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Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Rotary engine cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rotary engine has a substantially trochoidal-shaped housing cavity in which a rotor planetates. A cooling system for the engine directs coolant along a single series path consisting of series connected groups of passages. Coolant enters near the intake port, passes downwardly and axially through the cooler regions of the engine, then passes upwardly and axially through the hotter regions. By first flowing through the coolest regions, coolant pressure is reduced, thus reducing the saturation temperature of the coolant and thereby enhancing the nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanism which predominates in the high heat flux region of the engine during high power level operation.

Jones, Charles (Inventor); Gigon, Richard M. (Inventor); Blum, Edward J. (Inventor)

1985-01-01

2

Boiling liquid engine cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A boiling liquid cooling system is described for an engine, comprising: means defining in the engine a coolant jacket into which coolant is introduced in liquid state and from which coolant is discharged in gaseous state; a radiator into which gaseous coolant from the coolant jacket is introduced to be liquified; an electric pump for pumping the coolant thus liquified by the radiator into the coolant jacket; an electric fan positioned adjacent the radiator for, upon energization, producing a radiator cooling air flow to promote a condensation function of the radiator; and control means for energizing the electric fan when the temperature of the coolant in the coolant jacket is higher than a predetermined temperature, for controlling the rotation speed of the electric fan by gradually increasing the rotation speed from a low level at the beginning of the fan rotation to a normal level as time proceeds and for deenergizing the electric fan when the temperature of the coolant in the coolant jacket is lower than the predetermined temperature.

Miura, N.; Hayashi, Y.

1987-04-21

3

40 CFR 90.307 - Engine cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 90.307 Section 90.307 Protection...Test Equipment Provisions § 90.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient...

2013-07-01

4

40 CFR 91.307 - Engine cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 91.307 Section 91.307 Protection...Test Equipment Provisions § 91.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient...

2013-07-01

5

40 CFR 89.329 - Engine cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 89.329 Section 89.329 Protection...Test Equipment Provisions § 89.329 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

2013-07-01

6

Arrangement of boiling liquid cooling system of internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine mounted in an engine room of a vehicle body comprising: a boiling liquid cooling system associated with the engine for cooling the same by using a latent heat of coolant, which comprises: means for defining in the engine proper a coolant jacket which contains therein a liquid coolant leaving

Hayashi

1986-01-01

7

Expanding the limits on engines and vehicles imposed by circulating liquid engine cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operational limits of the cooling system for a liquid cooled internal combustion engine are also limits on the engine's power, fuel economy and air quality possibilities. When coolant temperatures in a traditional liquid cooled engine approach the saturation temperature of water, optimum engine settings must be degraded to prevent detonation. This paper discusses the nature of the limits imposed

J. W. Evans; J. T. Light

1986-01-01

8

Detail exterior view looking southwest of gas cooling system. Engine ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail exterior view looking southwest of gas cooling system. Engine house is shown in right background. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

9

Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

North, William Edward (Winter Springs, FL)

2000-01-01

10

Cooling system for automotive engine or the like including coolant return pump back-up arrangement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes, in an automotive vehicle having a passenger compartment and an engine compartment; an engine, the engine being disposed in the engine compartment and having structure which is subject to high heat flux; a cooling system for removing heat from the engine; and a passenger compartment heating arrangement incorporated with the cooling system, the cooling system and the

N. Ogawa; T. Kubozuka

1986-01-01

11

Arrangement of boiling liquid cooling system of internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine mounted in an engine room of a vehicle body comprising: a boiling liquid cooling system associated with the engine for cooling the same by using a latent heat of coolant, which comprises: means for defining in the engine proper a coolant jacket which contains therein a liquid coolant leaving an unoccupied space at the upper portion thereof thereby to form a liquid coolant level therein; a first conduit extending from the unoccupied space of the coolant jacket; a condenser having an inlet connected to the leading end of the first conduit and an outlet positioned lower than the inlet, the inlet being positioned lower than the coolant level in the coolant jacket; a second conduit extending from the outlet of the condenser to the coolant jacket of the engineer proper; and a cooling fan located in the vicinity of the condenser to produce, when energized, a flow of air which passes through the condenser; where the condenser and the fan are inclined with respect to a horizontally arranged member of the vehicle so that the flow of air which has passed through the condenser fails to directly collide with the engine proper.

Hayashi, Y.

1986-10-07

12

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT IV, MAINTAINING THE COOLING SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE PURPOSE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, CARE MAINTENANCE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, AND TROUBLESHOOTING TIPS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

13

Research on the Compatibility of the Cooling Unit in an Automotive Exhaust-based Thermoelectric Generator and Engine Cooling System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature difference between the hot and cold sides of thermoelectric modules is a key factor affecting the conversion efficiency of an automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator (TEG). In the work discussed in this paper the compatibility of TEG cooling unit and engine cooling system was studied on the basis of the heat transfer characteristics of the TEG. A new engine-cooling system in which a TEG cooling unit was inserted was simulated at high power and high vehicle speed, and at high power and low vehicle speed, to obtain temperatures and flow rates of critical inlets and outlets. The results show that coolant temperature exceeds its boiling point at high power and low vehicle speed, so the new system cannot meet cooling requirements under these conditions. Measures for improvement to optimize the cooling system are proposed, and provide a basis for future research.

Deng, Y. D.; Liu, X.; Chen, S.; Xing, H. B.; Su, C. Q.

2014-06-01

14

Engineering and Cost Comparison of Three Different All-Dry Cooling Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of a detailed engineering and cost study of three different all-dry cooling systems to assess the potential for reducing the cost of all-dry cooling for steam electric power plants are described. The three types of cooling systems considered were:...

B. C. Fryer D. J. Braun D. J. Braun D. W. Faletti L. E. Wiles

1976-01-01

15

46 CFR 182.420 - Engine cooling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and (e) of this section, all engines must be water cooled and meet the requirements...raw water intake line of an engine cooling water system. (3) A closed fresh...cool the engine. (b) An engine water cooling system on a...

2013-10-01

16

Cooling system for automotive engine or the like  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of cooling a device, the steps of: boiling a liquid coolant in a coolant jacket to produce a vapor; condensing the vapor produced in the boiling step, in a radiator; increasing the boiling point of the liquid coolant by reducing the heat exchange capacity of the radiator in the event that the rate of condensation exceeds a predetermined maximum value and the boiling point of the liquid coolant falls below a predetermined minimum value, the coolant jacket and the radiator form part of a cooling system, and includes the step of selectively sealing the cooling system to selectively permit pressure in the system to vary above or below atmospheric. In a method of cooling a device, the steps of: boiling a liquid coolant in a coolant jacket to produce a vapor; condensing the vapor produced in the boiling step, in a radiator; sensing the level of coolant in the coolant jacket; pumping liquid coolant from the radiator to the coolant jacket in response to the level sensing step; sensing a difference in pressure between pressure in the radiator and atmospheric pressure; and reducing the heat exchange capacity of the radiator in the event that the sensed difference in pressure indicates that the rate of condensation exceeds a predetermined maximum value.

Hayashi, Y.

1987-07-07

17

Design, Fabrication, and Testing of an Auxiliary Cooling System for Jet Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the technical effort of the Active Cooling for Enhanced Performance (ACEP) program sponsored by NASA. It covers the design, fabrication, and integrated systems testing of a jet engine auxiliary cooling system, or turbocooler, that significantly extends the use of conventional jet fuel as a heat sink. The turbocooler is designed to provide subcooled cooling air to the engine exhaust nozzle system or engine hot section. The turbocooler consists of three primary components: (1) a high-temperature air cycle machine driven by engine compressor discharge air, (2) a fuel/ air heat exchanger that transfers energy from the hot air to the fuel and uses a coating to mitigate fuel deposits, and (3) a high-temperature fuel injection system. The details of the turbocooler component designs and results of the integrated systems testing are documented. Industry Version-Data and information deemed subject to Limited Rights restrictions are omitted from this document.

Leamy, Kevin; Griffiths, Jim; Andersen, Paul; Joco, Fidel; Laski, Mark; Balser, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

18

Engine cooling system air venting arrangement with buoyant air purge valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air vent arrangement is described for the cooling system of an automotive type engine having a radiator with a coolant inlet. The engine has coolant passages communicating with the radiator through an outlet essentially horizontally disposed, tubing connecting the radiator inlet and coolant outlet, and a thermostat in the outlet horizontally movable to open and closed positions. A horizontally

Schnizlein

1987-01-01

19

Performance Assessment of a Desiccant Cooling System in a CHP Application with an IC Engine  

SciTech Connect

Performance of a desiccant cooling system was evaluated in the context of combined heat and power (CHP). The baseline system incorporated a desiccant dehumidifier, a heat exchanger, an indirect evaporative cooler, and a direct evaporative cooler. The desiccant unit was regenerated through heat recovery from a gas-fired reciprocating internal combustion engine. The system offered sufficient sensible and latent cooling capacities for a wide range of climatic conditions, while allowing influx of outside air in excess of what is typically required for commercial buildings. Energy and water efficiencies of the desiccant cooling system were also evaluated and compared with those of a conventional system. The results of parametric assessments revealed the importance of using a heat exchanger for concurrent desiccant post cooling and regeneration air preheating. These functions resulted in enhancement of both the cooling performance and the thermal efficiency, which are essential for fuel utilization improvement. Two approaches for mixing of the return air and outside air were examined, and their impact on the system cooling performance and thermal efficiency was demonstrated. The scope of the parametric analyses also encompassed the impact of improving the indirect evaporative cooling effectiveness on the overall cooling system performance.

Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.; Slayzak, S.; Judkoff, R.; Schaffhauser, T.; DeBlasio, R.

2005-04-01

20

Cooling system for automotive engine or the like including coolant return pump back-up arrangement  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes, in an automotive vehicle having a passenger compartment and an engine compartment; an engine, the engine being disposed in the engine compartment and having structure which is subject to high heat flux; a cooling system for removing heat from the engine; and a passenger compartment heating arrangement incorporated with the cooling system, the cooling system and the passenger heating arrangement comprising: a coolant jacket disposed about the structure and into which coolant is introduced in liquid form and allowed to boil; a radiator fluidly communicated with the coolant jacket, the radiator being arranged to receive gaseous coolant produced by the boiling of the liquid coolant in the coolant jacket and condense same to its liquid form; and means for returning liquid coolant from the radiator to the coolant jacket in a manner which maintains the level of coolant in the coolant jacket at a first predetermined level, the first predetermined level being selected to immerse the structure in a predetermined depth of liquid coolant.

Ogawa, N.; Kubozuka, T.

1986-12-16

21

Crash-Fire Protection System for T-56 Turbopropeller Engine Using Water as Cooling and Inerting Agent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A crash-fire protection system to suppress the ignition of crash-spilled fuel that may be ingested by a T-56 turbopropeller engine is described. This system includes means for rapidly extinguishing the combustor flame and means for cooling and inerting with water the hot engine parts likely to ignite engine-ingested fuel. Combustion-chamber flames were extinguished in 0.07 second at the engine fuel manifold. Hot engine parts were inerted and cooled by 52 pounds of water discharged at ten engine stations. Performance trials of the crash-fire prevention system were conducted by bringing the engine up to takeoff temperature, stopping the normal fuel flow to the engine, starting the water discharge, and then spraying fuel into the engine to simulate crash-ingested fuel. No fires occurred during these trials, although fuel was sprayed into the engine from 0.3 second to 15 minutes after actuating the crash-fire protection system.

Busch, Arthur M.; Campbell, John A.

1959-01-01

22

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENACE 1. UNIT XV, I--MAINTAINING THE COOLING SYSTEM, CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, I--UNIT INSTALLATION--TRANSMISSION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE FUNCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM AND THE PROCEDURES FOR TRANSMISSION INSTALLATION. TOPICS ARE (1) IMPORTANCE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, (2) COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, (3) EVALUATING COOLING SYSTEM FAILURES, (4) CARING FOR THE COOLING SYSTEM,

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

23

Cooling apparatus for water-cooled engines  

SciTech Connect

A cooling apparatus is described for a water-cooled internal combustion engine including a shaft that rotates when the engine is running, the apparatus comprising a centrifugal fan adapted to be connected to and rotated by the shaft, the fan having an intake air port and a discharge air opening, a rotary screen adapted to be operatively connected to and rotated by the shaft, the screen being disposed in the intake air port, a cooling radiator, a spiral-shaped duct connecting the radiator with the discharge air opening, and separating means on the duct, the separating means comprising an opening formed in the outer wall of the duct.

Fujikawa, T.; Tamba, S.

1986-05-20

24

Fermilab electron cooling project: Engineering aspects of cooling section  

SciTech Connect

The Fermilab Electron Cooling project involves interacting a 4.3 MeV, 0.5 A DC electron beam with 8.9 GeV/c antiprotons in the FNAL Recycler Ring. This interaction occurs through a 20-meter long cooling section consisting of 10 solenoid modules. This cooling process would lead to an increase in the Tevatron collider luminosity needed to support RunIIb parameters. There are several important engineering aspects of this cooling section including: solenoid design, vacuum system design, magnetic shielding, support system, and alignment methods. Details of the engineering issues related to each of these areas is discussed.

Jerry R. Leibfritz et al.

2001-07-25

25

46 CFR 119.420 - Engine cooling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all engines must be water cooled and meet the requirements of this...strainer must be installed in the circulating raw water intake line of an engine cooling water system. (3) A closed fresh water...

2013-10-01

26

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXV, I--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM D-8 AND 824 MODELS, II--TIRES AND TIRE HARDWARE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM AND TO PROVIDE A DESCRIPTION OF HEAVY TIRES AND WHEELS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) THEORY OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, (2) COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, (3) MAINTENANCE TIPS (COOLING SYSTEM), (4)

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

27

46 CFR 119.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...must be obtained from the engine cooling water system or a separate engine...between the point of cooling water injection and the engine manifold must be water-jacketed...system is separate from the engine cooling water system, a suitable...

2013-10-01

28

46 CFR 182.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...must be obtained from the engine cooling water system or a separate engine...between the point of cooling water injection and the engine manifold must be water-jacketed...system is separate from the engine cooling water system, a suitable...

2013-10-01

29

Gas turbine cooling system  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01

30

Acoustic cooling engine  

DOEpatents

An acoustic cooling engine with improved thermal performance and reduced internal losses comprises a compressible fluid contained in a resonant pressure vessel. The fluid has a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and is capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave. A thermodynamic element has first and second ends and is located in the resonant pressure vessel in thermal communication with the fluid. The thermal response of the thermodynamic element to the acoustic standing wave pumps heat from the second end to the first end. The thermodynamic element permits substantial flow of the fluid through the thermodynamic element. An acoustic driver cyclically drives the fluid with an acoustic standing wave. The driver is at a location of maximum acoustic impedance in the resonant pressure vessel and proximate the first end of the thermodynamic element. A hot heat exchanger is adjacent to and in thermal communication with the first end of the thermodynamic element. The hot heat exchanger conducts heat from the first end to portions of the resonant pressure vessel proximate the hot heat exchanger. The hot heat exchanger permits substantial flow of the fluid through the hot heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one quarter wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir. The frequency of the acoustic driver can be continuously controlled so as to maintain resonance.

Hofler, Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM); Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

1988-01-01

31

Preliminary Model Tests of a Wing-Duct Cooling System for Radial Engines, Special Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind-tunnel tests were conducted on a model wing-nacelle combination to determine the practicability of cooling radial engines by forcing the cooling air into wing-duct entrances located in the propeller slipstream, passing the air through the engine baffles from rear to front, and ejecting the air through an annular slot near the front of the nacelle. The tests, which were of a preliminary nature, were made on a 5-foot-chord wing and a 20-inch-diameter nacelle. A 3-blade, 4-foot-diameter propeller was used. The tests indicated that this method of cooling and cowling radial engines is entirely practicable providing the wing of the prospective airplane is sufficiently thick to accommodate efficient entrance ducts , The drag of the cowlings tested was definitely less than for the conventional N.A.C.A. cowling, and the pressure available at low air speed corresponding to operation on the ground and at low flying speeds was apparently sufficient for cooling most present-day radial engines.

Biermann, David; Valentine, E. Floyd

1939-01-01

32

System Engineering Program Applicability for the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Component Test Capability (CTC)  

SciTech Connect

This white paper identifies where the technical management and systems engineering processes and activities to be used in establishing the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) Component Test Capability (CTC) should be addressed and presents specific considerations for these activities under each CTC alternative

Jeffrey Bryan

2009-06-01

33

Air-cooled overhead-valve engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an air-cooled overhead-valve internal combustion engine. The engine is composed of a crankcase with a crankshaft, a cylinder block with a cylinder head and a combustion chamber mounted in the crankcase. At least a pair of intake and exhaust valves installed in intake and exhaust ports are formed in the cylinder head. A valve drive system mounted

Shirai

1987-01-01

34

Transpiration cooled throat for hydrocarbon rocket engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective for the Transpiration Cooled Throat for Hydrocarbon Rocket Engines Program was to characterize the use of hydrocarbon fuels as transpiration coolants for rocket nozzle throats. The hydrocarbon fuels investigated in this program were RP-1 and methane. To adequately characterize the above transpiration coolants, a program was planned which would (1) predict engine system performance and life enhancements due to transpiration cooling of the throat region using analytical models, anchored with available data; (2) a versatile transpiration cooled subscale rocket thrust chamber was designed and fabricated; (3) the subscale thrust chamber was tested over a limited range of conditions, e.g., coolant type, chamber pressure, transpiration cooled length, and coolant flow rate; and (4) detailed data analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between the key performance and life enhancement variables.

May, Lee R.; Burkhardt, Wendel M.

1991-01-01

35

TECHNICAL NOTE: Temperature control of an automotive engine cooling system utilizing a magneto-rheological fan clutch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this note, the temperature control of an automotive engine cooling system is undertaken using a magneto-rheological (MR) fluid-based fan clutch (MR fan clutch in short). In order to achieve this goal, an appropriate size of controllable fan clutch using an MR fluid is firstly devised by considering the design parameters of a conventional fan clutch to reflect the practical application. Then, the principal design parameters of the MR fan clutch such as the length of the disc are optimally determined through finite element analysis. The drum-type MR fan clutch is manufactured and its time response to input current is experimentally evaluated. A robust sliding mode controller is then formulated by treating the time constant of the fan clutch system as an uncertain parameter. After identifying the relationship between angular velocity of the MR fan clutch and the temperature of the cooling system, the sliding mode controller is experimentally realized for the cooling system. It has been clearly demonstrated that the proposed sliding mode controller follows well the desired temperature with a small regulating error. It is expected from this feasibility work that the proposed control system associated with an MR fan clutch can be effectively utilized for the automotive cooling system to improve the fuel efficiency.

Kim, Eun-Seok; Choi, Seung-Bok; Park, Young-Gee; Lee, Soojin

2010-10-01

36

40 CFR 1065.122 - Engine cooling and lubrication.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Engine cooling and lubrication. 1065.122 Section 1065.122...Specifications § 1065.122 Engine cooling and lubrication. (a) Engine cooling. Cool...engine and an exhaust aftertreatment device according to §...

2010-07-01

37

40 CFR 1065.122 - Engine cooling and lubrication.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Engine cooling and lubrication. 1065.122 Section 1065.122...Specifications § 1065.122 Engine cooling and lubrication. (a) Engine cooling. Cool...engine and an exhaust aftertreatment device according to §...

2009-07-01

38

A home-size solar-powered engine for cooling systems of generation of electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper outlines the steps taken in designing and constructing a solar-powered engine at the N.C. State University, to produce sufficient electricity from sunlight to meet the needs of the average N.C. resident, estimated at being approximately 1000 KWH\\/month. Attention is given to the component selection and assembly, and an examination of the preliminary system operating results is given. Four

F. O. Smetana; P. G. Bladen; T. B. Dameron III

1979-01-01

39

Cooling water distribution system  

DOEpatents

A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

1994-01-01

40

Systems Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year at the National Council of Systems Engineering (NCOSE) symposium lots of dedicated people spend a lot of energy assessing, measuring and educating people about an incomplete body of knowledge (systems engineering). The incompleteness is due to the lack of a definition of what that body of knowledge is supposed to cover. Now every systems engineer knows that it

Joe Kasser

1969-01-01

41

Cooling Water Systems Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for the Advancement of Process Technology presents this free sample module on cooling water systems in the process industry. The material includes 21 slides and will help learners understand related terms, the purpose of the basic equipment involved in cooling water systems and the safety, health and environmental concerns involved with these systems.

2013-01-04

42

Liquid cooling of aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a method for solving the problem of liquid cooling at high temperatures, which is an intermediate method between water and air cooling, by experiments on a test-stand and on an airplane. A utilizable cooling medium was found in ethylene glycol, which has only one disadvantage, namely, that of combustibility. The danger, however is very slight. It has one decided advantage, that it simultaneously serves as protection against freezing.

Weidinger, Hanns

1931-01-01

43

SOLERAS - Solar Cooling Engineering Field Tests Project: Carrier Corporation. Fabrication, testing and installation report: 53 kW solar absorption cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A 53 kW water cooled packaged solar absorption chiller was fabricated and tested. The generator shell and absorber shell had sight glasses added as a diagnostic device. The unit was modified so that a base suitable for mounting pumps, valves and associated piping was cantilevered from one end of the unit. The installation and start-up of the cooling system is outlined.

Not Available

1985-01-01

44

Passive containment cooling system  

DOEpatents

A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Robinson Township, Allegheny County, PA); Stewart, William A. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1991-01-01

45

Heat pipe cooling for scramjet engines. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Liquid metal heat pipe cooling systems have been investigated for the combustor liner and engine inlet leading edges of scramjet engines for a missile application. The combustor liner is cooled by a lithium-TZM molybdenum annular heat pipe, which incorporates a separate lithium reservoir. Heat is initially absorbed by the sensible thermal capacity of the heat pipe and liner, and subsequently by the vaporization and discharge of lithium to the atmosphere. The combustor liner temperature is maintained at 3400 F or less during steady-state cruise. The engine inlet leading edge is fabricated as a sodium-superalloy heat pipe. Cooling is accomplished by radiation of heat from the aft surface of the leading edge to the atmosphere. The leading edge temperature is limited to 1700 F or less. It is concluded that heat pipe cooling is a viable method for limiting scramjet combustor liner and engine inlet temperatures to levels at which structural integrity is greatly enhanced.

Silverstein, C.C.

1986-12-01

46

Surface cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This patent discloses a cooling system for providing a layer of relatively cool gas adjacent the surface of a duct carrying a flow of relatively hot gas. It includes an elongated louver nozzle, an elongated plenum and one or more crosswise dividers for separating the plenum and nozzle into a plurality of individual segments having sized supply orifices disposed therein.

Zimmerman, Anthony M.

1989-01-01

47

Preliminary Tests of Blowers of Three Designs Operating in Conjunction with a Wing-Duct Cooling System for Radial Engines, Special Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is one of several dealing with methods intended to reduce the drag of present-day radial engine installations and improve the cooling at zero and low air speeds, The present paper describes model wind-tunnel tests of blowers of three designs tested in conjunction with a wing-nacelle combination. The principle of operation involved consists of drawing cooling air into ducts located in the wing root at the point of maximum slipstream velocity, passing the air through the engine baffles from rear to front, and exhausting the air through an annular slot located between the propeller and the engine with the aid of a blower mounted on the spinner. The test apparatus consisted essentially of a stub wing having a 5-foot chord and a 15-foot span, an engine nacelle of 20 inches diameter enclosing a 25-horsepower electric motor, and three blowers mounted on propeller spinners. Two of the blowers utilize centrifugal force while the other uses the lift from airfoils to force the air out radially through the exit slot. Maximum efficiencies of over 70 percent were obtained for the system as a whole. Pressures were measured over the entire flight range which were in excess of those necessary to cool present-day engines, The results indicated that blowers mounted on propeller spinners could be built sufficiently powerful and efficient to warrant their use as the only, or chief, means of forcing air through the cooling system, so that cooling would be independent of the speed of the airplane.

Biermann, David; Valentine, E. Floyd

1939-01-01

48

Hydronic rooftop cooling systems  

DOEpatents

A roof top cooling unit has an evaporative cooling section that includes at least one evaporative module that pre-cools ventilation air and water; a condenser; a water reservoir and pump that captures and re-circulates water within the evaporative modules; a fan that exhausts air from the building and the evaporative modules and systems that refill and drain the water reservoir. The cooling unit also has a refrigerant section that includes a compressor, an expansion device, evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, and connecting refrigerant piping. Supply air components include a blower, an air filter, a cooling and/or heating coil to condition air for supply to the building, and optional dampers that, in designs that supply less than 100% outdoor air to the building, control the mixture of return and ventilation air.

Bourne, Richard C. (Davis, CA) [Davis, CA; Lee, Brian Eric (Monterey, CA) [Monterey, CA; Berman, Mark J. (Davis, CA) [Davis, CA

2008-01-29

49

Injected Water Augments Cooling In Turboshaft Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes experiments in which water injected into compressor-bleed cooling air of aircraft turboshaft engine. Injection of water previously suggested as way to provide additional cooling needed to sustain operation at power levels higher than usual. Involves turbine-inlet temperatures high enough to shorten lives of first-stage high-pressure turbine blades. Latent heat of vaporization of injected water serves as additional heat sink to maintain blades at design operating temperatures during high-power operation.

Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

1989-01-01

50

Superconductor rotor cooling system  

DOEpatents

A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed (Framingham, MA); Schwall, Robert E. (Northborough, MA); Driscoll, David I. (South Euclid, OH); Shoykhet, Boris A. (Beachwood, OH)

2002-01-01

51

Waveguide cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved system is described for cooling high power waveguides by the use of cooling ducts extending along the waveguide, which minimizes hot spots at the flanges where waveguide sections are connected together. The cooling duct extends along substantially the full length of the waveguide section, and each flange at the end of the section has a through hole with an inner end connected to the duct and an opposite end that can be aligned with a flange hole in another waveguide section. Earth flange is formed with a drainage groove in its face, between the through hole and the waveguide conduit to prevent leakage of cooling fluid into the waveguide. The ducts have narrowed sections immediately adjacent to the flanges to provide room for the installation of fasteners closely around the waveguide channel.

Chen, B. C. J.; Hartop, R. W. (inventors)

1981-01-01

52

Passive containment cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

1994-01-25

53

Passive containment cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

Billig, Paul F. (San Jose, CA); Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA); Fitch, James R. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-01

54

Evaporative roof cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaporative roof cooling system is described for placement upon a roof surface exposed to relatively high levels of solar radiation causing high under roof temperatures and comprising: (a) water distribution mist\\/spray nozzles positioned on the roof surface for supplying substantially uniform mist\\/sprays of water to lay down a substantially uniform thin film of water on the roof surface; (b)

Viner

1988-01-01

55

Research on hypersonic aircraft using pre-cooled turbojet engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systems analysis of a Mach 5 class hypersonic aircraft is performed. The aircraft can fly across the Pacific Ocean in 2 h. A multidisciplinary optimization program for aerodynamics, structure, propulsion, and trajectory is used in the analysis. The result of each element model is improved using higher accuracy analysis tools. The aerodynamic performance of the hypersonic aircraft is examined through hypersonic wind tunnel tests. A thermal management system based on the data of the wind tunnel tests is proposed. A pre-cooled turbojet engine is adopted as the propulsion system for the hypersonic aircraft. The engine can be operated continuously from take-off to Mach 5. This engine uses a pre-cooling cycle using cryogenic liquid hydrogen. The high temperature inlet air of hypersonic flight would be cooled by the same liquid hydrogen used as fuel. The engine is tested under sea level static conditions. The engine is installed on a flight test vehicle. Both liquid hydrogen fuel and gaseous hydrogen fuel are supplied to the engine from a tank and cylinders installed within the vehicle. The designed operation of major components of the engine is confirmed. A large amount of liquid hydrogen is supplied to the pre-cooler in order to make its performance sufficient for Mach 5 flight. Thus, fuel rich combustion is adopted at the afterburner. The experiments are carried out under the conditions that the engine is mounted upon an experimental airframe with both set up either horizontally or vertically. As a result, the operating procedure of the pre-cooled turbojet engine is demonstrated.

Taguchi, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Kojima, Takayuki; Ueno, Atsushi; Imamura, Shunsuke; Hongoh, Motoyuki; Harada, Kenya

2012-04-01

56

Turbine engine component with cooling passages  

DOEpatents

A component for use in a turbine engine including a first member and a second member associated with the first member. The second member includes a plurality of connecting elements extending therefrom. The connecting elements include securing portions at ends thereof that are received in corresponding cavities formed in the first member to attach the second member to the first member. The connecting elements are constructed to space apart a first surface of the second member from a first surface of the first member such that at least one cooling passage is formed between adjacent connecting elements and the first surface of the second member and the first surface of the first member.

Arrell, Douglas J. (Oviedo, FL); James, Allister W. (Orlando, FL)

2012-01-17

57

Emergency core cooling system  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor provided with an emergency core cooling system includes a reactor vessel which contains a reactor core comprising an array of fuel assemblies and a plurality of blanket assemblies. The reactor core is immersed in a pool of liquid metal coolant. The reactor also includes a primary coolant system comprising a pump and conduits for circulating liquid metal coolant to the reactor core and through the fuel and blanket assemblies of the core. A converging-diverging venturi nozzle with an intermediate throat section is provided in between the assemblies and the pump. The intermediate throat section of the nozzle is provided with at least one opening which is in fluid communication with the pool of liquid sodium. In normal operation, coolant flows from the pump through the nozzle to the assemblies with very little fluid flowing through the opening in the throat. However, when the pump is not running, residual heat in the core causes fluid from the pool to flow through the opening in the throat of the nozzle and outwardly through the nozzle to the assemblies, thus providing a means of removing decay heat.

Schenewerk, William E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Glasgow, Lyle E. (Westlake Village, CA)

1983-01-01

58

Evaporative roof cooling system  

SciTech Connect

An evaporative roof cooling system is described for placement upon a roof surface exposed to relatively high levels of solar radiation causing high under roof temperatures and comprising: (a) water distribution mist/spray nozzles positioned on the roof surface for supplying substantially uniform mist/sprays of water to lay down a substantially uniform thin film of water on the roof surface; (b) conduit means on the one roof surface for supplying the nozzles with water; (c) solenoid-controlled valve means in water flow communication with the conduit means to supply controlled quantities of water to the nozzles through the conduit means over periods during which the temperature of the roof surface is measured to be within a predetermined temperature range; (d) temperature measurement means comprised of a thermistor encapsulated in an epoxy block in direct contact with the roof surface for monitoring and measuring the actual temperature of the surface substantially by thermal conductivity and developing an electrical resistance value in direct relationship with the temperature of the surface; and (e) cooling system control means in electric communication with the temperature measurement means for comparing the electric resistance value developed by the temperature measurement means and a range of current values related to the predetermined temperature range.

Viner, S.G.

1988-08-09

59

Integrated exhaust gas recirculation and charge cooling system  

DOEpatents

An intake system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger configured to deliver compressed intake charge, comprising exhaust gas from the exhaust system and ambient air, through an intake charge conduit and to cylinders of the internal combustion engine. An intake charge cooler is in fluid communication with the intake charge conduit. A cooling system, independent of the cooling system for the internal combustion engine, is in fluid communication with the intake charge cooler through a cooling system conduit. A coolant pump delivers a low temperature cooling medium from the cooling system to and through the intake charge cooler for the transfer of heat from the compressed intake charge thereto. A low temperature cooler receives the heated cooling medium through the cooling system conduit for the transfer or heat therefrom.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2013-12-10

60

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Fanning, Alan W. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01

61

Liquid rocket engine fluid-cooled combustion chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A monograph on the design and development of fluid cooled combustion chambers for liquid propellant rocket engines is presented. The subjects discussed are (1) regenerative cooling, (2) transpiration cooling, (3) film cooling, (4) structural analysis, (5) chamber reinforcement, and (6) operational problems.

1972-01-01

62

The problem of cooling an air-cooled cylinder on an aircraft engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the cooling problem has been to show by what means the cooling of an air-cooled aircraft engine may be improved. Each means of improving cooling is analyzed on the basis of effectiveness in cooling with respect to power for cooling. The altitude problem is analyzed for both supercharged and unsupercharged engines. The case of ground cooling is also discussed. The heat-transfer process from the hot gases to the cylinder wall is discussed on the basis of the fundamentals of heat transfer and thermodynamics. Adiabatic air-temperature rise at a stagnation point in compressible flow is shown to depend only on the velocity of flow.

Brevoort, M J; Joyner, U T

1941-01-01

63

Beverage dispenser cooling system  

SciTech Connect

In a beverage dispensing system of the type having a supply container of the beverage located at a storage site, valve means at a dispensing site remote from the storage site for dispensing the beverage, pressure means for supplying the beverage under pressure from the supply container to the valve means through a beverage conduit, refrigeration means at the storage site for cooling a liquid into a chilled liquid, pump means at the storage site for circulating the chilled liquid from the storage site to the dispensing site through a transmit chilled line and from the dispensing sites back to the storage site through a return chilled line, the chilled lines running in parallel with the beverage conduit within an insulated jacket conduit extending between the storage and dispensing site, the improvement is described comprising in combination: an insulated concentric section located at the dispensing site, having an inner conduit concentrically located within an outer conduit; and manifold means for connecting the transmit and return chilled lines to opposite ends of one of the concentric conduits, and for connecting the beverage conduit and valve means to opposite ends of the other concentric conduit, to further cool the beverage by heat transfer from the chilled liquid in the concentric section.

Stanfill, T.M.

1988-03-15

64

Designing modern furnace cooling systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated multidisciplinary approach to furnace design that considers the interdependence between furnace cooling elements and other furnace systems, such as binding, cooling water, and instrumentation, is necessary to achieve maximum furnace production and a long refractory life. The retrofit of the BHP Hartley electric furnace and the Kidd Creek copper converting furnace are successful examples of an integrated approach to furnace cooling design.

Merry, J.; Sarvinis, J.; Voermann, N.

2000-02-01

65

Servo type cooling system control  

SciTech Connect

A cooling system for an internal combustion engine using a liquid coolant within an engine coolant jacket where it receives heat from the engine to be subsequently transferred to the atmosphere is described, comprising: a radiator fluidly connected to the coolant jacket for receiving coolant therefrom; pump means having a pressurized inlet and a higher pressurized outlet for passing coolant from the coolant jacket to the radiator and subsequently back into the coolant jacket; fluid valve means between the coolant jacket and the radiator for regulating the flow of coolant therebetween. The valve means have an inlet opening in spaced relation to a portion of the servo powered valve, whereas relative movement of the portion of the servo powered valve regulate coolant flow through the valve means. The housing enclosure defines a servo valve control chamber formed about an end of the servo powered valve. A servo control passage extends between the servo control chamber and the lower pressure inlet of the pump means.

Miller, P.D.

1988-05-17

66

Feasibility of alternative cooling systems for power plants in the northern Great Plains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial Contents: Power plant water requirements; Operational\\/engineering considerations of wet and dry cooling tower systems; Environmental impacts of closed-cycle cooling systems; Economics of wet and dry cooling towers.

B. A. Tichenor; J. W. Shaw

1974-01-01

67

SOLERAS - Solar Cooling Engineering Field Test Project: Honeywell Technology Strategy Center. Final report, Volume 2. Engineering field test  

SciTech Connect

The SOLERAS solar cooling system at Arizona Public Service Company in Phoenix, Arizona, was subjected to engineering field testing for a period of 18 months. Although some problems arose, which is typical with a new engineering model, the system generally ran well. This document describes the work completed in all three phases of this program, which included the preliminary analysis and detailed design of the solar cooling system, installation, testing, and data analysis.

Not Available

1982-01-01

68

Combustion and Regenerative Cooling Characteristics of LOX/Methane Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regenerative cooled LOX/methane engine is considered by the cooperative research with JAXA, MHI, and IHI. As a part of this cooperation, the experiments and analysis about LOX/methane combustion instability and regenerative cooling characteristics were carried out because the lack of the fundamental LOX/methane properties was identified as a risk through engine design, production, test, and operation.

Kawashima, Hideto; Okita, Koichi; Aoki, Kenji; Azuma, Nobuyuki; Kumakawa, Akinaga; Onodera, Takuo; Yoshida, Seiji; Negishi, Hideyo; Manako, Hiroyasu; Koganezawa, Takashi

69

Combustor liner cooling system  

DOEpatents

A combustor liner is disclosed. The combustor liner includes an upstream portion, a downstream end portion extending from the upstream portion along a generally longitudinal axis, and a cover layer associated with an inner surface of the downstream end portion. The downstream end portion includes the inner surface and an outer surface, the inner surface defining a plurality of microchannels. The downstream end portion further defines a plurality of passages extending between the inner surface and the outer surface. The plurality of microchannels are fluidly connected to the plurality of passages, and are configured to flow a cooling medium therethrough, cooling the combustor liner.

Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Berkman, Mert Enis

2013-08-06

70

Variable cooling circuit for thermoelectric generator and engine and method of control  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is provided that includes an engine, an exhaust system, and a thermoelectric generator (TEG) operatively connected to the exhaust system and configured to allow exhaust gas flow therethrough. A first radiator is operatively connected to the engine. An openable and closable engine valve is configured to open to permit coolant to circulate through the engine and the first radiator when coolant temperature is greater than a predetermined minimum coolant temperature. A first and a second valve are controllable to route cooling fluid from the TEG to the engine through coolant passages under a first set of operating conditions to establish a first cooling circuit, and from the TEG to a second radiator through at least some other coolant passages under a second set of operating conditions to establish a second cooling circuit. A method of controlling a cooling circuit is also provided.

Prior, Gregory P

2012-10-30

71

Full-scale study of the cooling system aerodynamics of an operating piston engine installed in a light aircraft wing panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of the drag and of the nacelle internal pressures on a wing and nacelle that housed a horizontally opposed piston engine were made in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center. These tests are follow-ons to earlier tests made with the same wing and nacelle but in which the engine was replaced with an electric motor and an adjustable orifice plate. In the initial tests the orifice plate was used to control the rate of cooling-air flow through the nacelle and thereby to simulate a range of gasoline engine types. Good agreement was found between the results of those tests and of the test reported here. Also, the upper and lower plenum pressure and cooling-air flow rate were found to be related by conventional equations used to represent the flow through orifices. Tests were run with three cooling air inlet sizes over a free-stream velocity range from 50 to 150 knots, an angle of attack range from 0 deg to 10 deg, and a cowl-flap deflection range from 0 deg to 30 deg. The data were analyzed by computing a flow coefficient similar to that used in the analysis of orifices. It was found that all of the flow coefficient values fell within a band that varied linearly with inlet area. The linear mean line through this band provides an estimate of the relationship between cooling-air flow rate and upper plenum pressure over a wide range of test conditions.

Corsiglia, V. R.; Katz, J.

1981-01-01

72

Advanced fabrication techniques for hydrogen-cooled engine structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Described is a program for development of coolant passage geometries, material systems, and joining processes that will produce long-life hydrogen-cooled structures for scramjet applications. Tests were performed to establish basic material properties, and samples constructed and evaluated to substantiate fabrication processes and inspection techniques. Results of the study show that the basic goal of increasing the life of hydrogen-cooled structures two orders of magnitude relative to that of the Hypersonic Research Engine can be reached with available means. Estimated life is 19000 cycles for the channels and 16000 cycles for pin-fin coolant passage configurations using Nickel 201. Additional research is required to establish the fatigue characteristics of dissimilar-metal coolant passages (Nickel 201/Inconel 718) and to investigate the embrittling effects of the hydrogen coolant.

Buchmann, O. A.; Arefian, V. V.; Warren, H. A.; Vuigner, A. A.; Pohlman, M. J.

1985-01-01

73

A Regeneratively-Cooled Thrust Chamber for the Fastrac Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document consists of presentation slides about the development of the regeneratively cooled thrust chamber for the Fastrac engine. The Fastrac engine was originally developed to demonstrate low cost design and fabrication methods. It was intended to be used in an expendable booster. The regen thrust chamber enables a more cost efficient test program. Using the low cost design and fabrication methodology designed for the 12K regeneratively cooled chamber, the contractor designed, developed and fabricated a regeneratively cooled thrust chamber for the Fastrac engine.

Brown, Kendall; Sparks, Dave; Woodcock, Gordon; Jim Turner (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

74

High-temperature solar-cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

The favorable aspects and the constraints on increasing the design point energy input temperature of solar cooling systems are identified. The study is primarily concerned with heat engines used to drive vapor compression chillers. Using existing technology, a 500/sup 0/C solar Rankine chiller could be expected to have a design point COP about 1.3 to 1.4 times as large as the design point COP of 150/sup 0/C chillers. In order to maximize the COP, water cooling is preferable to air cooling. Concentrating collectors are required to obtain acceptable efficiency at high output temperatures, and solar tracking is required. The value of heat storage in water, organic or inorganic fluids or phase change materials is discussed. Building codes and standards are considered that may limit operating temperatures and pressures, selection for working fluids, or require stationary engineers. Intermediate and large capacity mature high-temperature solar cooling systems may be expected to have somewhat lower first cost than lower temperature systems. The space heating function could best be provided in a high-temperature system by arranging the vapor compressor component as a heat pump. (LEW)

Curran, H.M.

1981-03-01

75

Non-intrusive cooling system  

DOEpatents

A readily replaceable heat exchange cooling jacket for applying fluid to a system conduit pipe. The cooling jacket comprises at least two members, separable into upper and lower portions. A chamber is formed between the conduit pipe and cooling jacket once the members are positioned about the pipe. The upper portion includes a fluid spray means positioned above the pipe and the bottom portion includes a fluid removal means. The heat exchange cooling jacket is adaptable with a drain tank, a heat exchanger, a pump and other standard equipment to provide a system for removing heat from a pipe. A method to remove heat from a pipe, includes the steps of enclosing a portion of the pipe with a jacket to form a chamber between an outside surface of the pipe and the cooling jacket; spraying cooling fluid at low pressure from an upper portion of the cooling jacket, allowing the fluid to flow downwardly by gravity along the surface of the pipe toward a bottom portion of the chamber; and removing the fluid at the bottom portion of the chamber.

Morrison, Edward F. (Burnt Hills, NY); Bergman, John W. (Barrington, NH)

2001-05-22

76

Red Storm\\/XT Supercomputers Cooling System Design and Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing the optimal design for a supercomputer system is a complex and time consuming process. This paper describes a sequential optimization approach that can lead to the most effective computer cooling system design in the shortest time possible. Ways of seeking effective Pareto designs are shown. Cost driven quality engineering was applied to develop cooling solutions for chips, printed circuit

Alexander I. Yatskov

2007-01-01

77

Cooling Tests of an Airplane Equipped with an NACA Cowling and a Wing-duct Cooling System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cooling tests were made of a Northrop A-17A attack airplane successively equipped with a conventional.NACA cowling and with a wing-duct cooling system. The method of cooling the engine by admitting air from the propeller slipstream into wing ducts, passing it first through the accessory compartment and then over the engine from rear to front, appeared to offer possibilities for improved engine cooling, increased cooling of the accessories, and better fairing of the power-plant installation. The results showed that ground cooling for the wing duct system without cowl flap was better than for the NACA cowling with flap; ground cooling was appreciably improved by installing a cowl flap. Satisfactory temperatures were maintained in both climb and high-speed flight, but, with the use of conventional baffles, a greater quantity of cooling air appeared to be required for the wing duct system.

Turner, L I , Jr; Bierman, David; Boothy, W B

1941-01-01

78

Space engine safety system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rocket engine safety system was designed to initiate control procedures to minimize damage to the engine or vehicle or test stand in the event of an engine failure. The features and the implementation issues associated with rocket engine safety systems are discussed, as well as the specific concerns of safety systems applied to a space-based engine and long duration space missions. Examples of safety system features and architectures are given, based on recent safety monitoring investigations conducted for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and for future liquid rocket engines. Also, the general design and implementation process for rocket engine safety systems is presented.

Maul, William A.; Meyer, Claudia M.

1991-01-01

79

Exhaust Heat CoGeneration System Using Phase Change Cooling for Heavy Duty Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A waste heat recovery system composed of a two phase cooling system, an exhaust heat exchanger, and mini-turbine (expander) has been proposed by Henry Works, Inc to generate auxiliary power via harvesting engine cooling and exhaust heat loss from heavy duty vehicles. The objective of this research is to evaluate the two phase cooling system through engine dynamometer testing and

Kiran K. Katta; Myoungjin Kim; Mike Taggett

80

Cooling Air Inlet and Exit Geometries on Aircraft Engine Installations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A semispan wing and nacelle of a typical general aviation twin-engine aircraft was tested to evaluate the cooling capability and drag or several nacelle shapes; the nacelle shapes included cooling air inlet and exit variations. The tests were conducted in the Ames Research Center 40 x 80-ft Wind Tunnel. It was found that the cooling air inlet geometry of opposed piston engine installations has a major effect on inlet pressure recovery, but only a minor effect on drag. Exit location showed large effect on drag, especially for those locations on the sides of the nacelle where the suction characteristics were based on interaction with the wing surface pressures.

Katz, Joseph; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Barlow, Philip R.

1982-01-01

81

Solar-powered cooling system  

DOEpatents

A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system uses nanostructural materials made of high specific surface area adsorption aerogel as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material. A circulation system circulates refrigerant from the nanostructural material to a cooling unit.

Farmer, Joseph C

2013-12-24

82

Gas hydrate cool storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate

M. P. Ternes; R. J. Kedl

1984-01-01

83

Systems engineering management plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is a comprehensive and effective tool used to assist in the management of systems engineering efforts. It is intended to guide the work of all those involved in the project. The SEMP is comprised of three main sections: technical project planning and control, systems engineering process, and engineering specialty integration. The contents of each

Tamara S

2009-01-01

84

Serial cooling of a combustor for a gas turbine engine  

DOEpatents

A combustor for a gas turbine engine uses compressed air to cool a combustor liner and uses at least a portion of the same compressed air for combustion air. A flow diverting mechanism regulates compressed air flow entering a combustion air plenum feeding combustion air to a plurality of fuel nozzles. The flow diverting mechanism adjusts combustion air according to engine loading.

Abreu, Mario E. (Poway, CA); Kielczyk, Janusz J. (Escondido, CA)

2001-01-01

85

Helical Muon Beam Cooling Channel Engineering Design  

SciTech Connect

The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), a novel technique for six-dimensional (6D) ionization cooling of muon beams, has shown considerable promise based on analytic and simulation studies. However, the implementation of this revolutionary method of muon cooling requires new techniques for the integration of hydrogen-pressurized, high-power RF cavities into the low-temperature superconducting magnets of the HCC. We present the progress toward a conceptual design for the integration of 805 MHz RF cavities into a 10 T Nb{sub 3}Sn based HCC test section. We include discussions on the pressure and thermal barriers needed within the cryostat to maintain operation of the magnet at 4.2 K while operating the RF and energy absorber at a higher temperature. Additionally, we include progress on the Nb{sub 3}Sn helical solenoid design.

Kashikhin, V.S.; Lopes, M.L.; Romanov, G.V.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Yonehara, K.; Yu, M.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R.P.; Kazakevich, G.M.; Marhauser, F.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

2012-05-01

86

Cooling systems for ultra-high temperature turbines.  

PubMed

This paper describes an introduction of research and development activities on steam cooling in gas turbines at elevated temperature of 1500 C and 1700 C level, partially including those on water cooling. Descriptions of a new cooling system that employs heat pipes are also made. From the view point of heat transfer, its promising applicability is shown with experimental data and engine performance numerical evaluation. PMID:11460628

Yoshida, T

2001-05-01

87

Cooling System for Ramjet Engine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a ramjet powered vehicle having a bleed slot in the subsonic diffuser, for the ramjet combustor, which supplies air to a turbine for supplying power to vehicle accessories. A vortex tube is provided between the bleed slot and the tur...

M. B. Bergsten

1979-01-01

88

Solar heating\\/cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar heating and cooling system comprising a multi-tiered collector and heat exchanger is described that is mounted on a roof or installed in a vertical wall. Each tier of the exchanger includes a plurality of longitudinal channels with upper and lower manifolds communicating with all of the channels. A duct extends from each manifold into the premises being heated

Worthington

1977-01-01

89

Lamination cooling system formation method  

DOEpatents

An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

Rippel, Wally E. (Altadena, CA); Kobayashi, Daryl M. (Monrovia, CA)

2012-06-19

90

Lamination cooling system formation method  

DOEpatents

An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

Rippel, Wally E [Altadena, CA; Kobayashi, Daryl M [Monrovia, CA

2009-05-12

91

Power plant cooling systems: policy alternatives.  

PubMed

Policies and pressures emanating from the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act favor the installation of cooling towers, or closedcycle cooling systems, in power plants. An assessment of the relative risks of alternative cooling system designs indicates that, in general, adverse environmental effects associated with cooling towers are more certain, are of larger scale, and are more likely to be irreversible than impacts associated with once-through cooling systems and cooling reservoirs. Adverse environmental effects associated with once-through cooling and cooling reservoirs are largely amenable to mitigation in the context of resource management principles. These factors, together with the greater costs associated with cooling towers, indicate that wherever the feasibility is demonstrated and there is minimal risk to aquatic ecosystems, once-through cooling systems or cooling reservoirs should be preferred. PMID:17833533

Reynolds, J Z

1980-01-25

92

Servo type cooling system valve  

SciTech Connect

In a liquid coolant type engine temperature control system particularly for use in an automobile having coolant filled engine passages, a control valve assembly responsive to a pressure force balance generated from a selectively regulated coolant pressure and the coolant pressure in the engine passages for regulating the discharge of heated coolant from the engine passages, is described comprising: first hollow enclosure means defining a first interior space and having an inlet adapted to receive coolant from the engine passages and an outlet; second hollow enclosure means within the first interior and defining a second interior space; and a movable piston valve member reciprocally supported in the cylinder with an end portion thereof covering the opening of the cylinder to the first interior.

Miller, P.D.

1988-05-17

93

NASA Systems Engineering Handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive. Superseded by: NASA/SP-2007-6105 Rev 1 (20080008301).

Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; Mcduffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

1995-01-01

94

Power plant cooling systems: policy alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policies and pressures emanating from the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act favor the installation of cooling towers, or closed-cycle cooling systems, in power plants. An assessment of the relative risks of alternative cooling system designs indicates that, in general, adverse environmental effects associated with cooling towers are more certain, are of larger scale, and are more

J. Z. Reynolds

1980-01-01

95

Power Plant Cooling Systems: Policy Alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policies and pressures emanating from the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act favor the installation of cooling towers, or closed-cycle cooling systems, in power plants. An assessment of the relative risks of alternative cooling system designs indicates that, in general, adverse environmental effects associated with cooling towers are more certain, are of larger scale, and are more

John Z. Reynolds

1980-01-01

96

Gas hydrate cool storage system  

DOEpatents

The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

1984-09-12

97

A System for Vapor Cooling Electronic Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application pertains generally to heat transfer systems and more particularly to a closed system for cooling electronic equipment. A vapor cooling system comprises a liquid boiled by heat from a magnetron and collected and forced upward by the ...

H. Boehm

1976-01-01

98

Commercial Thermoelectric Cooling Systems for Military Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research examines current thermoelectric cooling (TEC) systems for possible microclimate cooling applications. TEC systems offer simplicity, but have some drawbacks. Although TEC systems have few moving parts, the power required for operation and the...

M. W. Wolfson, R. Masadi

1993-01-01

99

Keep it Cool an Engineering Design Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Engineering Design Challenge is intended to help fourth grade students apply the concepts of the flow of heat from a hot object to a cold object and that heat flow may cause objects to change temperature. It is not intended as an initial introduction to this benchmark.

Herold, Leeanne

2012-09-13

100

Evaluation of existing cooling systems for reducing cooling power consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was designed to estimate the cooling load power consumption during the summer in the hot and humid areas of Iran. The actual electrical energy consumption for cooling systems of some typical buildings with various applications (3 residential home buildings, 2 industrial plant buildings, a trade center with 38 shops, 3 public sectors and a city hospital) in a

M. S. Hatamipour; H. Mahiyar; M. Taheri

2007-01-01

101

Solar engineering - 1981; Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference on Systems Simulation, Economic Analysis/Solar Heating and Cooling Operational Results, Reno, NV, April 27-May 1, 1981  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress made toward the commercialization of solar energy technologies as of 1981 is assessed, and attention is given to the future uses and impacts of solar energy. Attention is given to the results of several years of monitoring and modifying solar heating and cooling on residential and commercial structures. Solar system simulation and analysis methods are reviewed, covering the performance and operations of passive and active systems, thermosyphon systems, heat pumps and phase change systems. Simulations of system components are discussed, as are means to validate existing computer simulation codes, particularly the TRNSYS program. Control systems and logic for collector systems are explored, including analyses of building loads and climates, and numerical models of the economics of solar heating systems are presented. Performance simulations and economic analyses are also outlined for wind and photovoltaic systems, and for industrial solar heating systems. Finally, fundamental studies of corrosion, steam flow, wind loading, and scaling in solar systems are described.

Reid, R. L.; Murphy, L. M.; Ward, D. S.

102

Cooling systems for satellite remote sensing instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of a cryogenic cooling system for the Pollution Monitoring Satellite (PMS) are discussed. Studies were conducted to make the following determinations: (1) the characteristics and use of proven and state-of-the-art cryogenic cooling systems for six specified ranges of performance, (2) the system most applicable for each of the six cooling categories, and (3) conceptual designs for candidate system for each of the six representative cooling categories. The six cooling categories of electrical loads are defined. The desired mission life for the cooling system is two years with both continuous and intermittent operating conditions.

Copeland, R. J.; Oren, J. A.

1974-01-01

103

46 CFR 153.432 - Cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooling systems. 153.432 Section 153.432 Shipping...Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.432 Cooling systems. (a) Each cargo cooling system must have an equivalent standby...

2013-10-01

104

Cooling system for superconducting magnet  

DOEpatents

A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir.

Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed (Framingham, MA)

1998-01-01

105

Cooling characteristics of a 2-row radial engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of cooling tests conducted on a calibrated GR-1535 Pratt and Whitney Wasp, Jr. Engine installed in a Vought X04U-2 airplane. The tests were made in the NACA full-scale tunnel at air speeds from 70 to 120 miles per hour, at engine speeds from 1,500 to 2,600 r.p.m., and at manifold pressures from 19 to 33 inches of mercury absolute. A Smith controllable propeller was used to facilitate obtaining the different combinations of engine speed, power, and manifold pressure.

Schey, Oscar W; Rollin, Vern G

1937-01-01

106

Comparative report: performance of active solar space cooling systems, 1982 cooling season  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a detailed analysis of solar absorption cooling and solar Rankine cooling processes as represented by the National Solar Data Network (NSDN) systems. Five solar cooling systems were monitored in 1982; four of these have absorption chillers and one has a Rankine engine. Of the four absorption chillers, two are directly solar fired and two are boiler fired using solar energy as the preheat to the boiler. The composite data for the five sites covers the period from September 1981 through December 1982. There are 36 site months of data covered in the report. These are all commercial systems with buildings ranging in size from 5000 to 84,000 square feet. There are three evacuated-tube, one flat-plate, and one linear concentrating collector systems. Analyses performed for which comparative data is provided include: Energy savings and operating costs in terms of Btu; Overall solar cooling efficiency and coefficient of performance; Hourly building cooling loads; Actual and long-term weather conditions; Collector performance; Chiller performance; Normalized building cooling loads per cooling degree-day and building area; and Cooling solar fractions, design and measured. Conclusions and lessons learned from the comparative analysis are presented.

Logee, T.; Kendall, P.

1982-01-01

107

Open Systems (Architecture) Engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Overview of this document: discussion of key open system concepts and definitions, conformance and compatibility management, open system engineering approach, open system policy, today's transition environment and open system transition process.

N. W. Kowalski

1996-01-01

108

Systems Engineering and Complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between the fields of systems engineering and complexity theory is only beginning. This paper quickly explores the two fields to seek the relationship between them. Systems engineering is usually defined in terms of the activities that are used in the field: mission\\/purpose definition, requirements engineering, system architecting, system implementation, technical analysis, technical management\\/leadership, scope management, and verification\\/validation. Complexity

Eric Honour

109

Engine Monitoring Systems For Jet Aircraft Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives were to evaluate the effectiveness of DoD systems being developed and systems being used to monitor the conditions of jet aircraft engines, including the ability of the monitoring systems to provide accurate and reliable engine performance ...

1996-01-01

110

Similarity constraints in testing of cooled engine parts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study is made of the effect of testing cooled parts of current and advanced gas turbine engines at the reduced temperature and pressure conditions which maintain similarity with the engine environment. Some of the problems facing the experimentalist in evaluating heat transfer and aerodynamic performance when hardware is tested at conditions other than the actual engine environment are considered. Low temperature and pressure test environments can simulate the performance of actual size prototype engine hardware within the tolerance of experimental accuracy if appropriate similarity conditions are satisfied. Failure to adhere to these similarity constraints because of test facility limitations or other reasons, can result in a number of serious errors in projecting the performance of test hardware to engine conditions.

Colladay, R. S.; Stepka, F. S.

1974-01-01

111

A Regeneratively Cooled Thrust Chamber For The Fastrac Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abstract This paper presents the development of a low-cost, regeneratively-cooled thrust chamber for the Fastrac engine. The chamber was fabricated using hydraformed copper tubing to form the coolant jacket and wrapped with a fiber reinforced polymer composite Material to form a structural jacket. The thrust chamber design and fabrication approach was based upon Space America. Inc.'s 12,000 lb regeneratively-cooled LOX/kerosene rocket engine. Fabrication of regeneratively cooled thrust chambers by tubewall construction dates back to the early US ballistic missile programs. The most significant innovations in this design was the development of a low-cost process for fabrication from copper tubing (nickel alloy was the usual practice) and use of graphite composite overwrap as the pressure containment, which yields an easily fabricated, lightweight pressure jacket around the copper tubes A regeneratively-cooled reusable thrust chamber can benefit the Fastrac engine program by allowing more efficient (cost and scheduler testing). A proof-of-concept test article has been fabricated and will he tested at Marshall Space Flight Center in the late Summer or Fall of 2000.

Brown, Kendall K.; Sparks, Dave; Woodcock, Gordon

2000-01-01

112

Novel Active Transient Cooling Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under this grant, researcher has conducted detailed studies of magnetocaloric nanomaterials for solid state cooling applications. Such materials are of great current interest in solid state cooling. Present work on synthesis, characterization and property...

E. V. Sampathkumaran, G. Ramanath, P. Keblinski, R. V. Ramanujan

2010-01-01

113

Optimization of the engineering design for the Lansing District Cooling System by comparative analysis of the impact of advanced technologies on a conventional design approach. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Lansing Board of Water and Light (LBWL) began investigating development of a cooling district in the Lansing Downtown in 1989 in order to retain and build summer load for its steam utility. A feasibility study was conducted in conjunction with SFT, Inc. and ZBA, Inc. which addressed many factors such as marketability of the product, impact on the summer steam load, distribution system development, system design, probable capital and operating costs, reliability and environmental and other regulatory impacts on a preliminary feasibility basis. The Phase I study completed in September of 1989 provided highly promising results for establishing a District Cooling System (DCS). An existing chilled water production facility owned by the State of Michigan was identified as a potential location for a DCS plant. With these changes a review of the feasibility with a new set of alternatives and sensitivities was evaluated. This enhancement to the Phase I Study was nearing completion when the LBWL in conjunction with Energy, Mines and Resources Canada proposed to conduct the Phase II project in conjunction with DOE. The project was structured to proceed along a dual track to demonstrate the impact of the application of various innovative technologies.

Not Available

1994-02-01

114

Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system  

DOEpatents

The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream. 3 figures.

Carr, P.

1991-10-15

115

Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system  

DOEpatents

The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream.

Carr, Peter (Cary, NC)

1991-01-01

116

Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system  

DOEpatents

In a modular liquid-metal pool breeder reactor, a radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system is disclosed for removing the residual heat resulting from the shutdown of a reactor by a completely passive heat transfer system. A shell surrounds the reactor and containment vessel, separated from the containment vessel by an air passage. Natural circulation of air is provided by air vents at the lower and upper ends of the shell. Longitudinal, radial and inwardly extending fins extend from the shell into the air passage. The fins are heated by radiation from the containment vessel and convect the heat to the circulating air. Residual heat from the primary reactor vessel is transmitted from the reactor vessel through an inert gas plenum to a guard or containment vessel designed to contain any leaking coolant. The containment vessel is conventional and is surrounded by the shell.

Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

1987-01-01

117

Improved emission characteristics of HCCI engine by various premixed fuels and cooled EGR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates partial HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) combustion as a control mechanism for HCCI combustion. The premixed fuel is supplied via a port fuel injection system located in the intake port of DI diesel engine. Cooled EGR is introduced for the suppression of advanced autoignition of the premixed fuel. The premixed fuels used in this experiment are gasoline,

Dae Sik Kim; Chang Sik Lee

2006-01-01

118

Air-Cooling Effects of Fins on a Motorcycle Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of the number of fins, fin pitch and wind velocity on air-cooling were investigated using experimental cylinders for an air-cooled engine of a motorcycle. Experimental cylinders that had a various number of fins and fin pitches were tested in a wind tunnel. Then the temperature inside of the cylinder, on the surface of the fins and in the space between the fins was measured. Results indicated that the heat release from the cylinder did not improve when the cylinder had more fins and too narrow a fin pitch at lower wind velocities, because it was difficult for the air to flow into the narrower space between the fins, so the temperature between them increased. We also obtained the expression of average fin surface heat transfer coefficient derived from the fin pitch and the wind velocity. This expression is useful for the fin design of an air-cooled cylinder.

Yoshida, Masao; Ishihara, Soichi; Murakami, Yoshio; Nakashima, Kohei; Yamamoto, Masago

119

Engine system assessment study using Martian propellants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A feasibility study was performed that identified and characterized promising chemical propulsion system designs that utilize two or more of the propellant combinations: LOX/H2, LOX/CH4 and LOX/CO. The engine systems examined focused on the usage of common subsystem/component hardware where feasible. From the evaluation baseline employed, tripropellant MTV LOX cooled and bipropellant LEV and MEV engine systems are identified.

Pelaccio, D.; Jacobs, M.; Collins, J.; Scheil, C.; Meyer, M.

1992-07-01

120

Optimizing cooling policy for power plant system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic programing model was developed to minimize the cooling costs of a series of power plants along a tributary discharging into an estuary. Heat production and dissipation equations are utilized. The cooling method studied is a once-through, no recycle system utilizing cooling ponds. Minimal cost policy is subject to several constraints, including stream and estuary standards, land availability, budget

L. Lum; L. W. Mays

1979-01-01

121

Aircraft Engine Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective is to develop the capability to numerically model the performance of gas turbine engines used for aircraft propulsion. This capability will provide turbine engine designers with a means of accurately predicting the performance of new engines in a system environment prior to building and testing. The 'numerical test cell' developed under this project will reduce the number of component and engine tests required during development. As a result, the project will help to reduce the design cycle time and cost of gas turbine engines. This capability will be distributed to U.S. turbine engine manufacturers and air framers. This project focuses on goals of maintaining U.S. superiority in commercial gas turbine engine development for the aeronautics industry.

Veres, Joseph P.

2003-01-01

122

Reactor core isolation cooling system  

DOEpatents

A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

Cooke, F.E.

1992-12-08

123

Reactor core isolation cooling system  

DOEpatents

A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom.

Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA)

1992-01-01

124

Rankine-cycle heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design for domestic or commercial solar heating and cooling system based on rankine heat pump cycle includes detailed drawings, performance data, equipment specifications, and other pertinent information.

1979-01-01

125

Advanced regenerative-cooling techniques for future space transportation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of regenerative-cooling techniques applicable to advanced planned engine designs for space booster and orbit transportation systems has developed the status of the key elements of this cooling mode. This work is presented in terms of gas side, coolant side, wall conduction heat transfer, and chamber life fatigue margin considerations. Described are preliminary heat transfer and trade analyses performed using developed techniques combining channel wall construction with advanced, high-strength, high-thermal-conductivity materials (NARloy-Z or Zr-Cu alloys) in high heat flux regions, combined with lightweight steel tubular nozzle wall construction. Advanced cooling techniques such as oxygen cooling and dual-mode hydrocarbon/hydrogen fuel operation and their limitations are indicated for the regenerative cooling approach.

Wagner, W. R.; Shoji, J. M.

1975-01-01

126

Engine balancing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a single-cylinder engine comprising a crank shaft, a crank web connected to the crank shaft, a connecting rod connected to the crank web through a crank pin, a cylinder, and a piston connected to the connecting rod to move in reciprocatory movement within the cylinder. An engine balancing system is described comprising: a counter balancer supported by

T. Fujikawa; M. Hirata; S. Tamba; A. Miguchi

1986-01-01

127

Recent Patents in Absorption Cooling Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absorption cooling offers the possibility of using heat to provide cooling. For this purpose heat from a conventional boiler can be used or waste heat and solar energy. When the latter systems are used absorption systems minimize also the adverse effects of burning fossil fuels and thus protect the environment. Absorption systems fall into two major categories, depending on the

Soteris Kalogirou

2008-01-01

128

Development of Cooling System for Gyrotron Collector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the development of cooling system for 42 GHz, 200 kW gyrotron collector is presented. The design of the cooling duct has been finalized after different analyses such as, the fluid analysis, the thermal analysis, the structural analysis, etc. All analyses have been carried out by ANSYS software and the development of the cooling system based on the final design is performed.

Goswami, Uttam Kumar; Singh, Udaybir; Kumar, Nitin; Sahu, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Anil; Yadav, Vivek; Kumar, Manoj; Khatun, Hasina; Dua, Rajeshwar Lal; Sinha, A. K.

2013-08-01

129

Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on technological advancements in the fields of solar collectors, thermal storage systems, and solar heating and cooling systems. Diagrams aid in the understanding of the thermodynamics of the systems. (CP)

Ward, Dan S.

1976-01-01

130

Combustion engine system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flow through catalytic reactor which selectively catalytically decomposes methanol into a soot free hydrogen rich product gas utilizing engine exhaust at temperatures of 200 to 650 C to provide the heat for vaporizing and decomposing the methanol is described. The reactor is combined with either a spark ignited or compression ignited internal combustion engine or a gas turbine to provide a combustion engine system. The system may be fueled entirely by the hydrogen rich gas produced in the methanol decomposition reactor or the system may be operated on mixed fuels for transient power gain and for cold start of the engine system. The reactor includes a decomposition zone formed by a plurality of elongated cylinders which contain a body of vapor permeable, methanol decomposition catalyst preferably a shift catalyst such as copper-zinc.

Houseman, John (inventor); Voecks, Gerald E. (inventor)

1986-01-01

131

Prefeasibility Study on Cool Storage Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From the overview undertaken it was realized that cool storage systems have already been commercialized in the USA and in few countries in Europe. In the USA they were, however, mainly applied to air conditioning systems. Cool was stored in the form of bo...

Y. ElMahgary V. Kekkonen A. Laitinen H. Pihala

1988-01-01

132

Steam powered heating\\/cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cooling system is described having a boiler, a heat source for the boiler including a burner, an absorption machine having a generator section and an absorber section, a steam trap for the generator section of the absorption machine, a condensate tank with a vent line to atmosphere and work to be heated. The cooling system consists of a steam

1987-01-01

133

Feasibility of cool storage systems in refrigeration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present report, the economic viability and technical feasibility of selected cool storage systems are considered. Cool storage has clear potential for several applications: in connection with air-conditioning systems, domestic refrigerating and freezing systems; commercially e.g., in the dairy and vegetable industries; and in deep freezing, as in the meat industry. Air-conditioning has limited significance in Finland. For this reason it was not investigated in this study. In domestic refrigeration and freezing two systems were investigated; a controlled cooling/heating system and a simple built-in system in individual refrigerators and freezers. The central cooling/heating system in houses was found to be economically unattractive. It also has several technical drawbacks. The simple built-in system appeared to be promising. The amount of savings is rationally a function of the difference between day and night tariffs and the costs of installing an automatic switch and storage media. In the vegetable and dairy industries cool storage also has considerable potential. Several systems were investigated in this respect and compared to the conventional system. The cool storage system using Cristopia balls, one of the most common commercial systems available in Europe, was not economical at a tariff difference of 10 p/k Wh or more. Cool storage for freezing in meat plants was also investigated.

Elmahgary, Yehia; Kekkonen, Veikko; Laitinen, Ari; Pihala, Hannu

1989-05-01

134

Gas Hydrate Cool Storage System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of...

M. P. Ternes R. J. Kedl

1984-01-01

135

Engineering pluripotent information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pluripotent information system is an open and distributed information system that (i) automatically adapts at runtime to changing operating conditions, and (ii) satisfies both the requirements anticipated at development time, and those unanticipated before but relevant at runtime. Engineering pluripotency into an information system therefore responds to two recurring critical issues: (i) the need for adaptability given the uncertainty

Ivan J. Jureta; Stphane Faulkner; Jean Vanderdonckt

2008-01-01

136

Solar Assisted Adsorptive Desiccant Cooling System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desiccant cooling processes can supply dry air by using lower temperature heat energy such as waste heat or solar heat. Especially, solar heat is useful heat source for the desiccant cooling since solar heat in summer tends to be surplus. This paper discusses the hourly cooling performance of the solar assisted desiccant cooling system, which consists of a desiccant wheel, a thermal wheel, two evaporative coolers, a cooling coil and flat plate solar water heater, assuming that the cooling system is applied to an office room of 250m3 in volume. The estimation indicated that the surface area needed to satisfy the dehumidifying performance in a sunny day was at least 30m2. Furthermore, surface area of 40m2 or larger provided a surplus dehumidifying performance causing a sensible cooling effect in evaporative cooler. Surface area of 30 m2 did not satisfy the dehumidifying performance required for high humidity condition, over 18.0g/kg(DA). The cooling demand of the cooling coil increased in such humidity condition due to the decrease in the sensible cooling effect of evaporative cooler. Auxiliary heater was required in a cloudy day since the temperature of water supplied from solar water heater of 40m2 did not reach sufficient level.

Ohkura, Masashi; Kodama, Akio

137

Ice pond cooling system for power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of melting ice to cool the power plant condenser effluent is considered as an alternative approach for high latitude locations where ice is readily available. The main interest in this technique is the expected reduction in water consumption. The results of a feasibility study of the engineering and economical possibilities of a power plant employing this technique are

Arthur C. Miller; Jorge A. Pena; John Urbsanski; Sonja N. Kerr

1983-01-01

138

A new combined cooling, heating and power system driven by solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) system is proposed. This system is driven by solar energy, which is different from the current CCHP systems with gas turbine or engine as prime movers. This system combines a Rankine cycle and an ejector refrigeration cycle, which could produce cooling output, heating output and power output simultaneously. The effects of hour

Jiangfeng Wang; Yiping Dai; Lin Gao; Shaolin Ma

2009-01-01

139

Comparative Report: Performance of Active Solar Space Cooling Systems, 1982 Cooling Season.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a detailed analysis of solar absorption cooling and solar Rankine cooling processes as represented by the National Solar Data Network (NSDN) systems. Five solar cooling systems were monitored in 1982; four of these have absorption chi...

P. Kendall T. Logee

1982-01-01

140

Transpiring Cooling of a Scram-Jet Engine Combustion Chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The peak cold-wall heating rate generated in a combustion chamber of a scram-jet engine can exceed 2000 Btu/sq ft sec (approx. 2344 W/sq cm). Therefore, a very effective heat dissipation mechanism is required to sustain such a high heating load. This research focused on the transpiration cooling mechanism that appears to be a promising approach to remove a large amount of heat from the engine wall. The transpiration cooling mechanism has two aspects. First, initial computations suggest that there is a reduction, as much as 75%, in the heat flux incident on the combustion chamber wall due to the transpirant modifying the combustor boundary layer. Secondly, the heat reaching the combustor wall is removed from the structure in a very effective manner by the transpirant. It is the second of these two mechanisms that is investigated experimentally in the subject paper. A transpiration cooling experiment using a radiant heating method, that provided a heat flux as high as 200 Btu/sq ft sec ( approx. 234 W/sq cm) on the surface of a specimen, was performed. The experiment utilized an arc-lamp facility (60-kW radiant power output) to provide a uniform heat flux to a test specimen. For safety reasons, helium gas was used as the transpirant in the experiments. The specimens were 1.9-cm diameter sintered, powdered-stainless-steel tubes of various porosities and a 2.54cm square tube with perforated multi-layered walls. A 15-cm portion of each specimen was heated. The cooling effectivenes and efficiencies by transpiration for each specimen were obtained using the experimental results. During the testing, various test specimens displayed a choking phenomenon in which the transpirant flow was limited as the heat flux was increased. The paper includes a preliminary analysis of the transpiration cooling mechanism and a scaling conversion study that translates the results from helium tests into the case when a hydrogen medium is used.

