL Test Procedure {number sign}1, Building Energy Monitoring, was followed in the installation and operation of the monitoring equipment. The monitoring objectives were to (1) provide a baseline for assessing energy savings resulting from future energy conservation measures that are to be implemented in the monitored buildings, and (2) provide information for recommending cost-effective energy conservation opportunities. Results of the long-term, whole building monitoring project at the MMA are presented in this report.

  17. Assessment of Building Energy-Saving Policies and Programs in China During the 11th Five Year Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; McNeil, Michael; Levine, Mark

    2010-06-07

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target to reduce the energy intensity per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 20% from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). In the building sector, the primary energy-saving target allocated during the 11 FYP period is 100 Mtce. Savings are expected to be achieved through the strengthening of enforcement of building energy efficiency codes, existing building retrofits and heat supply system reform, followed by energy management of government office buildings and large scale public buildings, adoption of renewable energy sources. To date, China has reported that it achieved the half of the 20% intensity reduction target by the end of 2008, however, little has been made clear on the status and the impact of the building programs. There has also been lack of description on methodology for calculating the savings and baseline definition, and no total savings that have been officially reported to date. This paper intend to provide both quantitative and qualitative assessment of the key policies and programs in building sector that China has instituted in its quest to fulfill the national goal. Overall, this paper concludes that the largest improvement for building energy efficiency were achieved in new buildings; the program to improve the energy management in government and large scale public buildings are in line with the target; however the progress in the area of existing building retrofit particularly heat supply system reform lags the stated goal by a large amount.

  18. Assessment of Building Energy-Saving Policies and Programs in China During the 11th Five Year Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Mcneil, Michael; Levine, Mark

    2011-03-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target to reduce the energy intensity per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 20% from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). In the building sector, the primary energy-saving target allocated during the 11 FYP period is 100 Mtce. Savings are expected to be achieved through the strengthening of enforcement of building energy efficiency codes, existing building retrofits and heat supply system reform, followed by energy management of government office buildings and large scale public buildings, adoption of renewable energy sources. To date, China has reported that it achieved the half of the 20% intensity reduction target by the end of 2008, however, little has been made clear on the status and the impact of the building programs. There has also been lack of description on methodology for calculating the savings and baseline definition, and no total savings that have been officially reported to date. This paper intends to provide both quantitative and qualitative assessment of the key policies and programs in building sector that China has instituted in its quest to fulfill the national goal. Overall, this paper concludes that the largest improvement for building energy efficiency were achieved in new buildings; the program to improve the energy management in government and large scale public buildings are in line with the target; however the progress in the area of existing building retrofits, particularly heating supply system reform lags behind the stated goal by a large amount.

  19. Research on the promotion measures to introduce new energy and energy-saving technologies with a leasing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-03-01

    Effects of introducing the leasing system were studied in order to promote the introduction of photovoltaic power generation, wind power generation and other new energy technologies, and phosphoric acid fuel cell, regional air conditioning and other energy efficiency-heightening technologies. Judging from the result of investigating its needs, the introduction of leasing system is most effective when the technological reliability and safety have been established with a cost differential made small, to a certain extent, from the existing energy. The introduction of leasing system is considered effective not from the point of view that, in order to reduce the initial introduction cost, the leasing system is the best measures of investment in the facilities for the introduction of new energy and energy-saving technologies, but from the point of view that the addition of leasing system as one of the preferential measures widens the user's selectivity among the debt, self-funds and leasing. The following tasks are raised for the introduction of leasing system: Determination of leasing term, Determination of insurance rate, Study of leasing for the household use, Development of leasing system as commodities fulfilling the user's needs.

  20. Development of an energy-saving anaerobic hybrid membrane bioreactors for 2-chlorophenol-contained wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun-Kun; Pan, Xin-Rong; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Li, Wen-Wei; Shi, Bing-Jing; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-12-01

    A novel energy-saving anaerobic hybrid membrane bioreactor (AnHMBR) with mesh filter, which takes advantage of anaerobic membrane bioreactor and fixed-bed biofilm reactor, is developed for low-strength 2-chlorophenol (2-CP)-contained wastewater treatment. In this system, the anaerobic membrane bioreactor is stuffed with granular activated carbon to construct an anaerobic hybrid fixed-bed biofilm membrane bioreactor. The effluent turbidity from the AnHMBR system was low during most of the operation period, and the chemical oxygen demand and 2-CP removal efficiencies averaged 82.3% and 92.6%, respectively. Furthermore, a low membrane fouling rate was achieved during the operation. During the AnHMBR operation, the only energy consumption was for feed pump. And a low energy demand of 0.0045-0.0063kWhm(-3) was estimated under the current operation conditions. All these results demonstrated that this novel AnHMBR is a sustainable technology for treating 2-CP-contained wastewater. PMID:24880609

  1. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing

    2011-04-01

    China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for over 30 appliances, voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products and a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This paper uses modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, under development or those proposed for development in 2010 under three scenarios that differ in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. In addition to a baseline 'Frozen Efficiency' scenario at 2009 MEPS level, the 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice efficiency in broad commercial use today in 2014. This paper concludes that under 'CIS', cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions of energy used for all 37 products would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction of energy used for 11 appliances would be 35% lower.

  2. Potential Energy Savings Due to Phase Change Material in a Building Wall Assembly: An Examination of Two Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Kenneth W; Stovall, Therese K

    2012-03-01

    Phase change material (PCM), placed in an exterior wall, alters the temperature profile within the wall and thus influences the heat transport through the wall. This may reduce the net energy transport through the wall via interactions with diurnal temperature swings in the external environment or reduce the electricity needed to meet the net load through the wall by shifting the time of the peak load to a time when the cooling system operates more efficiently. This study covers a broad range of parameters that can influence the effectiveness of such a merged thermal storage-thermal insulation system. These parameters included climate, PCM location within the wall, amount of PCM, midpoint of the PCM melting and freezing range relative to the indoor setpoint temperature, temperature range over which phase change occurs, and the wall orientation. Two climates are investigated using finite difference and optimization analyses: Phoenix and Baltimore, with two utility rate schedules. Although potential savings for a PCM with optimized properties were greater when the PCM was concentrated near the inside wall surface, other considerations described here lead to a recommendation for a full-thickness application. An examination of the temperature distribution within the walls also revealed the potential for this system to reduce the amount of energy transported through the wall framing. Finally, economic benefits can exceed energy savings when time-of-day utility rates are in effect, reflecting the value of peak load reductions for the utility grid.

  3. In Vitro Bioaccessibility, Human Gut Microbiota Metabolites and Hepatoprotective Potential of Chebulic Ellagitannins: A Case of Padma Hepaten® Formulation.

    PubMed

    Olennikov, Daniil N; Kashchenko, Nina I; Chirikova, Nadezhda K

    2015-10-01

    Chebulic ellagitannins (ChET) are plant-derived polyphenols containing chebulic acid subunits, possessing a wide spectrum of biological activities that might contribute to health benefits in humans. The herbal formulation Padma Hepaten containing ChETs as the main phenolics, is used as a hepatoprotective remedy. In the present study, an in vitro dynamic model simulating gastrointestinal digestion, including dialysability, was applied to estimate the bioaccessibility of the main phenolics of Padma Hepaten. Results indicated that phenolic release was mainly achieved during the gastric phase (recovery 59.38%-97.04%), with a slight further release during intestinal digestion. Dialysis experiments showed that dialysable phenolics were 64.11% and 22.93%-26.05% of their native concentrations, respectively, for gallic acid/simple gallate esters and ellagitanins/ellagic acid, in contrast to 20.67% and 28.37%-55.35% for the same groups in the non-dialyzed part of the intestinal media. Investigation of human gut microbiota metabolites of Padma Hepaten and pure ChETs (chebulinic, chebulagic acids) established the formation of bioactive urolithins (A, B, C, D, M5). The fact of urolithin formation during microbial transformation from ChETs and ChET-containing plant material was revealed for the first time. Evaluation of the protective effect of ChETs colonic metabolites and urolithins on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative injury in cultured rat primary hepatocytes demonstrated their significant reversion of the t-BHP-induced cell cytotoxicity, malonic dialdehyde production and lactate dehydrogenase leakage. The most potent compound was urolithin C with close values of hepatoprotection to gallic acid. The data obtained indicate that in the case of Padma Hepaten, we speculate that urolithins have the potential to play a role in the hepatic prevention against oxidative damage. PMID:26473917

  4. In Vitro Bioaccessibility, Human Gut Microbiota Metabolites and Hepatoprotective Potential of Chebulic Ellagitannins: A Case of Padma Hepaten® Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Olennikov, Daniil N.; Kashchenko, Nina I.; Chirikova, Nadezhda K.

