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Sample records for engineering plant oils

  1. 21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  2. Engine wear and lubricating oil contamination from plant oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Darcey, C.L.; LePori, W.A.; Yarbrough, C.M.

    1982-12-01

    Engine disassembly with wear measurements, and lubricating oil analysis were used to determine wear rates on a one cylinder diesel engine. Results are reported from short duration tests on the wear rates of various levels of processed sunflower oil, a 25% blend with diesel fuel, and processed cottonseed oil.

  3. Plant oils as applied to spark ignition engines

    SciTech Connect

    Hoki, M.; Liljedahl, J.B.; Takeda, S.

    1983-12-01

    Eucalyptus and orange oil blended with gasoline were used to find their burning characteristics and the effect upon engine performance. The appropriate ignition timing for the eucalyptus oil blend fuel for optimum engine performance was investigated as well as the antiknock quality of the fuel.

  4. Engineering evaluation of plant oils as diesel fuel. Final report. Vol. I

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, C.R.; Johnson, L.A.; Lepori, W.A.; Yarbrough, C.M.

    1983-09-13

    This project includes evaluations of cottonseed oils and sunflower oil ethyl esters in both direct injection and precombustion chamber design diesel engines. It is one part of a major research program at Texas A and M University to study the technical feasibility of using plant oils or animal fats as alternative diesel fuels. Goals for the overall program are to define physical and chemical characteristics and optimum processing methods required for high quality alternative diesel fuels from plant or animal oils and to investigate effects of engine design on alternative fuel performance. This report describes work done under the current contract which includes evaluations of cottonseed oils and sunflower oil interesterified with ethanol as alternative diesel fuels. 15 figures, 18 tables.

  5. The pipeline oil pumping engineering based on the Plant Wide Control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starikov, D. P.; Rybakov, E. A.; Gromakov, E. I.

    2015-04-01

    This article provides recommendations for the use technology Plant Wide Control to control the pumping of oil through the pipeline. The proposed engineering using pipeline management in general (Pipe Wide Control) will reduce the loss of electric power at the expense of the balance of pumping stations located along the pipeline route.

  6. Automated small scale oil seed processing plant for production of fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.C.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    University of Idaho seed processing research is centered about a CeCoCo oil expeller. A seed preheater-auger, seed bin, meal auger, and oil pump have been constructed to complete the system, which is automated and instrumented. The press, preheater, cake removal auger, and oil transfer pump are tied into a central panel where energy use is measured and the process controlled. Extracted oil weight, meal weight, process temperature, and input energy are all recorded during operation. The oil is transferred to tanks where it settles for 48 hours or more. It is then pumped through a filtering system and stored ready to be used as an engine fuel. The plant has processed over 11,000 kg of seed with an average extraction efficiency of 78 percent. 5 tables.

  7. Metabolic engineering of plant oils and waxes for use as industrial feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Vanhercke, Thomas; Wood, Craig C; Stymne, Sten; Singh, Surinder P; Green, Allan G

    2013-02-01

    Society has come to rely heavily on mineral oil for both energy and petrochemical needs. Plant lipids are uniquely suited to serve as a renewable source of high-value fatty acids for use as chemical feedstocks and as a substitute for current petrochemicals. Despite the broad variety of acyl structures encountered in nature and the cloning of many genes involved in their biosynthesis, attempts at engineering economic levels of specialty industrial fatty acids in major oilseed crops have so far met with only limited success. Much of the progress has been hampered by an incomplete knowledge of the fatty acid biosynthesis and accumulation pathways. This review covers new insights based on metabolic flux and reverse engineering studies that have changed our view of plant oil synthesis from a mostly linear process to instead an intricate network with acyl fluxes differing between plant species. These insights are leading to new strategies for high-level production of industrial fatty acids and waxes. Furthermore, progress in increasing the levels of oil and wax structures in storage and vegetative tissues has the potential to yield novel lipid production platforms. The challenge and opportunity for the next decade will be to marry these technologies when engineering current and new crops for the sustainable production of oil and wax feedstocks. PMID:23190163

  8. Engineering plant oils as high-value industrial feedstocks for biorefining: the need for underpinning cell biology research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant oils represent renewable sources of long-chain hydrocarbons that can be used as both fuel and chemical feedstocks, and genetic engineering offers an opportunity to create further high-value specialty oils for specific industrial uses. While many genes have been identified for the production of...

  9. Current progress towards the metabolic engineering of plant oil for hydroxy fatty acids production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oil is not only edible but also can be used for industrial purposes. The industrial demand for vegetable oil will increase with the future depletion of fossil fuels and environmental problems such as climate change, caused by increased carbon dioxide in the air. Some plants accumulate high...

  10. Economic and engineering evaluation of plant oils as a diesel fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, C.R.; LePori, W.A.; Johnson, L.A.; Griffin, R.C.; Diehl, K.C.; Moore, D.S.; Lacewell, R.D.; Coble, C.G.; Lusas, E.W.; Hiler, E.A.

    1982-04-15

    The annual total yield of plant oils in the US is about 3.7 billion gallons. Diesel use by agriculture is about 2.0 billion gallons annually and is growing rapidly relative to gasoline use. Based on these amounts, plant oils could satisfy agriculture's diesel fuel requirements during the near future. However, diversion of large quantities of plant oils for such purposes would have dramatic impacts on plant oil prices and be reflected in numerous adjustments throughout agriculture and other sectors of the economy. The competitive position of sunflowers for plant oil production in Texas was analyzed. In those regions with a cotton alternative, sunflowers were not, for the most part, economically competitive. However, sunflower production is competitive with grain sorghum in certain cases. To develop a meaningful production base for oilseed crops in Texas, yields need to be improved or increases in oilseed prices relative to cotton must take place. This implies some limitations for the potential of Texas to produce large quantities of plant oils.

  11. Comparative combustion studies on various plant oil esters and the long term effects of an ethyl ester on a compression ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, C.S.; Fuls, J.

    1982-01-01

    Combustion studies on both ethyl and methyl esters of various plant oils were carried out using the same engine for all the tests so that comparative studies could be achieved. Twelve esters were tested and the pertinent data was recorded. Some of the more important results are published in this paper to serve as a comparative guide to the study of plant oil esters as fuel. Bruwer et. al. (1980) suggested the use of plant oil esters to prevent injector coking in modern compression ignition engines. Very little information is available on the long term effects of such ester use. Cyclic endurance tests have been carried out on Perkins engines running on ethyl esters of sunflower oil. The exciting results of this work are reported, with specific reference to one tractor engine which has recorded more than 1 300 trouble free hours. 3 tables.

  12. Metabolic Engineering Plant Seeds with Fish Oil-Like Levels of DHA

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, James R.; Shrestha, Pushkar; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Mansour, Maged P.; Liu, Qing; Belide, Srinivas; Nichols, Peter D.; Singh, Surinder P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) have critical roles in human health and development with studies indicating that deficiencies in these fatty acids can increase the risk or severity of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases in particular. These fatty acids are predominantly sourced from fish and algal oils, but it is widely recognised that there is an urgent need for an alternative and sustainable source of EPA and DHA. Since the earliest demonstrations of ω3 LC-PUFA engineering there has been good progress in engineering the C20 EPA with seed fatty acid levels similar to that observed in bulk fish oil (∼18%), although undesirable ω6 PUFA levels have also remained high. Methodology/Principal Findings The transgenic seed production of the particularly important C22 DHA has been problematic with many attempts resulting in the accumulation of EPA/DPA, but only a few percent of DHA. This study describes the production of up to 15% of the C22 fatty acid DHA in Arabidopsis thaliana seed oil with a high ω3/ω6 ratio. This was achieved using a transgenic pathway to increase the C18 ALA which was then converted to DHA by a microalgal Δ6-desaturase pathway. Conclusions/Significance The amount of DHA described in this study exceeds the 12% level at which DHA is generally found in bulk fish oil. This is a breakthrough in the development of sustainable alternative sources of DHA as this technology should be applicable in oilseed crops. One hectare of a Brassica napus crop containing 12% DHA in seed oil would produce as much DHA as approximately 10,000 fish. PMID:23145108

  13. An engineered lipid remodeling system using a galactolipid synthase promoter during phosphate starvation enhances oil accumulation in plants

    PubMed Central

    Shimojima, Mie; Madoka, Yuka; Fujiwara, Ryota; Murakawa, Masato; Yoshitake, Yushi; Ikeda, Keiko; Koizumi, Ryota; Endo, Keiji; Ozaki, Katsuya; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) depletion is a serious problem for plant growth. Membrane lipid remodeling is a defense mechanism that plants use to survive Pi-depleted conditions. During Pi starvation, phospholipids are degraded to supply Pi for other essential biological processes, whereas galactolipid synthesis in plastids is up-regulated via the transcriptional activation of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase 3 (MGD3). Thus, the produced galactolipids are transferred to extraplastidial membranes to substitute for phospholipids. We found that, Pi starvation induced oil accumulation in the vegetative tissues of various seed plants without activating the transcription of enzymes involved in the later steps of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Moreover, the Arabidopsis starchless phosphoglucomutase mutant, pgm-1, accumulated higher TAG levels than did wild-type plants under Pi-depleted conditions. We generated transgenic plants that expressed a key gene involved in TAG synthesis using the Pi deficiency–responsive MGD3 promoter in wild-type and pgm-1 backgrounds. During Pi starvation, the transgenic plants accumulated higher TAG amounts compared with the non-transgenic plants, suggesting that the Pi deficiency–responsive promoter of galactolipid synthase in plastids may be useful for producing transgenic plants that accumulate more oil under Pi-depleted conditions. PMID:26379690

  14. Safe genetically engineered plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosellini, D.; Veronesi, F.

    2007-10-01

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

  15. Plant Plastid Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Shabir H.; Haider, Nadia; Kumar, Hitesh; Singh, N.B.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic material in plants is distributed into nucleus, plastids and mitochondria. Plastid has a central role of carrying out photosynthesis in plant cells. Plastid transformation is becoming more popular and an alternative to nuclear gene transformation because of various advantages like high protein levels, the feasibility of expressing multiple proteins from polycistronic mRNAs, and gene containment through the lack of pollen transmission. Recently, much progress in plastid engineering has been made. In addition to model plant tobacco, many transplastomic crop plants have been generated which possess higher resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and molecular pharming. In this mini review, we will discuss the features of the plastid DNA and advantages of plastid transformation. We will also present some examples of transplastomic plants developed so far through plastid engineering, and the various applications of plastid transformation. PMID:21532834

  16. Engineering salt-tolerant Brassica plants: Characterization of yield and seed oil quality in transgenic plants with increased vacuolar sodium accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Xia; Hodson, Joanna N.; Williams, John P.; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    Transgenic Brassica napus plants overexpressing AtNHX1, a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport from Arabidopsis thaliana, were able to grow, flower, and produce seeds in the presence of 200 mM sodium chloride. Although the transgenic plants grown in high salinity accumulated sodium up to 6% of their dry weight, growth of the these plants was only marginally affected by the high salt concentration. Moreover, seed yields and the seed oil quality were not affected by the high salinity of the soil. Our results demonstrate the potential use of these transgenic plants for agricultural use in saline soils. Our findings, showing that the modification of a single trait significantly improved the salinity tolerance of this crop plant, suggest that with a combination of breeding and transgenic plants it could be possible to produce salt-tolerant crops with far fewer target traits than had been anticipated. PMID:11606781

  17. Production of Long-Chain α,ω-Dicarboxylic Acids by Engineered Escherichia coli from Renewable Fatty Acids and Plant Oils.

    PubMed

    Sathesh-Prabu, Chandran; Lee, Sung Kuk

    2015-09-23

    Long-chain α,ω-dicarboxylic acids (LDCAs, ≥ C12) are widely used as a raw material for preparing various commodities and polymers. In this study, a CYP450-monooxygenase-mediated ω-oxidation pathway system with high ω-regioselectivity was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli to produce DCAs from fatty acids. The resulting engineered E. coli produced a maximum of 41 mg/L of C12 DCA and 163 mg/L of C14 DCA from fatty acids (1 g/L), following 20 h of whole cell biotransformation. Addition of a heme precursor and the hydroxyl radical scavenger, thiourea, increased product concentration (159 mg/L of C12 DCA and 410 mg/L of C14 DCA) in a shorter culture duration than that of the corresponding controls. DCAs of various chain lengths were synthesized from coconut oil hydrolysate using the engineered E. coli. This novel synthetic biocatalytic system could be applied to produce high value DCAs in a cost-effective manner from renewable plant oils. PMID:26359801

  18. INDUSTRIAL OILS FROM TRANSGENIC PLANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unusual fatty acids with useful industrial properties occur widely in seed oils of many non-agronomic plant species. Numerous biotechnological efforts have been undertaken to produce high levels of these fatty acids in seeds of existing crop plants. cDNAs for a wide variety of unusual fatty acid b...

  19. Effect of the level of unsaturation and of alcohol modifications of plant oil fuels on the long-term performance of a direct injected diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.

    1985-01-01

    A 200-hour durability screening test recommended by the Engine Manufacturers Association was adopted to study the effects of four alternate fuels on the long-term performance of a four cylinder, direct injected diesel engine. Tested fuels included diesel fuel (control), a 25-75 blend by volume of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend by volume of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a nonionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil. Least squares regression procedures were used to analyze the long term effects of the test fuels on engine performance and to compare the test fuels. Time of the engine operation had a significant effect only on exhaust temperature. For all other response variables, time was not a factor. However, significant differences between tested fuels were observed. An analysis of variance was employed to compare CRC carbon and lacquer ratings, as well as wear of engine parts. The carbon deposits produced by the microemulsion and the 25-75 sunflower oil blend were significantly heavier than those generated by the other tested fuels. None of the fuels produced excessive engine wear. The 25-75 sunflower oil blend and the microemulsion caused problems with the fuel injection system.

  20. Fuel oils from higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, M.

    1985-03-01

    A summary of the types of plants available for converting solar energy to fuel and materials on an annually renewable basis is presented. Sugar cane, seed oils, herbaceous plants (Hevea, Euphorbia, Asclepias), hydrocarbon producing trees (Eucalystus globulus, Pittosporum, Copaifera), and algae are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the development of ''energy agriculture'' and the use of plants to synthesize hydrocarbon-like materials especially in the less developed areas of the world. (DMC)

  1. Evaluating plant and plant oil repellency against the sweetpotato whitefly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci is a major insect pest of vegetables world-wide. We evaluated the effect of commercial plant oils – garlic oil, hot pepper wax, and mustard oil against B. tabaci. Cucumber plants served as the control. Additional treatments included no plants or oil (clear ai...

  2. Two stroke engine oil scenario in India

    SciTech Connect

    Koganti, R.B.; Sharma, G.K.; Sarkar, D.; Raje, N.R.

    1995-12-31

    India is having a large population of two stroke cycle engines. Before the advent of two stroke engine oils in India, motor oils were used to be mixed along with gasoline for two stroke engine lubrication for those vehicles having premixed type of lubrication system. The motor oils due to the high ash containing additives give rise to problems like pre-ignition, spark plug whiskering and combustion chamber deposits thereby leading to frequent breakdown of engines for maintenance. During the `80s the development of two stroke engine oils was taken up and the two stroke oils, confirming to ASTM/CEC standards, were introduced in the market. Due to the diversified designs of the two stroke engines owing their origin to both European and Japanese engine builders, it was felt necessary to have the Indian standards for two stroke engine oils comprising tests that incorporate both these types of engines. The paper discusses the trends in two stroke engine vehicles population, the development of two stroke oils and the Indian standards.

  3. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    SciTech Connect

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  4. Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Bernd Markus; Mahmoud, Soheil Seyed; Wildung, Mark R.; Turner, Glenn W.; Davis, Edward M.; Lange, Iris; Baker, Raymond C.; Boydston, Rick A.; Croteau, Rodney B.

    2011-01-01

    Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Two-gene combinations to enhance both oil yield and composition in a single transgenic line were assessed as well. The most promising results were obtained by transforming plants expressing an antisense version of (+)-menthofuran synthase, which is critical for adjusting the levels of specific undesirable oil constituents, with a construct for the overexpression of the MEP pathway gene 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (up to 61% oil yield increase over wild-type controls with low levels of the undesirable side-product (+)-menthofuran and its intermediate (+)-pulegone). Elite transgenic lines were advanced to multiyear field trials, which demonstrated consistent oil yield increases of up to 78% over wild-type controls and desirable effects on oil composition under commercial growth conditions. The transgenic expression of a gene encoding (+)-limonene synthase was used to accumulate elevated levels of (+)-limonene, which allows oil derived from transgenic plants to be recognized during the processing of commercial formulations containing peppermint oil. Our study illustrates the utility of metabolic engineering for the sustainable agricultural production of high quality essential oils at a competitive cost. PMID:21963983

  5. Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Lange, Bernd Markus; Mahmoud, Soheil Seyed; Wildung, Mark R; Turner, Glenn W; Davis, Edward M; Lange, Iris; Baker, Raymond C; Boydston, Rick A; Croteau, Rodney B

    2011-10-11

    Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Two-gene combinations to enhance both oil yield and composition in a single transgenic line were assessed as well. The most promising results were obtained by transforming plants expressing an antisense version of (+)-menthofuran synthase, which is critical for adjusting the levels of specific undesirable oil constituents, with a construct for the overexpression of the MEP pathway gene 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (up to 61% oil yield increase over wild-type controls with low levels of the undesirable side-product (+)-menthofuran and its intermediate (+)-pulegone). Elite transgenic lines were advanced to multiyear field trials, which demonstrated consistent oil yield increases of up to 78% over wild-type controls and desirable effects on oil composition under commercial growth conditions. The transgenic expression of a gene encoding (+)-limonene synthase was used to accumulate elevated levels of (+)-limonene, which allows oil derived from transgenic plants to be recognized during the processing of commercial formulations containing peppermint oil. Our study illustrates the utility of metabolic engineering for the sustainable agricultural production of high quality essential oils at a competitive cost. PMID:21963983

  6. Metabolic engineering of hydroxy fatty acid production in plants: rcdgat2 drives dramatic increases in ricinoleate levels in seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A central goal of green chemistry is to produce industrially-useful fatty acids in oilseed crops. Although genes encoding suitable modification enzymes are available from many wild species, progress has been stymied because expression of these in transgenic plants produces poor yields of the desire...

  7. Clerget 100 hp heavy-oil engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leglise, Pierre

    1931-01-01

    A complete technical description of the Clerget heavy-oil engine is presented along with the general characteristics. The general characteristics are: 9 cylinders, bore 120 mm, stroke 130 mm, four-stroke cycle engine, rated power limited to 100 hp at 1800 rpm; weight 228 kg; propeller with direct drive and air cooling. Moving parts, engine block, and lubrication are all presented.

  8. Oils and rubber from arid land plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. D.; Hinman, C. W.

    1980-05-01

    In this article the economic development potentials of Cucurbita species (buffalo gourd and others), Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba), Euphorbia lathyris (gopher plant), and Parthenium argentatum (guayule) are discussed. All of these plants may become important sources of oils or rubber.

  9. 7 CFR 2902.25 - 2-Cycle engine oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 2-Cycle engine oils. 2902.25 Section 2902.25... Items § 2902.25 2-Cycle engine oils. (a) Definition. Lubricants designed for use in 2-cycle engines to... procurement preference for qualifying biobased 2-cycle engine oils. By that date, Federal agencies that...

  10. Engineering plants for spaceflight environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, B.

    1999-01-01

    The conversion efficiency of radiation into biomass and yield has steadily increased for centuries because of continued improvement in both plant genetics and environmental control. Considerable effort has gone into improving the environment for plant growth in space, but work has only begun to engineer plants for spaceflight. Genetic manipulation offers tremendous potential to improve our ability to study gravitational effects. Genetic manipulation will also be necessary to build an efficient regenerative life support system. We cannot fully characterize plant response to the spaceflight environment without understanding and manipulating their genetic composition. Identification and selection of the existing germplasm is the first step. There are thousands of cultivars of each of our major crop plants, each specifically adapted to a unique environment on our planet. Thousands of additional lines are held in national germplasm collections to maintain genetic diversity. Spaceflight imposes the need to tap this diversity. Existing lines need to be evaluated in the environment that is characteristic of closed-system spaceflight conditions. Many of the plant growth challenges we confront in space can be better solved through genetic change than by hardware engineering. Ten thousand years of plant breeding has demonstrated the value of matching genetics with the environment. For example, providing continuous light can increase plant growth in space, but this often induces calcium deficiencies because Ca is not supplied by guttation during a dark period. This deficiency cannot be eliminated through increased root-zone and foliar Ca applications. It can be solved, in wheat, through genetic selection of lines that do not have the deficiency. Subsequent comparison of lines with and without the Ca deficiency has also helped us understand the nature of the problem.

  11. 7 CFR 3201.25 - 2-Cycle engine oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2-Cycle engine oils. 3201.25 Section 3201.25... Designated Items § 3201.25 2-Cycle engine oils. (a) Definition. Lubricants designed for use in 2-cycle..., will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased 2-cycle engine oils. By that date,...

  12. 7 CFR 3201.25 - 2-Cycle engine oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 2-Cycle engine oils. 3201.25 Section 3201.25... Designated Items § 3201.25 2-Cycle engine oils. (a) Definition. Lubricants designed for use in 2-cycle..., will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased 2-cycle engine oils. By that date,...

  13. 7 CFR 3201.25 - 2-Cycle engine oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 2-Cycle engine oils. 3201.25 Section 3201.25... Designated Items § 3201.25 2-Cycle engine oils. (a) Definition. Lubricants designed for use in 2-cycle..., will give a procurement preference for qualifying biobased 2-cycle engine oils. By that date,...

  14. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The reference conceptual design of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF), a prototype 200 MWe coal-fired electric generating plant designed to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of open cycle MHD, is summarized. Main elements of the design, systems, and plant facilities are illustrated. System design descriptions are included for closed cycle cooling water, industrial gas systems, fuel oil, boiler flue gas, coal management, seed management, slag management, plant industrial waste, fire service water, oxidant supply, MHD power ventilating

  15. High value oils from plants.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seed oils of domesticated oilseed crops are major agricultural commodities that are used primarily for nutritional applications, but in recent years, there is increasing opportunity to use these oils for production of biofuels and chemical feedstocks. This is being driven in part by the rapidly ...

  16. 13. View northeast of boiler plant (Building 39), engineering work ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View northeast of boiler plant (Building 39), engineering work order building/former tin shop (Building 129), laundry MAT workshop (Building 28), pipe shop/former water softening plant (Building 81), paint spray shop/former blacksmith shop (Building 95), fuel oil storage tank building (Building 103), mason's shop (Building 77), and carpenter shop (Building 97) with steel water tank (Building 124) in background - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers Western Branch, 4101 South Fourth Street, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  17. Transgenic plants as a sustainable, terrestrial source of fish oils

    PubMed Central

    Usher, Sarah; Haslam, Richard P.; Ruiz‐Lopez, Noemi; Sayanova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    1 An alternative, sustainable source of omega‐3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids is widely recognized as desirable, helping to reduce pressure on current sources (wild capture fisheries) and providing a de novo source of these health beneficial fatty acids. This review will consider the efforts and progress to develop transgenic plants as terrestrial sources of omega‐3 fish oils, focusing on recent developments and the possible explanations for advances in the field. We also consider the utility of such a source for use in aquaculture, since this industry is the major consumer of oceanic supplies of omega‐3 fish oils. Given the importance of the aquaculture industry in meeting global requirements for healthy foodstuffs, an alternative source of omega‐3 fish oils represents a potentially significant breakthrough for this production system. Transgenic Camelina seeds engineered to accumulate the omega‐3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, represent a sustainable alternative to fish oils. PMID:26900346

  18. Real-time measurement of engine oil economy

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.W.; Korniski, T.; Calvin, A.D.; Jary, E.H.

    1987-01-01

    A coulometric SO/sub 2/ monitor has been developed to measure SO/sub 2/ generated from combustion of S in oil to determine engine oil consumption. Sulfur-free fuel is used to eliminate background levels of SO/sub 2/. Addition of an SO/sub 2/ standard gas to the engine during test insures accurate normalization of sampling system flows and quantitative measurement of engine oil economy. Precision of the SO/sub 2/ microcoulometer technique was better than +-8%. The SO/sub 2/ microcoulometer is used during steady state engine operation, and may be used in determining oil consumption from individual cylinders. Existence of engine oil consumption via an aerosol mechanism is investigated and measured. Effects of engine operating temperature and positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) on engine oil economy are given.

  19. 7 CFR 2902.25 - 2-Cycle engine oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2-Cycle engine oils. 2902.25 Section 2902.25... Items § 2902.25 2-Cycle engine oils. (a) Definition. Lubricants designed for use in 2-cycle engines to... least 34 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the product as...

  20. Oil recovery system for two cycle diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, S. C.; Altman, F. D.

    1985-04-23

    A reservoir is provided with a mounting flange arrangement for reservoir attachment to an engine block to receive engine oil accumulating in an engine air box. A pump on the reservoir is intermittently activated by the vehicle electrical system to pump reservoir contents back to the engine oil sump. A reservoir outlet conduit terminates coupled to an engine dipstick opening to utilize existing block openings.

  1. Terahertz spectroscopy properties of the selected engine oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shouming; Zhao, Kun; Lu, Tian; Zhao, Songqing; Zhou, Qingli; Shi, Yulei; Zhao, Dongmei; Zhang, Cunlin

    2010-11-01

    Engine oil, most of which is extracted from petroleum, consist of complex mixtures of hydrocarbons of molecular weights in the range of 250-1000. Variable amounts of different additives are put into them to inhibit oxidation, improve the viscosity index, decrease the fluidity point and avoid foaming or settling of solid particles among others. Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy contains rich physical, chemical, and structural information of the materials. Most low-frequency vibrational and rotational spectra of many petrochemicals lie in this frequency range. In recent years, much attention has been paid to the THz spectroscopic studies of petroleum products. In this paper, the optical properties and spectroscopy of selected kinds of engine oil consisting of shell HELIX 10W-40, Mobilube GX 80W-90, GEELY ENGINE OIL SG 10W-30, SMA engine oil SG 5W-30, SMA engine oil SG 10W-30, SMA engine oil SG 75W-90 have been studied by the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in the spectral range of 0.6-2.5 THz. Engine oil with different viscosities in the terahertz spectrum has certain regularity. In the THz-TDS, with the increase of viscosity, time delay is greater and with the increase of viscosity, refractive indexes also grow and their rank is extremely regular. The specific kinds of engine oil can be identified according to their different spectral features in the THz range. The THz-TDS technology has potentially significant impact on the engine oil analysis.

  2. U. S. Army evaluation of NATO multigraded engine oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, T.C.; Frame, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the United States effort in a cooperative NATO program investigating the performance characteristics of multigraded engine oils. Seven lubricants (one Grade 10W-30 oil, five Grade 15W 40 oils and a 20W-40 oil) were evaluated using the diesel engine performance tests required for qualification of MIL-L-2104D engine oils. Two test oils (one Grade 15W-40 oil and the Grade 20W-40 oil) met the 1G2 four-cycle diesel performance established for MIL-L-2104D specification. Three products (two Grade 15W-40 oils and the Grade 20W-40 oil) demonstrated acceptable 6V-53T, two-cycle, diesel performance. However, only the Grade 20W-40 oil showed acceptable performance in both tests. Based on the results of the program, one conclusion is that multigrated 15W-40 and 20W-40 oils have the capability to demonstrate acceptable diesel engine performance as defined by the MIL-L-2104D engine specification.

  3. Plastic oil rings for diesel engines: A preliminary evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, J.A.; Dixon, R.F.; Ma, J.

    1996-09-01

    The ability of a piston oil ring to conform to liner distortions during engine operation is directly related to its radial stiffness. The ability to conform is also very important for controlling lubricant oil consumption and emissions. This paper describes the procedure utilized to investigate the technical feasibility of using flexible high performance engineering plastics to replace metal as base material for oil rings. Bench tests and engines were used to select and evaluate different types of plastics for wear resistance and structural integrity.Engine test results indicated no structural failures but wear levels were found to be unacceptably high for use in durable heavy duty diesel engines.

  4. 7 CFR 3201.102 - Engine crankcase oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... The designation can be found in the Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.17. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine crankcase oils. 3201.102 Section 3201.102... Designated Items § 3201.102 Engine crankcase oils. (a) Definition. Lubricating products formulated to...

  5. Fish oil as an alternative fuel for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Blythe, N.X.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the results of combustion studies performed with fish oil and fish oil/diesel fuel blends in a medium speed, two cycle, opposed piston engine. Performance and emissions results with blends from 10% to 100% fish oil in diesel fuel are presented. Combustion cycle analysis data comparisons are made between fish oil and diesel fuel operation. Component inspection results and analysis of deposits found in the engine after the tests are also presented. Finally, comparisons between fish oil and other biodiesel fuels are made.

  6. Hydraulic systems performance of Army engine oils

    SciTech Connect

    Marbach, H.W.; Lestz, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    A technical evaluation of qualified military specification lubricants was started by the U.S. Army Belvoir Research and Development Center and was performed at the U.S. Army Fuels and Lubricants Research Laboratory (AFLRL) located at Southwest Research Institute. This work was conducted to determine if such lubricants can be used as hydraulic fluids in Army Commercial Construction Equipment (CCE) and Selected Material Handling Equipment (SMHE). Sixteen military specification lubricants were extensively evaluated using twelve selected tests required by equipment manufacturers and one test developed by AFLRL in conjunction with John Deere. From the data developed, lubricants meeting Army specifications passed 88 percent of all the tests. It appears that the Army engine oils are good potential candidates for use as hydraulic and power transmission lubricants within the Army CCE/SMHE systems. Areas of concern include copper corrosion, wet brake/clutch frictional performance, and final drive gear wear.

  7. Orange oil and its application to spark ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, S.

    1982-12-01

    Orange oil can be extracted from the peel of citrus. In Japan the production of orange oil is about 2000 tons per year. No orange oil has been however used for any specific purpose. The main ingredient of orange oil consists of d-limonen. About 0.6-1.0% oil can be extracted from the peel of ''Unshu orange'', which is a kind of typical Japanese tangerine. Orange oil has 106-140 research octane number which is good for running the CFR engine. The flash point of orange oil measured by Pensky-Martens method was at 56/sup 0/C. For the use of orange oil only as fuel without blending, there was found to be some difficulty in engine startability under cold conditions.

  8. Engineering industrial oil biosynthesis: cloning and characterization of Kennedy pathway acyltransferases from novel oilseed species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For more than twenty years, various industrial, governmental, and academic laboratories have developed and refined genetic engineering strategies aimed at manipulating lipid metabolism in plants and microbes. The goal of these projects is to produce renewable specialized oils that can effectively c...

  9. Chromosome engineering: power tools for plant genetics.

    PubMed

    Chan, Simon W L

    2010-12-01

    The term "chromosome engineering" describes technologies in which chromosomes are manipulated to change their mode of genetic inheritance. This review examines recent innovations in chromosome engineering that promise to greatly increase the efficiency of plant breeding. Haploid Arabidopsis thaliana have been produced by altering the kinetochore protein CENH3, yielding instant homozygous lines. Haploid production will facilitate reverse breeding, a method that downregulates recombination to ensure progeny contain intact parental chromosomes. Another chromosome engineering success is the conversion of meiosis into mitosis, which produces diploid gametes that are clones of the parent plant. This is a key step in apomixis (asexual reproduction through seeds) and could help to preserve hybrid vigor in the future. New homologous recombination methods in plants will potentiate many chromosome engineering applications. PMID:20933291

  10. Key applications of plant metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Lau, Warren; Fischbach, Michael A; Osbourn, Anne; Sattely, Elizabeth S

    2014-06-01

    Great strides have been made in plant metabolic engineering over the last two decades, with notable success stories including Golden rice. Here, we discuss the field's progress in addressing four long-standing challenges: creating plants that satisfy their own nitrogen requirement, so reducing or eliminating the need for nitrogen fertilizer; enhancing the nutrient content of crop plants; engineering biofuel feed stocks that harbor easy-to-access fermentable saccharides by incorporating self-destructing lignin; and increasing photosynthetic efficiency. We also look to the future at emerging areas of research in this field. PMID:24915445

  11. Key Applications of Plant Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Warren; Fischbach, Michael A.; Osbourn, Anne; Sattely, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Great strides have been made in plant metabolic engineering over the last two decades, with notable success stories including Golden rice. Here, we discuss the field's progress in addressing four long-standing challenges: creating plants that satisfy their own nitrogen requirement, so reducing or eliminating the need for nitrogen fertilizer; enhancing the nutrient content of crop plants; engineering biofuel feed stocks that harbor easy-to-access fermentable saccharides by incorporating self-destructing lignin; and increasing photosynthetic efficiency. We also look to the future at emerging areas of research in this field. PMID:24915445

  12. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Blended Crude Jatropha Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Azhar; Mohd Sazali, Nor Shahida Akma; Mohd Ali, Mas Fauzi; Alimin, Ahmad Jais; Khir, Saffiah Abdullah

    2010-06-01

    Vegetable oil presents a very promising alternative to diesel oil since it is renewable and has similar properties to the diesel. In view of this, crude jatropha oil is selected and its viscosity is reduced by blending it with diesel. Since jatropha oil has properties which are similar to mineral diesel, it can be used in compression ignition engines without any engine modification. This paper presents the results of investigation carried out on a four-cylinder, four strokes and indirect-injection diesel engine. The engine, operated using composition blends of crude jatropha oil and diesel, were compared with mineral diesel. An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine from the blended fuel (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). A naturally aspirated four-stroke indirect injection diesel engine was tested at full load conditions, speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm with intervals of 500 rpm. Results obtained from the measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumptions, thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure are nearly the same between blended and diesel fuel. An overall graph shows that the performance of relevant parameters from blended fuel is most likely similar to the performance produced from diesel. The experimental results proved that the use of crude jatropha oil in compression ignition engines is a viable alternative to diesel.

  13. Oil cooling system for a gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A.; Kast, H. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A gas turbine engine fuel delivery and control system is provided with means to recirculate all fuel in excess of fuel control requirements back to aircraft fuel tank, thereby increasing the fuel pump heat sink and decreasing the pump temperature rise without the addition of valving other than that normally employed. A fuel/oil heat exchanger and associated circuitry is provided to maintain the hot engine oil in heat exchange relationship with the cool engine fuel. Where anti-icing of the fuel filter is required, means are provided to maintain the fuel temperature entering the filter at or above a minimum level to prevent freezing thereof. Fluid circuitry is provided to route hot engine oil through a plurality of heat exchangers disposed within the system to provide for selective cooling of the oil.

  14. Long term testing of peanut oil in engines

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Durability tests of engines using crude peanut oil blended with no. 2 diesel were conducted, using the E.M.A. screening procedure. Direct and indirect injection designs were operated on 20:80 and 80:28 fuel blends. Time-dependent exhaust temperature changes, mechanical wear, and crank-case oil viscosity changes were evaluated.

  15. Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-er...

  16. The potential of Chromolaena odorata (L) to decontaminate used engine oil impacted soil under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Atagana, Harrison Ifeanyichukwu

    2011-08-01

    This study reports on the use of Chromolaena odorata (L) R.M. King and H. Robinson, an Asteraceae (compositae) and an invasive alien weed in Africa for the remediation of soil contaminated with used engine oil. Used engine oilfrom a motor service garage was used to artificially contaminate soil taken from a garden to give total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) of between 1 and 40 g kg(-1). Chromolaena odorata (L), propagated by stem cuttings were transplanted into the contaminated soil and watered just enough to keep the soil at about 70% water holding capacity for 90 day. A set of control experiments containing 40 g kg(-1) used engine oil but without plants was set up. All experiments were set up in triplicates. Although the plants in the experiments containing higher than 30 g kg(-1) used engine oil showed relatively slower growth (fewer branches and leaves, and shorter in height) compared to those containing lower concentrations, the plants in all the experiments continued to grow until the end of the 90 day period. Residual TPH after 90 days showed that between 21 and 100% of oil was lost from the planted soil while only 11.5% was lost in the control, which did not contain plants during the same period. Analysis of plant tissues showed that both shoot and root tissues contained detectable levels of TPH and selected PAHs were also detectable. Biomass accumulation by Chromolaena odorata was affected adversely by concentrations of oil higher than 20 g kg(-1). Results of germination rates and germination energy measurements showed that Chromolaena odorata was able to reduce the toxicity of the contaminated soil after 90 days as compared to soils containing freshly contaminated soiL PMID:21972491

  17. AQUEOUS ENZYMATIC OIL EXTRACTION: A "GREEN" BIOPROCESS TO OBTAIN OIL FROM CORN GERM AND OTHER OIL-RICH PLANT MATERIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several methods have been developed to obtain oil from corn germ and other oil-rich plant materials using aqueous enzymatic methods. Unlike traditional oil extraction methods, these new bioprocesses are performed without the use of presses and without organic solvents. Beginning with olive oil in ...

