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Sample records for engineering evaluation cost

  1. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for Decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex

    SciTech Connect

    A. B. Culp

    2006-10-01

    Preparation of this Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis is consistent with the joint U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, which establishes the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act non-time-critical removal action (NTCRA) process as an approach for decommissioning.

  2. Engine costs for reusability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schindler, Carla M.; Lansaw, John

    1990-01-01

    The advanced Launch System (ALS) program goals demand an order-of-magnitude reduction in costs over existing launch vehicle propulsion systems. Studies suggest that reusable engines provide cost advantages over expendable propulsion systems. Early studies are quantifying operations costs, and cost sensitivities to engine production and operations variables. ALS production and operations philosophies enhance the potential of an affordable, operationally flexible launch vehicle propulsion system. The assumptions made and criteria set during the initial planning for the operations phase of the ALS highlight the changes for implementing such a system.

  3. Applying Costs, Risks and Values Evaluation (CRAVE) methodology to Engineering Support Request (ESR) prioritization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joglekar, Prafulla N.

    1994-01-01

    Given limited budget, the problem of prioritization among Engineering Support Requests (ESR's) with varied sizes, shapes, and colors is a difficult one. At the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), the recently developed 4-Matrix (4-M) method represents a step in the right direction as it attempts to combine the traditional criteria of technical merits only with the new concern for cost-effectiveness. However, the 4-M method was not adequately successful in the actual prioritization of ESRs for the fiscal year 1995 (FY95). This research identifies a number of design issues that should help us to develop better methods. It emphasizes that given the variety and diversity of ESR's one should not expect that a single method could help in the assessment of all ESR's. One conclusion is that a methodology such as Costs, Risks, and Values Evaluation (CRAVE) should be adopted. It also is clear that the development of methods such as 4-M requires input not only from engineers with technical expertise in ESR's but also from personnel with adequate background in the theory and practice of cost-effectiveness analysis. At KSC, ESR prioritization is one part of the Ground Support Working Teams (GSWT) Integration Process. It was discovered that the more important barriers to the incorporation of cost-effectiveness considerations in ESR prioritization lie in this process. The culture of integration, and the corresponding structure of review by a committee of peers, is not conducive to the analysis and confrontation necessary in the assessment and prioritization of ESR's. Without assistance from appropriately trained analysts charged with the responsibility to analyze and be confrontational about each ESR, the GSWT steering committee will continue to make its decisions based on incomplete understanding, inconsistent numbers, and at times, colored facts. The current organizational separation of the prioritization and the funding processes is also identified as an important barrier to the

  4. Process cost modeling: Strategic engineering and economic evaluation of materials technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Frank; Kirchain, Randolph; Roth, Richard

    2007-10-01

    Production cost is a vital performance metric for engineering and management analysis. Despite its obvious relevance throughout the product development cycle, cost analysis has not been a focus of the design engineer. In part, this is because of some key misunderstandings of what cost is-engineers have not been trained in the techniques that tie manufacturing cost to the technical and design parameters with which they are more comfortable and familiar. While there have been many calls for a closer relationship between engineering and economic analysis, these key conceptual obstacles, in conjunction with the limits of the computational tools available, have limited the integration of cost analysis into product and process development. This paper summarizes the conceptual limitations that need to be overcome and presents a basis for revising the notion of process cost analysis. Moreover, it presents a series of cost analysis cases that demonstrate the way in which the notion of “context” lies at the heart of effective use of engineering cost estimates.

  5. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for Power Burst Facility (PER-620) Final End State and PBF Vessel Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    B. C. Culp

    2007-05-01

    Preparation of this engineering evaluation/cost analysis is consistent with the joint U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, (DOE and EPA 1995) which establishes the Comprehensive Environmental, Response, Compensation, and Liability Act non-time critical removal action process as an approach for decommissioning. The scope of this engineering evaluation/cost analysis is to evaluate alternatives and recommend a preferred alternative for the final end state of the PBF and the final disposal location for the PBF vessel.

  6. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The deactivated 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility (233-S Facility) is located in the 200 Area. The facility has undergone severe degradation due to exposure to extreme weather conditions. A rapid freeze and thaw cycle occurred at the Hanford Site during February 1996, which caused cracking to occur on portions of the building`s roof. This has resulted in significantly infiltration of water into the facility, which provides a pathway for potential release of radioactive material into the environment (air and/or ground). The weather caused several existing cracks in the concrete portions of the structure to lengthen, increasing the potential for failed confinement of the radioactive material in the building. Differential settlement has also occurred, causing portions of the facility to separate from the main building structure thus creating a potential for release of radioactive material t the environment. An expedited removal action is proposed to ensure that a release from the 233-S Facility does not occur. The US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), in cooperation with the EPA, has prepared this Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA) pursuant to CERCLA. Based on the evaluation, RL has determined that hazardous substances in the 233-S Facility may present a potential threat to human health and/or the environment, and that an expedited removal action is warranted. The purpose of the EE/CA is to provide the framework for the evaluation and selection of a technology from a viable set of alternatives for a removal action.

  7. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix E: Cost estimation and economic evaluation methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The cost estimation and economic evaluation methodologies presented are consistent with industry practice for assessing capital investment requirements and operating costs of coal conversion systems. All values stated are based on January, 1980 dollars with appropriate recognition of the time value of money. Evaluation of project economic feasibility can be considered a two step process (subject to considerable refinement). First, the costs of the project must be quantified and second, the price at which the product can be manufacturd must be determined. These two major categories are discussed. The summary of methodology is divided into five parts: (1) systems costs, (2)instant plant costs, (3) annual operating costs, (4) escalation and discounting process, and (5) product pricing.

  8. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA) for Decommissioning of TAN-607 Hot Shop Area

    SciTech Connect

    J. P. Floerke

    2007-02-05

    will be protective of human health and the environment. Decommissioning the TAN-607 Hot Shop Area is consistent with the joint DOE and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, which establishes the CERCLA NTCRA process as the preferred approach for decommissioning surplus DOE facilities. Under this policy, a NTCRA may be taken when DOE determines that the action will prevent, minimize, stabilize, or eliminate a risk to human health and/or the environment. When DOE determines that a CERCLA NTCRA is necessary, DOE is authorized to evaluate, select, and implement the removal action that DOE determines is most appropriate to address the potential risk posed by the release or threat of release. This action is taken in accordance with applicable authorities and in conjunction with EPA and the State of Idaho pursuant to Section 5.3 of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. In keeping with the joint policy, this engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) was developed in accordance with CERCLA as amended by the ''Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986'' and in accordance with the ''National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan.'' This EE/CA is consistent with the remedial action objectives (RAOs) of the Final Record of Decision, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-10 and supports the overall remediation goals established through the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order for Waste Area Group 1. Waste Area Group 1 is located at TAN.

  9. A simple, physically-based method for evaluating the economic costs of geo-engineering schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, T. J.

    2009-04-01

    The consumption of primary energy (e.g coal, oil, uranium) by the global economy is done in expectation of a return on investment. For geo-engineering schemes, however, the relationship between the primary energy consumption required and the economic return is, at first glance, quite different. The energy costs of a given scheme represent a removal of economically productive available energy to do work in the normal global economy. What are the economic implications of the energy consumption associated with geo-engineering techniques? I will present a simple thermodynamic argument that, in general, real (inflation-adjusted) economic value has a fixed relationship to the rate of global primary energy consumption. This hypothesis will be shown to be supported by 36 years of available energy statistics and a two millennia period of statistics for global economic production. What is found from this analysis is that the value in any given inflation-adjusted 1990 dollar is sustained by a constant 9.7 +/- 0.3 milliwatts of global primary energy consumption. Thus, insofar as geo-engineering is concerned, any scheme that requires some nominal fraction of continuous global primary energy output necessitates a corresponding inflationary loss of real global economic value. For example, if 1% of global energy output is required, at today's consumption rates of 15 TW this corresponds to an inflationary loss of 15 trillion 1990 dollars of real value. The loss will be less, however, if the geo-engineering scheme also enables a demonstrable enhancement to global economic production capacity through climate modification.

  10. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Final engineering evaluation/cost analysis: Petroleum, oil, and lubricants area, Galena Airport, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-05

    This decision document presents the selected removal action for the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) site ST005, otherwise known as the POL Tank Farm, at Galena Airport, Alaska. This decision is based on the administrative record for this site, specifically the draft Remedial Investigation Report (March 1995) and the Treatability Study Report (January 1995) (PB95-225314). The information from these documents is summarized, along with an analysis of potential removal action alternatives in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA).

  11. Basewide engineering evaluation-cost analysis for soil vapor extraction. Site specific document IC-1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This document supports the use of soil vapor extraction (SVE) as the non-time-critical removal for selected areas with high levels of volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination in Investigation Cluster 1 (IC 1), which is located near the center of Operable Unit B (OU B). This SVE removal action is part of the initial basewide SVE removal action at McClellan Air Force Base (McAFB). The principal objective of basewide SVE removal actions is to achieve early risk reduction by removing a significant quantity of VOCs from soils in the vadose zone, intercepting an exposure pathway, or preventing additional flow to groundwater. This document is a comparison to the Basewide Engineering Evaluation-Cost Analysis (EE/CA) General Evaluation Document. The General Evaluation Document provides the long-term plan to standardize and streamline the use of SVE removal actions at McAFB by establishing SVE as the presumptive remedy for McAFB; outlining a site selection methodology for SVE removal actions, and providing a general SVE system configuration and cost estimate.

  12. Excel for Cost Engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butts, Glenn C.

    2007-01-01

    Excel is a powerful tool with a plethora of largely unused capabilities that can make the life of an engineer cognizant of them a great deal easier. This paper offers tips, tricks and techniques for better worksheets. Including the use of data validation, conditional formatting, subtotals, text formulas, custom functions and much more. It is assumed that the reader will have a cursory understanding of Excel so the basics will not be covered, if you get hung up try Excel's built in help menus, or a good book.

  13. Engineering evaluation cost analysis for the 100-B/C area ancillary facilities at the 108-F Building

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    In 1995, the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) conducted a removal site evaluation of selected facilities in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site in accordance with CERCLA and 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 300.410. The scope of the evaluation included the aboveground portions of the 108-F Biology Laboratory in the 100-F Area and all inactive ancillary buildings and structures in the 100-B/C Area, excluding the reactor building and the river outfall. Based on the evaluation, RL determined that hazardous substances in the 108-F Biology Laboratory and five of the 100-B/C Area facilities may present a potential threat to human health or the environment, and that a non-time critical removal action at these facilities is warranted. This determination was documented in an engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) approval memorandum. The EE/CA approval memorandum is the basis on which to proceed with the performance of an EE/CA to determine the appropriate removal action. This report presents the results of the EE/CA for removal alternatives for final disposition of these six facilities. The EE/CA was conducted pursuant to the requirements of CERCLA and 40 CFR 300.415 and is intended to aid RL and the EPA in selecting a preferred removal action.

  14. Evaluation of low-cost aluminum composites for aircraft engine structural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdanels, D. L.; Signorelli, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Panels of discontinuous SiC composites, with several aluminum matrices, were fabricated and evaluated. Modulus, yield strength and tensile strength results indicated that the properties of composites containing SiC whisker, nodule or particulate reinforcements were similar. The modulus of the composites was controlled by the volume percentage of the SiC reinforcement content, while the strength and ductility were controlled by both the reinforcement content and the matrix alloy. The feasibility of fabricating structural shapes by both wire performs and direct casting was demonstrated for Al2O3/Al composites. The feasibility of fabricating high performance composites into structural shapes by low pressure hot molding was demonstrated for B4C-coated B/Al composites.

  15. The JPL Cost Risk Analysis Approach that Incorporates Engineering Realism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Corey C.; Warfield, Keith R.; Rosenberg, Leigh S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the JPL Cost Engineering Group (CEG) cost risk analysis approach that accounts for all three types of cost risk. It will also describe the evaluation of historical cost data upon which this method is based. This investigation is essential in developing a method that is rooted in engineering realism and produces credible, dependable results to aid decision makers.

  16. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed removal of contaminated materials at the Elza Gate site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) has been prepared in support of the proposed removal action for cleanup of radioactive and chemically contaminated soil at the Elza Gate site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This property became contaminated as a result of storage of ore residues, equipment, and other materials for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The US Department of Energy is responsible for cleanup of portions of the site under its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. In December 1990 an area known as Pad 1 was abrasively scoured to remove surface contamination, and in March 1991 removal of Pad 1 contamination was begun under a separate EE/CA. This EE/CA is intended to cover the remaining portions of the site for which the Department of Energy has responsibility. It has been determined that an EE/CA report is appropriate documentation for the proposed removal action. This EE/CA covers removal of contaminated soils and contaminated concrete rubble from the Elza Gate site. The primary objectives of this EE/CA report are to identify and describe the preferred removal action, and to document the selection of response activities that will mitigate the potential for release of contaminants from the property into the environment and that will minimize the associated threats to human health or welfare and the environment. The preferred alternative is disposition on the Oak Ridge Reservation. 30 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Space Shuttle main engine. NASA has not evaluated the alternate fuel turbopump costs and benefits. Report to the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-10-01

    NASA's plans to develop an alternate high pressure fuel turbopump for the Space Shuttle's main engines were assessed by the General Accounting Office as a part of the evaluation of the Space Shuttle Safety and Obsolescence Upgrade program. The objective was to determine whether NASA has adequately analyzed cost, performance, and benefits that are expected to result from this program in comparison to other alternatives before resuming development of the alternate pump, which was suspended in 1992. The alternate fuel pump is one of five improvements being developed or planned to significantly enhance safety margins of the engines.

  18. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf, AFB, Alaska. Final engineering evaluation/cost analysis, million gallon hill source area of the West Unit, Galena Airport, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-05

    This decision document presents the selected removal action for the Million Gallon Hill source area of the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) site ST009, otherwise known as the West Unit at Galena Airport, Alaska. The information from the RI Report is summarized, along with an analysis of potential removal action alternatives in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA).

  19. Incremental Scheduling Engines: Cost Savings through Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and ob.jectives are met and resources are not over-booked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper, presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks and those of their companion robots.

  20. SMALL SI ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES AND COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s proposed rulemaking is intended to address the emissions of air pollutants from nonroad spark-ignition engines. This report describes the anticipated emission-control technologies and estimates the costs of upgrading engines to apply these technologies.

  1. Cost estimating Brayton and Stirling engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortgang, H. R.

    1980-01-01

    Brayton and Stirling engines were analyzed for cost and selling price for production quantities ranging from 1000 to 400,000 units per year. Parts and components were subjected to indepth scrutiny to determine optimum manufacturing processes coupled with make or buy decisions on materials and small parts. Tooling and capital equipment costs were estimated for each detail and/or assembly. For low annual production volumes, the Brayton engine appears to have a lower cost and selling price than the Stirling Engine. As annual production quantities increase, the Stirling becomes a lower cost engine than the Brayton. Both engines could benefit cost wise if changes were made in materials, design and manufacturing process as annual production quantities increase.

  2. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Final engineering evaluation/cost analysis potential tce impact to the drinking water supply, Galena Airport, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-05

    This decision document presents the selected removal action to address potential trichloroethene (TCE) impact to drinking water supply wells, located in the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) site ST009, otherwise known as the West Unit, at Galena Airport, Alaska. The information fron the RI Report is summarized, along with an analysis of potential removal action alternatives, in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA).

  3. Experience with low cost jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummings, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    A summary is given of the results of a NASA program for reducing the cost of turbojet and turbofan engines. The design, construction, and testing of a simple turbojet, designed for use in missiles, is described. Low cost axial stage fabrication, the design of a fan jet engine suitable for propulsion of light aircraft, and application of such engines to provide higher flight speeds, are discussed.

  4. Design concepts for low-cost composite turbofan engine frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, S. C.; Stoffer, L. J.

    1980-01-01

    Design concepts for low cost, lightweight composite engine frames were applied to the design requirements for the frame of a commercial, high bypass engine. Four alternative composite frame design concepts identified which consisted of generic type components and subcomponents that could be adapted to use in different locations in the engine and the different engine sizes. A variety of materials and manufacturing methods were projected with a goal for the lowest number of parts at the lowest possible cost. After a preliminary evaluation of all four frame concepts, two designs were selected for an extended design and evaluation which narrowed the final selection down to one frame that was significantly lower in cost and slighty lighter than the other frame. An implementation plan for this lowest cost frame is projected for future development and includes prospects for reducing its weight with proposed unproven, innovative fabrication techniques.

  5. On the Cost of Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Guy

    This study examines how the cost of engineering education changes with the size and characteristics of programs, and tries to establish whether there is some minimum scale at which point engineering education becomes financially viable, and considers the manner in which financial viability is affected by program characteristics. Chapter I presents…

  6. Cost Risk Analysis Based on Perception of the Engineering Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Edwin B.; Wood, Darrell A.; Moore, Arlene A.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1986-01-01

    In most cost estimating applications at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), it is desirable to present predicted cost as a range of possible costs rather than a single predicted cost. A cost risk analysis generates a range of cost for a project and assigns a probability level to each cost value in the range. Constructing a cost risk curve requires a good estimate of the expected cost of a project. It must also include a good estimate of expected variance of the cost. Many cost risk analyses are based upon an expert's knowledge of the cost of similar projects in the past. In a common scenario, a manager or engineer, asked to estimate the cost of a project in his area of expertise, will gather historical cost data from a similar completed project. The cost of the completed project is adjusted using the perceived technical and economic differences between the two projects. This allows errors from at least three sources. The historical cost data may be in error by some unknown amount. The managers' evaluation of the new project and its similarity to the old project may be in error. The factors used to adjust the cost of the old project may not correctly reflect the differences. Some risk analyses are based on untested hypotheses about the form of the statistical distribution that underlies the distribution of possible cost. The usual problem is not just to come up with an estimate of the cost of a project, but to predict the range of values into which the cost may fall and with what level of confidence the prediction is made. Risk analysis techniques that assume the shape of the underlying cost distribution and derive the risk curve from a single estimate plus and minus some amount usually fail to take into account the actual magnitude of the uncertainty in cost due to technical factors in the project itself. This paper addresses a cost risk method that is based on parametric estimates of the technical factors involved in the project being costed. The engineering

  7. Design concepts for low cost composite engine frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    Design concepts for low-cost, lightweight composite engine frames were applied to the design requirements for the frame of commercial, high-bypass turbine engines. The concepts consist of generic-type components and subcomponents that could be adapted for use in different locations in the engine and to different engine sizes. A variety of materials and manufacturing methods were assessed with a goal of having the lowest number of parts possible at the lowest possible cost. The evaluation of the design concepts resulted in the identification of a hybrid composite frame which would weigh about 70 percent of the state-of-the-art metal frame and cost would be about 60 percent.

  8. Design concepts for low-cost composite engine frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    Design concepts for low-cost, lightweight composite engine frames were applied to the design requirements for the frame of commercial, high-bypass turbine engines. The concepts consist of generic-type components and subcomponents that could be adapted for use in different locations in the engine and to different engine sizes. A variety of materials and manufacturing methods were assessed with a goal of having the lowest number of parts possible at the lowest possible cost. The evaluation of the design concepts resulted in the identification of a hybrid composite frame which would weigh about 70 percent of the state-of-the-art metal frame and cost would be about 60 percent.

  9. Software Estimates Costs of Testing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Simulation-Based Cost Model (SiCM) is a computer program that simulates pertinent aspects of the testing of rocket engines for the purpose of estimating the costs of such testing during time intervals specified by its users. A user enters input data for control of simulations; information on the nature of, and activity in, a given testing project; and information on resources. Simulation objects are created on the basis of this input. Costs of the engineering-design, construction, and testing phases of a given project are estimated from numbers and labor rates of engineers and technicians employed in each phase, the duration of each phase; costs of materials used in each phase; and, for the testing phase, the rate of maintenance of the testing facility. The three main outputs of SiCM are (1) a curve, updated at each iteration of the simulation, that shows overall expenditures vs. time during the interval specified by the user; (2) a histogram of the total costs from all iterations of the simulation; and (3) table displaying means and variances of cumulative costs for each phase from all iterations. Other outputs include spending curves for each phase.

  10. Software Estimates Costs of Testing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. L.

    2003-01-01

    Simulation-Based Cost Model (SiCM), a discrete event simulation developed in Extend , simulates pertinent aspects of the testing of rocket propulsion test articles for the purpose of estimating the costs of such testing during time intervals specified by its users. A user enters input data for control of simulations; information on the nature of, and activity in, a given testing project; and information on resources. Simulation objects are created on the basis of this input. Costs of the engineering-design, construction, and testing phases of a given project are estimated from numbers and labor rates of engineers and technicians employed in each phase, the duration of each phase; costs of materials used in each phase; and, for the testing phase, the rate of maintenance of the testing facility. The three main outputs of SiCM are (1) a curve, updated at each iteration of the simulation, that shows overall expenditures vs. time during the interval specified by the user; (2) a histogram of the total costs from all iterations of the simulation; and (3) table displaying means and variances of cumulative costs for each phase from all iterations. Other outputs include spending curves for each phase.

  11. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed removal action at the Southeast Drainage near the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) has been prepared to support the proposed removal of contaminated sediment from selected portions of the Southeast Drainage as part of cleanup activities being conducted at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The cleanup activities are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The Weldon Spring site is located near the town of Weldon Spring, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. It consists of two noncontiguous areas: the chemical plant area and a limestone quarry about 6.4 km (4 mi) south-southwest of the chemical plant area. The Southeast Drainage is a natural 2.4-km (1.5-mi) channel that carries surface runoff to the Missouri River from the southern portion of the chemical plant area and a small portion of the ordnance works area (part of the Weldon Spring Training Area) south of the groundwater divide. The drainage became contaminated as a result of past activities of the U.S. Army and the DOE (and its predecessors).

  12. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of 15 nonprocess buildings (15 series) at the Weldon Spring Site Chemical Plant, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonell, M M; Peterson, J M

    1989-05-01

    The US Department of Energy, under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon-Spring site, located near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) a raffinate pits and chemical plant area and (2) a quarry. This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support a proposed removal action to manage 15 nonprocess buildings, identified as the 15 Series buildings, at the chemical plant on the Weldon Spring site. These buildings have been nonoperational for more than 20 years, and the deterioration that has occurred during this time has resulted in a potential threat to site workers, the general public, and the environment. The EE/CA documentation of this proposed action is consistent with guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that addresses removal actions at sites subject to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Actions at the Weldon Spring site are subject to CERCLA requirements because the site is on the EPA`s National Priorities List. The objectives of this report are to (1) identify alternatives for management of the nonprocess buildings; (2) document the selection of response activities that will mitigate the potential threat to workers, the public, and the environment associated with these buildings; and (3) address environmental impacts associated with the proposed action.

  13. Engineering plastics can cut fuel system cost

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, K.W.

    1983-03-01

    Examines the use of small nylon, acetal, and polyester resin parts in carbureted and continuous (throttle body) fuel injection (CFI) systems as well as port fuel injected (PFI) systems. Points out that conversions of larger castings offer car manufacturers more substantial cost savings. Reveals that heat-stabilized glass- and mineral-reinforced nylons can replace sand-cast and die-cast aluminium in injection systems. Concludes that 40% of the cost of a fuel system may be saved via maximum use of the capabilities of engineering plastic materials.

  14. Process-based Cost Estimation for Ramjet/Scramjet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Brijendra; Torres, Felix; Nesman, Miles; Reynolds, John

    2003-01-01

    Process-based cost estimation plays a key role in effecting cultural change that integrates distributed science, technology and engineering teams to rapidly create innovative and affordable products. Working together, NASA Glenn Research Center and Boeing Canoga Park have developed a methodology of process-based cost estimation bridging the methodologies of high-level parametric models and detailed bottoms-up estimation. The NASA GRC/Boeing CP process-based cost model provides a probabilistic structure of layered cost drivers. High-level inputs characterize mission requirements, system performance, and relevant economic factors. Design alternatives are extracted from a standard, product-specific work breakdown structure to pre-load lower-level cost driver inputs and generate the cost-risk analysis. As product design progresses and matures the lower level more detailed cost drivers can be re-accessed and the projected variation of input values narrowed, thereby generating a progressively more accurate estimate of cost-risk. Incorporated into the process-based cost model are techniques for decision analysis, specifically, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and functional utility analysis. Design alternatives may then be evaluated not just on cost-risk, but also user defined performance and schedule criteria. This implementation of full-trade study support contributes significantly to the realization of the integrated development environment. The process-based cost estimation model generates development and manufacturing cost estimates. The development team plans to expand the manufacturing process base from approximately 80 manufacturing processes to over 250 processes. Operation and support cost modeling is also envisioned. Process-based estimation considers the materials, resources, and processes in establishing cost-risk and rather depending on weight as an input, actually estimates weight along with cost and schedule.

  15. Small, low cost, expendable turbojet engine. 2: Performance characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dengler, R. P.; Macioce, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    A small experimental axial-flow turbojet engine was tested at sea level static conditions and over a range of simulated flight conditions to evaluate its performance as well as to demonstrate the feasibility of low-cost concepts utilized in its design. Testing was conducted at engine speeds as high as 37,000 rpm and at turbine inlet temperatures as high as 1,272 K. For maximum speed the engine produced a net thrust of 3,118 newtons at sea level static operation and 2,318 newtons at its cruise condition of M0 = 0.8 and 6,096 meters. Data obtained over a range of inlet Reynolds number indexes for nominal M0 of 0.38 revealed similar effects or trends on compressor characteristics of those previously established for much larger engines.

  16. Central heat engine cost and availability study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    This report documents the performance and cost of commercially available heat engines for use at solar power plants. The scope of inquiry spans power ratings of 500 kW to 50 MW and peak cycle temperatures of 750 /sup 0/F to 1200 /sup 0/F. Data were collected by surveying manufacturers of steam turbines, organic Rankine (ORC) systems, and ancillary equipment (steam condensers, cooling towers, pumps, etc.). Methods were developed for estimating design-point and off-design efficiencies of steam Rankine cycle (SRC) and ORC systems. In the size-temperature range of interest, SRC systems were found to be the only heat engines requiring no additional development effort, and SRC capital and operating cost estimates were developed. Commercially available steam turbines limit peak cycle temperatures to about 1000 /sup 0/F in this size range, which in turn limits efficiency. Other systems were identified that could be prototyped using existing turbomachines. These systems include ORC, advanced SRC, and various configurations employing Brayton cycle equipment, i.e., gas turbines. The latter are limited to peak cycle temperatures of 1500 /sup 0/F in solar applications, based on existing heat-exchanger technology. The advanced systems were found to offer performance advantages over SRC in specific cases. 7 refs., 30 figs., 20 tabs.

  17. Estimating archiving costs for engineering records

    SciTech Connect

    Stutz, R.A.; Lamartine, B.C.

    1997-02-01

    Information technology has completely changed the concept of record keeping for engineering projects -- the advent of digital records was a momentous discovery, as significant as the invention of the printing press. Digital records allowed huge amounts of information to be stored in a very small space and to be examined quickly. However, digital documents are much more vulnerable to the passage of time than printed documents because the media on which they are stored are easily affected by physical phenomena, such as magnetic fields, oxidation, material decay, and by various environmental factors that may erase the information. Even more important, digital information becomes obsolete because, even if future generations may be able to read it, they may not necessarily be able to interpret it. Engineering projects of all sizes are becoming more dependent on digital records. These records are created on computers used in design, estimating, construction management, and construction. The necessity for the accurate and accessible storage of these documents, generated by computer software systems, is increasing for a number of reasons including legal and environment issues. This paper will discuss media life considerations and life cycle costs associated with several methods of storing engineering records.

  18. Cost and price estimate of Brayton and Stirling engines in selected production volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortgang, H. R.; Mayers, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    The methods used to determine the production costs and required selling price of Brayton and Stirling engines modified for use in solar power conversion units are presented. Each engine part, component and assembly was examined and evaluated to determine the costs of its material and the method of manufacture based on specific annual production volumes. Cost estimates are presented for both the Stirling and Brayton engines in annual production volumes of 1,000, 25,000, 100,000 and 400,000. At annual production volumes above 50,000 units, the costs of both engines are similar, although the Stirling engine costs are somewhat lower. It is concluded that modifications to both the Brayton and Stirling engine designs could reduce the estimated costs.

  19. STERNDRIVE AND INBOARD MARINE SI ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES AND COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s proposed rulemaking is intended to address the emissions of air pollutants from nonroad spark-ignition engines. This report describes the anticipated emission-control technologies and estimates the costs of upgrading engines to apply these technologies.

  20. MARINE OUTBOARD AND PERSONAL WATERCRAFT SI ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES AND COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s proposed rulemaking is intended to address the emissions of air pollutants from nonroad spark-ignition engines. This report describes the anticipated emission-control technologies and estimates the costs of upgrading engines to apply these technologies.

  1. Review of aerospace engineering cost modelling: The genetic causal approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, R.; Raghunathan, S.; Price, M.

    2004-11-01

    The primary intention of this paper is to review the current state of the art in engineering cost modelling as applied to aerospace. This is a topic of current interest and in addressing the literature, the presented work also sets out some of the recognised definitions of cost that relate to the engineering domain. The paper does not attempt to address the higher-level financial sector but rather focuses on the costing issues directly relevant to the engineering process, primarily those of design and manufacture. This is of more contemporary interest as there is now a shift towards the analysis of the influence of cost, as defined in more engineering related terms; in an attempt to link into integrated product and process development (IPPD) within a concurrent engineering environment. Consequently, the cost definitions are reviewed in the context of the nature of cost as applicable to the engineering process stages: from bidding through to design, to manufacture, to procurement and ultimately, to operation. The linkage and integration of design and manufacture is addressed in some detail. This leads naturally to the concept of engineers influencing and controlling cost within their own domain rather than trusting this to financers who have little control over the cause of cost. In terms of influence, the engineer creates the potential for cost and in a concurrent environment this requires models that integrate cost into the decision making process.

  2. Engineering flight evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The primary objective was to determine if the two-segment profile equipment, and operational procedures as defined by the B-727 Simulation Evaluation are operationally sound under all flight conditions expected to be encountered in line service. The evaluation was divided into the following areas: (1) to verify that the two-segment system operates as it was designed; (2) to conduct sufficient tests to secure a supplemental type certificate for line operation of the system; (3) to evaluate the normal operation of the equipment and procedures; (4) to evaluate the need for an autothrottle system for two-segment approaches; (5) to investigate abnormal operation of the equipment and procedures, including abused approaches and malfunctions of airborne and ground components; (6) to determine the accuracy and ease of flying the two-segment approach; (7) to determine the improvement in ground noise levels; and (8) to develop a guest pilot flight test syllabus.

  3. Engineering and fabrication cost considerations for cryogenic wind tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boykin, R. M., Jr.; Davenport, J. B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Design and fabrication cost drivers for cryogenic transonic wind tunnel models are defined. The major cost factors for wind tunnel models are model complexity, tolerances, surface finishes, materials, material validation, and model inspection. The cryogenic temperatures require the use of materials with relatively high fracture toughness but at the same time high strength. Some of these materials are very difficult to machine, requiring extensive machine hours which can add significantly to the manufacturing costs. Some additional engineering costs are incurred to certify the materials through mechanical tests and nondestructive evaluation techniques, which are not normally required with conventional models. When instrumentation such as accelerometers and electronically scanned pressure modules is required, temperature control of these devices needs to be incorporated into the design, which requires added effort. Additional thermal analyses and subsystem tests may be necessary, which also adds to the design costs. The largest driver to the design costs is potentially the additional static and dynamic analyses required to insure structural integrity of the model and support system.

  4. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E & P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2006-09-30

    Continuing work in controlled testing uses a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout the gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NO{sub X} emissions. Technologies including one pre-combustion chamber, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing have been evaluated in previous reports. Current work tests non-production, prototype, mid-pressure fuel valves and begins analysis of these tests. This analysis reveals questions which must be answered before coming to any firm conclusions about the use of the180 psig fuel valve. The research team plans to continue with the remaining pre-combustion chamber tests in the coming quarter. By using the Ajax DP-115 these tests are completed in a low-cost and efficient manner. The various technologies can be quickly exchanged with different hardware, and it is inexpensive to run the engine. Progress in moving toward field testing is discussed, and a change in strategy is suggested. Although field engines are available to test, it is suggested that the final field testing be put on hold due to information from outside publications during this last quarter. Instead, KSU would focus on related field-testing and characterization in an outside project that will close an apparent technology gap. The results of this characterization will give a more solid footing to the field testing that will complete this project.

  5. Cost Evaluation of Evidence-Based Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Sindelar, Jody L.; Ball, Samuel A.

    2010-01-01

    Many treatment programs have adopted or are considering adopting evidence-based treatments (EBTs). When a program evaluates whether to adopt a new intervention, it must consider program objectives, operational goals, and costs. This article examines cost concepts, cost estimation, and use of cost information to make the final decision on whether to adopt an EBT. Cost categories, including variable and fixed, accounting and opportunity, and costs borne by patients and others, are defined and illustrated using the example of expenditures for contingency management. Ultimately, cost is one consideration in the overall determination of whether implementing an EBT is the best use of a program’s resources. PMID:22002453

  6. Orbit transfer vehicle engine study. Volume 3: Program costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Budgetary and planning cost estimates are presented that were prepared for the development, production and operation and flight support phases for each of the engines proposed for OTV propulsion. The major features of each category engine are described. The development program estimates were structured to the preliminary program Work Breakdown Structures (WBS). Program costs are provided within the applicable WBS elements to Level 4 for each category engine. The production program cost estimates assume a first production lot of 50 units produced at a rate of two units per month. Cumulative average unit costs assume a 90% learning capability. The operations and flight support cost estimates are based on 15, 30 and 45 missions per year for the period 1988 through 1999. Estimated funding requirements were developed for each category and program phase. All cost estimates and funding data are presented in 1979 dollars. The assumptions and ground rules for these estimates are summarized.

  7. Expanding the role of the cost engineer

    SciTech Connect

    Stutz, R.A.; Shaw, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    There have been many questions about the costs of providing medical services. These questions have resulted in the development of Resource-Based Relative Values Scale (RBRVS) at the national level. Policymakers view RBRVS as a potential tool to pay physicians. The questions, about the cost of operations of HSE-2 at Los Alamos National Laboratory, revolve around doing routine occupation health physicals for the Laboratory. Generally, these questions are concerned about why the costs appear to be high relative to what private physician suggests the costs should be. There is also an interest in trying to find methods to reduce these costs if possible. Many of the tools developed to help in construction estimating can be applied to estimating medical costs. With the need to perform many thousands of physicals each year the saving of even a few dollars for each exam can quickly add up to a large saving. There are a number of different types of physicals and different levels; based on age, sex, type of work, and years since last physical. The LANL Health Services are housed in a 12,600 square foot building close to the population center of the Laboratory Health Services, produced by a staff of seven physicians and approximately 25 support personnel, include acute medical care, routine surveillance exams, and preventive medicine programs. This paper will consider the routine surveillance exams, which constitute the major activity of the medical staff, in terms of time and dollars expended.

  8. Composite hubs for low cost gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1977-01-01

    A detailed stress analysis was performed using NASTRAN to demonstrate theoretically the adequacy of composite hubs for low cost turbine engine applications. Composite hubs are adequate for this application from the steady state stress view point.

  9. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Beshouri; Kirby S. Chapman; Jim McCarthy; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren; Mike Whelan

    2006-03-01

    This quarterly report re-evaluates current market objectives in the exploration and production industry, discusses continuing progress in testing that evaluates emission control technologies applied to a two-stroke cycle natural gas-fueled engine, and presents a scheme for enacting remote monitoring and control of engines during upcoming field tests. The examination of current market objectives takes into account technological developments and changing expectations for environmental permitting which may have occurred over the last year. This demonstrates that the continuing work in controlled testing and toward field testing is on track Market pressures currently affecting the gas exploration and production industry are shown to include a push for increased production, as well as an increasing cost for environmental compliance. This cost includes the direct cost of adding control technologies to field engines as well as the indirect cost of difficulty obtaining permits. Environmental regulations continue to require lower emissions targets, and some groups of engines which had not previously been regulated will be required to obtain permits in the future. While the focus remains on NOx and CO, some permits require reporting of additional emissions chemicals. Continuing work in controlled testing uses a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout the gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NOx emissions. Technologies including one pre-combustion chamber, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing have been evaluated in previous reports. Current work focuses on final preparations for testing

  10. Improving Space Project Cost Estimating with Engineering Management Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaker, Joseph W.; Roth, Axel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Current space project cost models attempt to predict space flight project cost via regression equations, which relate the cost of projects to technical performance metrics (e.g. weight, thrust, power, pointing accuracy, etc.). This paper examines the introduction of engineering management parameters to the set of explanatory variables. A number of specific engineering management variables are considered and exploratory regression analysis is performed to determine if there is statistical evidence for cost effects apart from technical aspects of the projects. It is concluded that there are other non-technical effects at work and that further research is warranted to determine if it can be shown that these cost effects are definitely related to engineering management.

  11. Cost and price estimate of Brayton and Stirling engines in selected production volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Fortgang, H.R.; Mayers, H.F.

    1980-05-31

    This report details the methods used to determine the production costs and required selling price of Brayton and Stirling engines modified for use in solar power conversion units. The Brayton engine, designed by Garrett AiResearch Manufacturing Company, was upgraded to a 20 kW design. The Stirling 30 kW engine was designed by United Stirling of Sweden for non-solar applications. Each engine part, component and assembly was examined and evaluated to determine the costs of its material and the method of manufacture based on specific annual production volumes. Cost estimates are presented for both the Stirling and Brayton engines in annual production volumes of 1000, 25,000, 100,000, and 400,000. At annual production volumes above 50,000 units, the costs of both engines are similar, although the Stirling engine costs are somewhat lower. It was concluded that modifications to both the Brayton and Stirling engine designs could reduce the estimated costs.

  12. The 'negative cost' of value engineering.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Martin Wilkinson, national sales manager at system protection specialist, Spirotech UK, highlights the 'potential negative consequences' of value engineering in heating system specification in the healthcare sector, and argues that system protection products such as de-aerators and dirt separators have considerable value in preventative maintenance, and in helping to extend the useful life of both the system as a whole, and its vital parts. PMID:22764628

  13. Cost Analysis, Evaluation and Feedback. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on cost analysis, evaluation, and feedback in human resource development. "Training Evaluation with 360-Degree Feedback" (Froukje A. Jellema) reports on a quasi-experimental study that examined the effectiveness of 360-degree feedback in evaluating the training received by nurses in a Dutch…

  14. Systems engineering and integration: Cost estimation and benefits analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, ED; Fridge, Ernie; Hamaker, Joe

    1990-01-01

    Space Transportation Avionics hardware and software cost has traditionally been estimated in Phase A and B using cost techniques which predict cost as a function of various cost predictive variables such as weight, lines of code, functions to be performed, quantities of test hardware, quantities of flight hardware, design and development heritage, complexity, etc. The output of such analyses has been life cycle costs, economic benefits and related data. The major objectives of Cost Estimation and Benefits analysis are twofold: (1) to play a role in the evaluation of potential new space transportation avionics technologies, and (2) to benefit from emerging technological innovations. Both aspects of cost estimation and technology are discussed here. The role of cost analysis in the evaluation of potential technologies should be one of offering additional quantitative and qualitative information to aid decision-making. The cost analyses process needs to be fully integrated into the design process in such a way that cost trades, optimizations and sensitivities are understood. Current hardware cost models tend to primarily use weights, functional specifications, quantities, design heritage and complexity as metrics to predict cost. Software models mostly use functionality, volume of code, heritage and complexity as cost descriptive variables. Basic research needs to be initiated to develop metrics more responsive to the trades which are required for future launch vehicle avionics systems. These would include cost estimating capabilities that are sensitive to technological innovations such as improved materials and fabrication processes, computer aided design and manufacturing, self checkout and many others. In addition to basic cost estimating improvements, the process must be sensitive to the fact that no cost estimate can be quoted without also quoting a confidence associated with the estimate. In order to achieve this, better cost risk evaluation techniques are

  15. Reducing the Time and Cost of Testing Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Producing a new aircraft engine currently costs approximately $1 billion, with 3 years of development time for a commercial engine and 10 years for a military engine. The high development time and cost make it extremely difficult to transition advanced technologies for cleaner, quieter, and more efficient new engines. To reduce this time and cost, NASA created a vision for the future where designers would use high-fidelity computer simulations early in the design process in order to resolve critical design issues before building the expensive engine hardware. To accomplish this vision, NASA's Glenn Research Center initiated a collaborative effort with the aerospace industry and academia to develop its Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS), an advanced engineering environment for the analysis and design of aerospace propulsion systems and components. Partners estimate that using NPSS has the potential to dramatically reduce the time, effort, and expense necessary to design and test jet engines by generating sophisticated computer simulations of an aerospace object or system. These simulations will permit an engineer to test various design options without having to conduct costly and time-consuming real-life tests. By accelerating and streamlining the engine system design analysis and test phases, NPSS facilitates bringing the final product to market faster. NASA's NPSS Version (V)1.X effort was a task within the Agency s Computational Aerospace Sciences project of the High Performance Computing and Communication program, which had a mission to accelerate the availability of high-performance computing hardware and software to the U.S. aerospace community for its use in design processes. The technology brings value back to NASA by improving methods of analyzing and testing space transportation components.

  16. The Stirling engine as a low cost tool to educate mechanical engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Gros, J.; Munoz, M.; Moreno, F.; Valero, A.

    1995-12-31

    The University of Zaragoza through CIRCE, the New Enterprise foundation, an Opel foundation and the local Government of Aragon have been developed a program to introduce the Stirling Engine as a low cost tool to educate students in mechanical engineering. The promotion of a prize like GNAT Power organized by the magazine Model Engineer in London, has improved the practical education of students in the field of mechanical devices and thermal engines. Two editions of the contest, 1993 and 1994, awarded the greatest power Stirling engine made by only using a little candle of paraffin as a heat source. Four engines were presented in the first edition, with an average power of about 100 mW, and seven engines in the second one, achieving a power of about 230 mW. Presentations in Technical Schools and the University have been carried out. Also low cost tools have been made for measuring an electronic device to draw the real internal pressure volume diagram using a PC. A very didactic software to design classic kinematic alpha, beta and gamma engines plus Ringbom beta and gamma engines has been created. A book is going to be published (in Spanish) explaining the design of small Stirling engines as a way to start with low cost research in thermal engines, a very difficult target with IC engines.

  17. Structures, performance, benefit, cost study. [gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feder, E.

    1981-01-01

    Aircraft engine structures were studied to identify the advanced structural technologies that would provide the most benefits to future aircraft operations. A series of studies identified engine systems with the greatest potential for improvements. Based on these studies, six advanced generic structural concepts were selected and conceptually designed. The benefits of each concept were quantitatively assessed in terms of thrust specific fuel consumption, weight, cost, maintenance cost, fuel burned and direct operating cost plus interest. The probability of success of each concept was also determined. The concepts were ranked and the three most promising were selected for further study which consisted of identifying and comprehensively outlining the advanced technologies required to develop these concepts for aircraft engine application. Analytic, fabrication, and test technology developments are required. The technology programs outlined emphasize the need to provide basic, fundamental understanding of technology to obtain the benefit goals.

  18. NPR (New Production Reactor) capacity cost evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1988-07-01

    The ORNL Cost Evaluation Technical Support Group (CETSG) has been assigned by DOE-HQ Defense Programs (DP) the task defining, obtaining, and evaluating the capital and life-cycle costs for each of the technology/proponent/site/revenue possibilities envisioned for the New Production Reactor (NPR). The first part of this exercise is largely one of accounting, since all NPR proponents use different accounting methodologies in preparing their costs. In order to address this problem of comparing ''apples and oranges,'' the proponent-provided costs must be partitioned into a framework suitable for all proponents and concepts. If this is done, major cost categories can then be compared between concepts and major cost differences identified. Since the technologies proposed for the NPR and its needed fuel and target support facilities vary considerably in level of technical and operational maturity, considerable care must be taken to evaluate the proponent-derived costs in an equitable manner. The use of cost-risk analysis along with derivation of single point or deterministic estimates allows one to take into account these very real differences in technical and operational maturity. Chapter 2 summarizes the results of this study in tabular and bar graph form. The remaining chapters discuss each generic reactor type as follows: Chapter 3, LWR concepts (SWR and WNP-1); Chapter 4, HWR concepts; Chapter 5, HTGR concept; and Chapter 6, LMR concept. Each of these chapters could be a stand-alone report. 39 refs., 36 figs., 115 tabs.

  19. Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports: Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Cherie; Lierens, Abigail

    2003-01-01

    With the increasing trend of charging for externalities and the aim of encouraging the sustainable development of the air transport industry, there is a need to evaluate the social costs of these undesirable side effects, mainly aircraft noise and engine emissions, for different airports. The aircraft noise and engine emissions social costs are calculated in monetary terms for five different airports, ranging from hub airports to small regional airports. The number of residences within different levels of airport noise contours and the aircraft noise classifications are the main determinants for accessing aircraft noise social costs. Whist, based on the damages of different engine pollutants on the human health, vegetation, materials, aquatic ecosystem and climate, the aircraft engine emissions social costs vary from engine types to aircraft categories. The results indicate that the relationship appears to be curvilinear between environmental costs and the traffic volume of an airport. The results and methodology of environmental cost calculation could input for to the proposed European wide harmonized noise charges as well as the social cost benefit analysis of airports.

  20. Software for Estimating Costs of Testing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Merlon M.

    2003-01-01

    A high-level parametric mathematical model for estimating the costs of testing rocket engines and components at Stennis Space Center has been implemented as a Microsoft Excel program that generates multiple spreadsheets. The model and the program are both denoted, simply, the Cost Estimating Model (CEM). The inputs to the CEM are the parameters that describe particular tests, including test types (component or engine test), numbers and duration of tests, thrust levels, and other parameters. The CEM estimates anticipated total project costs for a specific test. Estimates are broken down into testing categories based on a work-breakdown structure and a cost-element structure. A notable historical assumption incorporated into the CEM is that total labor times depend mainly on thrust levels. As a result of a recent modification of the CEM to increase the accuracy of predicted labor times, the dependence of labor time on thrust level is now embodied in third- and fourth-order polynomials.

  1. Software for Estimating Costs of Testing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Merlon M.

    2004-01-01

    A high-level parametric mathematical model for estimating the costs of testing rocket engines and components at Stennis Space Center has been implemented as a Microsoft Excel program that generates multiple spreadsheets. The model and the program are both denoted, simply, the Cost Estimating Model (CEM). The inputs to the CEM are the parameters that describe particular tests, including test types (component or engine test), numbers and duration of tests, thrust levels, and other parameters. The CEM estimates anticipated total project costs for a specific test. Estimates are broken down into testing categories based on a work-breakdown structure and a cost-element structure. A notable historical assumption incorporated into the CEM is that total labor times depend mainly on thrust levels. As a result of a recent modification of the CEM to increase the accuracy of predicted labor times, the dependence of labor time on thrust level is now embodied in third- and fourth-order polynomials.

  2. Software for Estimating Costs of Testing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Merion M.

    2002-01-01

    A high-level parametric mathematical model for estimating the costs of testing rocket engines and components at Stennis Space Center has been implemented as a Microsoft Excel program that generates multiple spreadsheets. The model and the program are both denoted, simply, the Cost Estimating Model (CEM). The inputs to the CEM are the parameters that describe particular tests, including test types (component or engine test), numbers and duration of tests, thrust levels, and other parameters. The CEM estimates anticipated total project costs for a specific test. Estimates are broken down into testing categories based on a work-breakdown structure and a cost-element structure. A notable historical assumption incorporated into the CEM is that total labor times depend mainly on thrust levels. As a result of a recent modification of the CEM to increase the accuracy of predicted labor times, the dependence of labor time on thrust level is now embodied in third- and fourth-order polynomials.