    2015-01-01

    Chebulic ellagitannins (ChET) are plant-derived polyphenols containing chebulic acid subunits, possessing a wide spectrum of biological activities that might contribute to health benefits in humans. The herbal formulation Padma Hepaten containing ChETs as the main phenolics, is used as a hepatoprotective remedy. In the present study, an in vitro dynamic model simulating gastrointestinal digestion, including dialysability, was applied to estimate the bioaccessibility of the main phenolics of Padma Hepaten. Results indicated that phenolic release was mainly achieved during the gastric phase (recovery 59.38%–97.04%), with a slight further release during intestinal digestion. Dialysis experiments showed that dialysable phenolics were 64.11% and 22.93%–26.05% of their native concentrations, respectively, for gallic acid/simple gallate esters and ellagitanins/ellagic acid, in contrast to 20.67% and 28.37%–55.35% for the same groups in the non-dialyzed part of the intestinal media. Investigation of human gut microbiota metabolites of Padma Hepaten and pure ChETs (chebulinic, chebulagic acids) established the formation of bioactive urolithins (A, B, C, D, M5). The fact of urolithin formation during microbial transformation from ChETs and ChET-containing plant material was revealed for the first time. Evaluation of the protective effect of ChETs colonic metabolites and urolithins on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative injury in cultured rat primary hepatocytes demonstrated their significant reversion of the t-BHP-induced cell cytotoxicity, malonic dialdehyde production and lactate dehydrogenase leakage. The most potent compound was urolithin C with close values of hepatoprotection to gallic acid. The data obtained indicate that in the case of Padma Hepaten, we speculate that urolithins have the potential to play a role in the hepatic prevention against oxidative damage. PMID:26473917

  5. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  6. Hepatoprotective effects of Chai-Hu-Ching-Kan-Tang on acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Hsiang; Ng, Lean-Teik; Yen, Feng-Lin; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2007-01-01

    Chai-Hu-Ching-Kan-Tang (CHCKT) is one of the traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions commonly used to treat liver diseases. In this study, we evaluated the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous CHCKT extract at various concentrations (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) on acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver injury in rats. Results showed that CHCKT treatments significantly decreased the level of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (sGOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (sGPT) in APAP-treated groups. CHCKT also significantly decreased the level of lipid peroxides and increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes (i.e. SOD and GPx). Histopathological observation further confirmed the hepatoprotective activity of CHCKT as indicated by the amelioration in the central necrosis and fatty changes of the liver after APAP induction. Interestingly, the hepatoprotective activity of CHCKT at concentrations 125~500 mg/kg appeared to be as good as 12.5 mg/kg silymarin (a commercial hepatoprotective agent). Taken together, these results suggest that aqueous extract of CHCKT possesses potent hepatoprotective effects agianst APAP-induced liver injury in rats. PMID:17265552

  7. The hepatoprotective activity of kinsenoside from Anoectochilus formosanus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin-Bin; Lin, Wei-Lii; Hsieh, Chang-Chi; Ho, Hui-Ya; Tsay, Hsin-Sheng; Lin, Wen-Chuan

    2007-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) causes chronic hepatitis, featuring an increase in hepatic hydroxyproline, spleen weight and serum GPT levels and a decrease in plasma albumin levels. Crude extracts of fresh whole plants of Anoectochilus formosanus showed inhibition of chronic hepatitis induced by CCl(4) in mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation and spectroscopic analysis revealed that kinsenoside was the most active compound. In an in vitro study, the LD(50) values for H(2)O(2)-induced cytotoxicity in BALB/c normal liver cells were significantly higher after kinsenoside pretreatment than after vehicle alone, further confirming that kinsenoside shows significant antihepatotoxic activity. PMID:17078107

  8. Analyzing the effect of the longwave emissivity and solar reflectance of building envelopes on energy-saving in buildings in various climates

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhiyang; Zhang, Xiong

    2011-01-15

    A dynamic computer simulation is carried out in the climates of 35 cities distributed around the world. The variation of the annual air-conditioning energy loads due to changes in the longwave emissivity and the solar reflectance of the building envelopes is studied to find the most appropriate exterior building finishes in various climates (including a tropical climate, a subtropical climate, a mountain plateau climate, a frigid-temperate climate and a temperate climate). Both the longwave emissivity and the solar reflectance are set from 0.1 to 0.9 with an interval of 0.1 in the simulation. The annual air-conditioning energy loads trends of each city are listed in a chart. The results show that both the longwave emissivity and the solar reflectance of building envelopes play significant roles in energy-saving for buildings. In tropical climates, the optical parameters of the building exterior surface affect the building energy-saving most significantly. In the mountain plateau climates and the subarctic climates, the impacts on energy-saving in buildings due to changes in the longwave emissivity and the solar reflectance are still considerable, but in the temperate continental climates and the temperate maritime climates, only limited effects are seen. (author)

  9. Effects of a behaviour change intervention for Girl Scouts on child and parent energy-saving behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudet, Hilary; Ardoin, Nicole M.; Flora, June; Armel, K. Carrie; Desai, Manisha; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2016-08-01

    Energy education programmes for children are hypothesized to have great potential to save energy. Such interventions are often assumed to impact child and family behaviours. Here, using a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 30 Girl Scout troops in Northern California, we assess the efficacy of two social cognitive theory-based interventions focused on residential and food-and-transportation energy-related behaviours of Girl Scouts and their families. We show that Girl Scouts and parents in troops randomly assigned to the residential energy intervention significantly increased their self-reported residential energy-saving behaviours immediately following the intervention and after more than seven months of follow-up, compared with controls. Girl Scouts in troops randomly assigned to the food-and-transportation energy intervention significantly increased their self-reported food-and-transportation energy-saving behaviours immediately following the intervention, compared with controls, but not at follow-up. The results demonstrate that theory-based, child-focused energy interventions have the potential to increase energy-saving behaviours among both children and their parents.

  10. Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades vs. Cost-Optimized Solutions; Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-07-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for fifteen Chicagoland single family housing archetypes, called housing groups. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these fifteen housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt-recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost-effectiveness.

  11. Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades Versus Cost-Optimized Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, S.; Milby, M.; Baker, J.

    2014-06-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for 15 Chicagoland single family housing archetypes. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these 15 housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost effectiveness.

  12. Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades Versus Cost-Optimized Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, S.; Milby, M.; Baker, J.

    2014-06-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR(R) (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for fifteen Chicagoland single family housing archetypes, called housing groups. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these fifteen housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost-effectiveness.

  13. Energy efficiency by use of automated energy-saving windows with heat-reflective screens and solar battery for power supply systems of European and Russian buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, V. M.; Smirnov, N. N.; Tyutikov, V. V.; Flament, B.

    2015-10-01

    The new energy saving windows with heat-reflecting shields have been developed, and for their practical use they need to be integrated into the automated system for controlling heat supply in buildings and the efficiency of their use together with the existing energy-saving measures must be determined. The study was based on the results of field tests of windows with heat-reflective shields in a certified climate chamber. The method to determine the minimum indoor air temperature under standby heating using heat-reflective shields in the windows and multifunctional energy-efficient shutter with solar battery have been developed. Annual energy saving for the conditions of different regions of Russia and France was determined. Using windows with heat-reflecting screens and a solar battery results in a triple power effect: reduced heat losses during the heating season due to increased window resistance; lower cost of heating buildings due to lowering of indoor ambient temperature; also electric power generation.

  14. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Control Ventilation Systems in General Office Spaces in California

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tianzhen; Fisk, William J.

    2009-07-08

    Demand controlled ventilation (DCV) was evaluated for general office spaces in California. A medium size office building meeting the prescriptive requirements of the 2008 California building energy efficiency standards (CEC 2008) was assumed in the building energy simulations performed with the EnergyPlus program to calculate the DCV energy savings potential in five typical California climates. Three design occupancy densities and two minimum ventilation rates were used as model inputs to cover a broader range of design variations. The assumed values of minimum ventilation rates in offices without DCV, based on two different measurement methods, were 81 and 28 cfm per occupant. These rates are based on the co-author's unpublished analyses of data from EPA's survey of 100 U.S. office buildings. These minimum ventilation rates exceed the 15 to 20 cfm per person required in most ventilation standards for offices. The cost effectiveness of applying DCV in general office spaces was estimated via a life cycle cost analyses that considered system costs and energy cost reductions. The results of the energy modeling indicate that the energy savings potential of DCV is largest in the desert area of California (climate zone 14), followed by Mountains (climate zone 16), Central Valley (climate zone 12), North Coast (climate zone 3), and South Coast (climate zone 6). The results of the life cycle cost analysis show DCV is cost effective for office spaces if the typical minimum ventilation rates without DCV is 81 cfm per person, except at the low design occupancy of 10 people per 1000 ft{sup 2} in climate zones 3 and 6. At the low design occupancy of 10 people per 1000 ft{sup 2}, the greatest DCV life cycle cost savings is a net present value (NPV) of $0.52/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 14, followed by $0.32/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 16 and $0.19/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 12. At the medium design occupancy of 15 people per 1000 ft{sup 2}, the DCV savings are higher with a NPV $0

  15. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeill, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing; Saheb, Yamina

    2010-06-07

    China is now the world's largest producer and consumer of household appliances and commercial equipment. To address the growth of electricity use of the appliances, China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 30 appliances, and voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products. Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these standard and labeling programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This research involved modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, or under development and those proposed for development in 2010. Two scenarios that have been developed differ primarily in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. The 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step considering the technical limitation of the technology. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice MEPS in 2014. This paper concludes that under the 'CIS' of regularly scheduled MEPS revisions to 2030, cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction would be 35% lower than in the frozen scenario.