  18. Long-chain polyacetals from plant oils.

    PubMed

    Chikkali, Samir; Stempfle, Florian; Mecking, Stefan

    2012-07-13

    Plant oil-derived α,ω-diacetals are polycondensated to the novel polyacetals [OCH(2) O(CH(2))(y)](n) (y = 19 and 23) with molecular weight of ca. M(n) = 2 × 10(4) g mol(-1). The long methylene sequences provide substantial melt and crystallization temperatures (T(m) = 88 °C and T(c) = 68 °C for y = 23), and rates of hydrolytic degradation are dramatically lower for the long-chain polyacetals versus a shorter chain analogue (y = 12) studied for comparison. PMID:22648983

  19. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  20. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.; Broderick, Thomas F.

    2012-04-17

    A new class of plant biomass feedstock particles characterized by consistent piece size and shape uniformity, high skeletal surface area, and good flow properties. The particles of plant biomass material having fibers aligned in a grain are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces. The L.times.W surfaces of particles with L/H dimension ratios of 4:1 or less are further elaborated by surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The length dimension L is preferably aligned within 30.degree. parallel to the grain, and more preferably within 10.degree. parallel to the grain. The plant biomass material is preferably selected from among wood, agricultural crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  1. [Application of PCA to diesel engine oil spectrometric analysis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Tian, Hong-Xiang; Guo, Wen-Yong

    2010-03-01

    In order to study wear characteristics of a 6-cylinder diesel engine, six different working statuses were arranged by altering the clearance between cylinder and piston. Sixty-nine oil samples were taken from engine at different loads under 6 working statuses and analyzed by Spectroil M Instrument made in US. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to analyzing spectrometric data of sixty-nine oil samples and clustering those data according to elements and oil samples separately based on the weighted coefficient and principal component scores. All 21 elements were used in element clustering and only 6 wear-related elements, namely iron, chromium, aluminum, copper, plumbum and silicon, were used in sample clustering. It is shown that PCA effectively clustered oil spectrometric data into three different principal components according to elements. The projection of two different principal components exhibited five types of elements combinations, namely wear elements (Fe, Cr, Cu, Al and Pb), high concentration additives elements (Na, Zn, P, Ca and Mg), low concentration additives elements (Ba and B), base constituent of lubricating oils (C and H) and interferential elements (Ni, Ti, Mo, V, Ag and Sn). Furthermore, PCA clearly clustered oil samples according to different clearance between cylinder and piston in the diesel engine. The study suggests that analyzing oil spectrographic data by PCA could find the sources of different elements, monitor engine conditions and diagnose wear faults. PMID:20496708

  2. Engineered microbes and methods for microbial oil production

    DOEpatents

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Tai, Mitchell; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2015-02-10

    Some aspects of this invention provide engineered microbes for oil production. Methods for microbe engineering and for use of engineered microbes are also provided herein. In some embodiments, microbes are provided that are engineered to modulate a combination of rate-controlling steps of lipid synthesis, for example, a combination of a step generating metabolites, acetyl-CoA, ATP or NADPH for lipid synthesis (a push step), and a step sequestering a product or an intermediate of a lipid synthesis pathway that mediates feedback inhibition of lipid synthesis (a pull step). Such push-and-pull engineered microbes exhibit greatly enhanced conversion yields and TAG synthesis and storage properties.

  3. Engineering photosynthesis in plants and synthetic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Maurino, Veronica G; Weber, Andreas P M

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, algae, and plants, sustain life on earth by converting light energy, water, and CO(2) into chemical energy. However, due to global change and a growing human population, arable land is becoming scarce and resources, including water and fertilizers, are becoming exhausted. It will therefore be crucial to design innovative strategies for sustainable plant production to maintain the food and energy bases of human civilization. Several different strategies for engineering improved photosynthesis in crop plants and introducing novel photosynthetic capacity into microorganisms have been reviewed. PMID:23028016

  4. Short-term performance of diesel oil and sunflower oil mixtures in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, K.R.; Ziejewski, M.; Marohl, M.; Kucera, H.L.

    1982-05-01

    A series of short tests were run on two different makes of diesel tractor. The fuel used in addition to the No. 2 diesel fuel were refined sunflower oil, crude sunflower oil and five blends of each of these fuels with No. 2 diesel fuel. Engine performance parameters measured include: engine power, volumetric fuel efficiency, thermal efficiency, exhaust temperature, Bosch smoke number and fuel flow. (Refs. 3).

  5. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.; Broderick, Thomas F.

    2011-10-11

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  6. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.; Broderick, Thomas F.

    2011-10-18

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. At least 80% of the particles pass through a 1/4 inch screen having a 6.3 mm nominal sieve opening but are retained by a No. 10 screen having a 2 mm nominal sieve opening. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  7. Understanding and manipulating plant lipid composition: Metabolic engineering leads the way.

    PubMed

    Napier, Johnathan A; Haslam, Richard P; Beaudoin, Frederic; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2014-06-01

    The manipulation of plant seed oil composition so as to deliver enhanced fatty acid compositions suitable for feed or fuel has long been a goal of metabolic engineers. Recent advances in our understanding of the flux of acyl-changes through different key metabolic pools such as phosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol have allowed for more targeted interventions. When combined in iterative fashion with further lipidomic analyses, significant breakthroughs in our capacity to generate plants with novel oils have been achieved. Collectively these studies, working at the interface between metabolic engineering and synthetic biology, demonstrate the positive fundamental and applied outcomes derived from such research. PMID:24809765

  8. Understanding and manipulating plant lipid composition: Metabolic engineering leads the way

    PubMed Central

    Napier, Johnathan A; Haslam, Richard P; Beaudoin, Frederic; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2014-01-01

    The manipulation of plant seed oil composition so as to deliver enhanced fatty acid compositions suitable for feed or fuel has long been a goal of metabolic engineers. Recent advances in our understanding of the flux of acyl-changes through different key metabolic pools such as phosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol have allowed for more targeted interventions. When combined in iterative fashion with further lipidomic analyses, significant breakthroughs in our capacity to generate plants with novel oils have been achieved. Collectively these studies, working at the interface between metabolic engineering and synthetic biology, demonstrate the positive fundamental and applied outcomes derived from such research. PMID:24809765

  9. OVERVIEW OF CENTRAL HEATING PLANT, WITH OIL STORAGE ON LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF CENTRAL HEATING PLANT, WITH OIL STORAGE ON LEFT, BOILER BUILDING ON RIGHT, SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS, CAMERA FACING NORTH. - New Haven Rail Yard, Central Steam Plant and Oil Storage, Vicinity of Union Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  10. Fuels Coming from Locals Vegetables Oils for Operating of Thermals Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agboue, Akichi; Yobou, Bokra

    The energy crisis born from the oil problem determined a renewal of attention on the possible possibilities of production of substitute fuels for the operation of the machines and the thermal engines. The fuel`s production based on vegetable oils require a renewal attention about the research of replacement fuel for the opeating of machines and thermal engines. Actually, the scientific world takes an interest in the research of others liquids fuel obtained with renewables energy sources whose vegetables have a good place. So, for helping to solve the fuel problem and particularly in third world countries without petroleum resources but producing fruits and oils seed, this research was about search of fuel from vegetables oils. Extraction and physico-chemical analysis performed on various vegetables plants show an interesting energy aspect. Evaluation of actually energy parameters will permit to do a comparison with classics fuel like gas-oil and petrol. Finally, analysis of thermal engines show that fuels coming from biomass like jatropha, ricinodendron and pistacia can to use for operating of those thermal engines.

  11. Antibacterial properties of essential oils from Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Wannissorn, Bhusita; Jarikasem, Siripen; Siriwangchai, Thammathad; Thubthimthed, Sirinun

    2005-03-01

    By using disc diffusion assay, the antimicrobial activity of 32 essential oil samples extracted from local plants or plants cultivated in Thailand was evaluated against zoonotic enteropathogens including Salmonella spp., Escherichai coli O157, Campylobacter jejunii and Clostridium perferingens which are important for broiler export. Out of the essential oil tested, only the essential oil of Zingiber cassumuna, Cinnamomum bejolghota, Mentha arvensis var. piperacens, Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum var. citratum showed promising antibacterial activity against the bacteria tested. PMID:15752638

  12. FTIR analysis and monitoring of synthetic aviation engine oils.

    PubMed

    Adams, Mike J; Romeo, Melissa J; Rawson, Paul

    2007-10-15

    Synthetic turbine oils from military aircraft engines were analysed for antioxidant content and total acid number using infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Two-dimensional IR correlation analysis was employed to investigate and interpret observed trends in the spectra, as acid was formed and antioxidant species were depleted in the oils, as a function of aging and engine wear. Principal components and partial least squares algorithms were used and compared for the development of calibration and prediction models. Transmission IR spectrometry is demonstrated to be effective for the analysis and monitoring of synthetic aviation turbine engine oils and shown to provide rapid and accurate information as compared with traditional analytical techniques and methods. PMID:19073081

  13. Aqueous enzymatic oil extraction from seeds, fruits, and other oil-rich plant materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several methods have been developed to obtain oil from corn germ, oilseeds, and other oil-rich plant materials using aqueous enzymatic methods. Unlike traditional oil extraction methods, these new processes are performed without the use of presses and without organic solvents. Beginning with olive...

  14. Metabolic engineering of cottonseed oil biosynthesis pathway via RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhongping; Li, Jingwen; Guo, Xiaoping; Jin, Shuangxia; Zhang, Xianlong

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed oil is recognized as an important oil in food industry for its unique characters: low flavor reversion and the high level of antioxidants (VitaminE) as well as unsaturated fatty acid. However, the cottonseed oil content of cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is only around 20%. In this study, we modified the accumulation of oils by the down-regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase 1 (GhPEPC1) via RNA interference in transgenic cotton plants. The qRT-PCR and enzyme activity assay revealed that the transcription and expression of GhPEPC1 was dramatically down-regulated in transgenic lines. Consequently, the cottonseed oil content in several transgenic lines showed a significant (P < 0.01) increase (up to 16.7%) without obvious phenotypic changes under filed condition when compared to the control plants. In order to elucidate the molecular mechanism of GhPEPC1 in the regulation of seed oil content, we quantified the expression of the carbon metabolism related genes of transgenic GhPEPC1 RNAi lines by transcriptome analysis. This analysis revealed the decrease of GhPEPC1 expression led to the increase expression of triacylglycerol biosynthesis-related genes, which eventually contributed to the lipid biosynthesis in cotton. This result provides a valuable information for cottonseed oil biosynthesis pathway and shows the potential of creating high cottonseed oil germplasm by RNAi strategy for cotton breeding. PMID:27620452

  15. Single-cylinder diesel engine study of four vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.; Geyer, S.M.; Lestz, S.S.; Risby, T.M.; Taylor, W.D.

    1983-10-01

    A single-cylinder, 0.36l, D.I. Diesel engine was operated on Diesel fuel, sunflowerseed oil, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, and peanut oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed comparison of performance and emissions data and to characterize the biological activity of the particulate soluble organic fraction for each fuel using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test. In addition, exhaust gas aldehyde samples were collected using the DNPH method. These samples were analyzed gravimetrically and separated into components from formaldehyde to heptaldehyde with a gas chromatograph. Results comparing the vegetable oils to Diesel fuel generally show slight improvements in thermal efficiency and indicated specific energy consumption; equal or higher gas-phase emissions; lower indicated specific revertant emissions; and significantly higher aldehyde emissions, including an increased percentage of formaldehyde.

  16. Conductometric sensors for monitoring degradation of automotive engine oil.

    PubMed

    Latif, Usman; Dickert, Franz L

    2011-01-01

    Conductometric sensors have been fabricated by applying imprinted polymers as receptors for monitoring engine oil quality. Titania and silica layers are synthesized via the sol-gel technique and used as recognition materials for acidic components present in used lubricating oil. Thin-film gold electrodes forming an interdigitated structure are used as transducers to measure the conductance of polymer coatings. Optimization of layer composition is carried out by varying the precursors, e.g., dimethylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane (DMAPTMS), and aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES). Characterization of these sensitive materials is performed by testing against oil oxidation products, e.g., carbonic acids. The results depict that imprinted aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) polymer is a promising candidate for detecting the age of used lubricating oil. In the next strategy, polyurethane-nanotubes composite as sensitive material is synthesized, producing appreciable differentiation pattern between fresh and used oils at elevated temperature with enhanced sensitivity. PMID:22164094

  17. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    SciTech Connect

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  18. Experimental investigation on performance and exhaust emissions of castor oil biodiesel from a diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Shojaeefard, M H; Etgahni, M M; Meisami, F; Barari, A

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, produced from plant and animal oils, is an important alternative to fossil fuels because, apart from dwindling supply, the latter are a major source of air pollution. In this investigation, effects of castor oil biodiesel blends have been examined on diesel engine performance and emissions. After producing castor methyl ester by the transesterification method and measuring its characteristics, the experiments were performed on a four cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, diesel engine. Engine performance (power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency) and exhaust emissions were analysed at various engine speeds. All the tests were done under 75% full load. Furthermore, the volumetric blending ratios of biodiesel with conventional diesel fuel were set at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The results indicate that lower blends of biodiesel provide acceptable engine performance and even improve it. Meanwhile, exhaust emissions are much decreased. Finally, a 15% blend of castor oil-biodiesel was picked as the optimized blend of biodiesel-diesel. It was found that lower blends of castor biodiesel are an acceptable fuel alternative for the engine. PMID:24350455

  19. Beneficiation-hydroretort processing of US oil shales, engineering study

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.R.; Riley, R.H.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes a beneficiation facility designed to process 1620 tons per day of run-of-mine Alabama oil shale containing 12.7 gallons of kerogen per ton of ore (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay) suitable for feed to a hydroretort oil extraction facility of nominally 20,000 barrels per day capacity. The beneficiation plant design prepared includes the operations of crushing, grinding, flotation, thickening, filtering, drying, briquetting, conveying and tailings empoundment. A complete oil shale beneficiation plant is described including all anticipated ancillary facilities. For purposes of determining capital and operating costs, the beneficiation facility is assumed to be located on a generic site in the state of Alabama. The facility is described in terms of the individual unit operations with the capital costs being itemized in a similar manner. Additionally, the beneficiation facility estimated operating costs are presented to show operating costs per ton of concentrate produced, cost per barrel of oil contained in concentrate and beneficiation cost per barrel of oil extracted from concentrate by hydroretorting. All costs are presented in fourth quarter of 1988 dollars.

  20. Oil layer as source of hydrocarbon emissions in SI engines

    SciTech Connect

    Min, K.; Cheng, W.K.

    1998-07-01

    The role of lubrication oil film on the cylinder liner as a source of hydrocarbon emissions in spark-ignition engines is assessed. First, the source strength is examined via an analytical model of the gasoline vapor absorption/desorption process. The solution shows that depending on engine operating conditions, there are three regimes. The process could be (1) limited by the gas side diffusion process, (2) limited by the liquid phase diffusion process, with the absorbed fuel fully penetrating the oil layer thickness (thin oil film regime), and (3) again limited by the liquid phase diffusion process, but with the absorbed fuel penetration depth small compared to the oil layer thickness (thick oil film regime). In regime (1), the source strength (the integrated absorption or desorption flux over one cycle) is proportional to the inverse of the square root of the rpm, but independent of oil layer parameters. In regimes (2), the strength is proportional to the oil film thickness divided by the Henry`s constant. In regime (3), the strength is independent of the oil film thickness, but is proportional to the fuel penetration depth divided by the Henry`s constant. Then, the oxidation of the desorbed fuel (using iso-octane as fuel) is examined with a one-dimensional reaction/diffusion model. The novel feature of the model is that the desorbed fuel is being exposed to the piston crevice hydrocarbon, which is laid along the liner as the piston descends. At stoichiometric conditions, the oxidation of the crevice HC is reduced by the presence of the desorbed HC from the oil layer.

  1. Oil layer as source of hydrocarbon emissions in SI engine

    SciTech Connect

    Min, K.; Cheng, W.K.

    1996-12-31

    The role of lubrication oil film on the cylinder liner as a source of hydrogen emissions in spark ignition engines is assessed. First, the source strength is examined via an analytical model of the gasoline vapor absorption/desorption process. The solution shows that depending on engine operating conditions, there are three regimes. The process could be (i) limited by the gas side diffusion process; (ii) limited by the liquid phase diffusion process, with the absorbed fuel fully penetrating the oil layer thickness (thin oil film regime); and (iii) again limited by the liquid phase diffusion process, but with the absorbed fuel penetration depth small compared to the oil layer thickness (thick oil film regime). In regime (i), the source strength (the integrated absorption or desorption flux over one cycle) is proportional to the square root of the rpm but independent of oil layer parameters. In regime (ii), the strength is proportional to the oil film thickness divided by the Henry`s constant. In regime (iii), the strength is independent of the oil film thickness, but is proportional to the fuel penetration depth divided by the Henry`s constant. Then the oxidation of the desorbed fuel (using iso-octane as fuel) is examined with a one dimensional reaction/diffusion model. The novel feature of the model is that the desorbed fuel is being exposed to the piston crevice hydrogen which is laid along the liner as the piston descends. At stoichiometric condition, the oxidation of the crevice HC is reduced by the presence of the desorbed HC from the oil layer.

  2. Viscosity of diesel engine fuel oil under pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersey, Mayo D

    1929-01-01

    In the development of Diesel engine fuel injection systems it is necessary to have an approximate knowledge of the absolute viscosity of the fuel oil under high hydrostatic pressures. This report presents the results of experimental tests conducted by Mr. Jackson Newton Shore, utilizing the A.S.M.E. high pressure equipment.

  3. Engineering Lesquerella for Safe Castor Oil Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a part of genetic approach to engineering ricinoleate synthesis, we investigated the seed development in L. fendleri. The morphological, physiological and biochemical changes during seed development of Lesquerella fendleri were characterized from 7 days after pollination (DAP) to desiccation. The...

  4. Plant oils as feedstock alternatives to petroleum - A short survey of potential oil crop platforms.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Anders S

    2009-06-01

    Our society is highly depending on petroleum for its activities. About 90% is used as an energy source for transportation and for generation of heat and electricity and the remaining as feedstocks in the chemical industry. However, petroleum is a finite source as well as causing several environmental problems such as rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Petroleum therefore needs to be replaced by alternative and sustainable sources. Plant oils and oleochemicals derived from them represent such alternative sources, which can deliver a substantial part of what is needed to replace the petroleum used as feedstocks. Plant derived feedstock oils can be provided by two types of oil qualities, multi-purpose and technical oils. Multi-purpose oils represent oil qualities that contain common fatty acids and that can be used for both food and feedstock applications. Technical oil qualities contain unusual fatty acids with special properties gained from their unique molecular structure and these types of oils should only be used for feedstock applications. As a risk mitigation strategy in the selection of crops, technical oil qualities should therefore preferably be produced by oil crop platforms dedicated for industrial usage. This review presents a short survey of oil crop platforms to be considered for either multi-purpose or technical oils production. Included among the former platforms are some of the major oil crops in cultivation such as oil palm, soybean and rapeseed. Among the later are those that could be developed into dedicated industrial platforms such as crambe, flax, cotton and Brassica carinata. The survey finishes off by highlighting the potential of substantial increase in plant oil production by developing metabolic flux platforms, which are starch crops converted into oil crops. PMID:19375482

  5. Oil cooling system for a gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A.; Kast, H. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A gas turbine engine fuel delivery and control system is provided with means to recirculate all fuel in excess fuel control requirements back to the aircraft fuel tank. This increases the fuel pump heat sink and decreases the pump temperature rise without the addition of valving other than normally employed. A fuel/oil heat exchanger and associated circuitry is provided to maintain the hot engine oil in heat exchange relationship with the cool engine fuel. Where anti-icing of the fuel filter is required, means are provided to maintain the fuel temperature entering the filter at or above a minimum level to prevent freezing thereof. In one embodiment, a divider valve is provided to take all excess fuel from either upstream or downstream of the fuel filter and route it back to the tanks, the ratio of upstream to downstream extraction being a function of fuel pump discharge pressure.

  6. Engineering of complex protein sialylation in plants.

    PubMed

    Kallolimath, Somanath; Castilho, Alexandra; Strasser, Richard; Grünwald-Gruber, Clemens; Altmann, Friedrich; Strubl, Sebastian; Galuska, Christina Elisabeth; Zlatina, Kristina; Galuska, Sebastian Peter; Werner, Stefan; Thiesler, Hauke; Werneburg, Sebastian; Hildebrandt, Herbert; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Steinkellner, Herta

    2016-08-23

    Sialic acids (Sias) are abundant terminal modifications of protein-linked glycans. A unique feature of Sia, compared with other monosaccharides, is the formation of linear homo-polymers, with its most complex form polysialic acid (polySia). Sia and polySia mediate diverse biological functions and have great potential for therapeutic use. However, technological hurdles in producing defined protein sialylation due to the enormous structural diversity render their precise investigation a challenge. Here, we describe a plant-based expression platform that enables the controlled in vivo synthesis of sialylated structures with different interlinkages and degree of polymerization (DP). The approach relies on a combination of stably transformed plants with transient expression modules. By the introduction of multigene vectors carrying the human sialylation pathway into glycosylation-destructed mutants, transgenic plants that sialylate glycoproteins in α2,6- or α2,3-linkage were generated. Moreover, by the transient coexpression of human α2,8-polysialyltransferases, polySia structures with a DP >40 were synthesized in these plants. Importantly, plant-derived polySia are functionally active, as demonstrated by a cell-based cytotoxicity assay and inhibition of microglia activation. This pathway engineering approach enables experimental investigations of defined sialylation and facilitates a rational design of glycan structures with optimized biotechnological functions. PMID:27444013

  7. Engineering of complex protein sialylation in plants

    PubMed Central

    Kallolimath, Somanath; Castilho, Alexandra; Strasser, Richard; Grünwald-Gruber, Clemens; Altmann, Friedrich; Strubl, Sebastian; Galuska, Christina Elisabeth; Zlatina, Kristina; Galuska, Sebastian Peter; Werner, Stefan; Thiesler, Hauke; Werneburg, Sebastian; Hildebrandt, Herbert; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Steinkellner, Herta

    2016-01-01

    Sialic acids (Sias) are abundant terminal modifications of protein-linked glycans. A unique feature of Sia, compared with other monosaccharides, is the formation of linear homo-polymers, with its most complex form polysialic acid (polySia). Sia and polySia mediate diverse biological functions and have great potential for therapeutic use. However, technological hurdles in producing defined protein sialylation due to the enormous structural diversity render their precise investigation a challenge. Here, we describe a plant-based expression platform that enables the controlled in vivo synthesis of sialylated structures with different interlinkages and degree of polymerization (DP). The approach relies on a combination of stably transformed plants with transient expression modules. By the introduction of multigene vectors carrying the human sialylation pathway into glycosylation-destructed mutants, transgenic plants that sialylate glycoproteins in α2,6- or α2,3-linkage were generated. Moreover, by the transient coexpression of human α2,8-polysialyltransferases, polySia structures with a DP >40 were synthesized in these plants. Importantly, plant-derived polySia are functionally active, as demonstrated by a cell-based cytotoxicity assay and inhibition of microglia activation. This pathway engineering approach enables experimental investigations of defined sialylation and facilitates a rational design of glycan structures with optimized biotechnological functions. PMID:27444013

  8. Toxicities of oils, dispersants and dispersed oils to algae and aquatic plants: review and database value to resource sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Published toxicity results are reviewed for oils, dispersants and dispersed oils and aquatic plants. The historical phytotoxicity database consists largely of results from a patchwork of research conducted after oil spills to marine waters. Toxicity information is available for ...

  9. Plant Oils and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: The Role of Genetics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caren E

    2012-09-01

    More than 25 years have passed since Ancel Keys and others observed that high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids, especially as supplied by plants (eg, olive oil) was associated with lower cardiovascular and overall mortality. About 15 years later, advances in genotyping technologies began to facilitate widespread study of relationships between dietary fats and genetic variants, illuminating the role of genetic variation in modulating human responses to fatty acids. More recently, microarray technologies evaluate the ways in which minor, bioactive compounds in plant oils (including olive, thyme, lemongrass, clove, eucalyptus, and others) alter gene expression to mediate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Results from a range of diverse technologies and approaches are coalescing to improve understanding of the role of the genome in shaping our responses to plant oils, and to clarify the genetic mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective benefits we derive from a wide range of plant oil constituents. PMID:23001455

  10. 72. SOUTH PLANT SHELL OIL COMPANY COMPLEX, FROM CHEMICAL STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. SOUTH PLANT SHELL OIL COMPANY COMPLEX, FROM CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 8. SOUTH PLANT SHELL OIL COMPANY FACILITIES, WITH PIPELINE PEDESTALS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. SOUTH PLANT SHELL OIL COMPANY FACILITIES, WITH PIPELINE PEDESTALS IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. 51. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, WITH SHELL OIL COMPANY BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, WITH SHELL OIL COMPANY BUILDINGS IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. Plant Oils and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: The Role of Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Caren E.

    2012-01-01

    More than 25 years have passed since Ancel Keys and others observed that high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids, especially as supplied by plants (eg, olive oil) was associated with lower cardiovascular and overall mortality. About 15 years later, advances in genotyping technologies began to facilitate widespread study of relationships between dietary fats and genetic variants, illuminating the role of genetic variation in modulating human responses to fatty acids. More recently, microarray technologies evaluate the ways in which minor, bioactive compounds in plant oils (including olive, thyme, lemongrass, clove, eucalyptus, and others) alter gene expression to mediate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Results from a range of diverse technologies and approaches are coalescing to improve understanding of the role of the genome in shaping our responses to plant oils, and to clarify the genetic mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective benefits we derive from a wide range of plant oil constituents. PMID:23001455

  14. Combined oil gun and coal guide for power plant boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Wiest, M.R.

    1990-08-28

    This paper discusses apparatus for introducing fuel into the combustion chamber of a power plant boiler. It comprises a coal guide; a coal disperser; tubular disperser support means; an oil gun; first actuator means; and second actuator means.

  15. Increasing the Oleic Acid in Soybean Oil with Plant Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the oleic acid content along with decrease in linolenic acid can improve the oxidative stability of soybean oil. Genetic changes in soybean using standard plant breeding practices has resulted in a publicly released a mid-oleic breeding line, N98-4445A, with oil that averages 57% oleic ac...

  16. Encapsulation of plant oils in porous starch microspheres

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural plant products such as essential oils have gained interest for use in pest control in place of synthetic pesticides because of their low environmental impact. Essential oils can be effective in controlling parasitic mites that infest honeybee colonies but effective encapsulants are needed to...

  17. Comparative analysis of plant oil based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Goettler, H.J.; Haines, H.; Huong, C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the evaluation results from the analysis of different blends of fuels using the 13-mode standard SAE testing method. Six high oleic safflower oil blends, six ester blends, six high oleic sunflower oil blends, and six sunflower oil blends were used in this portion of the investigation. Additionally, the results from the repeated 13-mode tests for all the 25/75% mixtures with a complete diesel fuel test before and after each alternative fuel are presented.

  18. A survey of mortality at two automotive engine manufacturing plants.

    PubMed

    Park, R M; Mirer, F E

    1996-12-01

    Mortality at two engine plants was analyzed using proportional mortality and logistic regression models of mortality odds ratios to expand previous observations of increased cancers of the stomach, pancreas, and bladder, and cirrhosis of the liver among workers exposed to machining fluids. Causes of death and work histories were available for 1,870 decendents. There was a significant excess of deaths coded as diabetes for white men in both plants (PMR = 25/16.7 = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.02, 2.20), and a deficit of respiratory diseases. Black men had fewer than expected diabetes deaths and more emphysema deaths. Elevated PMRs for cancers of the stomach, pancreas, prostate, bladder, and kidney were not statistically significant in plantwide populations. However, stomach cancer mortality increased with duration in camshaft and crankshaft production at Plant 1 (OR = 5.1, 95% CI = 1.6, 17; at mean duration of exposed cases), and among tool room workers (OR = 6.3, 95% CI = 1.3, 31), but these results were based on five cases. Nitrosamines were probably present in camshaft and crankshaft grinding at Plant 1. Pancreas cancer risk increased among workers at both plants ever employed in inspection (OR = 2.5, 16), in machining with straight oil (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.04, 12), or in skilled trades (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.1, 7.5). Lung cancer increased in cylinder head machining (OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.4, 11), millwright work (OR = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.6, 9.0), and in Plant 2 generally (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 0.97, 2.2). Potential lung carcinogens included heat treatment emissions, chlorinated oils, and coal tar fumes (millwrights). Bladder cancer increased with duration among workers grinding in straight oil MF (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.15, 7.8) and in machining/heat-treat operations (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.14, 7.2). PMID:8914713

  19. LAILAPS: The Plant Science Search Engine

    PubMed Central

    Esch, Maria; Chen, Jinbo; Colmsee, Christian; Klapperstück, Matthias; Grafahrend-Belau, Eva; Scholz, Uwe; Lange, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    With the number of sequenced plant genomes growing, the number of predicted genes and functional annotations is also increasing. The association between genes and phenotypic traits is currently of great interest. Unfortunately, the information available today is widely scattered over a number of different databases. Information retrieval (IR) has become an all-encompassing bioinformatics methodology for extracting knowledge from complex, heterogeneous and distributed databases, and therefore can be a useful tool for obtaining a comprehensive view of plant genomics, from genes to traits. Here we describe LAILAPS (http://lailaps.ipk-gatersleben.de), an IR system designed to link plant genomic data in the context of phenotypic attributes for a detailed forward genetic research. LAILAPS comprises around 65 million indexed documents, encompassing >13 major life science databases with around 80 million links to plant genomic resources. The LAILAPS search engine allows fuzzy querying for candidate genes linked to specific traits over a loosely integrated system of indexed and interlinked genome databases. Query assistance and an evidence-based annotation system enable time-efficient and comprehensive information retrieval. An artificial neural network incorporating user feedback and behavior tracking allows relevance sorting of results. We fully describe LAILAPS’s functionality and capabilities by comparing this system’s performance with other widely used systems and by reporting both a validation in maize and a knowledge discovery use-case focusing on candidate genes in barley. PMID:25480116

  20. Esterified sago waste for engine oil removal in aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Ngaini, Zainab; Noh, Farid; Wahi, Rafeah

    2014-01-01

    Agro-waste from the bark of Metroxylon sagu (sago) was studied as a low cost and effective oil sorbent in dry and aqueous environments. Sorption study was conducted using untreated sago bark (SB) and esterified sago bark (ESB) in used engine oil. Characterization study showed that esterification has successfully improved the hydrophobicity, buoyancy, surface roughness and oil sorption capacity of ESB. Sorption study revealed that water uptake of SB is higher (30 min static: 2.46 g/g, dynamic: 2.67 g/g) compared with ESB (30 min static: 0.18 g/g, dynamic: 0.14 g/g). ESB, however, showed higher oil sorption capacity in aqueous environment (30 min static: 2.30 g/g, dynamic: 2.14) compared with SB (30 min static: 0 g/g, dynamic: 0 g/g). ESB has shown great poTENTial as effective oil sorbent in aqueous environment due to its high oil sorption capacity, low water uptake and high buoyancy. PMID:25176478

  1. The Significance of Different Diacylgycerol Synthesis Pathways on Plant Oil Composition and Bioengineering

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Philip D.; Browse, John

    2012-01-01

    The unique properties of vegetable oils from different plants utilized for food, industrial feedstocks, and fuel is dependent on the fatty acid (FA) composition of triacylglycerol (TAG). Plants can use two main pathways to produce diacylglycerol (DAG), the immediate precursor molecule to TAG synthesis: (1) De novo DAG synthesis, and (2) conversion of the membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC) to DAG. The FA esterified to PC are also the substrate for FA modification (e.g., desaturation, hydroxylation, etc.), such that the FA composition of PC-derived DAG can be substantially different than that of de novo DAG. Since DAG provides two of the three FA in TAG, the relative flux of TAG synthesis from de novo DAG or PC-derived DAG can greatly affect the final oil FA composition. Here we review how the fluxes through these two alternate pathways of DAG/TAG synthesis are determined and present evidence that suggests which pathway is utilized in different plants. Additionally, we present examples of how the endogenous DAG synthesis pathway in a transgenic host plant can produce bottlenecks for engineering of plant oil FA composition, and discuss alternative strategies to overcome these bottlenecks to produce crop plants with designer vegetable oil compositions. PMID:22783267

  2. In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils

    PubMed Central

    Prabuseenivasan, Seenivasan; Jayakumar, Manickkam; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2006-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 21 plant essential oils against six bacterial species. Methods: The selected essential oils were screened against four gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris) and two gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at four different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20) using disc diffusion method. The MIC of the active essential oils were tested using two fold agar dilution method at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 25.6 mg/ml. Results: Out of 21 essential oils tested, 19 oils showed antibacterial activity against one or more strains. Cinnamon, clove, geranium, lemon, lime, orange and rosemary oils exhibited significant inhibitory effect. Cinnamon oil showed promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, whereas aniseed, eucalyptus and camphor oils were least active against the tested bacteria. In general, B. subtilis was the most susceptible. On the other hand, K. pneumoniae exhibited low degree of sensitivity. Conclusion: Majority of the oils showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains. However Cinnamon, clove and lime oils were found to be inhibiting both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Cinnamon oil can be a good source of antibacterial agents. PMID:17134518

  3. Preliminary Analysis for an Optimized Oil-Free Rotorcraft Engine Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Samuel A.; Bruckner, Robert J.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Radil, Kevin C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in gas foil bearing technology have led to numerous advanced high-speed rotating system concepts, many of which have become either commercial products or experimental test articles. Examples include Oil-Free microturbines, motors, generators and turbochargers. The driving forces for integrating gas foil bearings into these high-speed systems are the benefits promised by removing the oil lubrication system. Elimination of the oil system leads to reduced emissions, increased reliability, and decreased maintenance costs. Another benefit is reduced power plant weight. For rotorcraft applications, this would be a major advantage, as every pound removed from the propulsion system results in a payload benefit. Implementing foil gas bearings throughout a rotorcraft gas turbine engine is an important long-term goal that requires overcoming numerous technological hurdles. Adequate thrust bearing load capacity and potentially large gearbox applied radial loads are among them. However, by replacing the turbine end, or hot section, rolling element bearing with a gas foil bearing many of the above benefits can be realized. To this end, engine manufacturers are beginning to explore the possibilities of hot section gas foil bearings in propulsion engines. This paper presents a logical follow-on activity by analyzing a conceptual rotorcraft engine to determine the feasibility of a foil bearing supported core. Using a combination of rotordynamic analyses and a load capacity model, it is shown to be reasonable to consider a gas foil bearing core section.

  4. Gas Turbine Engine Carbon Oil Seals Computerized Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In a bearing compartment there are a series of parts when assembled determine the location of the bearing and seal as related to the centerline of rotation. We see part datums that do not establish A coincident path from the bearing to the seal. High engine vibration can cause severe oil leakage. The inability of the seal to respond fast enough to the rotating element Radial Seal: Sensitive to housing air pressure Sensitive to seal runout ? Axial Seal: Very sensitive to seal perpendicularity to shaft. Goals include: 1) Repeatable assembly process; 2) Accurate assembly process; 3) Minimize seal runout; 4) Design to engine centerline of rotation, i.e. bearings.