  3. Evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost Program

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A. James; Hefner, Dennis; Dobson, Allen; Hardy, Ralph

    1983-01-01

    This article summarizes an evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost (MAC)-Estimated Acquisition Cost (EAC) program, the Federal Government's cost-containment program for prescription drugs.1 The MAC-EAC regulations which became effective on August 26, 1976, have four major components: (1) Maximum Allowable Cost reimbursement limits for selected multisource or generically available drugs; (2) Estimated Acquisition Cost reimbursement limits for all drugs; (3) “usual and customary” reimbursement limits for all drugs; and (4) a directive that professional fee studies be performed by each State. The study examines the benefits and costs of the MAC reimbursement limits for 15 dosage forms of five multisource drugs and EAC reimbursement limits for all drugs for five selected States as of 1979. PMID:10309857

  4. Total cost of ownership: the role of clinical engineering.

    PubMed

    Hockel, Dale; Kintner, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Hospitals often incur substantial hidden costs associated with service agreements that they enter into with original equipment manufacturers at the time of equipment purchase. Hospitals should perform an analysis of the total cost of ownership (TCO) of their organizations' medical equipment to identify opportunities for performance improvement and savings. The findings of the TCO analysis can point to areas where clinical engineering service management can be improved through investments in technology, training, and teamwork. PMID:24968636

  5. An Industrial Engineering Approach to Cost Containment of Pharmacy Education.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Wendy; Bottenberg, Michelle; Chase, Marilea; Chesnut, Renae; Clarke, Cheryl; Schott, Kathryn; Torry, Ronald; Welty, Tim

    2015-11-25

    A 2-semester project explored employing teams of fourth-year industrial engineering students to optimize some of our academic management processes. Results included significant cost savings and increases in efficiency, effectiveness, and student and faculty satisfaction. While we did not adopt all of the students' recommendations, we did learn some important lessons. For example, an initial investment of time in developing a mutually clear understanding of the problems, constraints, and goals maximizes the value of industrial engineering analysis and recommendations. Overall, industrial engineering was a valuable tool for optimizing certain academic management processes. PMID:26839421

  6. An Industrial Engineering Approach to Cost Containment of Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Bottenberg, Michelle; Chase, Marilea; Chesnut, Renae; Clarke, Cheryl; Schott, Kathryn; Torry, Ronald; Welty, Tim

    2015-01-01

    A 2-semester project explored employing teams of fourth-year industrial engineering students to optimize some of our academic management processes. Results included significant cost savings and increases in efficiency, effectiveness, and student and faculty satisfaction. While we did not adopt all of the students’ recommendations, we did learn some important lessons. For example, an initial investment of time in developing a mutually clear understanding of the problems, constraints, and goals maximizes the value of industrial engineering analysis and recommendations. Overall, industrial engineering was a valuable tool for optimizing certain academic management processes. PMID:26839421

  7. Integration of safety engineering into a cost optimized development program.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    A six-segment management model is presented, each segment of which represents a major area in a new product development program. The first segment of the model covers integration of specialist engineers into 'systems requirement definition' or the system engineering documentation process. The second covers preparation of five basic types of 'development program plans.' The third segment covers integration of system requirements, scheduling, and funding of specialist engineering activities into 'work breakdown structures,' 'cost accounts,' and 'work packages.' The fourth covers 'requirement communication' by line organizations. The fifth covers 'performance measurement' based on work package data. The sixth covers 'baseline requirements achievement tracking.'

  8. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Sarah R. Nuss-Warren; Kirby S. Chapman

    2005-12-01

    This quarterly report discusses continuing work in the testing phase of the project that evaluates emission control technologies applied to a two-stroke cycle natural gas-fueled engine. In this phase, a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) is used to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout the gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. This report describes potential emission reduction technologies, some of which have already been tested, and describes progress toward completing remaining tests to evaluate further synergies between some of the more promising technologies. While the end-goal is a closed-loop control system coupled with a low cost NO{sub x} retrofit package, additional work remains. Technologies including pre-combustion chambers, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing have been evaluated in previous reports. Current work focuses on preparing the test cell for tests using a 180 psig fuel valve. By using the Ajax DP-115 these tests are completed in a low-cost and efficient manner. The various technologies can be quickly exchanged with different hardware, and it is inexpensive to run the engine.

  9. Preliminary site characterization summary and engineering evaluation/cost analysis for Site 2, New Fuel Farm, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Cronk, T.A.; Smuin, D.R. ); Schlosser, R.M. )

    1991-09-01

    This report addresses subsurface contamination associated with Site 2, the New Fuel Farm at Naval Air Station Fallon (NAS Fallon), Nevada and is an integral part of Phase 2 of the Installation Restoration Program (IR Program) currently underway at the facility. This report: (1) reviews and assesses environmental information characterizing Site 2; (2) determine if site-characterization information is sufficient to design and evaluate removal actions; and, (3) investigates, develops, and describes any removal actions deemed feasible. Previous environmental investigations at Site 2 indicate the presence of floating product (primarily JP-5, jet fuel) on the water table underlying the facility. While the extent of floating-produce plumes has been characterized, the degree of associated soil and groundwater contamination remains uncertain. A comprehensive characterization of soil and groundwater contamination will be completed as the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study progresses. Corrective actions are recommended at this time to remove free-phase floating product. Implementing these removal actions will also provide additional information which will be used to direct further investigations of the extent, mobility, and potential environmental threat from soil and groundwater contaminants at this side.

  10. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman

    2005-10-01

    This quarterly report discusses the results from a testing phase of the project that evaluates emission control technologies applied to a two-stroke cycle natural gas-fueled engine. In this phase, a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) is used to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. This report describes potential emission reduction technologies followed by a battery of tests that demonstrate synergies between some of the more promising technologies. While the end-goal is a closed loop control, low cost NO{sub x} retrofit package, additional work remains. The battery of tests include pre-combustion chambers, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing. During several phases of the tests, the ignition timing also was varied to determine the optimal point for ignition timing. The results from these tests suggest that an optimum exists where fuel consumption is minimized along with NO{sub x} emissions. By using the Ajax DP-115 these tests are completed in a low-cost and efficient manner. The various technologies can be quickly exchanged with different hardware, and the cost to operate the engine is very inexpensive.

  11. Management Science/Industrial Engineering Techniques to Reduce Food Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Murray

    This paper examines the contributions of Industrial Engineering and Management Science toward reduction in the cost of production and distribution of food. Food processing firms were requested to respond to a questionnaire which asked for examples of their use of various operations research tools and information on the number of operations…

  12. Nitinol Heat Engine power plant system installation and cost optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Cady, E.C.; McNichols, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    Nitinol Heat Engines (NHE) use a shape memory alloy of nickel and titanium to directly convert the thermal energy in hot water to mechanical power (and, through a generator, to electricity). The authors designed a commercial version of a NHE based on the thermoturbine configuration developed in prototype form under contract to the Department of Energy in 1978-1980. The operation and cost of various forms of NHE have been described previously, but the penalties and costs associated with integrating the complete NHE system into installations supplying the thermal energy have not previously been determined. They found that these costs are most important, as they will often exceed the costs of the NHE proper. However, the total installed costs are quite low and result in very economical power from waste-heat or geothermal hot-water sources.

  13. Evaluating Google Compute Engine with PROOF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganis, Gerardo; Panitkin, Sergey

    2014-06-01

    The advent of private and commercial cloud platforms has opened the question of evaluating the cost-effectiveness of such solution for computing in High Energy Physics . Google Compute Engine (GCE) is a IaaS product launched by Google as an experimental platform during 2012 and now open to the public market. In this contribution we present the results of a set of CPU-intensive and I/O-intensive tests we have run with PROOF on a GCE resources made available by Google for test purposes. We have run tests on large scale PROOF clusters (up to 1000 workers) to study the overall scalability of coordinated multi-process jobs. We have studied and compared the performance of ephemeral and persistent storage with PROOF-Lite on the single machines and of standard PROOF on the whole cluster. We will discuss our results in perspective, in particular with respect to the typical analysis needs of an LHC experiment.

  14. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2006-07-01

    Continuing work in controlled testing uses a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout the gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NOX emissions. Technologies including one pre-combustion chamber, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing have been evaluated in previous reports. Current work focuses on final preparations for testing pre-combustion chambers with different characteristics and using mid-to-high-pressure fuel valves and initial runs of these tests. By using the Ajax DP-115 these tests are completed in a low-cost and efficient manner. The various technologies can be quickly exchanged with different hardware, and it is inexpensive to run the engine. Progress in moving toward field testing is discussed, and changes to the first planned field test are presented. Although changes have been made to the previous plan, it is expected that several new sites will be selected soon. Field tests will begin in the next quarter.

  15. Energy efficient engine: Propulsion system-aircraft integration evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Flight performance and operating economics of future commercial transports utilizing the energy efficient engine were assessed as well as the probability of meeting NASA's goals for TSFC, DOC, noise, and emissions. Results of the initial propulsion systems aircraft integration evaluation presented include estimates of engine performance, predictions of fuel burns, operating costs of the flight propulsion system installed in seven selected advanced study commercial transports, estimates of noise and emissions, considerations of thrust growth, and the achievement-probability analysis.

  16. Report on Audit of Architect and Engineering Costs at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-22

    In September 1990 the Office of Inspector General (OIG) issued the Department-wide Audit of Architect and Engineering Design Costs (DOE/IG-0289) which concluded that the Department`s A/E costs averaged more than twice that of private industry. The primary cause of the higher costs was the lack of Departmental A/E cost standards that would provide measurement criteria for controlling costs. Consistent with our prior Department-wide audit, the purpose of this audit was to determine whether A/E services performed at the Laboratory were economical. Specifically, we determined whether the costs for A/E services at the Laboratory were comparable to the cost standards for A/E services in industry and the State; and, whether A/E costs were reasonable.

  17. Affordability Engineering: Bridging the Gap Between Design and Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, J. D.; DePasquale, Dominic; Lim, Evan

    2010-01-01

    Affordability is a commonly used term that takes on numerous meanings depending on the context used. Within conceptual design of complex systems, the term generally implies comparisons between expected costs and expected resources. This characterization is largely correct, but does not convey the many nuances and considerations that are frequently misunderstood and underappreciated. In the most fundamental sense, affordability and cost directly relate to engineering and programmatic decisions made throughout development programs. Systems engineering texts point out that there is a temporal aspect to this relationship, for decisions made earlier in a program dictate design implications much more so than those made during latter phases. This paper explores affordability engineering and its many sub-disciplines by discussing how it can be considered an additional engineering discipline to be balanced throughout the systems engineering and systems analysis processes. Example methods of multidisciplinary design analysis with affordability as a key driver will be discussed, as will example methods of data visualization, probabilistic analysis, and other ways of relating design decisions to affordability results.

  18. Program Evaluation in Cost Benefit Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, C. Kenneth

    This paper advances a model, called the expected opportunity loss model, for curriculum evaluation. This decision-making technique utilizes subjective data by ranking courses according to their expected contributions to the primary objective of the total program. The model also utilizes objective data in the form of component costs, and differs…

  19. Component Cost Reduction by Value Engineering: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalluri, Vinayak; Kodali, Rambabu

    2016-06-01

    The concept value engineering (VE) acts to increase the value of a product through the improvement in existent functions without increasing their costs. In other words, VE is a function oriented, systematic team approach study to provide value in a product, system or service. The authors systematically explore VE through the six step framework proposed by SAVE and a case study is presented to address the concern of reduction in cost without compromising the function of a hydraulic steering cylinder through the aforementioned VE framework.

  20. An Improved Effective Cost Review Process for Value Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Joo, D. S.; Park, J. I.

    2014-01-01

    Second-look value engineering (VE) is an approach that aims to lower the costs of products for which target costs are not being met during the production stage. Participants in second-look VE typically come up with a variety of ideas for cost cutting, but the outcomes often depend on their levels of experience, and not many good alternatives are available during the production stage. Nonetheless, good ideas have been consistently generated by VE experts. This paper investigates past second-look VE cases and the thinking processes of VE experts and proposes a cost review process as a systematic means of investigating cost-cutting ideas. This cost review process includes the use of an idea checklist and a specification review process. In addition to presenting the process, this paper reports on its feasibility, based on its introduction into a VE training course as part of a pilot study. The results indicate that the cost review process is effective in generating ideas for later analysis. PMID:25580459

  1. Cost Estimation in Engineer-to-Order Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooshmand, Yousef; Köhler, Peter; Korff-Krumm, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    In Engineer-to-Order (ETO) manufacturing the price of products must be defined during early stages of product design and during the bidding process, thus an overestimation of product development (PD) costs may lead to the loss of orders and an underestimation causes a profit loss. What many ETO systems have in common is that the products have to be developed based on different customer requirements so that each order usually results in a new variant. Furthermore, many customer requirement change-requests may arise in different phases of the PD, which is to be considered properly. Thus it is utmost important for ETO systems to have an accurate cost estimation in first stages of the product design and to be able to determine the cost of customer requirement changes in different phases of PD. This paper aims to present a cost estimation methodology as well as a cost estimation model, which estimate the cost of products by relative comparison of the attributes of new product variants with the attributes of standard product variants. In addition, as a necessity in ETO manufacturing, the cost calculation of customer requirement changes in different phases of PD is integrated in the presented method.

  2. The importance of cost considerations in the systems engineering process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, John D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the question of cost, from the birth of a program to its conclusion, particularly from the point of view of large multi-center programs, and suggests how to avoid some of the traps and pitfalls. Emphasis is given to cost in the systems engineering process, but there is an inevitable overlap with program management. (These terms, systems engineering and program management, have never been clearly defined.) In these days of vast Federal budget deficits and increasing overseas competition, it is imperative that we get more for each research and development dollar. This is the only way we will retain our leadership in high technology and, in the long run, our way of life.

  3. Evaluation of undeveloped rocket engine cycle applications to advanced transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Undeveloped pump-fed, liquid propellant rocket engine cycles were assessed and evaluated for application to Next Manned Transportation System (NMTS) vehicles, which would include the evolving Space Transportation System (STS Evolution), the Personnel Launch System (PLS), and the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS). Undeveloped engine cycles selected for further analysis had potential for increased reliability, more maintainability, reduced cost, and improved (or possibly level) performance when compared to the existing SSME and proposed STME engines. The split expander (SX) cycle, the full flow staged combustion (FFSC) cycle, and a hybrid version of the FFSC, which has a LOX expander drive for the LOX pump, were selected for definition and analysis. Technology requirements and issues were identified and analyses of vehicle systems weight deltas using the SX and FFSC cycles in AMLS vehicles were performed. A strawman schedule and cost estimate for FFSC subsystem technology developments and integrated engine system demonstration was also provided.

  4. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the computational techniques employed in determining the optimal propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements. The computer programs used to perform calculations for all the factors that enter into the selection process of determining the optimum combinations of airplanes and engines are examined. Attention is given to the description of the computer codes including NNEP, WATE, LIFCYC, INSTAL, and POD DRG. A process is illustrated by which turbine engines can be evaluated as to fuel consumption, engine weight, cost and installation effects. Examples are shown as to the benefits of variable geometry and of the tradeoff between fuel burned and engine weights. Future plans for further improvements in the analytical modeling of engine systems are also described.

  5. The cost of performance - A comparison of the space transportation main engine and the Space Shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barisa, B. B.; Flinchbaugh, G. D.; Zachary, A. T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper compares the cost of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) proposed by the Advanced Launch System Program. A brief description of the SSME and STME engines is presented, followed by a comparison of these engines that illustrates the impact of focusing on acceptable performance at minimum cost (as for the STME) or on maximum performance (as for the SSME). Several examples of cost reduction methods are presented.

  6. Engineering a responsive, low cost, tactical satellite, TACSAT-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, M.; Duffey, T.; Huffine, Christopher; Weldy, Ken; Clevland, Jeff; Hauser, Joe

    2004-11-01

    The Secretary of Defense's Office of Force Transformation (OFT) is currently undertaking an initiative to develop a low-cost, responsive, operationally relevant space capability using small satellites. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is tasked to be program manger for this initiative, which seeks to make space assets and capabilities available to operational users. TacSat-1 is the first in a series of small satellites that will result in rapid, tailored, and operationally relevant experimental space capabilities for tactical forces. Components of the resulting tactical architecture include a highly automated small satellite bus, modular payloads, common launch and payload interfaces, tasking and data dissemination using the SIPRNET (Secret Internet Protocol Routing Network), and low cost, rapid response launches. The overall goal of TacSat-1 is to demonstrate the utility of a broader complementary business model and provide a catalyst for energizing DoD and industry in the operational space area. This paper first provides a brief overview of the TacSat- 1 experiment and then discusses the engineering designs and practices used to achieve the aggressive cost and schedule goals. Non-standard approaches and engineering philosophies that allowed the TacSat-1 spacecraft to be finished in twelve months are detailed and compared with "normal" satellite programs where applicable. Specific subsystem design, integration and test techniques, which contributed to the successful completion of the TacSat-1 spacecraft, are reviewed. Finally, lessons learned are discussed.

  7. MOSS, an evaluation of software engineering techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounds, J. R.; Pruitt, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    An evaluation of the software engineering techniques used for the development of a Modular Operating System (MOSS) was described. MOSS is a general purpose real time operating system which was developed for the Concept Verification Test (CVT) program. Each of the software engineering techniques was described and evaluated based on the experience of the MOSS project. Recommendations for the use of these techniques on future software projects were also given.

  8. Evaluating a Federated Medical Search Engine

    PubMed Central

    Belden, J.; Williams, J.; Richardson, B.; Schuster, K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Federated medical search engines are health information systems that provide a single access point to different types of information. Their efficiency as clinical decision support tools has been demonstrated through numerous evaluations. Despite their rigor, very few of these studies report holistic evaluations of medical search engines and even fewer base their evaluations on existing evaluation frameworks. Objectives To evaluate a federated medical search engine, MedSocket, for its potential net benefits in an established clinical setting. Methods This study applied the Human, Organization, and Technology (HOT-fit) evaluation framework in order to evaluate MedSocket. The hierarchical structure of the HOT-factors allowed for identification of a combination of efficiency metrics. Human fit was evaluated through user satisfaction and patterns of system use; technology fit was evaluated through the measurements of time-on-task and the accuracy of the found answers; and organization fit was evaluated from the perspective of system fit to the existing organizational structure. Results Evaluations produced mixed results and suggested several opportunities for system improvement. On average, participants were satisfied with MedSocket searches and confident in the accuracy of retrieved answers. However, MedSocket did not meet participants’ expectations in terms of download speed, access to information, and relevance of the search results. These mixed results made it necessary to conclude that in the case of MedSocket, technology fit had a significant influence on the human and organization fit. Hence, improving technological capabilities of the system is critical before its net benefits can become noticeable. Conclusions The HOT-fit evaluation framework was instrumental in tailoring the methodology for conducting a comprehensive evaluation of the search engine. Such multidimensional evaluation of the search engine resulted in recommendations for

  9. Control of development costs the LV 100 engine program

    SciTech Connect

    Okenquist, R.G.

    1993-12-31

    The cost of development, qualification and certification of new engines has become an extremely high financial burden, both for Governments and private companies at a time when reducing expenditures, cutting research and development budgets, and restructuring organizations are the norm in aerospace industry. The Government acquisition strategy has encouraged contractors to form joint ventures or teaming arrangements in an attempt to glean the best expertise from two companies and then allow the two companies to compete for the production contracts. This concept was palatable and accepted by the industry in the past when they knew a production contract was in the offing. In today`s declining defense budget there is no certainty of production contracts. When the Government does fund a development program, funds are extremely limited. Similarly companies are selectively funding private development efforts. In both cases tight control of costs is a high priority.

  10. Methodology for Evaluating Cost-effectiveness of Commercial Energy Code Changes

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Philip R.; Liu, Bing

    2015-01-31

    This document lays out the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) method for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of energy code proposals and editions. The evaluation is applied to provisions or editions of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1 and the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). The method follows standard life-cycle cost (LCC) economic analysis procedures. Cost-effectiveness evaluation requires three steps: 1) evaluating the energy and energy cost savings of code changes, 2) evaluating the incremental and replacement costs related to the changes, and 3) determining the cost-effectiveness of energy code changes based on those costs and savings over time.

  11. Cost benefit study of advanced materials technology for aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillery, R. V.; Johnston, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    The cost/benefits of eight advanced materials technologies were evaluated for two aircraft missions. The overall study was based on a time frame of commercial engine use of the advanced material technologies by 1985. The material technologies evaluated were eutectic turbine blades, titanium aluminide components, ceramic vanes, shrouds and combustor liners, tungsten composite FeCrAly blades, gamma prime oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy blades, and no coat ODS alloy combustor liners. They were evaluated in two conventional takeoff and landing missions, one transcontinental and one intercontinental.

  12. Designing Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors for Performance, Stability, and Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westra, Douglas G.; West, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing the Space Launch System (SLS) for crewed exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is designing rocket engines for the SLS Advanced Booster (AB) concepts being developed to replace the Shuttle-derived solid rocket boosters. One AB concept uses large, Rocket-Propellant (RP)-fueled engines that pose significant design challenges. The injectors for these engines require high performance and stable operation while still meeting aggressive cost reduction goals for access to space. Historically, combustion stability problems have been a critical issue for such injector designs. Traditional, empirical injector design tools and methodologies, however, lack the ability to reliably predict complex injector dynamics that often lead to combustion stability. Reliance on these tools alone would likely result in an unaffordable test-fail-fix cycle for injector development. Recently at MSFC, a massively parallel computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program was successfully applied in the SLS AB injector design process. High-fidelity reacting flow simulations were conducted for both single-element and seven-element representations of the full-scale injector. Data from the CFD simulations was then used to significantly augment and improve the empirical design tools, resulting in a high-performance, stable injector design.

  13. Hypergolic Propellant Destruction Evaluation Cost Benefit Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    At space vehicle launch sites such as Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB), Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and Kennedy Space Center (KSC), toxic vapors and hazardous liquid wastes result from the handling of commodities (hypergolic fuels and oxidizers), most notably from transfer operations where fuel and oxidizer are transferred from bulk storage tanks or transfer tankers to space launch vehicles. During commodity transfer at CCAFS and KSC, wet chemical scrubbers (typically containing four scrubbing towers) are used to neutralize fuel saturated vapors from vent systems on tanks and tanker trailers. For fuel vapors, a citric acid solution is used to scrub out most of the hydrazine. Operation of both the hypergolic fuel and oxidizer vapor scrubbers generates waste scrubber liquor. Currently, scrubber liquor from the fuel vapor scrubber is considered non-hazardous. The scrubber liquor is defined as spent citric acid scrubber solution; the solution contains complexed hydrazine I methylhydrazine and is used to neutralize nonspecification hypergolic fuel generated by CCAFS and KSC. This project is a collaborative effort between Air Force Space Command (AFSPC), Space and Missile Center (SMC), the CCAFS, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to evaluate microwave destruction technology for the treatment of non-specification hypergolic fuel generated at CCAFS and KSC. The project will capitalize on knowledge gained from microwave treatment work being accomplished by AFSPC and SMC at V AFB. This report focuses on the costs associated with the current non-specification hypergolic fuel neutralization process (Section 2.0) as well as the estimated costs of operating a mobile microwave unit to treat non-specification hypergolic fuel (Section 3.0), and compares the costs for each (Section 4.0).The purpose of this document is to assess the costs associated with waste hypergolic fuel. This document will report the costs associated with the current fuel

  14. The common engine concept for ALS application - A cost reduction approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, E. K.; Schindler, C. M.

    1989-01-01

    Future launch systems require the application of propulsion systems which have been designed and developed to meet mission model needs while providing high degrees of reliability and cost effectiveness. Vehicle configurations which utilize different propellant combinations for booster and core stages can benefit from a common engine approach where a single engine design can be configured to operate on either set of propellants and thus serve as either a booster or core engine. Engine design concepts and mission application for a vehicle employing a common engine are discussed. Engine program cost estimates were made and cost savings, over the design and development of two unique engines, estimated.

  15. Enzymatic corn wet milling: engineering process and cost model

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Edna C; Johnston, David B; McAloon, Andrew J; Singh, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    Background Enzymatic corn wet milling (E-milling) is a process derived from conventional wet milling for the recovery and purification of starch and co-products using proteases to eliminate the need for sulfites and decrease the steeping time. In 2006, the total starch production in USA by conventional wet milling equaled 23 billion kilograms, including modified starches and starches used for sweeteners and ethanol production [1]. Process engineering and cost models for an E-milling process have been developed for a processing plant with a capacity of 2.54 million kg of corn per day (100,000 bu/day). These models are based on the previously published models for a traditional wet milling plant with the same capacity. The E-milling process includes grain cleaning, pretreatment, enzymatic treatment, germ separation and recovery, fiber separation and recovery, gluten separation and recovery and starch separation. Information for the development of the conventional models was obtained from a variety of technical sources including commercial wet milling companies, industry experts and equipment suppliers. Additional information for the present models was obtained from our own experience with the development of the E-milling process and trials in the laboratory and at the pilot plant scale. The models were developed using process and cost simulation software (SuperPro Designer®) and include processing information such as composition and flow rates of the various process streams, descriptions of the various unit operations and detailed breakdowns of the operating and capital cost of the facility. Results Based on the information from the model, we can estimate the cost of production per kilogram of starch using the input prices for corn, enzyme and other wet milling co-products. The work presented here describes the E-milling process and compares the process, the operation and costs with the conventional process. Conclusion The E-milling process was found to be cost

  16. Investigation of low cost material processes for liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyentat, Thinh; Kawashige, Chester M.; Scala, James G.; Horn, Ronald M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of low cost material processes is essential to the achievement of economical liquid rocket propulsion systems in the next century. This paper will present the results of the evaluation of some promising material processes including powder metallurgy, vacuum plasma spray, metal spray forming, and bulge forming. The physical and mechanical test results from the samples and subscale hardware fabricated from high strength copper alloys and superalloys will be discussed.

  17. Investigation of low cost material processes for liquid rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyentat, Thinh; Kawashige, Chester M.; Scala, James G.; Horn, Ronald M.

    1993-06-01

    The development of low cost material processes is essential to the achievement of economical liquid rocket propulsion systems in the next century. This paper will present the results of the evaluation of some promising material processes including powder metallurgy, vacuum plasma spray, metal spray forming, and bulge forming. The physical and mechanical test results from the samples and subscale hardware fabricated from high strength copper alloys and superalloys will be discussed.

  18. NASA Lewis Stirling engine computer code evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy's Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems program, the NASA Lewis Stirling engine performance code was evaluated by comparing code predictions without engine-specific calibration factors to GPU-3, P-40, and RE-1000 Stirling engine test data. The error in predicting power output was /minus/11 percent for the P-40 and 12 percent for the RE-1000 at design conditions and 16 percent for the GPU-3 at near-design conditions (2000 rpm engine speed versus 3000 rpm at design). The efficiency and heat input predictions showed better agreement with engine test data than did the power predictions. Concerning all data points, the error in predicting the GPU-3 brake power was significantly larger than for the other engines and was mainly a result of inaccuracy in predicting the pressure phase angle. Analysis into this pressure phase angle prediction error suggested that improvement to the cylinder hysteresis loss model could have a significant effect on overall Stirling engine performance predictions. 13 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. NASA Lewis Stirling engine computer code evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Timothy J.

    1989-01-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems program, the NASA Lewis Stirling engine performance code was evaluated by comparing code predictions without engine-specific calibration factors to GPU-3, P-40, and RE-1000 Stirling engine test data. The error in predicting power output was -11 percent for the P-40 and 12 percent for the Re-1000 at design conditions and 16 percent for the GPU-3 at near-design conditions (2000 rpm engine speed versus 3000 rpm at design). The efficiency and heat input predictions showed better agreement with engine test data than did the power predictions. Concerning all data points, the error in predicting the GPU-3 brake power was significantly larger than for the other engines and was mainly a result of inaccuracy in predicting the pressure phase angle. Analysis into this pressure phase angle prediction error suggested that improvements to the cylinder hysteresis loss model could have a significant effect on overall Stirling engine performance predictions.

  20. Using Innovative Technologies for Manufacturing and Evaluating Rocket Engine Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Erin M.; Hardin, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing and evaluation techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As we enter into a new space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt new and innovative techniques for manufacturing and evaluating hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) and white light scanning are being adopted and evaluated for their use on J-2X, with hopes of employing both technologies on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powdered metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. The white light technique is a non-invasive method that can be used to inspect for geometric feature alignment. Both the DMLS manufacturing method and the white light scanning technique have proven to be viable options for manufacturing and evaluating rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of these techniques is recommended.

  1. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  2. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  3. 48 CFR 736.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. 736.605 Section 736.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR... Architect-Engineer Services 736.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. See 736.602-3(c)(5)....

  4. Costs and benefits of lunar oxygen: Engineering, operations, and economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent; Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen is the most commonly discussed lunar resource. It will certainly not be the easiest to retrieve, but oxygen's fundamental place in propulsion and life support guarantees it continued attention as a prime candidate for early in situ resource utilization (ISRU). The findings are reviewed of recent investigation, sponsored by NASA-Ames, into the kinds of technologies, equipment, and scenarios (the engineering and operations costs) that will be required even to initiate lunar oxygen production. The infrastructure necessary to surround and support a viable oxygen-processing operation is explained. Selected details are used to illustrate the depth of technology challenges, extent of operations burdens, and complexity of decision linkages. Basic assumptions, and resulting timelines and mass manifests, are listed. These findings are combined with state-of-the-art knowledge of lunar and Mars propulsion options in simple economic input/output and internal-rate-of-return models, to compare production costs with performance benefits. Implications for three realistic scales of exploration architecture - expeditionary, aggressive science, and industrialization/settlement - are discussed. Conclusions are reached regarding the contextual conditions within which production of lunar oxygen (LLOX) is a reasonable activity. LLOX appears less useful for Mars missions than previously hoped. Its economical use in low Earth orbit hinges on production of lunar hydrogen as well. LLOX shows promise for lunar ascent/descent use, but that depends strongly on the plant mass required.

  5. White River Falls Fish Passage Project, Tygh Valley, Oregon : Final Technical Report, Volume III, Appendix B, Fisheries Report; Appendix C, Engineering Alternative Evaluation; Appendix D, Benefit/Cost Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Oregon. Dept. of Fish and Wildlife; Mount Hood National Forest

    1985-06-01

    Studies were conducted to describe current habitat conditions in the White River basin above White River Falls and to evaluate the potential to produce anadromous fish. An inventory of spawning and rearing habitats, irrigation diversions, and enhancement opportunities for anadromous fish in the White River drainage was conducted. Survival of juvenile fish at White River Falls was estimated by releasing juvenile chinook and steelhead above the falls during high and low flow periods and recapturing them below the falls in 1983 and 1984. Four alternatives to provide upstream passage for adult salmon and steelhead were developd to a predesign level. The cost of adult passage and the estimated run size of anadromous fish were used to determine the benefit/cost of the preferred alternative. Possible effects of the introduction of anadromous fish on resident fish and on nearby Oak Springs Hatchery were evaluated. This included an inventory of resident species, a genetic study of native rainbow, and the identification of fish diseases in the basin. This volume contains appendices of habitat survey data, potential production, resident fish population data, upstream passage designs, and benefit/cost calculations. (ACR)

  6. Preliminary study of advanced turboprop and turboshaft engines for light aircraft. [cost effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knip, G.; Plencner, R. M.; Eisenberg, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of engine configuration, advanced component technology, compressor pressure ratio and turbine rotor-inlet temperature on such figures of merit as vehicle gross weight, mission fuel, aircraft acquisition cost, operating, cost and life cycle cost are determined for three fixed- and two rotary-wing aircraft. Compared with a current production turboprop, an advanced technology (1988) engine results in a 23 percent decrease in specific fuel consumption. Depending on the figure of merit and the mission, turbine engine cost reductions required to achieve aircraft cost parity with a current spark ignition reciprocating (SIR) engine vary from 0 to 60 percent and from 6 to 74 percent with a hypothetical advanced SIR engine. Compared with a hypothetical turboshaft using currently available technology (1978), an advanced technology (1988) engine installed in a light twin-engine helicopter results in a 16 percent reduction in mission fuel and about 11 percent in most of the other figures of merit.

  7. 48 CFR 36.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 36.605 Section 36.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 36.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. (a) An...

  8. 48 CFR 736.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 736.605 Section 736.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 736.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. See 736.602-3(c)(5)....

  9. 48 CFR 1336.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 1336.605 Section 1336.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 1336.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. After award,...

  10. 48 CFR 436.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 436.605 Section 436.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Service 436.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. The...

  11. 48 CFR 436.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 436.605 Section 436.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Service 436.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. The...

  12. 48 CFR 36.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 36.605 Section 36.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 36.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. (a) An...

  13. 48 CFR 36.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 36.605 Section 36.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 36.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. (a) An...

  14. 48 CFR 736.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 736.605 Section 736.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 736.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. See 736.602-3(c)(5)....

  15. 48 CFR 736.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 736.605 Section 736.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 736.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. See 736.602-3(c)(5)....

  16. 48 CFR 436.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 436.605 Section 436.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Service 436.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. The...

  17. 48 CFR 1336.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 1336.605 Section 1336.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 1336.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. After award,...

  18. 48 CFR 1336.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 1336.605 Section 1336.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 1336.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. After award,...

  19. 48 CFR 36.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 36.605 Section 36.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 36.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. (a) An...

  20. 48 CFR 36.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 36.605 Section 36.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 36.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. (a) An...

  1. 48 CFR 436.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 436.605 Section 436.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Service 436.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. The...

  2. 48 CFR 736.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 736.605 Section 736.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 736.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. See 736.602-3(c)(5)....

  3. 48 CFR 1336.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 1336.605 Section 1336.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 1336.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. After award,...

  4. 48 CFR 436.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 436.605 Section 436.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Service 436.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. The...

  5. Low-cost directionally-solidified turbine blades, volume 2. [TFE731-3 turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, R. E.; Hoppin, G. S., III; Hurst, L. G.

    1979-01-01

    An endothermically heated technology was used to manufacture low cost, directionally solidified, uncooled nickel-alloy blades for the TFE731-3 turbofan engine. The MAR-M 247 and MER-M 100+Hf blades were finish processed through heat treatment, machining, and coating operations prior to 150 hour engine tests consisting of the following sequences: (1) 50 hours of simulated cruise cycling (high fatigue evaluation); (2) 50 hours at the maximum continuous power rating (stress rupture endurance (low cycle fatigue). None of the blades visually showed any detrimental effects from the test. This was verified by post test metallurgical evaluation. The specific fuel consumption was reduced by 2.4% with the uncooled blades.

  6. Evaluation of Vitiation Effects in Scramjet Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomioka, Sadatake; Hiraiwa, Tetsuo; Kishida, Tomoyuki; Yamasaki, Hiroyuki

    Quasi-one-dimensional, both equilibrium and kinetic analyses were carried out to evaluate vitiation effects on thrust performance of a typical engine under M6 flight conditions. With incoming-flow parameters varied, it was found that matching static pressure and static temperature (or total enthalpy) of the incoming flow gave minimum deviation on engine performance between the non-vitiated and vitiated cases. However, change in thermal properties due to vitiation resulted in few percent deviation even in this case. This deviation could be corrected by using equilibrium analysis results even for kinetic calculation. Chemical kinetics was found to be dominant in relatively narrow range in fuel equivalence ratio.

  7. Configuration evaluation and criteria plan. Volume 2: Evaluation criteria plan (update). Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, E. K.

    1987-01-01

    Candidate main engine configurations which enhance vehicle performance, operation and cost are identified. These candidate configurations are evaluated and the configurations which provide significant advantages over existing systems are selected for consideration for the next generation of launch vehicles. The unbiased selection of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) configuration requires that the candidate engines be evaluated against a predetermined set of criteria which must be properly weighted to emphasize critical requirements defined prior to the actual evaluation. During a prior study of the STME a Gas Generator Cycle engine was selected for conceptual design, with emphasis on reusability, reliability and low cost while achieving good performance. In this study emphasis is on expendable application of the STME while maintaining low cost and high reliability.

  8. Ablative material testing for low-pressure, low-cost rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, G. Paul; Smith, Timothy D.

    1995-01-01

    The results of an experimental evaluation of ablative materials suitable for the production of light weight, low cost rocket engine combustion chambers and nozzles are presented. Ten individual specimens of four different compositions of silica cloth-reinforced phenolic resin materials were evaluated for comparative erosion in a subscale rocket engine combustion chamber. Gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen were used as propellants, operating at a nominal chamber pressure of 1138 kPa (165 psi) and a nominal mixture ratio (O/F) of 3.3. These conditions were used to thermally simulate operation with RP-1 and liquid oxygen, and achieved a specimen throat gas temperature of approximately 2456 K (4420 R). Two high-density composition materials exhibited high erosion resistance, while two low-density compositions exhibited approximately 6-75 times lower average erosion resistance. The results compare favorably with previous testing by NASA and provide adequate data for selection of ablatives for low pressure, low cost rocket engines.

  9. Evaluating Reliability: A Cost-Effectiveness Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Andrew

    1986-01-01

    This study derives the economic costs of misclassification in nursing home patient classification systems. These costs are then used as weights to estimate the reliability of a functional assessment instrument. Results suggest that reliability must be redefined and remeasured with each substantively new application of an assessment instrument.…

  10. Evaluating word semantic properties using Sketch Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoykova, Velislava; Simkova, Maria

    2015-02-01

    The paper describes approach to use statistically-based tools incorporated into Sketch Engine system for electronic text corpora processing to mining big textual data for search and extract word semantic properties. It presents and compares series of word search experiments using different statistical approaches and evaluates results for Bulgarian language EUROPARL 7 Corpus search to extract word semantic properties. Finally, the methodology is extended for multilingual application using Slovak language EUROPARL 7 Corpus.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Thermoeconomic Evaluation Criteria for an Actual Heat Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özel, Gülcan; Açıkkalp, Emin; Savaş, Ahmet Fevzi; Yamık, Hasan

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, an actual heat engine is investigated by using different thermoeconomic evaluation criteria in the literature. A criteria that has not been investigated in detail is considered and it is called as ecologico-economical criteria (F_{EC}). It is the difference of power cost and exergy destruction rate cost of the system. All four criteria are applied to an irreversible Carnot heat engine, results are presented numerically and some suggestions are made.

  12. Configuration evaluation and criteria plan. Volume 2: Evaluation critera plan (preliminary). Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, E. K.

    1986-01-01

    The unbiased selection of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) configuration requires that the candidate engines be evaluated against a predetermined set of criteria which must be properly weighted to emphasize critical requirements defined prior to the actual evaluation. The evaluation and selection process involves the following functions: (1) determining if a configuration can satisfy basic STME requirements (yes/no); (2) defining the evaluation criteria; (3) selecting the criteria relative importance or weighting; (4) determining the weighting sensitivities; and (5) establishing a baseline for engine evaluation. The criteria weighting and sensitivities are cost related and are based on mission models and vehicle requirements. The evaluation process is used as a coarse screen to determine the candidate engines for the parametric studies and as a fine screen to determine concept(s) for conceptual design. The criteria used for the coarse and fine screen evaluation process is shown. The coarse screen process involves verifying that the candidate engines can meet the yes/no screening requirements and a semi-subjective quantitative evaluation. The fine screen engines have to meet all of the yes/no screening gates and are then subjected to a detailed evaluation or assessment using the quantitative cost evaluation processes. The option exists for re-cycling a concept through the quantitative portion of the screening and allows for some degree of optimization. The basic vehicle is a two stage LOX/HC, LOX/LH2 parallel burn vehicle capable of placing 150,000 lbs in low Earth orbit (LEO).

  13. 48 CFR 31.205-25 - Manufacturing and production engineering costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manufacturing and... Commercial Organizations 31.205-25 Manufacturing and production engineering costs. (a) The costs of manufacturing and production engineering effort as described in (1) through (4) below are all allowable:...

  14. 48 CFR 31.205-25 - Manufacturing and production engineering costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manufacturing and... Commercial Organizations 31.205-25 Manufacturing and production engineering costs. (a) The costs of manufacturing and production engineering effort as described in (1) through (4) below are all allowable:...

  15. 48 CFR 31.205-25 - Manufacturing and production engineering costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manufacturing and... Commercial Organizations 31.205-25 Manufacturing and production engineering costs. (a) The costs of manufacturing and production engineering effort as described in (1) through (4) below are all allowable:...

  16. 48 CFR 1336.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government cost estimate... Architect-Engineer Services 1336.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. After award, the independent Government estimated price can be released, upon request, to those firms or individuals...

  17. Cost Effectiveness in Evaluation Technical Assistance: Different Aspects of Measuring Cost and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Gary D.

    The paper focuses on the Title I Evaluation Technical Assistance Centers to illustrate issues of measuring costs and deciding on outcome criteria before promoting "cost-effective" approaches. Effects are illustrated for varying resource allocations among personnel, travel, materials, and phone costs as a function of emphasizing workshops, on-site…

  18. Evaluation of heat engine for hybrid vehicle application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1984-01-01

    The status of ongoing heat-engine developments, including spark-ignition, compression-ignition, internal-combustion, and external-combustion engines is presented. The potential of engine concepts under consideration for hybrid vehicle use is evaluated, using self-imposed criteria for selection. The deficiencies of the engines currently being evaluated in hybrid vehicles are discussed. Focus is on recent research with two-stroke, rotary, and free-piston engines. It is concluded that these engine concepts have the most promising potential for future application in hybrid vehicles. Recommendations are made for analysis and experimentation to evaluate stop-start and transient emission behavior of recommended engine concepts.

  19. MANUFACTURING AND COST EVALUATION OF SECOND GENERATION HELIOSTATS VOLUME I - ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, K.; Bondurant, P. D.; Brown, D. R.; Williams, T. A.

    1981-09-01

    The Second Generation Heliostat Program involved five contractors who provided designs, manufacturing plans, and cost estimates for heliostats. The program was sponsored by the Department of Energy and managed by Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. As part of the program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated and compared the contractors' costs and production plans, and compared the actual costs of the Solar One (Barstow, California) pilot-plant heliostats to estimated mass production costs. One purpose of this review was to adjust contractor estimates to provide a common basis for cost comparisons. The five contractors were: Boeing Engineering and Construction, Martin Marietta Corporation, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, Northrup Incorporated, and Westinghouse Electric Corporation. PNL evaluated the components and assembly of the five heliostats in terms of material, direct labor, production equipment, production building requirements, and overheads. Two adjustments were made to the costs estimated by the manufacturers. The first, producing "Adjusted Costs," was primarily to add items that appeared to have been omitted from the contractors' estimates or delete items that were not required. The second, called "Uniform Assumptions Costs," used common ground rules for major materials, building, labor, and overhead costs. The review of the contractors' production plans and cost estimates did not reveal any errors or omissions that would change the costs by more than 30%, when compared using uniform assumptions. This range is adequate for policy planning, and costs of $100/m{sup 2} appear achievable.

  20. Evaluation of power costs in applying TMR to FPGA designs.

    SciTech Connect

    Rollins, Nathaniel; Wirthlin, M. J.; Graham, P. S.

    2004-01-01

    Triple modular redundancy (TMR) is a technique commonly used to mitigate against design failures caused by single event upsets (SEUs). The SEU immunity that TMR provides comes at the cost of increased design area and decreased speed. Additionally, the cost of increased power due to TMR must be considered. This paper evaluates the power costs of TMR and validates the evaluations with actual measurements. Sensitivity to design placement is another important part of this study. Power consumption costs due to TMR are also evaluated in different FPGA architectures. This study shows that power consumption rises in the range of 3x to 7x when TMR is applied to a design.

  1. 48 CFR 31.205-25 - Manufacturing and production engineering costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manufacturing and... ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-25 Manufacturing and production engineering costs. (a) The costs...

  2. Evolution of a Low Cost Control Engineering Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Shirbeeny, El-Hosseiny Taha

    1986-01-01

    Presents an approach for building an inexpensive control engineering laboratory to support control courses in an undergraduate engineering program. Outlines the use of simple amplifier circuits and small personal computers in performing control experiments. Proposes an optimum configuration of the laboratory for minimum servicing and adequate…

  3. Cost-benefit tradeoffs in engineered lac operons.

    PubMed

    Eames, Matt; Kortemme, Tanja

    2012-05-18

    Cells must balance the cost and benefit of protein expression to optimize organismal fitness. The lac operon of the bacterium Escherichia coli has been a model for quantifying the physiological impact of costly protein production and for elucidating the resulting regulatory mechanisms. We report quantitative fitness measurements in 27 redesigned operons that suggested that protein production is not the primary origin of fitness costs. Instead, we discovered that the lac permease activity, which relates linearly to cost, is the major physiological burden to the cell. These findings explain control points in the lac operon that minimize the cost of lac permease activity, not protein expression. Characterizing similar relationships in other systems will be important to map the impact of cost/benefit tradeoffs on cell physiology and regulation. PMID:22605776

  4. Conceptual design and cost analysis of hydraulic output unit for 15 kW free-piston Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    A long-life hydraulic converter with unique features was conceptually designed to interface with a specified 15 kW(e) free-piston Stirling engine in a solar thermal dish application. Hydraulic fluid at 34.5 MPa (5000 psi) is produced to drive a conventional hydraulic motor and rotary alternator. Efficiency of the low-maintenance converter design was calculated at 93.5% for a counterbalanced version and 97.0% without the counterbalance feature. If the converter were coupled to a Stirling engine with design parameters more typcial of high-technology Stirling engines, counterbalanced converter efficiency could be increased to 99.6%. Dynamic computer simulation studies were conducted to evaluate performance and system sensitivities. Production costs of the complete Stirling hydraulic/electric power system were evaluated at $6506 which compared with $8746 for an alternative Stirling engine/linear alternator system.

  5. HSCT Sector Combustor Evaluations for Demonstration Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenfield, Stuart; Heberling, Paul; Kastl, John; Matulaitis, John; Huff, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    In LET Task 10, critical development issues of the HSCT lean-burn low emissions combustor were addressed with a range of engineering tools. Laser diagnostics and CFD analysis were applied to develop a clearer understanding of the fuel-air premixing process and premixed combustion. Subcomponent tests evaluated the emissions and operability performance of the fuel-air premixers. Sector combustor tests evaluated the performance of the integrated combustor system. A 3-cup sector was designed and procured for laser diagnostics studies at NASA Glenn. The results of these efforts supported the earlier selection of the Cyclone Swirler as the pilot stage premixer and the IMFH (Integrated Mixer Flame Holder) tube as the main stage premixer of the LPP combustor. In the combustor system preliminary design subtask, initial efforts to transform the sector combustor design into a practical subscale engine combustor met with significant challenges. Concerns about the durability of a stepped combustor dome and the need for a removable fuel injection system resulted in the invention and refinement of the MRA (Multistage Radial Axial) combustor system in 1994. The MRA combustor was selected for the HSR Phase II LPP subscale combustor testing in the CPC Program.

  6. The Cummins advanced turbocompound diesel engine evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehne, J. L.; Werner, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    An advanced turbocompound diesel engine program was initiated to improve the tank mileage of the turbocompound engine by 5% over the vehicle test engines. Engine improvements could be realized by increasing the available energy of the exhaust gas at the turbine inlet, incorporating gas turbine techniques into improving the turbomachinery efficiencies, and through refined engine system optimization. The individual and cumulative performance gains achieved with the advanced turbocompound engine improvements are presented.