  16. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Controlled Ventilation in General Office Spaces in California

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tianzhen; Fisk, William

    2010-01-01

    A prototypical office building meeting the prescriptive requirements of the 2008 California building energy efficiency standards (Title 24) was used in EnergyPlus simulations to calculate the energy savings potential of demand controlled ventilation (DCV) in five typical California climates per three design occupancy densities and two minimum ventilation rates. The assumed minimum ventilation rates in offices without DCV, based on two different measurement methods employed in a large survey, were 38 and 13 L/s per occupant. The results of the life cycle cost analysis show DCV is cost effective for office spaces if the typical minimum ventilation rate without DCV is 38 L/s per person, except at the low design occupancy of 10.8 people per 100 m2 in climate zones 3 (north coast) and 6 (south Coast). DCV was not found to be cost effective if the typical minimum ventilation rate without DCV is 13 L/s per occupant, except at high design occupancy of 21.5 people per 100 m2 in climate zones 14 (desert) and 16 (mountains). Until the large uncertainties about the base case ventilation rates in offices without DCV are reduced, the case for requiring DCV in general office spaces will be a weak case. Under the Title 24 Standards office occupant density of 10.8 people per 100 m2, DCV becomes cost effective when the base case minimum ventilation rate is greater than 42.5, 43.0, 24.0, 19.0, and 18.0 L/s per person for climate zone 3, 6, 12, 14, and 16 respectively.

  17. Hepatoprotective Effect and Synergism of Bisdemethoycurcumin against MCD Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Seob; Han, Sin-Hee; Ahn, Young-Sup; Cha, Seon-Woo; Seo, Yun-Soo; Kong, Ryong; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, has become one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease over the last decade in developed countries. NAFLD includes a spectrum of pathological hepatic changes, such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, advanced fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) is polyphenolic compounds with a diarylheptanoid skeleton, curcumin close analogues, which is derived from the Curcumae Longae Rhizoma. While the rich bioavailability research of curcumin, BDMC is the poor studies. We investigated whether BDMC has the hepatoprotective effect and combinatory preventive effect with silymarin on methionine choline deficient (MCD)-diet-induced NAFLD in C57BL/6J mice. C57BL/6J mice were divided into five groups of normal (normal diet without any treatment), MCD diet (MCD diet only), MCD + silymarin (SIL) 100 mg/kg group, MCD + BDMC 100 mg/kg group, MCD + SIL 50 mg/kg + BDMC 50 mg/kg group. Body weight, liver weight, liver function tests, histological changes were assessed and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses were conducted after 4 weeks. Mice lost body weight on the MCD-diet, but BDMC did not lose less than the MCD-diet group. Liver weights decreased from BDMC, but they increased significantly in the MCD-diet groups. All liver function test values decreased from the MCD-diet, whereas those from the BDMC increased significantly. The MCD- diet induced severe hepatic fatty accumulation, but the fatty change was reduced in the BDMC. The BDMC showed an inhibitory effect on liver lipogenesis by reducing associated gene expression caused by the MCD-diet. In all experiments, the combinations of BDMC with SIL had a synergistic effect against MCD-diet models. In conclusion, our findings indicate that BDMC has a potential suppressive effect on NAFLD. Therefore, our data suggest that BDMC may act as a novel and potent therapeutic agent against NAFLD

  18. Hepatoprotective Effect and Synergism of Bisdemethoycurcumin against MCD Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Bae; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Lee, Young-Seob; Han, Sin-Hee; Ahn, Young-Sup; Cha, Seon-Woo; Seo, Yun-Soo; Kong, Ryong; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, has become one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease over the last decade in developed countries. NAFLD includes a spectrum of pathological hepatic changes, such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, advanced fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) is polyphenolic compounds with a diarylheptanoid skeleton, curcumin close analogues, which is derived from the Curcumae Longae Rhizoma. While the rich bioavailability research of curcumin, BDMC is the poor studies. We investigated whether BDMC has the hepatoprotective effect and combinatory preventive effect with silymarin on methionine choline deficient (MCD)-diet-induced NAFLD in C57BL/6J mice. C57BL/6J mice were divided into five groups of normal (normal diet without any treatment), MCD diet (MCD diet only), MCD + silymarin (SIL) 100 mg/kg group, MCD + BDMC 100 mg/kg group, MCD + SIL 50 mg/kg + BDMC 50 mg/kg group. Body weight, liver weight, liver function tests, histological changes were assessed and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses were conducted after 4 weeks. Mice lost body weight on the MCD-diet, but BDMC did not lose less than the MCD-diet group. Liver weights decreased from BDMC, but they increased significantly in the MCD-diet groups. All liver function test values decreased from the MCD-diet, whereas those from the BDMC increased significantly. The MCD- diet induced severe hepatic fatty accumulation, but the fatty change was reduced in the BDMC. The BDMC showed an inhibitory effect on liver lipogenesis by reducing associated gene expression caused by the MCD-diet. In all experiments, the combinations of BDMC with SIL had a synergistic effect against MCD-diet models. In conclusion, our findings indicate that BDMC has a potential suppressive effect on NAFLD. Therefore, our data suggest that BDMC may act as a novel and potent therapeutic agent against NAFLD

  19. Hepatoprotective Activity of the Ethanolic Extract of Ficus caricaLinn. LeavesinCarbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicityin Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mujeeb, Mohd; Alam Khan, Shah; Aeri, Vidhu; Ali, Babar

    2011-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of Ficus carica leaves was screened for hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity in hepatotoxic Albino rats induced via carbon tetrachloride. The degree of protection was measured by estimating biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate Oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase ( SGPT),totalprotein (TP), totalalbumin (TA), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) and the level of total serum bilirubin. The extract in addition reduced CCl4 induced lipid peroxidation in-vivo and in-vitro. The ethanolic extract (50 mg/kg, 100mg/kg,200mg/kg)exhibited significant hepatoprotection incarbontetra chloride in toxicated rats in a dose dependant manner. The hepatoprotective effects of the extract were comparable with the standard drug silymarin 10)mg/kg body weight, IP). PMID:24250358

  20. Investigation of the hepatoprotective effects of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Nureddin; Kavak, Servet; Güzel, Ali; Ozbek, Hanefi; Bektaş, Hava; Him, Aydın; Erdoğan, Ender; Balahoroğlu, Ragıb

    2013-01-01

    More than 600 chemicals can cause damage in liver, one of which is carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄). Hepatoprotective agents could prevent tissue damage and reduce morbidity and mortality rates; such agents may include alternative or folkloric treatments. We investigated sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) for its hepatoprotective effect in CCl₄-induced experimental liver damage. To this end, 0.8 mg/kg of sesame fixed oil was provided intraperitoneally to rats whose livers were damaged by CCl₄. Tissue and blood samples were taken at the end of the experiments and evaluated histologically and biochemically. Ballooning degenerations and an increase in lipid droplets in liver parenchyma and increases in serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and bilirubin were found in the CCl₄ group. Biochemical and histopathological findings in the sesame fixed oil treated group were not significantly different from the CCl₄ group. Sesame did not show a hepatoprotective effect in CCl₄-induced liver toxicity. PMID:22915054

  1. Thermostatistics: Proven Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwasnoski, John

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus simulating residential thermostat control was developed to test claim that lowering house thermostats saves energy and to give students a better understanding of how thermostats work. The apparatus (includes diagram of same) and student activity are described. (JN)

  2. Energy saving thermostat

    SciTech Connect

    Fodera, A.W.

    1983-09-13

    A thermostat device is disclosed for motels/hotels requiring the guest to use a key to select a desired room temperature which in turn requires that the thermostat must be set back to a preset temperature when guest desires to lock the door to his motel/hotel room upon leaving the room.

  3. Brewing energy savings, too

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    Lizardos Engineering Associates, P.C. evaluated existing utilities for the Stroh Brewery Company in preparation for the installation of three new double-deck beverage container pasteurizers at the Legigh Valley Brewery in Allentown, Pennsyvania. Meeting the criteria for a conventional installation requires an increase of 1.2 million gallons of potable water daily. A preliminary analysis of the brewery uncovered severe restrictions in incoming potable water use. Lizardos provided engineering design and contract documents for the installation. Several unique applications of existing installation techniques were used and are described in this paper. The system exceeded expectations by not only meeting all the packaging and technical needs of the client, but by also having the capability for the future introduction of a fourth pasteurizer, should marketing demands increase.

  4. Energy-Saving Inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, W. E.; Edwards, D. B.

    1984-01-01

    Commutation by field-effect transistor allows more efficient operation. High voltage field-effect transistor (FET) controls silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR's). Circuit requires only one capacitor and one inductor in commutation circuit: simpler, more efficient, and more economical than conventional inverters. Adaptable to dc-to-dc converters.

  5. Energy-saving thermostat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    Thermostat for two-stage heating system adjusts turn-on time and thermostat setpoint so that reserve resistance electrical heaters are not activated in morning warm up. Thermostat monitors outside temperature and turns on heat earlier in cold weather so that room will be at desired temperature by specified time. Mechanical, electrical, electronic, pneumatic, or microprocessor versions of device are possible. Correctional factors can be included where second-stage operation is more cost-effective than prolonged first-stage operation.