  5. Toxicity of plant essential oils to Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Eun-Hee; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Park, Hyung-Man; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2003-10-01

    A total of 53 plant essential oils were tested for their insecticidal activities against eggs, nymphs, and adults of Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, using an impregnated filter paper bioassays without allowing direct contact. Responses varied according to oil type and dose, and developmental stage of the insect. Bay, caraway seed, clove leaf, lemon eucalyptus, lime dis 5 F, pennyroyal, peppermint, rosewood, spearmint, and tea tree oils were highly effective against T. vaporariorum adults, nymphs, and eggs at 0.0023, 0.0093, and 0.0047 microl/ml air, respectively. These results indicate that the mode of delivery of these essential oils was largely a result of action in the vapor phase. Significant correlations among adulticidal, nymphicidal, and ovicidal activities of the test oils were observed. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for T. vaporariorum control. PMID:14650521

  6. Biodegradation of engine oil by fungi from mangrove habitat.

    PubMed

    Ameen, Fuad; Hadi, Sarfaraz; Moslem, Mohamed; Al-Sabri, Ahmed; Yassin, Mohamed A

    2015-01-01

    The pollution of land and water by petroleum compounds is a matter of growing concern necessitating the development of methodologies, including microbial biodegradation, to minimize the impending impacts. It has been extensively reported that fungi from polluted habitats have the potential to degrade pollutants, including petroleum compounds. The Red Sea is used extensively for the transport of oil and is substantially polluted, due to leaks, spills, and occasional accidents. Tidal water, floating debris, and soil sediment were collected from mangrove stands on three polluted sites along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia and forty-five fungal isolates belonging to 13 genera were recovered from these samples. The isolates were identified on the basis of a sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene fragment. Nine of these isolates were found to be able to grow in association with engine oil, as the sole carbon source, under in vitro conditions. These selected isolates and their consortium accumulated greater biomass, liberated more CO2, and produced higher levels of extracellular enzymes, during cultivation with engine oil as compared with the controls. These observations were authenticated by gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis, which indicated that many high mass compounds present in the oil before treatment either disappeared or showed diminished levels. PMID:26582288

  7. Inverse gas chromatography and other chromatographic techniques in the examination of engine oils.

    PubMed

    Fall, Jacek; Voelkel, Adam

    2002-09-01

    The emerging market of engine oils consists of a number of products from different viscosity and quality classes. Determination of the base oil used in manufacturing of the final product (engine oil) as well as estimation of mutual miscibility of oils and their solubility could be crucial problems. Inverse gas chromatography and other chromatographic techniques are presented as an interesting and fruitful extension of normalised standard analytical methods used in the oil industry. PMID:12385390

  8. Performance and emissions characteristics of a naturally aspirated diesel engine with vegetable oil fuels - 2

    SciTech Connect

    Humke, A.L.; Barsic, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    A naturally aspirated, direct injected diesel engine was used to evaluate the performance and emissions characteristics of a crude soybean oil, a 50 percent (by volume) mixture of crude soybean oil and no. 2 diesel fuel, and a degummed soybean oil. The data were compared with previous tests conducted on the same engine using diesel fuel, crude sunflower oil and a 50 percent mixture of crude sunflower oil and diesel fuel. 18 refs.

  9. Antibacterial activity of essential oils from Australian native plants.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Jenny M; Cavanagh, Heather M A

    2005-07-01

    To date, of the Australian essential oils, only tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and Eucalyptus spp. have undergone extensive investigation. In this study a range of Australian essential oils, including those from Anethole anisata, Callistris glaucophyllia, Melaleuca spp. and Thyptomine calycina, were assayed for in vitro antibacterial activity. M. alternifolia was also included for comparison purposes. Activity was determined using standard disc diffusion assays with each oil assayed at 100%, 10% and 1% against five bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alcaligenes faecalis) and the yeast, Candida albicans. All bacteria, with the exception of Ps. aeruginosa, were susceptible to one or more of the essential oils at 100%, with only Eremophilia mitchelli inhibiting the growth of any bacteria at 1% (inhibition of Sal. typhimurium). Where multiple samples of a single oil variety were tested variability in activity profiles were noted. This suggests that different methods of preparation of essential oils, together with variability in plant chemical profiles has an impact on whether or not the essential oil is of use as an antimicrobial agent. These results show that essential oils from Australian plants may be valuable antimicrobial agents for use alone or incorporated into cosmetics, cleaning agents and pharmaceutical products. PMID:16161028

  10. [Research progress of genetic engineering on medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Teng, Zhong-qiu; Shen, Ye

    2015-02-01

    The application of genetic engineering technology in modern agriculture shows its outstanding role in dealing with food shortage. Traditional medicinal plant cultivation and collection have also faced with challenges, such as lack of resources, deterioration of environment, germplasm of recession and a series of problems. Genetic engineering can be used to improve the disease resistance, insect resistance, herbicides resistant ability of medicinal plant, also can improve the medicinal plant yield and increase the content of active substances in medicinal plants. Thus, the potent biotechnology can play an important role in protection and large area planting of medicinal plants. In the development of medicinal plant genetic engineering, the safety of transgenic medicinal plants should also be paid attention to. A set of scientific safety evaluation and judgment standard which is suitable for transgenic medicinal plants should be established based on the recognition of the particularity of medicinal plants. PMID:26137675

  11. 20. Power plant engine piping details and schedules, sheet 82 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Power plant engine piping details and schedules, sheet 82 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  12. 18. Power plant engine piping floor plan, sheet 71 of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Power plant engine piping floor plan, sheet 71 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  13. 22. Power plant engine pipingcompressed air piping diagram and sections, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Power plant engine piping-compressed air piping diagram and sections, sheet 81 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  14. 19. Power plant engine pipinglower level plan, sheet 80 of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Power plant engine piping-lower level plan, sheet 80 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  15. Screening of plants for phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Ikeura, Hiromi; Kawasaki, Yu; Kaimi, Etsuko; Nishiwaki, Junko; Noborio, Kosuke; Tamaki, Masahiko

    2016-05-01

    Several species of ornamental flowering plants were evaluated regarding their phytoremediation ability for the cleanup of oil-contaminated soil in Japanese environmental conditions. Thirty-three species of plants were grown in oil-contaminated soil, and Mimosa, Zinnia, Gazania, and cypress vine were selected for further assessment on the basis of their favorable initial growth. No significant difference was observed in the above-ground and under-ground dry matter weight of Gazania 180 days after sowing between contaminated and non-contaminated plots. However, the other 3 species of plants died by the 180(th) day, indicating that Gazania has an especially strong tolerance for oil-contaminated soil. The total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration of the soils in which the 4 species of plants were grown decreased by 45-49% by the 180(th) day. Compared to an irrigated plot, the dehydrogenase activity of the contaminated soil also increased significantly, indicating a phytoremediation effect by the 4 tested plants. Mimosa, Zinnia, and cypress vine all died by the 180(th) day after seeding, but the roots themselves became a source of nutrients for the soil microorganisms, which led to a phytoremediation effect by increase in the oil degradation activity. It has been indicated that Gazania is most appropriate for phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soil. PMID:26587892

  16. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOEpatents

    Boggs, D.L.; Baraszu, D.J.; Foulkes, D.M.; Gomes, E.G.

    1998-12-29

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine`s crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages. 4 figs.

  17. Oil shale retorting in the first commercial plants

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Three commercial projects based on oil shale mining and surface retorting are reviewed. In Colorado, Exxon and Tosco are partners in the construction of a plant which will utilize TOSCO II retorts. Nearby, Union Oil Company is constructing the first module of a large complex using its own process. Each project is described briefly, the several retorting processes are discussed, and the rationale for the retort selection in each case is considered. 8 refs.

  18. Alkene Metathesis and Renewable Materials: Selective Transformations of Plant Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malacea, Raluca; Dixneuf, Pierre H.

    The olefin metathesis of natural oils and fats and their derivatives is the basis of clean catalytic reactions relevant to green chemistry processes and the production of generate useful chemicals from renewable raw materials. Three variants of alkene metathesis: self-metathesis, ethenolysis and cross-metathesis applied to plant oil derivatives will show new routes to fine chemicals, bifunctional products, polymer precursours and industry intermediates.

  19. Combustion analysis of esters of soybean oil in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Van Gerpen, J.H.

    1996-09-01

    The alkyl esters of plant oils and animal fats are receiving increasing attention as renewable fuels for diesel engines. These esters have come to be known as biodiesel. One objection to the use of the methyl and ethyl esters of soybean oil as a fuel in diesel engines is their high crystallization temperature. One solution to this problem is to use the isopropyl esters of soybean oil which have significantly lower crystallization temperatures. Another method to improve the cold flow properties of esters is to winterize them to subambient temperature. This is accomplished by cooling the esters and filtering out the components that crystallize most readily. Previous work has shown that when methyl, isopropyl and winterized ester blends were compared with No. 2 diesel fuel, the isopropyl and winterized methyl esters had at least the same emission reduction potential as the methyl esters, with similar engine performance. This paper discusses those results using heat release analysis that shows all of the blends have shorter ignition delays, and lower premixed burn fractions than No. 2 diesel fuel. All tested fuels except the isopropyl ester blends had similar combustion behavior. However, blends with isopropyl ester showed some abnormal combustion behavior, possibly due to high levels of monoglycerides.

  20. [Peculicidal activity of plant essential oils and their based preparations].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The peculicidal activity of eight plant essential oils in 75% isopropyl alcohol was in vitro investigated. Of them, the substances that were most active against lice were tea tree (Melaleuca), eucalyptus, neem, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oils; KT50 was not more than 3 minutes on average; KT95 was 4 minutes. After evaporating the solvent, only five (tea tree, cassia, clove, anise (Anisum vulgare), and Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) oils) of the eight test botanical substances were active against lice. At the same time, KT50 and KT95 showed 1.5-5-fold increases. Citronella and anise oils had incomplete ovicidal activity. Since the lice were permethrin-resistant, the efficacy of preparations based on essential oils was much higher than permethrin. PMID:25296426

  1. Plant Oils as Potential Sources of Vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Baur, Anja C; Brandsch, Corinna; König, Bettina; Hirche, Frank; Stangl, Gabriele I

    2016-01-01

    To combat vitamin D insufficiency in a population, reliable diet sources of vitamin D are required. The recommendations to consume more oily fish and the use of UVB-treated yeast are already applied strategies to address vitamin D insufficiency. This study aimed to elucidate the suitability of plant oils as an alternative vitamin D source. Therefore, plant oils that are commonly used in human nutrition were first analyzed for their content of vitamin D precursors and metabolites. Second, selected oils were exposed to a short-term UVB irradiation to stimulate the synthesis of vitamin D. Finally, to elucidate the efficacy of plant-derived vitamin D to improve the vitamin D status, we fed UVB-exposed wheat germ oil (WGO) for 4 weeks to mice and compared them with mice that received non-exposed or vitamin D3 supplemented WGO. Sterol analysis revealed that the selected plant oils contained high amounts of not only ergosterol but also 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), with the highest concentrations found in WGO. Exposure to UVB irradiation resulted in a partial conversion of ergosterol and 7-DHC to vitamin D2 and D3 in these oils. Mice fed the UVB-exposed WGO were able to improve their vitamin D status as shown by the rise in the plasma concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and the liver content of vitamin D compared with mice fed the non-exposed oil. However, the plasma concentration of 25(OH)D of mice fed the UVB-treated oil did not reach the values observed in the group fed the D3 supplemented oil. It was striking that the intake of the UVB-exposed oil resulted in distinct accumulation of vitamin D2 in the livers of these mice. In conclusion, plant oils, in particular WGO, contain considerable amounts of vitamin D precursors which can be converted to vitamin D via UVB exposure. However, the UVB-exposed WGO was less effective to improve the 25(OH)D plasma concentration than a supplementation with vitamin D3. PMID:27570765

  2. Plant Oils as Potential Sources of Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Baur, Anja C.; Brandsch, Corinna; König, Bettina; Hirche, Frank; Stangl, Gabriele I.

    2016-01-01

    To combat vitamin D insufficiency in a population, reliable diet sources of vitamin D are required. The recommendations to consume more oily fish and the use of UVB-treated yeast are already applied strategies to address vitamin D insufficiency. This study aimed to elucidate the suitability of plant oils as an alternative vitamin D source. Therefore, plant oils that are commonly used in human nutrition were first analyzed for their content of vitamin D precursors and metabolites. Second, selected oils were exposed to a short-term UVB irradiation to stimulate the synthesis of vitamin D. Finally, to elucidate the efficacy of plant-derived vitamin D to improve the vitamin D status, we fed UVB-exposed wheat germ oil (WGO) for 4 weeks to mice and compared them with mice that received non-exposed or vitamin D3 supplemented WGO. Sterol analysis revealed that the selected plant oils contained high amounts of not only ergosterol but also 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), with the highest concentrations found in WGO. Exposure to UVB irradiation resulted in a partial conversion of ergosterol and 7-DHC to vitamin D2 and D3 in these oils. Mice fed the UVB-exposed WGO were able to improve their vitamin D status as shown by the rise in the plasma concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and the liver content of vitamin D compared with mice fed the non-exposed oil. However, the plasma concentration of 25(OH)D of mice fed the UVB-treated oil did not reach the values observed in the group fed the D3 supplemented oil. It was striking that the intake of the UVB-exposed oil resulted in distinct accumulation of vitamin D2 in the livers of these mice. In conclusion, plant oils, in particular WGO, contain considerable amounts of vitamin D precursors which can be converted to vitamin D via UVB exposure. However, the UVB-exposed WGO was less effective to improve the 25(OH)D plasma concentration than a supplementation with vitamin D3. PMID:27570765

  3. The use of tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Murugan, S; Ramaswamy, M C; Nagarajan, G

    2008-12-01

    Tests have been carried out to evaluate the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled with 10%, 30%, and 50% of tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) blended with diesel fuel (DF). The TPO was derived from waste automobile tyres through vacuum pyrolysis. The combustion parameters such as heat release rate, cylinder peak pressure, and maximum rate of pressure rise also analysed. Results showed that the brake thermal efficiency of the engine fueled with TPO-DF blends increased with an increase in blend concentration and reduction of DF concentration. NO(x), HC, CO, and smoke emissions were found to be higher at higher loads due to the high aromatic content and longer ignition delay. The cylinder peak pressure increased from 71 bars to 74 bars. The ignition delays were longer than with DF. It is concluded that it is possible to use tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines as an alternate fuel in the future. PMID:18499428

  4. Genetic Engineering of Plants. Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leslie

    Plant scientists and science policymakers from government, private companies, and universities met at a convocation on the genetic engineering of plants. During the convocation, researchers described some of the ways genetic engineering may be used to address agricultural problems. Policymakers delineated and debated changes in research funding…

  5. Performance of industrial-type engines in military equipment using synthetic crankcase oils. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, G.H.; Bowen, T.; Cheek, L.; Zanedis, B.

    1981-06-01

    The investigation was to determine the possibility of eliminating crankcase oil changes in engines used in military equipment. Based on the results, it appears that an extended oil change interval can be used which would result in significant savings.

  6. Antifungal Effect of Plant Essential Oils on Controlling Phytophthora Species

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Jahanshir; Farhang, Vahid; Javadi, Taimoor; Nazemi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum and two fungicides Mancozeb and Metalaxyl-Mancozeb in six different concentrations were investigated for controlling three species of Phytophthora, including P. capsici, P. drechsleri and P. melonis on pepper, cucumber and melon under in vitro and greenhouse conditions, respectively. Under the in vitro condition, the median effective concen- tration (EC50) values (ppm) of plant essential oils and fungicides were measured. In greenhouse, soil infested with Phytophthora species was treated by adding 50 ml of essential oils and fungicides (100 ppm). Disease severity was determined after 28 days. Among two tested plant essential oils, C. citratus had the lowest EC50 values for inhibition of the mycelial growth of P. capsici (31.473), P. melonis (33.097) and P. drechsleri (69.112), respectively. The mean EC50 values for Metalaxyl-Mancozeb on these pathogens were 20.87, 20.06 and 17.70, respectively. Chemical analysis of plant essential oils by GC-MS showed that, among 42 compounds identified from C. citratus, two compounds β-geranial (α-citral) (39.16%) and z-citral (30.95%) were the most abundant. Under the greenhouse condition, Metalaxyl-Mancozeb caused the greatest reduction in disease severity, 84.2%, 86.8% and 92.1% on melon, cucumber, and pepper, respectively. The C. citratus essential oil reduced disease severity from 47.4% to 60.5% compared to the untreated control (p≤0.05). Essential oils of O. basilicum had the lowest effects on the pathogens under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. These results show that essential oils may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the crops from Phytophthora diseases. PMID:26889111

  7. Antifungal Effect of Plant Essential Oils on Controlling Phytophthora Species.

    PubMed

    Amini, Jahanshir; Farhang, Vahid; Javadi, Taimoor; Nazemi, Javad

    2016-02-01

    In this study, antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum and two fungicides Mancozeb and Metalaxyl-Mancozeb in six different concentrations were investigated for controlling three species of Phytophthora, including P. capsici, P. drechsleri and P. melonis on pepper, cucumber and melon under in vitro and greenhouse conditions, respectively. Under the in vitro condition, the median effective concen- tration (EC50) values (ppm) of plant essential oils and fungicides were measured. In greenhouse, soil infested with Phytophthora species was treated by adding 50 ml of essential oils and fungicides (100 ppm). Disease severity was determined after 28 days. Among two tested plant essential oils, C. citratus had the lowest EC50 values for inhibition of the mycelial growth of P. capsici (31.473), P. melonis (33.097) and P. drechsleri (69.112), respectively. The mean EC50 values for Metalaxyl-Mancozeb on these pathogens were 20.87, 20.06 and 17.70, respectively. Chemical analysis of plant essential oils by GC-MS showed that, among 42 compounds identified from C. citratus, two compounds β-geranial (α-citral) (39.16%) and z-citral (30.95%) were the most abundant. Under the greenhouse condition, Metalaxyl-Mancozeb caused the greatest reduction in disease severity, 84.2%, 86.8% and 92.1% on melon, cucumber, and pepper, respectively. The C. citratus essential oil reduced disease severity from 47.4% to 60.5% compared to the untreated control (p≤0.05). Essential oils of O. basilicum had the lowest effects on the pathogens under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. These results show that essential oils may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the crops from Phytophthora diseases. PMID:26889111

  8. Low-temperature pumpability of US Army diesel engine oils. Interim report, July 1982-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, E.A.; Montemayor, A.F.; Owens, E.C.

    1987-12-01

    Borderline oil-pumpability temperatures (BPT's) were determined for U.S. Army diesel engines by cranking experiments conducted in a cold box. The variables investigated included: four different diesel-engine types; four different oil-viscosity grades; and three different viscosity index improver chemical types. In general, for a given oil, the decreasing order of engine severity (i.e., highest BPT) was: the Continental LDT-465-1C and the Cummins VTA-903T were the most severe, and were approximately equivalent. The GM 6.2L engine was the next least severe with the DDC 6V-53T engine being the overall least severe. The different viscosity index improver chemistries of specially blended test oils included: olefin copolymer (OCP), styrene-isoprene polymer (SI), and polymethacrylate (PMA). The PMA-containing 15W-40 oils had superior low-temperature oil-pumpability performance in each engine in which they were evaluated.

  9. 2007 Plant Metabolic Engineering Gordon Conference and Graduate Research Seminar

    SciTech Connect

    Erich Grotewold

    2008-09-15

    Plant Metabolic Engineering is an emerging field that integrates a diverse range of disciplines including plant genetics, genomics, biochemistry, chemistry and cell biology. The Gordon-Kenan Graduate Research Seminar (GRS) in Plant Metabolic Engineering was initiated to provide a unique opportunity for future researcher leaders to present their work in this field. It also creates an environment allowing for peer-review and critical assessment of work without the intimidation usually associated with the presence of senior investigators. The GRS immediately precedes the Plant Metabolic Engineering Gordon Research Conference and will be for and by graduate students and post-docs, with the assistance of the organizers listed.

  10. Effects of Engineered Nanomaterials on Plants Growth: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Samira; Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Hashemi, Farahnaz Sadat Golestan

    2014-01-01

    Rapid development and wide applications of nanotechnology brought about a significant increment on the number of engineered nanomaterials (ENs) inevitably entering our living system. Plants comprise of a very important living component of the terrestrial ecosystem. Studies on the influence of engineered nanomaterials (carbon and metal/metal oxides based) on plant growth indicated that in the excess content, engineered nanomaterials influences seed germination. It assessed the shoot-to-root ratio and the growth of the seedlings. From the toxicological studies to date, certain types of engineered nanomaterials can be toxic once they are not bound to a substrate or if they are freely circulating in living systems. It is assumed that the different types of engineered nanomaterials affect the different routes, behavior, and the capability of the plants. Furthermore, different, or even opposing conclusions, have been drawn from most studies on the interactions between engineered nanomaterials with plants. Therefore, this paper comprehensively reviews the studies on the different types of engineered nanomaterials and their interactions with different plant species, including the phytotoxicity, uptakes, and translocation of engineered nanomaterials by the plant at the whole plant and cellular level. PMID:25202734

  11. Development of a full scale selective oil agglomeration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, J.C.; Cooney, B.; Hoare, I.; Waugh, B.; Robinson, R.

    1998-12-31

    A research and development program managed by Australian Mining Investments Limited (AMI) on behalf of an investment syndicate was conducted with the objective of improving the efficiency and economy of the Selective Oil Agglomeration Process (SOAP), and developing viable commercial sized operating plants. Fewer than half the coal preparation plants in Australia beneficiate fine coal by froth flotation, the only viable alternative to SOAP for the recovery of low ash, fine and ultra fine coal. Those plants without flotation generally dispose of the ultra fine material, approximately {minus}100{micro}m in size, as tailings to waste. In the majority of cases this ultra fine waste contains more than 50% relatively low ash coal of saleable quality. It is believed that this coal constitutes a loss of 8--10 million tonnes per annum and that the coal mining industry would welcome a recovery process which has low capital and operating costs and will function automatically with minimal operator attention. The authors carried out a comprehensive literature study of selective oil agglomeration in order to gain a full understanding of the process and to plan the research program. Extensive studies were then undertaken on oil dispersion in the water phase, formation of oil water emulsions with surfactants and the optimization of surfactant selection. Oil and emulsion properties were investigated including stability, viscosity, temperature, concentration of components, time of formation, and cost. This work was followed by characterization studies on coals from the Gunnedah Basin and agglomeration test work on these coals. These agglomeration studies were performed firstly at bench level and then by using a small, 200 kg/hr continuous process development unit. The results were sufficiently encouraging to justify the design and construction of a fully instrumented, PLC controlled, 2 tph pilot plant at Gunnedah Colliery Coal Preparation Plant. Extensive trials were carried out on

  12. Rapid engine test to measure injector fouling in diesel engines using vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Korus, R.A.; Jaiduk, J.; Peterson, C.L.

    1985-11-01

    Short engine tests were used to determine the rate of carbon deposition on direct injection diesel nozzles. Winter rape, high-oleic and high-linoleic safflower blends with 50% diesel were tested for carbon deposit and compared to that with D-2 Diesel Control Fuel. Deposits were greatest with the most unsaturated fuel, high-linoleic safflower, and least with winter rape. All vegetable oil blends developed power similar to diesel fueled engines with a 6 to 8% greater fuel consumption. 8 references.

  13. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOEpatents

    Boggs, David Lee; Baraszu, Daniel James; Foulkes, David Mark; Gomes, Enio Goyannes

    1998-01-01

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine's crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages.

  14. Effect of molybdenum-containing, oil-soluble friction modifiers on engine fuel economy and gear oil efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, A.B.; Risdon, T.J.

    1981-01-01

    A selection of molybdenum-containing, oil-soluble friction modifier additives was tested comparatively in engine dynamometer tests on gasoline and diesel engines; the tests measured variations in brake specific fuel consumption with speed. A similar selection of molybdenum-containing additives was evaluated in terms of transmission efficiency in a hypoid-gear, rear-axle test rig; the baseline oil was a formulated SAE-75W gear oil. Bench-scale friction tests utilizing the Press-Fit, Timken and Four-Ball test devices were employed to establish a correlation between small-scale rigs and full-scale engine tests. 13 refs.

  15. Evaluating Sustainability: Soap versus Biodiesel Production from Plant Oils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Nicola L. B.; Streff, Jennifer M.; Brokman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Herein we describe a series of experiments for the undergraduate organic laboratory curriculum in which various plant oils (soybean, rapeseed, and olive) are subjected to saponification and transesterification reactions to create a set of compounds that can function as soaps or as fuels. The experiments introduce students to and asks them to…

  16. 52. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING OVERHEAD RACK, WITH SHELL OIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING OVERHEAD RACK, WITH SHELL OIL COMPANY FACILITIES IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  17. 12. SOUTH PLANT FROM SHELL OIL COMPANY CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. SOUTH PLANT FROM SHELL OIL COMPANY CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK, SHOWING FACILITIES MAINTENANCE BUILDING (543) AT LEFT AND WHITE PHOSPHOROUS FILLING BUILDING (541) AND WAREHOUSE (542) AT CENTER. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  18. 73. DETAIL OF SOUTH PLANT SHELL OIL COMPANY COMPLEX FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. DETAIL OF SOUTH PLANT SHELL OIL COMPANY COMPLEX FROM CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  19. Margarine from organogels of plant wax and soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organogels obtained from plant wax and soybean oil tested for suitability for incorporation into margarine. Sunflower wax, rice bran wax and candelilla wax were evaluated. Candelilla wax showed phase separation after making the emulsion with the formulation used in this study. Rice bran wax showe...

  20. Preparation of biopolymers from plant oils in green media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conversion of plant oils to polymers has attracted renewed attention in recent years to replace or augment the traditional petro-chemical based polymers and resins. This is because of concern for the environment, waste disposal, and depletion of fossil and non-renewable feedstocks. In this study...

  1. Polymerization of plant oils in carbon dioxide media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conversion of plant oils to polymers has attracted renewed attention in recent years to replace or augment the traditional petrochemical-based polymers and resins. This is because of concern for the environment, waste disposal, and depletion of fossil and non-renewable feedstocks. Usually, polym...

  2. Preparation of biopolymers from plant oils in green media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of plant oils as starting materials to prepare polymers has attracted renewed attention in recent years to replace or augment the traditional petrochemical based polymers and resins. This is because of concern for the environment, waste disposal, and depletion of fossil and non renewable feedsto...

  3. Preparation of biopolymers from plant oils in green media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conversion of plant oils to polymers has attracted renewed attention in recent years to replace or augment the traditional petro-chemical based polymers and resins. This is due to concern of the environment, waste disposal, and depletion of fossil and non-renewable feedstocks. Polymers obtained ...

  4. Genetic engineering of syringyl-enriched lignin in plants

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Vincent Lee; Li, Laigeng

    2004-11-02

    The present invention relates to a novel DNA sequence, which encodes a previously unidentified lignin biosynthetic pathway enzyme, sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) that regulates the biosynthesis of syringyl lignin in plants. Also provided are methods for incorporating this novel SAD gene sequence or substantially similar sequences into a plant genome for genetic engineering of syringyl-enriched lignin in plants.

  5. Engineered silica nanoparticles as additives in lubricant oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Faes López, Teresa; Fernández González, Alfonso; Del Reguero, Ángel; Matos, María; Díaz-García, Marta E.; Badía-Laíño, Rosana

    2015-10-01

    Silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) synthesized by the sol-gel approach were engineered for size and surface properties by grafting hydrophobic chains to prevent their aggregation and facilitate their contact with the phase boundary, thus improving their dispersibility in lubricant base oils. The surface modification was performed by covalent binding of long chain alkyl functionalities using lauric acid and decanoyl chloride to the SiO2 NP surface. The hybrid SiO2 NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, simultaneous differential thermal analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance and dynamic light scattering, while their dispersion in two base oils was studied by static multiple light scattering at low (0.01% w/v) and high (0.50%w/v) concentrations. The nature of the functional layer and the functionalization degree seemed to be directly involved in the stability of the suspensions. The potential use of the functional SiO2 NPs as lubricant additives in base oils, specially designed for being used in hydraulic circuits, has been outlined by analyzing the tribological properties of the dispersions. The dendritic structure of the external layer played a key role in the tribological characteristics of the material by reducing the friction coefficient and wear. These nanoparticles reduce drastically the waste of energy in friction processes and are more environmentally friendly than other additives.

  6. Plant Metabolic Modeling: Achieving New Insight into Metabolism and Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Baghalian, Kambiz; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Schreiber, Falk

    2014-01-01

    Models are used to represent aspects of the real world for specific purposes, and mathematical models have opened up new approaches in studying the behavior and complexity of biological systems. However, modeling is often time-consuming and requires significant computational resources for data development, data analysis, and simulation. Computational modeling has been successfully applied as an aid for metabolic engineering in microorganisms. But such model-based approaches have only recently been extended to plant metabolic engineering, mainly due to greater pathway complexity in plants and their highly compartmentalized cellular structure. Recent progress in plant systems biology and bioinformatics has begun to disentangle this complexity and facilitate the creation of efficient plant metabolic models. This review highlights several aspects of plant metabolic modeling in the context of understanding, predicting and modifying complex plant metabolism. We discuss opportunities for engineering photosynthetic carbon metabolism, sucrose synthesis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle in leaves and oil synthesis in seeds and the application of metabolic modeling to the study of plant acclimation to the environment. The aim of the review is to offer a current perspective for plant biologists without requiring specialized knowledge of bioinformatics or systems biology. PMID:25344492

  7. Oil-Free Turbomachinery Team Passed Milestone on Path to the First Oil-Free Turbine Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bream, Bruce L.

    2002-01-01

    The Oil-Free Turbine Engine Technology Project team successfully demonstrated a foil-air bearing designed for the core rotor shaft of a turbine engine. The bearings were subjected to test conditions representative of the engine core environment through a combination of high speeds, sustained loads, and elevated temperatures. The operational test envelope was defined during conceptual design studies completed earlier this year by bearing manufacturer Mohawk Innovative Technologies and the turbine engine company Williams International. The prototype journal foil-air bearings were tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Glenn is working with Williams and Mohawk to create a revolution in turbomachinery by developing the world's first Oil-Free turbine aircraft engine. NASA's General Aviation Propulsion project and Williams International recently developed the FJX-2 turbofan engine that is being commercialized as the EJ-22. This core bearing milestone is a first step toward a future version of the EJ-22 that will take advantage of recent advances in foil-air bearings by eliminating the need for oil lubrication systems and rolling element bearings. Oil-Free technology can reduce engine weight by 15 percent and let engines operate at very high speeds, yielding power density improvements of 20 percent, and reducing engine maintenance costs. In addition, with NASA coating technology, engines can operate at temperatures up to 1200 F. Although the project is still a couple of years from a full engine test of the bearings, this milestone shows that the bearing design exceeds the expected environment, thus providing confidence that an Oil-Free turbine aircraft engine will be attained. The Oil-Free Turbomachinery Project is supported through the Aeropropulsion Base Research Program.

  8. Engineering performance monitoring: Sustained contributions to plant performance improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Bebko, J.J. )

    1992-01-01

    With the aim of achieving excellence in an engineering department that makes both individual project-by-project contributions to plant performance improvement and sustained overall contributions to plant performance, the Niagara Mohawk Nuclear Engineering Department went back to the basics of running a business and established an Engineering Performance Monitoring System. This system focused on the unique products and services of the department and their cost, schedule, and quality parameters. The goals were to provide the best possible service to customers and the generation department and to be one of the best engineering departments in the industry.

  9. Performance of Several Combustion Chambers Designed for Aircraft Oil Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachim, William F; Kemper, Carlton

    1928-01-01

    Several investigations have been made on single-cylinder test engines to determine the performance characteristics of four types of combustion chambers designed for aircraft oil engines. Two of the combustion chambers studied were bulb-type precombustion chambers, the connecting orifice of one having been designed to produce high turbulence by tangential air flow in both the precombustion chamber and the cylinder. The other two were integral combustion chambers, one being dome-shaped and the other pent-roof shaped. The injection systems used included cam and eccentric driven fuel pumps, and diaphragm and spring-loaded fuel-injection valves. A diaphragm type maximum cylinder pressure indicator was used in part of these investigations with which the cylinder pressures were controlled to definite valves. The performance of the engines when equipped with each of the combustion chambers is discussed. The best performance for the tests reported was obtained with a bulb-type combustion chamber designed to give a high degree of turbulence within the bulb and cylinder. (author)

  10. Intermolecular interaction in plant oils from refractive and density measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriyevsky, B.; Andriyevska, L.; Piecuch, T.

    2010-12-01

    Refractive indices n and density ρ of three plant oils (Anise, Nigelle, and Juniper berries) have been measured in the temperature range of 10-60°C. The model of the effective electric field E' acting on a molecule in the material, E' = E + x4π P, with the unlimited value of the coefficient of polarization input x has been applied to the analysis of the results obtained. The value x of the oils studied have been found to be in the range of 0.193-0.269, which is smaller than a similar value for water ( x water > 0.3), known as a strong polar liquid.

  11. ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF COLLEGE PLANT DESIGN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DALTON, LIAM F.; SEGNER, MARVIN

    THE ARTICLE FOCUSES ON MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL FACILITIES THAT SHOULD BE CONSIDERED WHEN DEVELOPING A LONG RANGE MASTER PLAN. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MASTER PLAN SHOULD CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING--(1) COMPARATIVE FUEL COSTS, (2) POWER DISTRIBUTION, (3) HEATING PLANT, (4) CENTRAL PLANT SITE, (5) COOLING PLANT, (6) WATER SUPPLY, (7) STORM DRAINAGE, (8)…

  12. Gas engines provide cogeneration service for Fantoni MDF plant

    SciTech Connect

    Chellini, R.

    1996-12-01

    A large MDF (medium density fiberboard) plant recently started industrial production at the headquarters of Fantoni, in Osoppo (UDINE) Italy. Providing electric power and thermal energy to the process is a cogeneration plant based on four large spark-ignited gas engines. The new Osoppo MDF plant processes 800 m{sup 3} of finished boards per day in a manufacturing line that combines the most advanced technologies available from several European equipment manufacturers. The cogeneration plant features four type 12VA32G spark-ignited gas engines from Fincantieri`s Diesel Engine Division, driving 50Hz, 6.3 kV, 5400 kVA Ansaldo generators at 750 r/min. The turbocharged and intercooled engines are a spark-ignited version of the company`s A32 diesel. They feature 12 Vee-arranged cylinders with 320 mm bore and 390 mm stroke. 5 figs.

  13. Metabolic engineering for the production of plant isoquinoline alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Andrew; Desgagné-Penix, Isabel

    2016-06-01

    Several plant isoquinoline alkaloids (PIAs) possess powerful pharmaceutical and biotechnological properties. Thus, PIA metabolism and its fascinating molecules, including morphine, colchicine and galanthamine, have attracted the attention of both the industry and researchers involved in plant science, biochemistry, chemical bioengineering and medicine. Currently, access and availability of high-value PIAs [commercialized (e.g. galanthamine) or not (e.g. narciclasine)] is limited by low concentration in nature, lack of cultivation or geographic access, seasonal production and risk of overharvesting wild plant species. Nevertheless, most commercial PIAs are still extracted from plant sources. Efforts to improve the production of PIA have largely been impaired by the lack of knowledge on PIA metabolism. With the development and integration of next-generation sequencing technologies, high-throughput proteomics and metabolomics analyses and bioinformatics, systems biology was used to unravel metabolic pathways allowing the use of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches to increase production of valuable PIAs. Metabolic engineering provides opportunity to overcome issues related to restricted availability, diversification and productivity of plant alkaloids. Engineered plant, plant cells and microbial cell cultures can act as biofactories by offering their metabolic machinery for the purpose of optimizing the conditions and increasing the productivity of a specific alkaloid. In this article, is presented an update on the production of PIA in engineered plant, plant cell cultures and heterologous micro-organisms. PMID:26503307

  14. A novel concept of dielectrophoretic engine oil filter.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yueyang; Elele, Ezinwa; Khusid, Boris

    2011-09-01

    A novel concept of an alternating current (AC) dielectrophoretic filter with a three-dimensional electrode array is presented. A filter is constructed by winding into layers around the core tube two sheets of woven metal wire-mesh with several sheets of woven insulating wire-mesh sandwiched in between. Contrary to conventional dielectrophoretic devices, the proposed design of electrodes generates a high-gradient field over a large working volume by applying several hundred volts at a standard frequency of 60 Hz. The operating principle of filtration is based on our recently developed method of AC dielectrophoretic gating for microfluidics. The filtration efficiency is expressed in terms of two non-dimensional parameters, which describe the combined influence of the particle polarizability and size, the oil viscosity and flow rate, and the field gradient on the particle captivity. The proof-of-concept is tested by measuring the single-pass performance of two filters on positively polarized particles dispersed in engine oil: spherical glass beads, fused aluminum oxide powder, and silicon metal powder, all smaller than the mesh opening. The results obtained are used to consider the potential of using AC dielectrophoretic filtration and provide critical design guidelines for the development of a filter based on the retention capability of challenge particles. PMID:21853447

  15. A novel concept of dielectrophoretic engine oil filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusid, Boris; Shen, Yueyang; Elele, Ezinwa

    2011-11-01

    A novel concept of an alternating current (AC) dielectrophoretic filter with a three-dimensional electrode array is presented. A filter is constructed by winding into layers around the core tube two sheets of woven metal wire-mesh with several sheets of woven insulating wire-mesh sandwiched in between. Contrary to conventional dielectrophoretic devices, the proposed design of electrodes generates a high-gradient field over a large working volume by applying several hundred volts at a standard frequency of 60 Hz. The operating principle of filtration is based on our recently developed method of AC dielectrophoretic gating for microfluidics. The filtration efficiency is expressed in terms of two non-dimensional parameters which describe the combined influence of the particle polarizability and size, the oil viscosity and flow rate, and the field gradient on the particle captivity. The proof-of-concept is tested by measuring the single-pass performance of two filters on positively polarized particles dispersed in engine oil: spherical glass beads, fused aluminum oxide powder, and silicon metal powder, all smaller than the mesh opening. The results obtained provide critical design guidelines for the development of a filter based on the retention capability of challenge particles. The work was supported in part by ONR and NSF.