  7. Comparison of low-cost and engineered materials for phosphorus removal from organic-rich surface water.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Treavor H; Persaud, Amar; Banerjee, Poulomi; Palomino, Pedro

    2011-10-15

    Excess phosphorus (P) in lakes and rivers remains a major water quality problem on a global scale. As a result, new materials and innovative approaches to P remediation are required. Natural materials and waste byproduct materials from industrial processes have the potential to be effective materials for P removal from surface water. Advantages of natural and waste byproduct materials include their low-cost, abundant supply, and minimal preparation, especially compared with engineered materials, such as ion exchange resins and polymeric adsorbents. As a result, natural and waste byproduct materials are commonly referred to as low-cost materials. Despite the potential advantages of low-cost materials, there are critical gaps in knowledge that are preventing their effective use. In particular, there are limited data on the performance of low-cost materials in surface waters that have high concentrations of natural organic matter (NOM), and there are no systematic studies that track the changes in water chemistry following treatment with low-cost materials or compare their performance with engineered materials. Accordingly, the goal of this work was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of low-cost and engineered materials for P removal from NOM-rich surface water. Seven low-cost materials and three engineered materials were evaluated using jar tests and mini-column experiments. The test water was a surface water that had a total P concentration of 132-250 μg P/L and a total organic carbon concentration of 15-32 mg C/L. Alum sludge, a byproduct of drinking water treatment, and a hybrid anion exchange resin loaded with nanosize iron oxide were the best performing materials in terms of selective P removal in the presence of NOM and minimum undesirable secondary changes to the water chemistry. PMID:21767859

  8. Economic evaluation and the postponement of health care costs.

    PubMed

    van Baal, Pieter H M; Feenstra, Talitha L; Polder, Johan J; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T; Brouwer, Werner B F

    2011-04-01

    The inclusion of medical costs in life years gained in economic evaluations of health care technologies has long been controversial. Arguments in favour of the inclusion of such costs are gaining support, which shifts the question from whether to how to include these costs. This paper elaborates on the issue how to include cost in life years gained in cost effectiveness analysis given the current practice of economic evaluations in which costs of related diseases are included. We combine insights from the theoretical literature on the inclusion of unrelated medical costs in life years gained with insights from the so-called 'red herring' literature. It is argued that for most interventions it would be incorrect to simply add all medical costs in life years gained to an ICER, even when these are corrected for postponement of the expensive last year of life. This is the case since some of the postponement mechanism is already captured in the unadjusted ICER by modelling the costs of related diseases. Using the example of smoking cessation, we illustrate the differences and similarities between different approaches. The paper concludes with a discussion about the proper way to account for medical costs in life years gained in economic evaluations. PMID:21210494

  9. A cost-minimization analysis of tissue-engineered constructs for corneal endothelial transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tien-En; Peh, Gary S L; George, Benjamin L; Cajucom-Uy, Howard Y; Dong, Di; Finkelstein, Eric A; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2014-01-01

    Corneal endothelial transplantation or endothelial keratoplasty has become the preferred choice of transplantation for patients with corneal blindness due to endothelial dysfunction. Currently, there is a worldwide shortage of transplantable tissue, and demand is expected to increase further with aging populations. Tissue-engineered alternatives are being developed, and are likely to be available soon. However, the cost of these constructs may impair their widespread use. A cost-minimization analysis comparing tissue-engineered constructs to donor tissue procured from eye banks for endothelial keratoplasty was performed. Both initial investment costs and recurring costs were considered in the analysis to arrive at a final tissue cost per transplant. The clinical outcomes of endothelial keratoplasty with tissue-engineered constructs and with donor tissue procured from eye banks were assumed to be equivalent. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to simulate various possible scenarios, and to determine the robustness of the results. A tissue engineering strategy was cheaper in both investment cost and recurring cost. Tissue-engineered constructs for endothelial keratoplasty could be produced at a cost of US$880 per transplant. In contrast, utilizing donor tissue procured from eye banks for endothelial keratoplasty required US$3,710 per transplant. Sensitivity analyses performed further support the results of this cost-minimization analysis across a wide range of possible scenarios. The use of tissue-engineered constructs for endothelial keratoplasty could potentially increase the supply of transplantable tissue and bring the costs of corneal endothelial transplantation down, making this intervention accessible to a larger group of patients. Tissue-engineering strategies for corneal epithelial constructs or other tissue types, such as pancreatic islet cells, should also be subject to similar pharmacoeconomic analyses. PMID:24949869

  10. Composite hubs for low cost turbine engines. [stress analysis using NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1977-01-01

    A detailed stress analysis is performed using NASTRAN to demonstrate theoretically the adequacy of composite hubs for low cost turbine engine applications. The results show that composite hubs are adequate for this application from the steady state stress viewpoint.

  11. Architect and engineering costs at Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The objective of this audit was to determine whether architect and engineering (A-E) costs at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories were reasonable in comparison with industry standards.

  12. Evaluating the Reliability, Validity, and Usefulness of Education Cost Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies that purport to estimate the costs of constitutionally adequate education have been described as either a "gold standard" that should guide legislative school finance policy design and judicial evaluation, or as pure "alchemy." Methods for estimating the cost of constitutionally adequate education can be roughly divided into two…

  13. Magnetohydrodynamics MHD Engineering Test Facility ETF 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report CDER. Volume 3: Costs and schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The estimated plant capital cost for a coal fired 200 MWE electric generating plant with open cycle magnetohydrodynamics is divided into principal accounts based on Federal Energy Regulatory Commision account structure. Each principal account is defined and its estimated cost subdivided into identifiable and major equipment systems. The cost data sources for compiling the estimates, cost parameters, allotments, assumptions, and contingencies, are discussed. Uncertainties associated with developing the costs are quantified to show the confidence level acquired. Guidelines established in preparing the estimated costs are included. Based on an overall milestone schedule related to conventional power plant scheduling experience and starting procurement of MHD components during the preliminary design phase there is a 6 1/2-year construction period. The duration of the project from start to commercial operation is 79 months. The engineering phase of the project is 4 1/2 years; the construction duration following the start of the man power block is 37 months.

  14. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this project is to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by exploration and production (E&P) operators to significantly lower the cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. The project team takes considerable advantage of the emissions control research and development efforts and practices that have been underway in the gas pipeline industry for the last 12 years. These efforts and practices are expected to closely interface with the E&P industry to develop cost-effective options that apply to widely-used field and gathering engines, and which can be readily commercialized. The project is separated into two phases. Phase 1 work establishes an E&P industry liaison group, develops a frequency distribution of installed E&P field engines, and identifies and assesses commercially available and emerging engine emissions control and monitoring technologies. Current and expected E&P engine emissions and monitoring requirements are reviewed, and priority technologies are identified for further development. The identified promising technologies are tested on a laboratory engine to confirm their generic viability. In addition, a full-scale field test of prototype emissions controls will be conducted on at least ten representative field engine models with challenging emissions profiles. Emissions monitoring systems that are integrated with existing controls packages will be developed. Technology transfer/commercialization is expected to be implemented through compressor fleet leasing operators, engine component suppliers, the industry liaison group, and the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council. This topical report discusses work completed during Phase 1 of the project Cost Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines. In this report information, data, and results are compiled and summarized from quarterly

  15. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) engine phase A study, extension 1. Volume 3: Study cost estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    Program cost and planning data based on 1980 technology and shown in 1979 dollars for a 20K lb Thrust Staged Combustion Cycle Engine are presented. These data were compared with those for the Advanced Expander Cycle Engine at 10K lb and 20K lb thrust levels.

  16. Municipal solid waste management: identification and analysis of engineering indexes representing demand and costs generated in virtuous Italian communities.

    PubMed

    Gamberini, R; Del Buono, D; Lolli, F; Rimini, B

    2013-11-01

    The definition and utilisation of engineering indexes in the field of Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is an issue of interest for technicians and scientists, which is widely discussed in literature. Specifically, the availability of consolidated engineering indexes is useful when new waste collection services are designed, along with when their performance is evaluated after a warm-up period. However, most published works in the field of MSWM complete their study with an analysis of isolated case studies. Conversely, decision makers require tools for information collection and exchange in order to trace the trends of these engineering indexes in large experiments. In this paper, common engineering indexes are presented and their values analysed in virtuous Italian communities, with the aim of contributing to the creation of a useful database whose data could be used during experiments, by indicating examples of MSWM demand profiles and the costs required to manage them. PMID:23835203

  17. Municipal solid waste management: Identification and analysis of engineering indexes representing demand and costs generated in virtuous Italian communities

    SciTech Connect

    Gamberini, R. Del Buono, D.; Lolli, F.; Rimini, B.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Collection and analysis of real life data in the field of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation and costs for management. • Study of 92 virtuous Italian communities. • Elaboration of trends of engineering indexes useful during design and evaluation of MSWM systems. - Abstract: The definition and utilisation of engineering indexes in the field of Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is an issue of interest for technicians and scientists, which is widely discussed in literature. Specifically, the availability of consolidated engineering indexes is useful when new waste collection services are designed, along with when their performance is evaluated after a warm-up period. However, most published works in the field of MSWM complete their study with an analysis of isolated case studies. Conversely, decision makers require tools for information collection and exchange in order to trace the trends of these engineering indexes in large experiments. In this paper, common engineering indexes are presented and their values analysed in virtuous Italian communities, with the aim of contributing to the creation of a useful database whose data could be used during experiments, by indicating examples of MSWM demand profiles and the costs required to manage them.

  18. Cost and fuel consumption per nautical mile for two engine jet transports using OPTIM and TRAGEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiggs, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The cost and fuel consumption per nautical mile for two engine jet transports are computed using OPTIM and TRAGEN. The savings in fuel and direct operating costs per nautical mile for each of the different types of optimal trajectories over a standard profile are shown.

  19. Value Engineering. "A Working Tool for Cost Control in the Design of Educational Facilities."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Jerry

    Value Engineering (VE) is a cost optimizing technique used to analyze design quality and cost-effectiveness. The application of VE procedures to the design and construction of school facilities has been adopted by the state of Washington. By using VE, the optimum value for every life cycle dollar spent on a facility is obtained by identifying not…

  20. A spreadsheet for geothermal direct use cost evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Rafferty, K.

    1995-09-01

    In order to be seriously considered as an alternative in any project, an energy source must be easily characterized in terms of cost, both capital and unit energy cost. Historically, this has been a difficult hurdle for geothermal energy. Its costs vary with the depth and character of the resource, number of production and injection wells, and a host of other parameters. As a result, even in cases where developers are interested in using the geothermal, identifying its costs has been a cumbersome process. To address this problem, the Geo-Heat Center has developed a spreadsheet which allows potential users to quickly evaluate the capital cost and unit energy cost of accessing a geothermal resource.

  1. NASA Indexing Benchmarks: Evaluating Text Search Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esler, Sandra L.; Nelson, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    The current proliferation of on-line information resources underscores the requirement for the ability to index collections of information and search and retrieve them in a convenient manner. This study develops criteria for analytically comparing the index and search engines and presents results for a number of freely available search engines. A product of this research is a toolkit capable of automatically indexing, searching, and extracting performance statistics from each of the focused search engines. This toolkit is highly configurable and has the ability to run these benchmark tests against other engines as well. Results demonstrate that the tested search engines can be grouped into two levels. Level one engines are efficient on small to medium sized data collections, but show weaknesses when used for collections 100MB or larger. Level two search engines are recommended for data collections up to and beyond 100MB.

  2. Thermal lag test engines evaluated and compared to equivalent Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Tailer, P.L.

    1995-12-31

    Thermal lag engines run both free piston and with pistons kinematically linked. Free piston, a thermal lag engine may be the simplest of all piston engines as it is valveless and has only one moving part, the piston. Horizontal and vertical thermal lag engines with substantially identical cooled pistons and cylinders are tested and evaluated, particularly as to power density. The horizontal engine has an elongated, small diameter heated chamber and the vertical engine has a large diameter flat heated chamber. Both heated chambers may be altered in volume to maximize engine power at optimum compression ratios. The power density of unpressurized thermal lag engines is compared to that of early commercial Stirling cycle unpressurized air engines. The comparison indicates the potential for applying well-known modern Stirling technology to thermal lag engines.

  3. Cost/benefit analysis of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, G. E.

    1980-01-01

    The materials technologies studied included thermal barrier coatings for turbine airfoils, turbine disks, cases, turbine vanes and engine and nacelle composite materials. The cost/benefit of each technology was determined in terms of Relative Value defined as change in return on investment times probability of success divided by development cost. A recommended final ranking of technologies was based primarily on consideration of Relative Values with secondary consideration given to changes in other economic parameters. Technologies showing the most promising cost/benefits were thermal barrier coated temperature nacelle/engine system composites.

  4. Engineering and Fabrication Considerations for Cost-Effective Space Reactor Shield Development

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Thomas A.; Disney, Richard K.

    2004-02-04

    Investment in developing nuclear power for space missions cannot be made on the basis of a single mission. Current efforts in the design and fabrication of the reactor module, including the reactor shield, must be cost-effective and take into account scalability and fabricability for planned and future missions. Engineering considerations for the shield need to accommodate passive thermal management, varying radiation levels and effects, and structural/mechanical issues. Considering these challenges, design principles and cost drivers specific to the engineering and fabrication of the reactor shield are presented that contribute to lower recurring mission costs.

  5. Engineering and Fabrication Considerations for Cost-Effective Space Reactor Shield Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Thomas A.; Disney, Richard K.

    2004-02-01

    Investment in developing nuclear power for space missions cannot be made on the basis of a single mission. Current efforts in the design and fabrication of the reactor module, including the reactor shield, must be cost-effective and take into account scalability and fabricability for planned and future missions. Engineering considerations for the shield need to accommodate passive thermal management, varying radiation levels and effects, and structural/mechanical issues. Considering these challenges, design principles and cost drivers specific to the engineering and fabrication of the reactor shield are presented that contribute to lower recurring mission costs.

  6. A simplified life-cycle cost comparison of various engines for small helicopter use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Civinskas, K. C.; Fishbach, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    A ten-year, life-cycle cost comparison is made of the following engines for small helicopter use: (1) simple turboshaft; (2) regenerative turboshaft; (3) compression-ignition reciprocator; (4) spark-ignited rotary; and (5) spark-ignited reciprocator. Based on a simplified analysis and somewhat approximate data, the simple turboshaft engine apparently has the lowest costs for mission times up to just under 2 hours. At 2 hours and above, the regenerative turboshaft appears promising. The reciprocating and rotary engines are less attractive, requiring from 10 percent to 80 percent more aircraft to have the same total payload capability as a given number of turbine powered craft. A nomogram was developed for estimating total costs of engines not covered in this study.

  7. Evaluating Training: Return on Investment and Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Maria D.; Munoz, Marco A.

    Training interventions can be evaluated by calculating return on investment (ROI) and cost-benefit analysis. The four-level model proposed by Kirkpatrick is the dominant evaluation model used. Calculating ROI has been a critical issue for trainers and executives, but only a few organizations have implemented the process that is considered as…

  8. The Cost-Income Compenent of Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Norris

    Cost-income studies are designed to serve two functions in instructional program evaluation. First, they act as the indicator of the economic value of a program. This economic value in conjunction with the other educational values needed in program evaluation allow for the most realistic appraisal of program worth. Second, if the studies show a…

  9. Study of the costs and benefits of composite materials in advanced turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinhagen, C. A.; Stotler, C. L.; Neitzel, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Composite component designs were developed for a number of applicable engine parts and functions. The cost and weight of each detail component was determined and its effect on the total engine cost to the aircraft manufacturer was ascertained. The economic benefits of engine or nacelle composite or eutectic turbine alloy substitutions was then calculated. Two time periods of engine certification were considered for this investigation, namely 1979 and 1985. Two methods of applying composites to these engines were employed. The first method just considered replacing an existing metal part with a composite part with no other change to the engine. The other method involved major engine redesign so that more efficient composite designs could be employed. Utilization of polymeric composites wherever payoffs were available indicated that a total improvement in Direct Operating Cost (DOC) of 2.82 to 4.64 percent, depending on the engine considered, could be attained. In addition, the percent fuel saving ranged from 1.91 to 3.53 percent. The advantages of using advanced materials in the turbine are more difficult to quantify but could go as high as an improvement in DOC of 2.33 percent and a fuel savings of 2.62 percent. Typically, based on a fleet of one hundred aircraft, a percent savings in DOC represents a savings of four million dollars per year and a percent of fuel savings equals 23,000 cu m (7,000,000 gallons) per year.

  10. Small, low-cost, expendable turbojet engine. 1: Design, fabrication, and preliminary testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dengler, R. P.; Macioce, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    A small experimental axial-flow turbojet engine in the 2,669-Newton (600-lbf) thrust class was designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of several low-cost concepts. Design simplicity was stressed in order to reduce the number of components and machining operations. Four engines were built and tested for a total of 157 hours. Engine testing was conducted at both sea-level static and simulated flight conditions for engine speeds as high as 38,000 rpm and turbine-inlet temperatures as high as 1,255 K (1,800 F).

  11. Space Transportation Booster Engine Configuration Study. Volume 3: Program Cost estimates and work breakdown structure and WBS dictionary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the Space Transportation Booster Engine Configuration Study is to contribute to the ALS development effort by providing highly reliable, low cost booster engine concepts for both expendable and reusable rocket engines. The objectives of the Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) Configuration Study were: (1) to identify engine development configurations which enhance vehicle performance and provide operational flexibility at low cost; and (2) to explore innovative approaches to the follow-on Full-Scale Development (FSD) phase for the STBE.

  12. Evaluation of matching cost on the ISPRS stereo matching benchmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Qingxing; Tang, Xinming; Gao, Xiaoming

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we evaluated several typical matching costs including CENSUS, mutual information (MI) and the normalized cross correlation using the ISPRS Stereo Matching Benchmark datasets for DSM generation by stereo matching. Two kinds of global optimization algorithms including semi-global matching (SGM) and graph cuts (GC) were used as optimization method. We used a sub-pixel method to obtain more accurate MI lookup table and a sub-pixel method was also used when computing cost by MI lookup table. MI itself is sensitive to partial radiation differences. So we used a kind of cost combined MI and CENSUS. After DSM generation, the deviation data between the generated DSM and Lidar was statistics out to compute the mean deviation (Mean), the median deviation (Med), the standard deviation (Stdev), the normalized median absolute deviation (NMAD), the percentage of deviation in tolerance etc., which were used to evaluate the accuracy of DSM generated from different cost.

  13. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman

    2004-01-01

    During the fourth reporting period, the project team investigated the Non-Selective Catalytic Reduction technologies that are in use on rich-burn four-stroke cycle engines. Several engines were instrumented and data collected to obtain a rich set of engine emissions and performance data. During the data collection, the performance of the catalyst under a variety of operating conditions was measured. This information will be necessary to specify a set of sensors that can then be used to reliably implement NSCRs as plausible technologies to reduce NOx emissions for four-stroke cycle engines used in the E&P industry. A complete summary all the technologies investigated to data is included in the report. For each technology, the summary includes a description of the process, the emission reduction that is to be expected, information on the cost of the technology, development status, practical considerations, compatibility with other air pollutant control technologies, and any references used to obtain the information.

  14. Evaluating the cost of therapy for restenosis: considerations for brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, W S

    1996-11-01

    Costs have become increasingly important in medicine in recent years as demand for services has outstripped readily available resources. Clinical microeconomics offers an approach to understanding cost and outcomes in an environment of economic scarcity. In this article the types of costs and methods for determining cost are presented. In addition, methods for assessing outcome and outcome in relation to cost are developed. Restenosis after coronary angioplasty is a prime example of a clinical problem requiring economic evaluation. This is because it results in little serious morbidity except for recurrent chest pain, but it has serious economic consequences which occur some time after the original angioplasty. This makes the economic assessment of restenosis complicated. The application of health care microeconomic principles to brachytherapy for restenosis in the coronary arteries is presented. PMID:8960526

  15. Evaluation of Web Search Engines by Undergraduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Louise T.; Chen, Hsin-liang

    1999-01-01

    Examines how undergraduate students used four search engines--Alta Vista, Excite, Infoseek, and Lycos--to retrieve information for their studies or personal interests and how they evaluated the interaction and search results retrieved by the four engines. Measures were based on five evaluation criteria: relevance, efficiency, utility, user…

  16. Standard cost lists for health economic evaluation in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Riewpaiboon, Arthorn

    2014-05-01

    This analysis was undertaken to generate a set of standard costs for medical services and those incurred by patient receiving treatment, for use in health economic evaluations. Medical service unit cost data were derived from a survey of 3,091 hospital medical services in five hospitals, disaggregated by type of hospital (district or provincial/regional) and analyzed using the relative value unit method. Patient-borne ambulatory cost values were derived from data gathered through 905 patient interviews that took place in six health centers, three district hospitals, and three provincial/regional hospitals. The survey gathered data on costs a rising from the distance travelled to access the medical service, the time spent in the healthcare facility, as well as travel and meal costs. The analysis generated a set of standard cost data for Thailand that will make conducting economic evaluations more accurate, faster and more convenient, as well as allowing better comparability between studies. This is the first standard cost menu that has been developed specifically for Thailand, and as such should be revised and refined in the future. Some areas that would benefit from revision are suggested. PMID:24964710

  17. Evaluation of Biodiesel Production, Engine Performance, and Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürü, Metin; Keskïn, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, to decrease environmental pollution and dependence on fossil-based fuels, research on alternative renewable energy sources has been increasing. One such renewable energy source is biodiesel, which is used as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel is renewable, nontoxic, biodegradable, and environmentally friendly. Biodiesel is domestically produced from vegetable oil (edible or nonedible), animal fat, and used cooking oils. In the biodiesel production process, oil or fat undergoes transesterification reaction through use of simple alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, etc. Use of methanol is most feasible because of its low cost, and physical and chemical advantages. Acid catalysis, alkali catalysis, and enzyme catalysis are usually used to improve the reaction rate and yield. Glycerol is a byproduct of the reaction and can be used as an industrial raw material. In this study, biodiesel production methods (direct use, pyrolysis, microemulsion, transesterification, supercritical processes, ultrasound- assisted, and microwave-assisted) and types of catalyst (homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzyme) have been evaluated and compared. In addition, the effects of biodiesel and its blends on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions are described and reviewed.

  18. Evaluation of Biodiesel Production, Engine Performance, and Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürü, Metin; Keskïn, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, to decrease environmental pollution and dependence on fossil-based fuels, research on alternative renewable energy sources has been increasing. One such renewable energy source is biodiesel, which is used as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel is renewable, nontoxic, biodegradable, and environmentally friendly. Biodiesel is domestically produced from vegetable␣oil (edible or nonedible), animal fat, and used cooking oils. In the biodiesel production process, oil or fat undergoes transesterification reaction through use of simple alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, etc. Use of methanol is most feasible because of its low cost, and physical and chemical advantages. Acid catalysis, alkali catalysis, and enzyme catalysis are usually used to improve the reaction rate and yield. Glycerol is a byproduct of the reaction and can be used as an industrial raw material. In this study, biodiesel production methods (direct use, pyrolysis, microemulsion, transesterification, supercritical processes, ultrasound- assisted, and microwave-assisted) and types of catalyst (homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzyme) have been evaluated and compared. In addition, the effects of biodiesel and its blends on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions are described and reviewed.

  19. Configuration evaluation and criteria plan. Volume 1: System trades study and design methodology plan (preliminary). Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, E. K.

    1986-01-01

    The System Trades Study and Design Methodology Plan is used to conduct trade studies to define the combination of Space Shuttle Main Engine features that will optimize candidate engine configurations. This is accomplished by using vehicle sensitivities and engine parametric data to establish engine chamber pressure and area ratio design points for candidate engine configurations. Engineering analyses are to be conducted to refine and optimize the candidate configurations at their design points. The optimized engine data and characteristics are then evaluated and compared against other candidates being considered. The Evaluation Criteria Plan is then used to compare and rank the optimized engine configurations on the basis of cost.

  20. Engine Company Evaluation of Feasibility of Aircraft Retrofit Water-Injected Turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    This study supports the NASA Glenn Research Center and the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory in their efforts to evaluate the effect of water injection on aircraft engine performance and emissions. In this study, water is only injected during the takeoff and initial climb phase of a flight. There is no water injection during engine start or ground operations, nor during climb, cruise, descent, or landing. This study determined the maintenance benefit of water injection during takeoff and initial climb and evaluated the feasibility of retrofitting a current production engine, the PW4062 (Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, CT), with a water injection system. Predicted NO(x) emissions based on a 1:1 water-tofuel ratio are likely to be reduced between 30 to 60 percent in Environmental Protection Agency parameter (EPAP). The maintenance cost benefit for an idealized combustor water injection system installed on a PW4062 engine in a Boeing 747-400ER aircraft (The Boeing Company, Chicago, IL) is computed to be $22 per engine flight hour (EFH). Adding water injection as a retrofit kit would cost up to $375,000 per engine because of the required modifications to the fuel system and addition of the water supply system. There would also be significant nonrecurring costs associated with the development and certification of the system that may drive the system price beyond affordability.

  1. Critical review, comparative evaluation, cost update, and baseline data development services in oil shale mining, in-situ liquefaction, and above ground retorting processes from the environmental, permitting, and licensing viewpoints. Volume I. Oil-shale retorting process engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-15

    The present volume is the first of a series of three constituting the title study. It provides a brief but thorough description of six Oil Shale Retorting Processes, namely: Paraho, Tosco II, Oxidental Modified In-Situ, Rio Blanco, Union Oil, and Superior Oil. The processes are treated at Unit Operations level, including operations such as Mining, Crushing, Screening, Conveying, Hydrogenation (or Upgrading), Hydrogen Manufacturing Plant, Amine Treating, Low-Btu Gas Treating, Tail Gas Treating, Sulfur Recovery, Wastewater Treatment, Sour Waste Stripping, Refining, Spent Shale Disposal, etc. The present first volume of the study provides most process engineering information required in order for Control Requirements, at specific points of a given unit operations flowsheet, to be fully assessed. Flow sheets for unit operations presented in the present Volume I are only conceptual and qualitative. Some quantitative data on volumeric flow rates of specific flow streams are occasionally given. However, no systematic effort has been presently made to develop a numerical data base on process flow streams. This has been done in a much more systematic and thorough manner in another FMR study performed on behalf of DOE under title Source Terms for the Health and Environmental Effects Document (HEED) for Oil Shale - 1982. Additional original quantitative analysis has been performed by FMR towards developing material balances for specific oil shale feeds into specific retorting processes.

  2. Evaluating cost benefits of combination therapies for advanced melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Ivar S.; Zacherle, Emily; Blanchette, Christopher M.; Zhang, Jie; Yin, Wes

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although a number of monoimmunotherapies and targeted therapies are available to treat BRAF+ advanced melanoma, response rates remain relatively low in the range of 22–53% with progression-free survival (PFS) in the range of 4.8–8.8 months. Recently, combination targeted therapies have improved response rates to about 66–69%, PFS to 11.0–12.6 months and overall survival (OS) to 25.1–25.6 months. While combination immunotherapies have improved response rates of 67 compared with 19–29% with monotherapies and improved PFS of 11.7 compared with 4.4–5.8 months with monotherapies, the OS benefit is yet to be established in phase 3 trials. As healthcare costs continue to rise, US payers have a predominant interest in assessing the value of available treatments. Therefore, a cost-benefit model was developed to evaluate the value of treating BRAF+ advanced melanoma with two combination therapies: nivolumab + ipilimumab (N+I) and dabrafenib + trametinib (D+T). Scope: The model was used to estimate total costs, total costs by expenditure category, cost per month of PFS and cost per responder for the payer, and societal perspectives of treating advanced melanoma patients with the BRAF V600 mutation using combination targeted therapy (D+T) or combination immunotherapy (N+I). The model followed patients from initiation of treatment to the point of progression or death. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the robustness of the results and to understand the dispersion of simulated results. Findings: Based on a hypothetical payer with one million covered lives, it was expected that fourteen metastatic melanoma patients with the BRAF V600 mutation would be treated each year. Cost-benefit with N+I and D+T was simulated from the payer perspective. The cost per month of PFS for N+I was $22,162, while that for D+T was $17,716 (−$4,446 cost difference); the cost per responder for N+I was $388,746 and that for D+T was

  3. Plastic oil rings for diesel engines: A preliminary evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, J.A.; Dixon, R.F.; Ma, J.

    1996-09-01

    The ability of a piston oil ring to conform to liner distortions during engine operation is directly related to its radial stiffness. The ability to conform is also very important for controlling lubricant oil consumption and emissions. This paper describes the procedure utilized to investigate the technical feasibility of using flexible high performance engineering plastics to replace metal as base material for oil rings. Bench tests and engines were used to select and evaluate different types of plastics for wear resistance and structural integrity.Engine test results indicated no structural failures but wear levels were found to be unacceptably high for use in durable heavy duty diesel engines.

  4. Evaluation and application of cost estimates for hazardous waste remediation

    SciTech Connect

    LeBoeuf, E.J.; Roberts, P.V.; McCarty, P.L.

    1996-11-01

    The remediation of sites contaminated by hazardous wastes is often a very difficult and frustrating task for all parties involved. The public rightfully demands quick elimination of possible health threats caused by the contamination of the subsurface with hazardous chemicals. The government demands the same, but is also concerned with permanence of the remediation process, and ensuring the potentially responsible parties (PRP), are held fully liable for the cleanup. Finally, the PRP is concerned about all of the aforementioned factors, its reputation, and, as important, costs. It is this final aspect of hazardous waste remediation projects that has caused the largest concern. Because business and government often evaluate costs with differing criteria, it is necessary that both parties understand each other`s position, and especially the limitations and uncertainties associated with the preparation or preliminary remediation project cost estimates. Often it is these preliminary estimates that are used to determine which available technology will be employed at a specific site. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of remediation cost estimates, evaluate available cost assessment programs, and finally compare remediation technologies using the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Cost of Remedial Action (CORA) program in an actual remedial action case study.

  5. Performance Evaluation of the NEXT Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.; Domonkos, Matthew T.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    The performance test results of three NEXT ion engines are presented. These ion engines exhibited peak specific impulse and thrust efficiency ranges of 4060 4090 s and 0.68 0.69, respectively, at the full power point of the NEXT throttle table. The performance of the ion engines satisfied all project requirements. Beam flatness parameters were significantly improved over the NSTAR ion engine, which is expected to improve accelerator grid service life. The results of engine inlet pressure and temperature measurements are also presented. Maximum main plenum, cathode, and neutralizer pressures were 12,000 Pa, 3110 Pa, and 8540 Pa, respectively, at the full power point of the NEXT throttle table. Main plenum and cathode inlet pressures required about 6 hours to increase to steady-state, while the neutralizer required only about 0.5 hour. Steady-state engine operating temperature ranges throughout the power throttling range examined were 179 303 C for the discharge chamber magnet rings and 132 213 C for the ion optics mounting ring.

  6. Evaluating the costs of desalination and water transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuan; Tol, Richard S. J.

    2005-03-01

    Many regions of the world are facing formidable freshwater scarcity. Although there is substantial scope for economizing on the consumption of water without affecting its service level, the main response to water scarcity has been to increase the supply. To a large extent, this is done by transporting water from places where it is abundant to places where it is scarce. At a smaller scale and without a lot of public and political attention, people have started to tap into the sheer limitless resource of desalinated water. This study looks at the development of desalination and its costs over time. The unit costs of desalinated water for five main processes are evaluated, followed by regressions to analyze the main influencing factors to the costs. The unit costs for all processes have fallen considerably over the years. This study suggests that a cost of $1/m3 for seawater desalination and $0.6/m3 for brackish water would be feasible today. The costs will continue to decline in the future as technology progresses. In addition, a literature review on the costs of water transport is conducted in order to estimate the total cost of desalination and the transport of desalinated water to selected water stress cities. Transport costs range from a few cents per cubic meter to over a dollar. A 100 m vertical lift is about as costly as a 100 km horizontal transport ($0.05-0.06/m3). Transport makes desalinated water prohibitively expensive in highlands and continental interiors but not elsewhere.

  7. Evaluating the costs of desalination and water transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuan; Tol, Richard S. J.

    2005-03-01

    Many regions of the world are facing formidable freshwater scarcity. Although there is substantial scope for economizing on the consumption of water without affecting its service level, the main response to water scarcity has been to increase the supply. To a large extent, this is done by transporting water from places where it is abundant to places where it is scarce. At a smaller scale and without a lot of public and political attention, people have started to tap into the sheer limitless resource of desalinated water. This study looks at the development of desalination and its costs over time. The unit costs of desalinated water for five main processes are evaluated, followed by regressions to analyze the main influencing factors to the costs. The unit costs for all processes have fallen considerably over the years. This study suggests that a cost of 1/m3 for seawater desalination and 0.6/m3 for brackish water would be feasible today. The costs will continue to decline in the future as technology progresses. In addition, a literature review on the costs of water transport is conducted in order to estimate the total cost of desalination and the transport of desalinated water to selected water stress cities. Transport costs range from a few cents per cubic meter to over a dollar. A 100 m vertical lift is about as costly as a 100 km horizontal transport ($0.05-0.06/m3). Transport makes desalinated water prohibitively expensive in highlands and continental interiors but not elsewhere.

  8. Cost evaluation of alternative pharmaceutical tableting processes by simulation.

    PubMed

    Franz, R M; Banker, G S; Buck, J R; Peck, G E

    1980-06-01

    A simulation model and a subsequent computer program were developed as experimentation methods for evaluating tableting processes with respect to cost. These methods also allow estimation of the various times involved in a tableting operation (e.g., the processing time). The model was programmed in FORTRAN using the GASP IV simulation language. After verification of the program, experiments were run that involved comparing different levels of specific input variables to determine which variable had an effect on the cost-time relationships of a particular processing method. Among the possible input variables chosen for evaluation were the drying method, the type of tableting machine, the batch size, the labor rate, and the operation of the equipment in the process. An analysis of variance was made, and three separate regression equations were developed that described the relationship between the input variables and the dependent variables of processing cost and time. Graphs were developed from the regression equations by manipulating them through series of different independent variables. These graphs then were used in determining minimum costs and times, breakeven points, and rates of change, as well as in simple evaluation of processes through graphic representation. By using the simulation program to run experiments and then by analyzing them, results can be obtained to help in making intelligent decisions about the cost-time relationships of a particular tableting procedure before it is implemented. PMID:7205569

  9. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    The computational techniques are described which are utilized at Lewis Research Center to determine the optimum propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements. Cycle performance, and engine weight can be calculated along with costs and installation effects as opposed to fuel consumption alone. Almost any conceivable turbine engine cycle can be studied. These computer codes are: NNEP, WATE, LIFCYC, INSTAL, and POD DRG. Examples are given to illustrate how these computer techniques can be applied to analyze and optimize propulsion system fuel consumption, weight and cost for representative types of aircraft and missions.

  10. XFP optical engines: design considerations for low cost, high performance and small form factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bylsma, Richard B.; Hartman, Robert L.; Parayanthal, Padman

    2004-05-01

    The recent activity in transceiver and transponder multi-source agreements has led to smaller, cost efficient modules to enable telecom and datacom systems in many different applications. At data rates of 10Gb/sec these applications can be include transmission distances < 100m or greater than 80km. The transmitter optical engines which go into these products must meet many constraints in terms of performance, cost, size and manufacturability. This paper will identify some of the key design issues engineers must address and potential solutions for those issues.

  11. Global cost and weight evaluation of fuselage keel design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, B. W.; Morris, M. R.; Metschan, S. L.; Swanson, G. D.; Smith, P. J.; Griess, K. H.; Schramm, M. R.; Humphrey, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    The Boeing program entitled Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structure (ATCAS) is focused on the application of affordable composite technology to pressurized fuselage structure of future aircraft. As part of this effort, a design study was conducted on the keel section of the aft fuselage. A design build team (DBT) approach was used to identify and evaluate several design concepts which incorporated different material systems, fabrication processes, structural configurations, and subassembly details. The design concepts were developed in sufficient detail to accurately assess their potential for cost and weight savings as compared with a metal baseline representing current wide body technology. The cost and weight results, along with an appraisal of performance and producibility risks, are used to identify a globally optimized keel design; one which offers the most promising cost and weight advantages over metal construction. Lastly, an assessment is given of the potential for further cost and weight reductions of the selected keel design during local optimization.

  12. A Flexible, Low Cost, Beam Loss Monitor Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyes, George Garnet; Pimol, Piti; Juthong, Nawin; Attaphibal, Malee

    2007-01-19

    A flexible, low cost, Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) Evaluation System based on Bergoz BLMs has been developed. Monitors can easily be moved to any location for beam loss investigations and/or monitor usefulness evaluations. Different PC pulse counting cards are compared and tested for this application using the display software developed based on LabVIEW. Beam problems uncovered with this system are presented.

  13. Repository Planning, Design, and Engineering: Part II-Equipment and Costing.

    PubMed

    Baird, Phillip M; Gunter, Elaine W

    2016-08-01

    Part II of this article discusses and provides guidance on the equipment and systems necessary to operate a repository. The various types of storage equipment and monitoring and support systems are presented in detail. While the material focuses on the large repository, the requirements for a small-scale startup are also presented. Cost estimates and a cost model for establishing a repository are presented. The cost model presents an expected range of acquisition costs for the large capital items in developing a repository. A range of 5,000-7,000 ft(2) constructed has been assumed, with 50 frozen storage units, to reflect a successful operation with growth potential. No design or engineering costs, permit or regulatory costs, or smaller items such as the computers, software, furniture, phones, and barcode readers required for operations have been included. PMID:26886768

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Evaluating the New Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Theodore A.

    1997-01-01

    This commentary on a study comparing use of the brand name drug Depakene with generic valproic acid to control seizures in people with mental retardation focuses on issues of cost-effectiveness. It notes existing guidelines for pharmacoeconomic evaluation and suggests a possible model to include a threshold price (per quality-adjusted life year)…

  15. Cost Benefit and Job Analyses in Vocational Education Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Theodore

    Two major areas of concern to vocational education are cost benefit and job and task analysis. In recent years vocational education has broadened its outlook in terms of general human development, but the historical context of vocational education and concerns for accountability require evaluation of vocational education programs to consider cost…

  16. US-based Drug Cost Parameter Estimation for Economic Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Joseph F; Meek, Patrick D; Rosenberg, Marjorie A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the US, more than 10% of national health expenditures are for prescription drugs. Assessing drug costs in US economic evaluation studies is not consistent, as the true acquisition cost of a drug is not known by decision modelers. Current US practice focuses on identifying one reasonable drug cost and imposing some distributional assumption to assess uncertainty. Methods We propose a set of Rules based on current pharmacy practice that account for the heterogeneity of drug product costs. The set of products derived from our Rules, and their associated costs, form an empirical distribution that can be used for more realistic sensitivity analyses, and create transparency in drug cost parameter computation. The Rules specify an algorithmic process to select clinically equivalent drug products that reduce pill burden, use an appropriate package size, and assume uniform weighting of substitutable products. Three diverse examples show derived empirical distributions and are compared with previously reported cost estimates. Results The shapes of the empirical distributions among the three drugs differ dramatically, including multiple modes and different variation. Previously published estimates differed from the means of the empirical distributions. Published ranges for sensitivity analyses did not cover the ranges of the empirical distributions. In one example using lisinopril, the empirical mean cost of substitutable products was $444 (range $23–$953) as compared to a published estimate of $305 (range $51–$523). Conclusions Our Rules create a simple and transparent approach to create cost estimates of drug products and assess their variability. The approach is easily modified to include a subset of, or different weighting for, substitutable products. The derived empirical distribution is easily incorporated into one-way or probabilistic sensitivity analyses. PMID:25532826

  17. Test and evaluation of the HIDEC engine uptrim algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. J.; Myers, L. P.

    1986-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program will demonstrate and evaluate the improvements in performance and mission effectiveness that result from integrated engine-airframe control systems. Performance improvements will result from an adaptive engine stall margin mode, a highly integrated mode that uses the airplane flight conditions and the resulting inlet distortion to continuously compute engine stall margin. When there is excessive stall margin, the engine is uptrimmed for more thrust by increasing engine pressure ratio (EPR). The EPR uptrim logic has been evaluated and implemented into computer simulations. Thrust improvements over 10 percent are predicted for subsonic flight conditions. The EPR uptrim was successfully demonstrated during engine ground tests. Test results verify model predictions at the conditions tested.

  18. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2006-12-31

    This report highlights work done on a project intended to lower the cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting for Exploration and Production (E&P) operators by identifying, developing, testing, and commercializing emissions control and monitoring technologies. Promising technologies have already been identified and developed. Current work focuses on testing these promising technologies. Specifically, several technologies are being tested in the laboratory for application to lean-burn engines or fully characterized on-site for use with rich-burn engines. Upon completion of these tests, the most cost-effective and robust technologies will be tested in the field and commercialization will ensue. During this quarter, progress in laboratory testing for lean-burn engines was limited by maintenance issues on the KSU Ajax DP-115. The difficulties that required maintenance to be performed will likely require that the 180 psig prototype valve be tested in the future, if possible. The maintenance was performed, and it is expected that the Ajax will be available for testing in the coming quarter. Although laboratory testing was slowed as a result of maintenance issues, progress in experimental characterization of technologies has been significant. NSCR systems will be characterized as applied to rich-burn engines on-site. This characterization will ensure high-quality data in final field testing on rich-burn engines and is considered to be essential, despite that the work requires the delay of official field testing until 2008. Many preliminary and administrative tasks have been completed, including initial site selection, official proposal submittal, and beginning a process to approve necessary changes to installed field engines.

  19. Automating the Human Factors Engineering and Evaluation Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Mastromonico, C.

    2002-05-28

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has developed a software tool for automating the Human Factors Engineering (HFE) design review, analysis, and evaluation processes. The tool provides a consistent, cost effective, graded, user-friendly approach for evaluating process control system Human System Interface (HSI) specifications, designs, and existing implementations. The initial set of HFE design guidelines, used in the tool, was obtained from NUREG- 0700. Each guideline was analyzed and classified according to its significance (general concept vs. supporting detail), the HSI technology (computer based vs. non-computer based), and the HSI safety function (safety vs. non-safety). Approximately 10 percent of the guidelines were determined to be redundant or obsolete and were discarded. The remaining guidelines were arranged in a Microsoft Access relational database, and a Microsoft Visual Basic user interface was provided to facilitate the HFE design review. The tool also provides the capability to add new criteria to accommodate advances in HSI technology and incorporate lessons learned. Summary reports produced by the tool can be easily ported to Microsoft Word and other popular PC office applications. An IBM compatible PC with Microsoft Windows 95 or higher is required to run the application.

  20. Knowledge Engineering for Young Scholars. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Gloria T.

    The Knowledge Engineering for Young Scholars (KEYS) Program was a National Science Foundation (NSF) program conducted at Louisiana State University during 1989 and 1990. The program's goals were to increase 8th-12th grade students' exposure to science, acquaint them with university research, stimulate interest in science, and build their…

  1. An Evaluation of Sanitary Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, W. J.; Middlebrooks, E. J.

    This report is based on the 1966 and 1969 registers of graduate programs in the field of sanitary engineering. Data for both registers were collected by questionnaires. The first in 1965 included 56 colleges and the second in 1969 included 45 colleges offering graduate programs. The following chapters are included: Objective of the Register;…

  2. Evaluation of potential military applications of stirling engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelrich, Ivan C.; Riddell, Frederick R.

    1988-07-01

    This paper reports on the potential military applications of the Stirling engine. In the applications considered here, the major advantages cited for the Stirling engine are multifuel capability, efficiency, and low noise levels. These potential advantages are small compared to current diesels. Diesels are already able to burn broadcut fuels, have high efficiency, and can be adequately muffled. Their major disadvantages are size, weight, and cost. These disadvantages are only severe in vehicular and mobile power applications where the competition is open-cycle internal combustion engines (diesel, spark-ignition, or turbine). In underwater and space power applications where closed-cycle engines are a necessity, the use of Stirling engines shows more promise.

  3. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity. 1710.253 Section 1710.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253...

  4. A Cost Benefit Analysis of Professional Accreditation by ABET for Baccalaureate Engineering Degree Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Faye Sui Yee

    2012-01-01

    Tightening fiscal budgets and the growing emphasis on accountability has created a need to assess the value that programmatic accreditation provides. For degrees in engineering, ABET is the only organization recognized in the U.S. responsible for the programmatic accreditation. This research examines the costs and benefits of ABET accreditation to…

  5. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity. 1710.253 Section 1710.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND...

  6. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity. 1710.253 Section 1710.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND...

  7. Building Models to Better Understand the Importance of Cost versus Safety in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumrall, William; Mott, Michael

    2010-01-01

    While some disasters involving engineered structures are due to events in nature (e.g., tornadoes, hurricanes, earthquakes), others may be caused by inadequate materials, design flaws, and poor maintenance. These catastrophes result in the loss of human lives and cost billions of dollars. In the set of lessons described here, students design a…

  8. The Effectiveness of Insurer-Supported Safety and Health Engineering Controls in Reducing Workers’ Compensation Claims and Costs

    PubMed Central

    Wurzelbacher, Steven J.; Bertke, Stephen J.; Lampl, Michael P.; Bushnell, P. Timothy; Meyers, Alysha R.; Robins, David C.; Al-Tarawneh, Ibraheem S.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the effectiveness of a program in which a workers’ compensation (WC) insurer provided matching funds to insured employers to implement safety/health engineering controls. Methods Pre- and post-intervention WC metrics were compiled for the employees designated as affected by the interventions within 468 employers for interventions occurring from 2003 to 2009. Poisson, two-part, and linear regression models with repeated measures were used to evaluate differences in pre- and post-data, controlling for time trends independent of the interventions. Results For affected employees, total WC claim frequency rates (both medical-only and lost-time claims) decreased 66%, lost-time WC claim frequency rates decreased 78%, WC paid cost per employee decreased 81%, and WC geometric mean paid claim cost decreased 30% post-intervention. Reductions varied by employer size, specific industry, and intervention type. Conclusions The insurer-supported safety/health engineering control program was effective in reducing WC claims and costs for affected employees. PMID:25223846

  9. EVALUATING THE MAINTENANCE AND EFFECTS OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MICROORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concepts and methods were identified for their utility in evaluating the persistence and potential perturbations of genetically engineered microorganisms in the environment. Novel uses of DNA reassociation kinetics and gene probe technologies, in conjunction with conventional bac...

  10. Operational Issues in the Development of a Cost-Effective Reusable LOX/LH2 Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Space Launch Initiative (SLI) was initiated in early 2001 to conduct technology development and to reduce the business and technical risk associated with developing the next-generation reusable launch system. In the field of main propulsion, two LOXLH2 rocket engine systems, the Pratt & Whitney / Aerojet Joint Venture (JV) COBRA and the Rocketdyne RS-83, were funded to develop a safe, economical, and reusable propulsion system. Given that a large-thrust reusable rocket engine program had not been started in the U.S. since 1971, with the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), this provided an opportunity to build on the experience developed on the SSME system, while exploiting advances in technology that had occurred in the intervening 30 years. One facet of engine development that was identified as being especially vital in order to produce an optimal system was in the areas of operability and maintainability. In order to achieve the high levels of performance required by the Space Shuttle, the SSME system is highly complex with very tight tolerances and detailed requirements. Over the lifetime of the SSME program, the engine has required a high level of manpower to support the performance of inspections, maintenance (scheduled and unscheduled) and operations (prelaunch and post-flight). As a consequence, the labor- intensive needs of the SSME provide a significant impact to the overall cost efficiency of the Space Transportation System (STS). One of the strategic goals of the SLI is to reduce cost by requiring the engine(s) to be easier (Le. less expensive) to operate and maintain. The most effective means of accomplishing this goal is to infuse the operability and maintainability features into the engine design from the start. This paper discusses some of the operational issues relevant to a reusable LOx/LH2 main engine, and the means by which their impact is mitigated in the design phase.

  11. Fuzzy/Neural Software Estimates Costs of Rocket-Engine Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Freddie; Bourgeois, Edit Kaminsky

    2005-01-01

    The Highly Accurate Cost Estimating Model (HACEM) is a software system for estimating the costs of testing rocket engines and components at Stennis Space Center. HACEM is built on a foundation of adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) a hybrid software concept that combines the adaptive capabilities of neural networks with the ease of development and additional benefits of fuzzy-logic-based systems. In ANFIS, fuzzy inference systems are trained by use of neural networks. HACEM includes selectable subsystems that utilize various numbers and types of inputs, various numbers of fuzzy membership functions, and various input-preprocessing techniques. The inputs to HACEM are parameters of specific tests or series of tests. These parameters include test type (component or engine test), number and duration of tests, and thrust level(s) (in the case of engine tests). The ANFIS in HACEM are trained by use of sets of these parameters, along with costs of past tests. Thereafter, the user feeds HACEM a simple input text file that contains the parameters of a planned test or series of tests, the user selects the desired HACEM subsystem, and the subsystem processes the parameters into an estimate of cost(s).