  6. Hepatoprotective and antiviral efficacy of Acacia mellifera leaves fractions against hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Arbab, Ahmed H; Parvez, Mohammad K; Al-Dosari, Mohammed S; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; Zaroug, Elwaleed E; AlSaid, Mansour S; Rafatullah, Syed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the hepatoprotective and anti-HBV efficacy of Acacia mellifera (AM) leaves extracts. The crude ethanolic-extract, including organic and aqueous fractions, were tested for cytotoxicity on HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cells (IC50=684 μg/mL). Of these, the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions showed the most promising, dose-dependent hepatoprotection in DCFH-toxicated cells at 48 h. In CCl4-injured rats, oral administration of AM ethanol extract (250 and 500 mg/kg·bw) for three weeks significantly normalized the sera aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein levels and elevated tissue nonprotein sulphydryl and total protein. The histopathology of dissected livers also revealed that AM cured the tissue lesions. The phytochemical screening of the fractions showed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, sterols, and saponins. Further, anti-HBV potential of the fractions was evaluated on HepG2.2.15 cells. Of these, the n-butanol and aqueous fractions exhibited the best inhibitory effects on HBsAg and HBeAg expressions in dose- and time-dependent manner. Taken together, while the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions exhibited the most promising antioxidant/hepatoprotective and anti-HBV activity, respectively, the n-butanol partition showed both activities. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of AM extracts warrants further isolation of the active principle(s) and its phytochemical as well as biological studies. PMID:25950002

  7. Comparative hepatoprotective effects of tocotrienol analogs against drug-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cheau Yih; Saw, Tzuen Yih; Fong, Chee Wai; Ho, Han Kiat

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major part in the pathogenesis of drug-induced liver injury. Yet, overcoming it with other xenobiotics impose additional risks. In this study, we consider the use of natural-occurring and purified Vitamin E analogs as hepatoprotective agents. Vitamin E is well-known for its intrinsic antioxidant property even though the differential effect of specific analogs of tocopherol (TP) and tocotrienol (T3) is still not ascertained. This study investigates the protective effect of T3 analogs (α-, δ-, γ−) in comparison with α-TP followed by assessing the underlying mechanisms of the cytoprotective T3 analog(s) in two xenobiotics-induced liver injury models using (1) acetaminophen (APAP)- and (2) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Both α-TP and α-T3 exerted cytoprotective effects while only lower concentration of γ-T3 was effective in inhibiting both toxicants induced injury. α-TP/α-T3 protected hepatocytes from APAP and H2O2-induced liver injury through arresting free radicals and inhibiting oxidative stress (inhibition of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial permeability transition). There was also demonstrable inhibition of the apoptotic pathway (inhibition of caspse-3 activity and overexpression of Bcl-XL), accompanied with an induction of liver regeneration (PCNA and NF-kB). The cellular uptake of α-T3 was higher than α-TP at the same treatment dosage after 24 h. Overall, α-T3 seems to be a more potent hepatoprotective analog among the tocotrienols and α-TP at the same in vitro treatment dosage. In summary, these results suggest that α-TP/α-T3 elicit hepatoprotective effects against toxicants-induced damage mainly through activation of antioxidant responses at an early stage to prevent the exacerbation of injury. PMID:25637740

  8. Hepatoprotective effect of commercial herbal extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Cordero-Pérez, Paula; Torres-González, Liliana; Aguirre-Garza, Marcelino; Camara-Lemarroy, Carlos; Guzmán-de la Garza, Francisco; Alarcón-Galván, Gabriela; Zapata-Chavira, Homero; de Jesús Sotelo-Gallegos, Ma.; Nadjedja Torres-Esquivel, Cipactli; Sánchez-Fresno, Ethel; Cantú-Sepúlveda, Daniel; González-Saldivar, Gerardo; Bernal-Ramirez, Judith; E. Muñoz-Espinosa, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Various hepatoprotective herbal products from plants are available in Mexico, where up to 85% of patients with liver disease use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. However, only few studies have reported on the biological evaluation of these products. Objective: Using a model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, we evaluated the effects of commercial herbal extracts used most commonly in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico. Materials and Methods: The commercial products were identified through surveys in public areas. The effect of these products given with or without CCl4 in rats was evaluated by measuring the serum concentrations of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT), and histopathological analysis. Legalon® was used as the standard drug. Results: The most commonly used herbal products were Hepatisan® capsules, Boldo capsules, Hepavida® capsules, Boldo infusion, and milk thistle herbal supplement (80% silymarin). None of the products tested was hepatotoxic according to transaminase and histological analyses. AST and ALT activities were significantly lower in the Hepavida+CCl4-treated group as compared with the CCl4-only group. AST and ALT activities in the silymarin, Hepatisan, and Boldo tea groups were similar to those in the CCl4 group. The CCl4 group displayed submassive confluent necrosis and mixed inflammatory infiltration. Both the Hepatisan+CCl4 and Boldo tea+CCl4 groups exhibited ballooning degeneration, inflammatory infiltration, and lytic necrosis. The silymarin+CCl4 group exhibited microvesicular steatosis. The Hepavida+CCl4- and Legalon+CCL4-treated groups had lower percentages of necrotic cells as compared with the CCl4-treated group; this treatment was hepatoprotective against necrosis. Conclusion: Only Hepavida had a hepatoprotective effect. PMID:23900881

  9. Mechanisms of hepatoprotection of Terminalia catappa L. extract on D-Galactosamine-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xin-Hui; Gao, Ling; Gao, Jing; Fan, Yi-Mei; Xu, Li-Zhi; Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Xu, Qiang

    2004-01-01

    The hepatoprotective effects of the extract of Terminalia catappa L. leaves (TCE) against D-Galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced liver injury and the mechanisms underlying its protection were studied. In acute hepatic injury test, it was found that serum ALT activity was remarkably increased (3.35-fold) after injection of D-GalN in mice. But with oral pretreatment of TCE (20, 50 and 100 mg/kg/d) for 7days, change in serum ALT was notably reversed. In primary cultured hepatocytes from fetal mice, it was found that cell viability was decreased by 45.0% after addition of D-GalN, while incubation with TCE (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml) for 36 hours could prevent the decrease in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, D-GalN-induced both the increase of AST level (1.9-fold) and the decrease of SOD activity (48.0%) in supernatant of primary cultured hepatocytes could also be inhibited by pretreatment with TCE. In order to study the possible mechanisms underlying its hepatoprotective effects, one effective component separated from TCE, 2alpha, 3beta, 23-trihydroxyursane-12-en-28-oic acid (DHUA), was used to determine anti-mitochondrial swelling activity and superoxide radicals scavenging activity in vitro. It was found that at the concentration range of 50-500 micromol/L DHUA, Ca2+ -induced mitochondrial swelling was dose-dependently inhibited, and superoxide radicals scavenging activity was also shown in a dose-dependent manner. It was concluded that TCE has hepatoprotective activity and the mechanisms underlying its protective effects may be related to the direct mitochondrion protection and strong scavenging activity on reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:15481641

  10. Hepatoprotective and Antiviral Efficacy of Acacia mellifera Leaves Fractions against Hepatitis B Virus

    PubMed Central

    Arbab, Ahmed H.; Parvez, Mohammad K.; Al-Dosari, Mohammed S.; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J.; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; Zaroug, Elwaleed E.; AlSaid, Mansour S.; Rafatullah, Syed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the hepatoprotective and anti-HBV efficacy of Acacia mellifera (AM) leaves extracts. The crude ethanolic-extract, including organic and aqueous fractions, were tested for cytotoxicity on HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cells (IC50 = 684 μg/mL). Of these, the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions showed the most promising, dose-dependent hepatoprotection in DCFH-toxicated cells at 48 h. In CCl4-injured rats, oral administration of AM ethanol extract (250 and 500 mg/kg·bw) for three weeks significantly normalized the sera aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein levels and elevated tissue nonprotein sulphydryl and total protein. The histopathology of dissected livers also revealed that AM cured the tissue lesions. The phytochemical screening of the fractions showed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, sterols, and saponins. Further, anti-HBV potential of the fractions was evaluated on HepG2.2.15 cells. Of these, the n-butanol and aqueous fractions exhibited the best inhibitory effects on HBsAg and HBeAg expressions in dose- and time-dependent manner. Taken together, while the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions exhibited the most promising antioxidant/hepatoprotective and anti-HBV activity, respectively, the n-butanol partition showed both activities. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of AM extracts warrants further isolation of the active principle(s) and its phytochemical as well as biological studies. PMID:25950002

  11. Hepatoprotective effect of Scoparia dulcis on carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Peng, Wen-Huang; Chiu, Tai-Hui; Huang, Shun-Chieh; Huang, Tai-Hung; Lai, Shang-Chih; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Lee, Chao-Ying

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the hepatoprotective activity and active constituents of the ethanol extract of Scoparia dulcis (SDE). The hepatoprotective effect of SDE (0.1, 0.5 and 1 g/kg) was evaluated on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute liver injury. The active constituents were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mice pretreated orally with SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) and silymarin (200 mg/kg) for five consecutive days before the administering of a single dose of 0.2% CCl(4) (10 ml/kg of bw, ip) showed a significant inhibition of the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Histological analyses also showed that SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) and silymarin reduced the extent of liver lesions induced by CCl(4), including vacuole formation, neutrophil infiltration and necrosis. Moreover, SDE decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and elevated the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the liver as compared to those in the CCl(4) group. Furthermore, SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) enhanced the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRd) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The quantities of active constituents in SDE were about 3.1 mg luteolin/g extract and 1.1 mg apigenin/g extract. The hepatoprotective mechanisms of SDE were likely associated to the decrease in MDA level and increase in GSH level by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, GPx, GRd and GST. These results demonstrated that SDE could alleviate CCl(4)-induced acute liver injury in mice. PMID:20626061