  16. Towards engineering carboxysomes into C3 plants.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Maureen R; Lin, Myat T; Carmo-Silva, A Elizabete; Parry, Martin A J

    2016-07-01

    Photosynthesis in C3 plants is limited by features of the carbon-fixing enzyme Rubisco, which exhibits a low turnover rate and can react with O2 instead of CO2 , leading to photorespiration. In cyanobacteria, bacterial microcompartments, known as carboxysomes, improve the efficiency of photosynthesis by concentrating CO2 near the enzyme Rubisco. Cyanobacterial Rubisco enzymes are faster than those of C3 plants, though they have lower specificity toward CO2 than the land plant enzyme. Replacement of land plant Rubisco by faster bacterial variants with lower CO2 specificity will improve photosynthesis only if a microcompartment capable of concentrating CO2 can also be installed into the chloroplast. We review current information about cyanobacterial microcompartments and carbon-concentrating mechanisms, plant transformation strategies, replacement of Rubisco in a model C3 plant with cyanobacterial Rubisco and progress toward synthesizing a carboxysome in chloroplasts. PMID:26867858

  17. Comparison of diesel engine performance and emissions from neat and transesterified vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, S.M.; Jacobus, M.J.; Lestz, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    A single-cylinder, 0.36 L, D1 diesel engine was operated on a certified No. 2 diesel fuel, cottonseed oil, sunflowerseed oil, methyl ester of cottonseed oil, and methyl ester of sunflowerseed oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a comparison of performance and emission data when operating on net vegetable oils, transesterified vegetable oils, and diesel fuel. Results comparing the various vegetable oil fuels with No. 2 diesel fuel generally show slight improvements in thermal efficiency and higher exhaust gas temperatures when operating on vegetable oils; equal or higher gas-phase emissions with vegetable oils; lower indicated specific revertant emissions with vegetable oils; and significantly higher aldehyde emissions, including an increased percentage of formaldehyde. (Refs. 14).

  18. EssOilDB: a database of essential oils reflecting terpene composition and variability in the plant kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Sangita; Pundhir, Sachin; Priya, Piyush; Jeena, Ganga; Punetha, Ankita; Chawla, Konika; Firdos Jafaree, Zohra; Mondal, Subhasish; Yadav, Gitanjali

    2014-01-01

    Plant essential oils are complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds, which play indispensable roles in the environment, for the plant itself, as well as for humans. The potential biological information stored in essential oil composition data can provide an insight into the silent language of plants, and the roles of these chemical emissions in defense, communication and pollinator attraction. In order to decipher volatile profile patterns from a global perspective, we have developed the ESSential OIL DataBase (EssOilDB), a continually updated, freely available electronic database designed to provide knowledge resource for plant essential oils, that enables one to address a multitude of queries on volatile profiles of native, invasive, normal or stressed plants, across taxonomic clades, geographical locations and several other biotic and abiotic influences. To our knowledge, EssOilDB is the only database in the public domain providing an opportunity for context based scientific research on volatile patterns in plants. EssOilDB presently contains 123 041 essential oil records spanning a century of published reports on volatile profiles, with data from 92 plant taxonomic families, spread across diverse geographical locations all over the globe. We hope that this huge repository of VOCs will facilitate unraveling of the true significance of volatiles in plants, along with creating potential avenues for industrial applications of essential oils. We also illustrate the use of this database in terpene biology and show how EssOilDB can be used to complement data from computational genomics to gain insights into the diversity and variability of terpenoids in the plant kingdom. EssOilDB would serve as a valuable information resource, for students and researchers in plant biology, in the design and discovery of new odor profiles, as well as for entrepreneurs—the potential for generating consumer specific scents being one of the most attractive and interesting topics

  19. EssOilDB: a database of essential oils reflecting terpene composition and variability in the plant kingdom.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sangita; Pundhir, Sachin; Priya, Piyush; Jeena, Ganga; Punetha, Ankita; Chawla, Konika; Firdos Jafaree, Zohra; Mondal, Subhasish; Yadav, Gitanjali

    2014-01-01

    Plant essential oils are complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds, which play indispensable roles in the environment, for the plant itself, as well as for humans. The potential biological information stored in essential oil composition data can provide an insight into the silent language of plants, and the roles of these chemical emissions in defense, communication and pollinator attraction. In order to decipher volatile profile patterns from a global perspective, we have developed the ESSential OIL DataBase (EssOilDB), a continually updated, freely available electronic database designed to provide knowledge resource for plant essential oils, that enables one to address a multitude of queries on volatile profiles of native, invasive, normal or stressed plants, across taxonomic clades, geographical locations and several other biotic and abiotic influences. To our knowledge, EssOilDB is the only database in the public domain providing an opportunity for context based scientific research on volatile patterns in plants. EssOilDB presently contains 123 041 essential oil records spanning a century of published reports on volatile profiles, with data from 92 plant taxonomic families, spread across diverse geographical locations all over the globe. We hope that this huge repository of VOCs will facilitate unraveling of the true significance of volatiles in plants, along with creating potential avenues for industrial applications of essential oils. We also illustrate the use of this database in terpene biology and show how EssOilDB can be used to complement data from computational genomics to gain insights into the diversity and variability of terpenoids in the plant kingdom. EssOilDB would serve as a valuable information resource, for students and researchers in plant biology, in the design and discovery of new odor profiles, as well as for entrepreneurs--the potential for generating consumer specific scents being one of the most attractive and interesting topics

  20. Design and preparation of plant oil-based polymers and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byung-Jun Kollbe

    Renewable materials are desirable for many applications due to the finite fossil resources and environmental issues. Plant oil is one of the most promising renewable feedstocks. Plant oils and functionalized oleo-chemicals including functionalized soybean oils have become attractive sustainable chemicals for industrial applications. Especially, epoxidized oleo-chemicals such as epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) are one of the most well-known readily available inexpensive functionalized plant oils. In this study, novel polymers and nanocomposites for sustainable materials applications were designed and prepared via ring-opening of epoxide in plant oils, and their chemical and physical properties were characterized. The novel transparent elastomers derived from functionalized plant oils have a great potential as flexible electronic and biological applications with their inherent low toxicity. Especially, their rheological properties showed a potential for pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs). The dominant thermal stability and transparency were obtained via green processing: one pot, single step, fast reactions in moderate conditions, or solvent-free UV curing conditions. These oleo-based elastomers presented excellent end-use properties for PSAs application comparable to commercial PSA tapes. Based on the principal chemical studies, the roles of the each component have been identified: polymer derived from the ring-opening of epoxides as an elastomer, and dihydroxylated triglycerides as a tackifier. Their interaction was also elucidated with an element label analysis. The mechanical and rheological properties of the oleo-polymer as PSAs were able to be improved with a rosin ester tackifier. In addition, biogreases and bio-thermoplastics were developed via the environmentally benign process, which will contribute to further application on the production of new bio-based materials. Further, this study essays a novel acid functionalized iron/iron oxide nanoparticles catalyst

  1. Chemical plants: high-value molecules from essential oils.

    PubMed

    Lummiss, Justin A M; Oliveira, Kelley C; Pranckevicius, Alexandre M T; Santos, Alexandra G; dos Santos, Eduardo N; Fogg, Deryn E

    2012-11-21

    As society faces a future of dwindling petrochemical supplies at increasing cost, much attention has been focused on methods to degrade biomass into renewable commodity-chemical building blocks. Reported here is a powerful complementary approach that amplifies the complexity of molecular structures present in plant materials. Essential-oil phenylpropenoids are transformed via acrylate cross-metathesis into potent antioxidants that are widely used in perfumery and cosmetics, and in treating disorders associated with oxidative damage. PMID:23126387

  2. Plants as ecosystem engineers in subsurface-flow treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Tanner, C C

    2001-01-01

    Mass balance performance data from side by side studies of planted and unplanted gravel-bed treatment wetlands with horizontal subsurface-flow are compared. Planted systems showed enhanced nitrogen and initial phosphorus removal, but only small improvements in disinfection, BOD, COD and suspended solids removal. Direct nutrient uptake by plants was insufficient to account for more than a fraction of the improved removal shown by planted systems. Roles of plants as ecosystem engineers are summarised, with organic matter production and root-zone oxygen release identified as key factors influencing nutrient transformation and sequestration. PMID:11804163

  3. Manufacturing vegetable oil based biodiesel: An engineering management perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According to the USDA, 6.45 million tons of cottonseed was produced in 2007. Each ton will yield approximately 44 to 46 gallons unrefined oil. Cottonseed oil bio-diesel could have the potential to create a more competitive oil market for oil mills. The proposed cost model is based on an existing cot...

  4. Engineering system co-design with limited plant redesign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, James T.

    2014-02-01

    Rather than designing engineering systems from the ground up, engineers often redesign strategic portions of existing systems to accommodate emerging needs. In the redesign of mechatronic systems, engineers typically seek to meet the requirements of a new application via control redesign only, but this is often insufficient and physical system (plant) design changes must be explored. Here, an integrated approach is presented for the redesign of mechatronic systems involving partial plant redesign that avoids costly complete redesign. Candidate plant modifications are identified using sensitivity analysis, and then an optimization problem is solved that minimizes redesign cost while satisfying system requirements. This formal methodology for Plant-Limited Co-Design (PLCD) is demonstrated using a robotic manipulator design problem. The PLCD result costs significantly less than the full redesign, and parametric studies illustrate the tradeoff between redesign cost and performance. It is shown that the proposed sensitivity analysis results in the lowest cost limited redesign.

  5. Modelling of an oil refinery wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Pinzón Pardo, A L; Brdjanovic, D; Moussa, M S; López-Vázquez, C M; Meijer, S C F; Van Straten, H H A; Janssen, A J H; Amy, G; Van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2007-11-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) and Dutch calibration guidelines (STOWA) were evaluated in the modelling of an activated sludge system treating effluents from a large oil refinery. The plant was designed to remove suspended solids, organic matter and nitrogen from wastewater at an average water temperature of 34 degrees C. The plant consists of three tanks in series; the first two tanks operate in on-off aeration mode with pure oxygen for N-removal, whilst extra methanol is added for the denitrification, and the third tank is maintained as constantly aerobic. Calibration was performed based on a simplified influent characterisation and extra batch experiments (nitrification and denitrification). With the adjustment of only four parameters the model proved capable of describing the performance of the plant concerning both the liquid phase and the biomass. The model was further used to analyse possible modifications in the plant layout and optimize operational conditions in order to reduce operating costs. Modelling results indicated reduction in methanol dosage by implementing an idle time between aerobic and anoxic phases. In this way, surplus methanol was prevented from entering during the aerobic period. Moreover, simulations showed that the most cost-effective option regarding the denitrification process was a combined pre-post-denitrification scheme, without the need for enlarging existing basins. It can be concluded that although ASM3 and STOWA guidelines were originally developed for domestic wastewater application at a temperature range of 10 to 20 degrees C, they proved well capable of describing the performance of an oil refinery wastewater treatment plant operating at 34 degrees C. Moreover, the plant model proved useful for optimization of the plant performance regarding operational costs. PMID:18290537

  6. Effects of diets with fish meal and oil replaced with plant production on spawning in Rainbow Trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the effects of plant protein and oils on spawning rainbow trout an experiment was set up to examine 3 distinct families fed the following diets: 1) fish meal and fish oil; 2) plant meal and fish oil; 3) plant meal and plant oil. The fish were fed the diets for one year through spawning....

  7. Lubrication System 1. Check and Change the Engine Oil. Student Manual. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual on checking and changing the engine oil is the second of three in an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped students. The stated purpose for the booklet is to help students learn what tools and equipment to use and all the steps of the job. Informative material and…

  8. Metabolic engineering of essential oil yield and composition in mint by altering expression of deoxyxylulose phosphate reductoisomerase and menthofuran synthase

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Soheil S.; Croteau, Rodney B.

    2001-01-01

    Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) was independently transformed with a homologous sense version of the 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase cDNA and with a homologous antisense version of the menthofuran synthase cDNA, both driven by the CaMV 35S promoter. Two groups of transgenic plants were regenerated in the reductoisomerase experiments, one of which remained normal in appearance and development; another was deficient in chlorophyll production and grew slowly. Transgenic plants of normal appearance and growth habit expressed the reductoisomerase transgene strongly and constitutively, as determined by RNA blot analysis and direct enzyme assay, and these plants accumulated substantially more essential oil (about 50% yield increase) without change in monoterpene composition compared with wild-type. Chlorophyll-deficient plants did not afford detectable reductoisomerase mRNA or enzyme activity and yielded less essential oil than did wild-type plants, indicating cosuppression of the reductoisomerase gene. Plants transformed with the antisense version of the menthofuran synthase cDNA were normal in appearance but produced less than half of this undesirable monoterpene oil component than did wild-type mint grown under unstressed or stressed conditions. These experiments demonstrate that essential oil quantity and quality can be regulated by metabolic engineering. Thus, alteration of the committed step of the mevalonate-independent pathway for supply of terpenoid precursors improves flux through the pathway that leads to increased monoterpene production, and antisense manipulation of a selected downstream monoterpene biosynthetic step leads to improved oil composition. PMID:11427737

  9. Compression-ignition engine performance with undoped and doped fuel oils and alcohol mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Charles S; Foster, Hampton H

    1939-01-01

    Several fuel oils, doped fuel oils, and mixtures of alcohol and fuel oil were tested in a high-speed, single-cylinder, compression-ignition engine to determine power output, fuel consumption, and ignition and combustion characteristics. Fuel oils or doped fuel oils of high octane number had shorter ignition lags, lower rates of pressure rise, and gave smoother engine operation than fuel oils or doped fuel oils of low octane number. Higher engine rotative speeds and boost pressures resulted in smoother engine operation and permitted the use of fuel oils of relatively low octane number. Although the addition of a dope to a fuel oil decreased the ignition lag and the rate of pressure rise, the ensuing rate of combustion was somewhat slower than for the undoped fuel oil so that the effectiveness of combustion was practically unchanged. Alcohol used as an auxiliary fuel, either as a mixture or by separate injection, increased the rates of pressure rise and induced roughness. In general, the power output decreased as the proportion of alcohol increased and, below maximum power, varied with the heating value of the total fuel charge.

  10. PHYTOREMEDIATION: INTEGRATING ART AND ENGINEERING THROUGH PLANTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landscape Architecture and Remediation Engineering are related fields, united by common areas of endeavor, yet they have strikingly different languages, techniques, and habits of thought. What unites the fields is the fact that they often work on the same site, with the common go...

  11. Failure Analysis and Regeneration Performances Evaluation on Engine Lubricating Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. L.; Zhang, G. N.; Zhang, J. Y.; Yin, Y. L.; Xu, Y.

    To investigate the behavior of failure and recycling of lubricating oils, three sorts of typical 10w-40 lubricating oils used in heavy-load vehicle including the new oil, waste oil and regeneration oil regenerated by self-researched green regeneration technology were selected. The tribology properties were tested by four-ball friction wear tester as well. The results indicated that the performance of anti-extreme pressure of regeneration oil increase by 34.1% compared with the waste one and its load- carrying ability is close to the new oil; the feature of wear spot are better than those of the waste oil and frictional coefficient almost reach the level of the new oil's. As a result, the performance of anti-wear and friction reducing are getting better obviously.

  12. A new nano-engineered hierarchical membrane for concurrent removal of surfactant and oil from oil-in-water nanoemulsion

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Detao; Liu, Zhaoyang; Bai, Hongwei; Sun, Darren Delai; Song, Xiaoxiao

    2016-01-01

    Surfactant stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsions pose a severe threat to both the environment and human health. Recent development of membrane filtration technology has enabled efficient oil removal from oil/water nanoemulsion, however, the concurrent removal of surfactant and oil remains unsolved because the existing filtration membranes still suffer from low surfactant removal rate and serious surfactant-induced fouling issue. In this study, to realize the concurrent removal of surfactant and oil from nanoemulsion, a novel hierarchically-structured membrane is designed with a nanostructured selective layer on top of a microstructured support layer. The physical and chemical properties of the overall membrane, including wettability, surface roughness, electric charge, thickness and structures, are delicately tailored through a nano-engineered fabrication process, that is, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet assisted phase inversion coupled with surface functionalization. Compared with the membrane fabricated by conventional phase inversion, this novel membrane has four times higher water flux, significantly higher rejections of both oil (~99.9%) and surfactant (as high as 93.5%), and two thirds lower fouling ratio when treating surfactant stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsion. Due to its excellent performances and facile fabrication process, this nano-engineered membrane is expected to have wide practical applications in the oil/water separation fields of environmental protection and water purification. PMID:27087362

  13. A new nano-engineered hierarchical membrane for concurrent removal of surfactant and oil from oil-in-water nanoemulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Detao; Liu, Zhaoyang; Bai, Hongwei; Sun, Darren Delai; Song, Xiaoxiao

    2016-04-01

    Surfactant stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsions pose a severe threat to both the environment and human health. Recent development of membrane filtration technology has enabled efficient oil removal from oil/water nanoemulsion, however, the concurrent removal of surfactant and oil remains unsolved because the existing filtration membranes still suffer from low surfactant removal rate and serious surfactant-induced fouling issue. In this study, to realize the concurrent removal of surfactant and oil from nanoemulsion, a novel hierarchically-structured membrane is designed with a nanostructured selective layer on top of a microstructured support layer. The physical and chemical properties of the overall membrane, including wettability, surface roughness, electric charge, thickness and structures, are delicately tailored through a nano-engineered fabrication process, that is, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet assisted phase inversion coupled with surface functionalization. Compared with the membrane fabricated by conventional phase inversion, this novel membrane has four times higher water flux, significantly higher rejections of both oil (~99.9%) and surfactant (as high as 93.5%), and two thirds lower fouling ratio when treating surfactant stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsion. Due to its excellent performances and facile fabrication process, this nano-engineered membrane is expected to have wide practical applications in the oil/water separation fields of environmental protection and water purification.

  14. A new nano-engineered hierarchical membrane for concurrent removal of surfactant and oil from oil-in-water nanoemulsion.

    PubMed

    Qin, Detao; Liu, Zhaoyang; Bai, Hongwei; Sun, Darren Delai; Song, Xiaoxiao

    2016-01-01

    Surfactant stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsions pose a severe threat to both the environment and human health. Recent development of membrane filtration technology has enabled efficient oil removal from oil/water nanoemulsion, however, the concurrent removal of surfactant and oil remains unsolved because the existing filtration membranes still suffer from low surfactant removal rate and serious surfactant-induced fouling issue. In this study, to realize the concurrent removal of surfactant and oil from nanoemulsion, a novel hierarchically-structured membrane is designed with a nanostructured selective layer on top of a microstructured support layer. The physical and chemical properties of the overall membrane, including wettability, surface roughness, electric charge, thickness and structures, are delicately tailored through a nano-engineered fabrication process, that is, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet assisted phase inversion coupled with surface functionalization. Compared with the membrane fabricated by conventional phase inversion, this novel membrane has four times higher water flux, significantly higher rejections of both oil (~99.9%) and surfactant (as high as 93.5%), and two thirds lower fouling ratio when treating surfactant stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsion. Due to its excellent performances and facile fabrication process, this nano-engineered membrane is expected to have wide practical applications in the oil/water separation fields of environmental protection and water purification. PMID:27087362

  15. Improving magnetic properties of MgB2 bulk superconductors by synthetic engine oil treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylan Koparan, E.; Savaskan, B.; Yanmaz, E.

    2016-08-01

    The present study focuses on the effects of standby time of the MgB2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil on the critical current density (Jc(H)), magnetic field dependence of the pinning force density fp(b) and Tc performances of MgB2 bulk superconductors. Synthetic engine oil was used as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source. Manufactured MgB2 pellet samples were immersed at different standby time of 30 min, 120 min, 300 min and 1440 min in synthetic engine oil after the first heating process. Finally, MgB2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil were sintered at 1000 °C and kept for 15 min in Ar atmosphere. The critical current density of all of MgB2 samples immersed at different standby time in engine oil in whole field range was better than that of the pure MgB2 sample because of the number of the pinning centers. The MgB2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in synthetic engine oil has the best performance compared to other samples. The Jc value for the pure sample is 2.0 × 103 A/cm2, whereas for the MgB2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in engine oil the Jc is enhanced to 4.8 × 103A/cm2 at 5 K and 3 T. The superconducting transition temperature (Tc) did not change with the increasing standby time of the samples in synthetic engine oil at all. The best diamagnetic property was obtained from the sample which kept in synthetic engine oil for 300 min. Synthetic engine oil treatment results in remarkable improvement of the critical current density and pinning force performances of MgB2 superconductors. It was found that all MgB2 samples have a different pinning property at different measuring temperatures. Using synthetic engine oil as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source in MgB2 bulk superconductors makes MgB2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil a good candidate for industrial applications.

  16. Prospects for Genetic Engineering in Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetically modified plants now constitute a significant portion of the worlds agricultural output. Genetically modified corn, soybean, canola, rice, and cotton are being adopted by growers in both industrialized and developing nations at an increasing rate. The most popular products have been eng...

  17. EVALUATION OF PLANT ESSENTIAL OILS AS NATURAL POSTHARVEST DISEASE CONTROL OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Essential oils with fungicidal activities were identified in vitro; these were oregano, thyme, lemongrass, and cilantro. Essential oil components in those plants with antimicrobial activity were carvacrol, thymol, citral, and trans-2-decenal, respectively. Vapors of thyme, oregano and lemongrass, ...

  18. Detection of plant oil DNA using high resolution melting (HRM) post PCR analysis: a tool for disclosure of olive oil adulteration.

    PubMed

    Vietina, Michelangelo; Agrimonti, Caterina; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-12-15

    Extra virgin olive oil is frequently subjected to adulterations with addition of oils obtained from plants other than olive. DNA analysis is a fast and economic tool to identify plant components in oils. Extraction and amplification of DNA by PCR was tested in olives, in milled seeds and in oils, to investigate its use in olive oil traceability. DNA was extracted from different oils made of hazelnut, maize, sunflower, peanut, sesame, soybean, rice and pumpkin. Comparing the DNA melting profiles in reference plant materials and in the oils, it was possible to identify any plant components in oils and mixtures of oils. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) platform has been added of the new methodology of high resolution melting (HRM), both were used to analyse olive oils mixed with different percentage of other oils. Results showed HRM a cost effective method for efficient detection of adulterations in olive oils. PMID:23993554

  19. The challenges of cellular compartmentalization in plant metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Heinig, Uwe; Gutensohn, Michael; Dudareva, Natalia; Aharoni, Asaph

    2013-04-01

    The complex metabolic networks in plants are highly compartmentalized and biochemical steps of a single pathway can take place in multiple subcellular locations. Our knowledge regarding reactions and precursor compounds in the various cellular compartments has increased in recent years due to innovations in tracking the spatial distribution of proteins and metabolites. Nevertheless, to date only few studies have integrated subcellular localization criteria in metabolic engineering attempts. Here, we highlight the crucial factors for subcellular-localization-based strategies in plant metabolic engineering including substrate availability, enzyme targeting, the role of transporters, and multigene transfer approaches. The availability of compartmentalized metabolic network models for plants in the near future will greatly advance the integration of localization constraints in metabolic engineering experiments and aid in predicting their outcomes. PMID:23246154

  20. Metabolic engineering of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway into transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-López, Noemi; Sayanova, Olga; Napier, Johnathan A; Haslam, Richard P

    2012-04-01

    Omega-3 (ω-3) very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 Δ5,8,11,14,17) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 Δ4,7,10,13,16,19) have been shown to have significant roles in human health. Currently the primary dietary source of these fatty acids are marine fish; however, the increasing demand for fish and fish oil (in particular the expansion of the aquaculture industry) is placing enormous pressure on diminishing marine stocks. Such overfishing and concerns related to pollution in the marine environment have directed research towards the development of a viable alternative sustainable source of VLC-PUFAs. As a result, the last decade has seen many genes encoding the primary VLC-PUFA biosynthetic activities identified and characterized. This has allowed the reconstitution of the VLC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway in oilseed crops, producing transgenic plants engineered to accumulate ω-3 VLC-PUFAs at levels approaching those found in native marine organisms. Moreover, as a result of these engineering activities, knowledge of the fundamental processes surrounding acyl exchange and lipid remodelling has progressed. The application of new technologies, for example lipidomics and next-generation sequencing, is providing a better understanding of seed oil biosynthesis and opportunities for increasing the production of unusual fatty acids. Certainly, it is now possible to modify the composition of plant oils successfully, and, in this review, the most recent developments in this field and the challenges of producing VLC-PUFAs in the seed oil of higher plants will be described. PMID:22291131

  1. Engineering Microbes for Plant Polyketide Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lussier, François-Xavier; Colatriano, David; Wiltshire, Zach; Page, Jonathan E.; Martin, Vincent J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Polyketides are an important group of secondary metabolites, many of which have important industrial applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Polyketides are synthesized from one of three classes of enzymes differentiated by their biochemical features and product structure: type I, type II or type III polyketide synthases (PKSs). Plant type III PKS enzymes, which will be the main focus of this review, are relatively small homodimeric proteins that catalyze iterative decarboxylative condensations of malonyl units with a CoA-linked starter molecule. This review will describe the plant type III polyketide synthetic pathway, including the synthesis of chalcones, stilbenes and curcuminoids, as well as recent work on the synthesis of these polyketides in heterologous organisms. The limitations and bottlenecks of heterologous expression as well as attempts at creating diversity through the synthesis of novel “unnatural” polyketides using type III PKSs will also be discussed. Although synthetic production of plant polyketides is still in its infancy, their potential as useful bioactive compounds makes them an extremely interesting area of study. PMID:24688680

  2. First results with Mercedes-Benz DI diesel engines running on monoesters of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Ventura, L.M.; Nascimento, A.C.; Bandel, W.

    1982-01-01

    In their pure form the vegetable oils are not suitable for the use in modern DI diesel engines, due to the excessive carbon deposit on the injection nozzles and in the combustion chamber. Nevertheless, these oils are promising candidates as raw materials for alternative diesel fuels. Processes are being developed to transform the long vegetable oil molecules into smaller molecules in order to fulfill the fuel requirements of DI diesel engines. Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids e.g. obtained by transesterification of vegetable oils through their catalytic reaction with methanol and ethanol, have shown a typical diesel fuel behaviour in conventional DI engines without excessive deposit formation. Problems concerning lubricating oil contamiation, and possibile remedial measures to avoid it, are being examined. There are also problems to be solved in relation to white smoke formation and the odor of exhaust gases. 10 figures.

  3. Headspace analysis of engine oil by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Levermore, D M; Josowicz, M; Rees, W S; Janata, J

    2001-03-15

    This study establishes the rationale necessary for determining the time to change engine oil. This is based on identifying gaseous components in new and used automobile lubricants. Key compounds, so-called "signature", are separated and identified qualitatively by coupled gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Volatile antioxidants at zero miles and fuel contaminants at low mileage are observed in the headspace of engine oil. Several oxidative degradation components have been positively identified in the used oil, which include the following: acetaldehyde, acetone, butanal, 2-propanol, acetic acid, 2-hexanol, benzoic acid, benzaldehyde, and 1-pentanol. This study strongly suggests that the status of lubricating oil can be determined by the analysis of the gas phase above the oil. Most importantly, it opens the possibility of performing conditional maintenance of the combustion engine based on information obtained from gas sensors. PMID:11305675

  4. Experimental investigation of the physical properties of medium and heavy oils, their vaporization and use in explosion engines. Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinlein, Fritz

    1926-01-01

    While little has been accomplished in obtaining an abundant supply of light oils from coal and heavy oils, progress has been made on engine design to make use of the heavier oils. Progress has been made in two different directions which are outlined in this paper: the group of engines with medium and high-pressure carburetion in the cylinder; and the group of engines with low-pressure carburetion of the heavy oils before reaching the cylinder.

  5. On-line optimal NGL recovery in lean oil plants

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, P.N.; Papadopoulos, M.N. ); Gamez, J.P. )

    1993-04-01

    On-line, adaptive multivariable control (MVC) has been used to provide cost-effective solutions for optimal control of continuous processes. Such an approach has been implemented successfully in worldscale heavy chemical plants during the past four years. More recently, similar successful applications have been implemented in a gas processing facility involving the separation of CO[sub 2] from ethane, and in gas treating, fractionation and NGL recovery by cryogenic and refrigerated lean oil processes. This paper describes these two applications and results from the field testing in the Wyoming and Texas facilities.

  6. Retention Indices for Frequently Reported Compounds of Plant Essential Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babushok, V. I.; Linstrom, P. J.; Zenkevich, I. G.

    2011-12-01

    Gas chromatographic retention indices were evaluated for 505 frequently reported plant essential oil components using a large retention index database. Retention data are presented for three types of commonly used stationary phases: dimethyl silicone (nonpolar), dimethyl silicone with 5% phenyl groups (slightly polar), and polyethylene glycol (polar) stationary phases. The evaluations are based on the treatment of multiple measurements with the number of data records ranging from about 5 to 800 per compound. Data analysis was limited to temperature programmed conditions. The data reported include the average and median values of retention index with standard deviations and confidence intervals.

  7. Repellent effect of plant essential oils against Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pin; Ma, Yajun

    2005-12-01

    Six essential oils: asteraceae oil, rutaceae oil, mentha piperta oil, carvacryl oil, citronella oil, and eucalyptus oil were tested for evaluation of their repellent effects against Aedes albopictus mosquitoes under laboratory conditions. Only citronella oil and eucalyptus oil were tested with human beings. There was considerable protection for mice. Carvacryl oil (7%) provided 100% protection for mice after 7 h. Eucalyptus oil (15%) gave protection to humans for least 3 h; the protection time was prolonged to 5 h after adding 5% vanillin. The mixture could be developed into a practical product after the field evaluation. PMID:16599157

  8. Oil is on the agenda: Lipid turnover in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Amélie A; Feussner, Ivo

    2016-09-01

    Lipases hydrolyze ester bonds within lipids. This process is called lipolysis. They are key players in lipid turnover and involved in numerous metabolic pathways, many of which are shared between organisms like the mobilization of neutral or storage lipids or lipase-mediated membrane lipid homeostasis. Some reactions though are predominantly present in certain organisms, such as the production of signaling molecules (endocannabinoids) by diacylglycerol (DAG) and monoacylglycerol (MAG) lipases in mammals and plants or the jasmonate production in flowering plants. This review aims at giving an overview of the different functional classes of lipases and respective well-known activities, with a focus on the most recent findings in plant biology for selected classes. Here we will put an emphasis on the physiological role and contribution of lipases to the turnover of neutral lipids found in seed oil and other vegetative tissue as candidates for increasing the economical values of crop plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. PMID:27155216

  9. An engineered plant peroxisome and its application in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kessel-Vigelius, Sarah K; Wiese, Jan; Schroers, Martin G; Wrobel, Thomas J; Hahn, Florian; Linka, Nicole

    2013-09-01

    Plant metabolic engineering is a promising tool for biotechnological applications. Major goals include enhancing plant fitness for an increased product yield and improving or introducing novel pathways to synthesize industrially relevant products. Plant peroxisomes are favorable targets for metabolic engineering, because they are involved in diverse functions, including primary and secondary metabolism, development, abiotic stress response, and pathogen defense. This review discusses targets for manipulating endogenous peroxisomal pathways, such as fatty acid β-oxidation, or introducing novel pathways, such as the synthesis of biodegradable polymers. Furthermore, strategies to bypass peroxisomal pathways for improved energy efficiency and detoxification of environmental pollutants are discussed. In sum, we highlight the biotechnological potential of plant peroxisomes and indicate future perspectives to exploit peroxisomes as biofactories. PMID:23849130

  10. Metabolic engineering with plants for a sustainable biobased economy.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong Moon; Zhao, Le; Shanks, Jacqueline V

    2013-01-01

    Plants are bona fide sustainable organisms because they accumulate carbon and synthesize beneficial metabolites from photosynthesis. To meet the challenges to food security and health threatened by increasing population growth and depletion of nonrenewable natural resources, recent metabolic engineering efforts have shifted from single pathways to holistic approaches with multiple genes owing to integration of omics technologies. Successful engineering of plants results in the high yield of biomass components for primary food sources and biofuel feedstocks, pharmaceuticals, and platform chemicals through synthetic biology and systems biology strategies. Further discovery of undefined biosynthesis pathways in plants, integrative analysis of discrete omics data, and diversified process developments for production of platform chemicals are essential to overcome the hurdles for sustainable production of value-added biomolecules from plants. PMID:23540288

  11. Requirements of diesel engine oil as it relates to low temperature operation

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, R.J.G. )

    1989-01-01

    The performance requirements of heavy duty engine oils designed for equipment operating at ambient temperatures of less than -25{degrees}C are discussed. Experience has shown that the use of properly formulated, partially synthetic SAE 5W20 arctic oils can lead to improved startability and actually increase equipment life and engine durability. A further benefit may be realized through an increase in fuel economy over that of heavier oils. Better performance may be obtained through the use of partially synthetic SAE OW30 arctic oils which are useful over a wider temperature range and allow operation of equipment at ambient temperature consistently below -40{degrees}C. Recommendations by various engine manufacturers and the US military regarding low temperature operation of diesel engines are reviewed.

  12. Utilization of sunflower seed oil as a renewable fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Bruwer, J.J.; van der Boshoff, B.; Hugo, F.J.C.; Fuls, J.; Hawkins, C.; van der Walt, A.N.; Engelbrecht, A.; du Plessis, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Research, using several makes of diesel engine, showed that sunflower seed oil, and particularly an ethyl ester mixture, has the potential to extend diesel fuel provided solutions are found for injector coking problems. (MHR)

  13. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  14. Engineered Barriers in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ghose, Shankar

    2002-07-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a deep geological repository being developed by the Department of Energy as a research and disposal facility in the bedded salt deposit of New Mexico. WIPP is essentially an underground salt mine at 2150 feet (655 meters) below the surface and operates on multiple barrier mechanism. Engineered barriers provide an additional protective measure to prevent the movement of fluid towards the accessible environment. Four types of engineered barriers are used in the WIPP disposal system. This paper presents an analysis of the effectiveness of the engineered barriers in various repository environments. (authors)

  15. Valorization of essential oils from Moroccan aromatic plants.

    PubMed

    Santana, Omar; Fe Andrés, Maria; Sanz, Jesús; Errahmani, Naima; Abdeslam, Lamiri; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2014-08-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of cultivated and wild medicinal and aromatic plants from Morocco (Artemisia herba-alba, Lippia citriodora, Mentha pulegium, M. spicata, Myrtus communis, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Thymus satureioides) are described. The essential oils (EOs) of these species have been analyzed by GC-MS. The antifeedant, nematicidal and phytotoxic activities of the EOs were tested on insect pests (Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi), root-knot nematodes (Meloydogine javanica) and plants (Lactuca sativa, Lolium perenne and Lycopersicum esculentum). EOs from A. herba-alba, M. pulegium and R. officinalis were strong antifeedants against S. littoralis, M. persicae and R. padi. EOs from L. citriodora, M. spicata and T. satureioides showed high nematicidal activity. These biological effects are explained by the activity of the major EO components and/or synergistic effects. PMID:25233584

  16. Fuel properties and engine performance of biodiesel from waste cooking oil collected in Dhaka city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, R. B.; Islam, R.; Uddin, M. N.; Ehsan, Md.