Choi, Sang H.; Scotti, Stephen J.; Song, Kyo D.; Ries,Heidi

1997-01-01

141

System identification of jet engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

System identification plays an important role in advanced control systems for jet engines, in which controls are performed adaptively using data from the actual engine and the identified engine. An identification technique for jet engine using the Constant Gain Extended Kalman Filter (CGEKF) is described. The filter is constructed for a two-spool turbofan engine. The CGEKF filter developed here can

N. Sugiyama

2000-01-01

142

HiPER laser cooling system elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HiPER laser will need several large cooling systems. We will start from a thermal budget. We will consider different solutions (Liquefaction vs Refrigeration cycles). We will set some key elements such as thermodynamic optimization and economic approach As for the tritium item, the cooling budget will be a major contributor for a material point of view as for a financial aspect.

Guillaume, Didier

2011-05-01

143

Engine system assessment study using Martian propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A top-level feasibility study was conducted that identified and characterized promising chemical propulsion system designs which use two or more of the following propellant combinations: LOX/H2, LOX/CH4, and LOX/CO. The engine systems examined emphasized the usage of common subsystem/component hardware where possible. In support of this study, numerous mission scenarios were characterized that used various combinations of Earth, lunar, and Mars propellants to establish engine system requirements to assess the promising engine system design concept examined, and to determine overall exploration leverage of such systems compared to state-of-the-art cryogenic (LOX/H2) propulsion systems. Initially in the study, critical propulsion system technologies were assessed. Candidate expander and gas generator cycle LOX/H2/CO, LOX/H2/CH4, and LOX/CO/CH4 engine system designs were parametrically evaluated. From this evaluation baseline, tripropellant Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) LOX cooled and bipropellant Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) and Mars Excursion Vehicle (MEV) engine systems were identified. Representative tankage designs for a MTV were also investigated. Re-evaluation of the missions using the baseline engine design showed that in general the slightly lower performance, smaller, lower weight gas generator cycle-based engines required less overall mission Mars and in situ propellant production (ISPP) infrastructure support compared to the larger, heavier, higher performing expander cycle engine systems.

Pelaccio, Dennis; Jacobs, Mark; Scheil, Christine; Collins, John

1992-01-01

144

Engine system assessment study using Martian propellants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A top-level feasibility study was conducted that identified and characterized promising chemical propulsion system designs which use two or more of the following propellant combinations: LOX/H2, LOX/CH4, and LOX/CO. The engine systems examined emphasized the usage of common subsystem/component hardware where possible. In support of this study, numerous mission scenarios were characterized that used various combinations of Earth, lunar, and Mars propellants to establish engine system requirements to assess the promising engine system design concept examined, and to determine overall exploration leverage of such systems compared to state-of-the-art cryogenic (LOX/H2) propulsion systems. Initially in the study, critical propulsion system technologies were assessed. Candidate expander and gas generator cycle LOX/H2/CO, LOX/H2/CH4, and LOX/CO/CH4 engine system designs were parametrically evaluated. From this evaluation baseline, tripropellant Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) LOX cooled and bipropellant Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) and Mars Excursion Vehicle (MEV) engine systems were identified. Representative tankage designs for a MTV were also investigated. Re-evaluation of the missions using the baseline engine design showed that in general the slightly lower performance, smaller, lower weight gas generator cycle-based engines required less overall mission Mars and in situ propellant production (ISPP) infrastructure support compared to the larger, heavier, higher performing expander cycle engine systems.

Pelaccio, Dennis; Jacobs, Mark; Scheil, Christine; Collins, John

1992-06-01

145

Gas hydrate cool storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is a process for formation of a gas hydrate to be used as a cool storage medium using a refrigerant in water. Mixing of the immiscible refrigerant and water is effected by addition of a surfactant and agitation. The difficult problem of subcooling during the process is overcome by using the surfactant and agitation and performance of the

Mark P. Ternes; Robert J. Kedl

1985-01-01

146

Readings in Systems Engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This present collection was inspired by seven papers prepared by the NASA Alumni League, illustrating the members' systems engineering experience. These papers make up the heart of this collection. We have supplemented them with papers describing industry processes and other governmental practices to illustrate the diversity of systems engineering as it is formulated and practiced. This is one discipline that clearly benefits from cross-fertilization and infusion of new ideas. There is also a wide variety of tools and techniques described herein, some standard and some unique.

Hoban, Francis T. (editor); Lawbaugh, William M. (editor)

1993-01-01

147

Cooling Classical Particles with a Microcanonical Szilard Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of extracting energy from a system in a cyclic process is discussed. We present an explicit example where a system, initially prepared in a microcanonical state, is able to perform such an operation. The example is similar to the Szilard engine, but the microcanonical initial condition allows one to design a protocol where measurement is not necessary.

Marathe, Rahul; Parrondo, J. M. R.

2010-06-01

148

Cooling Classical Particles with a Microcanonical Szilard Engine  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of extracting energy from a system in a cyclic process is discussed. We present an explicit example where a system, initially prepared in a microcanonical state, is able to perform such an operation. The example is similar to the Szilard engine, but the microcanonical initial condition allows one to design a protocol where measurement is not necessary.

Marathe, Rahul; Parrondo, J. M. R. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear and GISC, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

2010-06-18

149

Cooling classical particles with a microcanonical Szilard engine.  

PubMed

The possibility of extracting energy from a system in a cyclic process is discussed. We present an explicit example where a system, initially prepared in a microcanonical state, is able to perform such an operation. The example is similar to the Szilard engine, but the microcanonical initial condition allows one to design a protocol where measurement is not necessary. PMID:20867314

Marathe, Rahul; Parrondo, J M R

2010-06-18

150

Gas hydrate cool storage system  

SciTech Connect

This invention is a process for formation of a gas hydrate to be used as a cool storage medium using a refrigerant in water. Mixing of the immiscible refrigerant and water is effected by addition of a surfactant and agitation. The difficult problem of subcooling during the process is overcome by using the surfactant and agitation and performance of the process significantly improves and approaches ideal.

Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

1985-09-10

151

Understanding aging in containment cooling systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study has been performed to assess the effects of aging in nuclear power plant containment cooling systems. Failure records from national databases, as well as plant specific data were reviewed and analyzed to identify aging characteristics for this sys...

R. J. Lofaro

1993-01-01

152

Electromechanically-cooled germanium radiation detector system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have successfully developed and fielded an electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector (EMC-HPGe) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This detector system was designed to provide optimum energy resolution, long lifetime, and e...

A. Lavietes

1998-01-01

153

Modeling of High Capacity Passive Cooling System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High capacity passive cooling system studied in this project utilizes the thermoloop heat transfer concept (THTC). This device is an assemblage of Evaporator, Condenser, Non-return valves and Reservoir charged with a liquid for removing heat from any sour...

A. Islam

2009-01-01

154

Simulation of Laser Cooling and Trapping in Engineering Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced computer code is undergoing development for numerically simulating laser cooling and trapping of large numbers of atoms. The code is expected to be useful in practical engineering applications and to contribute to understanding of the roles that light, atomic collisions, background pressure, and numbers of particles play in experiments using laser-cooled and -trapped atoms. The code is based on semiclassical theories of the forces exerted on atoms by magnetic and optical fields. Whereas computer codes developed previously for the same purpose account for only a few physical mechanisms, this code incorporates many more physical mechanisms (including atomic collisions, sub-Doppler cooling mechanisms, Stark and Zeeman energy shifts, gravitation, and evanescent-wave phenomena) that affect laser-matter interactions and the cooling of atoms to submillikelvin temperatures. Moreover, whereas the prior codes can simulate the interactions of at most a few atoms with a resonant light field, the number of atoms that can be included in a simulation by the present code is limited only by computer memory. Hence, the present code represents more nearly completely the complex physics involved when using laser-cooled and -trapped atoms in engineering applications. Another advantage that the code incorporates is the possibility to analyze the interaction between cold atoms of different atomic number. Some properties that cold atoms of different atomic species have, like cross sections and the particular excited states they can occupy when interacting with each other and light fields, play important roles not yet completely understood in the new experiments that are under way in laboratories worldwide to form ultracold molecules. Other research efforts use cold atoms as holders of quantum information, and more recent developments in cavity quantum electrodynamics also use ultracold atoms to explore and expand new information-technology ideas. These experiments give a hint on the wide range of applications and technology developments that can be tackled using cold atoms and light fields. From more precise atomic clocks and gravity sensors to the development of quantum computers, there will be a need to completely understand the whole ensemble of physical mechanisms that play a role in the development of such technologies. The code also permits the study of the dynamic and steady-state operations of technologies that use cold atoms. The physical characteristics of lasers and fields can be time-controlled to give a realistic simulation of the processes involved such that the design process can determine the best control features to use. It is expected that with the features incorporated into the code it will become a tool for the useful application of ultracold atoms in engineering applications. Currently, the software is being used for the analysis and understanding of simple experiments using cold atoms, and for the design of a modular compact source of cold atoms to be used in future research and development projects. The results so far indicate that the code is a useful design instrument that shows good agreement with experimental measurements (see figure), and a Windows-based user-friendly interface is also under development.

Ramirez-Serrano, Jaime; Kohel, James; Thompson, Robert; Yu, Nan; Lunblad, Nathan

2005-01-01

155

Regeneratively cooled rocket engine for space storable propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analyses and experimental studies were performed with the OF2 (F2/O2)/B2H6 propellant combination over a range in operating conditions to determine suitability for a space storable pressure fed engine configuration for an extended flight space vehicle configuration. The regenerative cooling mode selected for the thrust chamber was explored in detail with the use of both the fuel and oxidizer as coolants in an advanced milled channel construction thrust chamber design operating at 100 psia chamber pressure and a nominal mixture ratio of 3.0 with a 60:1 area ratio nozzle. Benefits of the simultaneous cooling as related to gaseous injection of both fuel and oxidizer propellants were defined. Heat transfer rates, performance and combustor stability were developed for impinging element triplet injectors in uncooled copper calorimeter hardware with flow, pressure and temperature instrumentation. Evaluation of the capabilities of the B2H6 and OF2 during analytical studies and numerous tests with flow through electrically heated blocks provided design criteria for subsequent regenerative chamber design and fabrication.

Wagner, W. R.; Waldman, B. J.

1973-01-01

156

NASA Systems Engineering Handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This handbook is intended to provide general guidance and information on systems engineering that will be useful to the NASA community. It provides a generic description of Systems Engineering (SE) as it should be applied throughout NASA. A goal of the handbook is to increase awareness and consistency across the Agency and advance the practice of SE. This handbook provides perspectives relevant to NASA and data particular to NASA. The coverage in this handbook is limited to general concepts and generic descriptions of processes, tools, and techniques. It provides information on systems engineering best practices and pitfalls to avoid. There are many Center-specific handbooks and directives as well as textbooks that can be consulted for in-depth tutorials. This handbook describes systems engineering as it should be applied to the development and implementation of large and small NASA programs and projects. NASA has defined different life cycles that specifically address the major project categories, or product lines, which are: Flight Systems and Ground Support (FS&GS), Research and Technology (R&T), Construction of Facilities (CoF), and Environmental Compliance and Restoration (ECR). The technical content of the handbook provides systems engineering best practices that should be incorporated into all NASA product lines. (Check the NASA On-Line Directives Information System (NODIS) electronic document library for applicable NASA directives on topics such as product lines.) For simplicity this handbook uses the FS&GS product line as an example. The specifics of FS&GS can be seen in the description of the life cycle and the details of the milestone reviews. Each product line will vary in these two areas; therefore, the reader should refer to the applicable NASA procedural requirements for the specific requirements for their life cycle and reviews. The engineering of NASA systems requires a systematic and disciplined set of processes that are applied recursively and iteratively for the design, development, operation, maintenance, and closeout of systems throughout the life cycle of the programs and projects.

2007-01-01

157

NASA System Engineering Design Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of systems engineering for the complete life cycle of a project. Systems engineering is a methodical, disciplined approach for the design, realization, technical management, operations, and retirement of a system...

J. Roman

2011-01-01

158

Engine balancing system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a single-cylinder engine comprising a crank shaft, a crank web connected to the crank shaft, a connecting rod connected to the crank web through a crank pin, a cylinder, and a piston connected to the connecting rod to move in reciprocatory movement within the cylinder. An engine balancing system is described comprising: a counter balancer supported by the crank web; and a single primary balancer rotatably supported by a shaft extending parallel to the crank shaft. The single primary balancer is driven to rotate at a velocity equal to that of the counterbalancer in a direction opposite to a direction of rotation of the counterbalancer; wherein a center line of the cylinder of the engine deviates from a center of rotation of the crank shaft toward the single primary balancer.

Fujikawa, T.; Hirata, M.; Tamba, S.; Miguchi, A.

1986-12-16

159

Passive cooling system for top entry liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a top entry loop joined satellite assembly with a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This satellite type reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary cooling system when rendered inoperative.

Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA); Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Hui, Marvin M. (Cupertino, CA)

1992-01-01

160

Drag and cooling with various forms of cowling for a "whirlwind" radial air-cooled engine I  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of an investigation undertaken in the 20-foot Propeller Research Tunnel at Langley Field on the cowling of radial air-cooled engines. A portion of the investigation has been completed, in which several forms and degrees of cowling were tested on Wright "Whirlwind" J-5 engine mounted in the nose of a cabin fuselage. The cowlings varied from the one extreme of an entirely exposed engine to the other in which the engine was entirely inclosed. Cooling tests were made and each cowling modified, if necessary, until the engine cooled approximately as satisfactorily as when it was entirely exposed. Drag tests were then made with each form of cowling, and the effect of the cowling on the propulsive efficiency determined with a metal propeller. The propulsive efficiency was found to be practically the same with all forms of cowling. The drag of the cabin fuselage with uncowled engine was found to be more than three times as great as the drag of the fuselage with engine removed and nose rounded. The conventional forms of cowling, in which at least the tops of the cylinder heads and valve gear are exposed, reduce the drag somewhat, but the cowling entirely covering the engine reduces it 2.6 times as much as the best conventional one. The decrease in drag due to the use of spinners proved to be almost negligible. The use of the cowling completely covering the engine seems entirely practical as regards both cooling and maintenance under service conditions. It must be carefully designed, however, to cool properly. With cabin fuselages its use should result in a substantial increase in high speed over that obtained with present forms of cowling on engines similar in contour to the J-5. (author)

Weick, Fred E

1930-01-01

161

Wing-Nacelle-Propeller Tests - Comparative Tests of Liquid-Cooled and Air-Cooled Engine Nacelles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report gives the results of measurements of the lift, drag, and propeller characteristics of several wing and nacelle combinations with a tractor propeller. The nacelles were so located that the propeller was about 31% of the wing chord directly ahead of the leading edge of the wing, a position which earlier tests (NASA Report No. 415) had shown to be efficient. The nacelles were scale models of an NACA cowled nacelle for a radial air-cooled engine, a circular nacelle with the V-type engine located inside and the radiator for the cooling liquid located inside and the radiator for the type, and a nacelle shape simulating the housing which would be used for an extension shaft if the engine were located entirely within the wing. The propeller used in all cases was a 4-foot model of Navy No. 4412 adjustable metal propeller. The results of the tests indicate that, at the angles of attack corresponding to high speeds of flight, there is no marked advantage of one type of nacelle over the others as far as low drag is concerned, since the drag added by any of the nacelles in the particular location ahead of the wing is very small. The completely cowled nacelle for a radial air-cooled engine appears to have the highest drag, the liquid-cooled engine appears to have the highest drag, the liquid-cooled engine nacelle with external radiator slightly less drag. The liquid-cooled engine nacelle with radiator in the cowling hood has about half the drag of the cowled radial air-cooled engine nacelle. The extension-shaft housing shows practically no increase in drag over that of the wing alone. A large part of the drag of the liquid-cooled engine nacelle appears to be due to the external radiator. The maximum propulsive efficiency for a given propeller pitch setting is about 2% higher for the liquid-cooled engine nacelle with the radiator in the cowling hood than that for the other cowling arrangements.

Wood, Donald H.

1934-01-01

162

Rust Inhibitor And Fungicide For Cooling Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mixture of benzotriazole, benzoic acid, and fungicide prevents growth of rust and fungus. Water-based cooling mixture made from readily available materials prevents formation of metallic oxides and growth of fungi in metallic pipes. Coolant remains clear and does not develop thick sludge tending to collect in low points in cooling systems with many commercial rust inhibitors. Coolant compatible with iron, copper, aluminum, and stainless steel. Cannot be used with cadmium or cadmium-plated pipes.

Adams, James F.; Greer, D. Clay

1988-01-01

163

Uncertainty analysis of emergency cooling system flows  

SciTech Connect

The Emergency Cooling System (ECS) for SRP reactors is designed to provide core cooling for postulated incidents. Recently, tests were completed in L Reactor to better define pipeline and fitting loss coefficients that are needed to predict ECS flows. Because the existing flow data are primarily based on experimental data, an experimental uncertainty exists in those flows and respective loss coefficients. The uncertainty analysis and resulting uncertainties of the data are discussed in this report.

Mcallister, Jr, J E

1988-01-01

164

Cooling system for continuous metal casting machines  

DOEpatents

A continuous metal caster cooling system is provided in which water is supplied in jets from a large number of small nozzles against the inner surface of rim at a temperature and with sufficient pressure that the velocity of the jets is sufficiently high that the mode of heat transfer is substantially by forced convection, the liquid being returned from the cooling chambers through return pipes distributed interstitially among the nozzles. 9 figs.

Draper, R.; Sumpman, W.C.; Baker, R.J.; Williams, R.S.

1988-06-07

165

Cooling system for continuous metal casting machines  

DOEpatents

A continuous metal caster cooling system is provided in which water is supplied in jets from a large number of small nozzles 19 against the inner surface of rim 13 at a temperature and with sufficient pressure that the velocity of the jets is sufficiently high that the mode of heat transfer is substantially by forced convection, the liquid being returned from the cooling chambers 30 through return pipes 25 distributed interstitially among the nozzles.

Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA); Sumpman, Wayne C. (North Huntingdon, PA); Baker, Robert J. (Wilkins Township, Allegheny County, PA); Williams, Robert S. (Plum Borough, PA)

1988-01-01

166

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collection of monthly status reports on the development of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems is presented. The effort calls for the development, manufacture, test, system installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation. The systems are 3, 25, and 75 ton size units.

1978-01-01

167

Cooling systems research at Argonne National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the thermal plumes resulting from discharges from once-through cooling systems of electric generating stations are reviewed. The collection of large amounts of water temperature data for definition of the three-dimensional structure of a thermal plume, of current data, and related ambient data for model evaluation purposes required the development of an integrated data collection system. The Argonne system

Spigarelli

1977-01-01

168

Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

Clifton, F.T.

1997-11-04

169

Transient Three-Dimensional Analysis of Nozzle Side Load in Regeneratively Cooled Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-dimensional numerical investigations on the start-up side load physics for a regeneratively cooled, high-aspect-ratio nozzle were performed. The objectives of this study are to identify the three-dimensional side load physics and to compute the associated aerodynamic side load using an anchored computational methodology. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation, and a transient inlet condition based on an engine system simulation. Computations were performed for both the adiabatic and cooled walls in order to understand the effect of boundary conditions. Finite-rate chemistry was used throughout the study so that combustion effect is always included. The results show that three types of shock evolution are responsible for side loads: generation of combustion wave; transitions among free-shock separation, restricted-shock separation, and simultaneous free-shock and restricted shock separations; along with oscillation of shocks across the lip. Wall boundary conditions drastically affect the computed side load physics: the adiabatic nozzle prefers free-shock separation while the cooled nozzle favors restricted-shock separation, resulting in higher peak side load for the cooled nozzle than that of the adiabatic nozzle. By comparing the computed physics with those of test observations, it is concluded that cooled wall is a more realistic boundary condition, and the oscillation of the restricted-shock separation flow pattern across the lip along with its associated tangential shock motion are the dominant side load physics for a regeneratively cooled, high aspect-ratio rocket engine.

Wang, Ten-See

2005-01-01

170

Novel diesel-fueled engine for microclimate cooling for the individual soldier. Final report Jul 91-Jan 92  

SciTech Connect

Military mission performance in a chemically contaminated environment necessitates the wearing of chemically impermeable protective garments. Soldiers encapsulated in these protective garments in a hot environment will succumb to heat stress. Consequently a microclimate cooling system is being developed. In the present design, a vapor compression cycle chills water which is then circulated over the body to absorb heat via a cooling garment. One of the major components of the vapor compression cycle system is the prime mover, i.e. the engine. For battlefield use, the engine shall utilize battlefield fuel, JP-8. Commercially available engines of the required size, approximately 0.5 hp at 4000 rpm, such as model aircraft engines and small outdoor power equipment (string trimers) engines do not start and run on JP-8. This effort established the technical feasibility of starting and operating a small, lightweight engine on diesel fuel and JP-8. A commercially available 1.09 cubic inch displacement was used; however, the stock head was replaced with a custom designed head employing a fuel injector and pre-chamber. The engine started by hand cranking from ambient temperature (70 deg F) and ran without aids. 0.42 brake hp was developed at 3700 rpm. Brake specific fuel consumption was 0.76 lb/bbp-hr. microclimate cooling, diesel engines, individual soldier, protective clothing, diesel fuels , chemical contamination, heat stress(physiology), hot environment, chemical protection.

Chen, T.K.; Lam, W.K.; Raymond, R.J.

1992-07-01

171

Systems Engineering Capstone Marketplace Pilot.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this pilot project is to determine the feasibility of and requirements for a systems engineering capstone experience marketplace environment. We hope to increase the number of systems engineering capstone projects conducted at universities eac...

M. Ardis

2013-01-01

172

Engineering the ULTra System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Transport Group at the University of Bristol, upon considering current traffic congestion problems in England and throughout the world, attempted to "identify the ideal system for future urban transport." The group's work has led to the development of the Urban Light Transport (ULTra) System. This paper, published in September 2002, describes the engineering challenges and accomplishments of the endeavor. Thus far, a test track has been constructed, and an initial vehicle design was successfully demonstrated. The ULTra home page provides much more information, documents, and videos.

Lowson, Martin.

2002-01-01

173

Understanding aging in containment cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been performed to assess the effects of aging in nuclear power plant containment cooling systems. Failure records from national databases as well as plant-specific data were reviewed and analyzed to identify aging characteristics for this system. The predominant aging mechanisms were determined, along with the most frequently failed components and their associated failure modes. This paper discusses

Robert J. Lofaro

1996-01-01

174

Understanding aging in containment cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been performed to assess the effects of aging in nuclear power plant containment cooling systems. Failure records from national databases, as well as plant specific data were reviewed and analyzed to identify aging characteristics for this system. The predominant aging mechanisms were determined, along with the most frequently failed components and their associated failure modes. This paper

Lofaro

1993-01-01

175

Design of a tunnel cooling system  

SciTech Connect

Based on a thermal analysis of the SSC main tunnel and requirements for space conditions in the underground electronics niches, thermal cooling systems will be required to reject the heat dissipated underground. Many system were considered and compared to decide the optimum solution. Construction documents are being prepared and contract administration will proceed as technical and non-technical objectives are pursued.

Cheng, A. [D`Escoto Associates, Dallas, TX (United States); Dawson, R. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Zhao, R. [PB/MK Team, Dallas, TX (United States)

1993-05-01

176

Ozone Treatment in Cooling Water Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone treatment for preventing the biofouling in cooling water systems is investigated.In the fresh water system, the separating effect of the ozonated water on the microorganisms such as the sphaerotilus and the zoogloea which adhere to the piping and form the slime is recognized. When the ozonated water is supplied intermittently to the piping without stopping the flow of the

N. Kaiga; T. Seki; K. Iyasu

1989-01-01

177

Venus Surface Power and Cooling System Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radioisotope power and cooling system is designed to provide electrical power for the a probe operating on the surface of Venus. Most foreseeable electronics devices and sensors simply cannot operate at the 450 C ambient surface temperature of Venus. Because the mission duration is substantially long and the use of thermal mass to maintain an operable temperature range is likely impractical, some type of active refrigeration may be required to keep certain components at a temperature below ambient. The fundamental cooling requirements are comprised of the cold sink temperature, the hot sink temperature, and the amount of heat to be removed. In this instance, it is anticipated that electronics would have a nominal operating temperature of 300 C. Due to the highly thermal convective nature of the high-density atmosphere, the hot sink temperature was assumed to be 50 C, which provided a 500 C temperature of the cooler's heat rejecter to the ambient atmosphere. The majority of the heat load on the cooler is from the high temperature ambient surface environment on Venus. Assuming 5 cm radial thickness of ceramic blanket insulation, the ambient heat load was estimated at approximately 77 watts. With an estimated quantity of 10 watts of heat generation from electronics and sensors, and to accommodate some level of uncertainty, the total heat load requirement was rounded up to an even 100 watts. For the radioisotope Stirling power converter configuration designed, the Sage model predicts a thermodynamic power output capacity of 478.1 watts, which slightly exceeds the required 469.1 watts. The hot sink temperature is 1200 C, and the cold sink temperature is 500 C. The required heat input is 1740 watts. This gives a thermodynamic efficiency of 27.48 %. The maximum theoretically obtainable efficiency is 47.52 %. It is estimated that the mechanical efficiency of the power converter design is on the order of 85 %, based on experimental measurements taken from 500 watt power class, laboratory-tested Stirling engines at GRC. The overall efficiency is calculated to be 23.36 %. The mass of the power converter is estimated at approximately 21.6 kg.

Landis, Geoffrey A.; Mellott, Kenneth D.

2004-01-01

178

Fuel-cell engine stream conditioning system  

DOEpatents

A stream conditioning system for a fuel cell gas management system or fuel cell engine. The stream conditioning system manages species potential in at least one fuel cell reactant stream. A species transfer device is located in the path of at least one reactant stream of a fuel cell's inlet or outlet, which transfer device conditions that stream to improve the efficiency of the fuel cell. The species transfer device incorporates an exchange media and a sorbent. The fuel cell gas management system can include a cathode loop with the stream conditioning system transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell related to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

DuBose, Ronald Arthur (Marietta, GA)

2002-01-01

179

Boiler control systems engineering  

SciTech Connect

The book provides in-depth coverage on how to safely and reliably control the firing of a boiler. Regardless of the capacity or fuel, certain fundamental control systems are required for boiler control. Large utility systems are more complex due to the number of burners and the overall capacity and equipment. This book covers engineering details on control systems and provides specific examples of boiler control including configuration and tuning. References to requirements are based on the 2004 NFPA 85 along with other ISA standards. Detailed chapters cover: Boiler fundamentals including piping and instrument diagrams (P&IDs) and a design basis checklist; Control of boilers, from strategies and bumpless transfer to interlock circuitry and final control elements; Furnace draft; Feedwater; Coal-fired boilers; Fuel and air control; Steam temperature; Burner management systems; Environment; and Control valve sizing. 2 apps.

Gilman, J.

2005-07-01

180

Looking ahead in systems engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Five areas that are discussed in this paper are: (1) the technological characteristics of systems engineering; (2) the analytical techniques that are giving modern systems work its capability and power; (3) the management, economics, and effectiveness dimensions that now frame the modern systems field; (4) systems engineering's future impact upon automation, computerization and managerial decision-making in industry - and upon aerospace and weapons systems in government and the military; and (5) modern systems engineering's partnership with modern quality control and reliability.

Feigenbaum, Donald S.

1966-01-01

181

Test of system for circulating water supply with cooling pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of spray cooling devices and cooling ponds for cooling thermal power plants are discussed. Spray cooling devices have attracted increased attention in connection with the requirements for protection of natural bodies of water from the harmful effects of thermal effluents from these power plants. The efficient and economical operation of this type of cooling system is discussed.

Kikish

1982-01-01

182

Results from use of thermally stratified water tanks to heat and cool the Mechanical Engineering Building at the University of New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results obtained over two cooling seasons and about one and two-thirds heating seasons in 1980, 1981 and 1982 from monitoring a heating and cooling system that employed thermal storage in stratified water tanks for heat recovery, solar energy storage and elecric load management are presented. This system, which is installed in the Mechanical Engineering Building at The University of New

Wildin

1983-01-01

183

Engine control system  

SciTech Connect

An engine control system is disclosed having a feedback control circuit for providing a correction factor corresponding to a deviation between actual and target values of at least one condition to be controlled. The feedback control circuit includes a memory with a potentiometer having a resistor and a wiper movable in sliding contact with the resistor. A reversible motor is drivingly connected to the wiper for moving the wiper on the resistor. There is provided a motor drive circuit for rotating the reversible motor in one or reverse direction in accordance with the deviation so as to permit the wiper to tap off a resistance corresponding to the deviation.

Yasuhara, S.

1984-02-21

184

PCM Passive Cooling System Containing Active Subsystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multistage system has been proposed for cooling a circulating fluid that is subject to intermittent intense heating. The system would be both flexible and redundant in that it could operate in a basic passive mode, either sequentially or simultaneously with operation of a first, active cooling subsystem, and either sequentially or simultaneously with a second cooling subsystem that could be active, passive, or a combination of both. This flexibility and redundancy, in combination with the passive nature of at least one of the modes of operation, would make the system more reliable, relative to a conventional cooling system. The system would include a tube-in-shell heat exchanger, within which the space between the tubes would be filled with a phase-change material (PCM). The circulating hot fluid would flow along the tubes in the heat exchanger. In the basic passive mode of operation, heat would be conducted from the hot fluid into the PCM, wherein the heat would be stored temporarily by virtue of the phase change.

Blanding, David E.; Bass, David I.

2005-01-01

185

Economics of solar heating and cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar heating and cooling for a private residence are discussed in terms of amortization time for a house with a 30 year mortgage at 8.5%. Different collector systems (tubular, flat, concentrating) and sizes are compared, with reference to their initial and life cycle costs. National energy savings are calculated for widespread use of solar power, which could reach the Quad

W. L. Corcoran

1978-01-01

186

Auxiliary Power System for Activity Cooled Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is described for extracting heat energy from an active cooling system in an aircraft as a source of auxiliary power. A secondary coolant such as a water-glycol mixture removes heat from near the outer surfaces of the vehicle and circulates throug...

R. A. Jones

1976-01-01

187

Auxiliary power system for activity cooled aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for extracting heat energy from an active cooling system in an aircraft as a source of auxiliary power. A secondary coolant such as a water-glycol mixture removes heat from near the outer surfaces of the vehicle and circulates through a heat exchanger. Cryogenic fuel such as liquid hydrogen is first pressurized and passed through the heat

1976-01-01

188

Advanced fabrication techniques for hydrogen-cooled engine structures. Final report, October 1975-June 1982  

SciTech Connect

Described is a program for development of coolant passage geometries, material systems, and joining processes that will produce long-life hydrogen-cooled structures for scramjet applications. Tests were performed to establish basic material properties, and samples constructed and evaluated to substantiate fabrication processes and inspection techniques. Results of the study show that the basic goal of increasing the life of hydrogen-cooled structures two orders of magnitude relative to that of the Hypersonic Research Engine can be reached with available means. Estimated life is 19000 cycles for the channels and 16000 cycles for pin-fin coolant passage configurations using Nickel 201. Additional research is required to establish the fatigue characteristics of dissimilar-metal coolant passages (Nickel 201/Inconel 718) and to investigate the embrittling effects of the hydrogen coolant.

Buchmann, O.A.; Arefian, V.V.; Warren, H.A.; Vuigner, A.A.; Pohlman, M.J.

1985-11-01

189

Aircraft engine blade cooling holes detection and classification from infrared images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to inspect sets of cooling holes being properly drilled on an aircraft engine blade, a robotic controlled IR imaging system was designed. The system physically having a robot held the drilled blade at different viewing positions in front of an IR camera where a sequence of images were obtained for analysis and evaluation where a hot-air cool- air heating and cooling cycle was being administered at the base of the blade. An initial teach model was needed to enable the robot to remember the different viewing position of the blade in front of the camera so as to establish a position and orientation reference and sequence of cooling hole inspection. Two data processing algorithms had been achieved in this paper: 1) A position adjustment during the regular operation after the tach-mode so as to made sure that he cooling holes to be inspected matched the reference established by the teaching phase; 2) An image processing method to extract four meaningful features and to drive a pattern recognition system for the determination of cooling hole operating. Blade classification was based on the number of bad cooling holes as being good if all but one hole is determined to be good, unless the bad hole is positioned in one of four critical locations, in which case the blade was classified as bad. A hole is classified as being bad if the hole is blocked in some manner, or if the hole's diameter does not fall within a specified range. Two types of data which were considered to be significant in characterizing the hole were the temperature intensity of the hole as it was heated and cooled, and the change in the intensity as a function of time during the same period. Image data features for the holes were extracted from the images and applied to several classifiers to determine an optimal classification method. Different data sets and/or combinations of features for both training and testing sets were formed and tested. Over 90 percent performances were achieved under different evaluation methods.

Rosemau, Robert D.; Nawaz, Sal; Niu, Aiqun; Wee, William G.

1999-01-01

190

Cooling system for a gas turbine  

DOEpatents

A plurality of arcuate circumferentially spaced supply and return manifold segments are arranged on the rim of a rotor for respectively receiving and distributing cooling steam through exit ports for distribution to first and second-stage buckets and receiving spent cooling steam from the first and second-stage buckets through inlet ports for transmission to axially extending return passages. Each of the supply and return manifold segments has a retention system for precluding substantial axial, radial and circumferential displacement relative to the rotor. The segments also include guide vanes for minimizing pressure losses in the supply and return of the cooling steam. The segments lie substantially equal distances from the centerline of the rotor and crossover tubes extend through each of the segments for communicating steam between the axially adjacent buckets of the first and second stages, respectively.

Wilson, Ian David (Mauldin, SC); Salamah, Samir Armando (Niskayuna, NY); Bylina, Noel Jacob (Niskayuna, NY)

2003-01-01

191

Closed cryogenic cooling system without moving parts  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a closed system with no moving parts for providing cryogenic cooling to a load heat exchanger, comprising: an electrochemical pump for pressurizing an ionizable cryogenic gas; a high-pressure flow path adapted to direct pressurized gas from the electrochemical pump to the load heat exchanger. The path includes a first heat exchanger for cooling the gas to below its inversion temperature and a Joule-Thomson flow restrictor to further cool the gas to a cryogenic temperature for delivery to the load heat exchanger; and, a low-pressure flow path adapted to receive the gas from the load heat exchanger and to return the gas to the electrochemical pump. The low-pressure flow path includes a second heat exchanger for warming the gas to a predetermined temperature.

Gross, S.

1987-06-09

192

Kriging with Meta-Heuristic Methods for Optimal Design to Reduce the Noise of the Engine Cooling Fan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an optimal design scheme to reduce the noise of the engine cooling fan by adapting Kriging with two meta-heuristic techniques. An engineering model has been developed for the prediction of the noise spectrum of the engine cooling fan. The noise of the fan is expressed as the discrete frequency noise peaks at the BPF and its harmonics and line spectrum at the broad band by noise generation mechanisms. The object of this paper is to find the optimal design for noise reduction of the engine cooling fan. We firstly show a comparison of the measured and calculated noise spectra of the fan for the validation of the noise prediction program. Then, L18 orthogonal array is applied as design of experiments because it is suitable for Kriging. With these simulated data, we can estimate a correlation parameter of Kriging by solving the nonlinear problem with genetic algorithm and find an optimal level for the noise reduction of the cooling fan by optimizing Kriging estimates with simulated annealing. We notice that this optimal design scheme gives noticeable results. Therefore, an optimal design for the cooling fan is proposed by reducing the noise of its system.

Sim, Hyoun-Jin; Cha, Kyung-Joon; Oh, Jae-Eung; Ryu, Je-Seon

193

Thermostatically controlled solar heating and cooling system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a solar heating and cooling system for simultaneously heating or cooling an ambient air system within a building, heating a hot water supply for domestic use within the building and heating or cooling a swimming pool adjacent the building comprising a building. This comprises a swimming pool as a primary water source, a solar connector connected to the swimming pool, a heat pump for controlling ambient air temperature within the building, an energy conservation unit connected to the heat pump and to the hot water supply for utilizing hot gases from the heat pump to heat water in the hot water supply and an air heat exchanger connected to the air system and to the heat pump for selectively heating or cooling air in the building. Also a water heat exchanger is connected to a water source for selectively transferring heat between the heat pump and the water source, a well as a secondary water source connected to the water heat exchanger.

Yovanofski, T.