  12. Hepatoprotectant Ursodeoxycholyl Lysophosphatidylethanolamide Increasing Phosphatidylcholine Levels as a Potential Therapy of Acute Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chamulitrat, Walee; Zhang, Wujuan; Xu, Weihong; Pathil, Anita; Setchell, Kenneth; Stremmel, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    It has been long known that hepatic synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) is depressed during acute such as carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. Anti-hepatotoxic properties of PC as liposomes have been recognized for treatment of acute liver damage. Ursodeoxycholate (UDCA) is a known hepatoprotectant in stabilizing cellular membrane. For therapeutic management of liver injury, we coupled UDCA with a phospholipid known as ursodeoxycholyl lysophosphatidylethanolamide (UDCA-LPE). UDCA-LPE has been shown to first-in-class hepatoprotectant being superior to UDCA or PC. It inhibits mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, elicits survival signaling pathway, and promotes regeneration of hepatocytes. We herein report that a unique contribution of UDCA-LPE in increasing concentrations of PC in vitro and in vivo. UDCA-LPE-treated hepatocytes contained significantly increased PC levels. UDCA-LPE underwent the hydrolysis to LPE which was not the precursor of the increased PC. The levels of PC in the liver and blood were increased rapidly after intraperitoneally administration UDCA-LPE, and were found to be sustained even after 24 h. Among PC synthesis genes tested, UDCA-LPE treatment of mouse hepatocytes increased transcription of CDP-diacylglycerol synthase 1 which is an enzyme catalyzing phosphatidic acid to generate intermediates for PC synthesis. Thus, UDCA-LPE as a hepatoprotectant was able to induce synthesis of protective PC which would supplement for the loss of PC occurring during acute liver injury. This property has placed UDCA-LPE as a candidate agent for therapy of acute hepatotoxicity such as acetaminophen poisoning. PMID:22363296

  13. Hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic extract of Pandanus odoratissimus root against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Garima; Khosa, R. L.; Singh, Pradeep; Jha, K. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pandanus odoratissimus (Pandanaceae) is popular in the indigenous system of medicines like Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homoeopathy. In the traditional system of medicine various plant parts such as leaves, root, flowers, and oils are used as anthelmintic, tonic, stomachic, digestive and in the treatment of jaundice and various liver disorders. Objective: The aim was to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of the root of P. odoratissimus against paracetamol (PCM) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rat by PCM (2 g/kg b.w. p.o. for 7 days). The ethanolic extract of P. odoratissimus root was administered at the dose level of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.w. orally for 7 days and silymarin (100 mg/kg b.w. p.o.) as standard drug was administered once daily for a week. The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract was evaluated by assessment of biochemical parameters such as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, total and direct bilirubin and triglycerides. Histopathological study of rat liver was also done. Results: Experimental findings revealed that the extract at dose level of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of b.w. showed dose dependant hepatoprotective effect against PCM induced hepatotoxicity by significantly restoring the levels of serum enzymes to normal that was comparable to that of silymarin, but the extract at dose level of 400 mg/kg was found to be more potent when compared to that of 200 mg/kg. Besides, the results obtained from histopathological study also support the study. Conclusion: From the results, it can be concluded that ethanolic extract of the root of P. odoratissimus afforded significant protection against PCM induced hepatotoxicity in rats. PMID:25709336

  14. Flavonoid profiles of three Bupleurum species and in vitro hepatoprotective of activity Bupleurum flavum Forsk.

    PubMed Central

    Gevrenova, Reneta; Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Denkov, Nikolay; Zheleva-Dimitrova, Dimitrina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bupleurum L. (Aspiaceae) species are used as herbal remedy in Chinese traditional medicine. Objective: The aim was to investigate the flavonoids in three annual European Bupleurum species, including B. baldense, B. affine and B. flavum, and to test their antioxidant and possible hepatoprotective effects. Materials and Methods: Flavonoids from the methanol-aqueous extracts were quantified by solid-phase extraction-high-performance liquid chromatography. Bupleurum extracts (1–220 mg/ml) were tested for their antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS assays, as well as on isolated liver rat microsomes. In vitro hepatoprotective activity of B. flavum flavonoid (BFF) mixture and rutin, and narcissin, isolated from the same mixture, were evaluated on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) toxicity models in isolated rat hepatocytes. Results: Narcissin was the dominant flavonol glycoside in B. flavum being present at 24.21 ± 0.19 mg/g, whilst the highest content of rutin (28.63 ± 1.57 mg/g) was found in B. baldense. B. flavum possessed the strongest DPPH (IC50 22.12 μg/ml) and ABTS (IC50 118.15 μg/ml) activity. At a concentration 1 mg/ml of BFF (rutin 197.58 mg/g, narcissin 75.74 mg/g), a stronger antioxidant effect in microsomes was evidenced in comparison with silymarin, rutin and narcissin. The hepatoprotective effect of BFF significantly reduced the elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase and malondialdehyde, and ameliorated glutathione, being most active in t-BuOOH-induced injury model when compared with CCl4 toxicity (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In BFF, synergism of rutin and narcissin could be responsible for stronger protection against mitochondrial induced oxidative stress. PMID:25709205

  15. Current evidence for the hepatoprotective activities of the medicinal mushroom Antrodia cinnamomea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) is an endemic mushroom species of Taiwan, and has been demonstrated to possess diverse biological and pharmacological activities, such as anti-hypertension, anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-tumor, and immunomodulation. This review focuses on the inhibitory effects of AC on hepatitis, hepatocarcinoma, and alcohol-induced liver diseases (e.g., fatty liver, fibrosis). The relevant biochemical and molecular mechanisms are addressed. Overall, this review summarizes the hepatoprotective activities in vitro and in vivo. However, there is no doubt that human and clinical trials are still limited, and further studies are required for the development of AC-related products. PMID:24180549

  16. Development, Characterization, and Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Effect of Abutilon indicum and Piper longum Phytosomes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sonam; Sahu, Alakh Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidences from ethnopharmacological practices have shown that combination of Abutilon indicum and Piper longum are traditionally used to treat symptoms of the liver disorder. The hypothesis is phytosomes of a combination of both crude drug extract will be more effective and safe as hepatoprotective agent. Aim: Present work is aimed at development and characterization of phytosomes containing ethanolic extract of both drugs to meet the need for better effectiveness and safety. Materials and Methods: Phytosomes were formulated by using Indena's patented process. Characterization involved following parameters: Particle size determination, percentage yield, entrapment efficiency, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscope, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and high performance thin liquid chromatography. Liver damage was induced in adult Charles foster rats (150 ± 10 g) with CCl4 in olive oil (1:1 v/v, i.p) 1 ml/kg once daily for 7 days. LIV 52 (1 ml/kg per oral [p.o]), ethanolic extract of A. indicum and P. longum combination (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg p.o) and phytosomes (100 mg/kg p.o.) was given 3 days prior to CCl4 administration. Estimation of liver marker enzymes and histopathological studies were done. Result was analyzed by using (analysis of variance) followed by Student-Newman–Keuls test. Result: Combined extract has shown hepatoprotective activity but phytosomal formulation has more potent hepatoprotective effect on CCl4 induced liver toxicity at very low dose comparative to a higher dose of combined extract. Conclusion: Novel approach for herbal drug delivery is more prominent than conventional which improves bioavailability of polar extract and also patient compliance. SUMMARY Standardised ethanolic extract of leaves of abutilon indicum and piper longum fruits by microwave assisted extraction was used for phytosomal complex formation and phytosomal complex was characterised by various parameters and finally the

  17. Hepatoprotective activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Alocasia indica (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Mulla, Wahid A; Salunkhe, Vijay R; Bhise, Satish B

    2009-10-01

    Oral administration of hydroalcoholic extract of A. indica (250 and 500 mg/kg) effectively inhibited CCl4 and paracetamol induced changes in the serum marker enzymes, cholesterol, serum protein and albumin in a dose-dependent manner as compared to the normal and the standard drug silymarin-treated groups. Hepatic steatosis, fatty infiltration, hydropic degeneration and necrosis observed in CCl4 and paracetamol-treated groups were completely absent in histology of the liver sections of the animals treated with the extracts. The results suggests that the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of A. indica possess significant potential as hepatoprotective agent. PMID:20112809

  18. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative

  19. Pharmacological potential of Populus nigra extract as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardiovascular and hepatoprotective agent

    PubMed Central

    Debbache-Benaida, Nadjet; Atmani-Kilani, Dina; Schini-Keirth, Valérie Barbara; Djebbli, Nouredine; Atmani, Djebbar

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and vasorelaxant activities of Populus nigra flower buds ethanolic extract. Methods Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extract were assessed using respectively the ABTS test and the animal model of carrageenan-induced paw edema. Protection from hepatic toxicity caused by aluminum was examined by histopathologic analysis of liver sections. Vasorelaxant effect was estimated in endothelium-intact and -rubbed rings of porcine coronary arteries precontracted with high concentration of U46619. Results The results showed a moderate antioxidant activity (40%), but potent anti-inflammatory activity (49.9%) on carrageenan-induced mice paw edema, and also as revealed by histopathologic examination, complete protection against AlCl3-induced hepatic toxicity. Relaxant effects of the same extract on vascular preparation from porcine aorta precontracted with high concentration of U46619 were considerable at 10−1 g/L, and comparable (P>0.05) between endothelium-intact (67.74%, IC50=0.04 mg/mL) and -rubbed (72.72%, IC50=0.075 mg/mL) aortic rings. Conclusions The extract exerted significant anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and vasorelaxant activities, the latter being endothelium-independent believed to be mediated mainly by the ability of components present in the extract to exert antioxidant properties, probably related to an inhibition of Ca2+ influx. PMID:23998009