    2016-07-01

    Waste cooking oil can be a potential source of biodiesel that has least effect on the edible oil consumption. Increasing number of hotel-restaurants and more active monitoring by health authorities have increased the generation of waste cooking oil significantly in densely populated cities like Dhaka. If not used or disposed properly, waste cooking oil itself may generate lot of environmental issues. In this work, waste cooking oils from different restaurants within Dhaka City were collected and some relevant properties of these waste oils were measured. Based on the samples studied one with the highest potential as biodiesel feed was identified and processed for engine performance. Standard trans-esterification process was used to produce biodiesel from the selected waste cooking oil. Biodiesel blends of B20 and B40 category were made and tested on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Engine performance parameters included - bhp, bsfc and exhaust emission for rated and part load conditions. Results give a quantitative assessment of the potential of using biodiesel from waste cooking oil as fuel for diesel engines in Bangladesh.

  17. Ferrographic and spectrographic analysis of oil sampled before and after failure of a jet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental gas turbine engine was destroyed as a result of the combustion of its titanium components. Several engine oil samples (before and after the failure) were analyzed with a Ferrograph as well as plasma, atomic absorption, and emission spectrometers. The analyses indicated that a lubrication system failure was not a causative factor in the engine failure. Neither an abnormal wear mechanism, nor a high level of wear debris was detected in the oil sample from the engine just prior to the test in which the failure occurred. However, low concentrations of titanium were evident in this sample and samples taken earlier. After the failure, higher titanium concentrations were detected in oil samples taken from different engine locations. Ferrographic analysis indicated that most of the titanium was contained in spherical metallic debris after the failure.

  18. Toxicities of Oils, Dispersants and Dispersed Oils to Aquatic Plants: Summary and Database Value to Resource Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the phytotoxicities of crude and dispersed oils is important for near-shore ecosystem management, particularly post-oil spills. One source of information is toxicity data summaries which are scattered and outdated for aquatic plants and petrochemicals. As a resu...

  19. Engineering Plant One-Carbon Metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    David Rhodes

    2005-02-09

    Primary and secondary metabolism intersect in the one-carbon (C1) area. Primary metabolism supplies most of the C1 units and competes with secondary metabolism for their use. This competition is potentially severe because secondary products such as lignin, alkaloids, and glycine betaine (GlyBet) require massive amounts of C1 units. Towards the goal of understanding how C1 metabolism is regulated at the metabolic and gene levels so as to successfully engineer C1 supply to match demand, we have: (1) cloned complete suites of C1 genes from maize and tobacco, and incorporated them into DNA arrays; (2) prepared antisense constructs and mutants engineered with alterations in C1 unit supply and demand; and (3) have quantified the impacts of these alterations on gene expression (using DNA arrays), and on metabolic fluxes (by combining isotope labeling, MS, NMR and computer modeling). Metabolic flux analysis and modeling in tobacco engineered for GlyBet synthesis by expressing choline oxidizing enzymes in either the chloroplast or cytosol, has shown that the choline biosynthesis network is rigid, and tends to resist large changes in C1 demand. A major constraint on engineering enhanced flux to GlyBet in tobacco is a low capacity of choline transport across the chloroplast envelope. Maize and sorghum mutants defective in GlyBet synthesis show greatly reduced flux of C1 units into choline in comparison to GlyBet-accumulating wildtypes, but this is not associated with altered expression of any of the C1 genes. Control of C1 flux to choline in tobacco, maize and sorghum appears to reside primarily at the level of N-methylation of phosphoethanolamine. A candidate signal for the control of this flux is the pool size of phosphocholine which down-regulates and feedback inhibits phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase. Methionine S-methyltransferase (MMT) catalyzes the synthesis of S-methylmethionine (SMM) from methionine (Met) and S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). SMM can be

  20. Synthetic mimicking of plant oils and comparison with naturally grown products in polyurethane synthesis.

    PubMed

    Coles, Stuart R; Barker, Guy; Clark, Andrew J; Kirwan, Kerry; Jacobs, Daniel; Makenji, Kylash; Pink, David

    2008-06-11

    The use of plant oils as industrial feedstocks can often be hampered by their lack of optimization towards a particular process, as well as their development being risky; growing suitable volumes of crops to test can take up to five years. To circumvent this, we aimed to discover a method that would mimic plant oil profiles in the laboratory, and show that they exhibited similar properties to the naturally grown plant oils in a given process. Using the synthesis of polyurethanes as an example, we have synthesized six different polymers and demonstrated that plant oils will produce polymers with similar physical properties to those oils mimicked in the laboratory. The use of this mimicking process can be extended to other types of polymers to obtain a method for predicting the properties of a given material based on the plant oil composition of a crop before it is grown in bulk. PMID:18322912

  1. Combining Wind Plant Control With Systems Engineering (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, P.; Ning, A.; Gebraad, P.; Dykes, K.

    2015-02-01

    This presentation was given at the third Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop in Boulder, Colorado, and focused on wind plant controls research, combined optimization, a case study on the Princess Amalia Wind Park, results from the case study, and future work.

  2. VASCULAR PLANTS AS ENGINEERS OF OXYGEN IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of organisms on oxygen is one of the most dramatic examples of ecosystem engineering on Earth. In aquatic systems, which have much lower oxygen concentrations than the atmosphere, vascular aquatic plants can affect oxygen concentrations significantly not only on long t...

  3. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Yang, Hye Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yoon, Dong June; Sang, Mee Kyung; Jeun, Yong-Chull

    2015-09-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production. PMID:26361475

  4. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Yang, Hye Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yoon, Dong June; Sang, Mee Kyung; Jeun, Yong-Chull

    2015-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production. PMID:26361475

  5. Effect of salt, drought and metal stress on essential oil yield and quality in plants.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Shreyasee; Koul, Monika; Bhatnagar, Ashok Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Essential oil extracted from plants is of high commercial value in medicine, cosmetics and perfumery. Enhancing yield and maintaining the quality of oil is of significant commercial importance. Production of oil in plants is dependent on various biotic and abiotic factors to which the plants are subjected during their growth. Plants are exposed to various degrees of stress on account of natural and human-induced factors. Salinization, drought and presence of heavy metals in the substratum cause substantial effect on the yield and quality of bioactive constituents in the oil. In many plants, the level and kind of stress have detrimental effects on the growth and development. This review provides an account of the studies on some common abiotic stresses to which essential oil plants are exposed during their growth period and their influence on quality and quantity of oil. The yield and quality vary in different plants and so is the response. Enhancing essential oil productivity is an important challenge, and understanding the role played by stress may offer significant advantages to the essential oil farmers and processing industry. Scientific evaluation of the data on many important but unexplored essential oil plants will also help in mitigating, ameliorating and minimizing the harmful effects caused by stress. PMID:22164806

  6. An engineering analysis of a closed cycle plant growth module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickford, G. H., Jr.; Jakob, F. E.; Landstrom, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    The SOLGEM model is a numerical engineering model which solves the flow and energy balance equations for the air flowing through a growing environment, assuming quasi-steady state conditions within the system. SOLGEM provides a dynamic simulation of the controlled environment system in that the temperature and flow conditions of the growing environment are estimated on an hourly basis in response to the weather data and the plant growth parameters. The flow energy balance considers the incident solar flux; incoming air temperature, humidity, and flow rate; heat exchange with the roof and floor; and heat and moisture exchange with the plants. A plant transpiration subroutine was developed based plant growth research facility, intended for the study of bioregenerative life support theories. The results of a performance analysis of the plant growth module are given. The estimated energy requirements of the module components and the total energy are given.

  7. Modulation of Phytoalexin Biosynthesis in Engineered Plants for Disease Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Jeandet, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Courot, Eric; Cordelier, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Phytoalexins are antimicrobial substances of low molecular weight produced by plants in response to infection or stress, which form part of their active defense mechanisms. Starting in the 1950’s, research on phytoalexins has begun with biochemistry and bio-organic chemistry, resulting in the determination of their structure, their biological activity as well as mechanisms of their synthesis and their catabolism by microorganisms. Elucidation of the biosynthesis of numerous phytoalexins has permitted the use of molecular biology tools for the exploration of the genes encoding enzymes of their synthesis pathways and their regulators. Genetic manipulation of phytoalexins has been investigated to increase the disease resistance of plants. The first example of a disease resistance resulting from foreign phytoalexin expression in a novel plant has concerned a phytoalexin from grapevine which was transferred to tobacco. Transformations were then operated to investigate the potential of other phytoalexin biosynthetic genes to confer resistance to pathogens. Unexpectedly, engineering phytoalexins for disease resistance in plants seem to have been limited to exploiting only a few phytoalexin biosynthetic genes, especially those encoding stilbenes and some isoflavonoids. Research has rather focused on indirect approaches which allow modulation of the accumulation of phytoalexin employing transcriptional regulators or components of upstream regulatory pathways. Genetic approaches using gain- or less-of functions in phytoalexin engineering together with modulation of phytoalexin accumulation through molecular engineering of plant hormones and defense-related marker and elicitor genes have been reviewed. PMID:23880860

  8. Two-phase air/oil flow in aero engine bearing chambers: Characterization of oil film flows

    SciTech Connect

    Glahn, A.; Wittig, S.

    1996-07-01

    For the design of secondary air and lubrication oil systems, a sufficient knowledge of two-phase flow and heat transfer phenomena under bearing chamber flow conditions is required. The characterization of oil film flows at the bearing chamber walls is one of the major tasks for a better understanding of these processes and, therefore, a necessity for improvements of the efficiency of aero engines. The present paper gives a contribution to this subject. Utilizing a fiber-optic LDV setup, measurements of oil film velocity profiles have been performed in the high-speed bearing chamber rig simulating real engine conditions. All data have been compared with different theoretical approaches, which have been derived from a force balance at a liquid film element, including geometric conditions and temperature dependent fluid properties, and by approaches for the eddy viscosity available in the literature.

  9. [Antibacterial action of ether oils of some plants].

    PubMed

    Khaldun, A O

    2006-01-01

    Inhibitory effect of clove oil on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae and Candida albicans was detected. Mint ether oil had the high antibacterial action on S. aureus, however against other microorganisms mint oil had a reliably low effect then clove oil. Fennel oil had high antibacterial effect on C. albicans, and bactericidal action on S. typhimurium and S. dysenteriae. PMID:16830599

  10. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume 4: Supplementary engineering data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The reference conceptual design of the Magnetohydrodynamic Engineering Test Facility (ETF), a prototype 200 MWe coal-fired electric generating plant designed to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of open cycle MHD is summarized. Main elements of the design are identified and explained, and the rationale behind them is reviewed. Major systems and plant facilities are listed and discussed. Construction cost and schedule estimates, and identification of engineering issues that should be reexamined are also given. The latest (1980-1981) information from the MHD technology program are integrated with the elements of a conventional steam power electric generating plant. Supplementary Engineering Data (Issues, Background, Performance Assurance Plan, Design Details, System Design Descriptions and Related Drawings) is presented.

  11. Performance of an IDI Engine Fueled with Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Formulated from Cotton Seeds Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluates the performance of an indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine fueled with cottonseed biodiesel while assessing the IDI engine multi-fuel capability. Millions of tons of cotton seeds are available in the southeast of the USA every year and they contain oils that can be transesteri...

  12. A severe single cylinder diesel engine test for European SHPD oils

    SciTech Connect

    Dowling, M.; Pritchard, J.R.; Crawley, B.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a severe diesel engine test and its use as a tool for the evaluation of high performance lubricants. The test has been designed to screen oils prior to submission for expensive multi-cylinder evaluation and uses a tight top land piston. The paper continues earlier work reported during 1985 and describes the influence of liner finish and other hardware effects on test repeatability. The resulting ABINGDON 1-J engine test has been used in the development of diesel oils superior in performance to CCMC D2. Traditionally, European Super High Performance diesel oils have been of 15W40 viscosity grade, but engine manufacturers are showing increasing interest in lower viscosities. The ABINGDON 1-J test has been used to evaluate both 5W30 and 10W40 oils of Super High Performance diesel quality. Performance of both mineral and synthetic basestocks are considered.

  13. Ruthenium oxide ion selective thin-film electrodes for engine oil acidity monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, D. K.; Sardarinejad, A.; Alameh, K.

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate the concept of a low-cost, rugged, miniaturized ion selective electrode (ISE) comprising a thin film RuO2 on platinum sensing electrode deposited using RF magnetron sputtered in conjunction with an integrated Ag/AgCl and Ag reference electrodes for engine oil acidity monitoring. Model oil samples are produced by adding nitric acid into fresh fully synthetic engine oil and used for sensor evaluation. Experimental results show a linear potential-versus-acid-concentration response for nitric acid concentration between 0 (fresh oil) to 400 ppm, which demonstrate the accuracy of the RuO2 sensor in real-time operation, making it attractive for use in cars and industrial engines.

  14. Discrimination of plant stress caused by oil pollution and waterlogging using hyperspectral and thermal remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emengini, Ebele Josephine; Blackburn, George Alan; Theobald, Julian Charles

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing of plant stress holds promise for detecting environmental pollution by oil. However, in oil-rich delta regions, waterlogging is a frequent source of plant stress that has similar physiological effects to oil pollution. This study investigated the capabilities of remote sensing for discriminating between these two sources of plant stress. Bean plants were subjected to oil pollution, waterlogging, and combined oil and waterlogging treatments. Canopy physiological, hyperspectral, and thermal measurements were taken every two to three days after treatment to follow the stress responses. For plants treated with oil, spectral and thermal responses were evident six days before symptoms could be observed visually. In waterlogged plants, only spectral responses were observed, but these were present up to eight days before visual symptoms. A narrowband reflectance ratio was efficient in detecting stress caused by oil and waterlogging. Canopy temperature and a thermal index were good indicators of oil and combined oil and waterlogging stress, but insensitive to waterlogging alone. Hence, this study provides evidence that combined hyperspectral and thermal remote sensing of vegetation has potential for monitoring oil pollution in environments that are also subjected to waterlogging.

  15. Metabolic Engineering Camelina sativa with Fish Oil-Like Levels of DHA

    PubMed Central

    Belide, Srinivas; Kennedy, Yoko; Lester, Geraldine; Liu, Qing; Divi, Uday K.; Mulder, Roger J.; Mansour, Maged P.; Nichols, Peter D.; Singh, Surinder P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DHA) are critical for human health and development. Numerous studies have indicated that deficiencies in these fatty acids can increase the risk or severity of cardiovascular, inflammatory and other diseases or disorders. EPA and DHA are predominantly sourced from marine fish although the primary producers are microalgae. Much work has been done to engineer a sustainable land-based source of EPA and DHA to reduce pressure on fish stocks in meeting future demand, with previous studies describing the production of fish oil-like levels of DHA in the model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana. Principal Findings In this study we describe the production of fish oil-like levels (>12%) of DHA in the oilseed crop species Camelina sativa achieving a high ω3/ω6 ratio. The construct previously transformed in Arabidopsis as well as two modified construct versions designed to increase DHA production were used. DHA was found to be stable to at least the T5 generation and the EPA and DHA were found to be predominantly at the sn-1,3 positions of triacylglycerols. Transgenic and parental lines did not have different germination or seedling establishment rates. Conclusions DHA can be produced at fish oil-like levels in industrially-relevant oilseed crop species using multi-gene construct designs which are stable over multiple generations. This study has implications for the future of sustainable EPA and DHA production from land-based sources. PMID:24465476

  16. Engineered Biosynthesis of Medicinally Important Plant Natural Products in Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuwei; Wang, Siyuan; Zhan, Jixun

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce structurally and functionally diverse natural products. Some of these compounds possess promising health-benefiting properties, such as resveratrol (antioxidant) curcumin (anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and anticancer), paclitaxel (anticancer) and artemisinin (antimalarial). These compounds are produced through particular biosynthetic pathways in the plants. While supply of these medicinally important molecules relies on extraction from the producing species, recent years have seen significant advances in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of plant natural products. Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the two most widely used heterologous hosts for expression of enzymes and reconstitution of plant natural product biosynthetic pathways. Total biosynthesis of many plant polyketide natural products such as curcumin and piceatannol in microorganisms has been achieved. While the late biosynthetic steps of more complex molecules such as paclitaxel and artemisinin remain to be understood, reconstitution of their partial biosynthetic pathways and microbial production of key intermediates have been successful. This review covers recent advances in understanding and engineering the biosynthesis of plant polyketides and terpenoids in microbial hosts. PMID:26456465

  17. Substitution of dietary fish oil with plant oils is associated with shortened mid intestinal folds in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fish meal and fish oil are increasingly replaced by ingredients from terrestrial sources in the feeds for farmed salmonids due to expanding production and reduced availability of marine feed raw material. Fish oil that is rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is considered beneficial to human health in general and to prevent intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis in particular. In contrast, n-6 fatty acids that are present in many vegetable oils have been associated with increased risk of colitis and colon cancer in rodents and humans, as well as lowered transcription levels of certain stress and antioxidant-related genes in Atlantic salmon. The aim of the present study was to investigate the intestinal health in Atlantic salmon fed with different vegetable oils as partial substitutes of fish oil in the diet. A feed trial lasting for 28 weeks included one reference diet containing fish oil as the sole lipid source and three diets where 80% of the fish oil was replaced by a plant oil blend with either olive oil, rapeseed oil or soybean oil as the main lipid source. These plant oils have intermediate or low n-3/n-6-ratios compared to fish oil having a high n-3/n-6-ratio. The protein and carbohydrate fractions were identical in all the feeds. Results Morphometric measurements showed significantly shorter folds in the mid intestine in all groups fed vegetable oils compared to the group fed fish oil. In the distal intestine, the complex folds were significantly shorter in the fish fed soybean oil compared to the fish fed rapeseed oil. Histological and immunohistochemical examination did not show clear difference in the degree of inflammation or proliferation of epithelial cells related to dietary groups, which was further confirmed by real-time RT-PCR which revealed only moderate alterations in the mRNA transcript levels of selected immune-related genes. Conclusions Shortened intestinal folds might be associated with reduced intestinal surface and

  18. Compression ignition engine fuel properties of a used sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend

    SciTech Connect

    Oezaktas, T.

    2000-05-01

    Vegetable oils may be used with dilution modification technique as an alternative diesel fuel. In this study, a used sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend (20:80 {nu}/{nu}%) was investigated in a Pancar Motor E-108-type diesel engine to observe engine characteristics and exhaust emission. The effect of the compression ratio on ignition delay characteristics and smoke emissions of blend fuel was determined in this CFR engine. The results of fuel blends were compared with the reference grade No. 2-D diesel fuel.

  19. Supercritical fluid extraction in plant essential and volatile oil analysis.

    PubMed

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Hajimirsadeghi, Seiedeh Somayyeh

    2007-09-01

    The use of supercritical fluids, especially carbon dioxide, in the extraction of plant volatile components has increased during two last decades due to the expected advantages of the supercritical extraction process. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a rapid, selective and convenient method for sample preparation prior to the analysis of compounds in the volatile product of plant matrices. Also, SFE is a simple, inexpensive, fast, effective and virtually solvent-free sample pretreatment technique. This review provides a detailed and updated discussion of the developments, modes and applications of SFE in the isolation of essential oils from plant matrices. SFE is usually performed with pure or modified carbon dioxide, which facilitates off-line collection of extracts and on-line coupling with other analytical methods such as gas, liquid and supercritical fluid chromatography. In this review, we showed that a number of factors influence extraction yields, these being solubility of the solute in the fluid, diffusion through the matrix and collection process. Finally, SFE has been compared with conventional extraction methods in terms of selectivity, rapidity, cleanliness and possibility of manipulating the composition of the extract. PMID:17624357

  20. Metabolic engineering of higher plants and algae for isoprenoid production.

    PubMed

    Kempinski, Chase; Jiang, Zuodong; Bell, Stephen; Chappell, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Isoprenoids are a class of compounds derived from the five carbon precursors, dimethylallyl diphosphate, and isopentenyl diphosphate. These molecules present incredible natural chemical diversity, which can be valuable for humans in many aspects such as cosmetics, agriculture, and medicine. However, many terpenoids are only produced in small quantities by their natural hosts and can be difficult to generate synthetically. Therefore, much interest and effort has been directed toward capturing the genetic blueprint for their biochemistry and engineering it into alternative hosts such as plants and algae. These autotrophic organisms are attractive when compared to traditional microbial platforms because of their ability to utilize atmospheric CO2 as a carbon substrate instead of supplied carbon sources like glucose. This chapter will summarize important techniques and strategies for engineering the accumulation of isoprenoid metabolites into higher plants and algae by choosing the correct host, avoiding endogenous regulatory mechanisms, and optimizing potential flux into the target compound. Future endeavors will build on these efforts by fine-tuning product accumulation levels via the vast amount of available "-omic" data and devising metabolic engineering schemes that integrate this into a whole-organism approach. With the development of high-throughput transformation protocols and synthetic biology molecular tools, we have only begun to harness the power and utility of plant and algae metabolic engineering. PMID:25636485

  1. Modifying the lipid content and composition of plant seeds: engineering the production of LC-PUFA.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Usher, Sarah; Sayanova, Olga V; Napier, Johnathan A; Haslam, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are characterized by a double bond at the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain. Latterly, long chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5Δ5,8,11,14,17) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA; 22:6 Δ4,7,10,13,16,19), which typically only enter the human diet via the consumption of oily fish, have attracted much attention. The health benefits of the omega-3 LC-PUFAs EPA and DHA are now well established. Given the desire for a sustainable supply of omega-LC-PUFA, efforts have focused on enhancing the composition of vegetable oils to include these important fatty acids. Specifically, EPA and DHA have been the focus of much study, with the ultimate goal of producing a terrestrial plant-based source of these so-called fish oils. Over the last decade, many genes encoding the primary LC-PUFA biosynthetic activities have been identified and characterized. This has allowed the reconstitution of the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway in oilseed crops, producing transgenic plants engineered to accumulate omega-3 LC-PUFA to levels similar to that found in fish oil. In this review, we will describe the most recent developments in this field and the challenges of overwriting endogenous seed lipid metabolism to maximize the accumulation of these important fatty acids. PMID:25417743

  2. Metabolic engineering of biomass for high energy density: oilseed-like triacylglycerol yields from plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Vanhercke, Thomas; El Tahchy, Anna; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Shrestha, Pushkar; Divi, Uday K; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Mansour, Maged P; Nichols, Peter D; James, Christopher N; Horn, Patrick J; Chapman, Kent D; Beaudoin, Frederic; Ruiz-López, Noemi; Larkin, Philip J; de Feyter, Robert C; Singh, Surinder P; Petrie, James R

    2014-02-01

    High biomass crops have recently attracted significant attention as an alternative platform for the renewable production of high energy storage lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG). While TAG typically accumulates in seeds as storage compounds fuelling subsequent germination, levels in vegetative tissues are generally low. Here, we report the accumulation of more than 15% TAG (17.7% total lipids) by dry weight in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) leaves by the co-expression of three genes involved in different aspects of TAG production without severely impacting plant development. These yields far exceed the levels found in wild-type leaf tissue as well as previously reported engineered TAG yields in vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana and N. tabacum. When translated to a high biomass crop, the current levels would translate to an oil yield per hectare that exceeds those of most cultivated oilseed crops. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and mass spectrometry imaging confirmed the accumulation of TAG within leaf mesophyll cells. In addition, we explored the applicability of several existing oil-processing methods using fresh leaf tissue. Our results demonstrate the technical feasibility of a vegetative plant oil production platform and provide for a step change in the bioenergy landscape, opening new prospects for sustainable food, high energy forage, biofuel and biomaterial applications. PMID:24151938

  3. Camelina as a sustainable oilseed crop: contributions of plant breeding and genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Vollmann, Johann; Eynck, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Camelina is an underutilized Brassicaceae oilseed plant with a considerable agronomic potential for biofuel and vegetable oil production in temperate regions. In contrast to most Brassicaceae, camelina is resistant to alternaria black spot and other diseases and pests. Sequencing of the camelina genome revealed an undifferentiated allohexaploid genome with a comparatively large number of genes and low percentage of repetitive DNA. As there is a close relationship between camelina and the genetic model plant Arabidopsis, this review aims at exploring the potential of translating basic Arabidopsis results into a camelina oilseed crop for food and non-food applications. Recently, Arabidopsis genes for drought resistance or increased photosynthesis and overall productivity have successfully been expressed in camelina. In addition, gene constructs affecting lipid metabolism pathways have been engineered into camelina for synthesizing either long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, hydroxy fatty acids or high-oleic oils in particular camelina strains, which is of great interest in human food, industrial or biofuel applications, respectively. These results confirm the potential of camelina to serve as a biotechnology platform in biorefinery applications thus justifying further investment in breeding and genetic research for combining agronomic potential, unique oil quality features and biosafety into an agricultural production system. PMID:25706640

  4. Metabolic engineering of biomass for high energy density: oilseed-like triacylglycerol yields from plant leaves

    PubMed Central

    Vanhercke, Thomas; El Tahchy, Anna; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Shrestha, Pushkar; Divi, Uday K; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Mansour, Maged P; Nichols, Peter D; James, Christopher N; Horn, Patrick J; Chapman, Kent D; Beaudoin, Frederic; Ruiz-López, Noemi; Larkin, Philip J; de Feyter, Robert C; Singh, Surinder P; Petrie, James R

    2014-01-01

    High biomass crops have recently attracted significant attention as an alternative platform for the renewable production of high energy storage lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG). While TAG typically accumulates in seeds as storage compounds fuelling subsequent germination, levels in vegetative tissues are generally low. Here, we report the accumulation of more than 15% TAG (17.7% total lipids) by dry weight in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) leaves by the co-expression of three genes involved in different aspects of TAG production without severely impacting plant development. These yields far exceed the levels found in wild-type leaf tissue as well as previously reported engineered TAG yields in vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana and N. tabacum. When translated to a high biomass crop, the current levels would translate to an oil yield per hectare that exceeds those of most cultivated oilseed crops. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and mass spectrometry imaging confirmed the accumulation of TAG within leaf mesophyll cells. In addition, we explored the applicability of several existing oil-processing methods using fresh leaf tissue. Our results demonstrate the technical feasibility of a vegetative plant oil production platform and provide for a step change in the bioenergy landscape, opening new prospects for sustainable food, high energy forage, biofuel and biomaterial applications. PMID:24151938

  5. Plant-Derived Human Collagen Scaffolds for Skin Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Willard, James J.; Drexler, Jason W.; Das, Amitava; Roy, Sashwati; Shilo, Shani; Shoseyov, Oded

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds are commonly formed using proteins extracted from animal tissues, such as bovine hide. Risks associated with the use of these materials include hypersensitivity and pathogenic contamination. Human-derived proteins lower the risk of hypersensitivity, but possess the risk of disease transmission. Methods engineering recombinant human proteins using plant material provide an alternate source of these materials without the risk of disease transmission or concerns regarding variability. To investigate the utility of plant-derived human collagen (PDHC) in the development of engineered skin (ES), PDHC and bovine hide collagen were formed into tissue engineering scaffolds using electrospinning or freeze-drying. Both raw materials were easily formed into two common scaffold types, electrospun nonwoven scaffolds and lyophilized sponges, with similar architectures. The processing time, however, was significantly lower with PDHC. PDHC scaffolds supported primary human cell attachment and proliferation at an equivalent or higher level than the bovine material. Interleukin-1 beta production was significantly lower when activated THP-1 macrophages where exposed to PDHC electrospun scaffolds compared to bovine collagen. Both materials promoted proper maturation and differentiation of ES. These data suggest that PDHC may provide a novel source of raw material for tissue engineering with low risk of allergic response or disease transmission. PMID:23298216

  6. Plant-derived human collagen scaffolds for skin tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Willard, James J; Drexler, Jason W; Das, Amitava; Roy, Sashwati; Shilo, Shani; Shoseyov, Oded; Powell, Heather M

    2013-07-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds are commonly formed using proteins extracted from animal tissues, such as bovine hide. Risks associated with the use of these materials include hypersensitivity and pathogenic contamination. Human-derived proteins lower the risk of hypersensitivity, but possess the risk of disease transmission. Methods engineering recombinant human proteins using plant material provide an alternate source of these materials without the risk of disease transmission or concerns regarding variability. To investigate the utility of plant-derived human collagen (PDHC) in the development of engineered skin (ES), PDHC and bovine hide collagen were formed into tissue engineering scaffolds using electrospinning or freeze-drying. Both raw materials were easily formed into two common scaffold types, electrospun nonwoven scaffolds and lyophilized sponges, with similar architectures. The processing time, however, was significantly lower with PDHC. PDHC scaffolds supported primary human cell attachment and proliferation at an equivalent or higher level than the bovine material. Interleukin-1 beta production was significantly lower when activated THP-1 macrophages where exposed to PDHC electrospun scaffolds compared to bovine collagen. Both materials promoted proper maturation and differentiation of ES. These data suggest that PDHC may provide a novel source of raw material for tissue engineering with low risk of allergic response or disease transmission. PMID:23298216

  7. Organogels of vegetable oil with plant wax – trans/saturated fat replacements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This featured article reviews recent advances on the development of trans fat-free, low saturated fat food products from organogels formed by a plant wax in a vegetable oil. Plant waxes are of great interest in this research area because they are obtained as by-products during the oil refining proce...

  8. Effects of plants and essential oils on ruminal in vitro batch culture methane production and fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, plants (14) and essential oils (EO; 88) from plants that are naturalized to, or can be successfully grown in North America were evaluated in a batch culture in vitro screening experiments with ruminal fluid as potential anti-methanogenic additives for ruminant diets. Essential oils we...

  9. Ecosystem engineers modulate exotic invasions in riparian plant communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corenblit, D.; Tabacchi, E.; Steiger, J.; Gonzales, E.; Planty-Tabacchi, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and invasibility of exotic plant species within different environments and at different spatial scales is still being discussed amongst scientists. In this study, patterns of native and exotic plant species richness and cover were examined in relation with ecosystem engineer effects of pioneer vegetation within the active tract of the Mediterranean gravel bed river Tech, South France. The floristic composition was characterized according to two distinct vegetation types corresponding to two habitats with contrasted conditions: (i) open and exposed alluvial bars dominated by herbaceous communities and (ii) islands and river margins partly stabilized by ecosystem engineer plants, disconnected from annual hydrogeomorphic disturbances, and covered by woody vegetation. A significant positive correlation between exotic and native plant species richness and cover was observed for the herbaceous and the woody types, indicating that both native and exotic richness benefit from the prevailing environmental conditions. However, significant differences in native and exotic specific richness and cover were found between these two vegetation types. Higher values of total species richness and Shannon diversity of native and exotic species were attained within the herbaceous vegetation type compared to the woody type. These differences may be related to changes in local exposure to hydrogeomorphic disturbances driven by engineer plant species, and to vegetation succession. A lower exotic cover within the woody vegetation type compared to the herbaceous type suggested an increase of resistance to invasion by exotic species during the biogeomorphic succession. The engineer effects of woody vegetation resulted in a decrease of alpha (α) diversity at patch scale but, in parallel, caused an increase in gamma (γ) diversity at the scale of the studied river segment. Our study corroborates recent investigations that support the theory of biotic

  10. Expanding the docosahexaenoic acid food web for sustainable production: engineering lower plant pathways into higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, James R.; Singh, Surinder P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Algae are becoming an increasingly important component of land plant metabolic engineering projects. Land plants and algae have similar enough genetics to allow relatively straightforward gene transfer and they also share enough metabolic similarities that algal enzymes often function in a plant cell environment. Understanding metabolic systems in algae can provide insights into homologous systems in land plants. As examples, algal models are currently being used by several groups to better understand starch and lipid metabolism and catabolism, fields which have relevance in land plants. Importantly, land plants and algae also have enough metabolic divergence that algal genes can often provide new metabolic traits to plants. Furthermore, many algal genomes have now been sequenced, with many more in progress, and this easy access to genome-wide information has revealed that algal genomes are often relatively simple when compared with plants. Scope One example of the importance of algal, and in particular microalgal, resources to land plant research is the metabolic engineering of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids into oilseed crops which typically uses microalgal genes to extend existing natural plant biosynthetic pathways. This review describes both recent progress and remaining challenges in this field. PMID:22476481

  11. Comparative plant sphingolipidomic reveals specific lipids in seeds and oil.

    PubMed

    Tellier, Frédérique; Maia-Grondard, Alessandra; Schmitz-Afonso, Isabelle; Faure, Jean-Denis

    2014-07-01

    Plant sphingolipids are a highly diverse family of structural and signal lipids. Owing to their chemical diversity and complexity, a powerful analytical method was required to identify and quantify a large number of individual molecules with a high degree of structural accuracy. By using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with a single elution system coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) in the positive multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, detailed sphingolipid composition was analyzed in various tissues of two Brassicaceae species Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa. A total of 300 molecular species were identified defining nine classes of sphingolipids, including Cers, hCers, Glcs and GIPCs. High-resolution mass spectrometry identified sphingolipids including amino- and N-acylated-GIPCs. The comparative analysis of seedling, seed and oil sphingolipids showed tissue specific distribution suggesting metabolic channeling and compartmentalization. PMID:24731258

  12. Ferrographic and spectrometer oil analysis from a failed gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental gas turbine engine was destroyed as a result of the combustion of its titanium components. It was concluded that a severe surge may have caused interference between rotating and stationary compressor that either directly or indirectly ignited the titanium components. Several engine oil samples (before and after the failure) were analyzed with a Ferrograph, a plasma, an atomic absorption, and an emission spectrometer to see if this information would aid in the engine failure diagnosis. The analyses indicated that a lubrication system failure was not a causative factor in the engine failure. Neither an abnormal wear mechanism nor a high level of wear debris was detected in the engine oil sample taken just prior to the test in which the failure occurred. However, low concentrations (0.2 to 0.5 ppm) of titanium were evident in this sample and samples taken earlier. After the failure, higher titanium concentrations ( 2 ppm) were detected in oil samples taken from different engine locations. Ferrographic analysis indicated that most of the titanium was contained in spherical metallic debris after the failure. The oil analyses eliminated a lubrication system bearing or shaft seal failure as the cause of the engine failure.

  13. Ferrographic and spectrometer oil analysis from a failed gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental gas turbine engine was destroyed as a result of the combustion of its titanium components. It was concluded that a severe surge may have caused interference between rotating and stationary compressor parts that either directly or indirectly ignited the titanium components. Several engine oil samples (before and after the failure) were analyzed with a Ferrograph, and with plasma, atomic absorption, and emission spectrometers to see if this information would aid in the engine failure diagnosis. The analyses indicated that a lubrication system failure was not a causative factor in the engine failure. Neither an abnormal wear mechanism nor a high level of wear debris was detected in the engine oil sample taken just prior to the test in which the failure occurred. However, low concentrations (0.2 to 0.5 ppm) of titanium were evident in this sample and samples taken earlier. After the failure, higher titanium concentrations (2 ppm) were detected in oil samples taken from different engine locations. Ferrographic analysis indicated that most of the titanium was contained in spherical metallic debris after the failure. The oil analyses eliminated a lubrication system bearing or shaft seal failure as the cause of the engine failure. Previously announced in STAR as N83-12433

  14. Susceptibility of two different strains of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to plant oils.

    PubMed

    Tare, Vrushali; Deshpande, Sudhakar; Sharma, Ravindra Nath

    2004-10-01

    The toxicity of 11 oils extracted from plants commonly grown in the Himalayan region was studied using larvae of two Aedes aegypti (L.) strains. A strain from Liverpool, England, was highly susceptible to these oils. The LC50 values were much higher in a local laboratory strain. Daucus carota L. oil was highly toxic in both strains. Differences in the susceptibility of these strains to the action of the test oils and their potential use in integrated pest management are discussed. PMID:15568366

  15. Bacterial structure and characterization of plant growth promoting and oil degrading bacteria from the rhizospheres of mangrove plants.