  12. Building Alaska's Science and Engineering Pipeline: Evaluation of the Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Hamutal; Martin, Carlos; Eyster, Lauren; Anderson, Theresa; Owen, Stephanie; Martin-Caughey, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The Urban Institute conducted an implementation and participant-outcomes evaluation of the Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program (ANSEP). ANSEP is a multi-stage initiative designed to prepare and support Alaska Native students from middle school through graduate school to succeed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)…

  13. An Exploratory Study of Cost Engineering in Axiomatic Design: Creation of the Cost Model Based on an FR-DP Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Taesik; Jeziorek, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Large complex projects cost large sums of money throughout their life cycle for a variety of reasons and causes. For such large programs, the credible estimation of the project cost, a quick assessment of the cost of making changes, and the management of the project budget with effective cost reduction determine the viability of the project. Cost engineering that deals with these issues requires a rigorous method and systematic processes. This paper introduces a logical framework to a&e effective cost engineering. The framework is built upon Axiomatic Design process. The structure in the Axiomatic Design process provides a good foundation to closely tie engineering design and cost information together. The cost framework presented in this paper is a systematic link between the functional domain (FRs), physical domain (DPs), cost domain (CUs), and a task/process-based model. The FR-DP map relates a system s functional requirements to design solutions across all levels and branches of the decomposition hierarchy. DPs are mapped into CUs, which provides a means to estimate the cost of design solutions - DPs - from the cost of the physical entities in the system - CUs. The task/process model describes the iterative process ot-developing each of the CUs, and is used to estimate the cost of CUs. By linking the four domains, this framework provides a superior traceability from requirements to cost information.

  14. Materials Development Program, Ceramic Technology Project addendum to program plan: Cost effective ceramics for heat engines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This is a new thrust in the Ceramic Technology project. This effort represents an expansion of the program and an extension through FY 1997. Moderate temperature applications in conventional automobile and truck engines will be included along with high-temp. gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The reliability goals are expected to be met on schedule by end of FY 1993. Ceramic turbine rotors have been run (in DOE`s ATTAP program) for 1000 h at 1370C and full speed. However, the cost of ceramic components is a deterrrent to near-term commercialization. A systematic approach to reducing this cost includes the following elements: economic cost modeling, ceramic machining, powder synthesis, alternative forming and densification processes, yield improvement, system design studies, standards development, and testing and data base development. A draft funding plan is outlined. 6 figs, 1 tab.

  15. Materials Development Program, Ceramic Technology Project addendum to program plan: Cost effective ceramics for heat engines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This is a new thrust in the Ceramic Technology project. This effort represents an expansion of the program and an extension through FY 1997. Moderate temperature applications in conventional automobile and truck engines will be included along with high-temp. gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The reliability goals are expected to be met on schedule by end of FY 1993. Ceramic turbine rotors have been run (in DOE's ATTAP program) for 1000 h at 1370C and full speed. However, the cost of ceramic components is a deterrrent to near-term commercialization. A systematic approach to reducing this cost includes the following elements: economic cost modeling, ceramic machining, powder synthesis, alternative forming and densification processes, yield improvement, system design studies, standards development, and testing and data base development. A draft funding plan is outlined. 6 figs, 1 tab.

  16. A human factors evaluation using tools for automated knowledge engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomes, Marie E.; Lind, Stephanie

    1994-01-01

    A human factors evaluation of the MH-53J helicopter cockpit is described. This evaluation was an application and futher development of Tools for Automated Knowledge Engineering (TAKE). TAKE is used to acquire and analyze knowledge from domain experts (aircrew members, system designers, maintenance personnel, human factors engineers, or others). TAKE was successfully utilized for the purpose of recommending improvements for the man-machine interfaces (MMI) in the MH-53J cockpit.

  17. Comprehensive evaluation of cost effectiveness of solar electric power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibragimov, D. Y.; Filatov, A. I.

    1984-02-01

    The cost effectiveness of constructing a solar heating and electric power plant is evaluated on the basis of a compatibility analysis of its combination with a thermal electric power plant and a boiler-type heating plant, taking into account comprehensively economic factors as well as power requirements. Two variants of such a combination are considered and compared, assuming equal heating power and equal electric power respectively. Equations are set up for each variant covering fixed and variable costs of generating electric power and generating heat, as basis for comparing the two variants and optimizing them with respect to normalized annual total cost. Nomograms plotted for convenient numerical calculation of maximum economically worthwhile capital investment in a solar heating and electric power plant, depending on changes in various operating parameters, reveal that, as the time for constructing such a plant becomes longer, this maximum worthwhile investment in it increases for variant 1 and decreases for variant 2.

  18. Cost/benefit analysis of advanced material technologies for small aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comey, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Cost/benefit studies were conducted on ten advanced material technologies applicable to small aircraft gas turbine engines to be produced in the 1985 time frame. The cost/benefit studies were applied to a two engine, business-type jet aircraft in the 6800- to 9100-Kg (15,000- to 20,000-lb) gross weight class. The new material technologies are intended to provide improvements in the areas of high-pressure turbine rotor components, high-pressure turbine rotor components, high-pressure turbine stator airfoils, and static structural components. The cost/benefit of each technology is presented in terms of relative value, which is defined as a change in life cycle cost times probability of success divided by development cost. Technologies showing the most promising cost/benefits based on relative value are uncooled single crystal MAR-M 247 turbine blades, cooled DS MAR-M 247 turbine blades, and cooled ODS 'M'CrAl laminate turbine stator vanes.

  19. Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar: Research Perspectives in COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Slob, Evert; Tosti, Fabio

    2013-04-01

    can be used by GPR operators to identify the signatures generated by uncommon targets or by composite structures. Repeated evaluations of the electromagnetic field scattered by known targets can be performed by a forward solver, in order to estimate - through comparison with measured data - the physics and geometry of the region investigated by the GPR. It is possible to identify three main areas, in the GPR field, that have to be addressed in order to promote the use of this technology in the civil engineering. These are: a) increase of the system sensitivity to enable the usability in a wider range of conditions; b) research novel data processing algorithms/analysis tools for the interpretation of GPR results; c) contribute to the development of new standards and guidelines and to training of end users, that will also help to increase the awareness of operators. In this framework, the COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar", proposed by Lara Pajewski, "Roma Tre" University, Rome, Italy, has been approved in November 2012 and is going to start in April 2013. It is a 4-years ambitious project already involving 17 European Countries (AT, BE, CH, CZ, DE, EL, ES, FI, FR, HR, IT, NL, NO, PL, PT, TR, UK), as well as Australia and U.S.A. The project will be developed within the frame of a unique approach based on the integrated contribution of University researchers, software developers, geophysics experts, Non-Destructive Testing equipment designers and producers, end users from private companies and public agencies. The main objective of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst promoting the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of systems. In this interdisciplinary Action, advantages and limitations of GPR will be highlighted, leading to the identification of gaps in knowledge and technology

  20. Multimodal evaluation of tissue-engineered cartilage.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Joseph M; Welter, Jean F

    2013-02-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) has promise as a biological solution and a disease modifying treatment for arthritis. Although cartilage can be generated by TE, substantial inter- and intra-donor variability makes it impossible to guarantee optimal, reproducible results. TE cartilage must be able to perform the functions of native tissue, thus mechanical and biological properties approaching those of native cartilage are likely a pre-requisite for successful implantation. A quality-control assessment of these properties should be part of the implantation release criteria for TE cartilage. Release criteria should certify that selected tissue properties have reached certain target ranges, and should be predictive of the likelihood of success of an implant in vivo. Unfortunately, it is not currently known which properties are needed to establish release criteria, nor how close one has to be to the properties of native cartilage to achieve success. Achieving properties approaching those of native cartilage requires a clear understanding of the target properties and reproducible assessment methodology. Here, we review several main aspects of quality control as it applies to TE cartilage. This includes a look at known mechanical and biological properties of native cartilage, which should be the target in engineered tissues. We also present an overview of the state of the art of tissue assessment, focusing on native articular and TE cartilage. Finally, we review the arguments for developing and validating non-destructive testing methods for assessing TE products. PMID:23606823

  1. A cost benefit analysis of professional accreditation by ABET for baccalaureate engineering degree programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, Faye Sui Yee

    Tightening fiscal budgets and the growing emphasis on accountability has created a need to assess the value that programmatic accreditation provides. For degrees in engineering, ABET is the only organization recognized in the U.S. responsible for the programmatic accreditation. This research examines the costs and benefits of ABET accreditation to baccalaureate engineering programs in 4-year degree granting institutions. Engineering department heads, or a designee, completed an online survey containing Likert items, open-ended questions, and multiple-choice questions that addressed the costs and benefits of ABET accreditation. The greatest benefits in pursuing accreditation are the recognition and prestige programs receive and the increased career opportunities for graduates. The greatest costs are time, resources (human capital), and effort due to an over cumbersome process and ambiguous expectations. These factors likely cause programs to perceive the cost of ABET accreditation to slightly exceed the benefits. This research will further discuss the implications of the findings and propose areas for future research.

  2. Benefit/Cost Ratio in Systems Engineering: Integrated Models, Tests, Design, and Production

    SciTech Connect

    Nitta, C; Logan, R; Chidester, S; Foltz, M F

    2004-10-27

    We have previously described our methodology for quantification of risk and risk reduction, and the use of risk, quantified as a dollar value, in the Value Engineering and decision tradeoff process. In this work we extend our example theme of the safety of reactive materials during accidental impacts. We have begun to place the validation of our impact safety model into a systems engineering context. In that sense, we have made connections between the data and the trends in the data, our models of the impact safety process, and the implications regarding confidence levels and reliability based on given impact safety requirements. We have folded this information into a quantitative risk assessment, and shown the assessed risk reduction value of developing an even better model, with more model work or more experimental data or both. Since there is a cost incurred for either model improvement or testing, we have used a Benefit/Cost Ratio metric to quantify this, where Benefit is our quantification of assessed risk reduction, and cost is the cost of the new test data, code development, and model validation. This has left us with further questions posed for our evolving system engineering representation for impact safety and its implications. We had concluded that the Benefit/Cost Ratio for more model validation was high, but such improvement could take several paths. We show our progress along two such paths; simple and high fidelity modeling of the impact safety process, and the implications of our knowledge and assumptions of the probability distribution functions involved. At the other end of the systems engineering scale, we discuss the implications of our linkage from model validation to risk on our production plant operations. Naturally, the nature of most such methodologies is still evolving, and this work represents the views of the authors and not necessarily the views of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  3. Criteria for evaluating alternative MEDLINE search engines.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, M; Edwards, A; Graves, R S; Johnson, E D

    1998-01-01

    With so many options available for searching MEDLINE on the World Wide Web or as a component of an online service, evaluation criteria are suggested as a means of assisting librarians in determining the positive and negative aspects of alternative MEDLINE sites. A set of searches was utilized to systematically compare MEDLINE sites. Sites evaluated included Avicenna, America Online, HealthGate, PubMed, Medscape, and Physicians' Online. Some features used to evaluate these sites were: default fields; operators (default); access to MeSH; subheadings; stop words protected in MeSH; truncation; and stemming. This article will describe the group process used to arrive at the evaluation criteria, as well as some general conclusions which will help librarians in directing their users to a particular MEDLINE site. PMID:10621384

  4. Cost/benefit studies of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines: Materials for advanced turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, M.; Wilbers, L.

    1982-01-01

    Cost benefit studies were conducted on six advanced materials and processes technologies applicable to commercial engines planned for production in the 1985 to 1990 time frame. These technologies consisted of thermal barrier coatings for combustor and high pressure turbine airfoils, directionally solidified eutectic high pressure turbine blades, (both cast and fabricated), and mixers, tail cones, and piping made of titanium-aluminum alloys. A fabricated titanium fan blisk, an advanced turbine disk alloy with improved low cycle fatigue life, and a long-life high pressure turbine blade abrasive tip and ceramic shroud system were also analyzed. Technologies showing considerable promise as to benefits, low development costs, and high probability of success were thermal barrier coating, directionally solidified eutectic turbine blades, and abrasive-tip blades/ceramic-shroud turbine systems.

  5. Cost evaluation of control measures for indoor radon progeny.

    PubMed

    Moeller, D W; Fujimoto, K

    1984-06-01

    Based on assumed conditions within a typical U.S. home, annualized costs for reducing indoor airborne radon progeny concentrations have been calculated for a variety of methods of control. These analyses were limited to methods for control in existing homes. Control through modified construction techniques was not evaluated. Methods assessed included increased air circulation, increased ventilation, particle removal using electrostatic precipitation and unipolar ion generation, and the application of sealants to room surfaces. Although surface sealants proved to be reasonably cost-effective per person- sievert dose reduction, such sealants are prone to cracking and the durability of their effectiveness is questionable. Use of ceiling fans for increased air circulation and particle deposition appears to be least cost-effective, but this method may be attractive in some cases for reasons of comfort. The use of unipolar ion generators appears to be the best approach from the standpoint of cost effectiveness. These devices are also easy to install and are esthetically readily acceptable. PMID:6427137

  6. Engineering evaluation of a sodium hydroxide thermal energy storage module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perdue, D. G.; Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    An engineering evaluation of thermal energy storage prototypes was performed in order to assess the development status of latent heat storage media. The testing and the evaluation of a prototype sodium hydroxide module is described. This module stored off-peak electrical energy as heat for later conversion to domestic hot water needs.

  7. [Evaluation of cost effectiveness in primary health care].

    PubMed

    Busse, R; Graf von der Schulenburg, J M; Drummond, M

    1997-08-01

    Evaluation of Cost-Effectiveness in Health Care considers the background, methodology and potential political influence of economic evaluation (EE) in health care, the following conclusions can be drawn: EE is not just about cost cutting--it considers both costs and outcomes. EE needs to be integrated with decision-making procedures at different levels, namely the macro (policy) level, the meso (management) level, and the micro (clinical) level. EE needs to be seen as a part of a broader effort in health technology assessment and in relation to parallel efforts, e.g. guidelines development, quality assurance, evidence-based medicine. EE needs to be methodologically sound, but is not always possible to undertake the perfect study due to constraints of resources, time, information availability. Ways of setting priorities for EE need to be developed; this means selecting relevant topics and researchable questions. EE needs to be locally relevant; this means taking into account the variations of setting--within and between countries--and differences between trials (efficacy) and regular practice (community effectiveness). Factors that either encourage or inhibit the adoption of study results, i.e. adequate dissemination, professional support, financial incentives or political will, have to be considered. PMID:9377699

  8. Nanoparticle risk management and cost evaluation: a general framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Dominique; Bomfim, João A. S.; Metz, Sébastien; Bouillard, Jacques X.; Brignon, Jean-Marc

    2011-07-01

    Industrial production of nano-objects has been growing fast during the last decade and a wide range of products containing nanoparticles (NPs) is proposed to the public in various markets (automotive, electronics, textiles...). The issues encountered in monitoring the presence of nano-objects in any media cause a major difficulty for controlling the risk associated to the production stage. It is therefore very difficult to assess the efficiency of prevention and mitigation solutions, which potentially leads to overestimate the level of the protection barriers that are recommended. The extra costs in adding nano-objects to the process, especially that of nanosafety, must be estimated and optimized to ensure the competitiveness of the future production lines and associated products. The risk management and cost evaluation methods presented herein have been designed for application in a pilot production line of injection-moulded nanocomposites.

  9. Energy efficient engine flight propulsion system: Aircraft/engine integration evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patt, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Results of aircraft/engine integration studies conducted on an advanced flight propulsion system are reported. Economic evaluations of the preliminary design are included and indicate that program goals will be met. Installed sfc, DOC, noise, and emissions were evaluated. Aircraft installation considerations and growth were reviewed.

  10. The risk-adjusted cost evaluation of electric resource alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Duane, T.P.

    1989-01-01

    Partial deregulation of the electric utility industry has occurred under the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), which shifts the balance of both costs and risks between rate payers and electric utilities. Cost comparisons of potential electric resource Alternatives currently rely on techniques which do not explicitly incorporate risk consideration. This reflects the traditional role of regulation for rate stabilization. Risk-averse residential rate payers with low demand elasticities may highly value price risk reduction, but risk is not explicitly considered by present planning systems. There is a need to quantify the value of such price risk reduction. This research attempts to develop a Risk-Adjusted Cost Evaluation (RACE) methodology for direct comparisons of competing alternatives by a single risk-adjusted cost criterion. Methodologies have previously been developed for risk pricing in financial and commodities markets, and those techniques are evaluated for extension to the electricity market problem. Each has important deficiencies in the institutional context of electricity markets under PURPA; each also offers important insights for development of a simplified RACE methodology synthesizing those models. The methodology is applied to a large California utility, and major implementation problems are identified. The approach requires strict limiting conditions, and price risk reduction does not have a significant value to residential customers of PG and E. This may be less true for less well-diversified utilities, and several conditions are identified where more detailed assessment of risk implications is warranted. Future risk analyses research should instead focus on large, asymmetric risks. Suggestions are made for assessment of such risks through an insurance market metaphor and decision analysis methods.

  11. Apollo experience report: Data management for postflight engineering evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, G. B., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The Apollo management of data for postflight engineering evaluation is described. The sources of Apollo telemetry data, the control of data processing by a single data team, the data techniques used to assist in evaluation of the large quantity of data, and the operation of the data team before the mission and during the evaluation phase are described. The techniques used to ensure the output of valid data and to determine areas in which data were of questionable quality are also included.

  12. Graphical remedial assessment and cost evaluation (GRACE): A hydrologic- and economic-based environmental design tool

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, J.; Murdoch, L.; Koustubh, J.H.A.; Savage, K.; Uber, J. . USEPA Center Hill Solid and Hazardous Waste Research Facility )

    1992-01-01

    The cost and effectiveness of most in situ remedial efforts are closely tied to the performance of recovery systems, such as wells or interceptor trenches. GRACE is a graphic-based, recovery-system design package developed for the PC environment. The software allows engineers to design recovery systems based on both hydrologic and economic performance, evaluate the effectiveness of the design, and modify it if necessary. This capability is the result of combining a contaminant transport simulator with a cost database; the transport simulator-cost database combination allows the user to arrive at design scenarios that both meet remedial objectives and minimize costs. GRACE allows a recovery system, including such items as wells, interceptor trenches, and slurry walls, to be located on a site basemap. the on-screen layout of the recovery system components (and associated treatment and disposal facilities) accesses a detailed cost database, providing immediate feedback on the capital cost of the facility. Designing the recovery system automatically prepares an input file for the contaminant transport simulator. Output from the contaminant transport simulator is displayed in map-view via full color animation. Plume migration across the basemap graphically shows the effectiveness of the design. Individual windows may opened to display graphs of head, drawdown, or concentration through time at any location. Recovery system components are easily moved, and the contaminant transport re-simulated until the remedial objectives are met. Additionally, the system accesses information describing operating and maintenance costs of the designed system, providing estimates of total remedial cost through time.

  13. EVALUATION OF A LOW FRICTION - HIGH EFFICIENCY ROLLER BEARING ENGINE

    SciTech Connect

    Kolarik, Robert V. II; Shattuck, Charles W.; Copper, Anthony P.

    2009-06-30

    This Low Friction (High Efficiency Roller Bearing) Engine (LFE) report presents the work done by The Timken Company to conduct a technology demonstration of the benefits of replacing hydrodynamic bearings with roller bearings in the crankshaft and camshaft assemblies of an internal combustion engine for the purpose of collecting data sufficient to prove merit. The engines in the present study have been more extensively converted to roller bearings than any previous studies (40 needle roller bearings per engine) to gain understanding of the full potential of application of bearing technology. The project plan called for comparative testing of a production vehicle which was already respected for having demonstrated low engine friction levels with a rollerized version of that engine. Testing was to include industry standard tests for friction, emissions and fuel efficiency conducted on instrumented dynamometers. Additional tests for fuel efficiency, cold start resistance and other measures of performance were to be made in the actual vehicle. Comparative measurements of noise, vibration and harshness (NVH), were planned, although any work to mitigate the suspected higher NVH level in the rollerized engine was beyond the scope of this project. Timken selected the Toyota Avalon with a 3.5L V-6 engine as the test vehicle. In an attempt to minimize cost and fabrication time, a ‘made-from’ approach was proposed in which as many parts as possible would be used or modified from production parts to create the rollerized engine. Timken commissioned its test partner, FEV Engine Technology, to do a feasibility study in which they confirmed that using such an approach was possible to meet the required dimensional restrictions and tolerances. In designing the roller bearing systems for the crank and cam trains, Timken utilized as many production engine parts as possible. The crankshafts were produced from production line forgings, which use Timken steel, modified with special

  14. Low-cost solar collector test and evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, C M

    1983-01-01

    Project was to test and evaluate a highly efficient low cost solar collector and to make this technology available to the average homeowner. The basic collector design was for use in mass production, so approximately forty collector panels were made for testing and to make it simple to be hand built. The collectors performed better than expected and written and visual material was prepared to make construction easier for a first time builder. Publicity was generated to make public aware of benefits with stories by Associated Press and in publications like Popular Science.

  15. Evaluation of ceramics for stator application: Gas turbine engine report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trela, W.; Havstad, P. H.

    1978-01-01

    Current ceramic materials, component fabrication processes, and reliability prediction capability for ceramic stators in an automotive gas turbine engine environment are assessed. Simulated engine duty cycle testing of stators conducted at temperatures up to 1093 C is discussed. Materials evaluated are SiC and Si3N4 fabricated from two near-net-shape processes: slip casting and injection molding. Stators for durability cycle evaluation and test specimens for material property characterization, and reliability prediction model prepared to predict stator performance in the simulated engine environment are considered. The status and description of the work performed for the reliability prediction modeling, stator fabrication, material property characterization, and ceramic stator evaluation efforts are reported.

  16. Evaluation of activity-based costing versus resource-based relative value costing.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Mark F; Smith, Tommy H

    2004-01-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) and relative value units costing (RVU) are two approaches that a practice manager can use to determine the cost of physician services. Each costing approach has features that provide distinction as well as differentiation in the cost estimates that are estimated. This paper will provide cost estimates under each approach along with cost estimates under a hybrid approach that merges features from each costing approach known as the ABC-RVU costing technique. A comparison of the results will be provided. PMID:15018372

  17. System engineering and energy costs of small and medium wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, P K.C.

    1985-07-01

    A preliminary system-level, computational model was developed to allow broad assessment and optimization of wind turbine design and costs analysis at The Wind Energy Research Center, Solar Energy Research Institute under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE). This paper briefly describes the basic principles used in the model for energy capture and cost-of-energy (COE), and demonstrates the model's usefulness in determining the effects of rotor and system design modifications. The model's utilization for conducting parametric studies and defining the energy cost of small and medium-sized wind turbines is also shown. Topics of interest to wind turbine engineers and designers include the effects on rotor performance of airfoil geometry, blade pitch angle setting, and the system RPM schedule, etc.

  18. Technology Needs for Reduced Design and Manufacturing Cost of Commercial Transport Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohn, Douglas A.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the needs in the design and manufacturing processes and identify areas where technology could impact in cost and cycle-time reduction. At the highest level, the team first identified the goals that were in line with long-range needs of the aeropropulsion industry, and to which technology and process improvements would be required to contribute. These goals are to reduce the time and costs in the development cycle of aircraft engines by a factor of two, reduce production cycle time by a factor of four, and to reduce production costs by 25%. Also, it was the intent of the team to identify the highest impact technologies that could be developed and demonstrated in five years.

  19. Evaluation of the Arizona health care cost-containment system

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Nelda; Henton, Douglas; Crane, Michael; Haber, Susan; Freund, Deborah; Wrightson, William

    1985-01-01

    This article evaluates Arizona's alternative to the acute portion of Medicaid, the Arizona Health Care Cost-Containment System (AHCCCS), during its first 18 months of operation from October 1982 through March 1984. It focuses on the program's implementation and describes and evaluates the program's innovative features. The features of the program outlined in the original AHCCCS legislation included: Competitive bidding, prepaid capitation of providers, capitation of the State by the Health Care Financing Administration, assignment of gatekeepers, beneficiary copayment, private administration, inclusion of private and public employees and county financed long-term care. An assessment of implementation during the second 18 months of the program reporting on more recent developments and is now being prepared by SRI International. PMID:10311438

  20. The state of the art of costing health care for economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, C

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the principles of costing health care for economic evaluation are outlined. Hypothetical and published examples are used to illustrate these principles. First, the economic concept of opportunity cost is defined. Secondly, the techniques of economic evaluation which follow from this definition are introduced: they are cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis and cost-utility analysis. Thirdly, a list of costs which should be considered for inclusion in either of these types of evaluation is provided, this listing being based on the concept of opportunity cost. Problems of measurement and valuation of costs are then outlined, focusing in particular on inflation, discounting, marginal costing, patient-based versus per diem costing, allocating overheads, costing capital and equipment and adjusting distorted market valuations. An example of sensitivity analysis is provided and also a checklist of questions to ask when setting up any costing exercise within an economic evaluation. PMID:2127388

  1. A framework for improving the cost-effectiveness of DSM program evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenblick, R.; Eto, J.

    1995-09-01

    The prudence of utility demand-side management (DSM) investments hinges on their performance, yet evaluating performance is complicated because the energy saved by DSM programs can never be observed directly but only inferred. This study frames and begins to answer the following questions: (1) how well do current evaluation methods perform in improving confidence in the measurement of energy savings produced by DSM programs; (2) in view of this performance, how can limited evaluation resources be best allocated to maximize the value of the information they provide? The authors review three major classes of methods for estimating annual energy savings: tracking database (sometimes called engineering estimates), end-use metering, and billing analysis and examine them in light of the uncertainties in current estimates of DSM program measure lifetimes. The authors assess the accuracy and precision of each method and construct trade-off curves to examine the costs of increases in accuracy or precision. Several approaches for improving evaluations for the purpose of assessing program cost effectiveness are demonstrated. The methods can be easily generalized to other evaluation objectives, such as shared savings incentive payments.

  2. Advanced Low-Cost O2/H2 Engines for the SSTO Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goracke, B. David; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Nixon, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    The recent NASA Access to Space study examined future Earth to orbit (ETO) transportation needs and fleets out to 2030. The baseline in the option 3 assessment was a single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicle. A study was conducted to assess the use of new advanced low cost O2/H2 engines for this SSTO application. The study defined baseline configurations and ground rules and defined six engine cycles to explore engine performance. The cycles included an open cycle, and a series of closed cycles with varying abilities to extract energy from the propellants to power he turbomachinery. The cycles thus varied in the maximum chamber pressure they could reach and in their weights at any given chamber pressure. The weight of each cycle was calculated for two technology levels versus chamber pressure up to the power limit of the cycle. The performance in the SSTO mission was then modeled using the resulting engine weights and specific impulse performance using the Access to Space option 3 vehicle. The results showed that new O2/H2 engines are viable and competitive candidates for the SSTO application using chamber pressures of 4,000 psi.

  3. High-temperature superconducting transformer performance, cost, and market evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Dirks, J.A.; Dagle, J.E.; DeSteese, J.G.; Huber, H.D.; Smith, S.A.; Currie, J.W.; Merrick, S.B.; Williams, T.A.

    1993-09-01

    Recent laboratory breakthroughs in high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials have stimulated both the scientific community and general public with questions regarding how these materials can be used in practical applications. While there are obvious benefits from using HTS materials (most notably the potential for reduced energy losses in the conductors), a number of issues (such as overall system energy losses, cost, and reliability) may limit applications of HTS equipment, even if the well known materials problems are solved. This study examined the future application potential of HTS materials to power transformers. This study effort was part of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD) research program, Superconductivity Technology for Electric Power Systems (STEPS). The study took a systems perspective to gain insights to help guide DOE in managing research designed to realize the vision of HTS applications. Specific objectives of the study were as follows: to develop an understanding of the fundamental HTS transformer design issues that can provide guidance for developing practical devices of interest to the electric utility industry; to identify electric utility requirements for HTS transformers and to evaluate the potential for developing a commercial market; to evaluate the market potential and national benefits for HTS transformers that could be achieved by a successful HTS development program; to develop an integrated systems analysis framework, which can be used to support R&D planning by DOE, by identifying how various HTS materials characteristics impact the performance, cost, and national benefits of the HTS application.

  4. Energy technologies evaluated against climate targets using a cost and carbon trade-off curve.

    PubMed

    Trancik, Jessika E; Cross-Call, Daniel

    2013-06-18

    Over the next few decades, severe cuts in emissions from energy will be required to meet global climate-change mitigation goals. These emission reductions imply a major shift toward low-carbon energy technologies, and the economic cost and technical feasibility of mitigation are therefore highly dependent upon the future performance of energy technologies. However, existing models do not readily translate into quantitative targets against which we can judge the dynamic performance of technologies. Here, we present a simple, new model for evaluating energy-supply technologies and their improvement trajectories against climate-change mitigation goals. We define a target for technology performance in terms of the carbon intensity of energy, consistent with emission reduction goals, and show how the target depends upon energy demand levels. Because the cost of energy determines the level of adoption, we then compare supply technologies to one another and to this target based on their position on a cost and carbon trade-off curve and how the position changes over time. Applying the model to U.S. electricity, we show that the target for carbon intensity will approach zero by midcentury for commonly cited emission reduction goals, even under a high demand-side efficiency scenario. For Chinese electricity, the carbon intensity target is relaxed and less certain because of lesser emission reductions and greater variability in energy demand projections. Examining a century-long database on changes in the cost-carbon space, we find that the magnitude of changes in cost and carbon intensity that are required to meet future performance targets is not unprecedented, providing some evidence that these targets are within engineering reach. The cost and carbon trade-off curve can be used to evaluate the dynamic performance of existing and new technologies against climate-change mitigation goals. PMID:23560987

  5. Evaluation of engine coolant recycling processes: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, W.H.

    1999-08-01

    Engine coolant recycling continues to provide solutions to both economic and environmental challenges often faced with the disposal of used engine coolant. General Motors` Service Technology Group (STG), in a continuing effort to validate the general practice of recycling engine coolants, has conducted an in-depth study on the capabilities of recycled coolants. Various recycling processes ranging from complex forms of fractional distillation to simple filtration were evaluated in this study to best represent the current state of coolant recycling technology. This study incorporates both lab and (limited) fleet testing to determine the performance capabilities of the recycled coolants tested. While the results suggest the need for additional studies in this area, they reveal the true capabilities of all types of engine coolant recycling technologies.

  6. Expert System Approach For Generating And Evaluating Engine Design Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Stewart N. T.; Chew, Meng-Sang; Issa, Ghassan F.

    1989-03-01

    Artificial intelligence is becoming an increasingly important subject of study for computer scientists, engineering designers, as well as professionals in other fields. Even though AI technology is a relatively new discipline, many of its concepts have already found practical applications. Expert systems, in particular, have made significant contributions to technologies in such fields as business, medicine, engineering design, chemistry, and particle physics. This paper describes an expert system developed to aid the mechanical designer with the preliminary design of variable-stroke internal-combustion engines. The expert system accomplished its task by generating and evaluating a large number of design alternatives represented in the form of graphs. Through the application of structural and design rules directly to the graphs, optimal and near optimal preliminary design configurations of engines are deduced.

  7. A quantitative evaluation of the public response to climate engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Malcolm J.; Teagle, Damon A. H.; Feetham, Pamela M.

    2014-02-01

    Atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations continue to increase, with CO2 passing 400 parts per million in May 2013. To avoid severe climate change and the attendant economic and social dislocation, existing energy efficiency and emissions control initiatives may need support from some form of climate engineering. As climate engineering will be controversial, there is a pressing need to inform the public and understand their concerns before policy decisions are taken. So far, engagement has been exploratory, small-scale or technique-specific. We depart from past research to draw on the associative methods used by corporations to evaluate brands. A systematic, quantitative and comparative approach for evaluating public reaction to climate engineering is developed. Its application reveals that the overall public evaluation of climate engineering is negative. Where there are positive associations they favour carbon dioxide removal (CDR) over solar radiation management (SRM) techniques. Therefore, as SRM techniques become more widely known they are more likely to elicit negative reactions. Two climate engineering techniques, enhanced weathering and cloud brightening, have indistinct concept images and so are less likely to draw public attention than other CDR or SRM techniques.

  8. Evaluation and ranking of candidate ceramic wafer engine seal materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.

    1991-01-01

    Modern engineered ceramics offer high temperature capabilities not found in even the best superalloy metals. The high temperature properties of several selected ceramics including aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, and silicon nitride are reviewed as they apply to hypersonic engine seal design. A ranking procedure is employed to objectively differentiate among four different monolithic ceramic materials considered, including: a cold-pressed and sintered aluminum oxide; a sintered alpha-phase silicon carbide; a hot-isostatically pressed silicon nitride; and a cold-pressed and sintered silicon nitride. This procedure is used to narrow the wide range of potential ceramics considered to an acceptable number for future detailed and costly analyses and tests. The materials are numerically scored according to their high temperature flexural strength; high temperature thermal conductivity; resistance to crack growth; resistance to high heating rates; fracture toughness; Weibull modulus; and finally according to their resistance to leakage flow, where materials having coefficients of thermal expansion closely matching the engine panel material resist leakage flow best. The cold-pressed and sintered material (Kyocera SN-251) ranked the highest in the overall ranking especially when implemented in engine panels made of low expansion rate materials being considered for the engine, including Incoloy and titanium alloys.

  9. Evaluation and ranking of candidate ceramic wafer engine seal materials

    SciTech Connect

    Steinetz, B.M.

    1991-05-01

    Modern engineered ceramics offer high temperature capabilities not found in even the best superalloy metals. The high temperature properties of several selected ceramics including aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, and silicon nitride are reviewed as they apply to hypersonic engine seal design. A ranking procedure is employed to objectively differentiate among four different monolithic ceramic materials considered, including: a cold-pressed and sintered aluminum oxide; a sintered alpha-phase silicon carbide; a hot-isostatically pressed silicon nitride; and a cold-pressed and sintered silicon nitride. This procedure is used to narrow the wide range of potential ceramics considered to an acceptable number for future detailed and costly analyses and tests. The materials are numerically scored according to their high temperature flexural strength; high temperature thermal conductivity; resistance to crack growth; resistance to high heating rates; fracture toughness; Weibull modulus; and finally according to their resistance to leakage flow, where materials having coefficients of thermal expansion closely matching the engine panel material resist leakage flow best. The cold-pressed and sintered material (Kyocera SN{sup -251}) ranked the highest in the overall ranking especially when implemented in engine panels made of low expansion rate materials being considered for the engine, including Incoloy and titanium alloys.

  10. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The computational techniques utilized to determine the optimum propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements are described. The characteristics and use of the following computer codes are discussed: (1) NNEP - a very general cycle analysis code that can assemble an arbitrary matrix fans, turbines, ducts, shafts, etc., into a complete gas turbine engine and compute on- and off-design thermodynamic performance; (2) WATE - a preliminary design procedure for calculating engine weight using the component characteristics determined by NNEP; (3) POD DRG - a table look-up program to calculate wave and friction drag of nacelles; (4) LIFCYC - a computer code developed to calculate life cycle costs of engines based on the output from WATE; and (5) INSTAL - a computer code developed to calculate installation effects, inlet performance and inlet weight. Examples are given to illustrate how these computer techniques can be applied to analyze and optimize propulsion system fuel consumption, weight, and cost for representative types of aircraft and missions.

  11. Evaluation of Engineered Pichia stipitis Strains for Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the fermentation capabilities of five strains of Pichia stipitis that had been engineered for xylose fermentation to ethanol by USDA, ARS, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research. The strains tested were P. stipitis WT-1-11, WT-1-2, 14-2-6, 22-1-1, and 22-1-12. Strains w...

  12. Evaluation of Current Assessment Methods in Engineering Entrepreneurship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purzer, Senay; Fila, Nicholas; Nataraja, Kavin

    2016-01-01

    Quality assessment is an essential component of education that allows educators to support student learning and improve educational programs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current state of assessment in engineering entrepreneurship education. We identified 52 assessment instruments covered in 29 journal articles and conference…

  13. Product evaluation of in situ vitrification engineering, Test 4

    SciTech Connect

    Loehr, C.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Bates, S.O.

    1991-09-01

    This report is one of several that evaluates the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) Engineering-Scale Test 4 (ES-4). This document describes the chemical and physical composition, microstructure, and leaching characteristics of ES-4 product samples; these data provide insight into the expected performance of a vitrified product in an ISV buried waste application similar to that studied in ES-4.

  14. Data driven uncertainty evaluation for complex engineered system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Boyuan; Huang, Shuangxi; Fan, Wenhui; Xiao, Tianyuan; Humann, James; Lai, Yuyang; Jin, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Complex engineered systems are often difficult to analyze and design due to the tangled interdependencies among their subsystems and components. Conventional design methods often need exact modeling or accurate structure decomposition, which limits their practical application. The rapid expansion of data makes utilizing data to guide and improve system design indispensable in practical engineering. In this paper, a data driven uncertainty evaluation approach is proposed to support the design of complex engineered systems. The core of the approach is a data-mining based uncertainty evaluation method that predicts the uncertainty level of a specific system design by means of analyzing association relations along different system attributes and synthesizing the information entropy of the covered attribute areas, and a quantitative measure of system uncertainty can be obtained accordingly. Monte Carlo simulation is introduced to get the uncertainty extrema, and the possible data distributions under different situations is discussed in detail. The uncertainty values can be normalized using the simulation results and the values can be used to evaluate different system designs. A prototype system is established, and two case studies have been carried out. The case of an inverted pendulum system validates the effectiveness of the proposed method, and the case of an oil sump design shows the practicability when two or more design plans need to be compared. This research can be used to evaluate the uncertainty of complex engineered systems completely relying on data, and is ideally suited for plan selection and performance analysis in system design.

  15. Development of a Supplemental Evaluation for Engineering Design Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livesay, Glen A.; Rogge, Renee D.; Dee, Kay C.

    2010-01-01

    Compared to the learning that occurs in most engineering courses, the learning that occurs in design courses is more dependent on students, and less dependent on instructors. Because typical course evaluations are instructor-centric and do not provide information about students' contributions to their learning, we developed a supplemental…

  16. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Hohn; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2011-08-31

    This final report describes a project intended to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by E&P operators to significantly lower their cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. Technologies were installed and tested in controlled laboratory situations and then installed and tested on field engines based on the recommendations of an industry-based steering committee, analysis of installed horsepower, analysis of available emissions control and monitoring technologies, and review of technology and market gaps. The industry-recognized solution for lean-burn engines, a low-emissions-retrofit including increased airflow and pre-combustion chambers, was found to successfully control engine emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub X}) and carbon monoxide (CO). However, the standard non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR) system recognized by the industry was found to be unable to consistently control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. The standard NSCR system was observed to produce emissions levels that changed dramatically on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis. Because difficulties with this system seemed to be the result of exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensors that produced identical output for very different exhaust gas conditions, models were developed to describe the behavior of the EGO sensor and an alternative, the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor. Meanwhile, an integrated NSCR system using an advanced, signal-conditioned UEGO sensor was tested and found to control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. In conjunction with this project, advanced monitoring technologies, such as Ion Sense, and improved sensors for emissions control, such as the AFM1000+ have been developed and commercialized.

  17. Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

  18. Ceramic automotive Stirling engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

  19. Rocketdyne Development of RBCC Engine for Low Cost Access to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortwerth, P.; Ratekin, G.; Goldman, A.; Emanuel, M.; Ketchum, A.; Horn, M.

    1997-01-01

    Rocketdyne is pursuing the conceptual design and development of a Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine for booster and SSTO, advanced reusable space transportation ARTT systems under contract with NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The Rocketdyne concept is fixed geometry integrated Rocket, Ram Scramjet which is Hydrogen fueled and uses Hydrogen regenerative cooling. Vision vehicle integration studies have determined that scramjet operation to Mach 12 has high payoff for low cost reusable space transportation. Rocketdyne is internally developing versions of the concept for other applications in high speed aircraft and missiles with Hydrocarbon fuel systems. Subscale engine ground testing is underway for all modes of operation from takeoff to Mach 8. High altitude Rocket only mode tests will be completed as part of the ground test program to validate high expansion ratio performance. A unique feature of the ground test series is the inclusion of dynamic trajectory simulation with real time Mach number, altitude, engine throttling, and RBCC mode changes in a specially modified freejet test facility at GASL. Preliminary cold flow Air Augmented Rocket mode test results and Short Combustor tests have met program goals and have been used to integrate all modes of operation in a single combustor design with a fixed geometry inlet for design confirmation tests. A water cooled subscale engine is being fabricated and installed for test beginning the last quarter of 1997.

  20. Cost/benefit assessment of the application of composite materials to subsonic commercial transport engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faddoul, J. R.; Signorelli, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Results from a number of studies concerned with the cost and benefits of applying advanced composite materials to commercial turbofan engines are summarized. For each application area the optimistic and pessimistic benefit projections were averaged to arrive at a projected yearly percentage fuel savings for a commercial fleet of advanced technology transport aircraft. Engine components included in the summary are the fan section which includes fan blades, fan frame/case, and the blade containment ring; the nacelle; and the high pressure turbine blades and vanes. The projected fuel savings resulting from the application of composites are 1.85 percent for the fan section, 1.75 percent for the nacelle, and 2.35 percent for the high pressure turbine.

  1. Experimental evaluation of exhaust mixers for an Energy Efficient Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, H.; Kraft, G.

    1980-01-01

    Static scale model tests were conducted to evaluate exhaust system mixers for a high bypass ratio engine as part of the NASA sponsored Energy Efficient program. Gross thrust coefficients were measured for a series of mixer configurations which included variations in the number of mixer lobes, tailpipe length, mixer penetration, and length. All of these parameters have a significant impact on exhaust system performance. In addition, flow visualization pictures and pressure/temperature traverses were obtained for selected configurations. Parametric performance trends are discussed and the results considered relative to the Energy Efficient Engine program goals.

  2. Preliminary flight evaluation of an engine performance optimization algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, H. H.; Gilyard, G. B.; Chisholm, J. D.; Kerr, L. J.

    1991-01-01

    A performance seeking control (PSC) algorithm has undergone initial flight test evaluation in subsonic operation of a PW 1128 engined F-15. This algorithm is designed to optimize the quasi-steady performance of an engine for three primary modes: (1) minimum fuel consumption; (2) minimum fan turbine inlet temperature (FTIT); and (3) maximum thrust. The flight test results have verified a thrust specific fuel consumption reduction of 1 pct., up to 100 R decreases in FTIT, and increases of as much as 12 pct. in maximum thrust. PSC technology promises to be of value in next generation tactical and transport aircraft.

  3. Evaluation of Health Research: Measuring Costs and Socioeconomic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Roback, Kerstin; Dalal, Koustuv; Carlsson, Per

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The topic of this work is health research evaluation including basic and clinical medical research, as well as healthcare research. The main objects are to explore possible approaches for valuing research in economic terms and to prepare an analytical model for evaluation of health research using the Swedish context. The study also aims to identify potential effects and their significance, and to provide a basis for discussions about the effects of research investments. Methods: The study has reviewed ten articles indicating positive effects, in the form of improved health and economic growth. The study also developed a model applied to Swedish health research. Results: The review indicates that positive effects, in the form of improved health and economic growth, have a value that greatly exceeds the costs of the research investments. The tentative model applied to Swedish health research also indicates predominantly positive returns, but in a lower range than the review would imply. Methodological problems, however, entail major uncertainty in the cited results. Conclusions: Accurate determination of the economic value of research would require significantly better basic data and better knowledge of relationships between research, implementation of new knowledge, and health effects. Information in support of decisions about future allocation of research resources is preferably produced by a combination of general analyses and strategically selected case studies. PMID:22174959

  4. The evaluation of cost-of-illness due to use of cost-of-illness-based chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jiyeon; Lee, Yongjin; Lee, Geonwoo; Lee, Hanseul; Yang, Jiyeon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study is conducted to estimate the cost paid by the public suffering from disease possibly caused by chemical and to examine the effect on public health. Methods Cost-benefit analysis is an important factor in analysis and decision-making and is an important policy decision tool in many countries. Cost-of-illness (COI), a kind of scale-based analysis method, estimates the potential value lost as a result of illness as a monetary unit and calculates the cost in terms of direct, indirect and psychological costs. This study estimates direct medical costs, transportation fees for hospitalization and outpatient treatment, and nursing fees through a number of patients suffering from disease caused by chemicals in order to analyze COI, taking into account the cost of productivity loss as an indirect cost. Results The total yearly cost of the diseases studied in 2012 is calculated as 77 million Korean won (KRW) per person. The direct and indirect costs being 52 million KRW and 23 million KRW, respectively. Within the total cost of illness, mental and behavioral disability costs amounted to 16 million KRW, relevant blood immunological parameters costs were 7.4 million KRW, and disease of the nervous system costs were 6.7 million KRW. Conclusions This study reports on a survey conducted by experts regarding diseases possibly caused by chemicals and estimates the cost for the general public. The results can be used to formulate a basic report for a social-economic evaluation of the permitted use of chemicals and limits of usage. PMID:26206367

  5. Modification and performance evaluation of a mono-valve engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, Justin W.

    A four-stroke engine utilizing one tappet valve for both the intake and exhaust gas exchange processes has been built and evaluated. The engine operates under its own power, but has a reduced power capacity than the conventional 2-valve engine. The reduction in power is traced to higher than expected amounts of exhaust gases flowing back into the intake system. Design changes to the cylinder head will fix the back flow problems, but the future capacity of mono-valve engine technology cannot be estimated. The back flow of exhaust gases increases the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate and deteriorates combustion. Intake pressure data shows the mono-valve engine requires an advanced intake valve closing (IVC) time to prevent back flow of charge air. A single actuation camshaft with advanced IVC was tested in the mono-valve engine, and was found to improve exhaust scavenging at TDC and nearly eliminated all charge air back flow at IVC. The optimum IVC timing is shown to be approximately 30 crank angle degrees after BDC. The mono-valve cylinder head utilizes a rotary valve positioned above the tappet valve. The open spaces inside the rotary valveand between the rotary valve and tappet valve represent a common volume that needs to be reduced in order to reduce the base EGR rate. Multiple rotary valve configurations were tested, and the size of the common volume was found to have no effect on back flow but a direct effect on the EGR rate and engine performance. The position of the rotary valve with respect to crank angle has a direct effect on the scavenging process. Optimum scavenging occurs when the intake port is opened just after TDC.

  6. Engineering Halomonas TD01 for the low-cost production of polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    PubMed

    Tan, Dan; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Jin-Chun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2014-11-01

    The halophile Halomonas TD01 and its derivatives have been successfully developed as a low-cost platform for the unsterile and continuous production of chemicals. Therefore, to increase the genetic engineering stability of this platform, the DNA restriction/methylation system of Halomonas TD01 was partially inhibited. In addition, a stable and conjugative plasmid pSEVA341 with a high-copy number was constructed to contain a LacI(q)-Ptrc system for the inducible expression of multiple pathway genes. The Halomonas TD01 platform, was further engineered with its 2-methylcitrate synthase and three PHA depolymerases deleted within the chromosome, resulting in the production of the Halomonas TD08 strain. The overexpression of the threonine synthesis pathway and threonine dehydrogenase made the recombinant Halomonas TD08 able to produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) or PHBV consisting of 4-6 mol% 3-hydroxyvalerate or 3 HV, from various carbohydrates as the sole carbon source. The overexpression of the cell division inhibitor MinCD during the cell growth stationary phase in Halomonas TD08 elongated its shape to become at least 1.4-fold longer than its original size, resulting in enhanced PHB accumulation from 69 wt% to 82 wt% in the elongated cells, further promoting gravity-induced cell precipitations that simplify the downstream processing of the biomass. The resulted Halomonas strains contributed to further reducing the PHA production cost. PMID:25217798

  7. Investigation of the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures on road safety in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Yannis, George; Kondyli, Alexandra; Georgopoulou, Xenia

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures (LCTEMs) on the improvement of road safety in urban areas. A number of such measures were considered, such as speed humps, woonerfs, raised intersections and other traffic calming measures, which have been implemented on one-way, one-lane roads in the Municipality of Neo Psychiko in the Greater Athens Area. Data were analysed using the before-and-after safety analysis methodology with large control group. The selected control group comprised of two Municipalities in the Athens Greater Area, which present similar road network and land use characteristics with the area considered. The application of the methodology showed that the total number of crashes presented a statistically significant reduction, which can be possibly attributed to the introduction of LCTEMs. This reduction concerns passenger cars and single-vehicle crashes and is possibly due to the behavioural improvement of drivers of 25 years old or more. The results of this research are very useful for the identification of the appropriate low cost traffic engineering countermeasures for road safety problems in urban areas. PMID:23651448

  8. Production of Diesel Engine Turbocharger Turbine from Low Cost Titanium Powder

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, T. R.; Mayer, R.