1986-12-16

194

Systems Engineering Leadership Development: Advancing Systems Engineering Excellence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program, with particular emphasis on the work being done in the development of systems engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center. There exists a lack of individuals with systems engineering expertise, in particular those with strong leadership capabilities, to meet the needs of the Agency's exploration agenda. Therefore there is a emphasis on developing these programs to identify and train systems engineers. The presentation reviews the proposed MSFC program that includes course work, and developmental assignments. The formal developmental programs at the other centers are briefly reviewed, including the Point of Contact (POC)

Hall, Phil; Whitfield, Susan

2011-01-01

195

Narcissus analysis for cooled staring IR system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Narcissus can have a deleterious effect on image quality for cooled infrared imaging systems. Therefore, analysis of narcissus is important for designing both scanning and staring optics. Narcissus is generally assumed to be negligible in staring IR optical designs because the shading effects can be removed by calibration of the detector array data. However, the calibration usually decreases sensitiveness of the system and Narcissus variation may be noticeable for sensors when the conditions changes as follows: 1. warming and cooling the optical housing, 2. zooming optical elements, 3. movement of lenses for focus. In that case, it will result in shading and other image defects even after calibration. To minimize these effects, narcissus should be assessed and controlled during the design of staring array IR system. We provided a direct and fast method for analyzing the narcissus variation in the presence of software such as LightTools, TracePro and ASAP, and proposed the principles in optical design of staring IR systems to reduce narcissus. A cooled staring IR system with serious narcissus was estimated and reoptimized. Narcissus analysis of this IR system confirmed the efficiency of the analysis method.

He, Feng-Yun; Cui, Ji-Cheng; Feng, Shu-Long; Zhang, Xin

2007-12-01

196

Solar Assisted Adsorptive Desiccant Cooling System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar assisted desiccant coo1ing process is an effective means to reduce a latent heat load of the ventilation air. This paper describes the influences of ambient humidity and sensible heat factor (SHF) of the indoor room on the performance and scale of the desiccant cooling system. Two process configurations termed ambient air mode and mixed air mode were assumed. At ambient air mode, only ambient air is dehumidified and cooled in the desiccant process. The dehumidified air stream is mixed with return air and further cooled in the cooling coil. At mixed air mode, ambient air is mixed with return air and this mixed air stream is dehumidified in the desiccant process and cooled at the cooling coil. At ambient air mode, ambient air humidity had a significant impact on required amount of dehumidification since humid ambient air entered the desiccant process directly. In this case, higher temperature level and quantity, which is impossible to be supplied from commonly commercialized flat panel solar collectors, was required. At mixed air mode, the influence of increase of ambient humidity was not significant since humidity of the air entering the desiccant process became low by mixing with return air. At this mode, it was expected that 70C of the circulating water and 37m2 of surface area of solar collector could produce a sufficient dehumidifying performance even in high latent heat condition. The contributing ratio of the desiccant wheel was also estimated. The ratio increased in higher latent heat condition due to increase of required amount of dehumidification. The contributing ratio of the thermal wheel became lower due to increase of saturated air temperature in the evaporative cooler.

Ohkura, Masashi; Kodama, Akio

197

Cooling apparatus for a gas transmission system  

SciTech Connect

An improved cooling apparatus is described for a gas transmission system, including: input means for receiving a medium to be cooled; output means for transmitting the medium after it is cooled; and, cooling means intercoupling the input means and the output means including radiator means having an input end and an output end, the input end connected to the input means and the output end connected to the output means; the cooling means including, in addition, fan means positioned to cooperate with the radiator means for producing a flow of cooling air across the radiator means; the fan means including a rotatable fan having a desired direction of rotation, a drive-motor for driving the fan in the desired direction and belt means intercoupling the drive-motor and the rotatable fan for rotation of the fan; the belt means includes a belt having, alternatively, a taut state and a slack state. Adjustable belt-tensioning means including a frame and being mechanically coupled to the belt for tensioning the belt between the taut state and the slack state, the adjustable belt-tensioning means including a sheave in rotating contact with the belt. A shaft having first and second ends, carrying the sheave at the first end and positioned in the frame substantially parallel to the plane of the belt and spaced from the belt an adjustable distance corresponding to the condition desired for the belt between the taut state and the slack state; a sprag-clutch having a first race fixedly connected to the frame and a unidirectionally rotatable second race coupled to the second end of the shaft. The second race having a direction of rotation relative to the first race which corresponds to the desired direction of rotation of the fan.

Leonard, P.A.

1987-07-21

198

Engineering graphene mechanical systems.  

PubMed

We report a method to introduce direct bonding between graphene platelets that enables the transformation of a multilayer chemically modified graphene (CMG) film from a "paper mache-like" structure into a stiff, high strength material. On the basis of chemical/defect manipulation and recrystallization, this technique allows wide-range engineering of mechanical properties (stiffness, strength, density, and built-in stress) in ultrathin CMG films. A dramatic increase in the Young's modulus (up to 800 GPa) and enhanced strength (sustainable stress ?1 GPa) due to cross-linking, in combination with high tensile stress, produced high-performance (quality factor of 31,000 at room temperature) radio frequency nanomechanical resonators. The ability to fine-tune intraplatelet mechanical properties through chemical modification and to locally activate direct carbon-carbon bonding within carbon-based nanomaterials will transform these systems into true "materials-by-design" for nanomechanics. PMID:22764747

Zalalutdinov, Maxim K; Robinson, Jeremy T; Junkermeier, Chad E; Culbertson, James C; Reinecke, Thomas L; Stine, Rory; Sheehan, Paul E; Houston, Brian H; Snow, Eric S

2012-08-01

199

Laminated turbine vane design and fabrication. [utilizing film cooling as a cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A turbine vane and associated endwalls designed for advanced gas turbine engine conditions are described. The vane design combines the methods of convection cooling and selective areas of full coverage film cooling. The film cooling technique is utilized on the leading edge, pressure side, and endwall regions. The turbine vane involves the fabrication of airfoils from a stack of laminates with cooling passages photoetched on the surface. Cold flow calibration tests, a thermal analysis, and a stress analysis were performed on the turbine vanes.

Hess, W. G.

1979-01-01

200

Performance evaluation of dry-cooling systems for power plant applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance evaluation of dry-cooling systems rely heavily on the ability to model the physical phenomena of the system. A sophisticated equation-based model, consisting of the conservation equations (energy, mass, momentum) and engineering design relations, is presented to model the dry-cooling systems performance for power plant applications. The implementation of this model gives rise to practical and reliable design methods

A. E. Conradie; D. G. Krger

1996-01-01

201

Personal cooling systems: Possibilities and limitations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Personal thermal control by means of gas- or liquid-conditioned garments was developed during the 1960s and has been applied in a variety of aerospace and industrial settings. Both USAF fighter pilots and astronauts are required to wear heavy protective clothing which insulates them from the environment and thus creates stress through storage of metabolic heat. The problem is particularly severe in astronauts who perform heavy physical work during extra-vehicular activity (EVA); without artificial cooling they could reach incapacitating hyperthermia in a matter of minutes. This paper reviews the factors which influence the design of personal cooling systems. An important early step is determination of acceptable heat stress level, taking into account possible interactions of heat stress with other physiological problems such as motion sickness, diminished plasma volume, decompression sickness and acceleration tolerance. Other factors which require consideration include the work schedule, the area to be covered by the cooling garment, and the practicalities of a fixed or body-mounted heat sink and its power source. Nearly every imaginable heat sink has been proposed or tried over the past 30 years, including direct gas systems, phase-change systems with open or closed loops and thermoelectric heat sinks. The latter are now the system of choice for aircraft.

Nunneley, Sarah A.

1994-01-01

202

Engineering complex systems: implications for research in systems engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion of the scope of systems engineering, which seems to cover everything and therefore, in a way, to cover nothing. Systems engineering crosses the boundaries of other disciplines. It is the exploration, understanding, and design of how everything fits together.

William B. Rouse

2003-01-01

203

Preliminary design package for solar heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Summarized preliminary design information on activities associated with the development, delivery and support of solar heating and cooling systems is given. These systems are for single family dwellings and commercial applications. The heating/cooling system use a reversible vapor compression heat pump that is driven in the cooling mode by a Rankine power loop, and in the heating mode by a variable speed electric motor. The heating/cooling systems differ from the heating-only systems in the arrangement of the heat pump subsystem and the addition of a cooling tower to provide the heat sink for cooling mode operation.

1978-01-01

204

Cooling and heating system utilizing solar heat  

SciTech Connect

A cooling and heating system utilizing solar heat comprises a heat collector for heating a circulating heat medium with solar heat, an absorption refrigerator operable with the heat medium heated by the heat collector and serving as a generating heat source to provide a chilled medium, and an air-conditioning unit for circulating the chilled medium or the heated medium alternatively therethrough to cool or heat the space to be airconditioned. The system further comprises a bypass line provided with an auxiliary refrigerator of the dual-effect type and connected to an intermediate portion of a line extending from the absorption refrigerator to the air-conditioning unit for supplying chilled medium or the heated medium to the unit. Change -over means is provided for passing the chilled medium or the heated medium through the bypass line.

Katayama, K.; Yukimachi, K.

1981-05-26

205

Numerical study of a novel dew point evaporative cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dew point evaporative cooling system is an alternative to vapor compression air conditioning system for sensible cooling of ventilation air. This paper presents the theoretical performance of a novel dew point evaporative cooling system operating under various inlet air conditions (covering dry, moderate and humid climate) and influence of major operating parameters (namely, velocity, system dimension and the ratio of

B. Riangvilaikul; S. Kumar

2010-01-01

206

System identification of jet engines  

SciTech Connect

System identification plays an important role in advanced control systems for jet engines, in which controls are performed adaptively using data from the actual engine and the identified engine. An identification technique for jet engine using the Constant Gain Extended Kalman Filter (CGEKF) is described. The filter is constructed for a two-spool turbofan engine. The CGEKF filter developed here can recognize parameter change in engine components and estimate unmeasurable variables over whole flight conditions. These capabilities are useful for an advanced Full Authority Digital Electric Control (FADEC). Effects of measurement noise and bias, effects of operating point and unpredicted performance change are discussed. Some experimental results using the actual engine are shown to evaluate the effectiveness of CGEKF filter.

Sugiyama, N.

2000-01-01

207

Systems engineering technology for networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The report summarizes research pursued within the Systems Engineering Design Laboratory at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University between May 16, 1993 and January 31, 1994. The project was proposed in cooperation with the Computational Science and Engineering Research Center at Howard University. Its purpose was to investigate emerging systems engineering tools and their applicability in analyzing the NASA Network Control Center (NCC) on the basis of metrics and measures.

1994-01-01

208

NASA systems engineering handbook. Draft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This handbook is intended to provide information on systems engineering that will be useful to NASA system engineers, especially new ones. Its primary objective is to provide a generic description of systems engineering as it should be applied throughout NASA. Field Center Handbooks are encouraged to provide center-specific details of implementation. For NASA system engineers to choose to keep a copy of this handbook at their elbows, it must provide answers that cannot be easily found elsewhere. Consequently, it provides NASA-relevant perspectives and NASA-particular data. NASA management instructions (NMI's) are referenced when applicable. This handbook's secondary objective is to serve as a useful companion to all of the various courses in systems engineering that are being offered under NASA's auspices. The coverage of systems engineering is general to techniques, concepts, and generic descriptions of processes, tools, and techniques. It provides good systems engineering practices, and pitfalls to avoid. This handbook describes systems engineering as it should be applied to the development of major NASA product and producing systems.

Shishko, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; Aster, Robert; Bilardo, Vincent; Forsberg, Kevin; Hammond, Walter E.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou; Wade, Ron; Cassingham, Randy (editor)

1992-01-01

209

OPTIMIZATION OF DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FOR LARGE DRY COOLING SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents a methodology for optimizing design specifications of large, mechanical-draft, dry cooling systems. A multivariate, nonlinear, constrained optimization technique searches for the combination of design variables to determine the cooling system with the lowest a...

210

A gas-cooled reactor surface power system  

SciTech Connect

A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed, depending on the number of astronauts, level of scientific activity, and life-cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitride clad in Nb1%Zr, which has been extensively tested under the SP-100 program. The fuel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum, allowing better use of the fuel and stabilizing the geometry against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie, and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality can not occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars.

Lipinski, Ronald J.; Wright, Steven A.; Lenard, Roger X.; Harms, Gary A. [Sandia National Laboratories, MS-1146, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

1999-01-22

211

Survey and Alignment of the Fermilab Electron Cooling System  

SciTech Connect

The goal of achieving the Tevatron luminosity of 3 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} requires Electron Cooling in the Recycler Ring to provide an increased flux of antiprotons. The Fermilab Electron Cooling system has been designed to assist accumulation of antiprotons for the Tevatron collider operations. The installation along with the survey and alignment of the Electron Cooling system in the Recycler Ring were completed in November 2004. The Electron Cooling system was fully commissioned in May 2005 and the first cooling of antiprotons was achieved in July 2005. This paper discusses the alignment methodology employed to survey and align the Electron Cooling system.

Oshinowo, Babatunde O'Sheg; Leibfritz, Jerry

2006-09-01

212

Study of cooling air inlet and exit geometries for horizontally opposed piston aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A semispan wing and nacelle of a typical general aviation twin-engine aircraft was tested to evaluate the cooling capability and drag of several nacelle shapes; the nacelle shapes included cooling air inlet and exit variations. The tests were conducted in the Ames Research Center's 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. It was found that the cooling air inlet geometry of opposed piston engine installations has a major effect on inlet pressure recovery, but only a minor effect on drag. Exit location showed a large effect on drag, especially for those locations on the sides of the nacelle where the suction characteristics were based on interaction with the wing surface pressures.

Katz, J.; Corsiglia, V. R.; Barlow, P. R.

1980-01-01

213

Cooling tests of a single-row radial engine with several NACA cowlings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cooling of a single-row radial air-cooled engine using several cowling arrangements has been studied in the NACA 20-foot wind tunnel. The results show the effect of the propeller and several cowling arrangements on cooling for various values of the indicated horsepower in the climb condition. A table giving comparative performance of the various cowling arrangements is presented. The dependence of temperature on indicated horsepower and pressure drop across the baffles is shown by charts. Other charts show the limiting indicated horsepower against the pressure drop across the engine and the heat dissipated at various values of the indicated horsepower.

Brevoort, M J; Stickle, George W; Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

1937-01-01

214

4.5 K Cooling System for a Cryogenically Cooled Probe for a 920 MHz NMR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of closed-cycle 4.5 K cooling has been demonstrated for a cryogenically cooled probe for the world highest magnetic-field 920 MHz Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) operated at the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), by means of the following model experiments. The cooling system with a cooling capacity of 4.55 W comprises a Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler and two-stage expansion

H. Yokota; T. Okamura; Y. Ohtani; T. Kuriyama; M. Takahashi; T. Horiuchi; J. Kikuchi; S. Yokoyama; H. Maeda

2004-01-01

215

Intelligent Engine Systems: Bearing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall requirements necessary for sensing bearing distress and the related criteria to select a particular rotating sensor were established during the phase I. The current phase II efforts performed studies to evaluate the Robustness and Durability Enhancement of the rotating sensors, and to design, and develop the Built-in Telemetry System concepts for an aircraft engine differential sump. A generic test vehicle that can test the proposed bearing diagnostic system was designed, developed, and built. The Timken Company, who also assisted with testing the GE concept of using rotating sensors for the differential bearing diagnostics during previous phase, was selected as a subcontractor to assist General Electric (GE) for the design, and procurement of the test vehicle. A purchase order was prepared to define the different sub-tasks, and deliverables for this task. The University of Akron was selected to provide the necessary support for installing, and integrating the test vehicle with their newly designed test facility capable of simulating the operating environment for the planned testing. The planned testing with good and damaged bearings will be on hold pending further continuation of this effort during next phase.

Singh, Arnant P.

2008-01-01

216

System safety engineering analysis handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic requirements and guidelines for the preparation of System Safety Engineering Analysis are presented. The philosophy of System Safety and the various analytic methods available to the engineering profession are discussed. A text-book description of each of the methods is included.

Ijams, T. E.

1972-01-01

217

Cooling system and insulation concept for a Mach 5 turbo-ramjet aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cooling system and insulation concept for a Mach 5 cruise aircraft, using non-cryogenic fuel is presented. Catalytic endothermic reaction of petroleum fuel is used as the heat sink for engine cooling. A secondary closed-loop coolant circuit removes heat from the engine and transfers this heat to the catalytic reactor. Insulation on the engine flow path surfaces reduces the cooling requirements. A high temperature insulation system, which is capable of a surface temperature of 4,000 F, is used for the combustor and nozzle. A complete closed-loop cooling system design is shown in detail. Main features of this system include a fuel preheater, a catalytic fuel reactor, and engine wall cooling panels. A silicone-based liquid polymer, designed for extended use at 750 F, is used as the coolant. The preheater and reactor design are based on the results of recent experimental work. The cooling panels are designed using a thermal fluid analysis computer program, which was originally developed for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). Major components are analyzed structurally as well as thermally and weights are presented.

Jones, S. C.; Petley, D. H.

1990-01-01

218

System engineering for the 777 autopilot system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the systems engineering process used in developing the 777 Autopilot Flight Director System (AFDS). It includes discussions regarding requirements capture, requirements allocation to hardware and software, system architecture considerations (including the architectural impact of safety requirements), change management, requirements and verification traceability, and requirements-based verification. Additionally, the organizational structure employed and its interaction with the systems engineering

M. J. Gries

1997-01-01

219

A cooled-gas pyrometer for use in hypersonic engine testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cooled-gas pyrometer designed for application in a hypersonic research engine program was fabricated and tested. Design and operational considerations and calibration data are presented. The probe was tested in a rocket-engine exhaust stream operating at Mach 2 and 2300 K. Test temperature measurements agreed to within 2 percent with a radiation shielded thermocouple probe.

Glawe, G. E.

1973-01-01

220

A fuselage/tank structure study for actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles: Active cooling system analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of fuselage cross section and structural arrangement on the performance of actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles are investigated. An active cooling system which maintains the aircraft's entire surface area at temperatures below 394 K at Mach 6 is developed along with a hydrogen fuel tankage thermal protection system. Thermodynamic characteristics of the actively cooled thermal protection systems established are summarized. Design heat loads and coolant flowrate requirements are defined for each major structural section and for the total system. Cooling system weights are summarized at the major component level. Conclusions and recommendations are included.

Stone, J. E.

1975-01-01

221

Optimization of a heat-pipe-cooled space radiator for use with a reactor-powered Stirling engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design optimization of a reactor-Stirling heat-pipe-cooled radiator is presented. The radiator is a self-deploying concept that uses individual finned heat pipe 'petals' to reject waste heat from a Stirling engine. Radiator optimization methodology is presented, and the results of a parametric analysis of the radiator design variables for a 100-kW(e) system are given. The additional steps of optiminzing the radiator resulted in a net system mass savings of 3 percent.

Moriarty, Michael P.; French, Edward P.

1987-01-01

222

Agent-Based Systems Engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project combines robust and proven concepts from traditional mathematical systems engineering with the technology of web-based agent systems, leading to new modeling paradigms and technical results for agent-based computing. The main goal of this pro...

G. Cybenko D. Rus

2005-01-01

223

Engineering Drawing System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main purpose of this manual is to present the standard practices and information required in the preparation of engineering drawings. The basic requirements for all drawings and specifications are delineated. Instructions are presented for preparing s...

1978-01-01

224

Altitude Cooling Investigation of the R-2800-21 Engine in the P-47G Airplane. IV - Engine Cooling-Air Pressure Distribution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the data obtained in a flight investigation of an R-2800-21 engine in a P-47G airplane was made to determine the effect of the flight variables on the engine cooling-air pressure distribution. The investigation consisted of level flights at altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet for the normal range of engine and airplane operation. The data showed that the average engine front pressures ranged from 0.73 to 0.82 of the impact pressure (velocity head). The average engine rear pressures ranged from 0.50 to 0.55 of the impact pressure for closed cowl flaps and from 0.10 to 0.20 for full-open cowl flaps. In general, the highest front pressures were obtained at the bottom of the engine. The rear pressures for the rear-row cylinders were .lower and the pressure drops correspondingly higher than for the front-row cylinders. The rear-pressure distribution was materially affected by cowl-flap position in that the differences between the rear pressures of the front-row and rear-row cylinders markedly increased as the cowl flaps were opened. For full-open cowl flaps, the pressure drops across the rear-row cylinders were in the order of 0.2 of the impact pressure greater than across the front-row cylinders. Propeller speed and altitude had little effect on the -coolingair pressure distribution, Increase in angle of inclination of the thrust axis decreased the front ?pressures for the cylinders at the top of the engine and increased them for the cylinders at the bottom of the engine. As more auxiliary air was taken from the engine cowling, the front pressures and, to a lesser extent, the rear pressures for the cylinders at the bottom of the engine decreased. No correlation existed between the cooling-air pressure-drop distribution and the cylinder-temperature distribution.

Kaufman, Samuel J.; Staudt, Robert C.; Valerino, Michael F.

1947-01-01

225

Cylinder-temperature correlation of a single-cylinder liquid-cooled engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis based on nonboiling forced-convection heat-transfer theory is made of the cooling processes in liquid-cooled engine cylinders. Semiempirical equations that relate the average head and barrel temperatures with the primary engine and coolant parameters are derived. A correlation method based on these equations is applied to data obtained from previously reported investigations, which were conducted over large ranges of engine and coolant conditions with two liquid-cooled cylinders using water and various aqueous ethylene glycol solutions as coolants. Upon evaluation of empirical factors, an equation for the cylinder-head temperature as a function of the engine operating conditions and the flow rate, temperature, and physical properties of the coolants is obtained, which represents the data with good accuracy.

Pinkel, Benjamin; Manganiello, Eugene J; Bernardo, Everett

1946-01-01

226

Investigation of Water-spray Cooling of Turbine Blades in a Turbojet Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical and experimental investigation was made with a J33-A-9 engine to determine the effectiveness of spray cooling as a means of increasing thrust by permitting engine operation at inlet-gas temperatures and speeds above rated. With the assumption of adequate spray cooling at a coolant-to-gas flow ratio of 3 percent, calculations for the sea-level static condition indicated a thrust may be achieved by engine operation at an inlet-gas temperature of 2000 degrees F and an overspeed of 10 percent. Of the water-injection configurations investigated experimentally, those located in the inner ring of the stator diaphragm provided the best cooling at rated engine speed.

Freche, John C; Stelpflug, William J

1953-01-01

227

NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance: Best Management Practice Case Study #10: Cooling Towers (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a longstanding sustainability program that revolves around energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. MSFC identified a problematic cooling loop with six separate compressor heat exchangers and a history of poor efficiency. The facility engineering team at MSFC partnered with Flozone Services, Incorporated to implement a comprehensive water treatment platform to improve the overall efficiency of the system.

Not Available

2011-02-01

228

Linac drift tube tank upgrade engineering - cooling solution  

SciTech Connect

Components from the injector of the canceled SSC project are being modified by JPAW to make a commercial radioisotope production linac for I{sup 3} in Denton, TX. The biggest challenge of the upgraded design is the increased average power of the DTL, 40 times the original. With the thermo-mechanical analysis backed by a thorough understanding of the thermal physics, 156 drift tubes have been redesigned according to the RF power deposition. Increasing flow rate in the original cooling channels and adding four flow paths reduces the average tank temperature to an acceptable level. The {delta}f tolerance budget is controlled without the use of additional temperature control units. The unfinished SSC endwall parts have been modified for additional cooling of the nose and the wall. The different LINAC cooling subsystems are connected to a manifold in parallel through independent flow control valves to balance the required flow rate for each branch.

Li, G.; Heilbrunn, W.; Potter, J. [International Isotopes, Inc. (I3) (United States); JP Accelerator Works, Inc. (JPAW) (United States)

1999-06-10

229

Regeneratively cooled rocket engine for space storable propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis, design, fabrication, and test efforts were performed for the existing OF2/B2H6 regeneratively cooled lK (4448 N) thrust chamber to illustrate simultaneous B2H6 fuel and OF2 oxidizer cooling and to provide results for a gaseous propellant condition injected into the combustion chamber. Data derived from performance, thermal and flow measurements confirmed predictions derived from previous test work and from concurrent analytical study. Development data derived from the experimental study were indicated to be sufficient to develop a preflight thrust chamber demonstrator prototype for future space mission objectives.

Wagner, W. R.

1973-01-01

230

Management issues in systems engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

When applied to a system, the doctrine of successive refinement is a divide-and-conquer strategy. Complex systems are sucessively divided into pieces that are less complex, until they are simple enough to be conquered. This decomposition results in several structures for describing the product system and the producing system. These structures play important roles in systems engineering and project management. Many

Robert Shishko; Robert G. Chamberlain; Robert Aster; Vincent Bilardo; Kevin Forsberg; Hal Mooz; Lou Polaski; Ron Wade

1993-01-01

231

Electromechanically-cooled germanium radiation detector system  

SciTech Connect

We have successfully developed and fielded an electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector (EMC-HPGe) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This detector system was designed to provide optimum energy resolution, long lifetime, and extremely reliable operation for unattended and portable applications. For most analytical applications, high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are the standard detectors of choice, providing an unsurpassed combination of high energy resolution performance and exceptional detection efficiency. Logistical difficulties associated with providing the required liquid nitrogen (LN) for cooling is the primary reason that these systems are found mainly in laboratories. The EMC-HPGe detector system described in this paper successfully provides HPGe detector performance in a portable instrument that allows for isotopic analysis in the field. It incorporates a unique active vibration control system that allows the use of a Sunpower Stirling cycle cryocooler unit without significant spectral degradation from microphonics. All standard isotopic analysis codes, including MGA and MGA++[1], GAMANL[2], GRPANL[3] and MGAU[4], typically used with HPGe detectors can be used with this system with excellent results. Several national and international Safeguards organizations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have expressed interest in this system. The detector was combined with custom software and demonstrated as a rapid Field Radiometric Identification System (FRIS) for the U.S. Customs Service[5]. The European Communities' Safeguards Directorate (EURATOM) is field-testing the first Safeguards prototype in their applications. The EMC-HPGe detector system design, recent applications, and results will be highlighted.

Lavietes, A. D., LLNL.

1998-05-01

232

Electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have successfully developed and fielded an electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector (EMC-HPGe) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This detector system was designed to provide optimum energy resolution, long lifetime, and extremely reliable operation for unattended and portable applications. For most analytical applications, high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are the standard detectors of choice, providing an unsurpassed combination of high energy resolution performance and exceptional detection efficiency. Logistical difficulties associated with providing the required liquid nitrogen (LN) for cooling is the primary reason that these systems are found mainly in laboratories. The EMC-HPGe detector system described in this paper successfully provides HPGe detector performance in a portable instrument that allows for isotopic analysis in the field. It incorporates a unique active vibration control system that allows the use of a Sunpower Stirling cycle cryocooler unit without significant spectral degradation from microphonics. All standard isotopic analysis codes, including MGA and MGA++ [1], GAMANL [2], GRPANL [3]and MGAU [4], typically used with HPGe detectors can be used with this system with excellent results. Several national and international Safeguards organisations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have expressed interest in this system. The detector was combined with custom software and demonstrated as a rapid Field Radiometric Identification System (FRIS) for the U.S. Customs Service [5]. The European Communities' Safeguards Directorate (EURATOM) is field-testing the first Safeguards prototype in their applications. The EMC-HPGe detector system design, recent applications, and results will be highlighted.

Lavietes, Anthony D.; Joseph Mauger, G.; Anderson, Eric H.

1999-02-01

233

Solar heating and cooling system design and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems is reported. Manufacture, test, installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and monitoring the operation of prototype systems is included. Heating and cooling equipment for single family residential and commercial applications and eight operational test sites (four heating and four heating and cooling) is described.

1978-01-01

234

Electron Beam Size Measurements in the Fermilab Electron Cooling System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Fermilab Electron Cooling Project requires a straight trajectory and constant beam size to provide maximum cooling of the antiprotons in the Recycler. A measurement system was developed using movable apertures and steering bumps to measure the beam si...

T. K. Kroc A. V. Burov T. B. Bolshakov A. Shemyakin S. M. Seletskiy

2006-01-01

235

Effect of several factors on the cooling of a radial engine in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight tests of a Grumman Scout (XSF-2) airplane fitted with a Pratt & Whitney 1535 supercharged engine were conducted to determine the effect of engine power, mass flow of the cooling air, and atmospheric temperature on cylinder temperature. The tests indicated that the difference in temperature between the cylinder wall and the cooling air varied as the 0.38 power of the brake horsepower for a constant mass flow of cooling air, cooling-air temperature, engine speed, and brake fuel consumption. The difference in temperature was also found to vary inversely as the 0.39 power of the mass flow for points on the head and the 0.35 power for points on the barrel, provided that engine power, engine speed, brake fuel consumption, and cooling-air temperature were kept constant. The results of the tests of the effect of atmospheric temperature on cylinder temperature were inconclusive owing to unfavorable weather conditions prevailing at the time of the tests. The method used for controlling the test conditions, however, was found to be feasible.

Schey, Oscar W; Pinkel, Benjamin

1936-01-01

236

Efficiency and its bounds for thermal engines at maximum power using Newton's law of cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a thermal engine model for which Newton's cooling law is obeyed during heat transfer processes. The thermal efficiency and its bounds at maximum output power are derived and discussed. This model, though quite simple, can be applied not only to Carnot engines but also to four other types of engines. For the long thermal contact time limit, new bounds, tighter than what were known before, are obtained. In this case, this model can simulate Otto, Joule-Brayton, Diesel, and Atkinson engines. While in the short contact time limit, which corresponds to the Carnot cycle, the same efficiency bounds as that from Esposito [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.105.150603 105, 150603 (2010)] are derived. In both cases, the thermal efficiency decreases as the ratio between the heat capacities of the working medium during heating and cooling stages increases. This might provide instructions for designing real engines.

Yan, H.; Guo, Hao

2012-01-01

237

Optical monitoring system for a turbine engine  

DOEpatents

The monitoring system for a gas turbine engine including a viewing tube assembly having an inner end and an outer end. The inner end is located adjacent to a hot gas flow path within the gas turbine engine and the outer end is located adjacent to an outer casing of the gas turbine engine. An aperture wall is located at the inner end of the viewing tube assembly and an optical element is located within the viewing tube assembly adjacent to the inner end and is spaced from the aperture wall to define a cooling and purge chamber therebetween. An aperture is defined in the aperture wall for passage of light from the hot gas flow path to the optical element. Swirl passages are defined in the viewing tube assembly between the aperture wall and the optical element for passage of cooling air from a location outside the viewing tube assembly into the chamber, wherein swirl passages effect a swirling movement of air in a circumferential direction within the chamber.

Lemieux, Dennis H; Smed, Jan P; Williams, James P; Jonnalagadda, Vinay

2013-05-14

238

The development of a solar-powered residential heating and cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of utilizing solar power for residential heating and cooling are described. These efforts were concentrated on the analysis, design, and test of a full-scale demonstration system which is currently under construction at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama. The basic solar heating and cooling system under development utilizes a flat plate solar energy collector, a large water tank for thermal energy storage, heat exchangers for space heating and water heating, and an absorption cycle air conditioner for space cooling.

1974-01-01

239

Systems engineering for very large systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Very large integrated systems have always posed special problems for engineers. Whether they are power generation systems, computer networks or space vehicles, whenever there are multiple interfaces, complex technologies or just demanding customers, the challenges are unique. 'Systems engineering' has evolved as a discipline in order to meet these challenges by providing a structured, top-down design and development methodology for the engineer. This paper attempts to define the general class of problems requiring the complete systems engineering treatment and to show how systems engineering can be utilized to improve customer satisfaction and profit ability. Specifically, this work will focus on a design methodology for the largest of systems, not necessarily in terms of physical size, but in terms of complexity and interconnectivity.

Lewkowicz, Paul E.

1993-01-01

240

Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. For future high performance engines, the development of advanced ceramic barrier coating systems will allow these coatings to be used to simultaneously increase engine operating temperature and reduce cooling requirements, thereby leading to significant improvements in engine power density and efficiency. In order to meet future engine performance and reliability requirements, the coating systems must be designed with increased high temperature stability, lower thermal conductivity, and improved thermal stress and erosion resistance. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for high temperature and high-heat-flux engine applications in hot corrosion and oxidation, erosion, and combustion water vapor environments. Further coating performance and life improvements will be expected by utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, and improved processing techniques, in conjunction with modeling and design tools.

Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

2004-01-01

241

Energy Systems Engineering Technician Curriculum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

St. Lawerence College of Ontario, Canada offers a two year program for students interested in becoming Energy Systems Engineering Technicians serving the alternative energy industry. The website offers a description of the program and links to required courses.

2010-06-07

242

New Directions for Evaporative Cooling Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New energy saving technology can be applied to older cooling towers; in addition, evaporative chilling, a process that links a cooling tower to the chilling equipment, can reduce energy use by 80 percent. (Author/MLF)

Robison, Rita

1981-01-01

243

A rocket engine design expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall structure and capabilities of an expert system designed to evaluate rocket engine performance are described. The expert system incorporates a JANNAF standard reference computer code to determine rocket engine performance and a state-of-the-art finite element computer code to calculate the interactions between propellant injection, energy release in the combustion chamber, and regenerative cooling heat transfer. Rule-of-thumb heuristics were incorporated for the hydrogen-oxygen coaxial injector design, including a minimum gap size constraint on the total number of injector elements. One-dimensional equilibrium chemistry was employed in the energy release analysis of the combustion chamber and three-dimensional finite-difference analysis of the regenerative cooling channels was used to calculate the pressure drop along the channels and the coolant temperature as it exits the coolant circuit. Inputting values to describe the geometry and state properties of the entire system is done directly from the computer keyboard. Graphical display of all output results from the computer code analyses is facilitated by menu selection of up to five dependent variables per plot.

Davidian, Kenneth J.

1989-01-01

244

Engineering the Lymphatic System  

PubMed Central

The recent advances in our understanding of lymphatic physiology and the role of the lymphatics in actively regulating fluid balance, lipid transport, and immune cell trafficking has been furthered in part through innovations in imaging, tissue engineering, quantitative biology, biomechanics, and computational modeling. Interdisciplinary and bioengineering approaches will continue to be crucial to the progression of the field, given that lymphatic biology and function are intimately woven with the local microenvironment and mechanical loads experienced by the vessel. This is particularly the case in lymphatic diseases such as lymphedema where the microenvironment can be drastically altered by tissue fibrosis and adipocyte accumulation. In this review we will highlight contributions engineering and mechanics have made to lymphatic physiology and will discuss areas that will be important for future research.

Nipper, Matthew E.

2011-01-01

245

A Structure for Systems Engineering Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the need for the development of a theoretical framework for Systems Engineering to facilitate recognition of Systems Engineering as a discipline and to provide a fundamental basis for advancing the practice of Systems Engineering. Systems Engineering concerns the development of systems that satisfy the real needs of those who call for the systems to be created. Such

Timothy L. J. Ferris; Stephen C. Cook; Eric C. Honour

246

Validation of Supersonic Film Cooling Modeling for Liquid Rocket Engine Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics include: upper stage engine key requirements and design drivers; Calspan "stage 1" results, He slot injection into hypersonic flow (air); test articles for shock generator diagram, slot injector details, and instrumentation positions; test conditions; modeling approach; 2-d grid used for film cooling simulations of test article; heat flux profiles from 2-d flat plate simulations (run #4); heat flux profiles from 2-d backward facing step simulations (run #43); isometric sketch of single coolant nozzle, and x-z grid of half-nozzle domain; comparison of 2-d and 3-d simulations of coolant nozzles (run #45); flowfield properties along coolant nozzle centerline (run #45); comparison of 3-d CFD nozzle flow calculations with experimental data; nozzle exit plane reduced to linear profile for use in 2-d film-cooling simulations (run #45); synthetic Schlieren image of coolant injection region (run #45); axial velocity profiles from 2-d film-cooling simulation (run #45); coolant mass fraction profiles from 2-d film-cooling simulation (run #45); heat flux profiles from 2-d film cooling simulations (run #45); heat flux profiles from 2-d film cooling simulations (runs #47, #45, and #47); 3-d grid used for film cooling simulations of test article; heat flux contours from 3-d film-cooling simulation (run #45); and heat flux profiles from 3-d and 2-d film cooling simulations (runs #44, #46, and #47).

Morris, Christopher I.; Ruf, Joseph H.

2010-01-01

247

Open cycle lithium chloride cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lithium chloride open cycle absorption chiller has been designed, built and tested. Solution reconcentration takes place in a small counter current packed column supplied with solar heated air. Removal of noncondensable gases that enter the chiller dissolved in the strong solution and the make-up refrigerant streams is accomplished by a liquid-jet ejector and a small vacuum pump. Cooling capacities approaching 1.4 tons and COP levels of 0.58 have been achieved at non-optimum operating conditions. Test results from preliminary system operation suggest that mass transfer processes in both the packed column reconcentrator and the absorber are controlled by concentration gradients in the lithium chloride solution. Liquid phase controlled mass transfer dictates an operating strategy different from the previously assumed gas phase controlled process to obtain maximum rates of evaporation in the packed column. Determination of optimal operating conditions leading to decreased electrical power consumption and improved cooling capacity and coefficient of performance will require further analysis and testing.