    PubMed

    do Carmo, Flávia Lima; dos Santos, Henrique Fragoso; Martins, Edir Ferreira; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Peixoto, Raquel Silva

    2011-08-01

    Most oil from oceanic spills converges on coastal ecosystems, such as mangrove forests, which are threatened with worldwide disappearance. Particular bacteria that inhabit the rhizosphere of local plant species can stimulate plant development through various mechanisms; it would be advantageous if these would also be capable of degrading oil. Such bacteria may be important in the preservation or recuperation of mangrove forests impacted by oil spills. This study aimed to compare the bacterial structure, isolate and evaluate bacteria able to degrade oil and stimulate plant growth, from the rhizospheres of three mangrove plant species. These features are particularly important taking into account recent policies for mangrove bioreme-diation, implying that oil degradation as well as plant maintenance and health are key targets. Fifty-seven morphotypes were isolated from the mangrove rhizospheres on Bushneil-Haas (BH) medium supplemented with oil as the sole carbon source and tested for plant growth promotion. Of this strains, 60% potentially fixed nitrogen, 16% showed antimicrobial activity, 84% produced siderophores, 51% had the capacity to solubilize phosphate, and 33% produced the indole acetic acid hormone. Using gas chromatography, we evaluated the oil-degrading potential of ten selected strains that had different morphologies and showed Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) features. The ten tested strains showed a promising degradation profile for at least one compound present in the oil. Among degrader strains, 46% had promising PGPR potential, having at least three of the above capacities. These strains might be used as a consortium, allowing the concomitant degradation of oil and stimulation of mangrove plant survival and maintenance. PMID:21887634

  16. Experimental study on the performance characteristics and emission analysis of a diesel engine using vegetable oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Anup; Ehite, Ekramul Haque; Alam, M. M.

    2016-07-01

    In this research, Vegetable oils derived from Sesame Seed and Rice Bran were used and experimented upon. Using Kerosene as the solvent in varying proportions (30%, 50%, 70% by volume) with the vegetables oils, different blends of Sesame and Rice Bran Oils were produced. The important characteristic properties were found by experimentation and compared with those of Straight Run Diesel. Subsequently, Straight Run Diesel, vegetable oils and their blends were used to run a diesel engine one-by-one and the performance analysis was conducted, followed by an investigation of the exhaust emissions. From the comparative performance analysis, it was found that Rice Bran oil showed better performance as a fuel than Sesame with regards to power production and specific fuel consumption and also resulted in less Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission than Sesame oil blends.

  17. Activity of plant and mineral oils in the control of Puccinia pelargonii-zonalis.

    PubMed

    Wojdyła, A T

    2005-01-01

    Effectiveness of plant oils from corn, olive, rape, soya and sunflower, oils recommended for plant protection (Dedal 90 EC, Olejan 80 EC) and mineral oils (Atpolan 80 EC, Ikar 95 EC, Olemix 84 EC and Promanal 60 EC) in the control of pelargonium rust (Puccinia pelargonii-zonalis) was studied. Oils were applied curatively as a plant spray at concentration 1%, 4 times at 7-day-intervals. After 4-week experiment more than 11 uredia per leaf were noted on control plants. At the same time, on plants protected with oils from olive or soya, Ikar 95 EC or Olemix 84 EC uredia number decreased at least 50%. The other oils were not effective in a suppression of uredia formation. On control plants no uredia were destroyed as compared to 11 to 71% destruction on plants protected with the tested oils. Oils from olive, soya and also Atpolan 80 EC, Ikar 95 EC, Olemix 84 EC caused drying off more than 50% uredia. Furthermore, some oils inhibited germination of urediospores on PDA medium (potato dextrose agar). Fourteen days after the last spraying more than 83% of germinating urediospores were found on control leaves. At the same time spores collected from protected plants germinated in 17 to 70%. Among tested products oils from rape, corn, sunflower and Dedal 90 EC, Ikar 95 EC, Olemix 84 EC were the most effective. In the next part of experiment, plants with visible sporulation of P. pelargonii-zonalis were sprayed with 1% oils. After 1 and 7 days of incubation, total number of spores and number of germinating spores were counted. One day after treatment, urediospores collected from leaf blades protected with oils germinated in 20 - 60%. Oils from olive, corn, Atpolan 80 EC and Ikar 95 EC caused inhibition of spore germination at least in 40%. Whereas urediospores from nontreated plants germinated in 86%. After 7 days, urediospores collected from untreated plants germinated in 65% whereas from plants sprayed with tested oils in 23 - 68%. Oils from olive, sunflower and Dedal 90 EC

  18. Classification and individualization of used engine oils using elemental composition and discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yuna; Kim, Nam Yee; Park, Seh Youn; Lee, Dong-Kye; Lee, Jin Hoon

    2013-07-10

    The six most common commercial automotive gasoline and diesel engine oils in the Republic of Korea, ZIC A, ZIC XQ RV/SUV, Kixx G1, Kixx RV, and the brand name products HD Premium gasoline and HD Premium diesel, were randomly used in nineteen different vehicles. Samples of seventy-six used engine oils, which were withdrawn from the sumps of those vehicles at different intervals, were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and statistically compared. Two data analysis strategies were used to interpret and understand the elemental profiles in the multi-dimensional data. Macro (additive elements of Ca, Zn and P) and trace (wear metal elements of Ag, Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb and Sn) elements were used as potential markers to determine the brand of oil used and the engine type in which the oil was used, and to trace the individual vehicle for forensic purposes. The discriminant analysis statistical technique was applied, and its prediction ability was assessed. In this study, 92.1%, 82.9% and 92.1% of the cross-validated grouped cases correctly predicted the brand of oil, the engine type and the vehicle that was the source of the oil, respectively. PMID:23806831

  19. Diesel engine endurance tests using JP-8 fuel blended with used engine oil. Interim report November 1996--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, E.A.; Yost, D.M.; Palacios, C.F.

    1998-07-01

    Tests were done to examine the feasibility of disposing of used engine oil from military vehicles by blending it with JP-8 engine fuel to be used in diesel vehicles. Two Army diesel engines were evaluated in cyclic endurance dynamometer test procedures using JP-8 fuel blended with 7.5% vol used oil. Results were compared to baseline performance using neat JP-8 fuel. The following major differences were observed when using blended fuel: Significant ashy deposits were found in the pre-combustion chamber of the 4-cycle diesel engine; indications of imminent exhaust valve burning (streaking) were found on the exhaust valves in the 2-cycle diesel engine. For both engines, condition was such that continuous use of 7.5 %vol blend would not be recommended. Considering it would take between 19--68 years for an Army engine to reach the end of endurance test condition, use of blended fuel 1 or 2 times per year is judged acceptable from an endurance standpoint.

  20. University of Idaho tests engines with biodiesel from waste oil

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.; Fleischman, G.

    1995-12-31

    This article reports on preliminary work at the University of Idaho that investigates the possibilities of capitalizing on Idaho`s large volumes of waste oil and potatoes-generated ethanol to produce biodiesel fuel. This fuel would be hydrogenated soy ethyl ester, MySEE for short, made through a reaction between waste oil and ethanol made from potato waste. Address for full report is given.

  1. [Pilot plant for microbiological synthesis. Engineer and technological aspects].

    PubMed

    Lukanin, A V

    2007-01-01

    A biotechnological pilot plant (National Research Centre of Antibiotics) and its technical potentialities in production of various biosynthetic products are described. Some engineer and technological aspects of the fermentation equipment and particularly sterilization of the media and apparatus, fermentation broth aeration under sterile conditions and control of biosynthesis technological parameters (t degrees, pO2, P, pH, foaming, etc.) are considered. The pilot plant is designed for fermentation processes under aseptic conditions with the use practically of any object, from bacteria to tissue cultures. PMID:20583471

  2. Dynamic Oil Consumption Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines using Laser Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sellmeier, Stefan; Alonso, Eduardo; Boesl, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    A new approach has been developed to measure dynamic consumption of lubricant oil in an internal combustion engine. It is based on the already known technique where sulfur is used as a natural tracer of the engine oil. Since ejection of motor oil in gaseous form into the exhaust is by far the main source of engine oil consumption, detection of sulfur in the exhaust emission is a valuable way to measure engine oil consumption in a dynamic way. In earlier approaches, this is done by converting all sulfur containing chemical components into SO2 by thermal pyrolysis in a high temperature furnace at atmospheric pressure. The so-formed SO2 then is detected by broadband-UV-induced fluorescence or mass spectrometric methods. The challenge is to reach the necessary detection limit of 50 ppb. The new approach presented here includes sulfur conversion in a low-pressure discharge cell and laser-induced fluorescence with wavelength and fluorescence lifetime selection. A limit of detection down to 10 ppb at a temporal resolution in the time scale of few seconds is reached. Extensive, promising studies have been performed at a real engine test bench. Future developments of a compact, mobile device based on these improvements are discussed. PMID:24279690

  3. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane. PMID:27451203

  4. Plant Glandular Trichomes as Targets for Breeding or Engineering of Resistance to Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Glas, Joris J.; Schimmel, Bernardus C. J.; Alba, Juan M.; Escobar-Bravo, Rocío; Schuurink, Robert C.; Kant, Merijn R.

    2012-01-01

    Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the surface of about 30% of all vascular plants and are responsible for a significant portion of a plant’s secondary chemistry. Glandular trichomes are an important source of essential oils, i.e., natural fragrances or products that can be used by the pharmaceutical industry, although many of these substances have evolved to provide the plant with protection against herbivores and pathogens. The storage compartment of glandular trichomes usually is located on the tip of the hair and is part of the glandular cell, or cells, which are metabolically active. Trichomes and their exudates can be harvested relatively easily, and this has permitted a detailed study of their metabolites, as well as the genes and proteins responsible for them. This knowledge now assists classical breeding programs, as well as targeted genetic engineering, aimed to optimize trichome density and physiology to facilitate customization of essential oil production or to tune biocide activity to enhance crop protection. We will provide an overview of the metabolic diversity found within plant glandular trichomes, with the emphasis on those of the Solanaceae, and of the tools available to manipulate their activities for enhancing the plant’s resistance to pests. PMID:23235331

  5. 25. Photographic copy of plant engineer's handdrawn buildings function chart, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photographic copy of plant engineer's hand-drawn buildings function chart, dated 1967; Ink and pencil on tracing paper; Attributed to GWN, Original in collection of Rath drawings and blueprints owned by Waterloo Community Development Board, Waterloo, Iowa; SHEET TWO; OUTLINES ACTIVITIES TAKING PLANE ON EACH FLOOR OF MAJOR BUILDINGS IN THE RATH COMPLEX - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  6. 26. Photographic copy of plant engineer's handdrawn buildings function chart, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photographic copy of plant engineer's hand-drawn buildings function chart, dated 1967; Ink and pencil on tracing paper; Attributed to GWN, Original in collection of Rath drawings and blueprints owned by Waterloo Community Development Board, Waterloo, Iowa; SHEET THREE; OUTLINES ACTIVITIES TAKING PLANE ON EACH FLOOR OF MAJOR BUILDINGS IN THE RATH COMPLEX - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  7. 24. Photographic copy of plant engineer's handdrawn buildings function chart, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photographic copy of plant engineer's hand-drawn buildings function chart, dated 1967; Ink and pencil on tracing paper; Attributed to GWN, Original in collection of Rath drawings and blueprints owned by Waterloo Community Development Board, Waterloo, Iowa; SHEET ONE; OUTLINES ACTIVITIES TAKING PLANE ON EACH FLOOR OF MAJOR BUILDINGS IN THE RATH COMPLEX - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  8. Field test of re-refined automotive engine oil in RCMP vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, J.

    1980-11-01

    A field test has been designed to isolate the performance characteristics of the virgin and re-refined base oils being studied. The conditions selected for the test are those normally experienced by Royal Canadian Mounted Police vehicles in similar service. All test and reference vehicles have been subjected to as equal treatment as possible, in both driving conditions and maintenance schedules. The primary conclusion that can be made with the data obtained to date is that there are statistically significant differences occurring in certain measured properties of used crankcase oil from the two test groups of vehicles. These differences are no doubt attributable, at least in part, to performance differences between the two finished oils, but other factors such as the observed differences in length of oil change interval and top-up requirements are also contributing to the responses being measured. Given the methods by which the test and reference oils were defined and chosen, it might be expected that differences in performance characteristics would be observed, and also that the reference oil might exhibit better performance characteristics than the test oil. However, the final magnitudes of any differences between the oils will not be known until the field test period is completed, and the real significance of these differences, in terms of their effect on the engines, cannot be determined until the engine examinations have been completed.

  9. Microstructures of superhydrophobic plant leaves - inspiration for efficient oil spill cleanup materials.

    PubMed

    Zeiger, Claudia; Rodrigues da Silva, Isabelle C; Mail, Matthias; Kavalenka, Maryna N; Barthlott, Wilhelm; Hölscher, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    The cleanup of accidental oil spills in water is an enormous challenge; conventional oil sorbents absorb large amounts of water in addition to oil and other cleanup methods can cause secondary pollution. In contrast, fresh leaves of the aquatic ferns Salvinia are superhydrophobic and superoleophilic, and can selectively absorb oil while repelling water. These selective wetting properties are optimal for natural oil absorbent applications and bioinspired oil sorbent materials. In this paper we quantify the oil absorption capacity of four Salvinia species with different surface structures, water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) and Lotus leaves (Nelumbo nucifera), and compare their absorption capacity to artificial oil sorbents. Interestingly, the oil absorption capacities of Salvinia molesta and Pistia stratiotes leaves are comparable to artificial oil sorbents. Therefore, these pantropical invasive plants, often considered pests, qualify as environmentally friendly materials for oil spill cleanup. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of oil density and viscosity on the oil absorption, and examine how the presence and morphology of trichomes affect the amount of oil absorbed by their surfaces. Specifically, the influence of hair length and shape is analyzed by comparing different hair types ranging from single trichomes of Salvinia cucullata to complex eggbeater-shaped trichomes of Salvinia molesta to establish a basis for improving artificial bioinspired oil absorbents. PMID:27529805

  10. Engineered Minichromosomes in Plants: Structure, Function, and Applications.

    PubMed

    Graham, Nathaniel D; Cody, Jon P; Swyers, Nathan C; McCaw, Morgan E; Zhao, Changzeng; Birchler, James A

    2015-01-01

    Engineered minichromosomes are small chromosomes that contain a transgene and selectable marker, as well as all of the necessary components required for maintenance in an organism separately from the standard chromosome set. The separation from endogenous chromosomes makes engineered minichromosomes useful in the production of transgenic plants. Introducing transgenes to minichromosomes does not have the risk of insertion within a native gene; additionally, transgenes on minichromosomes can be transferred between lines without the movement of linked genes. Of the two methods proposed for creating engineered minichromosomes, telomere-mediated truncation is more reliable in plant systems. Additionally, many plants contain a supernumerary, or B chromosome, which is an excellent starting material for minichromosome creation. The use of site-specific recombination systems in minichromosomes can increase their utility, allowing for the addition or subtraction of transgenes in vivo. The creation of minichromosomes with binary bacterial artificial chromosome vectors provides the ability to introduce many transgenes at one time. Furthermore, coupling minichromosomes with haploid induction systems can facilitate transfer between lines. Minichromosomes can be introduced to a haploid-inducing line and crossed to target lines. Haploids of the target line that then contain a minichromosome can then be doubled. These homozygous lines will contain the transgene without the need for repeated introgressions. PMID:26315884

  11. An Integrated Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals Divergent Evolutionary Pattern of Oil Biosynthesis in High- and Low-Oil Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Shi-Bo; Li, Qi-Gang; Song, Jian; Hao, Yu-Qi; Zhou, Ling; Zheng, Huan-Quan; Dunwell, Jim M.; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Seed oils provide a renewable source of food, biofuel and industrial raw materials that is important for humans. Although many genes and pathways for acyl-lipid metabolism have been identified, little is known about whether there is a specific mechanism for high-oil content in high-oil plants. Based on the distinct differences in seed oil content between four high-oil dicots (20~50%) and three low-oil grasses (<3%), comparative genome, transcriptome and differential expression analyses were used to investigate this mechanism. Among 4,051 dicot-specific soybean genes identified from 252,443 genes in the seven species, 54 genes were shown to directly participate in acyl-lipid metabolism, and 93 genes were found to be associated with acyl-lipid metabolism. Among the 93 dicot-specific genes, 42 and 27 genes, including CBM20-like SBDs and GPT2, participate in carbohydrate degradation and transport, respectively. 40 genes highly up-regulated during seed oil rapid accumulation period are mainly involved in initial fatty acid synthesis, triacylglyceride assembly and oil-body formation, for example, ACCase, PP, DGAT1, PDAT1, OLEs and STEROs, which were also found to be differentially expressed between high- and low-oil soybean accessions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed distinct differences of oleosin in patterns of gene duplication and loss between high-oil dicots and low-oil grasses. In addition, seed-specific GmGRF5, ABI5 and GmTZF4 were predicted to be candidate regulators in seed oil accumulation. This study facilitates future research on lipid biosynthesis and potential genetic improvement of seed oil content. PMID:27159078

  12. Development of narrow width type oil control ring for motorcycle engine

    SciTech Connect

    Tateishi, Yukio; Fujimura, Kazuhiro; Ishihara, Katsushi; Watanabe, Masanor

    1995-12-31

    The reduction of piston ring friction forces, which account for high percentages of the total engine friction loss, is vital for the simultaneous attainments of lower fuel consumption, higher engine power and speed. The authors et al. noted a three-piece type oil control ring in this study, and strived for the development of an oil control ring with a narrow width and a low tangential force. A new three-piece, type oil control ring with a small tolerance on tangential force and a width of 1.2 to 1.5 mm has been successfully developed by studying the effect of such a ring on the lubricating oil consumption, while providing a spring function by press-forming a wire rod having a particular sectional shape.

  13. Tuning single-cell oil production in Ashbya gossypii by engineering the elongation and desaturation systems.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Santos, María-Angeles; Jiménez, Alberto; Revuelta, José Luis

    2014-09-01

    Microbial oils represent a sustainable alternative to vegetable oils and animal fats as feedstock for both the chemical and biofuel industries. The applications of microbial oils depend on their fatty acid composition, which is defined by the relative amount of each fatty acid, also considering the length and unsaturations of the acyl chain. These two properties are determined by elongases and desaturases. In the present study, we characterized the elongase and desaturase systems in the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii, which is able to accumulate high amounts of lipids. Additionally, both the elongation and desaturation systems were engineered in order to broaden the potential applications of A. gossypii oils. Finally, the properties of the strains engineered for biodiesel production were analyzed, with the observation that A. gossypii is a good candidate for the microbial production of renewable biofuels. PMID:24668265

  14. Control of Aspergillus flavus in maize with plant essential oils and their components.

    PubMed

    Montes-Belmont, R; Carvajal, M

    1998-05-01

    The effects of 11 plant essential oils for maize kernel protection against Aspergillus flavus were studied. Tests were conducted to determine optimal levels of dosages for maize protection, effects of combinations of essential oils, and residual effects and toxicity of essential oils to maize plants. Principal constituents of eight essential oils were tested for ability to protect maize kernels. Essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Ocimum basilicum (basil), Origanum vulgare (origanum), Teloxys ambrosioides (the flavoring herb epazote), Syzygium aromaticum (clove), and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) caused a total inhibition of fungal development on maize kernels. Thymol and o-methoxycinnamaldehyde significantly reduced maize grain contamination. The optimal dosage for protection of maize varied from 3 to 8%. Combinations of C. zeylanicum with the remaining oils gave efficient control. A residual effect of C. zeylanicum was detected after 4 weeks of kernel treatment. No phytotoxic effect on germination and corn growth was detected with any of these oils. PMID:9709236

  15. Studies on exhaust emissions of mahua oil operated compression ignition engine.

    PubMed

    Kapilan, N; Reddy, R P

    2009-07-01

    The world is confronted with fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. The energy demand and pollution problems lead to research for an alternative renewable energy sources. Vegetable oils and biodiesel present a very promising alternative fuel to diesel. In this work, an experimental work was carried out to study the feasibility of using raw mahua oil (MO) as a substitute for diesel in dual fuel engine. A single cylinder diesel engine was modified to work in dual fuel mode and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was used as primary fuel and mahua oil was used as pilot fuel. The results show that the performance of the dual fuel engine at the injector opening pressure of 220 bar and the advanced injection timing of 30 degrees bTDC results in performance close to diesel base line (DBL) operation and lower smoke and oxides of nitrogen emission. PMID:21117439

  16. The Plant Genetic Engineering Laboratory For Desert Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, John D.; Phillips, Gregory C.

    1985-11-01

    The Plant Genetic Engineering Laboratory for Desert Adaptation (PGEL) is one of five Centers of Technical Excellence established as a part of the state of New Mexico's Rio Grande Research Corridor (RGRC). The scientific mission of PGEL is to bring innovative advances in plant biotechnology to bear on agricultural productivity in arid and semi-arid regions. Research activities focus on molecular and cellular genetics technology development in model systems, but also include stress physiology investigations and development of desert plant resources. PGEL interacts with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a national laboratory participating in the RGRC. PGEL also has an economic development mission, which is being pursued through technology transfer activities to private companies and public agencies.

  17. Genetic elements of plant viruses as tools for genetic engineering.

    PubMed Central

    Mushegian, A R; Shepherd, R J

    1995-01-01

    Viruses have developed successful strategies for propagation at the expense of their host cells. Efficient gene expression, genome multiplication, and invasion of the host are enabled by virus-encoded genetic elements, many of which are well characterized. Sequences derived from plant DNA and RNA viruses can be used to control expression of other genes in vivo. The main groups of plant virus genetic elements useful in genetic engineering are reviewed, including the signals for DNA-dependent and RNA-dependent RNA synthesis, sequences on the virus mRNAs that enable translational control, and sequences that control processing and intracellular sorting of virus proteins. Use of plant viruses as extrachromosomal expression vectors is also discussed, along with the issue of their stability. PMID:8531885

  18. Engineering Plant-Microbe Symbiosis for Rhizoremediation of Heavy Metals

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cindy H.; Wood, Thomas K.; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred

    2006-01-01

    The use of plants for rehabilitation of heavy-metal-contaminated environments is an emerging area of interest because it provides an ecologically sound and safe method for restoration and remediation. Although a number of plant species are capable of hyperaccumulation of heavy metals, the technology is not applicable for remediating sites with multiple contaminants. A clever solution is to combine the advantages of microbe-plant symbiosis within the plant rhizosphere into an effective cleanup technology. We demonstrated that expression of a metal-binding peptide (EC20) in a rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas putida 06909, not only improved cadmium binding but also alleviated the cellular toxicity of cadmium. More importantly, inoculation of sunflower roots with the engineered rhizobacterium resulted in a marked decrease in cadmium phytotoxicity and a 40% increase in cadmium accumulation in the plant root. Owing to the significantly improved growth characteristics of both the rhizobacterium and plant, the use of EC20-expressing P. putida endowed with organic-degrading capabilities may be a promising strategy to remediate mixed organic-metal-contaminated sites. PMID:16461658

  19. Lessons learned: Are engineered nanomaterials toxic to terrestrial plants?

    PubMed

    Reddy, P Venkata Laxma; Hernandez-Viezcas, J A; Peralta-Videa, J R; Gardea-Torresdey, J L

    2016-10-15

    The expansion of nanotechnology and its ubiquitous applications has fostered unavoidable interaction between engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and plants. Recent research has shown ambiguous results with regard to the impact of ENMs in plants. On one hand, there are reports that show hazardous effects, while on the other hand, some reports highlight positive effects. This uncertainty whether the ENMs are primarily hazardous or whether they have a potential for propitious impact on plants, has raised questions in the scientific community. In this review, we tried to demystify this ambiguity by citing various exposure studies of different ENMs (nano-Ag, nano-Au, nano-Si, nano-CeO2, nano-TiO2, nano-CuO, nano-ZnO, and CNTs, among others) and their effects on various groups of plant families. After scrutinizing the most recent literature, it seems that the divergence in the research results may be possibly attributed to multiple factors such as ENM properties, plant species, soil dynamics, and soil microbial community. The analysis of the literature also suggests that there is a knowledge gap on the effects of ENMs towards changes in color, texture, shape, and nutritional aspects on ENM exposed plants. PMID:27314900

  20. Field trial evaluation of the accumulation of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic Camelina sativa: Making fish oil substitutes in plants

    PubMed Central

    Usher, Sarah; Haslam, Richard P.; Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Sayanova, Olga; Napier, Johnathan A.

    2015-01-01

    The global consumption of fish oils currently exceeds one million tonnes, with the natural de novo source of these important fatty acids forming the base of marine foodwebs. Here we describe the first field-based evaluation of a terrestrial source of these essential nutrients, synthesised in the seeds of transgenic Camelina sativa plants via the heterologous reconstitution of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Our data demonstrate the robust nature of this novel trait, and the feasibility of making fish oils in genetically modified crops. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the most complex example of plant genetic engineering to undergo environmental release and field evaluation. PMID:27066395

  1. Comparison of the constituents of two jet engine lubricating oils and their volatile pyrolytic degradation products.

    PubMed

    van Netten, C; Leung, V

    2000-03-01

    Leaking oil seals in jet engines, at locations prior to the compressor stage, can be a cause of smoke in the cabins of BAe-146 aircraft. Compressed combustion air is bled off to pressurize the cabin and to provide a source of fresh air. Bleed air is diverted from a location just prior to the combustion chamber at a temperature around 500 degrees C. To prevent oil breakdown products from entering the cabin air, catalytic converters have been used to clean the air. During an oil seal failure this device becomes overloaded and smoke is observed in the cabin. Some aircraft companies have removed the catalytic converters and claim an improvement in air quality. During an oil seal failure, however, the flight crew is potentially exposed to the thermal breakdown products of the engine oils. Because very little is known regarding the thermal breakdown products of jet engine lubrication oils, two commercially available oils were investigated under laboratory conditions at 525 degrees C to measure the release of CO, CO2,NO2, and HCN as well as volatiles which were analyzed using GC-Mass spectrometry in an attempt to see if the neurotoxic agents tricresyl phosphates (TCPs) and trimethyl propane phosphate (TMPP) would be present or formed. TMPP was not found in these experiments. Some CO2 was generated along with CO which reached levels in excess of 100 ppm. HCN and NO2 were not detected. GC compositions of the two bulk oils and their breakdown products were almost identical. The presence of TCPs was confirmed in the bulk oils and in the volatiles. Localized condensation in the ventilation ducts and filters in the air conditioning packs are likely the reason why the presence of TCPs has not been demonstrated in cabin air. It was recommended that this needed to be verified in aircraft. PMID:10701290

  2. Supercritical Fluid Synthesis and Tribological Applications of Silver Nanoparticle-decorated Graphene in Engine Oil Nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yuan; Su, Fenghua; Chen, Yangzhi

    2016-08-01

    Silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene nanocomposites were synthesized by a facile chemical reduction approach with the assistance of supercritical CO2 (ScCO2). The silver nanoparticles with diameters of 2–16 nm are uniformly distributed and firmly anchored on graphene nanosheets. The tribological properties of the as-synthesized nanocomposites as lubricant additives in engine oil were investigated by a four-ball tribometer. The engine oil with 0.06~0.10 wt.% Sc-Ag/GN nanocomposites displays remarkable lubricating performance, superior than the pure engine oil, the engine oil containing zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP), as well as the oil dispersed with the single nanomaterial of graphene oxides (GOs) and nano-Ag particles alone. The remarkable lubricating behaviors of Sc-Ag/GN probably derive from the synergistic interactions of nano-Ag and graphene in the nanocomposite and the action of the formed protective film on the contact balls. The anchored nano-Ag particles on graphene expand the interlamination spaces of graphene nanosheets and can prevent them from restacking during the rubbing process, resulting in the full play of lubricating activity of graphene. The formed protective film on the friction pairs significantly reduces the surface roughness of the sliding balls and hence preventing them from direct interaction during the sliding process.

  3. Supercritical Fluid Synthesis and Tribological Applications of Silver Nanoparticle-decorated Graphene in Engine Oil Nanofluid

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yuan; Su, Fenghua; Chen, Yangzhi

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene nanocomposites were synthesized by a facile chemical reduction approach with the assistance of supercritical CO2 (ScCO2). The silver nanoparticles with diameters of 2–16 nm are uniformly distributed and firmly anchored on graphene nanosheets. The tribological properties of the as-synthesized nanocomposites as lubricant additives in engine oil were investigated by a four-ball tribometer. The engine oil with 0.06~0.10 wt.% Sc-Ag/GN nanocomposites displays remarkable lubricating performance, superior than the pure engine oil, the engine oil containing zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP), as well as the oil dispersed with the single nanomaterial of graphene oxides (GOs) and nano-Ag particles alone. The remarkable lubricating behaviors of Sc-Ag/GN probably derive from the synergistic interactions of nano-Ag and graphene in the nanocomposite and the action of the formed protective film on the contact balls. The anchored nano-Ag particles on graphene expand the interlamination spaces of graphene nanosheets and can prevent them from restacking during the rubbing process, resulting in the full play of lubricating activity of graphene. The formed protective film on the friction pairs significantly reduces the surface roughness of the sliding balls and hence preventing them from direct interaction during the sliding process. PMID:27488733

  4. Characterization of vegetable oils for use as fuels in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T.W. III.; Callahan, T.J.; Dodge, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    The current specifications for petroleum fuels have evolved over the history of the petroleum industry and the development of the internal combustion engine. Present day fuel specifications are based on a wealth of empirical data and practical experience. A similar data base is only now being developed for the specification of vegetable oil fuels for diesel engines. Four different types of vegetable oil (soy, sunflower, cottonseed and peanut) have been obtained, each in at least three different stages of processing. All of the oils (14) have been characterized with respect to their physical and chemical properties. The spray characteristics of five of the oils have been determined at a variety of fuel temperatures using a high-pressure, high-temperature injection bomb and high-speed motion picture camera. These same oils have been tested in a direct injection farm tractor engine. The engine data consists of the normal performance measurements as well as the determination of heat release rates from cylinder pressure data. 3 figures, 7 tables.

  5. Usability of food industry waste oils as fuel for diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Winfried, Russ; Roland, Meyer-Pittroff; Alexander, Dobiasch; Jürgen, Lachenmaier-Kölch

    2008-02-01

    Two cogeneration units were each fitted with a prechamber (IDI) diesel engine in order to test the feasibility of using waste oils from the food industry as a fuel source, and additionally to test emissions generated by the combustion of these fuels. Esterified waste oils and animal fats as well as mustard oil were tested and compared to the more or less "common" fuels: diesel, rapeseed oil and rapeseed methyl ester. The results show that, in principle, each of these fuels is suitable for use in a prechamber diesel engine. Engine performance can be maintained at a constant level. Without catalytic conversion, the nitrogen oxides emissions were comparable. A significant reduction in NO(x) was achieved through the injection of urea. Combining a urea injection with the SCR catalytic converter reduced NO(x) emissions between 53% and 67%. The carbon monoxide emissions from waste oils are not significantly different from those of "common" fuels and can be reduced the same way as of hydrocarbon emissions, through utilization of a catalytic converter. The rate of carbon monoxide reduction by catalytic conversion was 84-86%. A lower hydrocarbon concentration was associated with fuels of agricultural origin. With the catalytic converter a reduction of 29-42% achieved. Each prechamber diesel engine exhibited its own characteristic exhaust, which was independent of fuel type. The selective catalytic reduction of the exhaust emissions can be realized without restriction using fuels of agricultural origin. PMID:17303316

  6. Combustion Performance and Exhaust Emission of DI Diesel Engine Using Various Sources of Waste Cooking Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afiq, Mohd; Azuhairi, Mohd; Jazair, Wira

    2010-06-01

    In Malaysia, more than 200-tone of cooking oil are used by domestic users everyday. After frying process, about a quarter of these cooking oil was remained and drained into sewage system. This will pollutes waterways and affects the ecosystem. The use of waste cooking oil (WCO) for producing bio-diesel was considered in economical factor which current production cost of bio-diesel production is higher in Malaysia due to higher price of palm oil. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the most suitable source of WCO to become a main source of bio-diesel for bio-diesel production in this country. To perform this research, three type of WCO were obtained from house's kitchen, cafeteria and mamak's restaurant. In this study, prospect of these bio-diesel source was evaluated based on its combustion performance and exhaust emissions operated in diesel engine in the form of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) and have been compared with pure diesel fuel. A 0.6 liter, single-cylinder, air-cooled direct injection diesel engine was used to perform this experiment. Experiment was done at variable engine loads and constant engine speed. As the result, among three stated WCOMEs, the one collected from house's kitchen gives the best performance in term of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) and brake power (BP) with lowest soot emission.

  7. Supercritical Fluid Synthesis and Tribological Applications of Silver Nanoparticle-decorated Graphene in Engine Oil Nanofluid.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yuan; Su, Fenghua; Chen, Yangzhi

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene nanocomposites were synthesized by a facile chemical reduction approach with the assistance of supercritical CO2 (ScCO2). The silver nanoparticles with diameters of 2-16 nm are uniformly distributed and firmly anchored on graphene nanosheets. The tribological properties of the as-synthesized nanocomposites as lubricant additives in engine oil were investigated by a four-ball tribometer. The engine oil with 0.06~0.10 wt.% Sc-Ag/GN nanocomposites displays remarkable lubricating performance, superior than the pure engine oil, the engine oil containing zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP), as well as the oil dispersed with the single nanomaterial of graphene oxides (GOs) and nano-Ag particles alone. The remarkable lubricating behaviors of Sc-Ag/GN probably derive from the synergistic interactions of nano-Ag and graphene in the nanocomposite and the action of the formed protective film on the contact balls. The anchored nano-Ag particles on graphene expand the interlamination spaces of graphene nanosheets and can prevent them from restacking during the rubbing process, resulting in the full play of lubricating activity of graphene. The formed protective film on the friction pairs significantly reduces the surface roughness of the sliding balls and hence preventing them from direct interaction during the sliding process. PMID:27488733

  8. Non-Edible Plant Oils as New Sources for Biodiesel Production

    PubMed Central

    Chhetri, Arjun B.; Tango, Martin S.; Budge, Suzanne M.; Watts, K. Chris; Islam, M. Rafiqul

    2008-01-01

    Due to the concern on the availability of recoverable fossil fuel reserves and the environmental problems caused by the use those fossil fuels, considerable attention has been given to biodiesel production as an alternative to petrodiesel. However, as the biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats, there are concerns that biodiesel feedstock may compete with food supply in the long-term. Hence, the recent focus is to find oil bearing plants that produce non-edible oils as the feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, two plant species, soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi) and jatropha (jatropha curcas, L.) are discussed as newer sources of oil for biodiesel production. Experimental analysis showed that both oils have great potential to be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from cold pressed soapnut seed oil was envisaged as biodiesel source for the first time. Soapnut oil was found to have average of 9.1% free FA, 84.43% triglycerides, 4.88% sterol and 1.59% others. Jatropha oil contains approximately 14% free FA, approximately 5% higher than soapnut oil. Soapnut oil biodiesel contains approximately 85% unsaturated FA while jatropha oil biodiesel was found to have approximately 80% unsaturated FA. Oleic acid was found to be the dominant FA in both soapnut and jatropha biodiesel. Over 97% conversion to FAME was achieved for both soapnut and jatropha oil. PMID:19325741

  9. Non-edible plant oils as new sources for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Chhetri, Arjun B; Tango, Martin S; Budge, Suzanne M; Watts, K C; Islam, M R

    2008-02-01

    Due to the concern on the availability of recoverable fossil fuel reserves and the environmental problems caused by the use those fossil fuels, considerable attention has been given to biodiesel production as an alternative to petrodiesel. However, as the biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats, there are concerns that biodiesel feedstock may compete with food supply in the long-term. Hence, the recent focus is to find oil bearing plants that produce non-edible oils as the feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, two plant species, soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi) and jatropha (jatropha curcas, L.) are discussed as newer sources of oil for biodiesel production. Experimental analysis showed that both oils have great potential to be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from cold pressed soapnut seed oil was envisaged as biodiesel source for the first time. Soapnut oil was found to have average of 9.1% free FA, 84.43% triglycerides, 4.88% sterol and 1.59% others. Jatropha oil contains approximately 14% free FA, approximately 5% higher than soapnut oil. Soapnut oil biodiesel contains approximately 85% unsaturated FA while jatropha oil biodiesel was found to have approximately 80% unsaturated FA. Oleic acid was found to be the dominant FA in both soapnut and jatropha biodiesel. Over 97% conversion to FAME was achieved for both soapnut and jatropha oil. PMID:19325741

  10. Effect of commercially available plant-derived essential oil products on arthropod pests.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Galle, Cindy L; Keith, Stephen R; Kalscheur, Nanette A; Kemp, Kenneth E

    2009-08-01

    Plant-derived essential oil products, in general, are considered minimum-risk pesticides and are exempt from Environmental Protection Agency registration under section 25(b) of the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. However, many of the plant-derived essential products available to consumers (homeowners) have not been judiciously evaluated for both efficacy and plant safety. In fact, numerous plant-derived essential oil products labeled for control of arthropod pests have not been subject to rigorous evaluation, and there is minimal scientific information or supporting data associated with efficacy against arthropod pests. We conducted a series of greenhouse experiments to determine the efficacy and phytotoxicity of an array of plant-derived essential oil products available to consumers on arthropod pests including the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso); western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande); twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch; sweetpotato whitefly B-biotype, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius); and green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Although the products Flower Pharm (cottonseed, cinnamon, and rosemary oil) and Indoor Pharm (soybean, rosemary, and lavender oil) provided > 90% mortality of citrus mealybug, they were also the most phytotoxic to the coleus, Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd, plants. Both GC-Mite (cottonseed, clove, and garlic oil) and Bugzyme (citric acid) were most effective against the twospotted spider mite (> or = 90% mortality). However, SMC (canola, coriander oil, and triethanolamine), neem (clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil), and Bug Assassin (eugenol, sodium lauryl sulfate, peppermint, and citronella oil) provided > 80% mortality. Monterey Garden Insect Spray, which contained 0.5% spinosad, was most effective against western flower thrips with 100% mortality. All the other products evaluated failed to provide sufficient control of western flower thrips with < 30

  11. Evaluation of preservative engine oil containing vapor-phase corrosion inhibitor and a simplified engine-preservation technique. Interim report, Jul 85-Sep 90

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, E.A.