    2012-05-04

    Turbochargers in commercial turbo-diesel engines are multi-material systems where usually the compressor rotor is made of aluminum or titanium based material and the turbine rotor is made of either a nickel based superalloy or titanium, designed to operate under the harsh exhaust gas conditions. The use of cast titanium in the turbine section has been used by Cummins Turbo Technologies since 1997. Having the benefit of a lower mass than the superalloy based turbines; higher turbine speeds in a more compact design can be achieved with titanium. In an effort to improve the cost model, and develop an industrial supply of titanium componentry that is more stable than the traditional aerospace based supply chain, the Contractor has developed component manufacturing schemes that use economical Armstrong titanium and titanium alloy powders and MgR-HDH powders. Those manufacturing schemes can be applied to compressor and turbine rotor components for diesel engine applications with the potential of providing a reliable supply of titanium componentry with a cost and performance advantage over cast titanium.

  9. U. S. Army evaluation of NATO multigraded engine oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, T.C.; Frame, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the United States effort in a cooperative NATO program investigating the performance characteristics of multigraded engine oils. Seven lubricants (one Grade 10W-30 oil, five Grade 15W 40 oils and a 20W-40 oil) were evaluated using the diesel engine performance tests required for qualification of MIL-L-2104D engine oils. Two test oils (one Grade 15W-40 oil and the Grade 20W-40 oil) met the 1G2 four-cycle diesel performance established for MIL-L-2104D specification. Three products (two Grade 15W-40 oils and the Grade 20W-40 oil) demonstrated acceptable 6V-53T, two-cycle, diesel performance. However, only the Grade 20W-40 oil showed acceptable performance in both tests. Based on the results of the program, one conclusion is that multigrated 15W-40 and 20W-40 oils have the capability to demonstrate acceptable diesel engine performance as defined by the MIL-L-2104D engine specification.

  10. Two Rotor Stratified Charge Rotary Engine (SCRE) Engine System Technology Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, T.; Mack, J.; Mount, R.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes results of an evaluation of technology enablement component technologies as integrated into a two rotor Stratified Charge Rotary Engine (SCRE). The work constitutes a demonstration of two rotor engine system technology, utilizing upgraded and refined component technologies derived from prior NASA Contracts NAS3-25945, NAS3-24628 and NAS-23056. Technical objectives included definition of, procurement and assembly of an advanced two rotor core aircraft engine, operation with Jet-A fuel at Take-Off rating of 340 BHP (254kW) and operation at a maximum cruise condition of 255 BHP (190kW), 75% cruise. A fuel consumption objective of 0.435 LBS/BHP-Hr (265 GRS/kW-Hr) was identified for the maximum cruise condition. A critical technology component item, a high speed, unit injector fuel injection system with electronic control was defined, procured and tested in conjunction with this effort. The two rotor engine configuration established herein defines an affordable, advanced, Jet-A fuel capability core engine (not including reduction gear, propeller shaft and some aircraft accessories) for General Aviation of the mid-1990's and beyond.

  11. Developing an SDK of usability-engineered handheld evaluation aid.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chiao-Ling; Chang, Polun

    2007-01-01

    Handheld devices are useful tools to collect date at practice settings. However, it takes time and is very challenging for healthcare professionals to design a usability-engineered system. This study is to upgrade our practically-proven easy to use and effective handheld systems to an SDK. The SDK are composed of Excel-based form designer and Palm-based template. We have successfully tested the prototype in developing a 407-question homecare evaluation support system. PMID:18694082

  12. Cost Effectiveness Ratio: Evaluation Tool for Comparing the Effectiveness of Similar Extension Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayaratne, K. S. U.

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been challenged to be cost effective in their educational programming. The cost effectiveness ratio is a versatile evaluation indicator for Extension educators to compare the cost of achieving a unit of outcomes or educating a client in similar educational programs. This article describes the cost effectiveness ratio and…

  13. Programme costs in the economic evaluation of health interventions

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Benjamin; Baltussen, Rob; Hutubessy, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    Estimating the costs of health interventions is important to policy-makers for a number of reasons including the fact that the results can be used as a component in the assessment and improvement of their health system performance. Costs can, for example, be used to assess if scarce resources are being used efficiently or whether there is scope to reallocate them in a way that would lead to improvements in population health. As part of its WHO-CHOICE project, WHO has been developing a database on the overall costs of health interventions in different parts of the world as an input to discussions about priority setting. Programme costs, defined as costs incurred at the administrative levels outside the point of delivery of health care to beneficiaries, may comprise an important component of total costs. Cost-effectiveness analysis has sometimes omitted them if the main focus has been on personal curative interventions or on the costs of making small changes within the existing administrative set-up. However, this is not appropriate for non-personal interventions where programme costs are likely to comprise a substantial proportion of total costs, or for sectoral analysis where questions of how best to reallocate all existing health resources, including administrative resources, are being considered. This paper presents a first effort to systematically estimate programme costs for many health interventions in different regions of the world. The approach includes the quantification of resource inputs, choice of resource prices, and accounts for different levels of population coverage. By using an ingredients approach, and making tools available on the World Wide Web, analysts can adapt the programme costs reported here to their local settings. We report results for a selected number of health interventions and show that programme costs vary considerably across interventions and across regions, and that they can contribute substantially to the overall costs of

  14. Evaluation of the Field Test of Project Information Packages: Volume III--Resource Cost Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Salam, Nabeel; And Others

    The third of three volumes evaluating the first year field test of the Project Information Packages (PIPs) provides a cost analysis study as a key element in the total evaluation. The resource approach to cost analysis is explained and the specific resource methodology used in the main cost analysis of the 19 PIP field-test projects detailed. The…

  15. 48 CFR 52.247-50 - No Evaluation of Transportation Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Costs. 52.247-50 Section 52.247-50 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.247-50 No Evaluation of Transportation Costs. As prescribed in 47.305-5(c)(1), insert the... establish tentative or general delivery places for the purpose of evaluating transportation costs:...

  16. 10 CFR 436.42 - Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. 436.42... PROGRAMS Agency Procurement of Energy Efficient Products § 436.42 Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost...) ENERGY STAR qualified and FEMP designated products may be assumed to be life-cycle cost-effective. (b)...

  17. 10 CFR 436.42 - Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. 436.42... PROGRAMS Agency Procurement of Energy Efficient Products § 436.42 Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost...) ENERGY STAR qualified and FEMP designated products may be assumed to be life-cycle cost-effective. (b)...

  18. 10 CFR 436.42 - Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. 436.42... PROGRAMS Agency Procurement of Energy Efficient Products § 436.42 Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost...) ENERGY STAR qualified and FEMP designated products may be assumed to be life-cycle cost-effective. (b)...

  19. 10 CFR 436.42 - Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. 436.42... PROGRAMS Agency Procurement of Energy Efficient Products § 436.42 Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost...) ENERGY STAR qualified and FEMP designated products may be assumed to be life-cycle cost-effective. (b)...

  20. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman

    2003-12-01

    During the second reporting period, the project team focused on identifying promising technologies that can then be used to monitor and control emissions from E&P engines. These technologies include control and monitoring technologies and in most cases can be used to monitor engine performance as well as control and monitor engine emissions. The project team also identified three potential sources to receive a Cooper Ajax engine that is approximately 100 bhp. The goal is to have this engine delivered to the project team by the end of the calendar year 2003. This will then allow the team to prepare the engine for testing at Ricardo in early 2004.

  1. Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsden, T.

    2013-04-01

    This report discusses an analysis of the total cost of ownership of fuel cell-powered and traditional battery-powered material handling equipment (MHE, or more typically 'forklifts'). A number of fuel cell MHE deployments have received funding support from the federal government. Using data from these government co-funded deployments, DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been evaluating the performance of fuel cells in material handling applications. NREL has assessed the total cost of ownership of fuel cell MHE and compared it to the cost of ownership of traditional battery-powered MHE. As part of its cost of ownership assessment, NREL looked at a range of costs associated with MHE operation, including the capital costs of battery and fuel cell systems, the cost of supporting infrastructure, maintenance costs, warehouse space costs, and labor costs. Considering all these costs, NREL found that fuel cell MHE can have a lower overall cost of ownership than comparable battery-powered MHE.

  2. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) space transportation cost analysis and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A picture of Space Power Systems space transportation costs at the present time is given with respect to accuracy as stated, reasonableness of the methods used, assumptions made, and uncertainty associated with the estimates. The approach used consists of examining space transportation costs from several perspectives to perform a variety of sensitivity analyses or reviews and examine the findings in terms of internal consistency and external comparison with analogous systems. These approaches are summarized as a theoretical and historical review including a review of stated and unstated assumptions used to derive the costs, and a performance or technical review. These reviews cover the overall transportation program as well as the individual vehicles proposed. The review of overall cost assumptions is the principal means used for estimating the cost uncertainty derived. The cost estimates used as the best current estimate are included.

  3. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) space transportation cost analysis and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a clear picture of SPS space transportation costs at the present time with respect to their accuracy as stated, the reasonableness of the methods used, the assumptions made, and the uncertainty associated with the estimates. The approach used consists of examining space transportation costs from several perspectives - to perform a variety of sensitivity analyses or reviews and examine the findings in terms of internal consistency and external comparison with analogous systems. These approaches are summarized as a theoretical and historical review including a review of stated and unstated assumptions used to derive the costs, and a performance or technical review. These reviews cover the overall transportation program as well as the individual vehicles proposed. The review of overall cost assumptions is the principal means used for estimating the cost uncertainty derived. The cost estimates used as the best current estimate are included.

  4. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes. Final separating media evaluation and test report (FSMER)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-19

    {open_quotes}Evaluation Engineering and Development of Advanced Cyclone Processes{close_quotes} is one of the DOE-PETC sponsored advanced coal cleaning projects, which share a number of specific goals. These goals are to produce a 6% ash product, reject 85% of the parent coal`s pyritic sulfur, recover 85% of the parent coal`s Btu value, and provide products that are less than 30% moisture. The process in this project, as the name implies, relies on a cyclone or cyclonic separator to achieve physical beneficiation based on the gravimetric differences between clean coal and its impurities. Just as important as the cyclonic separator, if not more so, is the selection of a parting liquid or medium for use in the separator. Selection of a separating medium is regarded as a significant portion of the project because it has a profound impact on the required unit operations, the performance of the separator, and economics of the process. The choice of medium especially influences selection of media recovery system(s), and the characteristics of clean coal and refuse products. Since medium selection is such an important aspect of the project, portions of the project are dedicated to the study, evaluation, and selection of the most desirable medium. Though separators are an important component, this project initially focused on media study, rather than the separators themselves. In coal processing, discussion of media requires description of the handling and recovery system(s), separation performance, interaction with coal, cost, and health, environmental and safety issues. In order to be effective, a candidate must perform well in all of these categories.

  5. 48 CFR 247.372 - DD Form 1654, Evaluation of Transportation Cost Factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of Transportation Cost Factors. 247.372 Section 247.372 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 247.372 DD Form 1654, Evaluation of Transportation Cost Factors....

  6. How Much do Needlestick Injuries Cost? A Systematic Review of the Economic Evaluations of Needlestick and Sharps Injuries Among Healthcare Personnel.

    PubMed

    Mannocci, Alice; De Carli, Gabriella; Di Bari, Virginia; Saulle, Rosella; Unim, Brigid; Nicolotti, Nicola; Carbonari, Lorenzo; Puro, Vincenzo; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To provide an overview of the economic aspects of needlestick and sharps injury (NSI) management among healthcare personnel (HCP) within a Health Technology Assessment project to evaluate the impact of safety-engineered devices on health care METHODS A systematic review of economic analyses related to NSIs was performed in accordance with the PRISMA statement and by searching PubMed and Scopus databases (January 1997-February 2015). Mean costs were stratified by study approach (modeling or data driven) and type of cost (direct or indirect). Costs were evaluated using the CDC operative definition and converted to 2015 International US dollars (Int$). RESULTS A total of 14 studies were retrieved: 8 data-driven studies and 6 modeling studies. Among them, 11 studies provided direct and indirect costs and 3 studies provided only direct costs. The median of the means for aggregate (direct + indirect) costs was Int$747 (range, Int$199-Int$1,691). The medians of the means for disaggregated costs were Int$425 (range, Int$48-Int$1,516) for direct costs (9 studies) and Int$322 (range, Int$152-Int$413) for indirect costs (6 studies). When compared with data-driven studies, modeling studies had higher disaggregated and aggregated costs, but data-driven studies showed greater variability. Indirect costs were consistent between studies, mostly referring to lost productivity, while direct costs varied widely within and between studies according to source infectivity, HCP susceptibility, and post-exposure diagnostic and prophylactic protocols. Costs of treating infections were not included, and intangible costs could equal those associated with NSI medical evaluations. CONCLUSIONS NSIs generate significant direct, indirect, potential, and intangible costs, possibly increasing over time. Economic efforts directed at preventing occupational exposures and infections, including provision of safety-engineered devices, may be offset by the savings from a lower incidence of NSIs

  7. Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES): Raising the Bar on Engine Technology with Increased Efficiency and Reduced Emissions, at Attractive Costs

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    This is a fact sheet on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems program (ARES), which is designed to promote separate, but parallel engine development between the major stationary, gaseous fueled engine manufacturers in the United States.

  8. [Evaluation of the cost of stroke management in Dakar, Senegal].

    PubMed

    Touré, K; Ndiaye, N M; Sène Diouf, F; Ndiaye, M; Diallo, A K; Ndao, A K; Thiam, A; Diagne, M; Diop, A G; Ndiaye, M N; Ndiaye, I P

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this one-year cross-sectional study conducted in 1997 was to estimate the direct cost of stroke management in the Neurology Department of Fann University Hospital in Dakar, Senegal. Data were collected about the type of care services required and related spending. Cost analysis was made in CFA Francs (CFAF), the Senegalese currency (1 USD = 500 CFAF in 1997). A total of 1260 patients were hospitalized in the department including 383 for stroke (30.4%). Mean age was 60.8 +/- 14.2 years and men accounted for 49.2% of the population. The mortality rate was 46.2% among hospitalized patients. A total of 33,573 medical acts were carried out including 12,052 (35.9%) for stroke management. The direct cost of stroke management was 32,614,442 CFAF with a mean cost of 78,426 CFAF per patient. The cost was 18,839 CFAF in the patient care unit (57.8%) and 4,954,635 CFAF in the neuroradiology unit (15.2%). The cost of health care personnel was 19,373,172 CFAF (59.4%) and the cost for drugs and other medical products was 8,253,246 CFAF. Health education programs aimed at increasing awareness of risk factors are needed to reduce the cost of stroke management in this difficult economic period. PMID:16465816

  9. Cost Efficiency in the University: A Departmental Evaluation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimenez, Victor M.; Martinez, Jose Luis

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a model for the analysis of cost efficiency within the framework of data envelopment analysis models. It calculates the cost excess, separating a unit of production from its optimal or frontier levels, and, at the same time, breaks these excesses down into three explanatory factors: (a) technical inefficiency, which depends…

  10. Experimental Evaluation of the Free Piston Engine - Linear Alternator (FPLA).

    SciTech Connect

    Leick, Michael T.; Moses, Ronald W.

    2015-03-01

    This report describes the experimental evaluation of a prototype free piston engine - linear alternator (FPLA) system developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The opposed piston design wa developed to investigate its potential for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The system is mechanically simple with two - stroke uniflow scavenging for gas exchange and timed port fuel injection for fuel delivery, i.e. no complex valving. Electrical power is extracted from piston motion through linear alternators wh ich also provide a means for passive piston synchronization through electromagnetic coupling. In an HEV application, this electrical power would be used to charge the batteries. The engine - alternator system was designed, assembled and operated over a 2 - year period at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA. This report primarily contains a description of the as - built system, modifications to the system to enable better performance, and experimental results from start - up, motoring, and hydrogen combus tion tests.

  11. Engine exhaust characteristics evaluation in support of aircraft acoustic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.

    1994-02-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and NASA Langley Research Center completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Test objectives were (1) to quantify and evaluate subsonic climb-to-cruise noise and (2) to obtain a quality noise database for use in validating the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. These tests were conducted using aircraft with engines that represent the high nozzle pressure ratio of future transport designs. Test flights were completed at subsonic speeds that exceeded Mach 0.3 using F-18 and F-16XL aircraft. This paper describes the efforts of NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility in this flight test program. Topics discussed include the test aircraft, setup, and matrix. In addition, the engine modeling codes and nozzle exhaust characteristics are described.

  12. Engine exhaust characteristics evaluation in support of aircraft acoustic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.

    1993-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and NASA Langley Research Center completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Test objectives were (1) to quantify and evaluate subsonic climb-to-cruise noise and (2) to obtain a quality noise database for use in validating the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. These tests were conducted using aircraft with engines that represent the high nozzle pressure ratio of future transport designs. Test flights were completed at subsonic speeds that exceeded Mach 0.3 using F-18 and F-16XL aircraft. This paper describes the efforts of NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility in this flight test program. Topics discussed include the test aircraft, setup, and matrix. In addition, the engine modeling codes and nozzle exhaust characteristics are described.

  13. Evaluation of scavenging in two-stroke-cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venediger, Herbert J

    1934-01-01

    The viewpoints are discussed, according to which the scavenging of two-stroke-cycle engines can be evaluated, and the relations between scavenging pressure and the quantity of the scavenging medium required, as also between the scavenging pressure and the revolution speed, are developed. It is further shown that the power increase is limited by the scavenging process, so that further researches are desirable for qualitative improvement. These results lead to several conclusions regarding the propulsion of motor vehicles by the two-stroke-cycle engines. Lastly, attention is called to the fundamental defect of the two-dimensional treatment of the scavenging process and to the consequent distinction between the two-dimensional and three-dimensional scavenging-type efficiency.

  14. Engine exhaust characteristics evaluation in support of aircraft acoustic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and NASA Langley Research Center completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Test objectives were (1) to quantify and evaluate subsonic climb-to-cruise noise and (2) to obtain a quality noise database for use in validating the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. These tests were conducted using aircraft with engines that represent the high nozzle pressure ratio of future transport designs. Test flights were completed at subsonic speeds that exceeded Mach 0.3 using F-18 and F-16XL aircraft. This paper describes the efforts of NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility in this flight test program. Topics discussed include the test aircraft, setup, and matrix. In addition, the engine modeling codes and nozzle exhaust characteristics are described.

  15. Toward a comprehensive and realistic risk evaluation of engineered nanomaterials in the urban water system

    PubMed Central

    Duester, Lars; Burkhardt, Michael; Gutleb, Arno C.; Kaegi, Ralf; Macken, Ailbhe; Meermann, Björn; von der Kammer, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The European COoperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action ES1205 on the transfer of Engineered Nano materials from wastewater Treatment and stormwatEr to Rivers (ENTER) aims to create and to maintain a trans European network among scientists. This perspective article delivers a brief overview on the status quo at the beginning of the project by addressing the following aspects on engineered nano materials (ENMs) in the urban systems: (1) ENMs that need to be considered on a European level; (2) uncertainties on production-volume estimations; (3) fate of selected ENMs during waste water transport and treatment; (4) analytical strategies for ENM analysis; (5) ecotoxicity of ENMs, and (6) future needs. These six step stones deliver the derivation of the position of the ES1205 network at the beginning of the projects runtime, by defining six fundamental aspects that should be considered in future discussions on risk evaluation of ENMs in urban water systems. PMID:25003102

  16. Design and evaluation of fluidized bed heat recovery for diesel engine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamm, J. R.; Newby, R. A.; Vidt, E. J.; Lippert, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    The potential of utilizing fluidized bed heat exchangers in place of conventional counter-flow heat exchangers for heat recovery from adiabatic diesel engine exhaust gas streams was studied. Fluidized bed heat recovery systems were evaluated in three different heavy duty transport applications: (1) heavy duty diesel truck; (2) diesel locomotives; and (3) diesel marine pushboat. The three applications are characterized by differences in overall power output and annual utilization. For each application, the exhaust gas source is a turbocharged-adiabatic diesel core. Representative subposed exhaust gas heat utilization power cycles were selected for conceptual design efforts including design layouts and performance estimates for the fluidized bed heat recovery heat exchangers. The selected power cycles were: organic rankine with RC-1 working fluid, turbocompound power turbine with steam injection, and stirling engine. Fuel economy improvement predictions are used in conjunction with capital cost estimates and fuel price data to determine payback times for the various cases.

  17. Engineering metal-impurity nanodefects for low-cost solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Buonassisi, Tonio; Istratov, Andrei A.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Lai, Barry; Cai, Zhonghou; Heald, Steve M.; Weber, Eicke R.

    2005-09-30

    As the demand for high-quality solar-cell feedstock exceeds supply and drives prices upwards, cheaper but dirtier alternative feedstock materials are being developed. Successful use of these alternative feedstocks requires that one rigorously control the deleterious effects of the more abundant metallic impurities. In this study, we demonstrate how metal nanodefect engineering can be used to reduce the electrical activity of metallic impurities, resulting in dramatic enhancements of performance even in heavily contaminated solar-cell material. Highly sensitive synchrotron-based measurements directly confirm that the spatial and size distributions of metal nanodefects regulate the minority-carrier diffusion length, a key parameter for determining the actual performance of solar-cell devices. By engineering the distributions of metal-impurity nanodefects in a controlled fashion, the minority-carrier diffusion length can be increased by up to a factor of four, indicating that the use of lower-quality feedstocks with proper controls may be a viable alternative to producing cost-effective solar cells.

  18. Comprehensive investigation into historical pipeline construction costs and engineering economic analysis of Alaska in-state gas pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Zhenhua

    This study analyzes historical cost data of 412 pipelines and 220 compressor stations. On the basis of this analysis, the study also evaluates the feasibility of an Alaska in-state gas pipeline using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Analysis of pipeline construction costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary by diameter, length, volume, year, and location. Overall average learning rates for pipeline material and labor costs are 6.1% and 12.4%, respectively. Overall average cost shares for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, and right of way (ROW) are 31%, 40%, 23%, and 7%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate pipeline component costs for different lengths, cross-sectional areas, and locations. An analysis of inaccuracy in pipeline cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation of pipeline cost components is biased except for in the case of total costs. Overall overrun rates for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, ROW, and total costs are 4.9%, 22.4%, -0.9%, 9.1%, and 6.5%, respectively, and project size, capacity, diameter, location, and year of completion have different degrees of impacts on cost overruns of pipeline cost components. Analysis of compressor station costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary in terms of capacity, year, and location. Average learning rates for compressor station material and labor costs are 12.1% and 7.48%, respectively. Overall average cost shares of material, labor, miscellaneous, and ROW are 50.6%, 27.2%, 21.5%, and 0.8%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate compressor station component costs in different capacities and locations. An investigation into inaccuracies in compressor station cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation for compressor stations is biased except for in the case of material costs. Overall average

  19. Genetically engineered maize plants reveal distinct costs and benefits of constitutive volatile emissions in the field.

    PubMed

    Robert, Christelle Aurélie Maud; Erb, Matthias; Hiltpold, Ivan; Hibbard, Bruce Elliott; Gaillard, Mickaël David Philippe; Bilat, Julia; Degenhardt, Jörg; Cambet-Petit-Jean, Xavier; Turlings, Ted Christiaan Joannes; Zwahlen, Claudia

    2013-06-01

    Genetic manipulation of plant volatile emissions is a promising tool to enhance plant defences against herbivores. However, the potential costs associated with the manipulation of specific volatile synthase genes are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the physiological and ecological effects of transforming a maize line with a terpene synthase gene in field and laboratory assays, both above- and below ground. The transformation, which resulted in the constitutive emission of (E)-β-caryophyllene and α-humulene, was found to compromise seed germination, plant growth and yield. These physiological costs provide a possible explanation for the inducibility of an (E)-β-caryophyllene-synthase gene in wild and cultivated maize. The overexpression of the terpene synthase gene did not impair plant resistance nor volatile emission. However, constitutive terpenoid emission increased plant apparency to herbivores, including adults and larvae of the above ground pest Spodoptera frugiperda, resulting in an increase in leaf damage. Although terpenoid overproducing lines were also attractive to the specialist root herbivore Diabrotica virgifera virgifera below ground, they did not suffer more root damage in the field, possibly because of the enhanced attraction of entomopathogenic nematodes. Furthermore, fewer adults of the root herbivore Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardii were found to emerge near plants that emitted (E)-β-caryophyllene and α-humulene. Yet, overall, under the given field conditions, the costs of constitutive volatile production overshadowed its benefits. This study highlights the need for a thorough assessment of the physiological and ecological consequences of genetically engineering plant signals in the field to determine the potential of this approach for sustainable pest management strategies. PMID:23425633

  20. Evaluation of engine coolants under flow boiling conditions

    SciTech Connect

    McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Stinson, C.; Gollin, M.

    1995-12-31

    An experimental program has been conducted to evaluate the heat transfer performance of two engine coolant mixtures, propylene-glycol/water and ethylene-glycol/water. In each mixture, the concentration was 50-50 by volume. Performance in this situation is defined as the ability to maintain a lower surface temperature for a given flux. The heat transfer regimes considered covered the range from single phase forced convection through saturated flow boiling. Results show that both coolants perform satisfactorily. However, in single phase convection, ethylene-glycol/water is slightly more effective. Conversely, for sub-cooled nucleate boiling and saturated boiling, propylene-glycol/water results in slightly lower metal temperatures.

  1. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  2. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Allen J. Adriani

    2005-04-01

    During the eighth reporting period, high-impact monitoring and control technologies were identified during a series of meetings at Ajax/Cooper in Oklahoma City. Many of the technologies that were identified will be tested on the Ajax DP-115 engine and are capable of being widely utilized by the E&P industry. Two major areas were engine controls and ignition systems but still included other alternatives to reduce emissions. Another major advance was the completion of setting the Ajax DP-115 engine. This includes anchoring and leveling the engine. Shortly after the engine was prepared, all the necessary utilities were installed. Once the utilities were installed the engine was successfully operated over its normal operating range at the end of the reporting period.

  3. Environmental Protection Agency evaluation of the AUTOTHERM Energy Conservation System under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Pidgeon, W.M.

    1985-01-01

    The document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the AUTOTHERM Energy Conservation System device under the provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. The evaluation of the AUTOTHERM Energy Conservation System was conducted upon the application of the manufacturer. The device allows using the vehicle's heater while parked with the engine off. Using the device is claimed to: (1) conserve fuel, (2) eliminate the exhaust pollutants that are generated when vehicle warmth is maintained by idling the engine, and, (3) lower maintenance costs. The device is also claimed to improve safety by eliminating the need to leave an unattended vehicle with its engine idling to maintain warmth. Carbon monoxide poisoning risks are also alleviated. EPA fully considered all of the information submitted by the applicant. The evaluation of the AUTOTHERM Energy Conservation System was based on that information and the results of an Air Force test project.

  4. Indirect cost in economic evaluation: the opportunity cost of unpaid inputs.

    PubMed

    Posnett, J; Jan, S

    1996-01-01

    Unpaid time represents a potentially significant input into the health production function. The paper sets out the basis for valuation of time inputs consistent with the notion of opportunity cost. Such analysis requires consideration of whether time displaced in the production of health involves lost work or lost leisure. Furthermore, because valuation of opportunity cost requires the consistent treatment of costs and benefits, the study also considers the valuation of outputs. The basis for valuing the shadow price of work time is examined by firstly assuming perfect competition. The analysis then considers the presence of monopoly and monopsony in product markets and income and sales taxes. The basis for valuing the shadow price of leisure ("leisure' being all uses of time except paid employment) is restricted to an examination of methods previously used to value unpaid housework. The two methods examined are the replacement cost and the opportunity cost method. As the methods are not equivalent, the circumstances where each is appropriate vary depending on whether the output lost in producing health is replaced. Although not set out as the primary focus of the paper, the issues surrounding the valuation of outputs generated by non-market and quasi-market activity are examined. In particular, where activities such as informal care result in indirect utility to the carers (and patients) themselves, it is likely the full market wage provides a lower bound estimate of the value of marginal benefit. Finally the paper provides a practical approach to examining opportunity cost of unpaid inputs consistent with the concepts set out in preceding sections. PMID:8653189

  5. CoMET: Cost and Mass Evaluation Tool for Spacecraft and Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieber, Ben S.

    2005-01-01

    New technology in space exploration is often developed without a complete knowledge of its impact. While the immediate benefits of a new technology are obvious, it is harder to understand its indirect consequences, which ripple through the entire system. COMET is a technology evaluation tool designed to illuminate how specific technology choices affect a mission at each system level. COMET uses simplified models for mass, power, and cost to analyze performance parameters of technologies of interest. The sensitivity analysis that CoMET provides shows whether developing a certain technology will greatly benefit the project or not. CoMET is an ongoing project approaching a web-based implementation phase. This year, development focused on the models for planetary daughter craft, such as atmospheric probes, blimps and balloons, and landers. These models are developed through research into historical data, well established rules of thumb, and engineering judgment of experts at JPL. The model is validated by corroboration with JpL advanced mission studies. Other enhancements to COMET include adding launch vehicle analysis and integrating an updated cost model. When completed, COMET will allow technological development to be focused on areas that will most drastically improve spacecraft performance.

  6. Space Industry Commercialization: A Systems Engineering Evaluation of Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinally, Jihan

    The Constellation Program cancellation reversed the government and commercial space industry's roles and relationships by dedicating the majority of the federal funding and opportunities to the commercial space industry and left the government space industry in search of an approach to collaborate with the dominant organization, the commercial space industry service providers. The space industry government agencies, Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had realized that to gain resources in the new commercially oriented economic environment, they had to work together and possess the capabilities aligned with the National Space Policy's documented goals. Multi-organizational collaboration in space industry programs is challenging, as NASA, AFSPC, and commercial providers, follow different [1] enterprise architecture guidance such as the NASA systems engineering Handbook, MIL-STD-499 and "A Guide to the systems engineering Body of Knowledge" by the International Council on systems engineering [2] [3]. A solution to streamline their enterprise architecture documentation and meet National Space Policy goals is the Multi-User Architecture Maturity Model Methodology (MAM3), which offers a tailored systems engineering technique the government agencies and private companies can implement for the program's maturity level. In order to demonstrate the MAM3, a CubeSat motivated study was conducted partnering a commercial provider with a government agency. A survey of the commercial space industry service providers' capabilities was performed to select the private companies for the study. Using the survey results, the commercial space industry service providers were ranked using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) [4]. The AHP is a structured technique for making complex decisions for representing and quantifying its weights, relating those weights to overall goals, and evaluating alternative solutions [5] - [8]. The weights

  7. 10 CFR 436.42 - Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS Agency Procurement of Energy Efficient Products § 436.42 Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost...) ENERGY STAR qualified and FEMP designated products may be assumed to be life-cycle cost-effective. (b) In making a determination that a covered product is not life-cycle cost-effective, an agency should rely...

  8. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory analytical services performance evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, J.M.; Sailer, S.J.; Anderson, D.A.

    1994-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL`s) Sample Management Office (SMO) conducts a Performance Evaluation Program that ensures that data of known quality are supplied by the analytical. chemistry service organizations with which the INEL contracts. The Analytical Services Performance Evaluation Plan documents the routine monitoring and assessment of suppliers conducted by the SMO, and it describes the procedures that are followed to ensure that suppliers meet all appropriate requirements. Because high-quality analytical support is vital to the success of DOE Environmental Management programs at the INEL, the performance of organizations providing these services must be routinely monitored and assessed. Analytical disciplines for which performance is monitored include metals, organics, radiochemical, and miscellaneous classical analysis methods.

  9. Cross-System Evaluation of Clinical Trial Search Engines

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Silis Y.; Weng, Chunhua

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials are fundamental to the advancement of medicine but constantly face recruitment difficulties. Various clinical trial search engines have been designed to help health consumers identify trials for which they may be eligible. Unfortunately, knowledge of the usefulness and usability of their designs remains scarce. In this study, we used mixed methods, including time-motion analysis, think-aloud protocol, and survey, to evaluate five popular clinical trial search engines with 11 users. Differences in user preferences and time spent on each system were observed and correlated with user characteristics. In general, searching for applicable trials using these systems is a cognitively demanding task. Our results show that user perceptions of these systems are multifactorial. The survey indicated eTACTS being the generally preferred system, but this finding did not persist among all mixed methods. This study confirms the value of mixed-methods for a comprehensive system evaluation. Future system designers must be aware that different users groups expect different functionalities. PMID:25954590

  10. Cross-system evaluation of clinical trial search engines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Silis Y; Weng, Chunhua

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials are fundamental to the advancement of medicine but constantly face recruitment difficulties. Various clinical trial search engines have been designed to help health consumers identify trials for which they may be eligible. Unfortunately, knowledge of the usefulness and usability of their designs remains scarce. In this study, we used mixed methods, including time-motion analysis, think-aloud protocol, and survey, to evaluate five popular clinical trial search engines with 11 users. Differences in user preferences and time spent on each system were observed and correlated with user characteristics. In general, searching for applicable trials using these systems is a cognitively demanding task. Our results show that user perceptions of these systems are multifactorial. The survey indicated eTACTS being the generally preferred system, but this finding did not persist among all mixed methods. This study confirms the value of mixed-methods for a comprehensive system evaluation. Future system designers must be aware that different users groups expect different functionalities. PMID:25954590

  11. Integrating Cost Engineering and Project Management in a Junior Engineering Economics Course and a Senior Capstone Project Design Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tickles, Virginia C.; Li, Yadong; Walters, Wilbur L.

    2013-01-01

    Much criticism exists concerning a lack of focus on real-world problem-solving in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) infrastructures. Many of these critics say that current educational infrastructures are incapable in preparing future scientists and engineers to solve the complex and multidisciplinary problems this society…

  12. EPA evaluation of the SYNERGY-1 fuel additive under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1981-06-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'SYNERGY-1' device under provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. This additive is intended to improve fuel economy and exhaust emission levels of two and four cycle gasoline fueled engines.

  13. Economics of mycotoxins: evaluating costs to society and cost-effectiveness of interventions.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The economic impacts of mycotoxins to human society can be thought of in two ways: (i) the direct market costs associated with lost trade or reduced revenues due to contaminated food or feed, and (ii) the human health losses from adverse effects associated with mycotoxin consumption. Losses related to markets occur within systems in which mycotoxins are being monitored in the food and feed supply. Food that has mycotoxin levels above a particular maximum allowable level is either rejected outright for sale or sold at a lower price for a different use. Such transactions can take place at local levels or at the level of trade among countries. Sometimes this can result in heavy economic losses for food producers, but the benefit of such monitoring systems is a lower risk of mycotoxins in the food supply. Losses related to health occur when mycotoxins are present in food at levels that can cause illness. In developed countries, such losses are often measured in terms of cost of illness; around the world, such losses are more frequently measured in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). It is also useful to assess the economics of interventions to reduce mycotoxins and their attendant health effects; the relative effectiveness of public health interventions can be assessed by estimating quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) associated with each intervention. Cost-effectiveness assessment can be conducted to compare the cost of implementing the intervention with the resulting benefits, in terms of either improved markets or improved human health. Aside from cost-effectiveness, however, it is also important to assess the technical feasibility of interventions, particularly in low-income countries, where funds and infrastructures are limited. PMID:23477200

  14. Engineering evaluation of SSME dynamic data from engine tests and SSV flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An engineering evaluation of dynamic data from SSME hot firing tests and SSV flights is summarized. The basic objective of the study is to provide analyses of vibration, strain and dynamic pressure measurements in support of MSFC performance and reliability improvement programs. A brief description of the SSME test program is given and a typical test evaluation cycle reviewed. Data banks generated to characterize SSME component dynamic characteristics are described and statistical analyses performed on these data base measurements are discussed. Analytical models applied to define the dynamic behavior of SSME components (such as turbopump bearing elements and the flight accelerometer safety cut-off system) are also summarized. Appendices are included to illustrate some typical tasks performed under this study.

  15. An economic evaluation comparison of solar water pumping system with engine pumping system for rice cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treephak, Kasem; Thongpron, Jutturit; Somsak, Dhirasak; Saelao, Jeerawan; Patcharaprakiti, Nopporn

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we propose the design and economic evaluation of the water pumping systems for rice cultivation using solar energy, gasoline fuel and compare both systems. The design of the water and gasoline engine pumping system were evaluated. The gasoline fuel cost used in rice cultivation in an area of 1.6 acres. Under same conditions of water pumping system is replaced by the photovoltaic system which is composed of a solar panel, a converter and an electric motor pump which is compose of a direct current (DC) motor or an alternating current (AC) motor with an inverter. In addition, the battery is installed to increase the efficiency and productivity of rice cultivation. In order to verify, the simulation and economic evaluation of the storage energy battery system with batteries and without batteries are carried out. Finally the cost of four solar pumping systems was evaluated and compared with that of the gasoline pump. The results showed that the solar pumping system can be used to replace the gasoline water pumping system and DC solar pump has a payback less than 10 years. The systems that can payback the fastest is the DC solar pumping system without batteries storage system. The system the can payback the slowest is AC solar pumping system with batteries storage system. However, VAC motor pump of 220 V can be more easily maintained than the motor pump of 24 VDC and batteries back up system can supply a more stable power to the pump system.

  16. 48 CFR 852.247-70 - Determining transportation costs for bid evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determining transportation... Provisions and Clauses 852.247-70 Determining transportation costs for bid evaluation. As prescribed in 847.305-70, insert the following provision: Determining Transportation Costs for Bid Evaluation (APR...

  17. Performance and Cost Evaluation of Cryogenic Solid Propulsion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adirim, Harry; Lo, Roger; Knecht, Thomas; Reinbold, Georg-Friedrich; Poller, Sascha

    2002-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the German Aerospace Center DLR, Cryogenic Solid Propulsion (CSP) is now in its 6th year of R&D. The development proceeds as a joint international university-, small business-, space industry- and professional research effort (Berlin University of Technology / AI: Aerospace Institute, Berlin / Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Russia / ASTRIUM GmbH, Bremen / Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology, Berghausen). This paper aims at introducing CSP as a novel type of chemical propellant that uses frozen liquids as Oxygen (SOX) or Hydrogen Peroxide (SH2O2) inside of a coherent solid Hydrocarbon (PE, PU or HTPB) matrix in solid rocket motors. Theoretically any conceivable chemical rocket propellant combination (including any environmentally benign ,,green propellant") can be used in solid rocket propellant motors if the definition of solids is not restricted to "solid at ambient temperature". The CSP concept includes all suitable high energy propellant combinations, but is not limited to them. Any liquid or hybrid bipropellant combination is (Isp-wise) superior to any conventional solid propellant formulation. While CSPs do share some of the disadvantages of solid propulsion (e.g. lack of cooling fluid and preset thrust-time function), they definitely share one of their most attractive advantages: the low number of components that is the base for high reliability and low cost of structures. In this respect, CSPs are superior to liquid propellant rocket motors with whom, they share the high Isp performance. High performance, low cost, low pollution CSP technology could bring about a near term improvement for chemical Earth-to-orbit high thrust propulsion. In the long run it could surpass conventional chemical propulsion because it is better suited for applying High Energy Density Matter (HEDM) than any other mode of propulsion. So far, ongoing preliminary analyses have not shown any insuperable problems in areas of concern, such as

  18. An integrated evaluation for the performance of clinical engineering department.

    PubMed

    Yousry, Ahmed M; Ouda, Bassem K; Eldeib, Ayman M

    2014-01-01

    Performance benchmarking have become a very important component in all successful organizations nowadays that must be used by Clinical Engineering Department (CED) in hospitals. Many researchers identified essential mainstream performance indicators needed to improve the CED's performance. These studies revealed mainstream performance indicators that use the database of a CED to evaluate its performance. In this work, we believe that those indicators are insufficient for hospitals. Additional important indicators should be included to improve the evaluation accuracy. Therefore, we added new indicators: technical/maintenance indicators, economic indicators, intrinsic criticality indicators, basic hospital indicators, equipment acquisition, and safety indicators. Data is collected from 10 hospitals that cover different types of healthcare organizations. We developed a software tool that analyses collected data to provide a score for each CED under evaluation. Our results indicate that there is an average gap of 67% between the CEDs' performance and the ideal target. The reasons for the noncompliance are discussed in order to improve performance of CEDs under evaluation. PMID:25570649

  19. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Allen J. Adriani

    2004-01-01

    For the period of the 8th reporting period high-impact control technologies were identified during the meeting at Cooper in Oklahoma City. The technologies that were identified will be tested on the Ajax DP-115 engine and are capable of being widely utilized by the E&P industry. Two major areas where engine controls and ignition systems, but still included were other alternatives to reduce emissions. The most exhilarating item for this quarter was when Ajax engine was delivered to the test bed at the NGML.

  20. Emulation-Based Virtual Laboratories: A Low-Cost Alternative to Physical Experiments in Control Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, G. C.; Medioli, A. M.; Sher, W.; Vlacic, L. B.; Welsh, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues the case for emulation-based virtual laboratories in control engineering education. It demonstrates that such emulation experiments can give students an industrially relevant educational experience at relatively low cost. The paper also describes a particular emulation-based system that has been developed with the aim of giving…

  1. Evaluating the cost effectiveness of national program for control of blindness in Jorhat district, India

    PubMed Central

    Laskar, Nasrin B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the cost of different components of the national program for control of blindness (NPCB) and assess the cost effectiveness of this program. Materials and Methods: An observational study was conducted in Jorhat District of Assam, India from July 2009 to June 2010 for assessing the cost effectiveness of the NPCB. Four broad categories of cost inputs, that is, capital costs, recurrent costs, prime/variable costs, and fixed costs were considered. The cost incurred by the provider was taken as the actual cost of delivery of different component of services to the patients, which was calculated from the costs of labor, material, and capital costs using the time utilization pattern recommended by WHO. Result: The District Blindness Control Society, Jorhat had spent 58.93% of total expense on fixed heads of which 65.86% had been spent for cataract surgery. The medical care cost was found to be Indian rupee (INR) 425 for intracapsular cataract extraction (ICCE), INR 675 for extracapsular cataract extraction + intraocular lens (ECCE + IOL) and INR 225 for refractive error correction. The patient-wise provider cost was estimated to be INR 519 for ICCE, INR 769 for ECCE + IOL implantation and INR 319 for spectacle correction of refractive error. Conclusion: National program for control of blindness is a cost effective means of controlling and treating blindness. PMID:26283841

  2. Improvements in Mechanical Properties of 319 Al Alloy Engine Blocks Through Cost-Effective Solution Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, A.; Ravindran, C.; MacKay, R.

    2014-08-01

    The use of Al engine blocks has increased significantly to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. However, the gray cast iron cylinder liners cause the development of large tensile residual stress along the cylinder bores which necessitates the optimization of mechanical properties in this region to prevent premature engine failure. This study compared the microstructure of T4-treated Al billet castings of varying cooling rate to that of the cylinder region of T4-treated (current production schedule) Al engine blocks. The aim of this study was to develop a cost-effective small scale heat treatment optimization method for engine block production. Comparisons in microstructure between the engine block and the billet castings were carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The results suggest that the microstructure and hardness at the top, middle, and bottom of the cylinder were similar to those of each representative billet casting, indicating that heat treatment resulted in successful replication of the engine block locations. In addition, tensile testing revealed that the YS and UTS increased slightly following T4 treatment for all billet castings, which was also observed at the middle of the engine block cylinder bridge. As such, this method can be an effective forerunner for future heat treatment optimization in Al engine block production.

  3. Evaluating strategies and costs to recruit smokeless tobacco users.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Raymond G; Enstad, Chris; Asche, Stephen E; Thoele, Merry J; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2007-12-01

    We recruited smokeless tobacco users throughout Minnesota to participate in a trial testing telephone counseling versus a written self-help manual for cessation. This paper describes the recruitment strategies applied on a state-wide basis. We established a recruitment tracking system to monitor weekly rates of screened callers and returned consents, allowing us to adjust future recruitment efforts. Screening was completed with 783 callers, with 406 subjects enrolled. Overall 44% of initial contacts and 52% of those screened enrolled in the study. The overall average cost per consented subject was $99. Sports talk radio, small print ads, and newspaper articles based on press releases were consistently effective channels for recruitment. The overall cost was expensive but reflected the geographic diversity of recruitment and the prevalence of oral snuff use. PMID:17602843

  4. Evaluation of global onshore wind energy potential and generation costs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuyu; Luckow, Patrick; Smith, Steven J; Clarke, Leon

    2012-07-17

    In this study, we develop an updated global estimate of onshore wind energy potential using reanalysis wind speed data, along with updated wind turbine technology performance, land suitability factors, cost assumptions, and explicit consideration of transmission distance in the calculation of transmission costs. We find that wind has the potential to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region and with assumptions such as on what types of land can be used to site wind farms. Total global economic wind potential under central assumptions, that is, intermediate between optimistic and pessimistic, is estimated to be approximately 119.5 petawatt hours per year (13.6 TW) at less than 9 cents/kWh. A sensitivity analysis of eight key parameters is presented. Wind potential is sensitive to a number of input parameters, particularly wind speed (varying by -70% to +450% at less than 9 cents/kWh), land suitability (by -55% to +25%), turbine density (by -60% to +80%), and cost and financing options (by -20% to +200%), many of which have important policy implications. As a result of sensitivities studied here we suggest that further research intended to inform wind supply curve development focus not purely on physical science, such as better resolved wind maps, but also on these less well-defined factors, such as land-suitability, that will also have an impact on the long-term role of wind power. PMID:22715929

  5. Solid rocket booster performance evaluation model. Volume 1: Engineering description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The space shuttle solid rocket booster performance evaluation model (SRB-II) is made up of analytical and functional simulation techniques linked together so that a single pass through the model will predict the performance of the propulsion elements of a space shuttle solid rocket booster. The available options allow the user to predict static test performance, predict nominal and off nominal flight performance, and reconstruct actual flight and static test performance. Options selected by the user are dependent on the data available. These can include data derived from theoretical analysis, small scale motor test data, large motor test data and motor configuration data. The user has several options for output format that include print, cards, tape and plots. Output includes all major performance parameters (Isp, thrust, flowrate, mass accounting and operating pressures) as a function of time as well as calculated single point performance data. The engineering description of SRB-II discusses the engineering and programming fundamentals used, the function of each module, and the limitations of each module.

  6. Evaluation of air pollution modelling tools as environmental engineering courseware.

    PubMed

    Souto González, J A; Bello Bugallo, P M; Casares Long, J J

    2004-01-01

    The study of phenomena related to the dispersion of pollutants usually takes advantage of the use of mathematical models based on the description of the different processes involved. This educational approach is especially important in air pollution dispersion, when the processes follow a non-linear behaviour so it is difficult to understand the relationships between inputs and outputs, and in a 3D context where it becomes hard to analyze alphanumeric results. In this work, three different software tools, as computer solvers for typical air pollution dispersion phenomena, are presented. Each software tool developed to be implemented on PCs, follows approaches that represent three generations of programming languages (Fortran 77, VisualBasic and Java), applied over three different environments: MS-DOS, MS-Windows and the world wide web. The software tools were tested by students of environmental engineering (undergraduate) and chemical engineering (postgraduate), in order to evaluate the ability of these software tools to improve both theoretical and practical knowledge of the air pollution dispersion problem, and the impact of the different environment in the learning process in terms of content, ease of use and visualization of results. PMID:15193095

  7. Krypton-85 hydrofracture engineering feasibility and safety evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Peretz, F.J.; Muller, M.E.; Pan, P.Y.