Lenz, T. G.; Loef, G. O. G.; Iyer, R.; Wenger, J.

1983-05-01

248

Effects of hydrogen active cooling on scramjet engine performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scramjet engine can be regarded as the most promising one to propel a vehicle at hypersonic speeds to orbit. It simply consists of an external compression inlet, combustor and nozzle. In its analysis, there are most severe difficulties in the analysis of the combustor due to problems such as turbulent diffusion and mixing at supersonic speeds. For the combustor,

Y. Tsujikawa; G. B. Northam

1996-01-01

249

POWER PLANT COOLING SYSTEM WATER CONSUMPTION AND NONWATER IMPACT REPORTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study dealt with water evaporation and consumption of power plant cooling systems and evaluated six simple generic evaporation prediction models, one for cooling towers and five for cooling ponds/lakes using field data provided by twelve utilities. Also evaluated in the stud...

250

Cooling and shielding systems for infrared detectors - requirements and limits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents three main cooling systems used for infrared detectors. At first thermoelectric devices are discussed. They allow cooling down the detector with low efficiency and not to the very low temperature. They do not generate any vibrations and therefore are suitable for thermal detectors, where the microphone effect can decrease their performance. Photon detectors need to be cooled

B. Wiecek

2005-01-01

251

Performance of the ALICE SPD cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new generation of silicon detectors for particle physics requires very reduced mass and high resistance to radiations with very limited access to the detector for maintenance. The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) is one of the 18 detectors of the ALICE (A Large Io Collider Experiment) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It constitute the two innermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) and it is the closest detector to th interaction point. An evaporative cooling system, based on C4F10 evaporation at 1.9 bar, was chosen to extrac the 1.35 kW power dissipated by the on-detector electronics. The whole system wa extensively tested and commissioned before its installation inside the ALICE experimenta area. Since then we had to deal with a decrease of the flow in some lines of the system tha imposed severe restrictions on the detector operation. Recently, a test bench has been built in order to carry out a series of tests to reproduce the misbehaviour of the system and investigat proper actions to cure the problem. The performance of the systems and the most interesting results of the above mentioned test will be presented.

Francescon, A.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Altini, V.; Battistin, M.; Berry, S.; Bianchin, C.; Bortolin, C.; Botelho Direito, J.; Cavicchioli, C.; Di Giglio, C.; Janda, M.; Lesenechal, Y.; Manzari, V.; Martini, S.; Mastroserio, A.; Morel, M.; Santoro, R.; Terrevoli, C.; Turrisi, R.; Vacek, V.

2012-11-01

252

Boundary cooled rocket engines for space storable propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation of an existing analytical heat transfer model was made to develop the technology of boundary film/conduction cooled rocket thrust chambers to the space storable propellant combination oxygen difluoride/diborane. Critical design parameters were identified and their importance determined. Test reduction methods were developed to enable data obtained from short duration hot firings with a thin walled (calorimeter) chamber to be used quantitatively evaluate the heat absorbing capability of the vapor film. The modification of the existing like-doublet injector was based on the results obtained from the calorimeter firings.

Kesselring, R. C.; Mcfarland, B. L.; Knight, R. M.; Gurnitz, R. N.

1972-01-01

253

System Engineering Paper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Iowa State University team, Team LunaCY, is composed of the following sub-teams: the main student organization, the Lunabotics Club; a senior mechanical engineering design course, ME 415; a senior multidisciplinary design course, ENGR 466; and a senior design course from Wartburg College in Waverly, Iowa. Team LunaCY designed and fabricated ART-E III, Astra Robotic Tractor- Excavator the Third, for the team's third appearance in the NASA Lunabotic Mining competition. While designing ART-E III, the team had four main goals for this year's competition:to reduce the total weight of the robot, to increase the amount of regolith simulant mined, to reduce dust, and to make ART-E III autonomous. After many designs and research, a final robot design was chosen that obtained all four goals of Team LunaCY. A few changes Team LunaCY made this year was to go to the electrical, computer, and software engineering club fest at Iowa State University to recruit engineering students to accomplish the task of making ART-E III autonomous. Team LunaCY chose to use LabView to program the robot and various sensors were installed to measure the distance between the robot and the surroundings to allow ART-E III to maneuver autonomously. Team LunaCY also built a testing arena to test prototypes and ART-E III in. To best replicate the competition arena at the Kennedy Space Center, a regolith simulant was made from sand, QuickCrete, and fly ash to cover the floor of the arena. Team LunaCY also installed fans to allow ventilation in the arena and used proper safety attire when working in the arena . With the additional practice in the testing arena and innovative robot design, Team LunaCY expects to make a strong appearance at the 2012 NASA Lunabotic Mining Competition. .

Heise, James; Hull, Bethanne J.; Bauer, Jonathan; Beougher, Nathan G.; Boe, Caleb; Canahui, Ricardo; Charles, John P.; Cooper, Zachary Davis Job; DeShaw, Mark A.; Fontanella, Luan Gasparetto; Friel, Mark; Goebel, Katie; Grant, Alex Martinsdacosta; Graves, Matt; Harms, Ryan Andrew; Hill, Aren; Lsely, Kevin Lee; Jose, Sonia; Klein, Andrew; Kolstad, Lauren Wickham; Lamp, Daniel A.; Lindquist, Mariangela Martin; Lopes, Daniel da Paula; Lourens, Rob; Matthews, Christopher

2012-01-01

254

Nozzle system for engines  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for effecting an improved degree of combustion of fuel and for reducing unwanted carbon buildup in an injection orifice structure feeding a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine having at least one such combustion chamber within which a piston reciprocates through a compression stroke followed by a power stroke, the method comprising: 1. continuously maintaining an elevated pressure in a premix chamber by supplying thereto elevated pressure air from an air reservoir through a passage equipped with an unidirectional valve, b. closing an open communication from the premix chamber through the injection orifice structure to the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine, the injection orifice structure closure being effected at the time when the pressure in the combustion chamber is below that of the elevated pressure of the air in the premix chamber, c. spurting into the premix chamber, momentarily after the injection orifice structure closure, a measured quantity of fuel under a pressure in excess of the elevated pressure of the air in the premix chamber, and d. opening communication from the premix chamber through the injection orifice structure to the combustion chamber at a time during the compression stroke of the piston.

Ziejewski, M.; Goettler, H.J.

1989-04-25

255

Industrial and Systems Engineering Applications in NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation on the many applications of Industrial and Systems Engineering used for safe NASA missions is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA Information; 2) Industrial Engineering; 3) Systems Engineering; and 4) Major NASA Programs.

Shivers, Charles H.

2006-01-01

256

Natural circulating passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure  

DOEpatents

A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Wade, Gentry E. (Saratoga, CA)

1990-01-01

257

Passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure  

DOEpatents

A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Wade, Gentry E. (Saratoga, CA)

1989-01-01

258

Adaptive Systems Engineering: A Medical Paradigm for Practicing Systems Engineering  

SciTech Connect

From its inception in the defense and aerospace industries, SE has applied holistic, interdisciplinary tools and work-process to improve the design and management of 'large, complex engineering projects.' The traditional scope of engineering in general embraces the design, development, production, and operation of physical systems, and SE, as originally conceived, falls within that scope. While this 'traditional' view has expanded over the years to embrace wider, more holistic applications, much of the literature and training currently available is still directed almost entirely at addressing the large, complex, NASA and defense-sized systems wherein the 'ideal' practice of SE provides the cradle-to-grave foundation for system development and deployment. Under such scenarios, systems engineers are viewed as an integral part of the system and project life-cycle from conception to decommissioning. In far less 'ideal' applications, SE principles are equally applicable to a growing number of complex systems and projects that need to be 'rescued' from overwhelming challenges that threaten imminent failure. The medical profession provides a unique analogy for this latter concept and offers a useful paradigm for tailoring our 'practice' of SE to address the unexpected dynamics of applying SE in the real world. In short, we can be much more effective as systems engineers as we change some of the paradigms under which we teach and 'practice' SE.

R. Douglas Hamelin; Ron D. Klingler; Christopher Dieckmann

2011-06-01

259

Automatic engineering Lot Handle System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, operations are almost fully automation in 300mm FAB. But some complex operations have multiple conditions that need manual control. Such as engineering experiments, pilot-run etc. those are for keeping process stable, enhancing yield and verifying technology development (TD) lot. But engineers must use different systems or paper run-cards to do experiments. That will time-consuming and have some risks of

Hung-Lung Lin; Hsi-Lo Lo; Cheng-Chung Pan; Nian-Wei Chan

2010-01-01

260

Application of phased cooling to a once-through cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of an application of a heat dissipation technique called phased-cooling to the cooling of once-through river water used in an electric power plant. A thermodynamic model for the situation is developed and the equations applying to the model are given. The performance of the system is analyzed for a summer day in the Southeastern United States.

J. A. MacFarlane; G. Maples; D. F. Dyer

1976-01-01

261

Development of SI Engine Control Education System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An engine control education system is designed. This system can realize the following functions: it serves to familiarize people with gasoline engine properties and can be applied to carry out engine control simulation, to design engine control logic and to realize engine real-time simulation. In the paper, the structure of this education system is explained. The system is composed of a computer, a high-speed arithmetic processing board, an ECU and an engine test bench. Engine control simulations are carried out, and engine properties are obtained. Therefore this system can assist people in mastering gasoline engine properties. Besides, a real-time simulation system is designed, and PID control real-time simulation is realized. In the future, new control systems can be designed based on the current one. When the engine simulator is connected with engine test bench and ECU, engine real-time simulation can be realized.

Wu, Dongmei; Ogawa, Masatoshi; Ogai, Harutoshi; Kusaka, Jin

262

Cooled railplug  

DOEpatents

The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers.

Weldon, William F. (Austin, TX) [Austin, TX

1996-01-01

263

Earth systems engineering and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of human activities on natural systems has grown to the point that we need to engage consciously in earth systems engineering and management. I address why this is the case, and what I mean by such a provocative term. In addition, I explore what we can learn from relevant experience, and how this daunting task should be approached.

Brad Allenby

2000-01-01

264

Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems are being developed. The effort includes development, manufacture, test, installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation.

1977-01-01

265

Cooperative information systems engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperative information systems (CIS) aim at continued cooperativity between user groups through componentized networks of information systems. Change management is therefore a definitional part of CIS. We advocate a conceptual modeling strategy for addressing this task, and illustrate it with experiences gained in WibQuS, a project aimed at CIS support for Total Quality Management in manufacturing organizations. These experiences emphasize

Matthias Jarke; Manfred A. Jeusfeld; Peter Peters; Peter Szczurko

1995-01-01

266

Intelligent Engine Systems: Acoustics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensive study of new fan exhaust nozzle technologies was performed. Three new uniform chevron nozzles were designed, based on extensive CFD analysis. Two new azimuthally varying variants were defined. All five were tested, along with two existing nozzles, on a representative model-scale, medium BPR exhaust nozzle. Substantial acoustic benefits were obtained from the uniform chevron nozzle designs, the best benefit being provided by an existing design. However, one of the azimuthally varying nozzle designs exhibited even better performance than any of the uniform chevron nozzles. In addition to the fan chevron nozzles, a new technology was demonstrated, using devices that enhance mixing when applied to an exhaust nozzle. The acoustic benefits from these devices applied to medium BPR nozzles were similar, and in some cases superior to, those obtained from conventional uniform chevron nozzles. However, none of the low noise technologies provided equivalent acoustic benefits on a model-scale high BPR exhaust nozzle, similar to current large commercial applications. New technologies must be identified to improve the acoustics of state-of-the-art high BPR jet engines.

Wojno, John; Martens, Steve; Simpson, Benjamin

2008-01-01

267

Engine NOx reduction system  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for use with an engine having a power-generating portion that burns a hydrocarbon fuel and air and produces hot exhaust gases is described, having a catalytic converter device that includes a catalyst for enhancing reactions of components of said exhaust gases, and having a conduit that couples said power-generating portion to said catalytic converter device, for reducing pollution in the exhaust, wherein said power-generating portion comprises a plurality of cylinders in which said fuel and air are burned, a mechanism for applying fuel and air to said cylinders, and a plurality of exhaust valves through which burned fuel and air is exhausted and which are connected to said upstream end of said conduit, said conduit including a manifold which is connected to a plurality of said exhaust valves and a downstream conduit portion which connects said manifold to said catalytic converter device, comprising: a device coupled to said conduit, which stores ammonia and injects it into said conduit at a location where the exhaust gases have a substantially maximum temperature, but which is devoid of open flames, to mix with said hot exhaust gases and pass with them along said conduit and then through said catalyst, said location being closer to said power-generating portion than to said catalytic converter and lying in said manifold.

Berriman, L.P.; Zabsky, J.M.; Davis, J.W.; Hylton, W.H.

1993-07-06

268

Computer systems and software engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The High Technologies Laboratory (HTL) was established in the fall of 1982 at the University of Houston Clear Lake. Research conducted at the High Tech Lab is focused upon computer systems and software engineering. There is a strong emphasis on the interrelationship of these areas of technology and the United States' space program. In Jan. of 1987, NASA Headquarters announced the formation of its first research center dedicated to software engineering. Operated by the High Tech Lab, the Software Engineering Research Center (SERC) was formed at the University of Houston Clear Lake. The High Tech Lab/Software Engineering Research Center promotes cooperative research among government, industry, and academia to advance the edge-of-knowledge and the state-of-the-practice in key topics of computer systems and software engineering which are critical to NASA. The center also recommends appropriate actions, guidelines, standards, and policies to NASA in matters pertinent to the center's research. Results of the research conducted at the High Tech Lab/Software Engineering Research Center have given direction to many decisions made by NASA concerning the Space Station Program.

Mckay, Charles W.

1988-01-01

269

Flight Investigation of the Cooling Characteristics of a Two-row Radial Engine Installation III : Engine Temperature Distribution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The temperature distribution of a two-row radial engine in a twin-engine airplane has been investigated in a series of flight tests. The test engine was operated over a wide range of conditions at density altitudes of 5000 and 20,000 feet; quantitative results are presented showing the effects of flight and engine variables upon average engine temperature and over-all temperature spread. Discussions of the effect of the variables on the shape of the temperature patterns and on the temperature distribution of individual cylinders are also included. The results indicate that, for the tests conducted, the temperature distribution patterns were chiefly determined by the fuel-air ratio and cooling-air distributions. It was possible to calculate individual cylinder temperature, on the assumption of equal power distribution among cylinders, to within an average of plus or minus 14 degrees F. of the actual temperature. A considerable change occurred in either the spread or the thrust axis, the average engine fuel-air ratio, the engine speed, the power, or the blower ratio. Smaller effects on the temperature pattern were noticed with a change in cowl-flap opening and altitude. In most of the tests, a change in conditions affected the temperature of the barrels less than that of the heads. The variation of flight and engine variables had a negligible effect on the temperature distributions of the individual cylinders. (author)

Rennak, Robert M; Messing, Wesley E; Morgan, James E

1946-01-01

270

Evaporative cooling system for remote medical center  

SciTech Connect

Beaudin Ganze Consulting Engineers (BGCE) undertook the challenge of designing an environmentally safe heating, ventilating and air-conditioning system for the remodel and expansion of Provenant Medical Surgical Center at Summit in Frisco, Colo. The medical facility, located in the Rocky Mountains, was to be transformed from a modular semi-permanent emergency room structure to a larger, permanent surgical medical center. The emergency room clinic would not be closed during this process. Complex mechanical and electrical issues were resolved by the BGCE team. The issues included the continuity of emergency medical services, designing an efficient air-conditioning system and, if possible, eliminating ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFC`s) from the site.

Beaudin, D. [Beaudin Ganze Consulting Engineers, Inc., Vail, CO (United States)

1996-05-01

271

Improvement of gas-turbine-engine performance by water injection into turbine cooling air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods of reducing the temperature of the cooling air in a high-pressure turbine, one involving injection of water and the other the use of a heat exchanger, are analyzed. It is shown that even for moderate relative cooling depths of the blades (0.4-0.5), the injection of water into the cooling system makes it possible to substantially reduce the specific

G. M. Gorelov; V. P. Danilchenko; V. Y. Reznik

1985-01-01

272

Development of a solar-powered passive ejector cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of an ejector refrigeration system that is powered by solar thermal energy. The cooling system contains no active parts and is therefore deemed passive. Water is used as the refrigerant though other natural refrigerants could be used for lower temperature operation. A prototype system was built with a nominal cooling capacity of 7 kW. This

V. M Nguyen; S. B Riffat; P. S Doherty

2001-01-01

273

Solar space heating and cooling by selective use of the components of a desiccant cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economic advantages of by-passing various components of a desiccant cooling system under conditions not requiring their use are estimated by evaluating the annual costs of heating and cooling a commercial building in three representative U.S. cities. Life-cycle costs of systems employing solar heat for space heating and desiccant regeneration are compared with those using electric heat. The costs of purchasing and operating heating and desiccant cooling systems, with and without solar heat supply, are compared with those employing conventional heating and vapor compression cooling. The conditions under which commercial buildings can be cooled with desiccant systems at costs competitive with conventional systems are identified. A commercially available vapor compression air conditioner is used as a standard of comparison for energy consumption and room comfort. Heating and cooling requirements of the building are determined by use of the BLAST computer model in a simulation of long term system operation. Performance of the desiccant cooling system and life cycle savings obtained by its use are determined by simulation employing the TRNSYS computer model. TRNSYS compatible subroutines are developed to simulate operation of the desiccant equipment, the building, and the controllers that operate and monitor the system components. The results are presented in tabular and graphical form. This study shows that in the widely different climates represented in Los Angeles, New York, and Miami, by-passing various components in the desiccant cooling system when they are not needed is economically advantageous. Operation cost of the complete system decreased by 47.3% in Los Angeles, by 30.9% in New York City, and by 23.9% in Miami by not operating the desiccant wheel and other elements. The ventilation desiccant cooling system has major economic advantage over conventional systems under conditions of moderate humidity, as in Los Angeles and New York City. In Miami, however, the thermal energy needed for desiccant cooling is three to four times greater than that for Los Angeles and New York, so the desiccant system is not a competitive option in hot, humid climates. Life cycle savings in the three locations show that operation of the desiccant cooling and heating system with solar energy is more costly than with conventional energy at 1996 prices. Solar energy would become competitive, however, if annual electric energy inflation rates exceed 10 percent.

Abbud, Ihsan Aladdin

274

Drag and cooling with various forms of cowling for a "Whirlwind" radial air-cooled engine II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report gives the results of the second portion of an investigation in the twenty-foot Propeller Research Tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, on the cowling and cooling of a "Whirlwind" J-5 radial air-cooled engine. The first portion pertains to tests with a cabin fuselage. This report covers tests with several forms of cowling, including conventional types, individual fairings behind the cylinders, individual hoods over the over the cylinders, and the new N. A. C. A. complete cowling, all on an open cockpit fuselage. Drag tests were also made with a conventional engine nacelle, and with a nacelle having the new complete cowling. In the second part of the investigation the results found in the first part were substantiated. It was also found that the reduction in drag with the complete cowling over that with conventional cowling is greater with the smaller bodies than with the cabin fuselage; in fact, the gain in the case of the completely cowled nacelle is over twice that with the cabin fuselage. The individual fairings and hoods did not prove effective in reducing the drag. The results of flight tests on AT-5A airplane has been analyzed and found to agree very well with the results of the wind tunnel tests. (author)

Weick, Fred E

1930-01-01

275

Advanced cooling full-scale engine demonstration. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A program was performed to demonstate the advantages of advanced fabrication techniques for convectively cooled airfoils for utility combustion turbines. The program focused on airfoils fabricated from thin sheets of metal (water airfoil). The objectives of the program were to demonstrate that utility combustion turbine sized wafer airfoils could be fabricated, low metal temperatures could be achieved, corrosion, erosion and deposition problems could be relieved, and that there were economic benefits for fabricated airfoils. The results of the program show that wafer airfoils could be fabricated in utility combustion turbine sizes. Low metal temperatures were achieved in a conceptual design, but experimental verification was not obtained for programmatic reasons. Tests to show that corrosion, erosion, and deposition problems were relieved through the use of wafer airfoils were largely inconclusive because of unanticipated problem with the test method. It was shown that there are economic benefits for wafer airfoils relative to conventionally cast airfoils. However, these benefits are not large relative to benefits achievable by another fabrication technique. This other fabrication technique is the bonded airfoil, which has a higher degree of development and for which there is a manufacturing capability at United Technologies Corporation.

Not Available

1981-07-01

276

Ocean Engineering Power Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The text presents the basic thermodynamic principles and considerations necessary for the understanding of power systems in the ocean environment. These are illustrated by the development of specific application examples thereby presented the theory in a ...

A. D. Carmichael

1974-01-01

277

Computer Jet-Engine-Monitoring System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Intelligent Computer Assistant for Engine Monitoring" (ICAEM), computer-based monitoring system intended to distill and display data on conditions of operation of two turbofan engines of F-18, is in preliminary state of development. System reduces burden on propulsion engineer by providing single display of summary information on statuses of engines and alerting engineer to anomalous conditions. Effective use of prior engine-monitoring system requires continuous attention to multiple displays.

Disbrow, James D.; Duke, Eugene L.; Ray, Ronald J.

1992-01-01

278

Air cooled turbine component having an internal filtration system  

DOEpatents

A centrifugal particle separator is provided for removing particles such as microscopic dirt or dust particles from the compressed cooling air prior to reaching and cooling the turbine blades or turbine vanes of a turbine engine. The centrifugal particle separator structure has a substantially cylindrical body with an inlet arranged on a periphery of the substantially cylindrical body. Cooling air enters centrifugal particle separator through the separator inlet port having a linear velocity. When the cooling air impinges the substantially cylindrical body, the linear velocity is transformed into a rotational velocity, separating microscopic particles from the cooling air. Microscopic dust particles exit the centrifugal particle separator through a conical outlet and returned to a working medium.

Beeck, Alexander R. (Orlando, FL)

2012-05-15

279

Diesel engine catalytic combustor system. [aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low compression turbocharged diesel engine is provided in which the turbocharger can be operated independently of the engine to power auxiliary equipment. Fuel and air are burned in a catalytic combustor to drive the turbine wheel of turbine section which is initially caused to rotate by starter motor. By opening a flapper value, compressed air from the blower section is directed to catalytic combustor when it is heated and expanded, serving to drive the turbine wheel and also to heat the catalytic element. To start, engine valve is closed, combustion is terminated in catalytic combustor, and the valve is then opened to utilize air from the blower for the air driven motor. When the engine starts, the constituents in its exhaust gas react in the catalytic element and the heat generated provides additional energy for the turbine section.

Ream, L. W. (inventor)

1984-01-01

280

Debris trap in a turbine cooling system  

DOEpatents

In a turbine having a rotor and a plurality of stages, each stage comprising a row of buckets mounted on the rotor for rotation therewith; and wherein the buckets of at least one of the stages are cooled by steam, the improvement comprising at least one axially extending cooling steam supply conduit communicating with an at least partially annular steam supply manifold; one or more axially extending cooling steam feed tubes connected to the manifold at a location radially outwardly of the cooling steam supply conduit, the feed tubes arranged to supply cooling steam to the buckets of at least one of the plurality of stages; the manifold extending radially beyond the feed tubes to thereby create a debris trap region for collecting debris under centrifugal loading caused by rotation of the rotor.

Wilson, Ian David (Clifton Park, NY)

2002-01-01

281

Hybrid refrigeration/sorption solar-cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

The hybrid refrigeration/sorption concept is a technically feasible approach to solar cooling which has not yet been systematically evaluated. Various system configurations are possible, each with advantages and disadvantages relative to the others, and with respect to solar cooling systems based on the individual absorption, Rankine, and desiccant technologies. Conventional cooling and dehumidification, sorption dehumidification, and the effects on the refrigeration unit of adding a dehumidifier are discussed.

Curran, H.M.

1981-08-01

282

Adsorption cooling system for cold storage using methanol\\/silicagel  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the cold storage of agricultural products at temperatures of 24C in India, a solar-hybrid cooling system has been developed, using solar energy from flat plate collectors and the waste heat of a genset, operated with producer gas. A commercially available low temperature (8090C) adsorption cooling system for air-conditioning application had to be modified for operation at cooling temperatures below

K. Oertel; M. Fischer

1998-01-01

283

Preliminary design activities for solar heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on the development of solar heating and cooling systems is presented. The major emphasis is placed on program organization, system size definition, site identification, system approaches, heat pump and equipment design, collector procurement, and other preliminary design activities.

1978-01-01

284

Diesel engine fuel systems  

SciTech Connect

The film shows the basic structure of diesel systems, including the parts and operation of injectors and fuel pumps. It discusses Bosch, General Motors, and Excello Equipment. This title has been declared obsolete for use within the sponsoring agency, but may have content value for educational use.

NONE

1994-12-31

285

Diesel engine fuel systems  

SciTech Connect

The film shows the basic structure of diesel systems, including the parts and operation of injectors and fuel pumps. It discusses Bosch, General Motors, and Excello Equipment. This title has been declared obsolete for use within the sponsoring agency, but may have content value for educational use.

Not Available

1994-01-01

286

Nuclear thermal propulsion engine system design analysis code development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) Engine System Design Analyis Code has recently been developed to characterize key NTP engine system design features. Such a versatile, standalone NTP system performance and engine design code is required to support ongoing and future engine system and vehicle design efforts associated with proposed Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions of interest. Key areas of interest in the engine system modeling effort were the reactor, shielding, and inclusion of an engine multi-redundant propellant pump feed system design option. A solid-core nuclear thermal reactor and internal shielding code model was developed to estimate the reactor's thermal-hydraulic and physical parameters based on a prescribed thermal output which was integrated into a state-of-the-art engine system design model. The reactor code module has the capability to model graphite, composite, or carbide fuels. Key output from the model consists of reactor parameters such as thermal power, pressure drop, thermal profile, and heat generation in cooled structures (reflector, shield, and core supports), as well as the engine system parameters such as weight, dimensions, pressures, temperatures, mass flows, and performance. The model's overall analysis methodology and its key assumptions and capabilities are summarized in this paper.

Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Scheil, Christine M.; Petrosky, Lyman J.; Ivanenok, Joseph F.

1992-01-01

287

Detailed design for incorporating CBI capacitive cooling system in the ACT Facility in Bakersfield, California. Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adding of the capacitive cooling system to the existing advanced concepts test (ACT) was studied. The ACT Facility demonstrates a capacitive cooling system used in conjunction with an ammonia based drycooling system. The feasibility to add on the system to the ACT Facility was determined. All design, detail engineering, and construction planning is completed so that the construction phase of the project can proceed. The information on which the feasibility of this addition is summarized.

Naegelen, R. J.; Seale, J. L.; Husain, M.

1982-07-01

288

Security systems engineering overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crime prevention is on the minds of most people today. The concern for public safety and the theft of valuable assets are being discussed at all levels of government and throughout the public sector. There is a growing demand for security systems that can adequately safeguard people and valuable assets against the sophistication of those criminals or adversaries who pose a threat. The crime in this country has been estimated at 70 billion dollars in direct costs and up to 300 billion dollars in indirect costs. Health insurance fraud alone is estimated to cost American businesses 100 billion dollars. Theft, warranty fraud, and counterfeiting of computer hardware totaled 3 billion dollars in 1994. A threat analysis is a prerequisite to any security system design to assess the vulnerabilities with respect to the anticipated threat. Having established a comprehensive definition of the threat, crime prevention, detection, and threat assessment technologies can be used to address these criminal activities. This talk will outline the process used to design a security system regardless of the level of security. This methodology has been applied to many applications including: government high security facilities; residential and commercial intrusion detection and assessment; anti-counterfeiting/fraud detection technologies; industrial espionage detection and prevention; security barrier technology.

Steele, Basil J.

1997-01-01

289

Security systems engineering overview  

SciTech Connect

Crime prevention is on the minds of most people today. The concern for public safety and the theft of valuable assets are being discussed at all levels of government and throughout the public sector. There is a growing demand for security systems that can adequately safeguard people and valuable assets against the sophistication of those criminals or adversaries who pose a threat. The crime in this country has been estimated at $70 billion in direct costs and up to $300 billion in indirect costs. Health insurance fraud alone is estimated to cost American businesses $100 billion. Theft, warranty fraud, and counterfeiting of computer hardware totaled $3 billion in 1994. A threat analysis is a prerequisite to any security system design to assess the vulnerabilities with respect to the anticipated threat. Having established a comprehensive definition of the threat, crime prevention, detection, and threat assessment technologies can be used to address these criminal activities. This talk will outline the process used to design a security system regardless of the level of security. This methodology has been applied to many applications including: government high security facilities; residential and commercial intrusion detection and assessment; anti-counterfeiting/fraud detection technologies (counterfeit currency, cellular phone billing, credit card fraud, health care fraud, passport, green cards, and questionable documents); industrial espionage detection and prevention (intellectual property, computer chips, etc.); and security barrier technology (creation of delay such as gates, vaults, etc.).

Steele, B.J.

1996-12-31

290

TWRS Systems Engineering Working Plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Systems Engineering (SE) Working Plan (SEWP) is to describe how the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) will implement the SE polity and guidance provided in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP). Sections 2.0 through 4.0 cover how the SE process and management will be performed to develop a technical baseline within TWRS. Section 5.0 covers the plans and schedules to implement the SE process and management within TWRS. Detailed information contained in the TWRS Program SEMP is not repeated in this document. This SEWP and the SE discipline defined within apply to the TWRS Program and new and ongoing TWRS projects or activities, including new facilities and safety. The SE process will be applied to the existing Tank Farm operations where the Richland TWRS Program Office management determines the process appropriate and where value will be added to existing Tank Farm system and operations.

Eiholzer, C.R.

1994-09-16

291

A numerical investigation of the cooling effect of compressed natural gas throttling on engine delivery ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical study was conducted to investigate the cooling effect of throttling compressed natural gas during the pressure regulation process. The concept of using this effect in cooling down the induction air was investigated. A thermodynamic model was developed for a typical fuel delivery system used on a vehicle fueled with compressed natural gas. The model was based on a

Y. Yacoub; L. Marbun; R. Bata

1999-01-01

292

The MANX Muon Cooling Experiment Detection System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MANX experiment is being proposed to demonstrate the reduction of 6D muon phase space emittance, using a continuous liquid absorber to provide ionization cooling in a helical solenoid magnetic channel. The experiment involves the construction of a two-period-long helical cooling channel (HCC) to reduce the muon invariant emittance by a factor of two. The HCC would replace the current cooling section of the MICE experiment now being set up at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The MANX experiment would use the existing MICE spectrometers and muon beam line. We discuss the placement of detection planes to optimize the muon track resolution.

Kahn, S. A.; Abrams, R. J.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Johnson, R. P.; Robertsa, T. J.; Yoneharab, K.

2010-03-01

293

Engineering intelligent tutoring systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have defined an object-oriented software architecture for Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS's) to facilitate the rapid development, testing, and fielding of ITS's. This software architecture partitions the functionality of the ITS into a collection of software components with well-defined interfaces and execution concept. The architecture was designed to isolate advanced technology components, partition domain dependencies, take advantage of the increased availability of commercial software packages, and reduce the risks involved in acquiring ITS's. A key component of the architecture, the Executive, is a publish and subscribe message handling component that coordinates all communication between ITS components.

Warren, Kimberly C.; Goodman, Bradley A.

1993-01-01

294

Solar Heating and Cooling Systems Design and Development (Quarterly Report).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported on the development of twelve prototype solar heating/cooling systems. Six of these are to be heating and six are to be heating/cooling systems, two each for single family, multi-family, and commercial applications. Schedules and techn...

1976-01-01

295

Emergency core cooling system for a nuclear reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emergency core cooling system for a nuclear reactor which preferably is supplemental to the main emergency core cooling system incorporated in the reactor at the time of construction is described. Under circumstances of a rupture in the reactor primary coolant piping and consequent drop in reactor coolant pressure, emergency supplemental coolant is supplied from tanks or accumulators through check

W. E. Desmarchais; L. R. Katz; B. L. Silverblatt

1977-01-01

296

Compact he II Cooling System for Superconducting Cavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a compact He II cooling system for superconducting cavities. The cooling system mainly comprises a vacuum vessel, an 80 K liquid nitrogen bath, a 4 K He I bath, a He II bath, an evacuation pump, a single-stage GM cryocooler for the 80 K bath, and a 4 K GM cryocooler for the 4 K He I

M. Takahashi; T. Yazawa; T. Tosaka; T. Kuriyama; N. Kakutani; T. Ota; K. Nakayama; K. Saito

2008-01-01

297

Modelling and simulation of a solar absorption cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed numerical simulation model is developed for a commercially available solar absorption chiller. The model incorporates the performance data of a Yazaki-manufactured water-cooled system. We take into consideration the variation of the COP and cooling water temperature. Using a summer season's meteorological data for an arid location in the Sahara desert, the system performance is computed for different collector

T. Muneer; A. H. Uppal

1985-01-01

298

COOLING FAN AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upcoming emissions regulations (Tiers 3, 4a and 4b) are imposing significantly higher heat loads on the cooling system than lesser regulated machines. This work was a suite of tasks aimed at reducing the parasitic losses of the cooling system, or improving the design process through six distinct tasks: 1. Develop an axial fan that will provide more airflow, with less

Ronald Dupree

2005-01-01

299

Gas turbine engine compartment vent system  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes improvement in a gas turbine engine of the type having a core engine, a shroud surrounding the core engine, a tubular outer nacelle defining an annular bypass duct therebetween and a fan disposed in the nacelle inlet for directing compressed air flow into and through the bypass duct, the shroud spaced from the engine sufficiently to provide space for installation of heat sensitive engine related components. The improvement comprises: at least one vent through the shroud, selectively positioned to direct compressed fan air from the bypass duct into the space between the shroud and engine for direct impingement on at least one of the heat sensitive engine related components for cooling same; the vent comprising an open ended tube extending through a hole in the shroud, bonded thereto, and terminating therein adjacent to the heat sensitive engine related components.

Mutch, H.

1991-10-08

300

Structural Oil Pan With Integrated Oil Filtration And Cooling System  

DOEpatents

An oil pan for an internal combustion engine includes a body defining a reservoir for collecting engine coolant. The reservoir has a bottom and side walls extending upwardly from the bottom to present a flanged lip through which the oil pan may be mounted to the engine. An oil cooler assembly is housed within the body of the oil pan for cooling lubricant received from the engine. The body includes an oil inlet passage formed integrally therewith for receiving lubricant from the engine and delivering lubricant to the oil cooler. In addition, the body also includes an oil pick up passage formed integrally therewith for providing fluid communication between the reservoir and the engine through the flanged lip.

Freese, V, Charles Edwin (Westland, MI)

2000-05-09

301

Rankine-cycle solar-cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report reviews progress made by three contractors to Marshall Space Flight Center and Department of Energy in developing Rankine-cycle machines for solar cooling and testing of commercially available equipment involved.

Weathers, H. M.

1979-01-01

302

Biofilm formation in water cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilm formation on stainless steel samples immersed in cooling water has been evaluated by exposing metal samples to cooling seawater for 30 days. Anaerobic bacteria were then at 1.6 106\\/cm2, with sulphate-reducing species predominating. Aerobic bacteria and fungi were 2600 and 140\\/cm2, respectively. After 60 days, numbers of aerobic microorganisms remained constant whereas the count of anaerobic microorganisms had

M. T. S. Lutterbach; F. P. Frana

1996-01-01

303

Engineering Challenges for Closed Ecological System facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engineering challenges for closed ecological systems include methods of achieving closure for structures of different materials, and developing methods of allowing energy (for heating and cooling) and information transfer through the materially closed structure. Methods of calculating degree of closure include measuring degradation rates of inert trace gases introduced into the system. An allied problem is developing means of locating where leaks are located so that they may be repaired and degree of closure maintained. Once closure is achieved, methods of dealing with the pressure differentials between inside and outside are needed: from inflatable structures which might adjust to the pressure difference to variable volume chambers attached to the life systems component. These issues are illustrated through the engineering employed at Biosphere 2, the Biosphere 2 Test Module and the Laboratory Biosphere and a discussion of methods used by other closed ecological system facility engineers. Ecological challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro- and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet and recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, healthy air and water and preventing the loss of crucial elements from active circulation. In biospheric facilities the challenge is also to produce analogue to natural biomes and ecosystems, studying processes of self-organization and adaptation in systems that allow specification or determination of state variables and cycles which may be followed through all interactions from atmosphere to soils.