    1990-12-01

    The objectives of this project were: (1) to determine the feasibility of adding a vapor-phase corrosion inhibitor (VCI) component to improve the preservation performance of MIL-L-21260 and (2) to evaluate a less complicated engine preservation procedure. A simultaneous two-phase approach was conducted. Phase 1 involved the formulation and evaluation of experimental VCI oils, while Phase 2 was the evaluation of a simplified engine preservation procedure. VCI oil formulation was conducted by Ronco Laboratory under subcontract. Compatibility of the experimental VCI oils with metal coupons, elastomers, and fuel filters was determined. Effectiveness of the experimental VCI oil was evaluated in a 3-year outdoor engine storage test. The engines were preserved using an experimental, simplified preservation procedure. The simplified engine preservation procedure proved to be acceptable as engines stored for 3 years in a very severe environment were judged to have been adequately preserved. Engine oil meeting specification MIL-L-21260 provided satisfactory protection during the 3-year storage test. The experimental VCI oil also provided satisfactory storage protection during this test; however, there was no observable advantage for the VCI oil. The VCI oil had acceptable compatibility with an elastomeric flex ring, metal coupons (except lead), and fuel filters.

  12. Soy-Based, Water-Cooled, TC W-III Two Cycle Engine Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, Curtis R.; Miller, Mark E.

    2003-08-30

    The objective of this project was to achieve technical approval and commercial launch for a biodegradable soy oil-based, environmentally safe, TC W-III performance, water-cooled, two cycle engine oil. To do so would: (1) develop a new use for RBD soybean oil; (2) increase soybean utilization in North America in the range of 500 K-3.0 MM bushels; and (3) open up supply opportunities of 1.5-5.0 MM bushels worldwide. These goals have been successfully obtained.

  13. A Nano Engineered Membrane for Oil-Water Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Brian; Hyder, Nasim; Varanasi, Kripa

    2012-02-01

    Oil and water separation is an extremely costly problem in the petroleum industry. Pumping the complete emulsion to the surface requires substantially more power than pumping the oil alone. A membrane that can efficiently separate oil from water at the source would revolutionize this process. To this end a novel, layered, hierarchical thermoplastic membrane was fabricated with both nanoscale and microscale features. Modifying the length scales involved in fabrication of the membrane yields interesting and non-obvious implications. Under certain regimes, the microscale features independently control the membrane's permeability, while the microscale features control only the membrane's breakthrough pressure. By operating in this regime, separation efficiencies can be realized that are otherwise unattainable by conventional membranes. Taking it a step further, chemical treatments have been used to achieve higher hydrophobicity for the membrane by lowering the surface energy of the membrane surface. Although this research focused on oil-water separation, the results have implications for other multiphase systems and hold for many other filtration and separation technologies including in lab-on-chip devices and micro/nanofluidic devices.

  14. Efficacy of plant essential oils for the repellents against chiggers (Leptotrombidium imphalum) vector of scrub typhus.

    PubMed

    Rodkvamtook, Wuttikon; Prasartvit, Anchana; Jatisatienr, Chaiwat; Jatisatienr, Araya; Gaywee, Jariyanart; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2012-05-01

    Scrub typhus caused by the Orientia tsutsugamushi. Rodents, particularly rats, serve as principal reservoir hosts. Infection in man is transmitted by the, chigger bite. Repellents provide an effective agent of protecting individuals from chigger. In the present study 6 plant essential oils were tested for evaluation of their repellent activity against the chigger, Leptotrombidium imphalum. The results showed that Clove oil was significantly more effective than others with ED50 and EC50 of 0.420 mg and 2.3%, followed by Zingiber oil (8.458 mg and 42.3%), Vetiver oil (19.582 mg and 97.9%), Turmeric oil (24.343 mg and 121.7%), Orange oil (27.310 mg and 136.6%) and Boesenbergia oil (30.486 mg and 152.4%). These results suggested that Clove oil was the most efficient repellent against chigger which is the vector for scrub typhus. PMID:22934454

  15. Geospatial estimation of the impact of Deepwater Horizon oil spill on plant oiling along the Louisiana shorelines.

    PubMed

    Goovaerts, Pierre; Wobus, Cameron; Jones, Russell; Rissing, Matthew

    2016-09-15

    Stranded oil covering soil and plant stems in fragile Louisiana marshes was one of the most visible impacts of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. As part of the assessment of marsh injury after the DWH spill, plant stem oiling was broken into five categories (0%, 0-10%, 10-50%, 50-90%, 90-100%) and used as the independent variable for estimating death of vegetation, accelerated erosion, and other metrics of injury. The length of shoreline falling into each of these stem oiling categories was therefore a key measure of the total extent of marsh injury, and its accurate estimation is the focus of this paper. First, we used geographically-weighted logistic regression (GWR) to explore and model spatially varying relationships between stem oiling field data and secondary information (oiling exposure category) collected during shoreline surveys. We then combined GWR probability estimates with field data using indicator cokriging to predict the probability of exceeding four stem oiling thresholds (0, 10, 50, and 90%) at 50 m intervals along the Louisiana shoreline. Cross-validation using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves demonstrate the greater prediction accuracy of the multivariate geostatistical approach relative to either aspatial regression or indicator kriging that ignores secondary information. PMID:27240202

  16. Prototype Commercial Coal/Oil Coprocessing Plant Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Ohio Clean Fuels (OCF) commissioned Hydrocarbon Research Inc., (HRI) in 1988--1989 to conduct a large-scale laboratory simulation of Coal-Oil Coprocessing (COPRO) in their Process Development Unit (PDU). OCF also commissioned Princeton Process Engineers (Richard M. Eccles) to provide a kinetic-model analysis of PDU and bench data to: (1) quantify the extent to which COPRO scaled-up'' from the previous simulation in bench-scale reactors; (2) assess scaleup to commercial reactors; and (3) provide OCF with consistent predictions of alternative commercial-scale operations. A Kinetic Model based on the Law of Mass Action as applied to back-mixed liquid-phase hydrogenation reactors has been successfully used to analyze COPRO bench and PDU data. The COPRO resid-conversion model permits estimation of the achievable performance in commercial reactors at alternative design or operating conditions, for a range of catalyst replacement rates. Conversions of organic sulfur, resid, and nitrogen were found to be comparable catalytic reactions following analogous decline curves with catalyst age, with the percentage conversions ranked downward in that order. For a catalyst age and operating conditions at which 90% resid conversion is obtained, corresponding conversions for organic sulfur and nitrogen are expected to be about 96% and 85%, respectively. Distillate product sulfur and nitrogen contents can be reliably estimated from the percentage conversions for organic sulfur and nitrogen for a given feed. 19 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. [Repellent activity of plant essential oils against bites of Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae)].

    PubMed

    Nieves, Elsa; Fernández Méndez, Janett; Lias, José; Rondón, Maritza; Briceño, Benito

    2010-12-01

    Natural repellents from plant extracts have demonstrated good efficacy against bites of some insect species. The present study evaluated the repellent effect of essential oils extracted from 8 plants species against bites of Lutzomyia migonei, the Leishmania vector. The essential oils were extracted by steam destillation in Clevenger chamber, from the following plants: Hyptis suaveolens, Pimenta racemosa, Piper marginatum, Monticalia imbricatifolia, Pseudognaphalium caeruleocanum, Espeletia shultzii, Plecthranthus amboinicus and Cinnamomun zeylanicum. Repellency tests were performed under laboratory conditions by the human hand method in cage assays, using female colonies of L. migonei. The more effective oils were tested at variable concentrations on different volunteers. The protection percentage and time were calculated. The results showed what oils of P. caeruleocanum and C. zeylanicum were the most effective. Although P. amboinicus oil also had repellent effect showed an irritant effect. The oils P. marginatum, H. suaveolens and P. racemosa showed no repellent effect, while the rest of oil extracts showed significant repellency in variable degrees. P. caeruleocanum and C. zeylanicum oils provided the 95% protection against bites of L. migonei for 3 h. The P. caeruleocanum oil showed the greatest protection time, with a mean over 4h and 3h at concentrations of 50% and 10% respectively. The results suggest that the P. caeruleocanum oil could represent a potential natural repellent against Leishmania vectors. PMID:21250485

  18. Toxicity and synergic repellency of plant essential oil mixtures with vanillin against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon-Il; Yoon, June-Sun; Baeck, Seung-Jae; Lee, Sung-Hwa; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kwon, Hyung Wook

    2012-07-01

    In all triplicate tests of six plant essential oils and of vanillin mixtures, we corroborated strong insecticidal and repellent activities against adult Aedes aegypti (L.). Essential oils with potent toxic fumigant activities also exhibited repellency. Compared with N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, 5% of the essential oil concentrations of cassia, lemongrass, lemon eucalyptus, and xanthoxylum oils did not show repellent effects. However, a composition oflemongrass oil, xanthoxylum oil, and vanillin (1:3:1, vol:vol:wt) provided 270 min of complete protection time (CPT) compared with 247.5 min CPT with 15% N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide. The CPT depended on concentration, presence ofvanillin, or on both factors. When we applied a mixture of lemongrass oil: xanthoxylum oil: vanillin (1:1:1, vol:vol:wt) to the Viscopearl formulation, or porous cellulose beads, it provided gradual release of volatile compounds, thus showing >90% of repellency for 2 h. The behavioral and electrophysiological approaches we drew upon in our current study demonstrated that plant essential oil mixtures combined with vanillin showed strong and durable repellency to the mosquito. We claim that such combinations of plant essential oils and vanillin found in current study propose a viable commercial product suitable for future application in protecting a person from mosquito bites. PMID:22897048

  19. Natural attenuation of weathered oil using aquatic plants in a farm in Southeast Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Cruz, María Del Carmen; Trujillo-Narcía, Antonio; Trujillo-Rivera, Eduardo A; Arias-Trinidad, Alfredo; Mendoza-López, María Remedios

    2016-09-01

    An experiment was conducted in field for three years to assess the sustainability of aquatic plants Leersia hexandra, Cyperus articulatus, and Eleocharis palustris for use in the removal of total hydrocarbons of weathered oil in four areas contaminated with 60916-119373 mg/kg of hydrocarbons. The variables evaluated were coverage of plant, dry matter, density of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, and the removal of total weathered oil. The variables showed statistical differences (p = 0.05) due to the effects of time and the amount of oil in the soil. The three aquatic plants survived on the farm during the 36-month evaluation. The grass L. hexandra yielded the greatest coverage of plant but was inhibited by the toxicity of the oil, which, in contrast, stimulated the coverage of C. articulatus. The rhizosphere of L. hexandra in control soil was more densely colonized by N-fixing bacteria, while the density of phosphate and potassium solubilizing rhizobacteria was stimulated by exposure to oil. C. articulatus coverage showed positive relationship with the removal of weathered oil; positive effect between rhizosphere and L. hexandra grass coverage was also identified. These results contributed to the removal of weathered oil in Gleysols flooded and affected by chronic discharges of crude oil. PMID:26939740

  20. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2016-07-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  1. Canola engineered with a microalgal polyketide synthase-like system produces oil enriched in docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Terence A; Bevan, Scott A; Gachotte, Daniel J; Larsen, Cory M; Moskal, William A; Merlo, P A Owens; Sidorenko, Lyudmila V; Hampton, Ronnie E; Stoltz, Virginia; Pareddy, Dayakar; Anthony, Geny I; Bhaskar, Pudota B; Marri, Pradeep R; Clark, Lauren M; Chen, Wei; Adu-Peasah, Patrick S; Wensing, Steven T; Zirkle, Ross; Metz, James G

    2016-08-01

    Dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) are usually derived from marine fish. Although production of both EPA and DHA has been engineered into land plants, including Arabidopsis, Camelina sativa and Brassica juncea, neither has been produced in commercially relevant amounts in a widely grown crop. We report expression of a microalgal polyketide synthase-like PUFA synthase system, comprising three multidomain polypeptides and an accessory enzyme, in canola (Brassica napus) seeds. This transgenic enzyme system is expressed in the cytoplasm, and synthesizes DHA and EPA de novo from malonyl-CoA without substantially altering plastidial fatty acid production. Furthermore, there is no significant impact of DHA and EPA production on seed yield in either the greenhouse or the field. Canola oil processed from field-grown grain contains 3.7% DHA and 0.7% EPA, and can provide more than 600 mg of omega-3 LC-PUFAs in a 14 g serving. PMID:27398790

  2. Low Dielectric Constant Materials from Hollow Fibers and Plant Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Chang K.; Wool, Richard P.

    2003-03-01

    A new low dielectric constant (k) material suited to electronic materials applications was developed using hollow keratin fibers (HF) and chemically modified soyoil. High-speed microelectronics are facilitated by preventing the ``rubber necking", or slow-down of electrons on the printed wires through the use of low-k dielectrics. The unusual low k-value of the HF composite material derives both from the air (k = 1) in the hollow microcrystalline keratin fibers (k = 1.6), and the triglyceride molecules (k = 2.3), and is in the range of 1.7 to 2.7 at 100 MHz, depending on the HF fraction. These values are lower than that of the conventional silicon dioxide, (k = 3.8 to 4.2) or epoxy dielectric insulators. Also, the HF dielectric is lightweight (SG < 1) and rigid (Modulus > 2 GPa), with fracture toughness (1.0 MPa m^1/2) (and approximates the shape and feel of a silicon dioxide insulator. Multi-Chip-Module circuit printing results suggest that the low-cost composite made with HF (from avian sources) and plant oil (from soybean) has the potential to replace the dielectric in microchips and circuit boards in the ever-growing electronic materials field, in addition to many applications as a new lightweight composite material. Supported by EPA and DoE

  3. Development of New Elastomers and Elastic Nanocomposites from Plant Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Wool, Richard

    2006-03-01

    Economic and environmental concerns lead to the development of new polymers from renewable resources. In this research, new elastomers were synthesized from plant oil based resins. Acrylated oleic methyl ester (AOME), synthesized from high oleic triglycerides, can readily undergo free radical polymerization and form a linear polymer. To achieve the elastic properties, different strategies have been developed to generate an elastic network and control the crosslink density. The elastomers are reinforced by nanoclays. The intercalated state has a network structure similar to thermoplastic elastomers in which the hard segments aggregate to give ordered crystalline domains. The selected organically modified clay and AOME matrix have similar solubility parameters, therefore intercalation of the monomer/polymer into the clay layers occurs and the nano-scale multilayered structure is stable. In situ intercalation and solution intercalation were used to prepare the elastic nanocomposites. Dramatic improvement in mechanical properties was observed. Changes of tensile strength, strain, Young's modulus and fracture energy were related to the clay concentration. The fracture surface was studied to further understand clay effects on the mechanical properties. Self-Healing of the intercalated nanobeams, thermal stability, biocompatibility and biodegradability of this new elastomer were also explored.

  4. Metabolic engineering of volatile isoprenoids in plants and microbes.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Claudia E; Bongers, Mareike; Liu, Qing; Delatte, Thierry; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2014-08-01

    The chemical properties and diversity of volatile isoprenoids lends them to a broad variety of biological roles. It also lends them to a host of biotechnological applications, both by taking advantage of their natural functions and by using them as industrial chemicals/chemical feedstocks. Natural functions include roles as insect attractants and repellents, abiotic stress protectants in pathogen defense, etc. Industrial applications include use as pharmaceuticals, flavours, fragrances, fuels, fuel additives, etc. Here we will examine the ways in which researchers have so far found to exploit volatile isoprenoids using biotechnology. Production and/or modification of volatiles using metabolic engineering in both plants and microorganisms are reviewed, including engineering through both mevalonate and methylerythritol diphosphate pathways. Recent advances are illustrated using several case studies (herbivores and bodyguards, isoprene, and monoterpene production in microbes). Systems and synthetic biology tools with particular utility for metabolic engineering are also reviewed. Finally, we discuss the practical realities of various applications in modern biotechnology, explore possible future applications, and examine the challenges of moving these technologies forward so that they can deliver tangible benefits. While this review focuses on volatile isoprenoids, many of the engineering approaches described here are also applicable to non-isoprenoid volatiles and to non-volatile isoprenoids. PMID:24588680

  5. Experimental investigation of engine emissions with marine gas oil-oxygenate blends.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2010-07-15

    This paper investigates the diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil-alternative fuel additive. Marine gas oil (MGO) was selected as base fuel for the engine experiments. An oxygenate, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DGM), and a biodiesel (BD) jatropha oil methyl ester (JOME) with a volume of 10% were blended with the MGO fuel. JOME was derived from inedible jatropha oil. Lower emissions with diesel-BD blends (soybean methyl ester, rapeseed methyl ester etc.) have been established so far, but the effect of MGO-BD (JOME) blends on engine performance and emissions has been a growing interest as JOME (BD) is derived from inedible oil and MGO is frequently used in maritime transports. No phase separation between MGO-DGM and MGO-JOME blends was found. The neat MGO, MGO-DGM and MGO-JOME blends are termed as MGO, Ox10 and B10 respectively. The experiments were conducted with a six-cylinder, four-stroke, turbocharged, direct-injection Scania DC 1102 (DI) diesel engine. The experimental results showed significant reductions in fine particle number and mass emissions, PM and smoke emissions with Ox10 and B10 fuels compared to the MGO fuel. Other emissions including total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), carbon monoxide (CO) and engine noise were also reduced with the Ox10 and B10 fuels, while maintaining similar brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and thermal efficiency with MGO fuel. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions, on the other hand, were slightly higher with the Ox10 and B10 fuels at high engine load conditions. PMID:20452651

  6. Development of Small-Scale CHP Plant with a Wood Powder-Fueled Stirling Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Katsura; Ohiwa, Norio; Ishikawa, Akira; Shimojima, Hidetoshi; Nishiyama, Akio; Moriya, Yoichi

    Small-scale biomass CHP (combined heat and power) plants are in demand for environmental reasons - particularly systems fueled by wood waste, which are simple to operate and require no maintenance while having high thermal efficiency similar to oil-fired units. A 55kWe Stirling engine CHP system, combined with a simplified biomass combustion process that uses pulverized wood powder has been developed to meet these requirements. Wood powder of less than 500 μm was mainly used in these tests, and a combustion chamber length of 3 m was applied. Under these conditions, the air ratio can be reduced to 1.1 without increasing CO emissions by less than 10 ppm, and with combustion efficiency of 99.9%. Under the same conditions, NOx emissions are estimated to be less than 120 ppm (on the basis of 6% O2). Wood powder was confirmed to have excellent properties as a fuel for Stirling engines. The 55 kWe Stirling engine performance test was carried out to optimize the operating condition of wood powder burners. The status of Stirling engine operation at a full load with 55 kWe was stable, and start-up and shut -down operations were easy to perform. Operational status was evaluated as being excellent, except for an ash fouling problem in the Stirling engine heater tubes. Ash fouling characteristics were considered in the final stage of the demonstration test. This paper summarizes the wood powder combustion test and Stirling engine performance test. Furthermore, the ash fouling data is shown and the mechanism of ash fouling in heater tubes is discussed.

  7. Short communication: an in vitro assessment of the antibacterial activity of plant-derived oils.

    PubMed

    Mullen, K A E; Lee, A R; Lyman, R L; Mason, S E; Washburn, S P; Anderson, K L

    2014-09-01

    Nonantibiotic treatments for mastitis are needed in organic dairy herds. Plant-derived oils may be useful but efficacy and potential mechanisms of action of such oils in mastitis therapy have not been well documented. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the plant-derived oil components of Phyto-Mast (Bovinity Health LLC, Narvon, PA), an herbal intramammary product, against 3 mastitis-causing pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, and Streptococcus uberis. Plant-derived oils evaluated were Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Chinese licorice), Angelica sinensis, and Angelica dahurica. Broth dilution testing according to standard protocol was performed using ultrapasteurized whole milk instead of broth. Controls included milk only (negative control), milk + bacteria (positive control), and milk + bacteria + penicillin-streptomycin (antibiotic control, at 1 and 5% concentrations). Essential oil of thyme was tested by itself and not in combination with other oils because of its known antibacterial activity. The other plant-derived oils were tested alone and in combination for a total of 15 treatments, each replicated 3 times and tested at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4% to simulate concentrations potentially achievable in the milk within the pre-dry-off udder quarter. Thyme oil at concentrations ≥2% completely inhibited bacterial growth in all replications. Other plant-derived oils tested alone or in various combinations were not consistently antibacterial and did not show typical dose-response effects. Only thyme essential oil had consistent antibacterial activity against the 3 mastitis-causing organisms tested in vitro. Further evaluation of physiological effects of thyme oil in various preparations on mammary tissue is recommended to determine potential suitability for mastitis therapy. PMID:25022682

  8. Genetically engineered plants in the product development pipeline in India.

    PubMed

    Warrier, Ranjini; Pande, Hem

    2016-01-01

    In order to proactively identify emerging issues that may impact the risk assessment and risk management functions of the Indian biosafety regulatory system, the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change sought to understand the nature and diversity of genetically engineered crops that may move to product commercialization within the next 10 y. This paper describes the findings from a questionnaire designed to solicit information about public and private sector research and development (R&D) activities in plant biotechnology. It is the first comprehensive overview of the R&D pipeline for GE crops in India. PMID:26954729

  9. Improving Nutritional Quality of Plant Proteins Through Genetic Engineering.

    PubMed

    Le, Dung Tien; Chu, Ha Duc; Le, Ngoc Quynh

    2016-06-01

    Humans and animals are unable to synthesize essential amino acids such as branch chain amino acids methionine (Met), lysine (Lys) and tryptophan (Trp). Therefore, these amino acids need to be supplied through the diets. Several essential amino acids are deficient or completely lacking among crops used for human food and animal feed. For example, soybean is deficient in Met; Lys and Trp are lacking in maize. In this mini review, we will first summarize the roles of essential amino acids in animal nutrition. Next, we will address the question: "What are the amino acids deficient in various plants and their biosynthesis pathways?" And: "What approaches are being used to improve the availability of essential amino acids in plants?" The potential targets for metabolic engineering will also be discussed, including what has already been done and what remains to be tested. PMID:27252589

  10. Effect of essential oil of Origanum rotundifolium on some plant pathogenic bacteria, seed germination and plant growth of tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadaşoǧlu, Fatih; Kotan, Recep; Karagöz, Kenan; Dikbaş, Neslihan; Ćakmakçi, Ramazan; Ćakir, Ahmet; Kordali, Şaban; Özer, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine effect of Origanum rotundifolium's essential oil on some plant pathogenic bacterias, seed germination and plant growth of tomato. Xanthomonas axanopodis pv. vesicatoria strain (Xcv-761) and Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis strain (Cmm) inoculated to tomato seed. The seeds were tested for germination in vitro and disease severity and some plant growth parameters in vivo. In vitro assay, maximum seed germination was observed at 62,5 µl/ml essential oil treatment in seeds inoculated with Xcv-761 and at 62,5 µl/ml essential oil and streptomycin treatment in seeds inoculated with Cmm. The least infected cotiledon number was observed at 500 µg/ml streptomycin treatment in seeds inoculated with Cmm. In vivo assay, maximum seed germination was observed at 250 µl/ml essential oil teratment in tomato inoculated with Cmm. Lowest disease severity, is seen in the CMM infected seeds with 250 µl/ml essential oil application these results were statistically significant when compared with pathogen infected seeds. Similarly, in application conducted with XCV-761 infected seed, the lowest disease severity was observed for seeds as a result of 250 µl/ml essential oil application. Also according to the results obtained from essential oil application of CMM infected seeds conducted with 62,5 µl/ml dose; while disease severity was found statistically insignificant compared to 250 µl/ml to essential oil application, ıt was found statistically significant compared to pathogen infected seeds. The results showed that essential oil of O. rotundifolium has a potential for some suppressed plant disease when it is used in appropriate dose.

  11. Emission reduction from a diesel engine fueled by pine oil biofuel using SCR and catalytic converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Yang, W. M.; Saravanan, C. G.; Lee, P. S.; Chua, K. J. E.; Chou, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we propose pine oil biofuel, a renewable fuel obtained from the resins of pine tree, as a potential substitute fuel for a diesel engine. Pine oil is endowed with enhanced physical and thermal properties such as lower viscosity and boiling point, which enhances the atomization and fuel/air mixing process. However, the lower cetane number of the pine oil hinders its direct use in diesel engine and hence, it is blended in suitable proportions with diesel so that the ignition assistance could be provided by higher cetane diesel. Since lower cetane fuels are prone to more NOX formation, SCR (selective catalyst reduction), using urea as reducing agent, along with a CC (catalytic converter) has been implemented in the exhaust pipe. From the experimental study, the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) was observed to be increased as the composition of pine oil increases in the blend, with B50 (50% pine oil and 50% diesel) showing 7.5% increase over diesel at full load condition. The major emissions such as smoke, CO, HC and NOX were reduced by 70.1%, 67.5%, 58.6% and 15.2%, respectively, than diesel. Further, the average emissions of B50 with SCR and CC assembly were observed to be reduced, signifying the positive impact of pine oil biofuel on atmospheric environment. In the combustion characteristics front, peak heat release rate and maximum in-cylinder pressure were observed to be higher with longer ignition delay.

  12. Soil stability and plant diversity in eco-engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böll, Albert; Gerber, Werner; Rickli, Christian; Graf, Frank

    2010-05-01

    Slopes affected by superficial sliding and subsequently re-stabilised with eco-engineering measures were investigated, particularly related to soil stability and plant diversity. The sites are situated in three different areas of beech-fir-spruce forest associations of the higher montane zone of Switzerland. Climatic and site characteristics, in paraticular soil properties after the sliding event, of the three investigation areas are very similar. However, the number of species (shrubs and trees) used for the initial planting as well as the year of application of the eco-engineering measures differ substantially. In the investigation area Dallenwil-Wirzweli the biological measures taken in 1981 were restricted to one tree species, namely White Alder (Alnus incana). In Klosters, where measures were taken in 1983 as well as in the Arieschbach valley, where eco-engineering was applied in 1998, the initial planting consisted of 15 species either. Investigations in 2005/2006 revealed neither obvious differences among the three areas nor distinct correlations related to the diversity of the initial planting on the on hand and the development of the vegetation cover and soil stability on the other hand. During the available time of development, the soil aggregate stability increased by 30 to 39%. Compared to the corresponding climax association, the relative values of soil aggregate stability varied between 90 and 120%. Concurrently, the dry unit weight decreased between 1.1 and 3.1 kN/m3. The cumulative vegetation cover varied from 110 to 150%. Due to processes of soil development a distinct shift in the grain size distribution was noticed, from a well sorted gravel with clay and sand (GW-GC) to a silty gravel with sand (GM) in Dallenwil-Wirzweli and a silty to clayey gravel with sand (GC-GM) in Klosters and the Arieschbach valley. Furthermore, in all three investigation areas succession processes were observed that are comparable to average rates of natural secondary

  13. Effect of clove oil on plant pathogenic bacteria and bacterial wilt of tomato and geranium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the antibacterial activity of clove oil against seven different genera of plant pathogenic bacteria including Gram-negative Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Erwinia carotovora pv. carotovora, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. pelargonii...

  14. Fatty acid profile of 25 plant oils and implications for industrial applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid (FA) profiles of plant oils extracted from twenty-five alternative feedstocks were determined. This information was utilized to determine what industrial application(s) each oil is best suited for. The basis for the selection was the premise that FA composition influences properties o...

  15. Enviromental Effects on Oleic Acid in Soybean Seed Oil of Plant Introductions with Elevated Oleic Concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil with oleic acid content >500 g per kg is desirable for a broader role in food and industrial uses. Seed oil in commercially grown soybean genotypes averages about 230 g per kg oleic acid (18:1). Some maturity group (MG) II to V plant introductions (PIs) have el...

  16. Synthesis of novel plant oil derivatives: Furan and Diels-Alder reaction products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant oils are useful sustainable raw materials for the development of new chemical products. In this work epoxidized soybean oil was treated with different acids, and variable amounts of furan structures were produced from the epoxidized linoleate moiety. From process studies, the highest yields of...

  17. Mechanical, Barrier and Antimicrobial Properties of Apple Puree Edible Films Containing Plant Essential Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible films, as carriers of antimicrobial compounds, constitute an approach for incorporating plant essential oils onto fresh-cut fruit surfaces. The effect against Escherichia coli O157:H7 of oregano, cinnamon and lemongrass oils in apple puree film-forming solution (APFFS) and in an edible film ...

  18. Physical and chemical characterization of residual oil-fired power plant emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although the toxicity of oil combustion emissions is a significant public health concern, few studies characterize the emissions from plant-scale utility boilers firing residual oil. This study remedies that deficiency by sampling and monitoring stack emissions from a 432 Giga Jo...

  19. In vitro antifungal activity of essential oils obtained from officinal plants against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Lima, E O; Gompertz, O F; Giesbrecht, A M; Paulo, M Q

    1993-01-01

    Thirteen essential oils were isolated from officinal plants and tested in vitro against dermatophyte strains isolated from patients with dermatophytosis. Of the tested oils, those obtained from Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Eugenia uniflora and Alpinia speciosa were found to be the most active, inhibiting 80% of the dermatophyte strains tested and producing inhibition zones more than 10 mm in diameter. PMID:8015567

  20. Application of tunable diode laser spectroscopy to the real-time analysis of engine oil economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carduner, Keith R.; Colvin, A. D.; Leong, D. Y.; Schuetzle, Dennis; Mackay, Gervase I.

    1991-05-01

    Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy (TDLAS) of oil derived SO2 in automotive exhaust demonstrated acceptable repeatability in determination of oil consumption at steady state engine operating conditions. The response time of the instrument was approximately 30 sec, the time related to the flow rate of the sampling system. Instrument sensitivity is sufficient to measure SO2 levels of 0.1 to 1 ppm required to the oil consumption determination. Typical exhaust gas species were investigated for their interference effects and were observed to have less than a 10% interference on the SO2 signal for mixing ratios with SO2 typical of automotive exhaust. Water, on the other hand, did show a significant, but compensatible interference. Carbon deposition under rich engine conditions was observed and is expected to be a problem for any analytical device and is best solved by using a heated sampling line.

  1. Comparison of rumen microbial inhibition resulting from various essential oils isolated from relatively unpalatable plant species.

    PubMed

    Oh, H K; Jones, M B; Longhurst, W M

    1968-01-01

    Essential oils were isolated from eight plant species which were relatively unpalatable to sheep and deer. The inhibitory potency of these essential oils upon sheep and deer rumen microorganisms was compared, in terms of total gas and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, by use of an anaerobic manometric technique. Inhibitory effects of oils from the eight plant species may be placed in four groups: (i) essential oils from vinegar weed (Trichostema lanceoletum) and California bay (Umbellularia californica) inhibited rumen microbial activity most; (ii) lesser inhibition was exhibited by rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and California mugwort (Artemisia douglasiana) oils, followed by (iii) blue-gum eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) and sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) oils; and (iv) oils from Douglas fir (Psuedotsuga menziesii) and Jerusalem oak (chenopodium botrys) resulted in the least inhibition, when 0.3 ml of each oil was used. A highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.98(**)) between total gas and VFA production indicated the validity of either method to measure the activity of rumen microorganisms. Our results are discussed in relation to the hypothesis that the selectivity and voluntary consumption of ruminants are related to the characteristic odor and antibacterial action of essential oils isolated from relatively unpalatable plant species. PMID:5636470

  2. Adult repellency and larvicidal activity of five plant essential oils against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junwei; Zeng, Xiaopeng; Yanma; Liu, Ting; Qian, Kuen; Han, Yuhua; Xue, Suqin; Tucker, Brad; Schultz, Gretchen; Coats, Joel; Rowley, Wayne; Zhang, Aijun

    2006-09-01

    The larvicidal activity and repellency of 5 plant essential oils--thyme oil, catnip oil, amyris oil, eucalyptus oil, and cinnamon oil--were tested against 3 mosquito species: Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex pipiens pallens. Larvicidal activity of these essentials oils was evaluated in the laboratory against 4th instars of each of the 3 mosquito species, and amyris oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect with LC50 values in 24 h of 58 microg/ml (LC90 = 72 microg/ml) for Ae. aegypti, 78 microg/ml (LC90 = 130 microg/ml) for Ae. albopictus, and 77 microg/ml (LC90 = 123 microg/ml) for Cx. p. pallens. The topical repellency of these selected essential oils and deet against laboratory-reared female blood-starved Ae. albopictus was examined. Catnip oil seemed to be the most effective and provided 6-h protection at both concentrations tested (23 and 468 microg/ cm2). Thyme oil had the highest effectiveness in repelling this species, but the repellency duration was only 2 h. The applications using these natural product essential oils in mosquito control are discussed. PMID:17067055

  3. Microbial desalination cell for enhanced biodegradation of waste engine oil using a novel bacterial strain Bacillus subtilis moh3.