    1981-07-01

    Engineering studies have been made to determine the hazards associated with the disposal of /sup 85/Kr using the hydrofracture process. To assess the hazards, an effort has been made to identify the equipment required to entrain and dissolve the noble gas into the grout stream at hydrofracture pressure (up to 350 bar). Off-the-shelf or slightly modified equipment has been identified for safe and effective compression and gas-grout mixing. Each monthly injection disposes of 1.6 x 10/sup 6/ Ci of /sup 85/Kr. By connecting only one gas cylinder to the injection system at a time, the maximum amount of krypton likely to be released as a result of equipment failure is limited to 128,000 Ci. An evaluation by Los Alamos Technical Associates shows that releasing this amount of gas in less than one hour under worst-case meteorological conditions through a 30-m stack would result in a whole-body dose of 170 millirem at a distance of 1 km from the facility. A krypton collection and recovery system can further reduce this dose to 17 millirem; increasing the distance to the site boundary to 3 km can also reduce the dose by a factor of ten. Lung and skin dose estimates are 1.6 and 120 times the whole-body dose, respectively. These are all worst-case values; releases under more typical conditions would result in a significantly lower dose. No insurmountable safety or engineering problems have been identified.

  8. Preliminary systems engineering evaluations for the National Ecological Observatory Network.

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Perry J.; Kottenstette, Richard Joseph; Crouch, Shannon M.; Brocato, Robert Wesley; Zak, Bernard Daniel; Osborn, Thor D.; Ivey, Mark D.; Gass, Karl Leslie; Heller, Edwin J.; Dishman, James Larry; Schubert, William Kent; Zirzow, Jeffrey A.

    2008-11-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is an ambitious National Science Foundation sponsored project intended to accumulate and disseminate ecologically informative sensor data from sites among 20 distinct biomes found within the United States and Puerto Rico over a period of at least 30 years. These data are expected to provide valuable insights into the ecological impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species in these various biomes, and thereby provide a scientific foundation for the decisions of future national, regional, and local policy makers. NEON's objectives are of substantial national and international importance, yet they must be achieved with limited resources. Sandia National Laboratories was therefore contracted to examine four areas of significant systems engineering concern; specifically, alternatives to commercial electrical utility power for remote operations, approaches to data acquisition and local data handling, protocols for secure long-distance data transmission, and processes and procedures for the introduction of new instruments and continuous improvement of the sensor network. The results of these preliminary systems engineering evaluations are presented, with a series of recommendations intended to optimize the efficiency and probability of long-term success for the NEON enterprise.

  9. GMOs in animal agriculture: time to consider both costs and benefits in regulatory evaluations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, genetically engineered (GE) crops were grown by 17.3 million farmers on over 170 million hectares. Over 70% of harvested GE biomass is fed to food producing animals, making them the major consumers of GE crops for the past 15 plus years. Prior to commercialization, GE crops go through an extensive regulatory evaluation. Over one hundred regulatory submissions have shown compositional equivalence, and comparable levels of safety, between GE crops and their conventional counterparts. One component of regulatory compliance is whole GE food/feed animal feeding studies. Both regulatory studies and independent peer-reviewed studies have shown that GE crops can be safely used in animal feed, and rDNA fragments have never been detected in products (e.g. milk, meat, eggs) derived from animals that consumed GE feed. Despite the fact that the scientific weight of evidence from these hundreds of studies have not revealed unique risks associated with GE feed, some groups are calling for more animal feeding studies, including long-term rodent studies and studies in target livestock species for the approval of GE crops. It is an opportune time to review the results of such studies as have been done to date to evaluate the value of the additional information obtained. Requiring long-term and target animal feeding studies would sharply increase regulatory compliance costs and prolong the regulatory process associated with the commercialization of GE crops. Such costs may impede the development of feed crops with enhanced nutritional characteristics and durability, particularly in the local varieties in small and poor developing countries. More generally it is time for regulatory evaluations to more explicitly consider both the reasonable and unique risks and benefits associated with the use of both GE plants and animals in agricultural systems, and weigh them against those associated with existing systems, and those of regulatory inaction. This would represent a shift away

  10. GMOs in animal agriculture: time to consider both costs and benefits in regulatory evaluations.

    PubMed

    Van Eenennaam, Alison L

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, genetically engineered (GE) crops were grown by 17.3 million farmers on over 170 million hectares. Over 70% of harvested GE biomass is fed to food producing animals, making them the major consumers of GE crops for the past 15 plus years. Prior to commercialization, GE crops go through an extensive regulatory evaluation. Over one hundred regulatory submissions have shown compositional equivalence, and comparable levels of safety, between GE crops and their conventional counterparts. One component of regulatory compliance is whole GE food/feed animal feeding studies. Both regulatory studies and independent peer-reviewed studies have shown that GE crops can be safely used in animal feed, and rDNA fragments have never been detected in products (e.g. milk, meat, eggs) derived from animals that consumed GE feed. Despite the fact that the scientific weight of evidence from these hundreds of studies have not revealed unique risks associated with GE feed, some groups are calling for more animal feeding studies, including long-term rodent studies and studies in target livestock species for the approval of GE crops. It is an opportune time to review the results of such studies as have been done to date to evaluate the value of the additional information obtained. Requiring long-term and target animal feeding studies would sharply increase regulatory compliance costs and prolong the regulatory process associated with the commercialization of GE crops. Such costs may impede the development of feed crops with enhanced nutritional characteristics and durability, particularly in the local varieties in small and poor developing countries. More generally it is time for regulatory evaluations to more explicitly consider both the reasonable and unique risks and benefits associated with the use of both GE plants and animals in agricultural systems, and weigh them against those associated with existing systems, and those of regulatory inaction. This would represent a shift away

  11. Scaffold Library for Tissue Engineering: A Geometric Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Chantarapanich, Nattapon; Puttawibul, Puttisak; Sucharitpwatskul, Sedthawatt; Jeamwatthanachai, Pongnarin; Inglam, Samroeng; Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering scaffold is a biological substitute that aims to restore, to maintain, or to improve tissue functions. Currently available manufacturing technology, that is, additive manufacturing is essentially applied to fabricate the scaffold according to the predefined computer aided design (CAD) model. To develop scaffold CAD libraries, the polyhedrons could be used in the scaffold libraries development. In this present study, one hundred and nineteen polyhedron models were evaluated according to the established criteria. The proposed criteria included considerations on geometry, manufacturing feasibility, and mechanical strength of these polyhedrons. CAD and finite element (FE) method were employed as tools in evaluation. The result of evaluation revealed that the close-cellular scaffold included truncated octahedron, rhombicuboctahedron, and rhombitruncated cuboctahedron. In addition, the suitable polyhedrons for using as open-cellular scaffold libraries included hexahedron, truncated octahedron, truncated hexahedron, cuboctahedron, rhombicuboctahedron, and rhombitruncated cuboctahedron. However, not all pore size to beam thickness ratios (PO : BT) were good for making the open-cellular scaffold. The PO : BT ratio of each library, generating the enclosed pore inside the scaffold, was excluded to avoid the impossibility of material removal after the fabrication. The close-cellular libraries presented the constant porosity which is irrespective to the different pore sizes. The relationship between PO : BT ratio and porosity of open-cellular scaffold libraries was displayed in the form of Logistic Power function. The possibility of merging two different types of libraries to produce the composite structure was geometrically evaluated in terms of the intersection index and was mechanically evaluated by means of FE analysis to observe the stress level. The couples of polyhedrons presenting low intersection index and high stress level were excluded

  12. Quantitative Ultrasonic Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Engineering Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the application of ultrasonic techniques to nondestructive measurement of mechanical strength of engineering materials is reviewed. A dormant concept in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is invoked. The availability of ultrasonic methods that can be applied to actual parts to assess their potential susceptibility to failure under design conditions is discussed. It was shown that ultrasonic methods yield measurements of elastic moduli, microstructure, hardness, fracture toughness, tensile strength, yield strength, and shear strength for a wide range of materials (including many types of metals, ceramics, and fiber composites). It was also indicated that although most of these methods were shown feasible in laboratory studies, more work is needed before they can be used on actual parts in processing, assembly, inspection, and maintenance lines.

  13. Transfer film evaluation for shuttle engine turbopump bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kannel, J. W.; Dufrane, K. F.

    1981-01-01

    A series of low speed experiments to evaluate the possible occurrence of transfer film lubrication and the effectiveness of burnished films in the shuttle spacecraft main engine thrust bearings were conducted. No evidence of transfer film lubrication was evident, although this could have been the result of the (used) condition of the bearing. Burnished films of either Teflon or Rulon were found to greatly enhance the performance of the bearing. Crush load experiments indicated that the bearing ultimate load capability is on the order of 489,000 N (110,000 pounds). The effect of ball (as well as race) burnishing techniques on bearing performance, different types of burnished films, and transfer film formation are suggested for further study.

  14. Structural Evaluation of Exo-Skeletal Engine Fan Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuguoglu, Latife; Abumeri, Galib; Chamis, Christos C.

    2003-01-01

    The available computational simulation capability is used to demonstrate the structural viability of composite fan blades of innovative Exo-Skeletal Engine (ESE) developed at NASA Glenn Research Center for a subsonic mission. Full structural analysis and progressive damage evaluation of ESE composite fan blade is conducted through the NASA in-house computational simulation software system EST/BEST. The results of structural assessment indicate that longitudinal stresses acting on the blade are in compression. At a design speed of 2000 rpm, pressure and suction surface outer most ply stresses in longitudinal, transverse and shear direction are much lower than the corresponding composite ply strengths. Damage is initiated at 4870 rpm and blade fracture takes place at rotor speed of 7735 rpm. Damage volume is 51 percent. The progressive damage, buckling, stress and strength results indicate that the design at hand is very sound because of the factor of safety, damage tolerance, and buckling load of 6811 rpm.

  15. Development of Low-Cost Austenitic Stainless Gas-Turbine and Diesel Engine Components with Enhanced High-Temperature Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.; Swindeman, R.W.; Browning, P.F.; Frary, M.E.; Pollard, M.J.; Siebenaler, C.W.; McGreevy, T.E.

    2004-06-01

    In July of 1999, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Solar Turbines, Inc. and Caterpillar, Inc. (Caterpillar Technical Center) to evaluate commercial cast stainless steels for gas turbine engine and diesel engine exhaust component applications relative to the materials currently being used. If appropriate, the goal was to develop cast stainless steels with improved performance and reliability rather than switch to more costly cast Ni-based superalloys for upgraded performance. The gas-turbine components considered for the Mercury-50 engine were the combustor housing and end-cover, and the center-frame hot-plate, both made from commercial CF8C cast austenitic stainless steel (Fe-l9Cr-12Ni-Nb,C), which is generally limited to use at below 650 C. The advanced diesel engine components considered for truck applications (C10, C12, 3300 and 3400) were the exhaust manifold and turbocharger housing made from commercial high SiMo ductile cast iron with uses limited to 700-750 C or below. Shortly after the start of the CRADA, the turbine materials emphasis changed to wrought 347H stainless steel (hot-plate) and after some initial baseline tensile and creep testing, it was confirmed that this material was typical of those comprising the abundant database; and by 2000, the emphasis of the CRADA was primarily on diesel engine materials. For the diesel applications, commercial SiMo cast iron and standard cast CN12 austenitic stainless steel (Fe-25Cr-13Ni-Nb,C,N,S) baseline materials were obtained commercially. Tensile and creep testing from room temperature to 900 C showed the CN12 austenitic stainless steel to have far superior strength compared to SiMo cast iron above 550 C, together with outstanding oxidation resistance. However, aging at 850 C reduced room-temperature ductility of the standard CN12, and creep-rupture resistance at 850 C was less than expected, which triggered a focused

  16. Objective and automated protocols for the evaluation of biomedical search engines using No Title Evaluation protocols

    PubMed Central

    Campagne, Fabien

    2008-01-01

    Background The evaluation of information retrieval techniques has traditionally relied on human judges to determine which documents are relevant to a query and which are not. This protocol is used in the Text Retrieval Evaluation Conference (TREC), organized annually for the past 15 years, to support the unbiased evaluation of novel information retrieval approaches. The TREC Genomics Track has recently been introduced to measure the performance of information retrieval for biomedical applications. Results We describe two protocols for evaluating biomedical information retrieval techniques without human relevance judgments. We call these protocols No Title Evaluation (NT Evaluation). The first protocol measures performance for focused searches, where only one relevant document exists for each query. The second protocol measures performance for queries expected to have potentially many relevant documents per query (high-recall searches). Both protocols take advantage of the clear separation of titles and abstracts found in Medline. We compare the performance obtained with these evaluation protocols to results obtained by reusing the relevance judgments produced in the 2004 and 2005 TREC Genomics Track and observe significant correlations between performance rankings generated by our approach and TREC. Spearman's correlation coefficients in the range of 0.79–0.92 are observed comparing bpref measured with NT Evaluation or with TREC evaluations. For comparison, coefficients in the range 0.86–0.94 can be observed when evaluating the same set of methods with data from two independent TREC Genomics Track evaluations. We discuss the advantages of NT Evaluation over the TRels and the data fusion evaluation protocols introduced recently. Conclusion Our results suggest that the NT Evaluation protocols described here could be used to optimize some search engine parameters before human evaluation. Further research is needed to determine if NT Evaluation or variants of these

  17. Cost of Stem Cell-Based Tissue-Engineered Airway Transplants in the United Kingdom: Case Series.

    PubMed

    Culme-Seymour, Emily J; Mason, Katrina; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Carvalho, Carla; Partington, Leanne; Crowley, Claire; Hamilton, Nick J; Toll, Ed C; Butler, Colin R; Elliott, Martin J; Birchall, Martin A; Lowdell, Mark W; Mason, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Stem cell-based tissue-engineered tracheas are at an early stage in their product development cycle. Tens of patients have been treated worldwide in predominantly compassionate use settings, demonstrating significant promise. This potentially life-saving treatment is complex, and the cost and its implications for such treatments are yet to be fully understood. The costs are compounded by varying strategies for graft preparation and transplant, resulting in differing clinical and laboratory costs from different research groups. In this study, we present a detailed breakdown of the clinical and manufacturing costs for three of the United Kingdom (UK) patients treated with such transplants. All three patients were treated under Compassionate Use legislation, within the UK National Health Service (NHS) hospital setting. The total costs for the three UK patients treated ranged from $174,420 to $740,500. All three patients were in a state of poor health at time of treatment and had a number of complexities in addition to the restricted airway. This is the first time a cost analysis has been made for a tissue-engineered organ and provides a benchmark for future studies, as well as comparative data for use in reimbursement considerations. PMID:26559535

  18. EPA evaluation of the Malpassi Filter King device under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    This report announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'Malpassi Filter King' device under provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. The evaluation of the 'Malpassi Filter King' device was conducted upon receiving an application from the marketer. The device is a gasoline pressure regulator. The 'Malpassi Filter King' device is claimed to save gasoline by improving the fuel economy of carburetor-equipped, automotive engines.

  19. Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC) Flight Evaluation in an F-15 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Flight evaluation in an F-15 aircraft by digital electronic engine control (DEEC) was investigated. Topics discussed include: system description, F100 engine tests, effects of inlet distortion on static pressure probe, flight tests, digital electronic engine control fault detection and accommodation flight evaluation, flight evaluation of a hydromechanical backup control, augmentor transient capability of an F100 engine, investigation of nozzle instability, real time in flight thrust calculation, and control technology for future aircraft propulsion systems. It is shown that the DEEC system is a powerful and flexible controller for the F100 engine.

  20. A PRELIMINARY METHODOLOGY FOR EVALUATING THE COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF ALTERNATIVE INDOOR AIR QUALITY APPROACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report defines a simplified methodology that can be used by indoor air quality (IAQ) diagnosticians, architects/engineers, building owners/operators, and the scientific community for preliminary comparison of the cost-effectiveness of alternative IAQ control measures for any ...

  1. India's mission to Mars cost less than the movie Gravity: Multidimensional View in Engineering Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Meenu; Kumar, Pawan; Vandana, Vandana

    2016-07-01

    Over the years, Mars has been the centre of attraction for science fiction writers, Hollywood movie makers, astrologers, astronomers and the scientific community. For scientists and technologists, Mars continues to be an enigma. This is essentially because even tough humans have dreamt for long about human colonisation of Mars. Indian space programme had a very humble beginning during the early 1960s. India launched its first satellite in 1975 with assistance from the erstwhile USSR. India achieved the status of space-faring nation2 by 1980, and by the end of 2014 has launched around 75 satellites. India has become the first nation to reach Mars on its maiden attempt after its Mars Orbiter Mission completed its 10-month journey and successfully entered the Red Planet's orbit. The Mars Orbiter Mission, a low-cost 74 million project, blasted off from Earth on November 5, 2013, aboard an Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. At its initial stage, the rocket booster placed the probe into Earth's orbit before the craft fired the engines to break free of Earth's gravity en route to Mars. This is India's first mission into such deep space to search for evidence of life on the Red Planet. But the mission's primary objective is technological-if successful, the country will be joining an elite club of nations: the United States, Russia and Europe. India is becoming known for low-cost innovation in diverse fields such as healthcare and education. The technological capability being demonstrated and the knowledge gained from the operations of the mission will be invaluable in future developments and also in the training of the flight operations and mission control staff. All of this capability can be carried forward to future launches and operations. The sustained presence of methane observed by previous missions suggests that an active production mechanism is at work, most likely tectonic in nature, although there are some suggestions that it may point to a biological origin

  2. COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar": ongoing research activities and third-year results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    This work aims at disseminating the ongoing research activities and third-year results of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar." About 350 experts are participating to the Action, from 28 COST Countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Malta, Macedonia, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom), and from Albania, Armenia, Australia, Colombia, Egypt, Hong Kong, Jordan, Israel, Philippines, Russia, Rwanda, Ukraine, and United States of America. In September 2014, TU1208 has been recognised among the running Actions as "COST Success Story" ("The Cities of Tomorrow: The Challenges of Horizon 2020," September 17-19, 2014, Torino, IT - A COST strategic workshop on the development and needs of the European cities). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Moreover, the Action is oriented to the following specific objectives and expected deliverables: (i) coordinating European scientists to highlight problems, merits and limits of current GPR systems; (ii) developing innovative protocols and guidelines, which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European standards, for an effective GPR application in civil- engineering tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols; (iii) integrating competences for the improvement and merging of electromagnetic scattering techniques and of data- processing techniques; this will lead to a novel freeware tool for the localization of

  3. Cost Evaluation of Surgical and Pharmaceutical Options in Treatment for Vitreomacular Adhesions and Macular Holes

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jonathan S.; Smiddy, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate cost-effectiveness and cost utilities for treatment options for vitreomacular adhesions (VMA) and full thickness macular holes (MH). Design A Markov model of cost-effectiveness and utility. Participants There were no participants. Methods Outcomes of published clinical trials (index studies) of surgical treatment of VMA and MH, and a prospective, multicenter clinical trial of pharmaceutical vitreolysis with intravitreal ocriplasmin with saline control were used to generate a model for costs of treatment and visual benefits. All techniques were assumed to result in a 2.5 line visual benefit if anatomy was resolved. Markov analysis, with cost data from the Center of Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), was used to calculate imputed costs for each primary treatment modality in a facility setting with surgery performed in a hospital serving as the highest end of the range and non-facility setting with surgery performed in an ambulatory surgery center (ASC) serving as the lowest end of the range. Main Outcome Measures Imputed costs of therapy, cost per line saved, cost per line-year saved, cost per quality-adjusted life years (QALY). Results When PPV was selected as the primary procedure, the overall imputed cost ranged from $5,802-$7,931. The cost per line was $2,368-$3,237, the cost per line-year saved was $163-$233 and the cost per QALY was $5,444-$7,442. If intravitreal injection of ocriplasmin (IVO) was the primary procedure, the overall imputed cost was $8,767-$10,977. The cost per line ranged from $3,549-$4,456, the cost per line-year saved was $245-$307, and the cost per QALY was between $8,159-$10,244. If intravitreal saline injection (IVS) were used as a primary procedure, the overall imputed cost was $5,828-8,098. The cost per line was $2,374-3,299, the cost per line-year saved was $164-227 and the cost per QALY was $5,458-7,583. Conclusions PPV as a primary procedure was the most cost-effective therapy in this model. The other

  4. Preliminary process engineering evaluation of ethanol production from vegetative crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, A. R.; Linden, J. C.; Smith, D. H.; Villet, R. H.

    1982-12-01

    Vegetative crops show good potential as feedstock for ethanol production via cellulose hydrolysis and yeast fermentation. The low levels of lignin encountered in young plant tissues show an inverse relationship with the high cellulose digestibility during hydrolysis with cellulose enzymes. Ensiled sorghum species and brown midrib mutants of sorghum exhibit high glucose yields after enzyme hydrolysis as well. Vegetative crop materials as candidate feedstocks for ethanol manufacture should continue to be studied. The species studied so far are high value cash crops and result in relatively high costs for the final ethanol product. Unconventional crops, such as pigweed, kochia, and Russian thistle, which can use water efficiently and grow on relatively arid land under conditions not ideal for food production, should be carefully evaluated with regard to their cultivation requirements, photosynthesis rates, and cellulose digestibility. Such crops should result in more favorable process economics for alcohol production.

  5. DESCRIPTION OF RISK REDUCTION ENGINEERING LABORATORY TEST AND EVALUATION FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An onsite team of multidisciplined engineers and scientists conduct research and provide technical services in the areas of testing, design, and field implementation for both solid and hazardous waste management. Engineering services focus on the design and implementation of...

  6. Definition, technology readiness, and development cost of the orbit transfer vehicle engine integrated control and health monitoring system elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, I.; Balcer, S.; Cochran, M.; Klop, J.; Peterson, S.

    1991-01-01

    An Integrated Control and Health Monitoring (ICHM) system was conceived for use on a 20 Klb thrust baseline Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) engine. Considered for space used, the ICHM was defined for reusability requirements for an OTV engine service free life of 20 missions, with 100 starts and a total engine operational time of 4 hours. Functions were derived by flowing down requirements from NASA guidelines, previous OTV engine or ICHM documents, and related contracts. The elements of an ICHM were identified and listed, and these elements were described in sufficient detail to allow estimation of their technology readiness levels. These elements were assessed in terms of technology readiness level, and supporting rationale for these assessments presented. The remaining cost for development of a minimal ICHM system to technology readiness level 6 was estimated. The estimates are within an accuracy range of minus/plus 20 percent. The cost estimates cover what is needed to prepare an ICHM system for use on a focussed testbed for an expander cycle engine, excluding support to the actual test firings.

  7. Evaluating Search Engine Relevance with Click-Based Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radlinski, Filip; Kurup, Madhu; Joachims, Thorsten

    Automatically judging the quality of retrieval functions based on observable user behavior holds promise for making retrieval evaluation faster, cheaper, and more user centered. However, the relationship between observable user behavior and retrieval quality is not yet fully understood. In this chapter, we expand upon, Radlinski et al. (How does clickthrough data reflect retrieval quality, In Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM), 43-52, 2008), presenting a sequence of studies investigating this relationship for an operational search engine on the arXiv.org e-print archive. We find that none of the eight absolute usage metrics we explore (including the number of clicks observed, the frequency with which users reformulate their queries, and how often result sets are abandoned) reliably reflect retrieval quality for the sample sizes we consider. However, we find that paired experiment designs adapted from sensory analysis produce accurate and reliable statements about the relative quality of two retrieval functions. In particular, we investigate two paired comparison tests that analyze clickthrough data from an interleaved presentation of ranking pairs, and find that both give accurate and consistent results. We conclude that both paired comparison tests give substantially more accurate and sensitive evaluation results than the absolute usage metrics in our domain.

  8. Epa evaluation of the petro-mizer device under section 511 of the motor vehicle information and cost savings act

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, E.A.

    1982-12-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'PETRO-MIZER' device under the provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. The evaluation of the 'PETRO-MIZER' device was conducted upon receiving an application for evaluation by the marketer. The 'PETRO-MIZER' is a device when used in a fuel line leading to the engine of an automobile or truck, results in improved fuel efficiency and reduction in the amounts of polluting emissions. EPA fully considered all of the information submitted by the applicant. The authors have concluded there is no technical basis to justify an EPA confirmatory test program on the device or to expect that the device would improve either emissions or fuel economy.

  9. Evaluating thermographic phosphors in an operating turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M. ); Lewis, W.; Turley, W.D. ); Beshears, D.L.; Capps, G.J.; Cates, M.R.; Muhs, J.D.; Tobin, K.W. )

    1989-01-01

    The results of a field test in a commercial turbine engine showed that we can remotely measure the temperature of engine components in operating engines using thermographic phosphors. The remote- measurement method exploits the temperature dependence of the characteristic decay time of the laser-induced fluorescence of thermographic phosphors. This paper summarizes recent work leading up to and including a successful test of the thermographic-phosphor method in an operating turbine engine. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Field Cage Studies and Progressive Evaluation of Genetically-Engineered Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Facchinelli, Luca; Valerio, Laura; Ramsey, Janine M.; Gould, Fred; Walsh, Rachael K.; Bond, Guillermo; Robert, Michael A.; Lloyd, Alun L.; James, Anthony A.; Alphey, Luke; Scott, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Background A genetically-engineered strain of the dengue mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, designated OX3604C, was evaluated in large outdoor cage trials for its potential to improve dengue prevention efforts by inducing population suppression. OX3604C is engineered with a repressible genetic construct that causes a female-specific flightless phenotype. Wild-type females that mate with homozygous OX3604C males will not produce reproductive female offspring. Weekly introductions of OX3604C males eliminated all three targeted Ae. aegypti populations after 10–20 weeks in a previous laboratory cage experiment. As part of the phased, progressive evaluation of this technology, we carried out an assessment in large outdoor field enclosures in dengue endemic southern Mexico. Methodology/Principal Findings OX3604C males were introduced weekly into field cages containing stable target populations, initially at 10∶1 ratios. Statistically significant target population decreases were detected in 4 of 5 treatment cages after 17 weeks, but none of the treatment populations were eliminated. Mating competitiveness experiments, carried out to explore the discrepancy between lab and field cage results revealed a maximum mating disadvantage of up 59.1% for OX3604C males, which accounted for a significant part of the 97% fitness cost predicted by a mathematical model to be necessary to produce the field cage results. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that OX3604C may not be effective in large-scale releases. A strain with the same transgene that is not encumbered by a large mating disadvantage, however, could have improved prospects for dengue prevention. Insights from large outdoor cage experiments may provide an important part of the progressive, stepwise evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes. PMID:23350003

  11. COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar:" ongoing research activities and mid-term results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Slob, Evert; Tosti, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the ongoing activities and mid-term results of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar.' Almost three hundreds experts are participating to the Action, from 28 COST Countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Malta, Macedonia, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom), and from Albania, Armenia, Australia, Egypt, Hong Kong, Jordan, Israel, Philippines, Russia, Rwanda, Ukraine, and United States of America. In September 2014, TU1208 has been praised among the running Actions as 'COST Success Story' ('The Cities of Tomorrow: The Challenges of Horizon 2020,' September 17-19, 2014, Torino, IT - A COST strategic workshop on the development and needs of the European cities). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Moreover, the Action is oriented to the following specific objectives and expected deliverables: (i) coordinating European scientists to highlight problems, merits and limits of current GPR systems; (ii) developing innovative protocols and guidelines, which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European standards, for an effective GPR application in civil- engineering tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols; (iii) integrating competences for the improvement and merging of electromagnetic scattering techniques and of data- processing techniques; this will lead to a novel freeware tool for the localization of buried objects

  12. A low cost mid-infrared sensor for on line contamination monitoring of lubricating oils in marine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Mohammadi, L.; Kullmann, F.; Holzki, M.; Sigloch, S.; Klotzbuecher, T.; Spiesen, J.; Tommingas, T.; Weismann, P.; Kimber, G.

    2010-04-01

    The chemical and physical condition of oils in marine engines must be monitored to ensure optimum performance of the engine and to avoid damage by degraded oil not adequately lubricating the engine. Routine monitoring requires expensive laboratory testing and highly skilled analysts. This work describes the adaptation and implementation of a mid infrared (MIR) sensor module for continued oil condition monitoring in two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines. The developed sensor module will help to reduce costs in oil analysis by eliminating the need to collect and send samples to a laboratory for analysis. The online MIR-Sensor module measures the contamination of oil with water, soot, as well as the degradation indicated by the TBN (Total Base Number) value. For the analysis of water, TBN, and soot in marine engine oils, four spectral regions of interest have been identified. The optical absorption in these bands correlating with the contaminations is measured simultaneously by using a four-field thermopile detector, combined with appropriate bandpass filters. Recording of the MIR-absorption was performed in a transmission mode using a flow-through cell with appropriate path length. Since in this case no spectrometer is required, the sensor including the light source, the flowthrough- cell, and the detector can be realised at low cost and in a very compact manner. The optical configuration of the sensor with minimal component number and signal intensity optimisation at the four-field detector was implemented by using non-sequential ray tracing simulation. The used calibration model was robust enough to predict accurately the value for soot, water, and TBN concentration for two-stroke and four-stroke engine oils. The sensor device is designed for direct installation on the host engine or machine and, therefore, becoming an integral part of the lubrication system. It can also be used as a portable stand-alone system for machine fluid analysis in the field.

  13. As Easy as ABC: Re-engineering the Cost Accounting System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussel, John M.; Bitner, Larry N.

    1996-01-01

    To be useful for management decision making, the college or university's cost accounting system must capture and measure improvements. Activity-based costing (ABC), which determines more accurately the full costs of services and products, tracks improvements and should proceed alongside reengineering of institutional accounting. Guidelines are…

  14. Software Cost Estimation Using a Decision Graph Process: A Knowledge Engineering Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stukes, Sherry; Spagnuolo, John, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is not a description per se of the efforts by two software cost analysts. Rather, it is an outline of the methodology used for FSW cost analysis presented in a form that would serve as a foundation upon which others may gain insight into how to perform FSW cost analyses for their own problems at hand.

  15. Preliminary Evaluation of a Turbine/Rotary Combustion Compound Engine for a Subsonic Transport. [fuel consumption and engine tests of turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Civinskas, K. C.; Kraft, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    The fuel consumption of a modern compound engine with that of an advanced high pressure ratio turbofan was compared. The compound engine was derived from a turbofan engine by replacing the combustor with a rotary combustion (RC) engine. A number of boost pressure ratios and compression ratios were examined. Cooling of the RC engine was accomplished by heat exchanging to the fan duct. Performance was estimated with an Otto-cycle for two levels of energy lost to cooling. The effects of added complexity on cost and maintainability were not examined and the comparison was solely in terms of cruise performance and weight. Assuming a 25 percent Otto-cycle cooling loss (representative of current experience), the best compound engine gave a 1.2 percent improvement in cruise. Engine weight increased by 23 percent. For a 10 percent Otto-cycle cooling loss (representing advanced insulation/high temperature materials technology), a compound engine with a boost PR of 10 and a compression ratio of 10 gave an 8.1 percent lower cruise than the reference turbofan.

  16. Life cycle cost evaluation of the digital opacity compliance system.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Michael J; Palmer, Glenn R; Olivas, Arthur C

    2010-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established EPA Reference Method 9 (Method 9) as the preferred enforcement approach for verifying compliance with federal visible opacity standards. While Method 9 has an extensive history of successful employment, reliance on human observers to quantify visible emissions is inherently subjective, a characteristic that exposes Method 9 results to claims of inaccuracy, bias and, in some cases, outright fraud. The Digital Opacity Compliance System (DOCS), which employs commercial-off-the-shelf digital photography coupled with simple computer processing, is a new approach for quantifying visible opacity. The DOCS technology has been previously demonstrated to meet and, in many cases, surpass the Method 9 accuracy and reliability standards (McFarland et al., 2006). Beyond its performance relative to Method 9, DOCS provides a permanent visual record of opacity, a vital feature in legal compliance challenges. In recent DOCS field testing, the opacity analysis of two hundred and forty one (241) regulated air emissions from the following industrial processes: 1) industrial scrubbers, 2) emergency generators, 3) asphalt paving, 4) steel production and 5) incineration indicated that Method 9 and DOCS were statistically equivalent at the 99% confidence level. However, a life cycle cost analysis demonstrated that implementation of DOCS could potentially save a facility $15,732 per trained opacity observer compared to utilization of Method 9. PMID:20022420

  17. COST EVALUATION OF AUTOMATED AND MANUAL POST- CONSUMER PLASTIC BOTTLE SORTING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluates, on the basis of performance and cost, two Automated BottleSort® sorting systems for post-consumer commingled plastic containers developed by Magnetic Separation Systems. This study compares the costs to sort mixed bales of post-consumer plastic at these t...

  18. An Evaluation of the Cost-Effectiveness of Audiotaped and Videotaped Self-Study Media Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Kenneth

    1977-01-01

    Two self-study media presentations, booklet-tape and videotape recording (two formats) were evaluated in order to determine the relative cost-effectiveness of the presentations. The results indicated that the differences in mean scores did not justify the increased cost of videotape. (Author/BD)

  19. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Allen Adriani

    2004-04-01

    During the fifth reporting period, the main goal for the team was to focus on collecting data to develop Oxygen Sensor Recording System (OSRS) parametric relationships for several rich-burn engines. An air/fuel ratio controller was intergraded with an O{sub 2} sensor. With the use of an Alternative Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (ACEMS) provided by Eastern Municipal Water District (EMWD), the performance will be observed during normal operation.

  20. Evaluation of a Low-Cost Salmon Production Facility, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hickerson, Andrew W.; Hill, James M.

    1984-12-01

    This fiscal year 1984 study sponsored by the Bonneville Power Administration evaluates the presently existing low-cost salmon production facility operated and maintained by the Clatsop Economic Development Committee's Fisheries Project.

  1. Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 2: Major mechanical equipment; FGD proposal evaluations; Use of FGDPRISM in FGD system modification, proposal, evaluation, and design; FGD system case study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-04

    Part 2 of this manual provides the electric utility engineer with detailed technical information on some of the major mechanical equipment used in the FGD system. The objectives of Part 2 are the following: to provide the electric utility engineer with information on equipment that may be unfamiliar to him, including ball mills, vacuum filters, and mist eliminators; and to identify the unique technique considerations imposed by an FGD system on more familiar electric utility equipment such as fans, gas dampers, piping, valves, and pumps. Part 3 provides an overview of the recommended procedures for evaluating proposals received from FGD system vendors. The objectives are to provide procedures for evaluating the technical aspects of proposals, and to provide procedures for determining the total costs of proposals considering both initial capital costs and annual operating and maintenance costs. The primary objective of Part 4 of this manual is to provide the utility engineer who has a special interest in the capabilities of FGDPRISM [Flue Gas Desulfurization PRocess Integration and Simulation Model] with more detailed discussions of its uses, requirements, and limitations. Part 5 is a case study in using this manual in the preparation of a purchase specification and in the evaluation of proposals received from vendors. The objectives are to demonstrate how the information contained in Parts 1 and 2 can be used to improve the technical content of an FGD system purchase specification; to demonstrate how the techniques presented in Part 3 can be used to evaluate proposals received in response to the purchase specification; and to illustrate how the FGDPRISM computer program can be used to establish design parameters for the specification and evaluate vendor designs.

  2. An evaluation of the cost/benefits of concrete biodecontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Gorschboth, F.F.; Hamilton, M.A.

    1998-08-01

    Two candidate technologies for decontamination of extensive areas of radioactively contaminated concrete, a biological technology and electro-hydraulic scabbling, that had been rated as highly useful in an earlier study were assessed more precisely. These technologies were compared to a base technology, scarification. The evaluation method was an adaptation of the Multi-Attribute Utility Technique (MAUT), a formal quantitative approach for analyzing decisions with regard to multiple objectives. The advantages of the biodecontamination technology were confirmed by this more precise quantitative analysis.

  3. ECSIN's methodological approach for hazard evaluation of engineered nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bregoli, Lisa; Benetti, Federico; Venturini, Marco; Sabbioni, Enrico

    2013-04-01

    The increasing production volumes and commercialization of engineered nanomaterials (ENM), together with data on their higher biological reactivity when compared to bulk counterpart and ability to cross biological barriers, have caused concerns about their potential impacts on the health and safety of both humans and the environment. A multidisciplinary component of the scientific community has been called to evaluate the real risks associated with the use of products containing ENM, and is today in the process of developing specific definitions and testing strategies for nanomaterials. At ECSIN we are developing an integrated multidisciplinary methodological approach for the evaluation of the biological effects of ENM on the environment and human health. While our testing strategy agrees with the most widely advanced line of work at the European level, the choice of methods and optimization of protocols is made with an extended treatment of details. Our attention to the methodological and technical details is based on the acknowledgment that the innovative characteristics of matter at the nano-size range may influence the existing testing methods in a partially unpredictable manner, an aspect which is frequently recognized at the discussion level but oftentimes disregarded at the laboratory bench level. This work outlines the most important steps of our testing approach. In particular, each step will be briefly discussed in terms of potential technical and methodological pitfalls that we have encountered, and which are often ignored in nanotoxicology research. The final aim is to draw attention to the need of preliminary studies in developing reliable tests, a crucial aspect to confirm the suitability of the chosen analytical and toxicological methods to be used for the specific tested nanoparticle, and to express the idea that in nanotoxicology,"devil is in the detail".

  4. Evaluation of the potential of the Stirling engine for heavy duty application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meijer, R. J.; Ziph, B.

    1981-01-01

    A 150 hp four cylinder heavy duty Stirling engine was evaluated. The engine uses a variable stroke power control system, swashplate drive and ceramic insulation. The sensitivity of the design to engine size and heater temperature is investigated. Optimization shows that, with porous ceramics, indicated efficiencies as high as 52% can be achieved. It is shown that the gain in engine efficiency becomes insignificant when the heater temperature is raised above 200 degrees F.

  5. Self-Evaluation Accuracy and Satisfaction with Performance: Are there Affective Costs or Benefits of Positive Self-Evaluation Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narciss, Susanne; Koerndle, Hermann; Dresel, Markus

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how self-evaluation biases may influence satisfaction with performance. A review of theoretical positions suggests there are two views, both of which are supported by studies involving laboratory tasks. The first view predicts affective costs, and the second affective benefits of positive self-evaluation bias. We test the…

  6. Evaluation of solar sludge drying alternatives by costs and area requirements.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Mayıs; Aksoy, Ayşegül; Sanin, F Dilek

    2015-10-01

    Thermal drying is a common method to reach above 90% dry solids content (DS) in sludge. However, thermal drying requires high amount of energy and can be expensive. A greenhouse solar dryer (GSD) can be a cost-effective substitute if the drying performance, which is typically 70% DS, can be increased by additional heat. In this study feasibility of GSD supported with solar panels is evaluated as an alternative to thermal dryers to reach 90% DS. Evaluations are based on capital and O&M costs as well as area requirements for 37 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with various sludge production rates. Costs for the supported GSD system are compared to that of conventional and co-generation thermal dryers. To calculate the optimal costs associated with the drying system, an optimization model was developed in which area limitation was a constraint. Results showed that total cost was minimum when the DS in the GSD (DS(m,i)) was equal to the maximum attainable value (70% DS). On average, 58% of the total cost and 38% of total required area were associated with the GSD. Variations in costs for 37 WWTPs were due to differences in initial DS (DS(i,i)) and sludge production rates, indicating the importance of dewatering to lower drying costs. For large plants, GSD supported with solar panels provided savings in total costs especially in long term when compared to conventional and co-generation thermal dryers. PMID:26025600

  7. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 2, part 2: System engineering. [cost and programmatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The latest technical and programmatic developments are considered as well as expansions of the Rockwell SPS cost model covering each phase of the program through the year 2030. Comparative cost/economic analyses cover elements of the satellite, construction system, space transportation vehicles and operations, and the ground receiving station. System plans to define time phased costs and planning requirements that support major milestones through the year 2000. A special analysis is included on natural resources required to build the SPS reference configuration. An appendix contains the SPS Work Breakdown Structure and dictionary along with detail cost data sheet on each system and main element of the program. Over 200 line items address DDT&E, theoretical first unit, investment cost per satellite, and operations charges for replacement capital and normal operations and maintenance costs.

  8. The benefits and costs of new fuels and engines for light-duty vehicles in the United States.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Ryan; Griffin, James P; Graham, John D

    2008-10-01

    Rising oil prices and concerns about energy security and climate change are spurring reconsideration of both automobile propulsion systems and the fuels that supply energy to them. In addition to the gasoline internal combustion engine, recent years have seen alternatives develop in the automotive marketplace. Currently, hybrid-electric vehicles, advanced diesels, and flex-fuel vehicles running on a high percentage mixture of ethanol and gasoline (E85) are appearing at auto shows and in driveways. We conduct a rigorous benefit-cost analysis from both the private and societal perspective of the marginal benefits and costs of each technology--using the conventional gasoline engine as a baseline. The private perspective considers only those factors that influence the decisions of individual consumers, while the societal perspective accounts for environmental, energy, and congestion externalities as well. Our analysis illustrates that both hybrids and diesels show promise for particular light-duty applications (sport utility vehicles and pickup trucks), but that vehicles running continuously on E85 consistently have greater costs than benefits. The results for diesels were particularly robust over a wide range of sensitivity analyses. The results from the societal analysis are qualitatively similar to the private analysis, demonstrating that the most relevant factors to the benefit-cost calculations are the factors that drive the individual consumer's decision. We conclude with a brief discussion of marketplace and public policy trends that will both illustrate and influence the relative adoption of these alternative technologies in the United States in the coming decade. PMID:18684162

  9. Cognitive mechanisms of risky choice: is there an evaluation cost?

    PubMed

    Aw, Justine; Monteiro, Tiago; Vasconcelos, Marco; Kacelnik, Alex

    2012-02-01

    We contrast two classes of choice processes, those assuming time-consuming comparisons and those where stimuli for each option act independently, competing for expression by cross censorship. The Sequential Choice Model (SCM) belongs in the latter category, and has received empirical support in several procedures involving deterministic alternatives. Here we test this model in risky choices. In two treatments, each with five conditions, European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) faced choices between options with unpredictable outcomes and risk-free alternatives. In the delay treatment the five conditions involved choices between a variable option offering two equiprobable delays to reward and a fixed option with delay differing between conditions. The amount treatment was structurally similar, but amount of reward rather than delay was manipulated. As assumed (and required) by the SCM, latency to respond in no-choice trials reflected each option's richness with respect to the background alternatives, and, crucially, preferences in simultaneous choices were predictable from latencies to each option in forced trials. However, we did not detect reliable differences in response times between forced and choice trials, neither the lengthening expected from evaluation models nor the shortening expected from the SCM. PMID:22001371

  10. Lean mixture engine testing and evaluation program. [for automobile engine pollution and fuel performances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Hoehn, F. W.; Griffin, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental results for fuel consumption and emissions are presented for a 350 CID (5.7 liter) Chevrolet V-8 engine modified for lean operation with gasoline. The lean burn engine achieved peak thermal efficiency at an equivalence ratio of 0.75 and a spark advance of 60 deg BTDC. At this condition the lean burn engine demonstrated a 10% reduction in brake specific fuel consumption compared with the stock engine; however, NOx and hydrocarbon emissions were higher. With the use of spark retard and/or slightly lower equivalence ratios, the NOx emissions performance of the stock engine was matched while showing a 6% reduction in brake specific fuel consumption. Hydrocarbon emissions exceeded the stock values in all cases. Diagnostic data indicate that lean performance in the engine configuration tested is limited by ignition delay, cycle-to-cycle pressure variations, and cylinder-to-cylinder distribution.

  11. The evaluability bias in charitable giving: Saving administration costs or saving lives?

    PubMed

    Caviola, Lucius; Faulmüller, Nadira; Everett, Jim A C; Savulescu, Julian; Kahane, Guy

    2014-07-01

    We describe the "evaluability bias": the tendency to weight the importance of an attribute in proportion to its ease of evaluation. We propose that the evaluability bias influences decision making in the context of charitable giving: people tend to have a strong preference for charities with low overhead ratios (lower administrative expenses) but not for charities with high cost-effectiveness (greater number of saved lives per dollar), because the former attribute is easier to evaluate than the latter. In line with this hypothesis, we report the results of four studies showing that, when presented with a single charity, people are willing to donate more to a charity with low overhead ratio, regardless of cost-effectiveness. However, when people are presented with two charities simultaneously-thereby enabling comparative evaluation-they base their donation behavior on cost-effectiveness (Study 1). This suggests that people primarily value cost-effectiveness but manifest the evaluability bias in cases where they find it difficult to evaluate. However, people seem also to value a low overhead ratio for its own sake (Study 2). The evaluability bias effect applies to charities of different domains (Study 3). We also show that overhead ratio is easier to evaluate when its presentation format is a ratio, suggesting an inherent reference point that allows meaningful interpretation (Study 4). PMID:25279024

  12. Ground test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, G.C.; Beck, D.F.; Harmon, C.D.; Shipers, L.R.

    1992-08-01

    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and design issues of a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. 2 refs.

  13. STATE-OF-THE-ART AND EMERGING TRUCK ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES FOR OPTIMIZED PERFORMANCE, EMISSIONS AND LIFE CYCLE COSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schittler, M

    2003-08-24

    The challenge for truck engine product engineering is not only to fulfill increasingly stringent emission requirements, but also to improve the engine's economical viability in its role as the backbone of our global economy. While societal impact and therefore emission limit values are to be reduced in big steps, continuous improvement is not enough but technological quantum leaps are necessary. The introduction and refinement of electronic control of all major engine systems has already been a quantum leap forward. Maximizing the benefits of these technologies to customers and society requires full use of parameter optimization and other enabling technologies. The next big step forward will be widespread use of exhaust aftertreatment on all transportation related diesel engines. While exhaust gas aftertreatment has been successfully established on gasoline (Otto cycle) engines, the introduction of exhaust aftertreatment especially for heavy-duty diesel engines will be much mo re demanding. Implementing exhaust gas aftertreatment into commercial vehicle applications is a challenging task but the emission requirements to be met starting in Europe, the USA and Japan in the 2005-2007 timeframe require this step. The engine industry will be able to implement the new technology if all stakeholders support the necessary decisions. One decision has already been taken: the reduction of sulfur in diesel fuel being comparable with the elimination of lead in gasoline as a prerequisite for the three-way catalyst. Now we have the chance to optimize ecology and economy of the Diesel engine simultaneously by taking the decision to provide an additional infrastructure for a NOx reduction agent needed for the introduction of the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology that is already implemented in the electric power generation industry. This requires some effort, but the resulting societal benefits, fuel economy and vehicle life cycle costs are significantly better when

  14. Student Evaluation of the Tutorial System in Engineering Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Nassri, Sabah; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes some elements which contribute to the quality of a tutorial system in engineering education. Uses a case study of the civil engineering program at the University of Waterloo (Great Britain) to examine the relationships between various aspects of this type of program. (TW)

  15. Preliminary evaluation of a compound cycle engine for shipboard gensets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castor, J. G.; Wintucky, W. T.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a thermodynamic cycle (SFC) and weight analysis performed to establish engine configuration, size, weight and performance are reported. Baseline design configuration was a 2,000 hour MTBO Compound Cycle Engine (CCE) for a helicopter application. The CCE configuration was extrapolated out to a 10,000 MTBO for a shipboard genset application. The study showed that an advanced diesel engine design (CCE) could be substantially lighter and smaller (79% and 82% respectively) than todays contemporary genset diesel engine. Although the CCE was not optimized, it had about a 7% reduction in mission fuel consumption over today's genset diesels. The CCE is a turbocharged, power-compounded, high power density, low-compression ratio diesel engine. Major technology development areas are presented.