Dempster, William; Nelson, Mark; Allen, John P.

2012-07-01

304

Cooling System Using Natural Circulation for Air Conditioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, Cooling systems with natural circulation loop of refrigerants are reviewed. The cooling system can largely reduce energy consumption of a cooling system for the telecommunication base site. The cooling system consists of two refrigeration units; vapor compression refrigeration unit and sub-cooling unit with a natural-circulation loop. The experiments and calculations were carried out to evaluate the cycle performance of natural circulation loop with HFCs and CO2. The experimental results showed that the cooling capacity of R410A is approximately 30% larger than that of R407C at the temperature difference of 20K and the cooling capacity of CO2 was approximately 4-13% larger than that of R410A under the two-phase condition. On the other hand, the cooling capacity of CO2 was approximately 11% smaller than that of R410A under the supercritical condition. The cooling capacity took a maximum value at an amount of refrigerant and lineally increased as the temperature difference increases and the slightly increased as the height difference. The air intake temperature profile in the inlet of the heat exchangers makes the reverse circulation under the supercritical state and the driving head difference for the reverse circulation depends on the density change to temperature under the supercritical state. Also, a new fan control method to convert the reverse circulation into the normal circulation was reviewed.

Okazaki, Takashi; Seshimo, Yu

305

Research on hypersonic aircraft using pre-cooled turbojet engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems analysis of a Mach 5 class hypersonic aircraft is performed. The aircraft can fly across the Pacific Ocean in two hours. A multidisciplinary optimization program for aerodynamics, structure, propulsion, and trajectory is used in the analysis. The result of each element model is improved using higher accuracy analysis tools. The aerodynamic performance of the hypersonic aircraft is examined through

Hideyuki Taguchi; Hiroaki Kobayashi; Takayuki Kojima; Atsushi Ueno; Shunsuke Imamura; Motoyuki Hongoh

306

A hemolysis study of an intravascular blood cooling system for localized organ tissue cooling.  

PubMed

Therapeutic hypothermia can reduce both ischemic and reperfusion injury arising after strokes and heart attacks. New localized organ cooling systems offer a way to reduce tissue damage more effectively with fewer side effects. To assess initial blood safety of our new organ cooling system, the CoolGuide Cooling System (CCS), we investigated safe operating conditions and configurations from a hemolysis perspective. The CCS consists of a peristaltic pump, a custom-built external heat exchanger, a chiller, biocompatible polyvinyl cellulose (PVC) tubing, and a control console. The CCS cools and circulates autologous blood externally and re-delivers cooled blood to the patient through a conventional catheter inserted directly into the organ at risk. Catheter configurations used included: a 7F guide catheter only, a 7F guide with a 0.038" wire inserted through the center and advanced 2 cm distal to the catheter distal tip, a 6F guide catheter only and a 6F guide with a 0.014" guidewire similarly inserted through the center. Using porcine blood, an in vitro test rig was used to measure the degree of hemolysis generation, defined as the percentage change in free hemoglobin, adjusted for total hemoglobin and hematocrit, between exiting and entering blood. The highest degree of hemolysis generation was 0.110.04%, based on the average behavior with a 6F catheter and a 0.014" guidewire configuration at a blood flow rate of approximately 130 mL/min. In terms of average percentage free hemoglobin exiting the system, based on total hemoglobin, the highest value measured was 0.17%0.03%, using this 6F and 0.014" guidewire configuration. This result is significantly below the most stringent European guideline of 0.8% used for blood storage and transfusion. This study provides initial evidence showing hemolysis generation arising from the CoolGuide Cooling System is likely to be clinically insignificant. PMID:23047283

Merrill, T L; Mingin, T; Merrill, D R; Botbyl, J; Akers, J E

2013-01-01

307

Management issues in systems engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When applied to a system, the doctrine of successive refinement is a divide-and-conquer strategy. Complex systems are sucessively divided into pieces that are less complex, until they are simple enough to be conquered. This decomposition results in several structures for describing the product system and the producing system. These structures play important roles in systems engineering and project management. Many of the remaining sections in this chapter are devoted to describing some of these key structures. Structures that describe the product system include, but are not limited to, the requirements tree, system architecture and certain symbolic information such as system drawings, schematics, and data bases. The structures that describe the producing system include the project's work breakdown, schedules, cost accounts and organization.

Shishko, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; Aster, Robert; Bilardo, Vincent; Forsberg, Kevin; Mooz, Hal; Polaski, Lou; Wade, Ron

308

Design Studies of Magnet Systems for Muon Helical Cooling Channels  

SciTech Connect

Helical cooling channels with superimposed solenoid and helical dipole and quadrupole coils, and a pressurized gas absorber in the aperture offer high efficiency of 6D muon beam cooling. In this paper, we continue design studies and comparison of two basic concepts of magnet system proposed for a helical cooling channel focusing on the high field sections. The results of magnetic analysis and Lorentz force calculations as well as the superconductor choice are presented and discussed.

Kashikhin, V.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Lamm, M.J.; Lopes, M.L.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab; Alsharo'a, M.; Johnson, R.P.; Kahn, Stephen A.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

2008-06-25

309

Information technology security system engineering methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology is described for system engineering security into large information technology systems under development. The methodology is an integration of a risk management process and a generic system development life cycle process. The methodology is to be used by Security System Engineers to effectively engineer and integrate information technology security into a target system as it progresses through the development life cycle. The methodology can also be used to re-engineer security into a legacy system.

Childs, D.

2003-01-01

310

A portable personal cooling system for mine rescue operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design of a portable personal cooling system to reduce physiological stress in high-temperature, high-humidity conditions is discussed. The system, based on technology used in the thermal controls of space suits, employs a combination of head and thoracic insulation and cooling through a heat sink unit. Average metabolic rates, heart rates, rectal temperature increase and sweat loss were monitored for test subjects wearing various configurations of the cooling system, as well as for a control group. The various arrangements of the cooling garment were found to provide significant physiological benefits; however, increases in heat transfer rate of the cooling unit and more effective insulation are suggested to improve the system's function.

Webbon, B.; Williams, B.; Kirk, P.; Elkins, W.; Stein, R.

1977-01-01

311

Solar heating and cooling technical data and systems analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research activities described herein were concentrated on the areas of economics, heating and cooling systems, architectural design, materials characteristics, climatic conditions, educational information packages, and evaluation of solar energy systems and components.

Christensen, D. L.

1977-01-01

312

Solar heating and cooling systems design and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar heating and heating/cooling systems were designed for single family, multifamily, and commercial applications. Subsystems considered included solar collectors, heat storage systems, auxiliary energy sources, working fluids, and supplementary controls, piping, and pumps.

1976-01-01

313

Evaporative Cooling and Dehumidification Garment for Portable Life Support Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the design and development of an innovative thermal and humidity control system for future space suits. The system comprises an evaporation cooling and dehumidification garment (ECDG) and a lithium chloride absorber radiator (LCAR). T...

G. Bue, M. Izenson, W. Chen

2013-01-01

314

Electromagnetic Pumps for Main Cooling Systems of Commercialized Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electromagnetic pump (EMP) has superior potential to improve the economic performance and ease of maintenance of sodium-cooled fast reactors. This study investigates the adequateness of a modular-type EMP system for large-sized (1,500MWe class) sodium-cooled fast reactors. A flow rate of over 500 m\\/min is required for the main circulating pump of such reactors. There is concern that such a

Kosuke AIZAWA; Yoshitaka CHIKAZAWA; Shoji KOTAKE; Kuniaki ARA; Rie AIZAWA; Hiroyuki OTA

2011-01-01

315

Establishment of Design Method for Liquid Hydrogen Regenerative Cooling Combustor of LOX/Hydrogen Rocket Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optimum method for design of a liquid hydrogen regenerative cooling combustor for the LOX/hydrogen engine was constructed using the authors previous empirical correlation of C* efficiency and calculation model for combustion characteristics, and the present calculation model for the heat load characteristics for LOX/hydrogen combustion. Using this method, the atomization characteristics of the injected LOX jet, the combustion performance including combustion stability, and the heat load on the combustor were evaluated for LOX/hydrogen upper-stage engines such as the LE-5, RL-10 and HM-7. This method was then applied to the LE-5B engine, which is the derivative engine of the LE-5 and has been used as the second stage of the H-2A launcher, to improve combustion stability and to optimize configuration of the injector and combustor. A reduction of about 30% in chamber length of it with sufficient combustion performance was achieved by such optimization.

Yatsuyanagi, Nobuyuki

316

Application of differential similarity to finding nondimensional groups important in tests of cooled engine components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method of differential similarity is applied to the partial differential equations and boundary conditions which govern the temperature, velocity, and pressure fields in the flowing gases and the solid stationary components in air-cooled engines. This procedure yields the nondimensional groups which must have the same value in both the test rig and the engine to produce similarity between the test results and the engine performance. These results guide the experimentalist in the design and selection of test equipment that properly scales quantities to actual engine conditions. They also provide a firm fundamental foundation for substantiation of previous similarity analyses which employed heuristic, physical reasoning arguments to arrive at the nondimensional groups.

Sucec, J.

1977-01-01

317

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Overhead Cooling Systems In Data Centers  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and enterprise data centers, IT equipment product development, and research data center laboratories typically require continuous cooling to control inlet air temperatures within recommended operating levels for the IT equipment. The consolidation and higher density aggregation of slim computing, storage and networking hardware has resulted in higher power density than what the raised-floor system design, coupled with commonly used computer rack air conditioning (CRAC) units, was originally conceived to handle. Many existing data centers and newly constructed data centers adopt CRAC units, which inherently handle heat transfer within data centers via air as the heat transfer media. This results in energy performance of the ventilation and cooling systems being less than optimal. Understanding the current trends toward higher power density in IT computing, more and more IT equipment manufacturers are designing their equipment to operate in 'conventional' data center environments, while considering provisions of alternative cooling solutions to either their equipment or supplemental cooling in rack or row systems. Naturally, the trend toward higher power density resulting from current and future generations of servers has, in the meanwhile, created significant opportunities for precision cooling suppliers to engineer and manufacture packaged modular and scalable systems. The modular and scalable cooling systems aim at significantly improving efficiency while addressing the thermal challenges, improving reliability, and allowing for future needs and growth. Such pre-engineered and manufactured systems may be a significant improvement over current design; however, without an energy efficiency focus, their applications could also lead to even lower energy efficiencies in the overall data center infrastructure. The overall goal of the project supported by California Energy Commission was to characterize four commercially available, modular cooling systems installed in a data center. Such modular cooling systems are all scalable localized units, and will be evaluated in terms of their operating energy efficiency in a real data center, respectively, as compared to the energy efficiency of traditional legacy data center cooling systems. The technical objective of this project was to evaluate the energy performance of one of the four commercially available modular cooling systems installed in a data center in Sun Microsystems, Inc. This report is the result of a test plan that was developed with the industrial participants' input, including specific design and operating characteristics of the selected modular localized cooling solution provided by vendor 1. The technical evaluation included monitoring and measurement of selected parameters, and establishing and calculating energy efficiency metrics for the selected cooling product, which is a modular, scalable overhead cooling system. The system was tested in a hot/cold aisle environment without separation, or containment or the hot or cold aisles. The scope of this report is to quantify energy performance of the modular cooling unit in operation as it corresponds to a combination of varied server loads and inlet air temperatures. The information generated from this testing when combined with a concurrent research study to document the energy efficiency of the host data center's central chilled water cooling plant can be used to estimate potential energy savings from implementing modular cooling compared to conventional cooling in data centers.

Xu, TengFang T.

2009-05-01

318

The engineering of cybernetic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This tutorial develops a logical basis for the engineering of systems that operate cybernetically. The term cybernetic system has a clear quantitative definition. It is a system that dynamically matches acquired information to selected actions relative to a computational issue that defines the essential purpose of the system or machine. This notion requires that information and control be further quantified. The logic of questions and assertions as developed by Cox provides one means of doing this. The design and operation of cybernetic systems can be understood by contrasting these kinds of systems with communication systems and information theory as developed by Shannon. The joint logic of questions and assertions can be seen to underlie and be common to both information theory as applied to the design of discrete communication systems and to a theory of discrete general systems. The joint logic captures a natural complementarity between systems that transmit and receive information and those that acquire and act on it. Specific comparisons and contrasts are made between the source rate and channel capacity of a communication system and the acquisition rate and control capacity of a general system. An overview is provided of the joint logic of questions and assertions and the ties that this logic has to both conventional information theory and to a general theory of systems. I-diagrams, the interrogative complement of Venn diagrams, are described as providing valuable reasoning tools. An initial framework is suggested for the design of cybernetic systems. Two examples are given to illustrate this framework as applied to discrete cybernetic systems. These examples include a predator-prey problem as illustrated through ``The Dog Chrysippus Pursuing its Prey,'' and the derivation of a single-neuron system that operates cybernetically and is biologically plausible. Future areas of research are highlighted which require development for a mature engineering framework. .

Fry, Robert L.

2002-05-01

319

Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines  

DOEpatents

Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts. 1 fig.

Huber, D.J.; Briesch, M.S.

1998-07-21

320

Evaluation of the cooling potential of a dessicant evaporative cooling system using the SimSPARK environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Being heat driven, the desiccant cooling cycle can be coupled to solar collectors to produce a cooling system with low environmental impact. In this paper, we present the first solar desiccant cooling system in France. A dessicant wheel model is presented and validated experimentally. Then, using computer simulation, a graphical aided concept is used to evaluate system feasibility and

Chadi Maalouf; Etienne Wurtz; Francis Allard

321

Biofilm formation in water cooling systems.  

PubMed

Biofilm formation on stainless steel samples immersed in cooling water has been evaluated by exposing metal samples to cooling seawater for 30 days. Anaerobic bacteria were then at 1.6 10(6)/cm(2), with sulphate-reducing species predominating. Aerobic bacteria and fungi were 2600 and 140/cm(2), respectively. After 60 days, numbers of aerobic microorganisms remained constant whereas the count of anaerobic microorganisms had increased to 1.810(9)/cm(2). Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of morphologically different microorganisms in deposits and as a mucilaginous net. No signs of corrosion were detected on the stainless steel surface. PMID:24415316

Lutterbach, M T; de Frana, F P

1996-07-01

322

Performance Evaluation for a Modular, Scalable Passive Cooling System in Data Centers  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and enterprise data centers, IT equipment product development, and research data center laboratories typically require continuous cooling to control inlet air temperatures within recommended operating levels for the IT equipment. The consolidation and higher density aggregation of slim computing, storage and networking hardware has resulted in higher power density than what the raised-floor system design, coupled with commonly used computer rack air conditioning (CRAC) units, was originally conceived to handle. Many existing data centers and newly constructed data centers adopt CRAC units, which inherently handle heat transfer within data centers via air as the heat transfer media. This results in energy performance of the ventilation and cooling systems being less than optimal. Understanding the current trends toward higher power density in IT computing, more and more IT equipment manufacturers are designing their equipment to operate in 'conventional' data center environments, while considering provisions of alternative cooling solutions to either their equipment or supplemental cooling in rack or row systems. In the meanwhile, the trend toward higher power density resulting from current and future generations of servers has created significant opportunities for precision cooling to engineer and manufacture packaged modular and scalable systems. The modular and scalable cooling systems aim at significantly improving efficiency while addressing the thermal challenges, improving reliability, and allowing for future needs and growth. Such pre-engineered and manufactured systems may be a significant improvement over current design; however, without an energy efficiency focus, their applications could also lead to even lower energy efficiencies in the overall data center infrastructure. The overall goal of the project supported by California Energy Commission was to characterize four commercially available, modular cooling systems installed in a data center. Such modular cooling systems are all scalable localized units, and will be evaluated in terms of their operating energy efficiency in a real data center, respectively, as compared to the energy efficiency of traditional legacy data center cooling systems. The technical objective of this project was to evaluate the energy performance of one of the four commercially available modular cooling systems installed in a data center in Sun Microsystems, Inc. This report is the result of a test plan that was developed with the industrial participants input, including specific design and operating characteristics of the selected passive, modular localized cooling solution provided by vendor 4. The technical evaluation included monitoring and measurement of selected parameters, and establishing and calculating energy efficiency metrics for the selected cooling product, which is a passive, modular, scalable liquid cooling system in this study. The scope is to quantify energy performance of the modular cooling unit corresponding to various server loads and inlet air temperatures, under various chilled-water supply temperatures. The information generated from this testing when combined with documented energy efficiency of the host data center's central chilled water cooling plant can be used to estimate potential energy savings from implementing modular cooling compared to conventional cooling in data centers.

Xu, TengFang

2009-05-01

323

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Liquid-Rack Cooling Systems in Data Centers  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and enterprise data centers, IT equipment product development, and research data center laboratories typically require continuous cooling to control inlet air temperatures within recommended operating levels for the IT equipment. The consolidation and higher density aggregation of slim computing, storage and networking hardware has resulted in higher power density than what the raised-floor system design, coupled with commonly used computer rack air conditioning (CRAC) units, was originally conceived to handle. Many existing data centers and newly constructed data centers adopt CRAC units, which inherently handle heat transfer within data centers via air as the heat transfer media. This results in energy performance of the ventilation and cooling systems being less than optimal. Understanding the current trends toward higher power density in IT computing, more and more IT equipment manufacturers are designing their equipment to operate in 'conventional' data center environments, while considering provisions of alternative cooling solutions to either their equipment or supplemental cooling in rack or row systems. In the meanwhile, the trend toward higher power density resulting from current and future generations of servers has created significant opportunities for precision cooling suppliers to engineer and manufacture packaged modular and scalable systems. The modular and scalable cooling systems aim at significantly improving efficiency while addressing the thermal challenges, improving reliability, and allowing for future needs and growth. Such pre-engineered and manufactured systems may be a significant improvement over current design; however, without an energy efficiency focus, their applications could also lead to even lower energy efficiencies in the overall data center infrastructure. The overall goal of the project supported by California Energy Commission was to characterize four commercially available, modular cooling systems installed in a data center. Such modular cooling systems are all scalable localized units, and will be evaluated in terms of their operating energy efficiency in a real data center, respectively, as compared to the energy efficiency of traditional legacy data center cooling systems. The technical objective of this project was to evaluate the energy performance of one of the four commercially available modular cooling systems installed in a data center in Sun Microsystems, Inc. This report is the result of a test plan that was developed with the industrial participants input, including specific design and operating characteristics of the selected modular localized cooling solution provided by vendor 3. The technical evaluation included monitoring and measurement of selected parameters, and establishing and calculating energy efficiency metrics for the selected cooling product, which is a modular, scalable liquid-rack cooling system in this study. The scope is to quantify energy performance of the modular cooling unit in operation as it corresponds to a combination of varied server loads and inlet air temperatures, under various chilled-water supply temperatures. The information generated from this testing when combined with documented energy efficiency of the host data center's central chilled water cooling plant can be used to estimate potential energy savings from implementing modular cooling compared to conventional cooling in data centers.

Xu, TengFang

2009-05-01

324

An experimental investigation of rectangular exhaust-gas ejectors applicable for engine cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of rectangular exhaust-gas ejector pumps was conducted to provide data that would serve as a guide to the design of ejector applications for aircraft engines with marginal cooling. The pumping characteristics of rectangular ejectors actuated by the exhaust of a single-cylinder aircraft engine were determined for a range of ejector mixing-section area from 20 to 50 square inches, over-all length from 12 to 42 inches, aspect ratio from 1 to 5, diffusing exit area from 20 to 81 square inches, and exhaust-nozzle aspect ratio from 1 to 42.

Manganiello, Eugene J; Bogatsky, Donald

1945-01-01

325

SOLERAS - Solar Cooling Engineering Field Tests Project: United Technologies Research Center. Final report, Volume 3. Engineering field test  

SciTech Connect

A solar-powered air conditioning system was designed, constructed, and installed at a Phoenix, Arizona site whose climatic conditions approximate those of Saudi Arabia. The nominal 18 ton capacity Rankine cycle chiller system with hot and cold storage and conventional fan/coil delivery units was operated for two cooling seasons and met its design objectives.

Not Available

1982-01-01

326

Frameworks and Models in Engineering Systems / Engineering System Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This class, created by Prof. Joseph Sussman of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, provides an introduction to quantitative models and qualitative frameworks for studying complex engineering systems. Also taught is the art of abstracting a complex system into a model for purposes of analysis and design while dealing with complexity, emergent behavior, stochasticity, non-linearities and the requirements of many stakeholders with divergent objectives. The successful completion of the class requires a semester-long class project that deals with critical contemporary issues which require an integrative, interdisciplinary approach using the above models and frameworks.

Sussman, Joseph

2011-01-20

327

Development of high gradient magnetic filter with evaporative cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype of high gradient magnetic filter is designed and fabricated, and the electrical coils, which generate a 1 Tesla background magnetic field, are cooled by evaporative cooling system. The operating magnetic flux density distribution is computed carefully by magnetic circuit method and finite element method, and the operating temperature distribution of electrical coils is computed too by finite element

Fuchuan Song; Jiayi Yuan; Xindong Tian; Guobiao Gu

2008-01-01

328

LASER SYSTEM COMPONENTS: Cooled bimorph adaptive mirrors for laser optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooled bimorph adaptive copper and molybdenum mirrors are proposed for the compensation of large-scale optical aberrations in laser systems with an output power up to 15 kW. An investigation is reported of the characteristics of the developed and fabricated cooled bimorph mirrors. The experimental results are compared with those obtained by computer modelling. Promising designs of bimorph adaptive mirrors are

A. V. Ikramov; I. M. Roshchupkin; A. G. Safronov

1994-01-01

329

OPERATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF CLOSED CYCLE COOLING SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a study of operational and environmental impacts of closed cooling systems, used for about a quarter of the nation's steam-electric generating capacity. Conclusions relating to operational impacts include: (1) closed cycle cooling leads to increased pow...

330

Cryogenic cooling system for the ground test accelerator  

SciTech Connect

A cryogenic cooling system has been designed, built and tested for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Major components of the GTA require cooling to less than 50 K to reduce rf-heating and to increase thermal stability. The cooling system is capable of cooling (at an acceptable rate for thermal stresses) the cryogenically cooled components and then maintaining them at their operating temperature during accelerator testing for all modes and power levels of operation. The accelerator components are cooled by circulating cold, dense helium gas (about 21 K and 2.1 MPa) through the components. The circulating helium is refrigerated in a heat exchanger that uses boiling liquid hydrogen as a source of refrigeration. The cryogenic cooling system consists of the following major components: a liquid hydrogen (LH[sub 2]) storage Dewar with a transfer line to an LH[sub 2] run tank containing an LH[sub 2]/gaseous helium (GHe) heat exchanger, circulation lines, and a circulation pump. The system, sized to cool a load of approximately 40 kW at temperatures as low as 20 K, is operational, but has not yet been operated in conjunction with the accelerator.

Edeskuty, F.J.; Stewart, W.F.; Moeller, J.; Durham, F. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Spulgis, I. (CVI, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States))

1993-01-01

331

Cryogenic cooling system for the ground test accelerator  

SciTech Connect

A cryogenic cooling system has been designed, built and tested for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Major components of the GTA require cooling to less than 50 K to reduce rf-heating and to increase thermal stability. The cooling system is capable of cooling (at an acceptable rate for thermal stresses) the cryogenically cooled components and then maintaining them at their operating temperature during accelerator testing for all modes and power levels of operation. The accelerator components are cooled by circulating cold, dense helium gas (about 21 K and 2.1 MPa) through the components. The circulating helium is refrigerated in a heat exchanger that uses boiling liquid hydrogen as a source of refrigeration. The cryogenic cooling system consists of the following major components: a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) storage Dewar with a transfer line to an LH{sub 2} run tank containing an LH{sub 2}/gaseous helium (GHe) heat exchanger, circulation lines, and a circulation pump. The system, sized to cool a load of approximately 40 kW at temperatures as low as 20 K, is operational, but has not yet been operated in conjunction with the accelerator.

Edeskuty, F.J.; Stewart, W.F.; Moeller, J.; Durham, F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Spulgis, I. [CVI, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

1993-06-01

332

Simplified models for solar-powered absorption cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ideal three-heat-reservoir cycles with constant internal irreversibilities and external heat transfer irrevesibilities are used to obtain the performance limits of solar operated absorption cooling systems. Analytical expressions are obtained for the coefficient of performance (COP) and the cooling capacity of the plant. The results for ideal cycles are compared with those obtained by detailed simulation of the absorption machine. The

N. E. Wijeysundera

1999-01-01

333

Systems engineering: A problem of perception  

SciTech Connect

The characterization of systems engineering as a discipline, process, procedure or a set of heuristics will have an impact on the implementation strategy, the training methodology, and operational environment. The systems engineering upgrade activities in the New Mexico Weapons Development Center and a search of systems engineering related information provides evidence of a degree of ambiguity in this characterization of systems engineering. A case is made in this article for systems engineering being the engineering discipline applied to the science of complexity. Implications of this characterization and some generic issues are delineated with the goal of providing an enterprise with a starting point for developing its business environment.

Senglaub, M.

1995-08-01

334

Integrated Natural Gas Engine Cooling Jacket Vapor Compressor Program. Final Report February 1985-August 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A unique, alternative cogeneration system has been designed that will provide an industrial or commercial energy user with high-pressure steam and electricity directly from a packaged cogeneration system. The Integrated Gas Engine Vapor Compression System...

F. A. DiBella

1990-01-01

335

Heat engine generator control system  

DOEpatents

An electrical power generation system includes a heat engine having an output member operatively coupled to the rotor of a dynamoelectric machine. System output power is controlled by varying an electrical parameter of the dynamoelectric machine. A power request signal is related to an engine speed and the electrical parameter is varied in accordance with a speed control loop. Initially, the sense of change in the electrical parameter in response to a change in the power request signal is opposite that required to effectuate a steady state output power consistent with the power request signal. Thereafter, the electrical parameter is varied to converge the output member speed to the speed known to be associated with the desired electrical output power. 8 figs.

Rajashekara, K.; Gorti, B.V.; McMullen, S.R.; Raibert, R.J.

1998-05-12

336

The drag of a J-5 radial air-cooled engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This note describes tests of the drag due to a Wright "Whirlwind" (J-5) radial air-cooled engine mounted on a cabin type airplane. The tests were made in the 20-foot Propeller Research Tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The drag was obtained with three different types of exhaust stacks: Short individual stacks, a circular cross section collector ring, and a streamline cross section collector ring.

Weick, Fred E

1928-01-01

337

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Cooling Systems with Hot Aisle Containment in Data Centers  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and enterprise data centers, IT equipment product development, and research data center laboratories typically require continuous cooling to control inlet air temperatures within recommended operating levels for the IT equipment. The consolidation and higher density aggregation of slim computing, storage and networking hardware has resulted in higher power density than what the raised-floor system design, coupled with commonly used computer rack air conditioning (CRAC) units, was originally conceived to handle. Many existing data centers and newly constructed data centers adopt CRAC units, which inherently handle heat transfer within data centers via air as the heat transfer media. This results in energy performance of the ventilation and cooling systems being less than optimal. Understanding the current trends toward higher power density in IT computing, more and more IT equipment manufacturers are designing their equipment to operate in 'conventional' data center environments, while considering provisions of alternative cooling solutions to either their equipment or supplemental cooling in rack or row systems. Naturally, the trend toward higher power density resulting from current and future generations of servers has, in the meanwhile, created significant opportunities for precision cooling suppliers to engineer and manufacture packaged modular and scalable systems. The modular and scalable cooling systems aim at significantly improving efficiency while addressing the thermal challenges, improving reliability, and allowing for future needs and growth. Such pre-engineered and manufactured systems may be a significant improvement over current design; however, without an energy efficiency focus, their applications could also lead to even lower energy efficiencies in the overall data center infrastructure. The overall goal of the project supported by California Energy Commission was to characterize four commercially available, modular cooling systems installed in a data center. Such modular cooling systems are all scalable localized units, and will be evaluated in terms of their operating energy efficiency in a real data center, respectively, as compared to the energy efficiency of traditional legacy data center cooling systems. The technical objective of this project was to evaluate the energy performance of one of the four commercially available modular cooling systems installed in a data center in Sun Microsystems, Inc. This report is the result of a test plan that was developed with the industrial participants input, including specific design and operating characteristics of the selected modular localized cooling solution provided by vendor 2. The technical evaluation included monitoring and measurement of selected parameters, and establishing and calculating energy efficiency metrics for the selected cooling product, which is a modular, scalable pair of chilled water cooling modules that were tested in a hot/cold aisle environment with hot aisle containment. The scope of this report is to quantify energy performance of the modular cooling unit in operation as it corresponds to a combination of varied server loads and inlet air temperatures. The information generated from this testing when combined with a concurrent research study to document the energy efficiency of the host data center's central chilled water cooling plant can be used to estimate potential energy savings from implementing modular cooling compared to conventional cooling in data centers.

Adams, Barbara J

2009-05-01

338

40 CFR 1048.230 - How do I select engine families?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...single model year. (b) Group engines in the same engine family if they are the same in... (2) The cooling system (water-cooled vs. air-cooled...fuel-injected vs. carbureted gasoline engines). (4) Method of air...

2013-07-01

339

Aerodynamic Design Problems of Dry Cooling Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Activities in a program which began in 1976 and concluded in 1979 for collecting and analyzing the effects of wind and inversions on natural draft cooling tower design are reviewed. Publications which resulted from the program are listed. Two complete pap...

F. K. Moore

1980-01-01

340

Redundant marine engine control system  

SciTech Connect

An electro-mechanical engine control system is described for the shift and throttle functions of marine engines which comprises an electronically-controlled mechanical servo control means coupleable to the shift and throttle functions of a marine engine; a manually-operable ship-board operator engine shift and throttle control means; and an electro-mechanical transfer means coupled to the operator control means and to the servo control means for transferring operator shift and throttle settings to the servo control means, the transfer means being both electronically and mechanically coupled to the servo control means and being constructed and arranged whereby the transfer means will mechanically actuate the servo control means in the absence of electrical power and will electronically actuate the servo control means when electrical power is applied to the servo control means; the transfer means including coupling means preferentially electrically-coupling the operator control means to the servo control means, the coupling means being so constructed and arranged to automatically mechanically-couple the operator control means to the servo control means in the event of electrical power failure and to automatically electrically-couple the operator control means to the servo control means when electrical power is restored.

Burkenpas, R.W.

1993-06-29

341

Impact of advanced fluids on costs of district cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

Three alternate fluids, ice-water slurry, friction reduction additive and the combination of them, have been compared for use in District Cooling Systems (DCS). The effect of the fluids on cost and cooling capacities were considered for the two cases of new and existing DCS separately. Two criteria were used in comparisons among fluids in each case: constant pumping power which allows for the most benefit, and constant velocity which is more practical consideration. An economic assessment for a 500 ton system shows a potential cost difference in the total pipe cost for a new system of 70% when a 30% ice slurry is used in place of chilled water. The pipe diameter is reduced to 40% using the slurry. These results apply to the constant comparison and are independent of the use of additive. Friction reduction additives serve to reduce pumping power and pressure drop. The ice-water slurry also has a significant impact on existing district cooling systems. It can potentially expand the cooling capacity by 500% without new piping being installed while maintaining the same pumping power, velocity and pressure-drop as the chilled water system. Again, friction reduction additives serve to reduce pumping power and pressure-drop. They do not influence cooling capacity. The cost for expanding the piping to increase the cooling capacity by the same amount by the use of conventional district cooling technology has been shown to be extremely high compared to the ice-water slurry system.

Choi, U.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); France, D.M.; Knodel, B.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1992-07-01

342

Impact of advanced fluids on costs of district cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

Three alternate fluids, ice-water slurry, friction reduction additive and the combination of them, have been compared for use in District Cooling Systems (DCS). The effect of the fluids on cost and cooling capacities were considered for the two cases of new and existing DCS separately. Two criteria were used in comparisons among fluids in each case: constant pumping power which allows for the most benefit, and constant velocity which is more practical consideration. An economic assessment for a 500 ton system shows a potential cost difference in the total pipe cost for a new system of 70% when a 30% ice slurry is used in place of chilled water. The pipe diameter is reduced to 40% using the slurry. These results apply to the constant comparison and are independent of the use of additive. Friction reduction additives serve to reduce pumping power and pressure drop. The ice-water slurry also has a significant impact on existing district cooling systems. It can potentially expand the cooling capacity by 500% without new piping being installed while maintaining the same pumping power, velocity and pressure-drop as the chilled water system. Again, friction reduction additives serve to reduce pumping power and pressure-drop. They do not influence cooling capacity. The cost for expanding the piping to increase the cooling capacity by the same amount by the use of conventional district cooling technology has been shown to be extremely high compared to the ice-water slurry system.

Choi, U.S. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); France, D.M.; Knodel, B.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States) Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1992-01-01

343

Aircraft Engine-Monitoring System And Display  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed Engine Health Monitoring System and Display (EHMSD) provides enhanced means for pilot to control and monitor performances of engines. Processes raw sensor data into information meaningful to pilot. Provides graphical information about performance capabilities, current performance, and operational conditions in components or subsystems of engines. Provides means to control engine thrust directly and innovative means to monitor performance of engine system rapidly and reliably. Features reduce pilot workload and increase operational safety.

Abbott, Terence S.; Person, Lee H., Jr.

1992-01-01

344

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems, including potable hot water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress made in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water is reported. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition. A comparison of the proposed Solaron Heat Pump and Solar Desiccant Heating and Cooling Systems, installation drawings, data on the Akron House at Akron, Ohio, and other program activities are included.

Bloomquist, D.; Oonk, R. L.

1977-01-01

345

Stirling Engine Dynamic System Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Thermo-Mechanical systems branch at the Glenn Research Center focuses a large amount time on Stirling engines. These engines will be used on missions where solar power is inefficient, especially in deep space. I work with Tim Regan and Ed Lewandowski who are currently developing and validating a mathematical model for the Stirling engines. This model incorporates all aspects of the system including, mechanical, electrical and thermodynamic components. Modeling is done through Simplorer, a program capable of running simulations of the model. Once created and then proven to be accurate, a model is used for developing new ideas for engine design. My largest specific project involves varying key parameters in the model and quantifying the results. This can all be done relatively trouble-free with the help of Simplorer. Once the model is complete, Simplorer will do all the necessary calculations. The more complicated part of this project is determining which parameters to vary. Finding key parameters depends on the potential for a value to be independently altered in the design. For example, a change in one dimension may lead to a proportional change to the rest of the model, and no real progress is made. Also, the ability for a changed value to have a substantial impact on the outputs of the system is important. Results will be condensed into graphs and tables with the purpose of better communication and understanding of the data. With the changing of these parameters, a more optimal design can be created without having to purchase or build any models. Also, hours and hours of results can be simulated in minutes. In the long run, using mathematical models can save time and money. Along with this project, I have many other smaller assignments throughout the summer. My main goal is to assist in the processes of model development, validation and testing.

Nakis, Christopher G.

2004-01-01

346

Advanced cooling techniques for high-pressure hydrocarbon-fueled engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The regenerative cooling limits (maximum chamber pressure) for 02/hydrocarbon gas generator and staged combustion cycle rocket engines over a thrust range of 89,000 N (20,000lbf) to 2,669,000 N (600,000 lbf) for a reusable life of 250 missions were defined. Maximum chamber pressure limits were first determined for the three propellant combinations (O2/CH4, O2/C3H8, and O2/RP-1 without a carbon layer (unenhanced designs). Chamber pressure cooling enhancement limits were then established for seven thermal barriers. The thermal barriers evaluated for these designs were: carbon layer, ceramic coating, graphite liner, film cooling, transpiration cooling, zoned combustion, and a combination of two of the above. All fluid barriers were assessed a 3 percent performance loss. Sensitivity studies were then conducted to determine the influence of cycle life and RP-1 decomposition temperature on chamber pressure limits. Chamber and nozzle design parameters are presented for the unenahanced and enhanced designs. The maximum regenerative cooled chamber pressure limits were attained with the O2/CH4 propellant combination. The O2/RP-1 designs relied on a carbon layer and liquid gas injection chamber contours, short chamber, to be competitive with the other two propellant combinations. This was attributed to the low decomposition temperature of RP-1.

Cook, R. T.