  20. Hepatoprotective effects of parsley, basil, and chicory aqueous extracts against dexamethasone-induced in experimental rats

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Hanan A.; El-Desouky, Mohamed A.; Hozayen, Walaa G.; Ahmed, Rasha R.; Khaliefa, Amal K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study is to investigate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract of parsley, basil, and chicory whole plant in normal and dexamethasone (Dex) rats. Materials and Methods: 50 female albino rats were used in this study and divided into 5 groups (for each 10). Group (1) fed basal diet and maintained as negative control group. Group (2) received Dex in a dose of (0.1 mg/kg b. wt.). Groups 3, 4, and 5 were treated with Dex along with three different plant extracts of parsley, basil, and chicory (2 g/kg b. wt.), (400 mg/kg b. wt.), and (100 mg/kg b. wt.), respectively. Results: All these groups were treated given three times per week for 8 consecutive weeks. Dex-induced alterations in the levels of serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and cardiovascular indices and serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, liver thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) levels increased, while high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total protein, albumin, and liver glutathione (GSH) levels decreased. On the other hand, plant extracts succeeded to modulate these observed abnormalities resulting from Dex as indicated by the reduction of glucose, cholesterol, TBARS, and the pronounced improvement of the investigated biochemical and antioxidant parameters. Conclusions: It was concluded that probably, due to its antioxidant property, parsley, basil, and chicory extracts have hepatoprotective effects in Dex-induced in rats. PMID:27069727

  1. Hepatoprotective Potential of Some Local Medicinal Plants against 2-Acetylaminoflourene-Induced Damage in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Adetutu, Adewale; Olorunnisola, Olubukola S.

    2013-01-01

    The in vivo micronucleus assay was used to examine the anticlastogenic effects of crude extracts of Bridelia ferruginea, Vernonia amygdalina, Tridax procumbens, Ocimum gratissimum, and Lawsonia inermis in Wistar albino rats. Extracts of doses of 100 mg/kg body weight were given to rats in five groups for seven consecutive days followed by a single dose of 2-AAF (0.5 mmol/kg body weight). The rats were sacrificed after 24 hours and their bone marrow smears were prepared on glass slides stained with Giemsa. The micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte cells (mPCEs) were thereafter recorded. The hepatoprotective effects of the plant extracts against 2-AAF-induced liver toxicity in rats were evaluated by monitoring the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and histopathological analysis. The results of the 2-AAF-induced liver toxicity experiments showed that rats treated with the plant extracts (100 mg/kg) showed a significant decrease in mPCEs as compared with the positive control. The rats treated with the plant extracts did not show any significant change in the concentration of ALP and GGT in comparison with the negative control group whereas the 2-AAF group showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) in these parameters. Some of the leaf extracts also showed protective effects against histopathological alterations. This study suggests that the leaf extracts have hepatoprotective potential, thereby justifying their ethnopharmacological uses. PMID:24163694

  2. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activity of Dunaliella salina in Paracetamol-induced Acute Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Fedekar F.; Abdel-Daim, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Paracetamol has a reasonable safety profile when taken in therapeutic doses. However, it could induce hepatotoxicity and even more severe fatal acute hepatic damage when taken in an overdose. The green alga, Dunaliella salina was investigated for hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Male albino Wistar rats overdosed with paracetamol showed liver damage and oxidative stress as indicated by significantly (P<0.05) increased serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total and direct bilirubin, malondialdehyde, cholesterol and nitric oxide. At the same time, there were decreased activities of serum superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity compared with the control group. Treatment with D. salina methanol extract at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight or silymarin could significantly (P<0.05) decrease the liver damage marker enzymes, total and direct bilirubin, malondialdehyde, cholesterol and nitric oxide levels and increase the activities of superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity in serum when compared with paracetamol intoxicated group. Liver histopathology also showed that D. salina reduced the centrilobular necrosis, congestion and inflammatory cell infiltration evoked by paracetamol overdose. These results suggest that D. salina exhibits a potent hepatoprotective effect on paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats, which may be due to both the increase of antioxidant enzymes activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. PMID:24591738

  3. Hypoglycemic and Hepatoprotective Activity of Fermented Fruit Juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, B. Shivananda; Marshall, Julien R.; Isitor, Godwin; Adogwa, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Morinda citrifolia is a medicinal plant used to treat diabetes and liver diseases. The fermented fruit juice of the M. Citrifolia (optical density = 1.25) was used to study the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective properties in diabetes-induced rats. The rats were randomly distributed into 4 groups (control, diabetic experimental, diabetic standard, and diabetic untreated) of 6 each. Diabetes was induced by administering Streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight). Fasting blood glucose, body mass, liver tissue glycogen content, and the extent of liver degeneration were assessed. Diabetic experimental animals were treated with M. citrifolia juice (2 ml/kg, twice a day) and diabetic standard with reference hypoglycemic drug, glibenclamide orally for 20 days. Both the groups exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose level of 150 mg/dl ±15.88 and 125 mg/dl ±3.89, respectively, as compared to diabetic untreated with FBS = 360.0 mg/dl ±15.81, (P < .003). On 10th day of experiment, diabetic experimental animals exhibited a decrease in body mass (10.2 g, 5.11%) which increased significantly by the 20th day (6 g, 3.0%, P < .022). Histological study of liver tissue obtained from untreated diabetic animals revealed significant fatty degeneration as compared to other three groups. The data of this study proved the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective activity of M. citrifolia. PMID:20981320

  4. Hepatoprotective, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Effects of the Tragopogon porrifolius Methanolic Extract.

    PubMed

    Tenkerian, Clara; El-Sibai, Mirvat; Daher, Costantine F; Mroueh, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Tragopogon porrifolius (Asteraceae), commonly referred to as white salsify, is an edible herb used in Lebanese folk medicine to treat cancer and liver dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant activity of Tragopogon porrifolius methanolic extract, both in vitro and in vivo, in addition to its hepatoprotective and anticancer activities. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured and found to be 37.0 ± 1.40 mg GAE/g and 16.6 ± 0.42 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively. In vitro antioxidant assays revealed an FRAP value of 659 ± 13.8 µmol Fe(2+)/g of extract and DPPH IC50 value 15.2 µg/mL. In rats subjected to CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity, significant increase in CAT, SOD, and GST levels was detected. The highest dose of the extract (250 mg/kg) recorded a fold increase of 1.68 for SOD, 2.49 for GST, and 3.2 for CAT. The extract also showed substantial decrease in AST (57%), ALT (56%), and LDH (65%) levels. Additionally, the extract caused a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and proliferation. In conclusion, the methanolic extract of T. porrifolius displayed a relatively high antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo as well as hepatoprotective potential against liver toxicity in rats and anticancer effect on MDA-MB-231 and Caco-2 cells. PMID:25694787

  5. The effectiveness of ethanolic extract of Amaranthus tricolor L.: A natural hepatoprotective agent.

    PubMed

    Al-Dosari, Mohammed S

    2010-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of Amaranthus tricolor L. (ATE) leaves was tested for its efficacy against CCl₄-induced liver toxicity in rats. The hepatoprotective activity of ATE was evaluated via measuring various liver toxicity parameters, the lipid profile, and a histopathological evaluation. A sleeping time determination study and an acute toxicity test were performed in mice. The results clearly showed that oral administration of ATE for three weeks significantly reduced the elevated levels of serum GOT, GPT, GGT, ALP, bilirubin, cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, TG, and MDA induced by CCl₄. Moreover, ATE treatment was also found to significantly increase the activities of NP-SH and TP in liver tissue. These biochemical findings have been supported by the evaluation of the liver histopathology in rats. The prolongation of narcolepsy induced by pentobarbital was shortened significantly by the extract. The acute toxicity test showed that no morbidity or mortality was caused by the extract. The observed hepatoprotective effect appears to be due to the antioxidant properties of A. tricolor, which may pave the way to finding a new drug to be used for fighting liver diseases. PMID:21061460

  6. PASS-Predicted Hepatoprotective Activity of Caesalpinia sappan in Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kadir, Farkaad A.; Kassim, Normadiah M.; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Ahmadipour, Fatemeh; Yehye, Wageeh A.