  16. Preliminary evaluation of a compound cycle engine for shipboard gensets

    SciTech Connect

    Castor, J.G.; Wintucky, W.T.

    1986-06-01

    The results of a thermodynamic cycle (SFC) and weight analysis performed to establish engine configuration, size, weight and performance are reported. Baseline design configuration was a 2,000 hour MTBO Compound Cycle Engine (CCE) for a helicopter application. The CCE configuration was extrapolated out to a 10,000 MTBO for a shipboard genset application. The study showed that an advanced diesel engine design (CCE) could be substantially lighter and smaller (79% and 82% respectively) than todays contemporary genset diesel engine. Although the CCE was not optimized, it had about a 7% reduction in mission fuel consumption over today's genset diesels. The CCE is a turbocharged, power-compounded, high power density, low-compression ratio diesel engine. Major technology development areas are presented.

  17. Evaluating the effect of ration composition on income over feed cost and milk yield.

    PubMed

    Buza, M H; Holden, L A; White, R A; Ishler, V A

    2014-05-01

    Feed is generally the greatest expense for milk production. With volatility in feed and milk markets, income over feed cost (IOFC) is a more advantageous measure of profit than simply feed cost per cow. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ration cost and ingredient composition on IOFC and milk yield. The Pennsylvania State Extension Dairy Team IOFC tool (http://extension.psu.edu/animals/dairy/business-management/financial-tools/income-over-feed-cost/introduction-to-iofc) was used to collect data from 95 Pennsylvania lactating dairy cow herds from 2009 to 2012 and to determine the IOFC per cow per day. The data collected included average milk yield, milk income, purchased feed cost, ration ingredients, ingredient cost per ton, and amount of each ingredient fed. Feed costs for home-raised feeds for each ration were based on market values rather than on-farm cost. Actual costs were used for purchased feed for each ration. Mean lactating herd size was 170 ± 10.5 and daily milk yield per cow was 31.7 ± 0.19 kg. The mean IOFC was $7.71 ± $1.01 cost per cow, ranging from -$0.33 in March 2009 to $16.60 in September 2011. Data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA in SPSS (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). Values were grouped by quartiles and analyzed with all years combined as well as by individual year. Purchased feed cost per cow per day averaged $3.16 ± $1.07 for 2009 to 2012. For 2009 to 2012 combined, milk yield and IOFC did not differ with purchased feed cost. Intermediate levels (quartiles 2 and 3) of forage cost per cow per day between $1.45 and $1.97 per cow per day resulted in the greatest average IOFC of $8.19 and the greatest average milk yield of 32.3 kg. Total feed costs in the fourth quartile ($6.27 or more per cow per day) resulted in the highest IOFC. Thus, minimizing feed cost per cow per day did not maximize IOFC. In 2010, the IOFC was highest at $8.09 for dairies that fed 1 or more commodity by-products. Results of the study indicated

  18. The evaluability bias in charitable giving: Saving administration costs or saving lives?

    PubMed Central

    Caviola, Lucius; Faulmüller, Nadira; Everett, Jim. A. C.; Savulescu, Julian; Kahane, Guy

    2014-01-01

    We describe the “evaluability bias”: the tendency to weight the importance of an attribute in proportion to its ease of evaluation. We propose that the evaluability bias influences decision making in the context of charitable giving: people tend to have a strong preference for charities with low overhead ratios (lower administrative expenses) but not for charities with high cost-effectiveness (greater number of saved lives per dollar), because the former attribute is easier to evaluate than the latter. In line with this hypothesis, we report the results of four studies showing that, when presented with a single charity, people are willing to donate more to a charity with low overhead ratio, regardless of cost-effectiveness. However, when people are presented with two charities simultaneously—thereby enabling comparative evaluation—they base their donation behavior on cost-effectiveness (Study 1). This suggests that people primarily value cost-effectiveness but manifest the evaluability bias in cases where they find it difficult to evaluate. However, people seem also to value a low overhead ratio for its own sake (Study 2). The evaluability bias effect applies to charities of different domains (Study 3). We also show that overhead ratio is easier to evaluate when its presentation format is a ratio, suggesting an inherent reference point that allows meaningful interpretation (Study 4). PMID:25279024

  19. 48 CFR 247.372 - DD Form 1654, Evaluation of Transportation Cost Factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false DD Form 1654, Evaluation... Transportation in Supply Contracts 247.372 DD Form 1654, Evaluation of Transportation Cost Factors. Contracting personnel may use the DD Form 1654 to furnish information to the transportation office for development...

  20. 48 CFR 247.372 - DD Form 1654, Evaluation of Transportation Cost Factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false DD Form 1654, Evaluation... Transportation in Supply Contracts 247.372 DD Form 1654, Evaluation of Transportation Cost Factors. Contracting personnel may use the DD Form 1654 to furnish information to the transportation office for development...

  1. 48 CFR 247.372 - DD Form 1654, Evaluation of Transportation Cost Factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DD Form 1654, Evaluation... Transportation in Supply Contracts 247.372 DD Form 1654, Evaluation of Transportation Cost Factors. Contracting personnel may use the DD Form 1654 to furnish information to the transportation office for development...

  2. 48 CFR 247.372 - DD Form 1654, Evaluation of Transportation Cost Factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false DD Form 1654, Evaluation... Transportation in Supply Contracts 247.372 DD Form 1654, Evaluation of Transportation Cost Factors. Contracting personnel may use the DD Form 1654 to furnish information to the transportation office for development...

  3. Experimental Evaluation of a Method for Turbocharging Four-Stroke, Single Cylinder, Internal Combustion Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchman, Michael; Winter, Amos

    2015-11-01

    Turbocharging an engine increases specific power, improves fuel economy, reduces emissions, and lowers cost compared to a naturally aspirated engine of the same power output. These advantages make turbocharging commonplace for multi-cylinder engines. Single cylinder engineers are not commonly turbocharged due to the phase lag between the exhaust stroke, which powers the turbocharger, and the intake stroke, when air is pumped into the engine. Our proposed method of turbocharging single cylinder engines is to add an ``air capacitor'' to the intake manifold, an additional volume that acts as a buffer to store compressed air between the exhaust and intake strokes, and smooth out the pressure pulses from the turbocharger. This talk presents experimental results from a single cylinder, turbocharged diesel engine fit with various sized air capacitors. Power output from the engine was measured using a dynamometer made from a generator, with the electrical power dissipated with resistive heating elements. We found that intake air density increases with capacitor size as theoretically predicted, ranging from 40 to 60 percent depending on heat transfer. Our experiment was able to produce 29 percent more power compared to using natural aspiration. These results validated that an air capacitor and turbocharger may be a simple, cost effective means of increasing the power density of single cylinder engines.

  4. Purposive Facebook Recruitment Endows Cost-Effective Nutrition Education Program Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Wamboldt, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent legislation established a requirement for nutrition education in federal assistance programs to be evidence-based. Recruitment of low-income persons to participate and evaluate nutrition education activities can be challenging and costly. Facebook has been shown to be a cost-effective strategy to recruit this target audience to a nutrition program. Objective The purpose of our study was to examine Facebook as a strategy to recruit participants, especially Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) eligible persons, to view and evaluate an online nutrition education program intended to be offered as having some evidence base for SNAP-Ed programming. Methods English-speaking, low-income Pennsylvania residents, 18-55 years with key profile words (eg, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Food bank), responded to a Facebook ad inviting participation in either Eating Together as a Family is Worth It (WI) or Everyone Needs Folic Acid (FA). Participants completed an online survey on food-related behaviors, viewed a nutrition education program, and completed a program evaluation. Facebook set-up functions considered were costing action, daily spending cap, and population reach. Results Respondents for both WI and FA evaluations were similar; the majority were white, <40 years, overweight or obese body mass index, and not eating competent. A total of 807 Facebook users clicked on the WI ad with 73 unique site visitors and 47 of them completing the program evaluation (ie, 47/807, 5.8% of clickers and 47/73, 64% of site visitors completed the evaluation). Cost per completed evaluation was US $25.48; cost per low-income completer was US $39.92. Results were similar for the FA evaluation; 795 Facebook users clicked on the ad with 110 unique site visitors, and 73 completing the evaluation (ie, 73/795, 9.2% of ad clickers and 73/110, 66% of site visitors completed the evaluation). Cost per valid completed survey with program evaluation

  5. Engineering evaluation of alternatives for the disposition of Niagara Falls Storage Site, its residues and wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The final disposition scenarios selected by DOE for assessment in this document are consistent with those stated in the Notice of Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) (DOE, 1983d) and the modifications to the alternatives resulting from the public scoping process. The scenarios are: take no action beyond interim remedial measures other than maintenance and surveillance of the NFSS; retain and manage the NFSS as a long-term waste management facility for the wastes and residues on the site; decontaminate, certify, and release the NFSS for other use, with long-term management of the wastes and residues at other DOE sites; and partially decontaminate the NFSS by removal and transport off site of only the more radioactive residues, and upgrade containment of the remaining wastes and residues on site. The objective of this document is to present to DOE the conceptual engineering, occupational radiation exposure, construction schedule, maintenance and surveillance requirements, and cost information relevant to design and implementation of each of the four scenarios. The specific alternatives within each scenario used as the basis for discussion in this document were evaluated on the bases of engineering considerations, technical feasibility, and regulatory requirements. Selected alternatives determined to be acceptable for each of the four final disposition scenarios for the NFSS were approved by DOE to be assessed and costed in this document. These alternatives are also the subject of the EIS for the NFSS currently being prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). 40 figures, 38 tables.

  6. Study on predicative evaluation method of noise generated by engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hirakawa, Nobuo; Mihara, Akira; Suwa, Junichi

    1995-12-31

    The engine noise accounts for a relatively large percentage among the noises generated by a motorcycle. Among the Parts of the engine, the cover is important in design as well as a source of the engine noise, being at the end of the vibration transfer path. This paper clarifies that the natural frequency of the cover with a flat surface clearly affects its vibration and noise radiation and by a modal analysis of its vibration characteristics. In addition, the authors confirmed that the calculated value of the radiated noise from the cover agrees well with the measured value.

  7. Flight evaluation of an extended engine life mode on an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Lawrence P.; Conners, Timothy R.

    1992-01-01

    An integrated flight and propulsion control system designed to reduce the rate of engine deterioration was developed and evaluated in flight on the NASA Dryden F-15 research aircraft. The extended engine life mode increases engine pressure ratio while reducing engine airflow to lower the turbine temperature at constant thrust. The engine pressure ratio uptrim is modulated in real time based on airplane maneuver requirements, flight conditions, and engine information. The extended engine life mode logic performed well, significantly reducing turbine operating temperature. Reductions in fan turbine inlet temperature of up to 80 F were obtained at intermediate power and up to 170 F at maximum augmented power with no appreciable loss in thrust. A secondary benefit was the considerable reduction in thrust-specific fuel consumption. The success of the extended engine life mode is one example of the advantages gained from integrating aircraft flight and propulsion control systems.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume 2: Engineering. Volume 3: Costs and schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Engineering design details for the principal systems, system operating modes, site facilities, and structures of an engineering test facility (ETF) of a 200 MWE power plant are presented. The ETF resembles a coal-fired steam power plant in many ways. It is analogous to a conventional plant which has had the coal combustor replaced with the MHD power train. Most of the ETF components are conventional. They can, however, be sized or configured differently or perform additional functions from those in a conventional coal power plant. The boiler not only generates steam, but also performs the functions of heating the MHD oxidant, recovering seed, and controlling emissions.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume 2: Engineering. Volume 3: Costs and schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    Engineering design details for the principal systems, system operating modes, site facilities, and structures of an engineering test facility (ETF) of a 200 MWE power plant are presented. The ETF resembles a coal-fired steam power plant in many ways. It is analogous to a conventional plant which has had the coal combustor replaced with the MHD power train. Most of the ETF components are conventional. They can, however, be sized or configured differently or perform additional functions from those in a conventional coal power plant. The boiler not only generates steam, but also performs the functions of heating the MHD oxidant, recovering seed, and controlling emissions.

  10. The cost of HIV medication adherence support interventions: results of a cross-site evaluation.

    PubMed

    Schackman, B R; Finkelstein, R; Neukermans, C P; Lewis, L; Eldred, L

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the direct cost of HIV adherence support programmes participating in a cross-site evaluation in the US. Data on the frequency, type, and setting of adherence encounters; providers' professions; and adherence tools provided were collected for 1,122 patients enrolled in 13 interventions at 9 sites. The site staff estimated the average duration of each type of encounter and national wage rates were used for labour costs. The median (range) adherence encounters/year among interventions was 16.5 (4.3-104.6) per patient; encounters lasted 24.6 (8.9-40.9) minutes. Intervention direct cost was correlated with the average frequency of encounters (r = 0.57), but not with encounter duration or providers' professions. The median direct cost/month was 35 dollars(5 dollars-58 dollars) per patient, and included direct provider costs (66%); incentives (17%); reminders and other tools (8%); and direct administrative time, provider transportation, training, and home delivery (9%). The median direct cost/month from a societal perspective, which includes patient time and travel costs, was 47 dollars(24 dollars-114 dollars) per patient. Adherence interventions with moderate efficacy costing < or =100 dollars/month have been estimated to meet a cost-effectiveness threshold that is generally accepted in the US. Payers should consider enhanced reimbursement for adherence support services. PMID:16265786

  11. Derivation of a Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) metric for evaluation of solar selective absorber materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C. K.; Pacheco, J. E.

    2015-06-05

    A new metric, the Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC), is derived in this paper to evaluate and compare alternative solar selective absorber coatings against a baseline coating (Pyromark 2500). In contrast to previous metrics that focused only on the optical performance of the coating, the LCOC includes costs, durability, and optical performance for more comprehensive comparisons among candidate materials. The LCOC is defined as the annualized marginal cost of the coating to produce a baseline annual thermal energy production. Costs include the cost of materials and labor for initial application and reapplication of the coating, as well as the cost of additional or fewer heliostats to yield the same annual thermal energy production as the baseline coating. Results show that important factors impacting the LCOC include the initial solar absorptance, thermal emittance, reapplication interval, degradation rate, reapplication cost, and downtime during reapplication. The LCOC can also be used to determine the optimal reapplication interval to minimize the levelized cost of energy production. As a result, similar methods can be applied more generally to determine the levelized cost of component for other applications and systems.

  12. HIDEC adaptive engine control system flight evaluation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yonke, W. A.; Landy, R. J.; Stewart, J. F.

    1987-01-01

    An integrated flight propulsion control mode, the Adaptive Engine Control System (ADECS), has been developed and flight tested on an F-15 aircraft as part of the NASA Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control program. The ADECS system realizes additional engine thrust by increasing the engine pressure ratio (EPR) at intermediate and afterburning power, with the amount of EPR uptrim modulated using a predictor scheme for angle-of-attack and sideslip angle. Substantial improvement in aircraft and engine performance was demonstrated, with a 16 percent rate of climb increase, a 14 percent reduction in time to climb, and a 15 percent reduction in time to accelerate. Significant EPR uptrim capability was found with angles-of-attack up to 20 degrees.

  13. Altitude performance evaluation of J71-A-11 turbojet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Useller, James W; Pappas, George E

    1956-01-01

    Data were obtained with five exhaust-nozzle areas and with the variable-area exhaust nozzle interlinked with the control system at conditions simulating flight at a Mach number of 0.8 and altitudes of 35,00 and 45,000 feet. Data simulating operation at zero flight Mach number at an altitude of 15,000 feet are also included. Engine component performance data are presented in addition to the overall engine performance.

  14. Hydrogen-air mixing evaluation in reciprocating engines

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, L; Naegeli, D

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the results of a computational study of fuel-air mixing in a hydrogen jet using a spark-ignited, hydrogen-fueled engine. The computational results were compared with experimental measurement being conducted at the Musashi Institute of Technology in Tokyo, Japan. The hydrogen-air mixing work was directed at understanding the extreme sensitivity of ignition to spark plug location and spark timing in direct-injected, hydrogen-fueled engines.

  15. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) evaluation of the Cyclone-Z device under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the Cyclone-Z device under the provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. The evaluation of the Cyclone-Z device was conducted upon receiving an application from the marketer. The device is claimed to improve fuel economy and driveability and to reduce exhaust emissions. EPA fully considered all of the information submitted by the applicant. The evaluation of the Cyclone-Z device was based on that information, EPA's engineering judgement, and its experience with other air bleed devices.

  16. COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar:" ongoing research activities and mid-term results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Slob, Evert; Tosti, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the ongoing activities and mid-term results of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar.' Almost three hundreds experts are participating to the Action, from 28 COST Countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Malta, Macedonia, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom), and from Albania, Armenia, Australia, Egypt, Hong Kong, Jordan, Israel, Philippines, Russia, Rwanda, Ukraine, and United States of America. In September 2014, TU1208 has been praised among the running Actions as 'COST Success Story' ('The Cities of Tomorrow: The Challenges of Horizon 2020,' September 17-19, 2014, Torino, IT - A COST strategic workshop on the development and needs of the European cities). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Moreover, the Action is oriented to the following specific objectives and expected deliverables: (i) coordinating European scientists to highlight problems, merits and limits of current GPR systems; (ii) developing innovative protocols and guidelines, which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European standards, for an effective GPR application in civil- engineering tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols; (iii) integrating competences for the improvement and merging of electromagnetic scattering techniques and of data- processing techniques; this will lead to a novel freeware tool for the localization of buried objects

  17. A Comprehensive and Systematic Model of User Evaluation of Web Search Engines: II. An Evaluation by Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Louise T.

    2003-01-01

    Presents an application of a model of user evaluation of four major Web search engines (Alta Vista, Excite, Infoseek, and Lycos) by undergraduates. Evaluation was based on 16 performance measures representing five evaluation criteria-relevance, efficiency, utility, user satisfaction, and connectivity. Content analysis of verbal data identified a…

  18. Mesoscopic Fluorescence Molecular Tomography for Evaluating Engineered Tissues.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Mehmet S; Chen, Chao-Wei; Ji, Robin; Zhao, Lingling; Nguyen, Bao-Ngoc B; Fisher, John P; Chen, Yu; Intes, Xavier

    2016-03-01

    Optimization of regenerative medicine strategies includes the design of biomaterials, development of cell-seeding methods, and control of cell-biomaterial interactions within the engineered tissues. Among these steps, one paramount challenge is to non-destructively image the engineered tissues in their entirety to assess structure, function, and molecular expression. It is especially important to be able to enable cell phenotyping and monitor the distribution and migration of cells throughout the bulk scaffold. Advanced fluorescence microscopic techniques are commonly employed to perform such tasks; however, they are limited to superficial examination of tissue constructs. Therefore, the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine would greatly benefit from the development of molecular imaging techniques which are capable of non-destructive imaging of three-dimensional cellular distribution and maturation within a tissue-engineered scaffold beyond the limited depth of current microscopic techniques. In this review, we focus on an emerging depth-resolved optical mesoscopic imaging technique, termed laminar optical tomography (LOT) or mesoscopic fluorescence molecular tomography (MFMT), which enables longitudinal imaging of cellular distribution in thick tissue engineering constructs at depths of a few millimeters and with relatively high resolution. The physical principle, image formation, and instrumentation of LOT/MFMT systems are introduced. Representative applications in tissue engineering include imaging the distribution of human mesenchymal stem cells embedded in hydrogels, imaging of bio-printed tissues, and in vivo applications. PMID:26645079

  19. Evaluation of advanced displays for engine monitoring and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, L. G.

    1993-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of two advanced display concepts for monitoring engine performance for commercial transport aircraft was studied. The concepts were the Engine Monitoring and Control System (EMACS) display developed by NASA Langley and a display by exception design. Both of these concepts were based on the philosophy of providing information that is directly related to the pilot's task. Both concepts used a normalized thrust display. In addition, EMACS used column deviation indicators; i.e., the difference between the actual parameter value and the value predicted by an engine model, for engine health monitoring; while the Display by Exception displayed the engine parameters if the automated system detected a difference between the actual and the predicted values. The results showed that the advanced display concepts had shorter detection and response times. There were no differences in any of the results between manual and auto throttles. There were no effects upon perceived workload or performance on the primary flight task. The majority of pilots preferred the advanced displays and thought they were operationally acceptable. Certification of these concepts depends on the validation of the engine model. Recommendations are made to improve both the EMACS and the display by exception display formats.

  20. Economic Evaluation of Mental Health Interventions: A Guide to Costing Approaches.

    PubMed

    Shearer, James; McCrone, Paul; Romeo, Renee

    2016-07-01

    Costing approaches in the economic evaluation of mental health interventions are complicated by the broad societal impacts of mental health, and the multidisciplinary nature of mental health interventions. This paper aims to provide a practical guide to costing approaches across a wide range of care inputs and illness consequences relevant to the treatment of mental health. The resources needed to deliver mental health interventions are highly variable and depend on treatment settings (institutional, community), treatment providers (medical, non-medical) and formats (individual, group, electronic). Establishing the most appropriate perspective is crucial when assessing the costs associated with a particular mental health problem or when evaluating interventions to treat them. We identify five key cost categories (social care, informal care, production losses, crime and education) impacted by mental health and discuss contemporary issues in resource use measurement and valuation, including data sources and resource use instruments. PMID:26922076

  1. Flight evaluation of modifications to a digital electronic engine control system in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Myers, L. P.; Zeller, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    The third phase of a flight evaluation of a digital electronic engine control system in an F-15 has recently been completed. It was found that digital electronic engine control software logic changes and augmentor hardware improvements resulted in significant improvements in engine operation. For intermediate to maximum power throttle transients, an increase in altitude capability of up to 8000 ft was found, and for idle to maximum transients, an increase of up to 4000 ft was found. A nozzle instability noted in earlier flight testing was investigated on a test engine at NASA Lewis Research Center, a digital electronic engine control software logic change was developed and evaluated, and no instability occurred in the Phase 3 flight evaluation. The backup control airstart modification was evaluated, and gave an improvement of airstart capability by reducing the minimum airspeed for successful airstarts by 50 to 75 knots.

  2. Cost/benefit analysis of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisset, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    The cost/benefits of advance commercial gas turbine materials are described. Development costs, estimated payoffs and probabilities of success are discussed. The materials technologies investigated are: (1) single crystal turbine blades, (2) high strength hot isostatic pressed turbine disk, (3) advanced oxide dispersion strengthened burner liner, (4) bore entry cooled hot isostatic pressed turbine disk, (5) turbine blade tip - outer airseal system, and (6) advance turbine blade alloys.

  3. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix D: Cost and economic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The detailed cost estimate documentation for the designs prepared in this study are presented. The include: (1) Koppers-Totzek, (2) Texaco (3) Babcock and Wilcox, (4) BGC-Lurgi, and (5) Lurgi. The alternate product cost estimates include: (1) Koppers-Totzek and Texaco single product facilities (methane, methanol, gasoline, hydrogen), (2) Kopers-Totzek SNG and MBG, (3) Kopers-Totzek and Texaco SNG and MBG, and (4) Lurgi-methane and Lurgi-methane and methanol.

  4. Evaluating Drug Cost per Response with SGLT2 Inhibitors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Janice M.S.; Macomson, Brian; Ektare, Varun; Patel, Dipen; Botteman, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, which include canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin, represent a new class of antihyperglycemic agents. Few studies have assessed their cost per response, with “cost per response” being the total cost of a select drug, divided by the resulting change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Objective To examine the drug cost of SGLT2 inhibitors per a reduction in placebo-adjusted 1% HbA1c in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who received treatment during 26 weeks with canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin. Methods The drug cost per response for each of the 3 agents individually was assessed based on data from a subset of clinical trials discussed in the prescribing information for each drug that were all placebo-controlled studies evaluating each drug as monotherapy, dual therapy (combined with metformin), and triple therapy (combined with metformin and a sulfonylurea) in patients with uncontrolled, type 2 diabetes mellitus. The US 2015 wholesale acquisition cost for each drug was used to calculate each drug's treatment costs over 26 weeks. The average cost per response for each drug was defined as the prescription drug cost of each SGLT2 inhibitor, divided by the average, placebo-adjusted HbA1c reduction at 26 weeks. Results The drug cost per unit dose was the same for canagliflozin (100 mg or 300 mg), dapagliflozin (5 mg or 10 mg), and empagliflozin (10 mg or 25 mg), at $11.43. The drug cost per placebo-adjusted 1% HbA1c reduction varied by agent and by dose, as a result of the differences in the treatment responses for each of the 3 drugs. The costs per response for canagliflozin 100 mg as monotherapy, dual therapy, and triple therapy regimens ranged from $2286 to $3355, and for canagliflozin 300 mg, from $1793 to $2702. The costs per response for dapagliflozin 5 mg as monotherapy and dual therapy (triple therapy was not available at the time of the study) ranged from

  5. A noticeable difference? Productivity costs related to paid and unpaid work in economic evaluations on expensive drugs.

    PubMed

    Krol, Marieke; Papenburg, Jocé; Tan, Siok Swan; Brouwer, Werner; Hakkaart, Leona

    2016-05-01

    Productivity costs can strongly impact cost-effectiveness outcomes. This study investigated the impact in the context of expensive hospital drugs. This study aimed to: (1) investigate the effect of productivity costs on cost-effectiveness outcomes, (2) determine whether economic evaluations of expensive drugs commonly include productivity costs related to paid and unpaid work, and (3) explore potential reasons for excluding productivity costs from the economic evaluation. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify economic evaluations of 33 expensive drugs. We analysed whether evaluations included productivity costs and whether inclusion or exclusion was related to the study population's age, health and national health economic guidelines. The impact on cost-effectiveness outcomes was assessed in studies that included productivity costs. Of 249 identified economic evaluations of expensive drugs, 22 (9 %) included productivity costs related to paid work. One study included unpaid productivity. Mostly, productivity cost exclusion could not be explained by the study population's age and health status, but national guidelines appeared influential. Productivity costs proved often highly influential. This study indicates that productivity costs in economic evaluations of expensive hospital drugs are commonly and inconsistently ignored in economic evaluations. This warrants caution in interpreting and comparing the results of these evaluations. PMID:25876834

  6. A hybrid rocket engine design for simple low cost sounding rocket use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubelich, Mark; Rowland, John; Reese, Larry

    1993-06-01

    Preliminary test results on a nitrous oxide/HTPB hybrid rocket engine suitable for powering a small sounding rocket to altitudes of 50-100 K/ft are presented. It is concluded that the advantage of the N2O hybrid engine over conventional solid propellant rocket motors is the ability to obtain long burn times with core burning geometries due to the low regression rate of the fuel. Long burn times make it possible to reduce terminal velocity to minimize air drag losses.

  7. The Cost of Crime to Society: New Crime-Specific Estimates for Policy and Program Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    French, Michael T.; Fang, Hai

    2010-01-01

    Estimating the cost to society of individual crimes is essential to the economic evaluation of many social programs, such as substance abuse treatment and community policing. A review of the crime-costing literature reveals multiple sources, including published articles and government reports, which collectively represent the alternative approaches for estimating the economic losses associated with criminal activity. Many of these sources are based upon data that are more than ten years old, indicating a need for updated figures. This study presents a comprehensive methodology for calculating the cost of society of various criminal acts. Tangible and intangible losses are estimated using the most current data available. The selected approach, which incorporates both the cost-of-illness and the jury compensation methods, yields cost estimates for more than a dozen major crime categories, including several categories not found in previous studies. Updated crime cost estimates can help government agencies and other organizations execute more prudent policy evaluations, particularly benefit-cost analyses of substance abuse treatment or other interventions that reduce crime. PMID:20071107

  8. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Systems Engineering Cost/Risk Analysis Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regenie, Victoria

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: General Background and Introduction of Capability. Roadmaps for Systems Engineering Cost/Risk Analysis. Agency Objectives. Strategic Planning Transformation. Review Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Review Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  9. COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar": first-year activities and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Slob, Evert; Tosti, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    This work aims at presenting the first-year activities and results of COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar". This Action was launched in April 2013 and will last four years. The principal aim of COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Moreover, the Action is oriented to the following specific objectives and expected deliverables: (i) coordinating European scientists to highlight problems, merits and limits of current GPR systems; (ii) developing innovative protocols and guidelines, which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European standards, for an effective GPR application in civil- engineering tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols; (iii) integrating competences for the improvement and merging of electromagnetic scattering techniques and of data- processing techniques; this will lead to a novel freeware tool for the localization of buried objects, shape-reconstruction and estimation of geophysical parameters useful for civil engineering needs; (iv) networking for the design, realization and optimization of innovative GPR equipment; (v) comparing GPR with different NDT techniques, such as ultrasonic, radiographic, liquid-penetrant, magnetic-particle, acoustic-emission and eddy-current testing; (vi) comparing GPR technology and methodology used in civil engineering with those used in other fields; (vii) promotion of a more widespread, advanced and efficient use of GPR in civil engineering; and (viii) organization of a high-level modular training program for GPR European users. Four Working Groups (WGs) carry out the research activities. The first WG

  10. Electric Utility Rate Design Study: comments on An Evaluation of Four Marginal-Costing Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-12

    This report is an extension of NP-24255 (EAPA 6:1820), An Evaluation of Four Marginal Costing Methodologies (RDS No. 66), which summarizes, contrasts, and evaluates four marginal costing methodologies currently in use by various electric utilities. The proponents of the four methodologies evaluated by Temple, Barker, and Sloane (TBS) were asked to comment on the TBS report (RDS No. 66). Other selected reviewers were asked to comment on the TBS report. This report, RDS No. 67, is an anthology of all those comments plus a response to them by TBS. The rebuttal comments from TBS appear first, followed by comments submitted by Ralph Turvey, an authority in microeconomics. The next comments are to the Rate Design Study by members of Advisory Group I, experts in the field of electricity pricing. The next four sections present detailed comments submitted by the four marginal-cost proponents: Cicchetti, Gillen, and Smolensky; Ernst and Ernst; Gordian Associates; and National Economic Research Associates.

  11. Evaluation of trade-offs in costs and environmental impacts for returnable packaging implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarupan, Lerpong; Kamarthi, Sagar V.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2004-02-01

    The main thrust of returnable packaging these days is to provide logistical services through transportation and distribution of products and be environmentally friendly. Returnable packaging and reverse logistics concepts have converged to mitigate the adverse effect of packaging materials entering the solid waste stream. Returnable packaging must be designed by considering the trade-offs between costs and environmental impact to satisfy manufacturers and environmentalists alike. The cost of returnable packaging entails such items as materials, manufacturing, collection, storage and disposal. Environmental impacts are explicitly linked with solid waste, air pollution, and water pollution. This paper presents a multi-criteria evaluation technique to assist decision-makers for evaluating the trade-offs in costs and environmental impact during the returnable packaging design process. The proposed evaluation technique involves a combination of multiple objective integer linear programming and analytic hierarchy process. A numerical example is used to illustrate the methodology.

  12. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Scotto

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NO{sub x} emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of high-flammable content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. The actual NO{sub x} reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammable content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NO{sub x} reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NO{sub x} emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  13. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Mark V. Scotto; Mark A. Perna

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NOx emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of highflammables content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NOx emissions. The actual NOx reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammables content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NOx reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NOx emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NOx emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  14. COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar": first-year activities and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Slob, Evert; Tosti, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    This work aims at presenting the first-year activities and results of COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar". This Action was launched in April 2013 and will last four years. The principal aim of COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Moreover, the Action is oriented to the following specific objectives and expected deliverables: (i) coordinating European scientists to highlight problems, merits and limits of current GPR systems; (ii) developing innovative protocols and guidelines, which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European standards, for an effective GPR application in civil- engineering tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols; (iii) integrating competences for the improvement and merging of electromagnetic scattering techniques and of data- processing techniques; this will lead to a novel freeware tool for the localization of buried objects, shape-reconstruction and estimation of geophysical parameters useful for civil engineering needs; (iv) networking for the design, realization and optimization of innovative GPR equipment; (v) comparing GPR with different NDT techniques, such as ultrasonic, radiographic, liquid-penetrant, magnetic-particle, acoustic-emission and eddy-current testing; (vi) comparing GPR technology and methodology used in civil engineering with those used in other fields; (vii) promotion of a more widespread, advanced and efficient use of GPR in civil engineering; and (viii) organization of a high-level modular training program for GPR European users. Four Working Groups (WGs) carry out the research activities. The first WG

  15. Recent Advances in Design of Low Cost Film Concentrator and Low Pressure Free Piston Stirling Engines for Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinwaechter, J.; Kleinwaechter, H.; Beale, W.

    1984-01-01

    The free piston Stirling-linear alternator was shown to be scalable to power levels of tens of kilowatts in a form which is simple, efficient, long lived and relatively inexpensive. It avoids entirely the vexing problem of high pressure shaft, and its control requirements are not severe nor do they represent a significant threat to durability. Linear alternators have demonstrated high efficiency and moderate weight, and are capable of delivering 3 phase power from single machines without great increases of cost or complexity. There remains no apparent impediments to the commercial exploitation of the free piston engine for solar electric power generation.

  16. Operational Issues in the Development of a Cost-Effective Reusable LOX/LH2 Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: SLI initiated under NASA Research Announcement (NRA) 8-30. Strategic Objectives. Make spaceflight safer (1 in 10000 mission LOV). Make spaceflight cheaper ($1000/lb payload). Two prototype LOX/LH2 engine systems funded under Cycle-1 of NRA8-30. COBRA (Pratt & Whitney / Aerojet). RS-83 (Rocketdyne).

  17. Cost of lower NO x emissions: Increased CO 2 emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, Mohan; Carder, Daniel K.; Thompson, Gregory; Gautam, Mridul

    This paper highlights the effect of emissions regulations on in-use emissions from heavy-duty vehicles powered by different model year engines. More importantly, fuel economy data for pre- and post-consent decree engines are compared. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in brake-specific emissions of NO x as a result of emission regulations, and to highlight the effect these have had on brake-specific CO 2 emission; hence, fuel consumption. For this study, in-use, on-road emission measurements were collected. Test vehicles were instrumented with a portable on-board tailpipe emissions measurement system, WVU's Mobile Emissions Measurement System, and were tested on specific routes, which included a mix of highway and city driving patterns, in order to collect engine operating conditions, vehicle speed, and in-use emission rates of CO 2 and NO x. Comparison of on-road in-use emissions data suggests NO x reductions as high as 80% and 45% compared to the US Federal Test Procedure and Not-to-Exceed standards for model year 1995-2002. However, the results indicate that the fuel consumption; hence, CO 2 emissions increased by approximately 10% over the same period, when the engines were operating in the Not-to-Exceed region.

  18. Derivation of a Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) metric for evaluation of solar selective absorber materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ho, C. K.; Pacheco, J. E.

    2015-06-05

    A new metric, the Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC), is derived in this paper to evaluate and compare alternative solar selective absorber coatings against a baseline coating (Pyromark 2500). In contrast to previous metrics that focused only on the optical performance of the coating, the LCOC includes costs, durability, and optical performance for more comprehensive comparisons among candidate materials. The LCOC is defined as the annualized marginal cost of the coating to produce a baseline annual thermal energy production. Costs include the cost of materials and labor for initial application and reapplication of the coating, as well as the costmore » of additional or fewer heliostats to yield the same annual thermal energy production as the baseline coating. Results show that important factors impacting the LCOC include the initial solar absorptance, thermal emittance, reapplication interval, degradation rate, reapplication cost, and downtime during reapplication. The LCOC can also be used to determine the optimal reapplication interval to minimize the levelized cost of energy production. As a result, similar methods can be applied more generally to determine the levelized cost of component for other applications and systems.« less

  19. Disposal systems evaluations and tool development : Engineered Barrier System (EBS) evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Liu, Hui-Hai; Steefel, Carl I.; Serrano de Caro, M. A.; Caporuscio, Florie Andre; Birkholzer, Jens T.; Blink, James A.; Sutton, Mark A.; Xu, Hongwu; Buscheck, Thomas A.; Levy, Schon S.; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Halsey, William G.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wolery, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Key components of the nuclear fuel cycle are short-term storage and long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The latter encompasses the immobilization of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and radioactive waste streams generated by various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the safe and permanent disposition of these waste forms in geological repository environments. The engineered barrier system (EBS) plays a very important role in the long-term isolation of nuclear waste in geological repository environments. EBS concepts and their interactions with the natural barrier are inherently important to the long-term performance assessment of the safety case where nuclear waste disposition needs to be evaluated for time periods of up to one million years. Making the safety case needed in the decision-making process for the recommendation and the eventual embracement of a disposal system concept requires a multi-faceted integration of knowledge and evidence-gathering to demonstrate the required confidence level in a deep geological disposal site and to evaluate long-term repository performance. The focus of this report is the following: (1) Evaluation of EBS in long-term disposal systems in deep geologic environments with emphasis on the multi-barrier concept; (2) Evaluation of key parameters in the characterization of EBS performance; (3) Identification of key knowledge gaps and uncertainties; and (4) Evaluation of tools and modeling approaches for EBS processes and performance. The above topics will be evaluated through the analysis of the following: (1) Overview of EBS concepts for various NW disposal systems; (2) Natural and man-made analogs, room chemistry, hydrochemistry of deep subsurface environments, and EBS material stability in near-field environments; (3) Reactive Transport and Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) processes in EBS; and (4) Thermal analysis toolkit, metallic barrier degradation mode survey, and development of a Disposal Systems

  20. Re-Engineering JPL's Mission Planning Ground System Architecture for Cost Efficient Operations in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, Jess

    1996-01-01

    Work carried out to re-engineer the mission analysis segment of JPL's mission planning ground system architecture is reported on. The aim is to transform the existing software tools, originally developed for specific missions on different support environments, into an integrated, general purpose, multi-mission tool set. The issues considered are: the development of a partnership between software developers and users; the definition of key mission analysis functions; the development of a consensus based architecture; the move towards evolutionary change instead of revolutionary replacement; software reusability, and the minimization of future maintenance costs. The current status and aims of new developments are discussed and specific examples of cost savings and improved productivity are presented.

  1. Evaluation of Proposed Rocket Engines for Earth-to-Orbit Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A.; Kramer, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to evaluate recently analyzed rocket engines for advanced Earth-to-orbit vehicles. The engines evaluated are full-flow staged combustion engines and split expander engines, both at mixture ratios at 6 and above with oxygen and hydrogen propellants. The vehicles considered are single-stage and two-stage fully reusable vehicles and the Space Shuttle with liquid rocket boosters. The results indicate that the split expander engine at a mixture ratio of about 7 is competitive with the full-flow staged combustion engine for all three vehicle concepts. A key factor in this result is the capability to increase the chamber pressure for the split expander as the mixture ratio is increased from 6 to 7.

  2. Test and evaluation of the HIDEC engine uptrim algorithm. [Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. J.; Myers, L. P.

    1986-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program will demonstrate and evaluate the improvements in performance and mission effectiveness that result from integrated engine-airframe control systems. Performance improvements will result from an adaptive engine stall margin mode, a highly integrated mode that uses the airplane flight conditions and the resulting inlet distortion to continuously compute engine stall margin. When there is excessive stall margin, the engine is uptrimmed for more thrust by increasing engine pressure ratio (EPR). The EPR uptrim logic has been evaluated and implemente into computer simulations. Thrust improvements over 10 percent are predicted for subsonic flight conditions. The EPR uptrim was successfully demonstrated during engine ground tests. Test results verify model predictions at the conditions tested.

  3. An Evaluation of the AirCare Program Based on Cost-Benefit and Cost-Effectiveness Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bi, Hsiaotao T.; Wang, Dianle

    2006-01-01

    A cost-benefit analysis of the AirCare program in the province of British Columbia on the basis of emissions cost factors from the literature showed a benefit outweighing the cost. Furthermore, a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the AirCare program with a hybrid-car rebate program revealed that the AirCare program is more effective in…

  4. High altitude aerodynamic platform concept evaluation and prototype engine testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akkerman, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    A design concept has been developed for maintaining a 150-pound payload at 60,000 feet altitude for about 50 hours. A 600-pound liftoff weight aerodynamic vehicle is used which operates at sufficient speeds to withstand prevailing winds. It is powered by a turbocharged four-stoke cycle gasoline fueled engine. Endurance time of 100 hours or more appears to be feasible with hydrogen fuel and a lighter payload. A prototype engine has been tested to 40,000 feet simulated altitude. Mismatch of the engine and the turbocharger system flow and problems with fuel/air mixture ratio control characteristics prohibited operation beyond 40,000 feet. But there seems to be no reason why the concept cannot be developed to function as analytically predicted.

  5. Experimental Evaluation of Integral Transformations for Engineering Drawings Vectorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaský, Jozef; Gramblička, Matúš

    2014-12-01

    The concept of digital manufacturing supposes application of digital technologies in the whole product life cycle. Direct digital manufacturing includes such information technology processes, where products are directly manufactured from 3D CAD model. In digital manufacturing, engineering drawing is replaced by CAD product model. In the contemporary practice, lots of engineering paper-based drawings are still archived. They could be digitalized by scanner and stored to one of the raster graphics format and after that vectorized for interactive editing in the specific software system for technical drawing or for archiving in some of the standard vector graphics file format. The vector format is suitable for 3D model generating, too.The article deals with using of selected integral transformations (Fourier, Hough) in the phase of digitalized raster engineering drawings vectorization.

  6. Peer Evaluation in Chemical Engineering Capstone Design via Wikis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heldt, Caryn L.

    2012-01-01

    Inter-group peer evaluation through wikis was implemented as a method for senior capstone design teams to improve writing and the critical evaluation of data. Each group was evaluated by peers using a qualitative discussion and evaluated quantitatively by instructors. Students had an increased interest in contributing to online knowledge centers,…

  7. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 570 - Guidelines and Objectives for Evaluating Project Costs and Financial Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Evaluating Project Costs and Financial Requirements A Appendix A to Part 570 Housing and Urban Development... Project Costs and Financial Requirements I. Guidelines and Objectives for Evaluating Project Costs and... are appropriate to take into account differences in the size and scope of a proposed project, and...

  8. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 570 - Guidelines and Objectives for Evaluating Project Costs and Financial Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Evaluating Project Costs and Financial Requirements A Appendix A to Part 570 Housing and Urban Development... Project Costs and Financial Requirements I. Guidelines and Objectives for Evaluating Project Costs and... are appropriate to take into account differences in the size and scope of a proposed project, and...

  9. On the evaluation of expected performance cost for partially observed closed-loop stochastic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, D. S.; Eslami, M.

    1985-01-01

    New methods are presented for evaluating the expected performance cost of partially observed closed-loop stochastic systems. When the variances of the process statistics are small, a linearized model of the closed-loop stochastic system is defined for which the expected cost can be evaluated by recursion on a set of purely deterministic difference equations. When the variances of the process statistics are large, the linearized model can be used in the control variate method of variance reduction for reducing the number of sample paths required for effective Monte Carlo estimation.

  10. Evaluation of Cost Leadership Strategy in Shipping Enterprises with Simulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferfeli, Maria V.; Vaxevanou, Anthi Z.; Damianos, Sakas P.

    2009-08-01

    The present study will attempt the evaluation of cost leadership strategy that prevails in certain shipping enterprises and the creation of simulation models based on strategic model STAIR. The above model is an alternative method of strategic applications evaluation. This is held in order to be realised if the strategy of cost leadership creates competitive advantage [1] and this will be achieved via the technical simulation which appreciates the interactions between the operations of an enterprise and the decision-making strategy in conditions of uncertainty with reduction of undertaken risk.

  11. Flight evaluation of a digital electronic engine control system in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, L. P.; Mackall, K. G.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Walter, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    Benefits provided by a full-authority digital engine control are related to improvements in engine efficiency, performance, and operations. An additional benefit is the capability of detecting and accommodating failures in real time and providing engine-health diagnostics. The digital electronic engine control (DEEC), is a full-authority digital engine control developed for the F100-PW-100 turbofan engine. The DEEC has been flight tested on an F-15 aircraft. The flight tests had the objective to evaluate the DEEC hardware and software over the F-15 flight envelope. A description is presented of the results of the flight tests, which consisted of nonaugmented and augmented throttle transients, airstarts, and backup control operations. The aircraft, engine, DEEC system, and data acquisition and reduction system are discussed.

  12. Comparing Web search engine performance in searching consumer health information: evaluation and recommendations.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, G; Li, J

    1999-01-01

    Identifying and accessing reliable, relevant consumer health information rapidly on the Internet may challenge the health sciences librarian and layperson alike. In this study, seven search engines are compared using representative consumer health topics for their content relevancy, system features, and attributes. The paper discusses evaluation criteria; systematically compares relevant results; analyzes performance in terms of the strengths and weaknesses of the search engines; and illustrates effective search engine selection, search formulation, and strategies. PMID:10550031

  13. A systematic review of observational studies evaluating costs of adverse drug reactions

    PubMed Central

    Batel Marques, Francisco; Penedones, Ana; Mendes, Diogo; Alves, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The growing evidence of the increased frequency and severity of adverse drug events (ADEs), besides the negative impact on patient’s health status, indicates that costs due to ADEs may be steadily rising. Observational studies are an important tool in pharmacovigilance. Despite these studies being more susceptible to bias than experimental designs, they are more competent in assessing ADEs and their associated costs. Objective To identify and characterize the best available evidence on ADE-associated costs. Methods MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Embase were searched from 1995 to 2015. Observational studies were included. The methodological quality of selected studies was assessed by Cochrane Collaboration tool for experimental and observational studies. Studies were classified according to the setting analyzed in “ambulatory”, “hospital”, or both. Costs were classified as “direct” and “indirect”. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The total incremental cost per patient with ADE was estimated. Results Twenty-nine (94%) longitudinal observational studies and two (7%) cross-sectional studies were included. Twenty-three (74%) studies were assessed with the highest methodological quality score. The studies were mainly conducted in the US (61%). Twenty (65%) studies evaluated any therapeutic group. Twenty (65%) studies estimated costs of ADEs leading to or prolonging hospitalization. The “direct costs” were evaluated in all studies, whereas only two (7%) also estimated the “indirect costs”. The “direct costs” in ambulatory ranged from €702.21 to €40,273.08, and the in hospital from €943.40 to €7,192.36. Discussion Methodological heterogeneities were identified among the included studies, such as design, type of ADEs, suspected drugs, and type and structure of costs. Despite such discrepancies, the financial burden associated with ADE costs was found to be high. In the light of the present findings

  14. COST ENGINEERING SUPPORT FOR EPA'S OFFICE OF SOLID WASTE AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE (OSWER)(SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH, SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this effort is to support EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response's (OSWER's) efforts by providing cost engineering expertise in various technical areas as requested and by providing input to EPA-OSWER/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers development of "A Gui...

  15. F100 multivariable control synthesis program: Evaluation of a multivariable control using a real-time engine simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szuch, J. R.; Soeder, J. F.; Seldner, K.; Cwynar, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    The design, evaluation, and testing of a practical, multivariable, linear quadratic regulator control for the F100 turbofan engine were accomplished. NASA evaluation of the multivariable control logic and implementation are covered. The evaluation utilized a real time, hybrid computer simulation of the engine. Results of the evaluation are presented, and recommendations concerning future engine testing of the control are made. Results indicated that the engine testing of the control should be conducted as planned.

  16. Genetically engineered maize plants reveal distinct costs and benefits of constitutive volatile emissions in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic manipulation of plant volatile emissions is a promising tool to enhance plant defences against herbivores. However, the potential costs associated with the manipulation of specific volatile synthase genes are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the physiological and ecological effects of tra...

  17. Liberal Learning for the Engineer: An Evaluation Five Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Concludes that quantitative requirements for humanities and social science courses in engineering curricula have not significantly changed since 1968, but that the report summarized has encouraged and has resulted in interdisciplinary efforts at a number of schools. Criticizes the report for not stating objectives behaviorally and makes…

  18. Evaluating Risk Awareness in Undergraduate Students Studying Mechanical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, G. S.; Balchin, K.; Mufamadi, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the development of risk awareness among undergraduate students studying mechanical engineering at a South African university. A questionnaire developed at the University of Liverpool was modified and used on students from the first, second and third year cohorts to assess their awareness in the areas of professional…

  19. The case for applying an early-lifecycle technology evaluation methodology to comparative evaluation of requirements engineering research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.