1979-01-01

347

Industrial Biosystems Engineering and Biorefinery Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of Industrial Biosystems Engineering (IBsE) was suggested as a new engineering branch to be developed for meeting the needs of science and technology professionals in the upcoming bioeconomy. With emphasis on systems, IBsE built upon the interfaces between systems biology, bioprocessing, and systems engineering. This article discusses the background, the suggested definition, the theoretical framework, and methodologies of

Shulin Chen

2008-01-01

348

Engineering data exchange in the ROSE system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two engineering data exchange standards have emerged in the realm of design-IGES (initial graphics exchange specification) and PDES (product data exchange using STEP). The authors discuss how these data exchange standards are being integrated into the ROSE (Rensselaer object system for engineering) system, a database system developed to support concurrent engineering. An overview of ROSE is given, followed by background

David L. Spooner; Martin Hardwick; Donald B. Sanderson

1990-01-01

349

Engine throttle stop control system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a system for controlling the transition from a power model to a coastdown mode of a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine with an induction passage and an angularly rotatable throttle valve member operable for controlling air flow through the induction passage into the engine. The vehicle includes an automatic transmission shifted between gears in response to vehicle and engine operating conditions. The system consists in combination: means for biasing the throttle valve in a valve closing direction; a throttle stop for limiting the angular position of the throttle valve member in the closing direction to a released throttle valve angle; means for sensing when the throttle valve member is closed to the released valve angle or opened therefrom to establish the vehicle power mode; means for sensing the angular position of the throttle valve member; extend means responsive to the sensing of the throttle valve being opened from the released throttle valve angle for extending the throttle stop to increase the released throttle valve angle to a predetermined value, the predetermined value providing a desired quality in a transmission gear upshift occurring when the throttle valve is at the released throttle valve angle; retract means responsive to the sensing of the throttle valve being closed to the released throttle valve angle for retracting the throttle stop to decrease the released throttle valve angle and therefore the angular position of the throttle valve member to a predetermined vehicle coastdown angle.

Simon, R.C. Jr.; O'Connell, D.B.; Poirier, D.C.; Calkins, J.A.; Marsh, R.A.; Medich, P.M.; Mamolen, R.C.

1989-07-18

350

4.5 K Cooling System for a Cryogenically Cooled Probe for a 920 MHz NMR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of closed-cycle 4.5 K cooling has been demonstrated for a cryogenically cooled probe for the world highest magnetic-field 920 MHz Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) operated at the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), by means of the following model experiments. The cooling system with a cooling capacity of 4.55 W comprises a Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler and two-stage expansion Joule-Thomson (J-T) circuit. Supercritical helium is produced by the 1st J-T valve, which is then liquefied by the 2nd J-T valve. Helium mist cools a cooling stage for the radio frequency (RF) coils. The NMR sensitivity improvement in terms of the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of the 4.5 K probe is expected to be double of the conventionally used 20 K cryogenic probe, due to the reduction of the thermal noise of the RF coils.

Yokota, H.; Okamura, T.; Ohtani, Y.; Kuriyama, T.; Takahashi, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Yokoyama, S.; Maeda, H.

2004-06-01

351

Investigation on solar hybrid desiccant cooling system for commercial premises with high latent cooling load in subtropical Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study found that the solar hybrid desiccant cooling system (SHDCS) was more effective to handle the premises with high latent cooling load in the hot and humid climate compared to the conventional air-conditioning system. The SHDCS was designed to use the solar-thermal desiccant cooling to tackle the latent load; and the electrical vapour compression refrigeration to cater the sensible

K. F. Fong; C. K. Lee; T. T. Chow; A. M. L. Fong

2011-01-01

352

Modeling and performance of the MHTGR (Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor) reactor cavity cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) of the Modular High- Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy is designed to remove the nuclear afterheat passively in the event that neither the heat transport system nor the shutdown cooling circulator subsystem is available. A computer dynamic simulation for the physical and mathematical modeling of and RCCS is

Conklin

1990-01-01

353

Bacterial community structure in cooling water and biofilm in an industrial recirculating cooling water system.  

PubMed

Microbial fouling is a serious problem in open recirculating cooling water systems. The bacterial communities that cause it have not been fully understood. In this study, we analyzed the community structure of free-living bacteria and particle-attached bacteria in cooling water, and bacteria in biofilm collected from the wall of the water reservoir in an industrial recirculating cooling water system by construction of a 16S rRNA gene clone library. Based on amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, clones of all three libraries were clustered into 45 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Thirteen OTUs displaying 91-96% sequence similarity to a type strain might be novel bacterial species. Noted differences in community structure were observed among the three libraries. The relative species richness of the free-living bacteria in cooling water was much lower than that of particle-attached bacteria and bacteria in biofilm. The majority of the free-living bacterial community (99.0%) was Betaproteobacteria. The predominant bacteria in the particle-attached bacterial community were Alphaproteobacteria (20.5%), Betaproteobacteria (27.8%) and Planctomycetes (42.0%), while those in the biofilm bacterial community were Alphaproteobacteria (47.9%), Betaproteobacteria (11.7%), Acidobacteria (13.1%) and Gemmatimonadetes (11.3%). To control microbial fouling in industrial recirculating cooling water systems, additional physiological and ecological studies of these species will be essential. PMID:23985528

Wang, Jinmei; Liu, Min; Xiao, Huijie; Wu, Wei; Xie, Meijuan; Sun, Mengjia; Zhu, Chenglin; Li, Pengfu

2013-01-01

354

Integrated cooling, heating, and power systems  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

One exemplary embodiment of this invention provides a single-effect absorption chiller including an absorber operatively connected to a solution heat exchanger and a generator, and a condenser in fluid communication with the absorber, wherein the absorber is sized and configured to receive a feed of water from a source of water and to transfer heat to the feed of water and then to convey the feed of water to the condenser without further heat conditioning of the feed of water prior to its entry into the condenser, and wherein the condenser is sized and configured to receive the feed of water from the absorber and to transfer heat to the feed of water, thereby cooling the condenser without resorting to an external heat exchanger such as a conventional cooling tower.

2014-06-03

355

Cavity cooling of an ensemble spin system.  

PubMed

We describe how sideband cooling techniques may be applied to large spin ensembles in magnetic resonance. Using the Tavis-Cummings model in the presence of a Rabi drive, we solve a Markovian master equation describing the joint spin-cavity dynamics to derive cooling rates as a function of ensemble size. Our calculations indicate that the coupled angular momentum subspaces of a spin ensemble containing roughly 10(11) electron spins may be polarized in a time many orders of magnitude shorter than the typical thermal relaxation time. The described techniques should permit efficient removal of entropy for spin-based quantum information processors and fast polarization of spin samples. The proposed application of a standard technique in quantum optics to magnetic resonance also serves to reinforce the connection between the two fields, which has recently begun to be explored in further detail due to the development of hybrid designs for manufacturing noise-resilient quantum devices. PMID:24580576

Wood, Christopher J; Borneman, Troy W; Cory, David G

2014-02-01

356

Cooling and shielding systems for infrared detectors - requirements and limits.  

PubMed

This paper presents three main cooling systems used for infrared detectors. At first thermoelectric devices are discussed. They allow cooling down the detector with low efficiency and not to the very low temperature. They do not generate any vibrations and therefore are suitable for thermal detectors, where the microphone effect can decrease their performance. Photon detectors need to be cooled down even to 77K or better. The only way to have such deep cooling is to use the cooler based on thermodynamic cycle such as Stirling one. With the high efficiency one can easily obtain cryogenic temperature for a detector. The electromagnetic noise and vibration generation are the main disadvantages of using such devices. Joule-Thomson effect during gas expansion is 3rdcooling system discussed in the paper. It is highly effective process, used for gas liquefaction too. The working gas is being removed during cooling into the atmosphere, so the need of continuous supplying with compressed one, what makes this system very difficult for remote applications. In the paper, simple calculations are presented to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of the different cooling systems. PMID:17282258

Wiecek, B

2005-01-01

357

2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM 140, NORTH ELEVATION - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Subsonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

358

Performance comparison of absorption and desiccant solar cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

Cooling systems are required to operate over a wide range of outdoor and load conditions; however, the performance of solar cooling components is often specified and compared at a typical design point such as ARI conditions. A method is presented to directly compare the performance of different desiccant and absorption cooling systems by using psychrometric analysis of air distribution cycles under a range of outdoor conditions that systems encounter over a year. Using analysis of cooling load distributions for a small commercial office building in Miami and Phoenix a seasonal COP is calculated for each system. The heat input can be provided by solar or by an auxiliary heat source, such as natural gas.

Warren, M.L.; Wahlig, M.

1986-01-01

359

Compact he II Cooling System for Superconducting Cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a compact He II cooling system for superconducting cavities. The cooling system mainly comprises a vacuum vessel, an 80 K liquid nitrogen bath, a 4 K He I bath, a He II bath, an evacuation pump, a single-stage GM cryocooler for the 80 K bath, and a 4 K GM cryocooler for the 4 K He I bath. Superfluid helium is generated and refilled into the He II bath via a heat exchanger and a JT valve by operating the evacuation pump. The refrigeration capacity attained was more than 10 W at 1.8 K. The cooling system was connected with a single-cell cavity cryostat. A superconducting cavity was immersed in superfluid helium. He II was supplied to the cavity vessel from the cooling system and evaporated helium gas was returned to it. High electric fields were obtained during superconducting cavity operations.

Takahashi, M.; Yazawa, T.; Tosaka, T.; Kuriyama, T.; Kakutani, N.; Ota, T.; Nakayama, K.; Saito, K.

2008-03-01

360

76 FR 6551 - Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of Contact Cooling System...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of Contact Cooling System for Aesthetic Use AGENCY...Administration (FDA) is classifying the contact cooling system for aesthetic use into...II Special Controls Guidance Document: Contact Cooling System for Aesthetic...

2011-02-07

361

Superconducting shield for solenoid of electron cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ensuring the high homogeneity of a magnetic field in the straight solenoid of an electron cooling system is a very important task. In the electron cooling system of the collider in the NICA project, it is planned to use superconducting solenoids for the generation of a longitudinal magnetic field. Using of the superconducting shield is proposed to achieve the required homogeneity of the magnetic field in the cooling section. This article discusses the design of the superconducting shield and presents experimental and numerical studies into the homogeneity of the magnetic field in solenoids with the superconducting shield.

Agapov, N. N.; Donets, D. E.; Drobin, V. M.; Kulikov, E. A.; Malinovski, H.; Pivin, R. V.; Smirnov, A. V.; Prokofichev, Yu. V.; Trubnikov, G. V.; Dorofeev, G. L.

2012-07-01

362

Contingency power for a small turboshaft engine by using water injection into turbine cooling air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of one-engine-inoperative (OEI) requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot-day, high-altitude take-off situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation by using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stress is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.

1992-01-01

363

Contingency power for small turboshaft engines using water injection into turbine cooling air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of one engine inoperative requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot day, high altitude takeoff situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stresses is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.; Berger, Brett

1987-01-01

364

Airbreathing combined cycle engine systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Air Force and NASA share a common interest in developing advanced propulsion systems for commercial and military aerospace vehicles which require efficient acceleration and cruise operation in the Mach 4 to 6 flight regime. The principle engine of interest is the turboramjet; however, other combined cycles such as the turboscramjet, air turborocket, supercharged ejector ramjet, ejector ramjet, and air liquefaction based propulsion are also of interest. Over the past months careful planning and program implementation have resulted in a number of development efforts that will lead to a broad technology base for those combined cycle propulsion systems. Individual development programs are underway in thermal management, controls materials, endothermic hydrocarbon fuels, air intake systems, nozzle exhaust systems, gas turbines and ramjet ramburners.

Rohde, John

1992-01-01

365

Development of actively cooled panels for advanced propulsion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of actively cooled flowpath panels for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) propulsion system was a critical task in the development plan of the air vehicle system. This task encompassed development of design requirements and loads, and component design and testing. In the early 90's the effort focused on six cooled panel designs based in five different materials (NARloy-Z, Haynes

Brett K. Hauber

1998-01-01

366

Development of actively cooled panels for advanced propulsion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of actively cooled flowpath panels for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) propulsion system was a critical task in the development plan of the air vehicle system. This task encompassed development of design requirements and loads, and component design and testing. In the early 90s the effort focused on six cooled panel designs based in five different materials (NARloy-Z, Haynes

Brett K. Hauber

1998-01-01

367

Emerging microbial control issues in cooling water systems  

SciTech Connect

Microbial life affects everything including many industrial processes. The nature and activity of microorganisms determines whether their presence is beneficial or destructive. In cooling towers, the destructive capability of these organisms is manifested. The microorganisms that inhabit industrial cooling water systems can adversely affect the efficiency of the operation by their sheer number and diversity, metabolic wastes or deposits and associated corrosion. Microbiologically influenced corrosion is emerging as a serious problem in cooling systems. This article brings into focus the problems created by microbial infestations in cooling water systems and the control procedures evolved to combat them. Further, the future strategies being evolved in view of environmental concerns with biocides currently used are also discussed.

Choudhary, S.G. [Tata Chemicals Ltd., Babrala (India)

1998-05-01

368

Cooling systems for satellite remote sensing instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current and developing state-of-the-art in cryogenic coolers for satellite sensors was studied for earth oriented satellites. Six representative sensor categories in the 77 K to 300 K range were defined. Cooling capacities were 50 to 1000 mw; both continuous and intermittent duty cycles were considered; lifetimes were one to two years. Conceptual designs were prepared for the most promising coolers in each category. These coolers are Joule-Thomson, Solid Cryogen, Vuilleumier, Thermoelectric, Shielded Radiator, Optical Solar Reflector Radiator and Unshielded Radiator. Weight, envelope, power requirements and operating characteristics of each cooler are described. Scaling data for each cooler are included.

Copeland, R. J.; Oren, J. A.

1975-01-01

369

Development of preliminary design program for combustor of regenerative cooled liquid rocket engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated program was established to design a combustor for a liquid rocket engine and to analyze regenerative cooling results on a preliminary design level. Properties of burnt gas from a kerosene-LOx mixture in the combustor and rocket performance were calculated from CEA which is the code for the calculation of chemical equilibrium. The heat transfer of regenerative cooling was analyzed by using SUPERTRAPP code for coolant properties and by one-dimensional correlations of the heat transfer coefficient from the combustor liner to the coolant. Profiles of the combustors of F-1 and RS-27A engines were designed from similar input data and the present results were compared to actual data for validation. Finally, the combustors of 30 tonf class, 75 tonf class and 150 tonf class were designed from the required thrust, combustion chamber, exit pressure and mixture ratio of propellants. The wall temperature, heat flux and pressure drop were calculated for heat transfer analysis of regenerative cooling using the profiles.

Cho, Won Kook; Seol, Woo Seok; Son, Min; Seo, Min Kyo; Koo, Jaye

2011-10-01

370

Systems engineering in the global environment : a wicked future.  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses the following questions: (1) What are the Global Problems that require Systems Engineering; (2) Where is Systems Engineering going; (3) What are the boundaries of Systems Engineering; (4) What is the distinction between Systems Thinking and Systems Engineering; (5) Can we use Systems Engineering on Complex Systems; and (6) Can we use Systems Engineering on Wicked Problems?

Griego, Regina M.

2010-12-01

371

Steam cooling system for a gas turbine  

DOEpatents

The steam cooling circuit for a gas turbine includes a bore tube assembly supplying steam to circumferentially spaced radial tubes coupled to supply elbows for transitioning the radial steam flow in an axial direction along steam supply tubes adjacent the rim of the rotor. The supply tubes supply steam to circumferentially spaced manifold segments located on the aft side of the 1-2 spacer for supplying steam to the buckets of the first and second stages. Spent return steam from these buckets flows to a plurality of circumferentially spaced return manifold segments disposed on the forward face of the 1-2 spacer. Crossover tubes couple the steam supply from the steam supply manifold segments through the 1-2 spacer to the buckets of the first stage. Crossover tubes through the 1-2 spacer also return steam from the buckets of the second stage to the return manifold segments. Axially extending return tubes convey spent cooling steam from the return manifold segments to radial tubes via return elbows.

Wilson, Ian David (Mauldin, SC); Barb, Kevin Joseph (Halfmoon, NY); Li, Ming Cheng (Cincinnati, OH); Hyde, Susan Marie (Schenectady, NY); Mashey, Thomas Charles (Coxsackie, NY); Wesorick, Ronald Richard (Albany, NY); Glynn, Christopher Charles (Hamilton, OH); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Cincinnati, OH)

2002-01-01

372

Intelligent control system for rocket engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An intelligent control system (ICS) for a reusable space propulsion system for future launch vehicles is considered which is being developed in the NASA Lewis Research Center. A functional framework within which new engine-control functionalities are organized is developed for an SSME-like engine with expanded actuation capability. Control and diagnostic functions of this framework include primary engine control, real-time engine diagnostics, component condition monitoring, and sensor/actuator fault tolerance. It is noted that the controller should intelligently manage engine operation to achieve mission objectives while minimizing between-flight maintenance and maximizing engine life and performance.

1993-02-01

373

Airbreathing engine selection criteria for SSTO propulsion system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents airbreathing engine selection criteria to be applied to the propulsion system of a Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO). To establish the criteria, a relation among three major parameters, i.e., delta-V capability, weight penalty, and effective specific impulse of the engine subsystem, is derived as compared to these parameters of the LH2/LOX rocket engine. The effective specific impulse is a function of the engine I(sub sp) and vehicle thrust-to-drag ratio which is approximated by a function of the vehicle velocity. The weight penalty includes the engine dry weight, cooling subsystem weight. The delta-V capability is defined by the velocity region starting from the minimum operating velocity up to the maximum velocity. The vehicle feasibility is investigated in terms of the structural and propellant weights, which requires an iteration process adjusting the system parameters. The system parameters are computed by iteration based on the Newton-Raphson method. It has been concluded that performance in the higher velocity region is extremely important so that the airbreathing engines are required to operate beyond the velocity equivalent to the rocket engine exhaust velocity (approximately 4500 m/s).

Ohkami, Yoshiaki; Maita, Masataka

1995-02-01

374

NONWATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF CLOSED-CYCLE COOLING SYSTEMS AND THE INTERACTION OF STACK GAS AND COOLING TOWER PLUMES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a literature survey of the nonwater quality impacts of closed-cycle cooling systems. Following discussions of cooling tower and stack gas plumes, interactions of these plumes are considered. For cooling tower plumes, plume types, behavior, salt drift g...

375

Desiccant dehumidification and cooling systems assessment and analysis  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to provide a preliminary analysis of the principles, sensitivities, and potential for national energy savings of desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems. The report is divided into four sections. Section I deals with the maximum theoretical performance of ideal desiccant cooling systems. Section II looks at the performance effects of non-ideal behavior of system components. Section III examines the effects of outdoor air properties on desiccant cooling system performance. Section IV analyzes the applicability of desiccant cooling systems to reduce primary energy requirements for providing space conditioning in buildings. A basic desiccation process performs no useful work (cooling). That is, a desiccant material drying air is close to an isenthalpic process. Latent energy is merely converted to sensible energy. Only when heat exchange is applied to the desiccated air is any cooling accomplished. This characteristic is generic to all desiccant cycles and critical to understanding their operation. The analyses of Section I show that desiccant cooling cycles can theoretically achieve extremely high thermal CoP`s (>2). The general conclusion from Section II is that ventilation air processing is the most viable application for the solid desiccant equipment analyzed. The results from the seasonal simulations performed in Section III indicate that, generally, the seasonal performance of the desiccant system does not change significantly from that predicted for outdoor conditions. Results from Section IV show that all of the candidate desiccant systems can save energy relative to standard vapor-compression systems. The largest energy savings are achieved by the enthalpy exchange devise.

Collier, R.K. Jr. [Collier Engineering, Reno, NV (United States)

1997-09-01

376

Simulation research on the effect of cooled EGR, supercharging and compression ratio on downsized SI engine knock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knock in spark-ignition(SI) engines severely limits engine performance and thermal efficiency. The researches on knock of downsized SI engine have mainly focused on structural design, performance optimization and advanced combustion modes, however there is little for simulation study on the effect of cooled exhaust gas recirculation(EGR) combined with downsizing technologies on SI engine performance. On the basis of mean pressure and oscillating pressure during combustion process, the effect of different levels of cooled EGR ratio, supercharging and compression ratio on engine dynamic and knock characteristic is researched with three-dimensional KIVA-3V program coupled with pressure wave equation. The cylinder pressure, combustion temperature, ignition delay timing, combustion duration, maximum mean pressure, and maximum oscillating pressure at different initial conditions are discussed and analyzed to investigate potential approaches to inhibiting engine knock while improving power output. The calculation results of the effect of just cooled EGR on knock characteristic show that appropriate levels of cooled EGR ratio can effectively suppress cylinder high-frequency pressure oscillations without obvious decrease in mean pressure. Analysis of the synergistic effect of cooled EGR, supercharging and compression ratio on knock characteristic indicates that under the condition of high supercharging and compression ratio, several times more cooled EGR ratio than that under the original condition is necessarily utilized to suppress knock occurrence effectively. The proposed method of synergistic effect of cooled EGR and downsizing technologies on knock characteristic, analyzed from the aspects of mean pressure and oscillating pressure, is an effective way to study downsized SI engine knock and provides knock inhibition approaches in practical engineering.

Shu, Gequn; Pan, Jiaying; Wei, Haiqiao; Shi, Ning

2013-03-01

377

A practical solar energy heating and cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent study has concluded that solar-powered residential heating and cooling system is non technically and economically feasible. Proposed system provides space heating, air conditioning, and hot water. Installation costs will be greater than for conventional heating systems, but this difference will eventually be defrayed by very low operating costs.

Oneill, M. J.; Mcdanal, A. J.; Sims, W. H.

1973-01-01

378

Inhibitor analysis for a solar heating and cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of potential corrosion inhibitors for the NASA solar heating and cooling system which uses aluminum solar panels is provided. Research consisted of testing using a dynamic corrosion system, along with an economic analysis of proposed corrosion inhibitors. Very good progress was made in finding a suitable inhibitor for the system.

Tabony, J. H.

1977-01-01

379

The Prediction of Nozzle Performance and Heat Transfer in Hydrogen/Oxygen Rocket Engines with Transpiration Cooling, Film Cooling, and High Area Ratios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced engineering computational model has been developed to aid in the analysis of chemical rocket engines. The complete multispecies, chemically reacting and diffusing Navier-Stokes equations are modelled, including the Soret thermal diffusion and Dufour energy transfer terms. Demonstration cases are presented for a 1030:1 area ratio nozzle, a 25 lbf film-cooled nozzle, and a transpiration-cooled plug-and-spool rocket engine. The results indicate that the thrust coefficient predictions of the 1030:1 nozzle and the film-cooled nozzle are within 0.2 to 0.5 percent, respectively, of experimental measurements. Further, the model's predictions agree very well with the heat transfer measurements made in all of the nozzle test cases. It is demonstrated that thermal diffusion has a significant effect on the predicted mass fraction of hydrogen along the wall of the nozzle and was shown to represent a significant fraction of the diffusion fluxes occurring in the transpiration-cooled rocket engine.

Kacynski, Kenneth J.; Hoffman, Joe D.

1994-01-01

380

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF USING EMULSIFIED DIESEL FUEL ON THE PERFORMANCE AND POLLUTANTS EMITTED FROM FOUR STROKE WATER COOLED DIESEL ENGINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water-cooled, four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection diesel engine was used to study the effect of emulsified diesel fuel on the engine performance and on the main pollutant emissions. Emulsified diesel fuels of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% water by volume were used. The experiments were conducted in the speed range from 1000 to 3000 rpm.

A. Sakhrieh; R. H. Fouadb; J. A. Yamina

2009-01-01

381

Integrating system safety into the basic systems engineering process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic elements of a systems engineering process are given along with a detailed description of what the safety system requires from the systems engineering process. Also discussed is the safety that the system provides to other subfunctions of systems engineering.

Griswold, J. W.

1971-01-01

382

Fundamental Aspects of Ozone Chemistry in Recirculating Cooling Water Systems Data Evaluation Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposed uses of ozone for stand-alone cooling water treatment raise critical questions as to what happens chemically. These questions are of more significance to industrial cooling water systems, which typically have higher temperatures and cooling ranges than do comfort cooling systems. When applying ozone to cooling waters, it is very important for the user to understand many fundamental aspects of

Rip G. Rice; J. Fred Wilkes

1992-01-01

383

Solar assisted heat pump heating and cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A heating and cooling system for domestic and commercial use which includes a reversible refrigeration system in the form of a heat pump combined with an exteriorly mounted heat exchanger in the form of a solar collector and an interiorly mounted heat exchanger incorporated into a valance supported peripherally adjacent to but spaced downwardly from the ceiling of a space being conditioned. The refrigeration system includes a compressor and the heat exchange system includes a circulation water pump which together with the compressor constitute the major moving parts of the system with heat exchange and air circulation being obtained by convective airflow. The heating and cooling system is interconnected with the domestic hot water system to satisfy a large porportion of the required domestic hot water by utilizing rejected heat. The interiorly mounted valance heat exchanger dehumidifies the air in the space being conditioned to enable occupants of the space to feel cool and comfortable at a higher temperature setting. The exteriorly mounted heat exchanger utilizes a small quantity of atomized water in a fine mist spray during the cooling cycle for increasing the efficiency of the system. During extremely low ambient temperature conditions, the domestic hot water system supplies heat to the refrigeration system which prevents slugging of the refrigeration system compressor.

Cutlip, L. D.

1985-11-12

384

COOLING FAN AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Upcoming emissions regulations (Tiers 3, 4a and 4b) are imposing significantly higher heat loads on the cooling system than lesser regulated machines. This work was a suite of tasks aimed at reducing the parasitic losses of the cooling system, or improving the design process through six distinct tasks: 1. Develop an axial fan that will provide more airflow, with less input power and less noise. The initial plan was to use Genetic Algorithms to do an automated fan design, incorporating forward sweep for low noise. First and second generation concepts could not meet either performance or sound goals. An experienced turbomachinery designer, using a specialized CFD analysis program has taken over the design and has been able to demonstrate a 5% flow improvement (vs 10% goal) and 10% efficiency improvement (vs 10% goal) using blade twist only. 2. Fan shroud developments, using an 'aeroshroud' concept developed at Michigan State University. Performance testing at Michigan State University showed the design is capable of meeting the goal of a 10% increase in flow, but over a very narrow operating range of fan performance. The goal of 10% increase in fan efficiency was not met. Fan noise was reduced from 0 to 2dB, vs. a goal of 5dB at constant airflow. The narrow range of fan operating conditions affected by the aeroshroud makes this concept unattractive for further development at this time 3. Improved axial fan system modeling is needed to accommodate the numbers of cooling systems to be redesigned to meet lower emissions requirements. A CFD fan system modeling guide has been completed and transferred to design engineers. Current, uncontrolled modeling practices produce flow estimates in some cases within 5% of measured values, and in some cases within 25% of measured values. The techniques in the modeling guide reduced variability to the goal of + 5% for the case under study. 4. Demonstrate the performance and design versatility of a high performance fan. A 'swept blade mixed flow' fan was rapid prototyped from cast aluminum for a performance demonstration on a small construction machine. The fan was mounted directly in place of the conventional fan (relatively close to the engine). The goal was to provide equal airflow at constant fan speed, with 75% of the input power and 5 dB quieter than the conventional fan. The result was a significant loss in flow with the prototype due to its sensitivity to downstream blockage. This sensitivity to downstream blockage affects flow, efficiency, and noise all negatively, and further development was terminated. 5. Develop a high efficiency variable speed fan drive to replace existing slipping clutch style fan drives. The goal for this task was to provide a continuously variable speed fan drive with an efficiency of 95%+ at max speed, and losses no greater than at max speed as the fan speed would vary throughout its entire speed range. The process developed to quantify the fuel savings potential of a variable speed fan drive has produced a simple tool to predict the fuel savings of a variable speed drive, and has sparked significant interest in the use of variable speed fan drive for Tier 3 emissions compliant machines. The proposed dual ratio slipping clutch variable speed fan drive can provide a more efficient system than a conventional single ratio slipping clutch fan drive, but could not meet the established performance goals of this task, so this task was halted in a gate review prior to the start of detailed design. 6. Develop a cooling system air filtration device to allow the use of automotive style high performance heat exchangers currently in off road machines. The goal of this task was to provide a radiator air filtration system that could allow high fin density, louvered radiators to operate in a find dust application with the same resistance to fouling as a current production off-road radiator design. Initial sensitivity testing demonstrated that fan speed has a significant impact on the fouling of radiator cores due to fine dusts, so machines equipped with continuously variabl

Ronald Dupree

2005-07-31

385

Performance evaluation of a radiant floor cooling system integrated with dehumidified ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiant floor cooling system can be used as an alternative to all-air cooling systems, using the existing Ondol system (a radiant floor heating system) in Korea to save energy and maintain indoor thermal comfort. Unfortunately, a radiant floor cooling system may cause condensation on the floor surface under hot and humid conditions during the cooling season. In addition, the

Doosam Song; Taeyeon Kim; Suwon Song; Suckho Hwang; Seung-Bok Leigh

2008-01-01

386

Optimization of engines for a commercial Mach 0.98 transport using advanced turbine cooling methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made of an advanced technology airplane using supercritical aerodynamics. Cruise Mach number was 0.98 at 40,000 feet altitude with a payload of 60,000 pounds and a range of 3000 nautical miles. Separate-flow turbofans were examined parametrically to determine the effect of sea-level-static design turbine-inlet-temperature and noise on takeoff gross weight (TOGW) assuming full-film turbine cooling. The optimum turbine inlet temperature was 2650 F. Two-stage-fan engines, with cruise fan pressure ratio of 2.25, achieved a noise goal of 103.5 EPNdB with todays noise technology while one-stage-fan engines, achieved a noise goal of 98 EPNdB. The take-off gross weight penalty to use the one-stage fan was 6.2 percent.

Kraft, G. A.; Whitlow, J. B., Jr.

1972-01-01

387

Heat transfer in rocket engine combustion chambers and regeneratively cooled nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conjugate heat transfer computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to describe regenerative cooling in the main combustion chamber and nozzle and in the injector faceplate region for a launch vehicle class liquid rocket engine was developed. An injector model for sprays which treats the fluid as a variable density, single-phase media was formulated, incorporated into a version of the FDNS code, and used to simulate the injector flow typical of that in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Various chamber related heat transfer analyses were made to verify the predictive capability of the conjugate heat transfer analysis provided by the FDNS code. The density based version of the FDNS code with the real fluid property models developed was successful in predicting the streamtube combustion of individual injector elements.

1993-01-01

388

Use of a temperature-initiated passive cooling system (TIPACS) for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS)  

SciTech Connect

A new type of passive cooling system has been invented (Forsberg 1993): the Temperature-Initiated Passive Cooling System (TIPACS). The characteristics of the TIPACS potentially match requirements for an improved reactor-cavity-cooling system (RCCS) for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR). This report is an initial evaluation of the TIPACS for the MHTGR with a Rankines (steam) power conversion cycle. Limited evaluations were made of applying the TIPACS to MHTGRs with reactor pressure vessel temperatures up to 450 C. These temperatures may occur in designs of Brayton cycle (gas turbine) and process heat MHTGRs. The report is structured as follows. Section 2 describes the containment cooling issues associated with the MHTGR and the requirements for such a cooling system. Section 3 describes TIPACS in nonmathematical terms. Section 4 describes TIPACS`s heat-removal capabilities. Section 5 analyzes the operation of the temperature-control mechanism that determines under what conditions the TIPACS rejects heat to the environment. Section 6 addresses other design and operational issues. Section 7 identifies uncertainties, and Section 8 provides conclusions. The appendixes provide the detailed data and models used in the analysis.

Forsberg, C.W.; Conklin, J.; Reich, W.J.

1994-04-01

389

Gas-cooled reactor power systems for space  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the characteristics of six designs for power levels of 2, 10, and 20 MWe for operating times of 1 and 7 y are described. The operating conditions for these arbitrary designs were chosen to minimize system specific mass. The designs are based on recent work which benefits from earlier analyses of nuclear space power systems conducted at our Laboratory. Both gas- and liquid-cooled reactors had been considered. Pitts and Walter (1970) reported on the results of a detailed study of a 10-MWe lithium-cooled reactor in a potassium Rankine system. Unpublished results (1966) of a computer analysis provide details of an argon-cooled reactor in an argon Brayton system. The gas-cooled reactor design was based on extensive development work on the 500-MWth reactor for the nuclear ramjet (Pluto) as described by Walter (1964). The designs discussed here draw heavily on the Pluto project experience, which culminated in a successful full-power ground test as reported by Reynolds (1964). At higher power levels gas-cooled reactors coupled with Brayton systems with advanced radiator designs become attractive.

Walter, C.E.

1987-01-01

390

A mixed-gas miniature Joule-Thomson cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mixed-gas Joule-Thomson (JT) cooling system is investigated in which a micromachined JT cold stage of 60 10 0.7 mm3 is combined with a linear compressor. The cooling system is operated between 1.3 bar and 9.4 bar with a ternary gas mixture of 39 mol% methane, 20 mol% ethane and 41 mol% isobutane. It cools down to below 130 K, and at a cold-tip temperature of 150 K, a cooling power of 46 mW is obtained at a mass-flow rate of 1.35 mg s-1. The background losses are experimentally determined to be 20 mW and are in good agreement with the calculated value of 21 mW. The linear compressor can be used to drive 19 of these miniature JT cold stages in parallel, e.g. for cooling optical detectors in future space missions. In this mode, the compressor pressure ratio is slightly less, resulting in a net cooling power of 23 mW per miniature JT cold stage.

Derking, J. H.; Vermeer, C. H.; Tirolien, T.; Crook, M. R.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

2013-10-01

391

COMMIX analysis of AP-600 Passive Containment Cooling System  

SciTech Connect

COMMIX modeling and basic concepts that relate components, i.e., containment, water film cooling, and natural draft air flow systems. of the AP-600 Passive Containment Cooling System are discussed. The critical safety issues during a postulated accident have been identified as (1) maintaining the liquid film outside the steel containment vessel, (2) ensuring the natural convection in the air annulus. and (3) quantifying both heat and mass transfer accurately for the system. The lack of appropriate heat and mass transfer models in the present analysis is addressed. and additional assessment and validation of the proposed models is proposed.

Chang, J.F.C.; Chien, T.H.; Ding, J.; Sun, J.G.; Sha, W.T.

1992-01-01

392

COMMIX analysis of AP-600 Passive Containment Cooling System  

SciTech Connect

COMMIX modeling and basic concepts that relate components, i.e., containment, water film cooling, and natural draft air flow systems. of the AP-600 Passive Containment Cooling System are discussed. The critical safety issues during a postulated accident have been identified as (1) maintaining the liquid film outside the steel containment vessel, (2) ensuring the natural convection in the air annulus. and (3) quantifying both heat and mass transfer accurately for the system. The lack of appropriate heat and mass transfer models in the present analysis is addressed. and additional assessment and validation of the proposed models is proposed.

Chang, J.F.C.; Chien, T.H.; Ding, J.; Sun, J.G.; Sha, W.T.

1992-11-01

393

Timonium Elementary School Solar Energy Heating and Cooling Augmentation Experiment. Final Engineering Report. Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report covers a two-year and seven-month solar space heating and cooling experiment conducted at the Timonium Elementary School, Timonium, Maryland. The system was designed to provide a minimum of 50 percent of the energy required during the heating season and to determine the feasibility of using solar energy to power absorption-type

AAI Corp., Baltimore, MD.

394

A novel diesel-fueled engine for microclimate cooling for the individual soldier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military mission performance in a chemically contaminated environment necessitates the wearing of chemically impermeable protective garments. Soldiers encapsulated in these protective garments in a hot environment will succumb to heat stress. Consequently a microclimate cooling system is being developed. In the present design, a vapor compression cycle chills water which is then circulated over the body to absorb heat via

T. K. Chen; W. K. Lam; R. J. Raymond

1992-01-01

395

A Preliminary Investigation of Supercharging an Air-Cooled Engine in Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of preliminary tests made on the effects of supercharging an air-cooled engine under airplane flight conditions. Service training airplanes were used in the investigation equipped with production types of Wright J engines. A N.A.C.A. Roots type supercharger was driven from the rear of the engine. In addition to measuring those quantities that would enable the determination of the climb performance, measurements were made of the cylinder-head temperatures and the carburetor pressures and temperatures. The supercharging equipment was not removed from the airplane when making flights without supercharging, but a by-pass valve, which controlled the amount of supercharging by returning to the atmosphere the surplus air delivered by the supercharger, was left full open. With the supercharger so geared that ground-level pressure could be maintained to 18,500 feet, it was found that the absolute ceiling was increased from 19,400 to 32,600 feet, that the time to climb to 16,00 feet was decreased from 32 to 16 minutes, and that this amount of supercharging apparently did not injure the engine. (author)

Ware, Marsden; Schey, Oscar W

1929-01-01

396

Integrating externally developed systems for SNS Linac cooling and vacuum.  