    2014-01-01

    The antifibrotic effects of traditional medicinal herb Caesalpinia sappan (CS) extract on liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA) and the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in rats were studied. A computer-aided prediction of antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities was primarily performed with the Prediction Activity Spectra of the Substance (PASS) Program. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by TAA administration (0.03% w/v) in drinking water for a period of 12 weeks. Rats were divided into seven groups: control, TAA, Silymarin (SY), and CS 300 mg/kg body weight and 100 mg/kg groups. The effect of CS on liver fibrogenesis was determined by Masson's trichrome staining, immunohistochemical analysis, and western blotting. In vivo determination of hepatic antioxidant activities, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), and matrix metalloproteinases (MPPS) was employed. CS treatment had significantly increased hepatic antioxidant enzymes activity in the TAA-treated rats. Liver fibrosis was greatly alleviated in rats when treated with CS extract. CS treatment was noted to normalize the expression of TGF-β1, αSMA, PCNA, MMPs, and TIMP1 proteins. PASS-predicted plant activity could efficiently guide in selecting a promising pharmaceutical lead with high accuracy and required antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. PMID:24701154

  7. Hepatoprotective activity of Sapindus mukorossi and Rheum emodi extracts: In vitro and in vivo studies

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohammed; Khaja, Mohammed Nane; Aara, Anjum; Khan, Aleem Ahmed; Habeeb, Mohammed Aejaz; Devi, Yalavarthy Prameela; Narasu, Mangamoori Lakshmi; Habibullah, Chitoor Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the hepatoprotective capacity of Sapindus mukorossi (S. mukorossi) and Rheum emodi (R. emodi) extracts in CCl4 treated male rats. METHODS: The dried powder of S. mukorossi and R. emodi was extracted successively with petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, and ethanol and concentrated in vacuum. Primary rat hepatocyte monolayer cultures were used for in vitro studies. In vivo, the hepatoprotective capacity of the extract of the fruit pericarp of S. mukorossi and the rhizomes of R. emodi was analyzed in liver injured CCl4-treated male rats. RESULTS: In vitro: primary hepatocytes monolayer cultures were treated with CCl4 and extracts of S. mukorossi & R. emodi. A protective activity could be demonstrated in the CCl4 damaged primary monolayer culture. In vivo: extracts of the fruit pericarp of S. mukorossi (2.5 mg/mL) and rhizomes of R. emodi (3.0 mg/mL) were found to have protective properties in rats with CCl4 induced liver damage as judged from serum marker enzyme activities. CONCLUSION: The extracts of S. mukorossi and R. emodi do have a protective capacity both in vitro on primary hepatocytes cultures and in in vivo in a rat model of CCl4 mediated liver injury. PMID:18442207

  8. Hepatoprotective and Immunosuppressive Effect of Synedrella nodiflora L. on Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4)-Intoxicated Rats.

    PubMed

    Gnanaraj, Charles; Shah, Muhammad Dawood; Haque, A T M Emdadul; Makki, Jaafar Sadeq; Iqbal, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Synedrella nodiflora is a medicinal plant that is used by the natives of Sabah, Malaysia to treat rheumatism and several other ailments. This study aims to evaluate the ability of the crude aqueous extract of S. nodiflora leaves to protect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-mediated hepatic injury in rats. S. nodiflora aqueous extract was orally administered to adult Sprague Dawley rats once daily for 14 days (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight [b.w.]) before CCl4 oral treatment (1.0 mL/kg b.w.) on the 13th and 14th days. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hepatic antioxidant enzymes, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were estimated. Immunohistochemistry was performed for oxidative stress markers (4-hydroxynonenal [HNE], 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG]) and proinflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, prostaglandin E2). Biochemical, immunohistochemical, histological, and ultrastructural findings were in agreement to support the hepatoprotective effect of S. nodiflora against CCl4-mediated oxidative hepatic damage. Hepatoprotective effects of S. nodiflora might be attributable to the presence of phenolic antioxidants and their free radical scavenging property. PMID:27279582

  9. Anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and hepato-protective effects of Ligustrum robustum.

    PubMed

    Lau, Kit-Man; He, Zhen-Dan; Dong, Hui; Fung, Kwok-Pui; But, Paul Pui-Hay

    2002-11-01

    Aqueous extract of processed leaves of Ligustrum robustum could dose-dependently scavenge superoxide radicals, inhibit lipid peroxidation, and prevent AAPH-induced hemolysis of red blood cells. In comparison with green tea, oolong tea and black tea, processed leaves of L. robustum exhibited comparable antioxidant potency in scavenging superoxide radicals and in preventing red blood cell hemolysis. By activity-guided fractionation, a glycoside-rich fraction named fraction B2 was separated and demonstrated to possess strong antioxidant effect. It was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory and hepato-protective activities. A single oral dose of fraction B2 at 0.5 g/kg could provide 51.5% inhibition on the vascular permeability change induced by intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid, but it could not inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema. On the other hand, fraction B2 exhibited moderate hepato-protective effect. Intragastric application of fraction B2 at 1.25, 2.5 or 5 g/kg 6 h after carbon tetrachloride administration could reduce the elevations of serum levels of aminotransferases (AST and ALT). Also, liver integrity was preserved, as liver sections from rats post-treated with fraction B2 showed a milder degree of fatty accumulation and necrosis. These results offer partial support to the traditional uses of the leaves of L. robustum as Ku-Ding-Cha. PMID:12413708

  10. Hepatoprotective effect of trimethylgallic acid esters against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Mamta; Chadha, Renu; Kumar, Anil; Karan, Maninder; Singh, Tejvir; Dhingra, Sameer

    2015-12-01

    Gallic acid and its derivatives are potential therapeutic agents for treating various oxidative stress mediated disorders. In the present study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of newly synthesized conjugated trimethylgallic acid (TMGA) esters against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Animals were pre-treated with TMGA esters at their respective doses for 7 days against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. The histopathological changes were evaluated to find out degenerative fatty changes including vacuole formation, inflammation and tissue necrosis. Various biomarkers of oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, glutathione levels, and endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities), liver enzymes (AST and ALT), triacylglycerol and cholesterol were evaluated. Pre-treatment with TMGA esters (MRG, MGG, MSG, and MUG at the dose of 28.71, 30.03, 31.35, 33.62 mg/kg/day), respectively reversed the CCl4-induced liver injury scores (reduced vacuole formation, inflammation and necrosis), biochemical parameters of plasma (increased AST, ALT, TG, and cholesterol), antioxidant enzymes (increased lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels; decreased glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities) in liver tissues and inflammatory surge (serum TNF-α) significantly. The study revealed that TMGA esters exerted hepatoprotective effects in CCl4-induced rats, specifically by modulating oxidative-nitrosative stress and inflammation. PMID:26742325

  11. Antiproliferative and hepatoprotective activity of metabolites from Corynebacterium xerosis against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Farhadul; Ghosh, Soby; Khanam, Jahan Ara

    2014-01-01

    Objective To find out the effective anticancer drugs from bacterial products, petroleum ether extract of Corynebacterium xerosis. Methods Antiproliferative activity of the metabolite has been measured by monitoring the parameters like tumor weight measurement, tumor cell growth inhibition in mice and survival time of tumor bearing mice, etc. Hepatoprotective effect of the metabolites was determined by observing biochemical, hematological parameters. Results It has been found that the petroleum ether extract bacterial metabolite significantly decrease cell growth (78.58%; P<0.01), tumor weight (36.04 %; P<0.01) and increase the life span of tumor bearing mice (69.23%; P<0.01) at dose 100 mg/kg (i.p.) in comparison to those of untreated Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing mice. The metabolite also alters the depleted hematological parameters like red blood cell, white blood cell, hemoglobin (Hb%), etc. towards normal in tumor bearing mice. Metabolite show no adverse effect on liver functions regarding blood glucose, serum alkaline phosphatases, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase activity and serum billirubin, etc. in normal mice. Histopathological observation of these mice organ does not show any toxic effect on cellular structure. But in the case of EAC bearing untreated mice these hematological and biochemical parameters deteriorate extremely with time whereas petroleum ether extract bacterial metabolite receiving EAC bearing mice nullified the toxicity induced by EAC cells. Conclusion Study results reveal that metabolite possesses significant antiproliferative and hepatoprotective effect against EAC cells. PMID:25183099

  12. Hepatoprotective Activity of Elephantopus scaber on Alcohol-Induced Liver Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Wan Yong; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Chai Ling; Abdul Rahim, Raha; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2012-01-01

    Elephantopus scaber has been traditionally used as liver tonic. However, the protective effect of E. scaber on ethanol-induced liver damage is still unclear. In this study, we have compared the in vivo hepatoprotective effect of E. scaber with Phyllanthus niruri on the ethanol-induced liver damage in mice. The total phenolic and total flavanoid content of E. scaber ethanol extract were determined in this study. Accelerating serum biochemical profiles (including AST, ALT, ALP, triglyceride, and total bilirubin) associated with fat drop and necrotic body in the liver section were observed in the mice treated with ethanol. Low concentration of E. scaber was able to reduce serum biochemical profiles and the fat accumulation in the liver. Furthermore, high concentration of E. scaber and positive control P. niruri were able to revert the liver damage, which is comparable to the normal control. Added to this, E. scaber did not possess any oral acute toxicity on mice. These results suggest the potential effect of this extract as a hepatoprotective agent towards-ethanol induced liver damage without any oral acute toxicity effect. These activities might be contributed, or at least in part, by its high total phenolic and flavonoid contents. PMID:22973401

  13. Evaluation of hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of astaxanthin and astaxanthin esters from microalga-Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Rao, A Ranga; Sarada, R; Shylaja, M D; Ravishankar, G A

    2015-10-01

    Effect of isolated astaxanthin (ASX) and astaxanthin esters (ASXEs) from green microalga-Haematococcus pluvialis on hepatotoxicity and antioxidant activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced toxicity in rats was compared with synthetic astaxanthin (SASX). ASX, ASXEs, and SASX, all dissolved in olive oil, fed to rats with 100 and 250 μg/kg b.w for 14 days. They were evaluated for their hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity by measuring appropriate enzymes. Among the treated groups, the SGPT, SGOT and ALP levels were decreased by 2, 2.4, and 1.5 fold in ASXEs treated group at 250 μg/Kg b.w. when compared to toxin group. Further, antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase and lipid peroxidase levels were estimated in treated groups, their levels were reduced by 30-50 % in the toxin group, however these levels restored by 136.95 and 238.48 % in ASXEs treated group at 250 μg/kg. The lipid peroxidation was restored by 5.2 and 2.8 fold in ASXEs and ASX treated groups at 250 μg/kg. The total protein, albumin and bilirubin contents were decreased in toxin group, whereas normalized in ASXEs treated group. These results indicates that ASX and ASXEs have better hepatoprotection and antioxidant activity, therefore can be used in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications and also extended to use as food colorant. PMID:26396419