    2003-01-01

    The premise of this paper is taht there is a useful analogy between evaluation of proposed problem solutions and evaluation of requirements engineering research itself. Both of these application areas face the challenges of evaluation early in the lifecycle, of the need to consider a wide variety of factors, and of the need to combine inputs from multiple stakeholders in making thse evaluation and subsequent decisions.

  20. Evaluation of potential military applications of Stirling engines. Final report, January-June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Oelrich, I.C.; Riddell, F.R.

    1988-07-01

    This paper reports on the potential military applications of the Stirling engine. In the applications considered here, the major advantages cited for the Stirling engine are multifuel capability, efficiency, and low noise levels. These potential advantages are small compared to current diesels. Diesels are already able to burn broadcut fuels, have high efficiency, and can be adequately muffled. Their major disadvantages are size, weight, and cost. These disadvantages are only severe in vehicular and mobile-power applications where the competition is open-cycle internal combustion engines (diesel, spark-ignition, or turbine). In underwater and space-power applications where closed-cycle engines are a necessity, the use of Stirling engines shows more promise.

  1. An Evaluation of the 1973 Survey of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Human Resources.

    The Survey of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers (SDSE) itself was the first of a planned series of biennial surveys of manpower in the physical, life and social sciences, mathematics, and engineering, prepared for the National Science Foundation by the Commission on Human Resources of the National Research Council. This evaluation report attempted…

  2. Evaluation of the Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program (ANSEP). Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Hamutal; Martin, Carlos; Eyster, Lauren; Anderson, Theresa; Owen, Stephanie; Martin-Caughey, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The Urban Institute conducted an implementation and participant-outcomes evaluation of the Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program (ANSEP). ANSEP is a multi-stage initiative designed to prepare and support Alaska Native students from middle school through graduate school to succeed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)…

  3. An Evaluation of Streaming Digital Video Resources in On- and Off-Campus Engineering Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    A recent television documentary on the Columbia space shuttle disaster was converted to streaming digital video format for educational use by on- and off-campus students in an engineering management study unit examining issues in professional engineering ethics. An evaluation was conducted to assess the effectiveness of this new resource. Use of…

  4. Thin film temperature sensors, phase 3. [for engine-test evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, H. P.; Przybyszewski, J. S.; Claing, R. G.; Anderson, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    A thin film thermocouple system installation suitable for engine test evaluation was designed, and an engine test plan was prepared. Film adherence, durability, accuracy, and drift characteristics were improved. Film thickness was increased to 14 microns, and drift was reduced to less than 0.02 percent of Fahrenheit temperature per hour on actual turbine blades at 1255 K.

  5. Evaluating the Cost Effectiveness of Cancer Patient Navigation Programs: Conceptual and Practical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Scott; Whitley, Elizabeth; Mears, Victoria Warren; McKoy, June M.; Everhart, Rachel M.; Caswell, Robert J.; Fiscella, Kevin; Hurd, Thelma C.; Battalgia, Tracy; Mandelblatt, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Background Patient navigators--individuals who assist patients through the healthcare system to improve access to and understanding of their health and health care—are increasingly utilized for underserved individuals at risk for or with cancer. Navigation programs can improve access, but it is unclear whether they improve the efficiency and efficacy of cancer diagnostic and therapeutic services at a reasonable cost, such that they would be considered cost effective. Methods We outline a conceptual model for evaluating the cost effectiveness of cancer navigation programs. We describe how this model is being applied to the Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP), a multi-center study supported by the National Cancer Institute’s Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities. Results The PNRP is testing navigation interventions which aim to reduce time to delivery of quality cancer care (non-cancer resolution or cancer diagnosis and treatment) after identification of a screening abnormality. Examples of challenges to evaluating cost effectiveness of navigation programs include the heterogeneity of navigation programs, the sometimes distant relationship between navigation programs and outcome of interest (e.g., improving access to prompt diagnostic resolution and life years gained) and accounting for factors in underserved populations that may influence both access to services and outcomes. In this article, we discuss several strategies for addressing these barriers. Conclusions Evaluating the costs and impact of navigation will require some novel methods, but will be critical in recommendations about dissemination of navigation programs. PMID:19685528

  6. Evaluation of syngas production unit cost of bio-gasification facility using regression analysis techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Yangyang; Parajuli, Prem B.

    2011-08-10

    Evaluation of economic feasibility of a bio-gasification facility needs understanding of its unit cost under different production capacities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the unit cost of syngas production at capacities from 60 through 1800Nm 3/h using an economic model with three regression analysis techniques (simple regression, reciprocal regression, and log-log regression). The preliminary result of this study showed that reciprocal regression analysis technique had the best fit curve between per unit cost and production capacity, with sum of error squares (SES) lower than 0.001 and coefficient of determination of (R 2) 0.996. The regression analysis techniques determined the minimum unit cost of syngas production for micro-scale bio-gasification facilities of $0.052/Nm 3, under the capacity of 2,880 Nm 3/h. The results of this study suggest that to reduce cost, facilities should run at a high production capacity. In addition, the contribution of this technique could be the new categorical criterion to evaluate micro-scale bio-gasification facility from the perspective of economic analysis.

  7. Moisture evaluation of wood material using GPR with WARR method - COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reci, Hamza; Sbart'i, Zoubir Mehdi; Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian

    2016-04-01

    This work deals with the study of the sensitivity of GPR electromagnetic waves to moisture variation in wood material in relation with the direction of fibers and polarization of Electromagnetic field. The relations between relative permittivity and moisture content and the amplitude attenuation with distance was a target study using the direct waves in Wide Angle Radar Reflection (WARR) configuration. Comparison of results measured with reflected waves and direct waves was of main importance since they have different behavior in relation with moisture variation, due to different path of propagation. This research activity has been carried out during one Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSM) funded by the COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" in November-December 2015. In context of durability evaluation of construction materials, several studies have been carried out by the I2M team, University of Bordeaux, using direct and reflected waves for the evaluation of water content on concrete and wood materials [1-3]. As related to the wood material there is one study carried out using the reflected waves on wood for different humidity and different wood samples, in all the direction of polarization using GPR technique ground coupled antenna at 1.5 GHz [3]. This work continued with different moisture content in order to study the behavior of direct waves as function of moisture. Results taken from those measurements are compared with them from Fixed Offset (reflected method) with one antenna (1.5GHz or 2.6GHz), realized from the previous studies from the I2M and already published [1-3]. The results taken from this work from the reflected waves, show that the effect of wood anisotropy is significant on the variation of relative permittivity with moisture content on wood sample and that is in good agreement with the previous results [3-6]. As related to the direct waves, a small

  8. Moisture evaluation of wood material using GPR with WARR method - COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reci, Hamza; Sbart'i, Zoubir Mehdi; Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian

    2016-04-01

    This work deals with the study of the sensitivity of GPR electromagnetic waves to moisture variation in wood material in relation with the direction of fibers and polarization of Electromagnetic field. The relations between relative permittivity and moisture content and the amplitude attenuation with distance was a target study using the direct waves in Wide Angle Radar Reflection (WARR) configuration. Comparison of results measured with reflected waves and direct waves was of main importance since they have different behavior in relation with moisture variation, due to different path of propagation. This research activity has been carried out during one Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSM) funded by the COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" in November-December 2015. In context of durability evaluation of construction materials, several studies have been carried out by the I2M team, University of Bordeaux, using direct and reflected waves for the evaluation of water content on concrete and wood materials [1-3]. As related to the wood material there is one study carried out using the reflected waves on wood for different humidity and different wood samples, in all the direction of polarization using GPR technique ground coupled antenna at 1.5 GHz [3]. This work continued with different moisture content in order to study the behavior of direct waves as function of moisture. Results taken from those measurements are compared with them from Fixed Offset (reflected method) with one antenna (1.5GHz or 2.6GHz), realized from the previous studies from the I2M and already published [1-3]. The results taken from this work from the reflected waves, show that the effect of wood anisotropy is significant on the variation of relative permittivity with moisture content on wood sample and that is in good agreement with the previous results [3-6]. As related to the direct waves, a small

  9. EPA evaluation of the gas saving and emission control improvement device under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the Gas Saving and Emission Control Improvement device under the provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. The evaluation of the 'Gas Saving and Emission Control Improvement' device was conducted upon receiving an application for evaluation by the manufacturer. The device is a 3/4 inch thick carburetor adapter plate that is installed between the carburetor and intake manifold. The device is claimed to reduce emissions, improve fuel economy, clean the engine and make it virtually maintenance free, and improve engine power. The information supplied by the applicant was insufficient to adequately substantiate either the emissions or fuel economy benefits claimed for the device.

  10. Documenting the Impact of Multisite Evaluations on the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseland, Denise; Greenseid, Lija O.; Volkov, Boris B.; Lawrenz, Frances

    2011-01-01

    This chapter discusses the impact that four multisite National Science Foundation (NSF) evaluations had on the broader field of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education and evaluation. Three approaches were used to investigate the broader impact of these evaluations on the field: (a) a citation analysis, (b) an on-line survey,…

  11. Evaluation and Dissemination of the Electrical Power Engineering Technology Curriculum Model. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Perry R.; And Others

    Described is a project initiated to evaluate and disseminate the Electrical Power Engineering Technology Curriculum developed at Oklahoma State University. The objective of the evaluation phase, to have the original model curriculum evaluated by both present and potential employers, was accomplished in a two-day workshop with participation of…

  12. EVALUATING COSTS WITH UNMEASURED CONFOUNDING: A SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS FOR THE TREATMENT EFFECT

    PubMed Central

    Handorf, Elizabeth A.; Bekelman, Justin E.; Heitjan, Daniel F.; Mitra, Nandita

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of the effects of treatment on cost from observational studies are subject to bias if there are unmeasured confounders. It is therefore advisable in practice to assess the potential magnitude of such biases. We derive a general adjustment formula for loglinear models of mean cost and explore special cases under plausible assumptions about the distribution of the unmeasured confounder. We assess the performance of the adjustment by simulation, in particular, examining robustness to a key assumption of conditional independence between the unmeasured and measured covariates given the treatment indicator. We apply our method to SEER-Medicare cost data for a stage II/III muscle-invasive bladder cancer cohort. We evaluate the costs for radical cystectomy vs. combined radiation/chemotherapy, and find that the significance of the treatment effect is sensitive to plausible unmeasured Bernoulli, Poisson and Gamma confounders. PMID:24587844

  13. An evaluation of accounting-based finding costs as efficiency measures for oil and gas exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Boynton, C.E. IV; Boone, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    The authors have operationalized firm-specific exploration efficiency as the difference between a firm-specific intercept estimated in a fixed-effects panel data Cobb-Douglas production frontier model and the maximum firm-specific intercept estimated in that model. The production model was estimated during two different time periods, 1982--1985 and 1989--1992, allowing efficiency to vary intertemporally. This efficiency estimate served as a benchmark against which they compared various measures of inverse finding costs. They assumed that the degree of association with an efficiency benchmark is an important attribute of any finding cost measure and that, further, the degree of association may be used as a metric for choosing between alternative finding cost measures. Accordingly, they evaluated the cross-sectional statistical association between estimated efficiency and alternative inverse finding cost measures. They discovered that the inverse finding cost measure that exhibited the strongest association with efficiency during the two time periods was a three-year moving-average finding cost which included exploration plus development expenditures as costs and reserve extensions and additions plus revisions as the units added.

  14. Evaluation of Contrail Reduction Strategies Based on Environmental and Operational Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Neil Y.; Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok K.; Li, Jinhua

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates a set of contrail reduction strategies based on environmental and operational costs. A linear climate model was first used to convert climate effects of carbon dioxide emissions and aircraft contrails to changes in Absolute Global Temperature Potential, a metric that measures the mean surface temperature change due to aircraft emissions and persistent contrail formations. The concept of social cost of carbon and the carbon auction price from recent California's cap-and-trade system were then used to relate the carbon dioxide emissions and contrail formations to an environmental cost index. The strategy for contrail reduction is based on minimizing contrail formations by altering the aircraft's cruising altitude. The strategy uses a user-defined factor to trade off between contrail reduction and additional fuel burn and carbon dioxide emissions. A higher value of tradeoff factor results in more contrail reduction but also more fuel burn and carbon emissions. The strategy is considered favorable when the net environmental cost benefit exceeds the operational cost. The results show how the net environmental benefit varies with different decision-making time-horizon and different carbon cost. The cost models provide a guidance to select the trade-off factor that will result in the most net environmental benefit.

  15. Economic evaluation of mental health interventions: an introduction to cost-utility analysis.

    PubMed

    Luyten, Jeroen; Naci, Huseyin; Knapp, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Finite resources need to be allocated over an ever-increasing range of competing health policies and interventions. Economic evaluation has been developed as a methodology to inform decision makers on the efficiency of particular resource allocations. In this paper we summarize cost-utility analysis, one of the most widely-used forms of economic evaluation in healthcare. We discuss its main elements, interpretation, limitations and relevance to the domain of mental health. PMID:27075444

  16. Performance Evaluation of Hybrid Gas Turbine Engine Embedded with Pulse Detonation Combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jun-Xiang; Yan, Chuan-Jun; Zheng, Long-Xi; Huang, Xi-Qiao

    2011-09-01

    The numerical investigations of performance evaluation of a hybrid gas turbine engine embedded with a pulse detonation combustor (PDC) were performed to examine the improvement of the performance of the hybrid propulsion system. The calculation model and method were described. The architecture, configuration and size of detonation tubes were investigated in the calculation. Two models of detonation tube exit temperature were utilized. Eight configuration choices for the PDC based on the calculation model were designed. Specific fuel consumption of a hybrid gas turbine engine was compared with that of the baseline engine at the condition of the same engine net thrust. The experimental research of a PDC interacted with a radial flow turbine of a turbocharger was conducted. The numerical results show that if the net thrust of hybrid PDC engine is matched to that of baseline engine, specific fuel consumption of hybrid PDC engine is 20-25% less than that of baseline engine. The total volume of the hybrid engine combustor is reduced. The incorporation of PDC into gas turbine engine can improve the performance of hybrid PDC engine, decrease the combustor weight, and increase the thrust-weight ratio. The experimental results show that the fully developed detonation waves are achieved in the experimental apparatus.

  17. Benefit-cost evaluation of an intra-regional air service in the Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    Utilization of an iterative statistical model is presented to evaluate combinations of commuter airport sites and surface transportation facilities in confunction with service by a given commuter aircraft type in light of Bay Area regional growth alternatives and peak and off-peak regional travel patterns. The model evaluates such transportation options with respect to criteria of airline profitability, public acceptance, and public and private nonuser costs. It incorporates information modal split, peak and off-peak use of the air commuter fleet, terminal and airport cost, development costs and uses of land in proximity to the airport sites, regional population shifts, and induced zonal shifts in travel demand. The model is multimodal in its analytical capability, and performs exhaustive sensitivity analysis.

  18. EVALUATION OF DIVERSION AND COSTS FOR SELECTED DROP-OFF RECYCLING PROGRAMS - A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This analysis was undertaken in 1993-94 to examine a sample of drop-off recycling programs in the United States and Canada to determine the quantities of recyclable materials diverted, the cost of diverting those materials, and the impact of a wide range of independent variables ...

  19. Evaluation of active control technology for short haul aircraft. [cost effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renshaw, J. H.; Bennett, J. A.; Harris, O. C.; Honrath, J. F.; Patterson, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation of the economics of short-haul aircraft designed with active controls technology and low wing-loading to achieve short field performance with good ride quality is presented. Results indicate that for such a system incorporating gust load alleviation and augmented stability the direct operating cost is better than for aircraft without active controls.

  20. DEMONSTRATION OF THE VIABILITY AND EVALUATION OF PRODUCTION COSTS FOR BIOMASS-INFUSED COAL BRIQUETTES

    SciTech Connect

    Kamshad, Kourosh

    2013-12-31

    This report is the final reporting installment of the DOE project titled DEMONSTRATION OF THE VIABILITY AND EVALUATION OF PRODUCTION COSTS FOR BIOMASS-INFUSED COAL BRIQUETTES. This rerport includes a summary of the work completed to date including the experimental methods used to acheive the results, discussions, conclusions and implications of the final product delivered by the project.

  1. COST EVALUATION STRATEGIES FOR TECHNOLOGIES TESTED UNDER THE ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides a general set of guidelines that may be consistently applied for collecting, evaluation, and reporting the costs of technologies tested under the ETV Program. Because of the diverse nature of the technologies and industries covered in this program, each ETV...

  2. Using the Kaldor-Hicks Tableau Format for Cost-Benefit Analysis and Policy Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krutilla, Kerry

    2005-01-01

    This note describes the Kaldor-Hicks (KH) tableau format as a framework for distributional accounting in cost-benefit analysis and policy evaluation. The KH tableau format can serve as a heuristic aid for teaching microeconomics-based policy analysis, and offer insight to policy analysts and decisionmakers beyond conventional efficiency analysis.

  3. An Evaluation of Simultaneous Presentation and Differential Reinforcement with Response Cost to Reduce Packing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Scott D.; Newchok, Debra K.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of multiple treatment procedures, including simultaneous presentation of preferred foods, on the packing behavior of a 9-year-old girl with autism. A reversal design was used to assess the effects of differential reinforcement with response cost alone and with simultaneous presentation. In addition, simultaneous…

  4. Estimating productivity costs in health economic evaluations: a review of instruments and psychometric evidence.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Health economic evaluations (i.e. cost-effectiveness appraisal of an intervention) are useful aids for decision makers responsible for the allocation of scarce healthcare resources. The relevance of including health-related productivity costs (or benefits) in these evaluations is increasingly recognized and, as such, reliable and valid instruments to quantify productivity costs are needed. Over the years, a number of work productivity instruments have emerged in the literature, along with a growing body of psychometric evidence. The overall aim of this paper is to provide a review of available instruments with potential for estimating health-related productivity costs. This included the Health and Labor Questionnaire, Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, Health-Related Productivity Questionnaire Diary, Productivity and Disease Questionnaire, Quantity and Quality method, Stanford Presenteeism Scale 13, Valuation of Lost Productivity, Work and Health Interview, Work Limitations Questionnaire, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire, and Work Productivity Short Inventory. Critical discussions on the instruments' overall strengths and limitations, applicability for health economic evaluations, as well as the methodological quality of existing psychometric evidence were provided. Lastly, a set of reflective questions were proposed for users to consider when selecting an instrument for health economic evaluations. PMID:25169062

  5. Teaching Costs in Seven French Universities. Initial Evaluations. Program on Institutional Management in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham-Frois, Gilbert

    Methods of evaluating unit operating costs and the development of the services and departments of French universities are examined. After an initial phase devoted to working out a common methodology, it was decided that the latter should be put directly to the test and that devices would have to be found to bridge the gaps in existing data, as,…

  6. Evaluation of cost-effective aeration technology solutions to address total trihalomethane (TTHM) compliance

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate cost-effective aeration technology solutions to address TTHM compliance at a water treatment plant clearwell. The project team worked closely with EPA Region 6 and the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) to identify a...

  7. Economic evaluation: Concepts, selected studies, system costs, and a proposed program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osterhoudt, F. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The more usual approaches to valuing crop information are reviewed and an integrated approach is recommended. Problems associated with implementation are examined. What has already been accomplished in the economic evaluation of LACIE-type information is reported including various studies of benefits. The costs of the existing and proposed systems are considered. A method and approach is proposed for further studies.

  8. 48 CFR 852.247-70 - Determining transportation costs for bid evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determining transportation costs for bid evaluation. 852.247-70 Section 852.247-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Demand Area destination Factor Oakland, California 3 Dallas, Texas 2 Omaha, Nebraska 3 Fort...

  9. 48 CFR 852.247-70 - Determining transportation costs for bid evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determining transportation costs for bid evaluation. 852.247-70 Section 852.247-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Demand Area destination Factor Oakland, California 3 Dallas, Texas 2 Omaha, Nebraska 3 Fort...

  10. 48 CFR 852.247-70 - Determining transportation costs for bid evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determining transportation costs for bid evaluation. 852.247-70 Section 852.247-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Demand Area destination Factor Oakland, California 3 Dallas, Texas 2 Omaha, Nebraska 3 Fort...

  11. 48 CFR 852.247-70 - Determining transportation costs for bid evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determining transportation costs for bid evaluation. 852.247-70 Section 852.247-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Demand Area destination Factor Oakland, California 3 Dallas, Texas 2 Omaha, Nebraska 3 Fort...

  12. COST AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF IN-PLANT TRIHALOMETHANE CONTROL TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-, pilot-, or full-scale studies were conducted to evaluate the cost and performance of selected treatment technologies for reducing trihalomethane concentrations in drinking water. The four Florida plant sites that were selected for study used highly organic surface or grou...

  13. Ongoing evaluation of sources and factors affecting emissions from engineered wood products

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, S.L.; Martin, C.B.; Sheldon, L.S.; Baskir, J.N.; Howard, E.M.

    1998-09-01

    The paper describes an ongoing evaluation of sources and factors affecting emissions from engineered wood products. It summarizes early results from emissions testing of engineered wood products. These tests have shown the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the alcohol, aldehyde/ketone, ester, aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon, monoterpene, sesquiterpene, indene, and alkyl ether chemical families from engineered wood samples. This information will be used to target pollution prevention approaches, such as alternate materials and production technologies for raw board and engineered wood products, for reducing VOC emissions.

  14. Design and evaluation of combustors for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. E.; Grobman, J.

    1973-01-01

    Efforts in reducing exhaust emissions from turbine engines are reported. Various techniques employed and the results of testing are briefly described and referenced for detail. The experimental approaches taken to reduce oxides of nitrogen emissions include the use of: (1) multizone combustors incorporating reduced dwell times, (2) fuel-air premixing, (3) air atomization, (4) fuel prevaporization, and (5) gaseous fuel. Since emissions of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are caused by poor combustion efficiency at engine idle, the studies of fuel staging in multizone combustors and air assist fuel nozzles have indicated that large reductions in these emissions can be achieved. Also, the effect of inlet-air humidity on oxides of nitrogen was studied as well as the very effective technique of direct water injection. The emission characteristics of natural gas and propane fuels were measured and compared with those of ASTM-Al kerosene fuel.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of the lifecycle costs and market barriers of reflective pavements

    SciTech Connect

    Ting, M.; Koomey, J.G.; Pomerantz, M.

    2001-11-21

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the life cycle costs and market barriers associated with using reflective paving materials in streets and parking lots as a way to reduce the urban heat island effect. We calculated and compared the life cycle costs of conventional asphalt concrete (AC) pavements to those of other existing pavement technologies with higher reflectivity-portland cement concrete (PCC), porous pavements, resin pavements, AC pavements using light-colored chip seals, and AC pavements using light-colored asphalt emulsion additives. We found that for streets and parking lots, PCC can provide a cost-effective alternative to conventional AC when severely damaged pavements must be completely reconstructed. We also found that rehabilitating damaged AC streets and intersections with thin overlays of PCC (ultra-thin white topping) can often provide a cost-effective alternative to standard rehabilitation techniques using conventional AC. Chip sealing is a common maintenance treatment for low-volume streets which, when applied using light-colored chips, could provide a reflective pavement surface. If the incremental cost of using light-colored chips is low, this chip sealing method could also be cost-effective, but the incremental costs of light-colored chips are as of yet uncertain and expected to vary. Porous pavements were found to have higher life cycle costs than conventional AC in parking lots, but several cost-saving features of porous pavements fell outside the boundaries of this study. Resin pavements were found to be only slightly more expensive than conventional AC, but the uncertainties in the cost and performance data were large. The use of light-colored additives in asphalt emulsion seal coats for parking lot pavements was found to be significantly more expensive than conventional AC, reflecting its current niche market of decorative applications. We also proposed two additional approaches to increasing the reflectivity of conventional AC

  16. Performance Evaluation of the T6 Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John Steven; Goebel, Dan M.; Hofer, Richard R.; Polk, James E.; Wallace, Neil C.; Simpson, Huw

    2010-01-01

    The T6 ion engine is a 22-cm diameter, 4.5-kW Kaufman-type ion thruster produced by QinetiQ, Ltd., and is baselined for the European Space Agency BepiColombo mission to Mercury and is being qualified under ESA sponsorship for the extended range AlphaBus communications satellite platform. The heritage of the T6 includes the T5 ion thruster now successfully operating on the ESA GOCE spacecraft. As a part of the T6 development program, an engineering model thruster was subjected to a suite of performance tests and plume diagnostics at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The engine was mounted on a thrust stand and operated over its nominal throttle range of 2.5 to 4.5 kW. In addition to the typical electrical and flow measurements, an E x B mass analyzer, scanning Faraday probe, thrust vector probe, and several near-field probes were utilized. Thrust, beam divergence, double ion content, and thrust vector movement were all measured at four separate throttle points. The engine performance agreed well with published data on this thruster. At full power the T6 produced 143 mN of thrust at a specific impulse of 4120 seconds and an efficiency of 64%; optimization of the neutralizer for lower flow rates increased the specific impulse to 4300 seconds and the efficiency to nearly 66%. Measured beam divergence was less than, and double ion content was greater than, the ring-cusp-design NSTAR thruster that has flown on NASA missions. The measured thrust vector offset depended slightly on throttle level and was found to increase with time as the thruster approached thermal equilibrium.

  17. Evaluation of environmental filtration control of engineered nanoparticles using the Harvard Versatile Engineered Nanomaterial Generation System (VENGES).

    PubMed

    Tsai, Candace S-J; Echevarría-Vega, Manuel E; Sotiriou, Georgios A; Santeufemio, Christopher; Schmidt, Daniel; Demokritou, Philip; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Applying engineering controls to airborne engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is critical to prevent environmental releases and worker exposure. This study evaluated the effectiveness of two air sampling and six air cleaning fabric filters at collecting ENPs using industrially relevant flame-made engineered nanoparticles generated using a versatile engineered nanomaterial generation system (VENGES), recently designed and constructed at Harvard University. VENGES has the ability to generate metal and metal oxide exposure atmospheres while controlling important particle properties such as primary particle size, aerosol size distribution, and agglomeration state. For this study, amorphous SiO(2) ENPs with a 15.4 nm primary particle size were generated and diluted with HEPA-filtered air. The aerosol was passed through the filter samples at two different filtration face velocities (2.3 and 3.5 m/min). Particle concentrations as a function of particle size were measured upstream and downstream of the filters using a specially designed filter test system to evaluate filtration efficiency. Real time instruments (FMPS and APS) were used to measure particle concentration for diameters from 5 to 20,000 nm. Membrane-coated fabric filters were found to have enhanced nanoparticle collection efficiency by 20-46 % points compared to non-coated fabric and could provide collection efficiency above 95 %. PMID:23412707

  18. Evaluation of environmental filtration control of engineered nanoparticles using the Harvard Versatile Engineered Nanomaterial Generation System (VENGES)

    PubMed Central

    Echevarría-Vega, Manuel E.; Sotiriou, Georgios A.; Santeufemio, Christopher; Schmidt, Daniel; Demokritou, Philip; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Applying engineering controls to airborne engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is critical to prevent environmental releases and worker exposure. This study evaluated the effectiveness of two air sampling and six air cleaning fabric filters at collecting ENPs using industrially relevant flame-made engineered nanoparticles generated using a versatile engineered nanomaterial generation system (VENGES), recently designed and constructed at Harvard University. VENGES has the ability to generate metal and metal oxide exposure atmospheres while controlling important particle properties such as primary particle size, aerosol size distribution, and agglomeration state. For this study, amorphous SiO2 ENPs with a 15.4 nm primary particle size were generated and diluted with HEPA-filtered air. The aerosol was passed through the filter samples at two different filtration face velocities (2.3 and 3.5 m/min). Particle concentrations as a function of particle size were measured upstream and downstream of the filters using a specially designed filter test system to evaluate filtration efficiency. Real time instruments (FMPS and APS) were used to measure particle concentration for diameters from 5 to 20,000 nm. Membrane-coated fabric filters were found to have enhanced nanoparticle collection efficiency by 20–46 % points compared to non-coated fabric and could provide collection efficiency above 95 %. PMID:23412707

  19. Evaluation of Three Growth Factors for TMJ Disc Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Detamore, Michael S.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2015-01-01

    Arguably one of the most complex joints in the body, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) presents one of the most difficult problems in modern medicine. Tissue engineering, for the TMJ disc in particular, has been proposed as a potential breakthrough treatment strategy for TMJ disorders. Central to tissue engineering is understanding growth factor effects on TMJ disc cells, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first 3D growth factor study for these cells. The purpose was to examine the effects of high and low concentrations of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF), and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β) on porcine TMJ disc cells. Cells were seeded onto non-woven PGA scaffolds (95% porosity) in spinner flasks, then cultured with a growth factor for 6 weeks. Constructs were analyzed for mechanical and structural integrity, cell number, and matrix biosynthesis. All growth factors improved mechanical and structural integrity compared to the control. IGF and TGF-β were most effective at promoting collagen synthesis, although there were no significant differences in glycosaminoglycan synthesis or cell number between any groups. After considering the economic advantage of IGF over TGF-β, the conclusion of this study is to use IGF in future TMJ disc tissue engineering experiments. PMID:15868729

  20. Evaluation of Vortex Chamber Concepts for Liquid Rocket Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu Phuoc; Knuth, Williams; Michaels, Scott; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Rocket-based combined-cycle engines (RBBC) being considered at NASA for future generation launch vehicles feature clusters of small rocket thrusters as part of the engine components. Depending on specific RBBC concepts, these thrusters may be operated at various operating conditions including power level and/or propellant mixture ratio variations. To pursue technology developments for future launch vehicles, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is examining vortex chamber concepts for the subject cycle engine application. Past studies indicated that the vortex chamber schemes potentially have a number of advantages over conventional chamber methods. Due to the nature of the vortex flow, relatively cooler propellant streams tend to flow along the chamber wall. Hence, the thruster chamber can be operated without the need of any cooling techniques. This vortex flow also creates strong turbulence, which promotes the propellant mixing process. Consequently, the subject chamber concepts not only offer the system simplicity but they also would enhance the combustion performance. The test results showed that the chamber performance was markedly high even at a low chamber length-to- diameter ratio (L/D). This incentive can be translated to a convenience in the thrust chamber packaging.

  1. Predictive tests to evaluate oxidative potential of engineered nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiazza, Mara; Carella, Emanuele; Oliaro-Bosso, Simonetta; Corazzari, Ingrid; Viola, Franca; Fenoglio, Ivana

    2013-04-01

    Oxidative stress constitutes one of the principal injury mechanisms through which particulate toxicants (asbestos, crystalline silica, hard metals) and engineered nanomaterials can induce adverse health effects. ROS may be generated indirectly by activated cells and/or directly at the surface of the material. The occurrence of these processes depends upon the type of material. Many authors have recently demonstrated that metal oxides and carbon-based nanoparticles may influence (increasing or decreasing) the generation of oxygen radicals in a cell environment. Metal oxide, such as iron oxides, crystalline silica, and titanium dioxide are able to generate free radicals via different mechanisms causing an imbalance within oxidant species. The increase of ROS species may lead to inflammatory responses and in some cases to the development of cancer. On the other hand carbon-based nanomaterials, such as fullerene, carbon nanotubes, carbon black as well as cerium dioxide are able to scavenge the free radicals generated acting as antioxidant. The high numbers of new-engineered nanomaterials, which are introduced in the market, are exponentially increasing. Therefore the definition of toxicological strategies is urgently needed. The development of acellular screening tests will make possible the reduction of the number of in vitro and in vivo tests to be performed. An integrated protocol that may be used to predict the oxidant/antioxidant potential of engineered nanoparticles will be here presented.

  2. Intelligent systems/software engineering methodology - A process to manage cost and risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, Carl; Lehrer, Nancy

    1991-01-01

    A systems development methodology is discussed that has been successfully applied to the construction of a number of intelligent systems. This methodology is a refinement of both evolutionary and spiral development methodologies. It is appropriate for development of intelligent systems. The application of advanced engineering methodology to the development of software products and intelligent systems is an important step toward supporting the transition of AI technology into aerospace applications. A description of the methodology and the process model from which it derives is given. Associated documents and tools are described which are used to manage the development process and record and report the emerging design.

  3. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) evaluation of the Mesco Moisture Extraction System under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, E.A.

    1983-07-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the Mesco Moisture Extraction System device under the provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. The evaluation of the Mesco Moisture Extraction System was conducted upon the application of the manufacturer. The device is an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. The device supplements the EGR system of a vehicle by adding cooled and filtered exhaust gas to the carburetor. The ignition timing is also advanced. This combination of advanced timing and supplemental EGR is claimed to result in a longer cleaner burn that improves engine performance and reduces emissions.

  4. Dual-fuel engine conversions evaluated by U.S. Navy

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    In seeking ways to reduce emissions from two-stroke locomotive type engines, the Navy has evaluated dual-fuel conversions operating on a compression ignition cycle, using up to 94% natural gas and 6% diesel pilot fuel. The Navy has conducted an evaluation and test program under the direction of Dr. Normnn L. Helgeson, at the Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center in Port Hueneme, California. Of the Navy`s many diesel engines, those installed in its MUSE (mobile utility support equipment) units for temporary electrical power were the first Navy off-road engines to be affected by emissions regulations. Most of the units are powered by the EMD 645 engine, and when burning diesel fuel do not meet the emission requirements in many areas of the country. This paper discusses the changes and results of the conversion and shakedown tests.

  5. Evaluation of an Outer Loop Retrofit Architecture for Intelligent Turbofan Engine Thrust Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Sowers, T. Shane

    2006-01-01

    The thrust control capability of a retrofit architecture for intelligent turbofan engine control and diagnostics is evaluated. The focus of the study is on the portion of the hierarchical architecture that performs thrust estimation and outer loop thrust control. The inner loop controls fan speed so the outer loop automatically adjusts the engine's fan speed command to maintain thrust at the desired level, based on pilot input, even as the engine deteriorates with use. The thrust estimation accuracy is assessed under nominal and deteriorated conditions at multiple operating points, and the closed loop thrust control performance is studied, all in a complex real-time nonlinear turbofan engine simulation test bed. The estimation capability, thrust response, and robustness to uncertainty in the form of engine degradation are evaluated.

  6. Evaluating Open-Source Full-Text Search Engines for Matching ICD-10 Codes.

    PubMed

    Jurcău, Daniel-Alexandru; Stoicu-Tivadar, Vasile

    2016-01-01

    This research presents the results of evaluating multiple free, open-source engines on matching ICD-10 diagnostic codes via full-text searches. The study investigates what it takes to get an accurate match when searching for a specific diagnostic code. For each code the evaluation starts by extracting the words that make up its text and continues with building full-text search queries from the combinations of these words. The queries are then run against all the ICD-10 codes until a match indicates the code in question as a match with the highest relative score. This method identifies the minimum number of words that must be provided in order for the search engines choose the desired entry. The engines analyzed include a popular Java-based full-text search engine, a lightweight engine written in JavaScript which can even execute on the user's browser, and two popular open-source relational database management systems. PMID:27350484

  7. Evaluating software development characteristics: Assessment of software measures in the Software Engineering Laboratory. [reliability engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, V. R.

    1981-01-01

    Work on metrics is discussed. Factors that affect software quality are reviewed. Metrics is discussed in terms of criteria achievements, reliability, and fault tolerance. Subjective and objective metrics are distinguished. Product/process and cost/quality metrics are characterized and discussed.

  8. Comparison and Validation of Operational Cost in Smart Houses with the Introduction of a Heat Pump or a Gas Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoji, Tsubasa; Tahara, Hayato; Matayoshi, Hidehito; Yona, Atsushi; Senjyu, Tomonobu

    2015-02-01

    Due to the concerns of global warming and the depletion of energy resources, renewable energies such as wind generation (WG) and photovoltaic generation (PV) are gaining attention in distribution systems. Efficient electric equipment such as heat pumps (HP) not only contribute low levels of carbon to society, but are also beneficial for consumers. In addition, gas instruments such as the gas engine (GE) and fuel cells (FC) are expected to reduce electricity cost by exhaust heat. Thus, it is important to clarify which systems (HP or GE) are more beneficial for consumers throughout the year. This paper compares the operational cost for the smart house between using the HP and the GE. Current electricity and gas prices are used to calculate the cost of the smart house. The system considered in this research comprises a PV, battery, solar collector (SC), uncontrolled load and either an HP or a GE. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, MATLAB is used for simulations.

  9. Are complementary therapies and integrative care cost-effective? A systematic review of economic evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Patricia M; Poindexter, Beth L; Witt, Claudia M; Eisenberg, David M

    2012-01-01

    Objective A comprehensive systematic review of economic evaluations of complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) to establish the value of these therapies to health reform efforts. Data sources PubMed, CINAHL, AMED, PsychInfo, Web of Science and EMBASE were searched from inception through 2010. In addition, bibliographies of found articles and reviews were searched, and key researchers were contacted. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Studies of CIM were identified using criteria based on those of the Cochrane complementary and alternative medicine group. All studies of CIM reporting economic outcomes were included. Study appraisal methods All recent (and likely most cost-relevant) full economic evaluations published 2001–2010 were subjected to several measures of quality. Detailed results of higher-quality studies are reported. Results A total of 338 economic evaluations of CIM were identified, of which 204, covering a wide variety of CIM for different populations, were published 2001–2010. A total of 114 of these were full economic evaluations. And 90% of these articles covered studies of single CIM therapies and only one compared usual care to usual care plus access to multiple licensed CIM practitioners. Of the recent full evaluations, 31 (27%) met five study-quality criteria, and 22 of these also met the minimum criterion for study transferability (‘generalisability’). Of the 56 comparisons made in the higher-quality studies, 16 (29%) show a health improvement with cost savings for the CIM therapy versus usual care. Study quality of the cost-utility analyses (CUAs) of CIM was generally comparable to that seen in CUAs across all medicine according to several measures, and the quality of the cost-saving studies was slightly, but not significantly, lower than those showing cost increases (85% vs 88%, p=0.460). Conclusions This comprehensive review identified many CIM economic evaluations missed by previous reviews and emerging evidence of cost

  10. Assessment of external costs for transport project evaluation: Guidelines in some European countries

    SciTech Connect

    Petruccelli, Umberto

    2015-09-15

    Many studies about the external costs generated by the transport system have been developed in the last twenty years. To standardize methodologies and assessment procedures to be used in the evaluation of the projects, some European countries recently have adopted specific guidelines that differ from each other in some aspects even sensibly. This paper presents a critical analysis of the British, Italian and German guidelines and is aimed at cataloguing the external cost types regarded and the assessment methods indicated as well as to highlight the differences of the results, in terms of applicability and reliability. The goal is to contribute to a European standardization process that would lead to the drafting of guidelines suited for all EU countries. - Highlights: • The analyzed guidelines agree on the methods to evaluate costs from air pollution, greenhouse gases and accidents. • They recommend respectively: dose-resp. approach; costs to reduce/permit emissions; whole direct, indirect and social costs. • For noise, DE guide indicates defensive expenditure or SP methods; IT guide, SP method; UK guide, the hedonic prices one. • For on territory impact, DE guide regards only the barrier effect; the IT one, also the soil consumption and system effects. • British guide proposes a qualitative methodology to estimate the impact on various landscapes and environments.

  11. Methods for evaluation of medical care other than credentialing. Cost, experience, and results.

    PubMed

    Ebert, P A

    1990-08-01

    Unfortunately, the majority of studies proposed to evaluate a physician's capabilities, such as effectiveness programs, outcome research, and hospital evaluation, do not focus directly on the individual practitioner. The certifying process, although imperfect, still offers the best method of evaluation. The other evaluation methods will need additional refinement to be able to individually analyze a specific physician's performance and determine whether he or she is truly providing the highest quality care. Physicians are being asked to document the effectiveness of their clinical decision making. On the surface this seems so simple, and in some areas where the outcome is either life or death or a specific yes or no type of answer, many have the capability to come forth with some realistic documentation. However, today's society is focused on health and the perfect outcome, and many nonlife-threatening therapies are evaluated by a patient's unrealistic expectation. Thus, the same result may be interpreted differently in one geographic area or by patients with different expectations. The biggest mistake would be to believe that outcome studies can be used to reduce cost. There may be some initial reduction or delays in treatment that suggest an immediate reduction of cost, the so-called sentinel effect, but no information or evidence indicates that these effects can be expanded without actually reducing needed health care services. In fact, the delays or obstruction to entering the health-care system experienced by many individuals often lead to more costly and less effective care with suboptimal results. PMID:2116255

  12. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes

    SciTech Connect

    Durney, T.E.; Cook, A.; Ferris, D.D.

    1995-11-01

    This research and development project is one of three seeking to develop advanced, cost-effective, coal cleaning processes to help industry comply with 1990 Clean Air Act Regulations. The specific goal for this project is to develop a cycloning technology that will beneficiate coal to a level approaching 85% pyritic sulfur rejection while retaining 85% of the parent coal`s heating value. A clean coal ash content of less than 6% and a moisture content, for both clean coal and reject, of less than 30% are targeted. The process under development is a physical, gravimetric-based cleaning system that removes ash bearing mineral matter and pyritic sulfur. Since a large portion of the Nation`s coal reserves contain significant amounts of pyrite, physical beneficiation is viewed as a potential near-term, cost effective means of producing an environmentally acceptable fuel.

  13. A cost benefit evaluation of the LANDSAT follow-on program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of a benefit and cost study for the LANDSAT Follow-on system with a thematic mapper. The analysis shows that the present worth of the benefits exceeds the present worth of the costs by a factor between 6.5 and 13 using a 10 percent discount rate and an infinite horizon for both. This study focuses only on major, demonstrated applications, conservatively evaluated. No benefits have been included except where a definite need for the information has been shown, a mechanism for disseminating the information has been defined, a technical capability has been demonstrated, and a defendable method of evaluating the economic worth has been developed. This approach has meant that certain applications with definite promise and substantial likely benefits could not be evaluated or assigned any benefits. Mention is made of these areas, however, either in the appropriate subject chapter or in the final chapter on non-quantified benefits.

  14. Guide for Conducting Benefit-Cost Evaluation of Realized Impacts of Public R&D Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Ruegg, Rosalie; Jordan, Gretchen B.

    2011-08-01

    This document provides guidance for evaluators who conduct impact assessments to determine the “realized” economic benefits and costs, energy, environmental benefits, and other impacts of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE) R&D programs. The focus of this Guide is on realized outcomes or impacts of R&D programs actually experienced by American citizens, industry, and others. Retrospective evaluations may be contrasted to prospective evaluations that reflect expected or potential outcomes only if assumptions hold. The retrospective approach described in this Guide is based on realized results only and the extent they can be attributed to the efforts of an R&D program. While it has been prepared specifically to guide retrospective benefit-cost analysis of EERE R&D Programs, this report may be used for similar analysis of other public R&D organizations.

  15. Aerodynamic study of a turbine designed for a small low-cost turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofskey, M. G.; Nusbaum, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    An eight inch mean diameter two-stage turbine was experimentally investigated over a range of speeds from 0 to 110 percent of equivalent design speed and over a range of pressure ratios from 2.2 to 4.2. The principal results indicated that the performance level was substantially higher than that assumed in the design. As part of the program to reduce manufacturing costs, the first stage blading was reduced in thickness for ease in coining. Tests of the modified blades indicated that the aerodynamic performance of a stator or rotor blade with a large amount of reaction was effected very little by a significant change of the pressure surface.

  16. An Evaluation of the Consumer Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficiency Resource Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessans, Mark D.

    Of the modern-day policies designed to encourage energy efficiency, one with a significant potential for impact is that of Energy Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS). EERS policies place the responsibility for meeting an efficiency target on the electric and gas utilities, typically setting requirements for annual reductions in electricity generation or gas distribution to customers as a percentage of sales. To meet these requirements, utilities typically implement demand-side management (DSM) programs, which encourage energy efficiency at the customer level through incentives and educational initiatives. In Maryland, a statewide EERS has provided for programs which save a significant amount of energy, but is ultimately falling short in meeting the targets established by the policy. This study evaluates residential DSM programs offered by Pepco, a utility in Maryland, for cost-effectiveness. However, unlike most literature on the topic, analysis focuses on the costs-benefit from the perspective of the consumer, and not the utility. The results of this study are encouraging: the majority of programs analyzed show that the cost of electricity saved, or levelized cost of saved energy (LCSE), is less expensive than the current retail cost of electricity cost in Maryland. A key goal of this study is to establish a metric for evaluating the consumer cost-effectiveness of participation in energy efficiency programs made available by EERS. In doing so, the benefits of these programs can be effectively marketed to customers, with the hope that participation will increase. By increasing consumer awareness and buy-in, the original goals set out through EERS can be realized and the policies can continue to receive support.

  17. Duct injection technology prototype development: Evaluation of engineering data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The objective of the Duct Injection Technology Prototype Development Project is to develop a sound design basis for applying duct injection technology as a post-combustion SO{sub 2}emissions control method to existing coal-fired power plants. The necessary engineering design and scale-up criteria will be developed for the commercialization of duct injection technology for the control of SO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired boilers in the utility industry. The primary focus of the analyses summarized in this Topical Report is the review of the known technical and economic information associated with duct injection technology. (VC)

  18. Investigation on three-dimensional surface roughness evaluation of engineering ceramic for rotary ultrasonic grinding machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shiliang; Zhao, Hong; Jing, Juntao

    2015-12-01

    Surface roughness has considerable influence on its quality and function of products in precision and ultra-precision machining, and the same situation applies to engineering ceramic for rotary ultrasonic grinding machining (RUGM). This paper presents a new parameter, called fractal root mean square deviation, for evaluating engineering ceramic three-dimensional (3D) surface roughness of RUGM. Based on engineering ceramics surface of RUGM is typical isotropic, the mathematical model of fractal root mean square deviation was established, and it possesses double characteristics of absolute measurement and multi-scale. Then validation has been implemented, and fractal root mean square deviation is superior to evaluate engineering ceramic 3D surface roughness with better resolution and sensitivity. Furthermore, the relationship between main factor parameters and fractal root mean square deviation was proposed. The evaluation parameter and the results could be implemented in practice to get higher quality surface.

  19. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix G: Commercial design and technology evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A technology evaluation of five coal gasifier systems (Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Babcock and Wilcox, Lurgi and BGC/Lurgi) and procedures and criteria for evaluating competitive commercial coal gasification designs is presented. The technology evaluation is based upon the plant designs and cost estimates developed by the BDM-Mittelhauser team.

  20. Engineering and economic evaluation of integrated gasification compressed air storage with humidification (IGCASH). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, O.; McCone, A.; Nakhamkin, M.; Patel, M.

    1993-11-01

    Integrated Gasification Compressed Air Storage with Humidification (IGCASH) is concept for an intermediate-load, cycling-duty plant with the environmental advantages of coal gasification and the reliability benefits of continuous operation of the hot gasification and turbomachinery equipment. The IGCASH concept integrates a quench-type coal gasification system with an advanced compressed air storage system in which the compression heat is recovered and stored in water which is used to humidify and preheat the air and fuel gas sent to the turbine. Bechtel under contract to EPRI (RP 2834-3) performed an engineering and economic evaluation to verify the feasibility of IGCASH as an option for intermediate-load power generation from coal. A baseline design was developed for a conceptual 400 MW generic IGCASH plant using currently available technology, including the Texaco full-quench gasification process, Westinghouse turbomachinery, and solution-mined salt-dome cavern for air storage. Three alternatives to the baseline design were also developed to assess the effects of storage water temperature and next-generation turbomachinery on plant performance and economics. The IGCASH concept compared favorably with conventional pulverized coal fired steam (PCFS) power generation. The IGCASH baseline design showed a significantly lower heat rate and yielded a lower cost of electricity than a comparable PCFS plant operating on the same duty cycle.