SciTech Connect

External contractors are developing the local cooling and vacuum control systems for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac. Soon these systems will be integrated into the facility-wide controls system. Allen-Bradley Logix5000 series programmable controllers, populated with appropriate input/output modules, were selected as the local controllers. These controllers will be interfaced to the facility-wide control system via VME systems with PowerPC processors running the Wind River VxWorks operating system and Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) front-end controller software. This paper describes the interface and integration issues driven by project, cooling system and vacuum system requirements and hardware selections.

Marroquin, P. S. (Pilar S.)

2001-01-01

397

Industrial biosystems engineering and biorefinery systems.  

PubMed

The concept of Industrial Biosystems Engineering (IBsE) was suggested as a new engineering branch to be developed for meeting the needs for science, technology and professionals by the upcoming bioeconomy. With emphasis on systems, IBsE builds upon the interfaces between systems biology, bioprocessing, and systems engineering. This paper discussed the background, the suggested definition, the theoretical framework and methodologies of this new discipline as well as its challenges and future development. PMID:18807973

Chen, Shulin

2008-06-01

398

Engine Structures Modeling Software System (ESMOSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engine Structures Modeling Software System (ESMOSS) is the development of a specialized software system for the construction of geometric descriptive and discrete analytical models of engine parts, components, and substructures which can be transferred to finite element analysis programs such as NASTRAN. The NASA Lewis Engine Structures Program is concerned with the development of technology for the rational structural design and analysis of advanced gas turbine engines with emphasis on advanced structural analysis, structural dynamics, structural aspects of aeroelasticity, and life prediction. Fundamental and common to all of these developments is the need for geometric and analytical model descriptions at various engine assembly levels which are generated using ESMOSS.

1991-01-01

399

Emission control system and method for internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

Fresh air is introduced into the exhaust pipe leading to the muffler for an internal combustion engine, while the air and exhaust gas mixture is cooled, not only in the muffler but also in a circuitous tube which extends from the muffler to the normal discharge or tail pipe and in which a special cooler may be installed. From the outlet of the special cooling tube, which faces forwardly, a portion of the air and exhaust gas mixture, now cooled, is led from a Y-connection to the intake tube of the air filter, so that the air and exhaust gas mixture will be introduced into the intake system prior to the carburetor. A rearwardly slanting arm of the Y-connection connects the front end of the special cooling pipe with the normal tail pipe. The carburetor has one or more air bleed tubes leading into the mixture passage at or below the butterfly valves, so that at idling speeds, a small amount of fresh air is introduced, irrespective of the position of the butterfly valves, to overcome any tendency for the engine, when idling, to cough or sputter due to the introduction of an air and exhaust gas mixture to the air filter intake.

Owens, L.

1980-06-03

400

Radiative recombination of ions and nuclei in electron cooling systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental data on rates for the radiative recombination of nuclei (from helium to uranium) and various ions in interaction with an electron beam in electron cooling systems are reviewed. An analysis of the experimental data has yielded the dependence of the radiative recombination rate on the relative electron energy appreciably differently than the theoretical models obtained earlier by H. Kramers and R. Schuch. In addition, it is shown that the radiative recombination rate of nuclei in the experiment depends on the transverse electron energy as T {?/-0.82},which is also different from the results of the calculations by the theoretical model proposed by M. Bell and J. Bell. Experimental data on the cooling of ions in intermediate charge states are analyzed and the dependence of the radiative recombination rate on the charge state of the ion (electron-shell configuration) is shown. For some ion charge states, the rate of the process is of a resonance character. Loss to radiative recombination in the electron cooling system of the NICA Booster is evaluated for the Au32+, Au33+, Au50+, and Au51+ ion beams. Limitations imposed on the Au79+ beam lifetime by radiative recombination in the electron cooling system of the NICA Collider are analyzed. Possible ways to decrease the radiative recombination rate of nuclei by selecting the parameters of the electron cooling system for the NICA Collider are proposed.

Kuznetsov, A. B.; Meshkov, I. N.; Philippov, A. V.

2012-07-01

401

Impact of ambient pressure on performance of desiccant cooling systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The impact of ambient pressure on the performance of the ventilation cycle desiccant cooling system and its components was studied using computer simulations. The impact of ambient pressure depended on whether the system was designed for fixed-mass flow r...

A. A. Pesaran

1991-01-01

402

Copper corrosion & clogging in APS deionized water cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive amount of work has been performed on copper corrosion in last century due to its abundant use in domestic and industrial water systems. However, work on copper corrosion in deionized water is very limited. The water cooling system of Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory uses deionized water containing very low dissolved oxygen (less than 10

Bijaya Adak

2009-01-01

403

Preliminary design study of astronomical detector cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary design of an astronomical detector cooling system for possible use in the NASA C-141 Airborne Infrared Observatory is presented. The system consists of the following elements: supercritical helium tank, Joule-Thomson supply gas conditioner, Joule-Thomson expander (JTX), optical cavity dewar, optical cavity temperature controller, adjustable J-T discharge gas pressure controller, and vacuum pump.

Norman, R. H.

1976-01-01

404

Solar Residential Heating and Cooling System Development Test Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A solar heating and cooling system is described, which was installed in a simulated home at Marshall Space Flight Center. Performance data are provided for the checkout and initial operational phase for key subsystems and for the total system. Valuable in...

W. R. Humphries D. E. Melton

1974-01-01

405

Advanced energy transmission fluids for heating and cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a comprehensive program to develop high-performance energy transmission fluids for use in district heating and cooling (DHC) systems. These fluids would substantially reduce flow frictional losses and enhance heat transfer. In system enhancement scoping studies, the fluids have been shown to yield potentially significant upfront capital equipment cost reductions by allowing the

K. E. Kasza; S. U. Choi; J. Kaminsky

1987-01-01

406

A System for Cooling inside a Glove Box  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An easy, efficient, reliable, and low-cost method of constructing a cooling system using a simple circulating pump is described. The system is employed in conjunction with an inert atmosphere glove box to achieve the synthesis of air- and moisture-sensitive compounds inside the glove box at controlled, low temperatures without contaminating the

Sanz, Martial

2010-01-01

407

Performance evaluation of solar absorption cooling system of Bahal (Haryana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the modeling of a solar -powered, single-stage, absorption cooling system using a flat plate collector and water-lithium bromide solution. A modular computer program has been developed for the absorp- tion system to simulate various cycle configurations with the help of weather data of village Bahal, Distt. Bh i- wani, Haryana, India. The effects of hot water inlet

V. MITTAL; K. S. KASANA; N. S. THAKUR

2005-01-01

408

Computer aided engineering of distributed control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a large plant, engineering the distributed control system in the shortest possible time is extremely important. Increasingly, it is being realised that cutting down the project cycle time is the key to success in the international market place. Most companies have therefore developed computer aided tools for control systems engineering rule design. These systems are proprietary in nature. The

P. Purkayashta; Sonika Sood; K. Padmanabhan

1995-01-01

409

Understanding the Value of Systems Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practices of systems engineering are believed to have high value in the development of complex systems. Heuristic wisdom is that an increase in the quantity and quality of systems engineering (SE) can reduce project schedule while increasing product quality. This paper explores recent theoretical and statistical information concerning this heuristic value of SE. It explores the underlying theoretical relationships

Eric C. Honour

410

Warehouse control system cools energy costs 20%  

SciTech Connect

Developed specifically for the food-processing industry, Levy Systems' Refrigeration Control and Monitoring System (RCMS) uses four basic techniques to lower electric-power costs: reducing defrost heat loads, reducing fan-operation heat loads, controlling coil usage, and incorporating utility variable rate structures into the coil operation. With this system, employees know the temperatures throughout the facility, the status and efficiency of every coil and every blast freezer, and actual product temperatures - all from a single computer terminal.

Not Available

1985-10-01

411

The conceptual design of engineering systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on the conceptual design of engineering systems are presented. Topics discussed include: why improve system design technology now; how can computing technology aid system design, problems, and near-term solutions.

Rogan, ED

1990-01-01

412

A Combined Water-Bromotrifluoromethane Crash-Fire Protection System for a T-56 Turbopropeller Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A crash-fire protection system is described which will suppress the ignition of crash-spilled fuel that may be ingested by a T-56 turbo-propeller engine. This system includes means for rapidly extinguishing the combustor flame, means for cooling and inerting with water the hot engine parts likely to ignite engine ingested fuel, and means for blanketing with bromotrifluoromethane massive metal parts that may reheat after the engine stops rotating. Combustion-chamber flames were rapidly extinguished at the engine fuel nozzles by a fuel shutoff and drain valve. Hot engine parts were inerted and cooled by 42 pounds of water discharged at seven engine stations. Massive metal parts that could reheat were inerted with 10 pounds of bromotrifluoromethane discharged at two engine stations. Performance trials of the crash-fire protection system were conducted by bringing the engine up to takeoff temperature, actuating the crash-fire protection system, and then spraying fuel into the engine to simulate crash-ingested fuel. No fires occurred during these trials, although fuel was sprayed into the engine from 0.3 second to 15 minutes after actuating the crash-fire protection system.

Campbell, John A.; Busch, Arthur M.

1959-01-01

413

Cooled railplug  

DOEpatents

The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers. 10 figs.

Weldon, W.F.

1996-05-07

414

Advancing Systems Engineering Excellence: The Marshall Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA undertakes increasingly complex projects, the need for expert systems engineers and leaders in systems engineering is becoming more pronounced. As a result of this issue, the Agency has undertaken an initiative to develop more systems engineering leaders through its Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program; however, the NASA Office of the Chief Engineer has also called on the field Centers to develop mechanisms to strengthen their expertise in systems engineering locally. In response to this call, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a comprehensive development program for aspiring systems engineers and systems engineering leaders. This presentation will summarize the two-level program, which consists of a combination of training courses and on-the-job, developmental training assignments at the Center to help develop stronger expertise in systems engineering and technical leadership. In addition, it will focus on the success the program has had in its pilot year. The program hosted a formal kickoff event for Level I on October 13, 2009. The first class includes 42 participants from across MSFC and Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF). A formal call for Level II is forthcoming. With the new Agency focus on research and development of new technologies, having a strong pool of well-trained systems engineers is becoming increasingly more critical. Programs such as the Marshall Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program, as well as those developed at other Centers, help ensure that there is an upcoming generation of trained systems engineers and systems engineering leaders to meet future design challenges.

Hall, Philip; Whitfield, Susan

2011-01-01

415

Suggested criteria for evaluating systems engineering methodologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Systems engineering is the application of mathematical and scientific principles to practical ends in the life-cycle of a system. A methodology for systems engineering is a carefully developed, relatively complex procedure or process for applying these mathematical and scientific principles. There are many systems engineering methodologies (or possibly many versions of a few methodologies) currently in use in government and industry. These methodologies are usually designed to meet the needs of a particular organization. It has been observed, however, that many technical and non-technical problems arise when inadequate systems engineering methodologies are applied by organizations to their systems development projects. Various criteria for evaluating systems engineering methodologies are discussed. Such criteria are developed to assist methodology-users in identifying and selecting methodologies that best fit the needs of the organization.

Gates, Audrey; Paul, Arthur S.; Gill, Tepper L.

1989-01-01

416

The Suitability and Feasibility of Floor Radiant Cooling System in Northern  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the application of radiant floor heating, system design, and laying status, this paper advances a design idea of using natural cooling source such as ground water or evaporation cooling water for `free cooling'. Based on the above, a mathematic model of low-temperature radiant floor heating\\/cooling is constructed. This paper studies the matching of radiant floor's cooling capacity and

Shousong Liu; Yanqiang Di; Tao Meng; Li Liu; Fei Ma

2009-01-01

417

Perspective on Use of Fresh Water for Cooling Systems of Thermoelectric Powerplants in Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report considers the cooling-water requirement for 3 types of cooling systems generally used in Florida: cooling ponds, evaporative cooling towers, and once-through cooling. A distinction is made between the quantity of water withdrawn from a water s...

G. H. Hughes

1975-01-01

418

CONTROL STRATEGIES OF OPEN CYCLE DESICCANT COOLING SYSTEMS MINIMISING ENERGY CONSUMPTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open-cycle desiccant cooling systems generally operate either in indirect evaporative cooling or in desiccant cooling mode depending on outdoor air conditions. In addition to the switch point temperature between evaporative and desiccant cooling, the regeneration temperature and the supply airflow rate are key control parameters to achieve optimal cooling performance. The influence of these control strategy parameters on the efficiency

Stphane GINESTET; Pascal STABAT; Dominique MARCHIO

419

Experimental Assessment of Halogenated Organics in Waters from Cooling Towers and Once-Through Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chlorine is the principal biocide used for antifoulant treatment of cooling systems in electric power generating plants. An experimental assessment was made of halogenated organics in chlorinated cooling waters from both once-through and closed-cycle cool...

R. L. Jolley W. W. Pitt F. G. Taylor S. J. Hartmann G. Jones

1977-01-01

420

CAESY - COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING SYSTEM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many developers of software and algorithms for control system design have recognized that current tools have limits in both flexibility and efficiency. Many forces drive the development of new tools including the desire to make complex system modeling design and analysis easier and the need for quicker turnaround time in analysis and design. Other considerations include the desire to make use of advanced computer architectures to help in control system design, adopt new methodologies in control, and integrate design processes (e.g., structure, control, optics). CAESY was developed to provide a means to evaluate methods for dealing with user needs in computer-aided control system design. It is an interpreter for performing engineering calculations and incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. It is designed to be reasonably flexible and powerful. CAESY includes internally defined functions and procedures, as well as user defined ones. Support for matrix calculations is provided in the same manner as MATLAB. However, the development of CAESY is a research project, and while it provides some features which are not found in commercially sold tools, it does not exhibit the robustness that many commercially developed tools provide. CAESY is written in C-language for use on Sun4 series computers running SunOS 4.1.1 and later. The program is designed to optionally use the LAPACK math library. The LAPACK math routines are available through anonymous ftp from research.att.com. CAESY requires 4Mb of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. CAESY was developed in 1993 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

Wette, M. R.

1994-01-01

421

Experimental Study of Plasma Cooling and Laser Beam Interaction in Gas Filled ICF Engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ICF power plants, such as the LIFE scheme under development at LLNL, may employ a high-Z, target-chamber gas-fill to moderate the first-wall heat-pulse due to x-rays and energetic ions released during target detonation. This gas-fill is heated and ionized by this energy release. It must cool and recombine before the next shot (at nominally 70-ms intervals) to a temperature where the next target and laser pulse can propagate to chamber center with minimal degradation. While we expect rapid cooling to 2eV by radiation, our modeling of cooling below 2 eV has a high degree of uncertainty. We have developed a plasma source to study the cooling rates and laser propagation in high-Z gaseous plasmas. The source is a theta discharge configuration driven by a low-inductance, 5-kJ, 100-ns pulsed power system. This configuration delivers high peak power levels, has an electrode-less discharge, and has unobstructed axial access for diagnostics and beam propagation studies. Our diagnostics include Thompson scattering, time resolved spectroscopy, and plasma probes. We will report on the system design, operation, and initial results.

Rhodes, Mark; Kane, Jave; Loosmore, Gwendolen; Demuth, James; Latkowski, Jeffery

2010-11-01

422

EVA space suit Evaporative Cooling/Heating Glove System (ECHGS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new astronaut glove, the Evaporative Cooling/Heating Glove System (ECHGS), was designed and developed to allow the handling of objects between -200 F and +200 F. Active heating elements, positioned at each finger pad, provide additional heat to the finger pads from the rest of the finger. A water evaporative cooling system provides cooling by the injection of water to the finger areas and the subsequent direct evaporation to space. Thin, flexible insulation has been developed for the finger areas to limit thermal conductivity. Component and full glove tests have shown that the glove meets and exceeds the requirements to hold a 11/2 inch diameter bar at + or - 200 F for three minutes within comfort limits. The ECHGS is flexible, lightweight and comfortable. Tactility is reasonable and small objects can be identified especially by the fingertips beyond the one half width active elements.

Coss, F. A.

1976-01-01

423

Characterization of the space shuttle reaction control system engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program was developed and written in FORTRAN 5 which predicts the transient and steady state performance and heat transfer characteristics of a pulsing GO2/GH2 rocket engine. This program predicts the dynamic flow and ignition characteristics which, when combined in a quasi-steady state manner with the combustion and mixing analysis program, will provide the thrust and specific impulse of the engine as a function of time. The program also predicts the transient and steady state heat transfer characteristics of the engine using various cooling concepts. The computer program, test case, and documentation are presented. The program is applicable to any system capable of utilizing the FORTRAN 4 or FORTRAN 5 language.

Wilson, M. S.; Stechman, R. C.; Edelman, R. B.; Fortune, O. F.; Economos, C.

1972-01-01

424

Wind turbine generators having wind assisted cooling systems and cooling methods  

DOEpatents

A wind generator includes: a nacelle; a hub carried by the nacelle and including at least a pair of wind turbine blades; and an electricity producing generator including a stator and a rotor carried by the nacelle. The rotor is connected to the hub and rotatable in response to wind acting on the blades to rotate the rotor relative to the stator to generate electricity. A cooling system is carried by the nacelle and includes at least one ambient air inlet port opening through a surface of the nacelle downstream of the hub and blades, and a duct for flowing air from the inlet port in a generally upstream direction toward the hub and in cooling relation to the stator.

Bagepalli, Bharat (Niskayuna, NY) [Niskayuna, NY; Barnes, Gary R. (Delanson, NY) [Delanson, NY; Gadre, Aniruddha D. (Rexford, NY) [Rexford, NY; Jansen, Patrick L. (Scotia, NY) [Scotia, NY; Bouchard, Jr., Charles G. (Schenectady, NY); Jarczynski, Emil D. (Scotia, NY) [Scotia, NY; Garg, Jivtesh (Cambridge, MA) [Cambridge, MA

2008-09-23

425

System Study for Axial Vane Engine Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this engine feasibility study was to determine the benefits that can be achieved by incorporating positive displacement axial vane compression and expansion stages into high bypass turbofan engines. These positive-displacement stages would replace some or all of the conventional compressor and turbine stages in the turbine engine, but not the fan. The study considered combustion occurring internal to an axial vane component (i.e., Diesel engine replacing the standard turbine engine combustor, burner, and turbine); and external continuous flow combustion with an axial vane compressor and an axial vane turbine replacing conventional compressor and turbine systems.

Badley, Patrick R.; Smith, Michael R.; Gould, Cedric O.

2008-01-01

426

Possibilities of small-passage systems of internal convective blade cooling for gas turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydraulic and thermal characteristics of turbine blades with small-passage cooling systems are analyzed. It is shown that a generalized hydraulic characteristic can be derived for the cooling systems of gas turbine blades of different dimensions. The initial thermal efficiency of blade cooling is shown to be practically independent of the cooling passage diameter. At the cooling passage outlet, the required cooling efficiency can obtained only through an increase in air flow rate. The cooling systems described here provide sufficient blade cooling for initial gas temperatures of 1900-1950 K with air flow rates equal to 3 percent of the gas flow rate.

Klimenko, V. N.

427

Kinetic model for predicting the composition of chlorinated water discharged from power plant cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of applying a kinetic model to the chlorination data supplied by Commonwealth Edison on the once-through cooling system at the Quad Cities Nuclear Station provide a validation of the model. The two examples given demonstrate that the model may be applied to either once-through cooling systems or to cooling systems involving cooling towers.

Lietzke

1977-01-01

428

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combination of monthly progress reports are presented. It contains a summary of activities and progress made from November 1, 1978, to February 28, 1979. The effort calls for the development, manufacture, test, system installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation.

1979-01-01

429

System design package for a solar heating and cooling system installed at Akron, Ohio  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information used to evaluate the design of a solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system is given. A conventional heat pump provides summer cooling items as the design data brochure, system performance specification, system hazard analysis, spare parts list, and detailed design drawings. A solar system is installed in a single-family dwelling at Akron, Ohio, and at Duffield, Virginia.

1979-01-01

430

Comparative Analysis of Engine Ignition Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental data of a comparative analysis of a spark-ignition system and a nanosecond-discharge-based ignition system in engines are presented. The effectiveness of the ignition systems used was evaluated on fuel consumption and exhaust-gas composition during the road and laboratory tests. It has been discovered that using a plasma-ignition system rather than a spark-ignition system considerably improves engine performance and

Albina A. Tropina; Lonnie Lenarduzzi; Sergey V. Marasov; Anatoliy P. Kuzmenko

2009-01-01

431

Turbocharged engine exhaust gas recirculation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved exhaust gas recirculation systems for turbocharged gas engines that include an exhaust pipe, a turbocharger connected thereto, and a carburetor connected with a source of gas for the engine. The recirculation system includes an air conduit extending from the turbocharger compressor discharge to a venturi, an exhaust gas conduit that extends from a connection with the exhaust pipe between

Stachowicz

1984-01-01

432

An EHF telecommunication system engineering model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extremely high frequency telecommunication system engineering model (ETSEM) was developed as an aid in the design of line-of-sight (LOS) communication systems from 10 to 100 GHz. ETSEM provides tabulation of path geometry parameters and analyzes ray path and Fresnel zone clearances to help the engineer design the path. ETSEM also predicts the performance (availability) of both digital and analog

Kenneth C. Allen

1987-01-01

433

Engineering aspects of water pollution control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of proper engineering when providing pollution control systems is emphasized. Organization of engineering projects is described in detail. Included are discussions of: (1) collection and evaluation of available data; (2) establishment of survey and test program; (3) integration and evaluation of findings; (4) establishment of pollution control and water utilization systems; and (5) specification and detailed design preparation.

R. G. Dalbke; A. J. Turk

1967-01-01

434

Corrosion inhibitors for solar heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems dealing with corrosion and corrosion protection of solar heating and cooling systems are discussed. A test program was conducted to find suitable and effective corrosion inhibitors for systems employing either water or antifreeze solutions for heat transfer and storage. Aluminum-mild-steel-copper-stainless steel assemblies in electrical contact were used to simulate a multimetallic system which is the type most likely to be employed. Several inhibitors show promise for this application.

Humphries, T. S.; Deramus, G. E., Jr.

1977-01-01

435

BETTER DUCT SYSTEMS FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING.  

SciTech Connect

This is a series of six guides intended to provide a working knowledge of residential heating and cooling duct systems, an understanding of the major issues concerning efficiency, comfort, health, and safety, and practical tips on installation and repair of duct systems. These guides are intended for use by contractors, system designers, advanced technicians, and other HVAC professionals. The first two guides are also intended to be accessible to the general reader.

ANDREWS,J.

2001-01-01

436

Gas cooled fuel cell systems technology development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first phase of a planned multiphase program to develop a Phosphoric is addressed. This report describes the efforts performed that culminated in the: (1) Establishment of the preliminary design requirements and system conceptual design for the nominally rated 375 kW PAFC module and is interfacing power plant systems; (2) Establishment of PAFC component and stack performance, endurance, and design parameter data needed for design verification for power plant application; (3) Improvement of the existing PAFC materials data base and establishment of materials specifications and process procedes for the cell components; and (4) Testing of 122 subscale cell atmospheric test for 110,000 cumulative test hours, 12 subscale cell pressurized tests for 15,000 cumulative test hours, and 12 pressurized stack test for 10,000 cumulative test hours.

Feret, J. M.

1983-01-01

437

Gas cooled fuel cell systems technology development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first phase of a planned multiphase program to develop a Phosphoric is addressed. This report describes the efforts performed that culminated in the: (1) Establishment of the preliminary design requirements and system conceptual design for the nominally rated 375 kW PAFC module and is interfacing power plant systems; (2) Establishment of PAFC component and stack performance, endurance, and design parameter data needed for design verification for power plant application; (3) Improvement of the existing PAFC materials data base and establishment of materials specifications and process procedes for the cell components; and (4) Testing of 122 subscale cell atmospheric test for 110,000 cumulative test hours, 12 subscale cell pressurized tests for 15,000 cumulative test hours, and 12 pressurized stack test for 10,000 cumulative test hours.

Feret, J. M.

1983-08-01

438

Air conditioner for automotive vehicles capable of cooling intake air supplied to an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air conditioner is described for use in an automotive vehicle having an internal combustion engine with an intake air system, an intake port and an intake passage, means is arranged in the intake system for compressing intake air, and a passenger compartment, comprising a refrigerant cycle means where a refrigerant is circulated. The refrigerant cycle means comprises: a compressor

Sugiura

1987-01-01

439

Unsteady, Cooled Turbine Simulation Using a PC-Linux Analysis System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fist stage of the high-pressure turbine (HPT) of the GE90 engine was simulated with a three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Sokes solver, MSU Turbo, which uses source terms to simulate the cooling flows. In addition to the solver, its pre-processor, GUMBO, and a post-processing and visualization tool, Turbomachinery Visual3 (TV3) were run in a Linux environment to carry out the simulation and analysis. The solver was run both with and without cooling. The introduction of cooling flow on the blade surfaces, case, and hub and its effects on both rotor-vane interaction as well the effects on the blades themselves were the principle motivations for this study. The studies of the cooling flow show the large amount of unsteadiness in the turbine and the corresponding hot streak migration phenomenon. This research on the GE90 turbomachinery has also led to a procedure for running unsteady, cooled turbine analysis on commodity PC's running the Linux operating system.

List, Michael G.; Turner, Mark G.; Chen, Jen-Pimg; Remotigue, Michael G.; Veres, Joseph P.

2004-01-01

440

Recent Progress of Liquid Nitrogen Cooling System (LINCS) for Yokohama HTS Cable Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adopting a high temperature superconducting cable system into the power grid has been studied and demonstrated around the globe because of its inherent high potential for such high transmission capacity, low electrical loss, environment friendly operation and so on. Taking their benefits for the innovative power transmission system into consideration, a new Japanese HTS cable project has begun since 2007, which is supported by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) and is verifying practical use of the system in the real grid. For investigating this study, a practical use of the HTS cablesystem composed of cable, joint and termination, operating stability and long term reliability of its liquid nitrogen cooling system is one of the essential engineering to be studied and confirmed for the next real in grid system in this project. In this paper, project outline, fundamental characteristics of the cable system, conceptual design of the cooling system for the demonstration project are introduced. And some test results of them, including a cooling system pre-test in Mayekawa factory prior to final operation in Yokohama test site are presented. This pre-test was conducted with the aim of confirming their required basic performance, liquid nitrogen control characteristics and so on. Finally the current status of Yokohama testing site will be also described in this paper.

Watanabe, M.; Yumura, H.; Hirota, H.; Masuda, T.; Shimoda, M.; Ohno, R.; Ikeuchi, M.; Yaguchi, H.; H. Ichikawa; Mimura, T.; Honjo, S.; Hara, T.

441

Keep it Cool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how engineers have met the challenge of keeping foods, liquids, and other items cool. Learners learn about heat transfer, vacuums, and insulation and design a system to keep a cup of chilled water as cool as possible for one hour. Learners compare their results with that of other learners and reflect on the lesson.

Ieee

2014-05-22

442

Engine health monitoring: An advanced system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced propulsion monitoring system is described. The system was developed in order to fulfill a growing need for effective engine health monitoring. This need is generated by military requirements for increased performance and efficiency in more complex propulsion systems, while maintaining or improving the cost to operate. This program represents a vital technological step in the advancement of the state of the art for monitoring systems in terms of reliability, flexibility, accuracy, and provision of user oriented results. It draws heavily on the technology and control theory developed for modern, complex, electronically controlled engines and utilizes engine information which is a by-product of such a system.

Dyson, R. J. E.

1981-01-01

443

Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Design of Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second of two training courses designed to develop the capability of practitioners in the home building industry to design solar heating and cooling systems. The course is organized in 23 modules to separate selected topics and to facilitate learning. Although a compact schedule of one week is shown, a variety of formats can be

Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

444

Erosion corrosion of pump impeller of cyclic cooling water system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An impeller of a pump of cyclic cooling water system (CCWS) of power plant, failed after about 13years of service. Tolyltriazole (TT) is included in the water as corrosion inhibitor. Most of the surface of both blades was pitted, and clear grinding marks were noticeable. The pits are horseshoe-shaped. Examination of those pits revealed a pattern of dendrites on the

S. Ariely; A. Khentov

2006-01-01

445

Solar-driven ejector-absorption cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usage possibility of ejector-absorption cooling systems (EACSs) in Turkey using meteorological data has been investigated. This study also determines whether or not the required heat for the generator of an EACS can be obtained from solar energy in Turkey. There are two important reasons for the usage of EACSs in Turkey. One of them is that the production and

Adnan Szen; Mehmet zalp

2005-01-01

446

He-3 cooling systems for space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a space-compatible He(3) refrigerator would provide a significant improvement in several areas of research in the 0.3 to 1 K temperature range. There are several methods of achieving these temperatures on Earth: He(3) refrigeration, dilution refrigeration, and adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration. The progress of adapting He(3) refrigeration for use in space is described. Various cycles and possible embodiments of He(3) refrigerators are described. Also included is an analysis of the liquid confinement and liquid-vapor phase-separation system. A possible configuration is then analyzed. Finally, the results of ground-based experiments will be discussed.

Kittel, P.

1984-01-01

447

Resilience-Driven System Design of Complex Engineered Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most engineered systems are designed with a passive and fixed design capacity and, therefore, may become unreliable in the presence of adverse events. Currently, most engineered systems are designed with system redundancies to ensure required system reliability under adverse events. However, a high level of system redundancy increases a system's life-cycle cost (LCC). Recently, proactive maintenance decisions have been enabled

Pingfeng Wang; Byeng Dong Youn

2011-01-01

448

Improvement of Cooling Performance of a Thermoelectric Air Cooling System Using a Vapor Chamber Heat Sink  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since vapor chambers exhibit excellent thermal performance, they are suited to use as the basis of a heat sink. This work presents the results of tests carried out to investigate the potential application of a vapor chamber heat sink for improving the cooling performance of a thermoelectric (TE) air cooling system. To this end, two sets of TE air coolers were constructed. The cold side of the TE module of both sets was fixed to a conventional plate-fin heat sink. The hot side of one set was fixed to a vapor chamber heat sink, whereas the other set was fixed to a conventional plate-fin heat sink. The effects of air flow rate and electric current supplied to the TE module on the cooling performance were considered. Experimental data were compared with corresponding data for a conventional plate-fin heat sink. It also has been experimentally proven that the use of a vapor chamber heat sink increases the coefficient of performance (COP) by up to 34.2%.

Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Tipsaenprom, W.; Rungsiyopas, M.

2014-06-01

449

Egr control system for diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

An egr control system for a diesel engine, comprises an egr passageway connecting an intake passageway and an exhaust passageway to recirculate engine exhaust gas back to the engine, an egr control valve operatively disposed in the egr passageway to control the flow of the recirculated exhaust gas passing through the egr passageway, a detecting device for detecting at least one of engine speed, engine load and engine coolant temperature to produce at least a signal dependent thereon, and a control device for controlling the operation of the egr control valve in response to the signal from the detecting device, thereby controlling the amount of the recirculated exhaust gas in accordance with engine operating conditions.

Shiobara, M.; Yoshiba, Y.

1983-06-14

450

The tracker systems for the muon ionization cooling experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will be the first experiment to demonstrate muon ionization cooling in the momentum range of 140-240 MeV/c. The experiment is a single-particle experiment where the input and output beam emittances are constructed from an ensemble of selected single-muon candidates. The fiber trackers are placed in a solenoidal field of 4 T (one before and one after the cooling channel) to measure the muon 4-momentum and provide the basic information for determining the emittances. This paper gives a brief overview of MICE and then describes the details of the fiber tracker assemblies, the unique construction technique used (which for the first time used 350?m diameter scintillating fiber), the readout electronics and performance with respect to light yield, hit resolution and tracking efficiency as measured in a recent cosmic-ray test of the two final tracker systems.

Heidt, C.

2013-08-01

451

Cooling Off  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners are introduced to challenges of maintaining temperatures while living in space. Thinking and acting like scientists and engineers, learners experiment to learn how to measure the specific heat capacity (or simply, specific heat) of water and then design an improved cooling system like those used in spacesuits. This lesson is developed using a 5E model of learning. In the ENGAGE section of the lesson, learners look at NASA technology and its relationship to improvements in athletic clothing and equipment. They learn about technology in spacesuit design and the use of this technology in everyday life. Working in teams, students conduct experiments relating to specific heat capacity on a cooling system they design in the EXPLORE and EXPLAIN sections. They are challenged to improve the cooling system in the EXTEND section of this lesson. Learners assess their understanding and abilities throughout the lesson and revisit the Essential Questions during the EVALUATE section.

Nasa

2012-08-06

452

Flow visualization study in high aspect ratio cooling channels for rocket engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structural integrity of high pressure liquid propellant rocket engine thrust chambers is typically maintained through regenerative cooling. The coolant flows through passages formed either by constructing the chamber liner from tubes or by milling channels in a solid liner. Recently, Carlile and Quentmeyer showed life extending advantages (by lowering hot gas wall temperatures) of milling channels with larger height to width aspect ratios (AR is greater than 4) than the traditional, approximately square cross section, passages. Further, the total coolant pressure drop in the thrust chamber could also be reduced, resulting in lower turbomachinery power requirements. High aspect ratio cooling channels could offer many benefits to designers developing new high performance engines, such as the European Vulcain engine (which uses an aspect ratio up to 9). With platelet manufacturing technology, channel aspect ratios up to 15 could be formed offering potentially greater benefits. Some issues still exist with the high aspect ratio coolant channels. In a coolant passage of circular or square cross section, strong secondary vortices develop as the fluid passes through the curved throat region. These vortices mix the fluid and bring lower temperature coolant to the hot wall. Typically, the circulation enhances the heat transfer at the hot gas wall by about 40 percent over a straight channel. The effect that increasing channel aspect ratio has on the curvature heat transfer enhancement has not been sufficiently studied. If the increase in aspect ratio degrades the secondary flow, the fluid mixing will be reduced. Analysis has shown that reduced coolant mixing will result in significantly higher wall temperatures, due to thermal stratification in the coolant, thus decreasing the benefits of the high aspect ratio geometry. A better understanding of the fundamental flow phenomena in high aspect ratio channels with curvature is needed to fully evaluate the benefits of this geometry. The fluid dynamic and conjugate heat transfer problem of high aspect ratio rocket engine coolant channels are being investigated numerically, but these efforts have been hampered by a lack of validating data. Wall temperature data is available for the conjugate problem for channels without curvature and aspect ratio = 5.0, and unheated fluid dynamic data are available for square and circular cross section channels with curvature at Reynold's numbers up to 40,000. But the effects of aspect ratio on secondary flow development have not been experimentally studied. To provide some insight into the effects of channel aspect ratio on secondary flow and to qualitatively provide anchoring for the numerical codes, a flow visualization experiment was initiated at the NASA Lewis Research Center.

Meyer, Michael L.; Giuliani, James E.

1993-01-01

453

Hydraulic tests of emergency cooling system: L-Area  

SciTech Connect

The delay in L-Area startup provided an opportunity to obtain valuable data on the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) which will permit reactor operation at the highest safe power level. ECS flow is a major input to the FLOOD code which calculates reactor ECS power limits. The FLOOD code assesses the effectiveness of the ECS cooling capacity by modeling the core and plenum hydraulics under accident conditions. Presently, reactor power is not limited by the ECS cooling capacity (power limit). However, the manual calculations of ECS flows had been recently updated to include piping changes (debris strainer, valve changes, pressure release systems) and update fitting losses. Both updates resulted in reduced calculated ECS flows. Upon completion of the current program to update, validate, and document, reactor power may be limited under certain situations by ECS cooling capacity for some present reactor charge designs. A series of special hydraulic tests (Reference 1, 3) were conducted in L-Area using all sources of emergency coolant including the ECS pumps (Reference 2). The tests provided empirical hydraulic data on the ECS piping. These data will be used in computer models of the system as well as manual calculations of ECS flows. The improved modeling and accuracy of the flow calculations will permit reactor operation at the highest safe power level with respect to an ECS power limit.

Hinton, J H

1988-01-01

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Performance evaluation of an active solar cooling system utilizing low cost plastic collectors and an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the summer of 1982, air conditioning in Solar House 3 at Colorado State University was provided by an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. The single-effect lithium bromide chiller is an experimental three-ton unit from which heat is rejected by direct evaporative cooling of the condenser and absorber walls, thereby eliminating the need for a separate cooling tower. Domestic hot water was also provided by use of a double-walled heat exchanger and 80-gal hot water tank. A schematic of the system is given. Objectives of the project were: (1) evaluation of system performance over the course of one cooling season in Fort Collins, Colorado; (2) optimization of system operation and control; (3) development of a TRNSYS compatible model of the chiller; and (4) determination of cooling system performance in several U.S. climates by use of the model.