  14. Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa on thioacetamide induced liver cirrhosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatology research has focused on developing traditional therapies as pharmacological medicines to treat liver cirrhosis. Thus, this study evaluated mechanisms of the hepatoprotective activity of Curcuma longa rhizome ethanolic extract (CLRE) on thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats. Methods The hepatoprotective effect of CLRE was measured in a rat model of thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis over 8 weeks. Hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 and serum levels of TGF-β1 and TNF-α were evaluated. Oxidative stress was measured by malondialdehyde, urinary 8-hydroxyguanosine and nitrotyrosine levels. The protective activity of CLRE free-radical scavenging mechanisms were evaluated through antioxidant enzymes. Protein expression of pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins in animal blood sera was studied and confirmed by immunohistochemistry of Bax, Bcl2 proteins and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Results Histopathology, immunohistochemistry and liver biochemistry were significantly lower in the Curcuma longa-treated groups compared with controls. CLRE induced apoptosis, inhibited hepatocytes proliferation but had no effect on hepatic CYP2E1 levels. Conclusion The progression of liver cirrhosis could be inhibited by the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of CLRE and the normal status of the liver could be preserved. PMID:23496995

  15. Elucidation of the hepatoprotective moiety of 5β-scymnol that suppresses paracetamol toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Lynn D; Carter, Fiona; Kalafatis, Nicolette; Wright, Paul F A; Macrides, Theodore A

    2016-06-01

    The shark bile alcohol, 5β-scymnol, protects mice from the hepatotoxic effects of paracetamol (APAP) overdose. To elucidate the hepatoprotective structural moiety of scymnol, we compared its effect with that of its analogue and natural bile salt, sodium scymnol sulfate, in a clinically relevant model of APAP-induced toxicity. Exposure of healthy male Swiss mice to a toxic overdose of APAP (350 mg/kg, ip) significantly increased serum hepatocellular enzyme activities, decreased hepatocellular glutathione (GSH) levels, and induced severe centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis. Repeated low-dose scymnol (5 mg/kg/day for 7 days, ip) significantly reduced the extent of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity without preventing GSH depletion. Sodium scymnol sulfate, which lacks the tri-hydroxyl-substituted aliphatic side chain of scymnol, failed to reduce the APAP hepatotoxicity or prevent GSH depletion when tested under the same experimental conditions. We conclude that the tri-hydroxyl-substituted aliphatic side chain is the hepatoprotective structural moiety of 5β-scymnol that suppresses APAP-induced cytotoxicity in mice. PMID:27234873

  16. Hepatoprotective, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Effects of the Tragopogon porrifolius Methanolic Extract

    PubMed Central

    Tenkerian, Clara; El-Sibai, Mirvat; Daher, Costantine F.; Mroueh, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Tragopogon porrifolius (Asteraceae), commonly referred to as white salsify, is an edible herb used in Lebanese folk medicine to treat cancer and liver dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant activity of Tragopogon porrifolius methanolic extract, both in vitro and in vivo, in addition to its hepatoprotective and anticancer activities. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured and found to be 37.0 ± 1.40 mg GAE/g and 16.6 ± 0.42 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively. In vitro antioxidant assays revealed an FRAP value of 659 ± 13.8 µmol Fe2+/g of extract and DPPH IC50 value 15.2 µg/mL. In rats subjected to CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity, significant increase in CAT, SOD, and GST levels was detected. The highest dose of the extract (250 mg/kg) recorded a fold increase of 1.68 for SOD, 2.49 for GST, and 3.2 for CAT. The extract also showed substantial decrease in AST (57%), ALT (56%), and LDH (65%) levels. Additionally, the extract caused a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and proliferation. In conclusion, the methanolic extract of T. porrifolius displayed a relatively high antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo as well as hepatoprotective potential against liver toxicity in rats and anticancer effect on MDA-MB-231 and Caco-2 cells. PMID:25694787

  17. Hepatoprotective potentials of onion and garlic extracts on cadmium-induced oxidative damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Obioha, Udoka E; Suru, Stephen M; Ola-Mudathir, Kikelomo F; Faremi, Toyin Y

    2009-01-01

    The hepatoprotective effect of onion and garlic extracts on cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative damage in rats is reported. Control group received double-distilled water alone. Cd group was challenged with 3CdSO(4).8H(2)O (as Cd; 1.5 mg/kg bw per day per oral) alone, while extract-treated groups were pretreated with varied doses of onion and/or garlic extract (0.5 and 1.0 ml/100 g bw per day per oral) for a week and thereafter co-treated with Cd (1.5 mg/kg bw per day per oral) for 3 weeks. Cd caused a marked (p < 0.001) increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation and glutathione S-transferase, whereas glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase levels were decreased in the liver. We also observed a decrease in hepatic activities of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase and a concomitant increase in the plasma activities of ALT and AST. Onion and garlic extracts significantly attenuated these adverse effects of Cd. Onion extract proffered a dose-dependent hepatoprotection. Our study showed that Cd-induced oxidative damage in rat liver is amenable to attenuation by high dose of onion and moderate dose of garlic extracts possibly via reduced lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant defense system that is insufficient to prevent and protect Cd-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:19082532

  18. Hepatoprotective Effect of Methanol Extracts of Zingiber officinale and Cichorium intybus

    PubMed Central

    Atta, A. H.; Elkoly, T. A.; Mouneir, S. M.; Kamel, Gehan; Alwabel, N. A.; Zaher, Shaimaa

    2010-01-01

    The present work was carried out to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of ginger, chicory and their mixture against carbon tetrachloride intoxication in rats. Carbon tetrachloride treatment significantly elevated the alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyltransferase activities and the serum triglycerides and cholesterol concentration as compared to control group. It also increased RBCs counts and Hb concentration, total or differential leucocytes counts. However it decreased platelet counts, platelet distribution width, mean platelet volume, platelet larger cell ratio. Methanol extract of ginger (250 and 500 mg/kg) and chicory (250 and 500 mg/kg) given alone or mixed (1:1 wt/wt) significantly restored the carbon tetrachloride-induced alterations in the biochemical and cellular constituents of blood. No toxic symptoms were reported in doses up to 5 g/kg. Alkaloids and/or nitrogenous bases, carbohydrates and/or glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, saponins and unsaturated sterols and/or triterpenes are the main active constituents of their methanol extract. The hepatoprotective effect of ginger and chicory was also confirmed by the histopathological examination of liver tissue. PMID:21694986

  19. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of tender coconut water on carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Loki, Anthony Loperito; Rajamohan, T

    2003-10-01

    Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of tender coconut water (TCW) were investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-intoxicated female rats. Liver damage was evidenced by the increased levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and decreased levels of serum proteins and by histopathological studies in CCl4-intoxicated rats. Increased lipid peroxidation was evidenced by elevated levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) viz, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroperoxides (HP) and conjugated dienes (CD), and also by significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes activities, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) and glutathione reductase (GR) and also reduced glutathione (GSH) content in liver. On the other hand, CCl4-intoxicated rats treated with TCW retained almost normal levels of these constituents. Decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes in CCl4-intoxicated rats and their reversal of antioxidant enzyme activities in TCW treated rats, shows the effectiveness of TCW in combating CCl4-induced oxidative stress. Hepatoprotective effect of TCW is also evidenced from the histopathological studies of liver, which did not show any fatty infiltration or necrosis, as observed in CCl4-intoxicated rats. PMID:22900330

  20. Tacrine-silibinin codrug shows neuro- and hepatoprotective effects in vitro and pro-cognitive and hepatoprotective effects in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyu; Zenger, Katharina; Lupp, Amelie; Kling, Beata; Heilmann, Jörg; Fleck, Christian; Kraus, Birgit; Decker, Michael

    2012-06-14

    A codrug of the anti-Alzheimer drug tacrine and the natural product silibinin was synthesized. The codrug's biological and pharmacological properties were compared to an equimolar mixture of the components. The compound showed potent acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition. In a cellular hepatotoxicity model, analyzing the influence on viability and mitochondria of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), the toxicity of the codrug was markedly reduced in comparison to that of tacrine. Using a neuronal cell line (HT-22), a neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced toxicity could be observed that was absent for the 1:1 mixture of components. In subsequent in vivo experiments in rats, in contrast to the effects seen after tacrine treatment, after administration of the codrug no hepatotoxicity and no induction of the cytochrome P450 system were noticed. In a scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment model using Wistar rats, the codrug was as potent as tacrine in reversing memory dysfunction. The tacrine-silibinin codrug shows high AChE and BChE inhibition, neuroprotective effects, lacks tacrine's hepatotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, and shows the same pro-cognitive effects in vivo as tacrine, being superior to the physical mixture of tacrine and silibinin in all these regards. PMID:22624880