    PubMed

    Sabina, K; Fayidh, Mohammed A; Archana, G; Sivarajan, M; Babuskin, S; Babu, P Azhagu Saravana; Radha, K Krishnan; Sukumar, M

    2014-01-01

    Microbial desalination cell (MDC) is a bioelectrochemical system developed recently from microbial fuel cells (MFCs), for producing green energy from organic wastes along with desalination of saltwater. MDC is proved to be a better performer than MFC in terms of power output and chemical oxygen demand removal, with desalination as an additional feature. This study investigates the application potential of MDC for integrated biodegradation of waste engine oil. This study showed, for the first time, that waste engine oil could be used as an organic substrate in MDC, achieving biodegradation of engine oil along with considerable desalination and power production. Utilization of these wastes in MDC can protect the environment from waste engine oil contamination. Indigenous oil-degrading bacteria were isolated and identified from engine oil contaminated sludge. Degradation of waste engine oil by these novel isolates was studied in batch cultures and optimized the growth conditions. The same cultures when used in MDC, gave enhanced biodegradation (70.1 +/- 0.5%) along with desalination (68.3 +/- 0.6%) and power production (3.1 +/- 0.3 mW/m2). Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses were performed to characterize the degradation metabolites in the anolyte of MDC which clearly indicated the biodegradation of long chain, branched and cyclic hydrocarbons present in waste engine oil. PMID:25145172

  4. Engineering plants to reflect light: strategies for engineering water-efficient plants to adapt to a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Zamft, Bradley M; Conrado, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    Population growth and globally increasing standards of living have put a significant strain on the energy-food-water nexus. Limited water availability particularly affects agriculture, as it accounts for over 70% of global freshwater withdrawals (Aquastat). This study outlines the fundamental nature of plant water consumption and suggests a >50% reduction in renewable freshwater demand is possible by engineering more reflective crops. Furthermore, the decreased radiative forcing resulting from the greater reflectivity of crops would be equivalent to removing 10-50 ppm CO2 from the atmosphere. Recent advances in engineering optical devices and a greater understanding of the mechanisms of biological reflectance suggest such a strategy may now be viable. Here we outline the challenges involved in such an effort and suggest three potential approaches that could enable its implementation. While the local benefits may be straightforward, determining the global externalities will require careful modelling efforts and gradually scaled field trials. PMID:25923193

  5. Cholesterol Lowering Effect of Plant Stanol Ester Yoghurt Drinks with Added Camelina Oil

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Pia; Kuusisto, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of yoghurt minidrinks containing two doses of plant stanol ester either with or without added camelina oil on the serum cholesterol levels in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. In this randomised, double-blind, parallel group study, 143 subjects consumed a 65 mL minidrink together with a meal daily for four weeks. The minidrink contained 1.6 or 2.0 grams of plant stanols with or without 2 grams of alpha-linolenic acid-rich camelina oil. The placebo minidrink did not contain plant stanols or camelina oil. All plant stanol treated groups showed statistically significant total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol lowering relative to baseline and relative to placebo. Compared to placebo, LDL cholesterol was lowered by 9.4% (p < 0.01) and 8.1% (p < 0.01) with 1.6 g and 2 g plant stanols, respectively. With addition of Camelina oil, 1.6 g plant stanols resulted in 11.0% (p < 0.01) and 2 g plant stanols in 8.4% (p < 0.01) reduction in LDL cholesterol compared to placebo. In conclusion, yoghurt minidrinks with plant stanol ester reduced serum LDL cholesterol significantly and addition of a small amount of camelina oil did not significantly enhance the cholesterol lowering effect. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02628990. PMID:26998355

  6. Cholesterol Lowering Effect of Plant Stanol Ester Yoghurt Drinks with Added Camelina Oil.

    PubMed

    Salo, Pia; Kuusisto, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of yoghurt minidrinks containing two doses of plant stanol ester either with or without added camelina oil on the serum cholesterol levels in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. In this randomised, double-blind, parallel group study, 143 subjects consumed a 65 mL minidrink together with a meal daily for four weeks. The minidrink contained 1.6 or 2.0 grams of plant stanols with or without 2 grams of alpha-linolenic acid-rich camelina oil. The placebo minidrink did not contain plant stanols or camelina oil. All plant stanol treated groups showed statistically significant total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol lowering relative to baseline and relative to placebo. Compared to placebo, LDL cholesterol was lowered by 9.4% (p < 0.01) and 8.1% (p < 0.01) with 1.6 g and 2 g plant stanols, respectively. With addition of Camelina oil, 1.6 g plant stanols resulted in 11.0% (p < 0.01) and 2 g plant stanols in 8.4% (p < 0.01) reduction in LDL cholesterol compared to placebo. In conclusion, yoghurt minidrinks with plant stanol ester reduced serum LDL cholesterol significantly and addition of a small amount of camelina oil did not significantly enhance the cholesterol lowering effect. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02628990. PMID:26998355

  7. Mechanical, barrier, and antimicrobial properties of apple puree edible films containing plant essential oils.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Graü, Maria A; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J; Friedman, Mendel; Henika, Philip R; Martín-Belloso, Olga; McHugh, Tara H

    2006-11-29

    Edible films, as carriers of antimicrobial compounds, constitute an approach for incorporating plant essential oils (EOs) onto fresh-cut fruit surfaces. The effect against Escherichia coli O157:H7 of oregano, cinnamon, and lemongrass oils in apple puree film-forming solution (APFFS) and in an edible film made from the apple puree solution (APEF) was investigated along with the mechanical and physical properties of the films. Bactericidal activities of APFFS, expressed as BA50 values (BA50 values are defined as the percentage of antimicrobial that killed 50% of the bacteria under the test conditions) ranged from 0.019% for oregano oil to 0.094% for cinnamon oil. Oregano oil in the apple puree and in the film was highly effective against E. coli O157:H7. The data show that (a) the order of antimicrobial activities was oregano oil > lemongrass oil > cinnamon oil and (b) addition of the essential oils into film-forming solution decreased water vapor permeability and increased oxygen permeability, but did not significantly alter the tensile properties of the films. These results show that plant-derived essential oils can be used to prepare apple-based antimicrobial edible films for various food applications. PMID:17117819

  8. Measurement of oil film thickness for application to elastomeric Stirling engine rod seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauter, A. I.

    1981-01-01

    The rod seal in the Stirling engine has the function of separating high pressure gas from low or ambient pressure oil. An experimental apparatus was designed to measure the oil film thickness distribution for an elastomeric seal in a reciprocating application. Tests were conducted on commercial elastomeric seals having a 76 mm rod and a 3.8 mm axial width. Test conditions included 70 and 90 seal durometers, a sliding velocity of 0.8 m/sec, and a zero pressure gradient across the seal. An acrylic cylinder and a typical synthetic base automotive lubricant were used. The experimental results showed that the effect of seal hardness on the oil film thickness is considerable. A comparison between analytical and experimental oil film profiles for an elastomeric seal during relatively high speed reciprocating motion showed an overall qualitative agreement.

  9. Exopolysaccharide production by a genetically engineered Enterobacter cloacae strain for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shanshan; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Luo, Yijing; Zhong, Weizhang; Xiao, Meng; Yi, Wenjing; Yu, Li; Fu, Pengcheng

    2011-05-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a petroleum biotechnology for manipulating function and/or structure of microbial environments existing in oil reservoirs for prolonged exploitation of the largest source of energy. In this study, an Enterobacter cloacae which is capable of producing water-insoluble biopolymers at 37°C and a thermophilic Geobacillus strain were used to construct an engineered strain for exopolysaccharide production at higher temperature. The resultant transformants, GW3-3.0, could produce exopolysaccharide up to 8.83 g l(-1) in molasses medium at 54°C. This elevated temperature was within the same temperature range as that for many oil reservoirs. The transformants had stable genetic phenotype which was genetically fingerprinted by RAPD analysis. Core flooding experiments were carried out to ensure effective controlled profile for the simulation of oil recovery. The results have demonstrated that this approach has a promising application potential in MEOR. PMID:21444201

  10. Amine bearing polymeric particles as acid neutralizers for engine oils

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore, A.N.; Chattha, M.S.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a lubricating oil composition consisting of a major proportion of a lubricating base oil and about 0.1 to 15 weight percent of an acid neutralizing additive which consists of polymer particles (a) bearing pendant amine groups, and (b) having a diameter of about 500 A and 10,000 A. The amine functional particles are formed by reacting polymer particles bearing pendant epoxide groups with a secondary amine in an amount so as to react essentially all of the epoxide groups on the epoxide bearing polymer particles with the secondary amine. The polymer particles bearing pendant epoxide groups are formed by the free radical addition polymerization of: (a) between about 50 and about 100 weight percent of an ethylenically unsaturated monomers bearing an epoxide group, and (b) 0 up to about 50 weight percent of other monoethylenically unsaturated monomers; in the presence of: (I) a non-polar organic liquid which is a solvent for the polymerizable monomers, but a non-solvent for the resultant polymer, and (II) polymeric dispersion stabilizer containing at least two segments, with one segment being solvated by the non-polar organic liquid and the second segment being of different polarity than the first segment and relatively insoluble in the non-polar organic liquid. The second segment of the stabilizer is chemically attached to the polymerized particle.

  11. Role of lubrication oil in particulate emissions from a hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Miller, Arthur L; Stipe, Christopher B; Habjan, Matthew C; Ahlstrand, Gilbert G

    2007-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that trace metals emitted by internal combustion engines are derived mainly from combustion of lubrication oil. This hypothesis was examined by investigation of the formation of particulate matter emitted from an internal combustion engine in the absence of fuel-derived soot. Emissions from a modified CAT 3304 diesel engine fueled with hydrogen gas were characterized. The role of organic carbon and metals from lubrication oil on particle formation was investigated under selected engine conditions. The engine produced exhaust aerosol with log normal-size distributions and particle concentrations between 10(5) and 10(7) cm(-3) with geometric mean diameters from 18 to 31 nm. The particles contained organic carbon, little or no elemental carbon, and a much larger percentage of metals than particles from diesel engines. The maximum total carbon emission rate was estimated at 1.08 g h(-1), which is much lower than the emission rate of the original diesel engine. There was also evidence that less volatile elements, such as iron, self-nucleated to form nanoparticles, some of which survive the coagulation process. PMID:17969702

  12. Ducted fan type gas turbine engine power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Balzer, R.L.

    1992-02-25

    This patent describes a ducted fan type power plant which is cable of generating reverse thrust. It comprises: a gas turbine engine; a fan driven by the engine; an elongated bypass duct which is open at its front and rear ends and surrounds the fan, the bypass duct having a fixed forward section and a rear section which can be translated away from the fixed section as the pitch of the fan blades is reversed to reverse the flow of air through the bypass duct and generate a thrust directed from the front toward the rear of the power plant, thereby allowing air to be induced into the bypass duct through the downstream end thereof and also through the annular gap between the fixed and translated, rear sections of the bypass duct; means for generating a supply of high velocity fluid; means for injecting the high velocity fluid into the bypass duct from a locus to the rear means for delivering the high velocity fluid from the generating means to the injecting means.

  13. Rapid Analytical Method for the Determination of Aflatoxins in Plant-Derived Dietary Supplement and Cosmetic Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as more healthy alternatives to animal based fats and oils. More recently there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from...

  14. Localization and movement of mineral oil in plants by fluorescence and confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tan, B L; Sarafis, V; Beattie, G A C; White, R; Darley, E M; Spooner-Hart, R

    2005-10-01

    Fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy were explored to investigate the movement and localization of mineral oils in citrus. In a laboratory experiment, fluorescence microscopy observation indicated that when a 'narrow' distillation fraction of an nC23 horticultural mineral oil was applied to adaxial and opposing abaxial leaf surfaces of potted orange [Citrus x aurantium L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae)] trees, oil penetrated steadily into treated leaves and, subsequently, moved to untreated petioles of the leaves and adjacent untreated stems. In another experiment, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize the penetration into, and the subsequent cellular distribution of, an nC24 agricultural mineral oil in C. trifoliata L. seedlings. Oil droplets penetrated or diffused into plants via both stomata and the cuticle of leaves and stems, and then moved within intercellular spaces and into various cells including phloem and xylem. Oil accumulated in droplets in intercellular spaces and within cells near the cell membrane. Oil entered cells without visibly damaging membranes or causing cell death. In a field experiment with mature orange trees, droplets of an nC23 horticultural mineral oil were observed, by fluorescence microscopy, in phloem sieve elements in spring flush growth produced 4-5 months and 16-17 months after the trees were sprayed with oil. These results suggest that movement of mineral oil in plants is both apoplastic via intercellular spaces and symplastic via plasmodesmata. The putative pattern of the translocation of mineral oil in plants and its relevance to oil-induced chronic phytotoxicity are discussed. PMID:16118255

  15. Genotoxic potential of organic extracts from particle emissions of diesel and rapeseed oil powered engines.

    PubMed

    Topinka, Jan; Milcova, Alena; Schmuczerova, Jana; Mazac, Martin; Pechout, Martin; Vojtisek-Lom, Michal

    2012-07-01

    The present study was performed to identify possible genotoxicity induced by organic extracts from particulate matter in the exhaust of two typical diesel engines run on diesel fuel and neat heated fuel-grade rapeseed oil: a Cummins ISBe4 engine tested using the World Harmonized Steady State Test Cycle (WHSC) and modified Engine Steady Cycle (ESC) and a Zetor 1505 engine tested using the Non-Road Steady State Cycle (NRSC). In addition, biodiesel B-100 (neat methylester of rapeseed oil) was tested in the Cummins engine run on the modified ESC. Diluted exhaust was sampled with high-volume samplers on Teflon coated filters. Filters were extracted with dichlormethane (DCM) and DNA adduct levels induced by extractable organic matter (EOM) in an acellular assay of calf thymus DNA coupled with (32)P-postlabeling in the presence and absence of rat liver microsomal S9 fraction were employed. Simultaneously, the chemical analysis of 12 priority PAHs in EOM, including 7 carcinogenic PAHs (c-PAHs) was performed. The results suggest that diesel emissions contain substantially more total PAHs than rapeseed oil emissions (for the ESC) or that these concentrations were comparable (for the WHSC and NRSC), while c-PAHs levels were comparable (for the ESC) or significantly higher (for the WHSC and NRSC) for rapeseed oil emissions. DNA adduct levels induced by diesel and rapeseed oil derived EOM were comparable, but consistently slightly higher for diesel than for rapeseed oil. Highly significant correlations were found between 12 priority PAHs concentrations and DNA adduct levels (0.980; p<0.001) and these correlations were even stronger for c-PAHs (0.990; p<0.001). Metabolic activation by the microsomal S9 fraction resulted in several fold higher genotoxicity, suggesting a major contribution of PAHs to genotoxicity. Directly acting compounds, other than c-PAHs, and not requiring S9 to exhibit DNA reactivity were also significant. Generally, DNA adduct levels were more dependent on

  16. High-speed Oil Engines for Vehicles. Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausfelder, Ludwig

    1927-01-01

    Further progress toward the satisfactory solution of the difficult problem of the distribution and atomization of the injected fuel was made by extensive experimentation with various fuel valves, nozzles, and atomizing devices. Valuable information was also obtained through numerous experimental researches on the combustion of oils and the manner of introducing the combustion air into the cylinder, as well as on the physical processes of atomization, the determination of the size of drops, etc. These researches led to the conclusion that it is possible, even without producing great turbulence in the combustion chamber and at moderate pump pressure, if the degree of atomization and the penetrative power of the fuel jet are adapted to the shape of the combustion chamber and to the dimensions of the cylinder.

  17. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils of Apiaceae Plants against Malaria Vector, Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Sedaghat, MM; Dehkordi, A Sanei; Abai, MR; Khanavi, M; Mohtarami, F; Abadi, Y Salim; Rafi, F; Vatandoost, H

    2011-01-01

    Background: Plant extracts and oils may act as alternatives to conventional pesticides for malaria vector control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oils of three plants of Apiaceae family against Anopheles stephensi, the main malaria vector in Iran. Methods: Essential oils from Heracleum persicum, Foeniculum vulgare and Coriandrum sativum seeds were hydro distillated, then their larvicidal activity were evaluated against laboratory-reared larvae of An. stephensi according to standard method of WHO. After susceptibility test, results were analysis using Probit program. Results: Essential oils were separated from H. persicum, F. vulgare and C. sativum plants and their larvicidal activities were tested. Result of this study showed that F. vulgare oil was the most effective against An. stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 20.10 and 44.51 ppm, respectively. Conclusion: All three plants essential oil can serve as a natural larvicide against An. stephensi. F. vulgare oil exhibited more larvicidal properties. PMID:22808418

  18. Molecular Response of Crop Plants to Engineered Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Luca; Servin, Alia D; De La Torre-Roche, Roberto; Mukherjee, Arnab; Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Hawthorne, Joseph; Marmiroli, Marta; Maestri, Elena; Marra, Robert E; Isch, Susan M; Dhankher, Om Parkash; White, Jason C; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2016-07-01

    Functional toxicology has enabled the identification of genes involved in conferring tolerance and sensitivity to engineered nanomaterial (ENM) exposure in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Several genes were found to be involved in metabolic functions, stress response, transport, protein synthesis, and DNA repair. Consequently, analysis of physiological parameters, metal content (through ICP-MS quantification), and gene expression (by RT-qPCR) of A. thaliana orthologue genes were performed across different plant species of agronomic interest to highlight putative biomarkers of exposure and effect related to ENMs. This approach led to the identification of molecular markers in Solanum lycopersicum L. and Cucurbita pepo L. (tomato and zucchini) that might not only indicate exposure to ENMs (CuO, CeO2, and La2O3) but also provide mechanistic insight into response to these materials. Through Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, the target genes were mapped in complex interatomic networks representing molecular pathways, cellular components, and biological processes involved in ENM response. The transcriptional response of 38 (out of 204) candidate genes studied varied according to particle type, size, and plant species. Importantly, some of the genes studied showed potential as biomarkers of ENM exposure and effect and may be useful for risk assessment in foods and in the environment. PMID:27301997

  19. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents. PMID:26170872

  20. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents. PMID:26170872

  1. A technique to measure fuel oil viscosity in a fuel power plant.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, Miguel Angel; Ibargüengoytia, Pablo H; García, Uriel A

    2016-01-01

    The viscosity measurement and control of fuel oil in power plants is very important for a proper combustion. However, the conventional viscometers are only reliable for a short period of time. This paper proposes an on-line analytic viscosity evaluation based on energy balance applied to a piece of tube entering the fuel oil main heater and a new control strategy for temperature control. This analytic evaluation utilizes a set of temperature versus viscosity graphs were defined during years of analysis of fuel oil in Mexican power plants. Also the temperature set-point for the fuel oil main heater output is obtained by interpolating in the corresponding graph. Validation tests of the proposed analytic equations were carried out in the Tuxpan power plant in Veracruz, Mexico. PMID:26652127

  2. Phytotoxicity of oil sands naphthenic acids and dissipation from systems planted with emergent aquatic macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Sarah A; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Germida, James J

    2008-01-01

    Differences in dissipation and phytotoxicity were measured for two naphthenic acid mixtures in hydroponically grown emergent macrophytes (Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, and Scirpus acutus). One of the naphthenic acid (NA) mixtures was extracted from tailings pond water of an oil sands operation in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada. The other mixture was a commercially available NA mixture. While the oil sands NA mixture was less phytotoxic to wetland plants compared to the commercially available NA mixture, they were not sequestered by wetland plants like their commercial NA counterparts. The small loss of commercial NAs from the spiked hydroponic system appeared to be selective and dependant on the specific NA compound. The results of this study indicate that plants alone may not mitigate NAs from oil sands tailings pond water. In addition, caution should be taken when making predictions on the environmental fate of oil sands naphthenic acids when using commercial NAs as surrogates. PMID:18161556

  3. Attempts to prevent injector coking with sunflower oil by engine modifications and fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    van der Walt, A.N.; Hugo, F.J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of injector tip temperature on coking propencity when sunflower oil is used as a fuel for direct injection engines, was tested. Partial retraction of the injector, the addition of a heat shield to the injector and cooling the injector with water was tried. Also, injector temperature was increased by reducing heat transferred to the cylinder head and preheating the sunflower oil. None of these measures could prevent coking of the injector tip. Coating the injector tip with Teflon and increasing the back leakage rate was also tried without success. Only a few of many additives tested, showed some promise of being able to prevent coking. 5 figures, 1 table.

  4. High temperature solar photon engines. [heat engines for terrestrial and space-based solar power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzberg, A.; Decher, R.; Mattick, A. T.; Lau, C. V.

    1978-01-01

    High temperature heat engines designed to make maximum use of the thermodynamic potential of concentrated solar radiation are described. Plasmas between 2000 K and 4000 K can be achieved by volumetric absorption of radiation in alkali metal vapors, leading to thermal efficiencies up to 75% for terrestrial solar power plants and up to 50% for space power plants. Two machines capable of expanding hot plasmas using practical technology are discussed. A binary Rankine cycle uses fluid mechanical energy transfer in a device known as the 'Comprex' or 'energy exchanger.' The second machine utilizes magnetohydrodynamics in a Brayton cycle for space applications. Absorption of solar energy and plasma radiation losses are investigated for a solar superheater using potassium vapor.

  5. Vegetable oil as fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    A review is presented of various experiments undertaken over the past few years in the U.S. to test the performance of vegetable oils in diesel engines, mainly with a view to on-farm energy self-sufficiency. The USDA Northern Regional Research Center in Peoria, Illinois, is screening native U.S. plant species as potential fuel oil sources.

  6. Elastohydrodynamic properties of blends of plant-based and petroleum-based oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-based oils are mostly triglycerides but can also be esters of long chain fatty acids and fatty alcohols. They are renewable and biodegradable materials, and display certain lubrication characteristics that are superior to petroleum-based products. However, for some applications, plant-based ...

  7. PROCESSING IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT OFFGAS WITH A STRETFORD PLANT AT GEOKINETICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the use of EPA's transportable Stretford process pilot plant on a 700-acfm slipstream of in-situ shale oil retort offgas to investigate H2S removal efficiency and process compatibility. This was the fourth application of the pilot plant which had demonstrated ...

  8. Antifungal activities of Hedychium essential oils and plant extracts against mycotoxigenic fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-derived antifungal compounds are preferred to chemicals to reduce the risk of toxic effects on humans, livestock and the environment. Essential oil extracted from rhizomes and plant extracts of ornamental ginger lily (Hedychium spp.) were evaluated for their antifungal activity against two fu...

  9. Insecticidal effects of essential oils from various plants against larvae of pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae).

    PubMed

    Kanat, Mehmet; Alma, M Hakki

    2004-02-01

    Along with sulfate turpentine, the essential oils obtained by steam distillation from nine plant species naturally grown in Turkish forests were tested at three different concentrations to evaluate their effectiveness against the larvae of pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff). The results indicated that the essential oils from the nine species and sulfate turpentine were effective against the larvae of T pityocampa. The most effective essential oil in the control of the larvae was steam-distilled wood turpentine, followed by thyme herb oil, juniper berry oil, laurel leaf oil, lavender flower oil, eucalyptus leaf oil, lavender leaf oil, cypress berry oil, essential oil of styrax and sulfate turpentine, respectively, in terms of mean mortality time. It is therefore feasible to use these essential oils as environment-friendly insecticides in the control of T pityocampa. PMID:14971685

  10. Analysis of axial-induction-based wind plant control using an engineering and a high-order wind plant model

    SciTech Connect

    Annoni, Jennifer; Gebraad, Pieter M. O.; Scholbrock, Andrew K.; Fleming, Paul A.; Wingerden, Jan-Willem van

    2015-08-14

    Wind turbines are typically operated to maximize their performance without considering the impact of wake effects on nearby turbines. Wind plant control concepts aim to increase overall wind plant performance by coordinating the operation of the turbines. This paper focuses on axial-induction-based wind plant control techniques, in which the generator torque or blade pitch degrees of freedom of the wind turbines are adjusted. The paper addresses discrepancies between a high-order wind plant model and an engineering wind plant model. Changes in the engineering model are proposed to better capture the effects of axial-induction-based control shown in the high-order model.

  11. Combination counterbalance and oil slinger for horizontal shaft engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kronich, P.G.

    1988-05-03

    In an internal combustion engine including a crankcase having moving parts therein including a piston, a connecting rod pivotally connected to the piston, a substantially horizontally disposed rotatable crankshaft pivotally connected to the connecting rod, and a crankshaft counterweight connected to the crankshaft, and a lubricating fluid sump below the moving parts, a counterbalancing and lubricating mechanism is described comprising: lubricating fluid in the sump; an eccentric member rotatably mounted substantially parallel to the crankshaft in the sump and substantially vertically in line below the piston and the crankshaft; drive means coupling together the crankshaft and the eccentric member for rotatably driving the eccentric member in counterrotation to the crankshaft to balance forces created by the moving parts; deflector means extending at least partially above the level of the lubricating fluid and being at least partially positioned above the eccentric member for directing thrown lubricating fluid towards the moving parts.

  12. Plant essential oils and allied volatile fractions as multifunctional additives in meat and fish-based food products: a review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils are concentrated aromatic volatile compounds derived from botanicals by distillation or mechanical pressing. They play multiple, crucial roles as antioxidants, food pathogen inhibitors, shelf-life enhancers, texture promoters, organoleptic agents and toxicity-reducing agents. For their versatility, they appear promising as food preservatives. Several research findings in recent times have validated their potential as functional ingredients in meat and fish processing. Among the assortment of bioactive compounds in the essential oils, p-cymene, thymol, eugenol, carvacrol, isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde, linalool, 1,8-cineol, α-pinene, α-terpineol, γ-terpinene, citral and methyl chavicol are most familiar. These terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and phenolics (alcohols, esters, aldehydes and ketones) have been extracted from culinary herbs such as oregano, rosemary, basil, coriander, cumin, cinnamon, mint, sage and lavender as well as from trees such as myrtle, fir and eucalyptus. This review presents essential oils as alternatives to conventional chemical additives. Their synergistic actions with modified air packaging, irradiation, edible films, bacteriocins and plant byproducts are discussed. The decisive roles of metabolic engineering, microwave technology and metabolomics in quality and quantity augmentation of essential oil are briefly mooted. The limitations encountered and strategies to overcome them have been illuminated to pave way for their enhanced popularisation. The literature has been mined from scientific databases such as Pubmed, Pubchem, Scopus and SciFinder. PMID:25893282

  13. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J.; Nass, R.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  14. 33. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, 1800HORSEPOWER CORLISS STEAM ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, 1800-HORSEPOWER CORLISS STEAM ENGINE AND FLYWEEL FOR 22-INCH MILL, 1910. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  15. Microbial Inoculation Improves Growth of Oil Palm Plants (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    PubMed Central

    Om, Azlin Che; Ghazali, Amir Hamzah Ahmad; Keng, Chan Lai; Ishak, Zamzuri

    2009-01-01

    Introduction of diazotrophic rhizobacteria to oil palm tissues during the in vitro micropropagation process establishes an early associative interaction between the plant cells and bacteria. In the association, the diazotrophs provide the host plants with phytohormones and fixed nitrogen. This study was conducted to observe growth of bacterised tissue cultured oil palm plants under ex vitro conditions after 280 days of growth. Root dry weight, shoot dry weight, root volume, bacterial colonisation, leaf protein and chlorophyll content of the host plants were observed. The results revealed that the inocula successfully colonised roots of the host plants. Plants inoculated with Acetobacter diazotrophicus (R12) had more root dry weight and volume than plants inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense (Sp7). Leaf protein and chlorophyll content were higher in the bacterised plants compared to Control 2 plants (inoculated with killed Sp7). These results suggest that the diazotrophs successfully improved the growth of the host plant (oil palm) and minimised the amount of N fertiliser necessary for growth. PMID:24575180

  16. Characterization of essential oil and effects on growth of Verbena gratissima plants treated with homeopathic phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fúlvia M; Monfort, Lucila E F; Castro, Daniel M; Pinto, José E B P; Leonardi, Michele; Pistelli, Luisa

    2011-10-01

    Plant models offer a method to examine the efficacy of homeopathic solutions. Homeopathic Phosphorus (P) dynamizations were evaluated on the linear growth and dry biomass of Verbena gratissima, a plant native to Brazil. The yields and chemical characterization of the essential oil are also given. Plants exhibited phenotypic plasticity after the homeopathic Phosphorus treatments. The dynamization 9CH, in particular, interfered with plant growth, height, diameter of stems and total dry mass. 9CH treatment showed the highest yield of essential oil. The essential oil composition of V. gratissima varied according to the different dynamization used. Homeopathic Phosphorus provided the greatest amount of beta-pinene, trans-pinocarveol, trans-pinocamphone and trans-pinocarvyl acetate in comparison with controls. PMID:22164793

  17. Engineered solutions to the hazards of oil based muds

    SciTech Connect

    Sweetsur, A.

    1987-01-01

    In the drilling process, mud performs a number of functions requiring different physical and chemical properties and it is useful to consider how these are affected by the use of an oil based fluid. The first function of the mud is to transport cuttings to the surface, which in general requires a velocity of around 100-200 ft/min and a viscosity of 30-50 secs/qt. The mud should have sufficient viscosity and gel strength to ensure that the cuttings are transported from the cutting surface and that they do no sink back to the bottom should circulation be interrupted. Secondly, the mud also works as a cutting fluid to lubricate and cool the bit and to ensure the at it is working on a clean formation, and to assist cutting via the energy of the fluid jets from the bit nozzles. The third essential function of the mud is as a primary means of pressure control. The hydrostatic head of the column of mud serves to counter-balance the formation pressure at any depth and must be amenable to adjust to compensate for variations in pressure. Also, by measuring flow rates in and out of the hole, the volume of mud in the tanks and by monitoring whether the mud contains gas, fluids or hydrocarbons, a large amount of information about what is happening at the bit can be obtained. The fourth property of mud is to provide a filter-cake that lines the bore of the well, helping to support is and preventing the loss of mud to the formation or the ingress of fluids form the formation into the hold.

  18. RNAi-mediated resistance to viruses in genetically engineered plants.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Abdulrazak B; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a leading technology in designing genetically modified crops engineered to resist viral infection. The last decades have seen the development of a large number of crops whose inherent posttranscriptional gene silencing mechanism has been exploited to target essential viral genes through the production of dsRNA that triggers an endogenous RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), leading to gene silencing in susceptible viruses conferring them with resistance even before the onset of infection. Selection and breeding events have allowed for establishing this highly important agronomic trait in diverse crops. With improved techniques and the availability of new data on genetic diversity among several viruses, significant progress is being made in engineering plants using RNAi with the release of a number of commercially available crops. Biosafety concerns with respect to consumption of RNAi crops, while relevant, have been addressed, given the fact that experimental evidence using miRNAs associated with the crops shows that they do not pose any health risk to humans and animals. PMID:25740357

  19. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of essential oil and different plant extracts of Psidium cattleianum Sabine.

    PubMed

    Scur, M C; Pinto, F G S; Pandini, J A; Costa, W F; Leite, C W; Temponi, L G

    2016-02-01

    The goals of the study were to determinethe antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil and plant extracts aqueous and ethanolic of Psidium cattleianum Sabine; the chemical composition of the essential oil of P. cattleianum; and the phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the same plant. Regarding the antimicrobial activity, the ethanolic extract exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity with respect to bacteria K. pneumoniae and S. epidermidis, whereas, regarding other microorganisms, it showed activity considered weak. The aqueous extract and the essential oil showed activity considered weak, although they inhibited the growth of microorganisms. About the antioxidant potential, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts exhibited a scavenging index exceeding 90%, while the essential oil didn´t show significant antioxidant activity. Regarding the phytochemical composition, the largest class of volatile compounds identified in the essential oil of P. cattleianum included the following terpenic hydrocarbons: α-copaene (22%); eucalyptol (15%), δ-cadinene (9.63%) and α-selinene (6.5%). The phytochemical screening of extracts showed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and triterpenoids for aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The extracts and essential oils inhibit the growth of microrganisms and plant extracts showed significant antioxidant activity. Also, the phytochemical characterization of the essential oil showed the presence of compounds interest commercial, as well as extracts showed the presence of important classes and compounds with biological activities. PMID:26871744

  20. A study on the performance and emission characteristics of esterified pinnai oil tested in VCR engine.

    PubMed

    Ashok Kumar, T; Chandramouli, R; Mohanraj, T

    2015-11-01

    Biodiesel is a clean renewable fuel derived from vegetable oils and animal fats. It is biodegradable, oxygenated, non toxic and free from sulfur and aromatics. The biodiesel prepared from pinnai oil undergoes acid esterification followed by alkaline transesterification process. The fatty acid methyl esters components were identified using gas chromatography and compared with the standard properties. The properties of biodiesel are comparable with diesel. The yield of the biodiesel production depends upon the process parameters such as reaction temperature, pH, time duration and amount of catalyst. The yield of biodiesel by transesterification process was 73% at 55°C. This fuel was tested in a variable compression ratio engine with blend ratios of B10 and B20. During the test runs the compression ratio of the engine was varied from 15:1 to 18:1 and the torque is adjusted from zero to maximum value of 22Nm. The performance characteristics such as the brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption and exhaust gas temperature of the engine are analyzed. The combustion characteristics of biodiesel like ignition delay, combustion duration and maximum gas temperature and the emission characteristics are also analyzed. The performance characteristics, combustion characteristics and engine emission are effective in the variable compression ratio engine with biodiesel and it is compared with diesel. PMID:26116080

  1. Oil consumption measurements of a production engine using the sulfur-trace method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Verlyn Royal

    Controlling the oil consumption of diesel engines is important for customer satisfaction. Existing oil consumption measurement methods are adequate; however, improved methods offer the possibility of faster and more comprehensive results. The sulfur-trace method is an example. Major objectives of this investigation were to adopt a sulfur-trace analyzer for oil consumption measurements, to improve the oil consumption measurement process, and to demonstrate application of the sulfur-trace instrument to individual cylinder sampling. To achieve these objectives, four research questions were applied: (1) What procedures and attention to detail are required? (2) how can results be reported to maximize data interpretation? (3) how do the advantages of the sulfur-trace method compare with the drain-and-weigh method? and (4) what is recommended as an optimized test method? Addressing Research Question 1 required careful attention to numerous parts of the sulfur-trace instrument. These parts included: (a) insulating and heating the exhaust sample lines, (b) ensuring continuous and proper operation of the ozone generator, (c) controlling the precise flow rate of the sample, and (d) removing excess water from the sample. Addressing Research Question 2 required a strip chart recorder, a spreadsheet template, and a chart template to organize, record, and report data. The strip chart recorder provided a backup analog record and a means to document daily activity. Raw data were entered into a spreadsheet for subsequent analyses required for chart reporting. Addressing Research Question 3 included a comparison of sulfur-trace vs. drain-and-weigh method durations and capabilities. After optimization, the same oil consumption results were collected in 10 minutes using the sulfur-trace method as compared with the 100 hours required for the drain-and-weigh method. More importantly, the sulfur-trace method may be used to collect oil consumption data from each individual cylinder, which

  2. Bohai Oil corporation conceptual engineering of overall development scheme for SZ 36-1 oil field. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    SZ 36-1 oil field is located in the Liaodong Bay in the northeastern section of Bohai Bay, in approximately 32 meters water depth, 46 kilometers offshore the Suizhong Coast. The reservoir is highly heterogeneous and unconsolidated, and the crude has high viscosity, high specific gravity, and requires artificial lift for production. A phased development of the field is planned. The U.S. Trade and Development Program (TDP) contracted for engineering services to perform conceptual engineering of the overall development scheme for the SZ 36-1 oil field. The study consisted of two parts: (1) concept selection, to assess various schemes for developing the SZ 36-1 field and selecting one to recommend to the Bohai oil corporation (BOC); (2) conceptual engineering of the recommended development concept. The final report covers both the concept selection and concept engineering phases of the study.

  3. Study on production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil and the performance and emission of a diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor, N. F. M.; Hafidzal, M. H. M.; Shamsuddin, S. A.; Ismail, M. S.; Hashim, A. H.

    2015-05-01

    The use of nonedible oil as a feedstock is needed to replace edible oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. This nonedible oils in diesel engine however leads to low performance and higher emission due to its high viscosity. The characteristics of the fuel can be improved through transesterification process. The yield of biodiesel from Jatropha oil using potassium hydroxide catalyst concentration of 1%, reaction temperature 60°C, reaction time 40 minutes and molar ratio methanol to oil 6:1 was 70.1% from the lab scale. The experimental study on the performances and emissions of a diesel engine is carried out using the Jatropha biodiesel produced from the transesterification process and compared with pure diesel. Results show that B20 has closer performance to diesel and lower emission compared to B5 and diesel in terms of CO2 and HC.

  4. Organic-inorganic hybrids from renewable plant oils and clay.

    PubMed

    Uyama, Hiroshi; Kuwabara, Mai; Tsujimoto, Takashi; Nakano, Mitsuru; Usuki, Arimitsu; Kobayashi, Shiro

    2004-03-15

    This study deals with the preparation and properties of a new class of organic-inorganic hybrids from renewable resources. The hybrids were synthesized by an acid-catalyzed curing of epoxidized triglycerides in the presence of an organophilic montmorillonite (a modified clay). The mechanical properties were improved by the incorporation of clay in the oil-based polymer matrix. The reinforcement effect due to the addition of clay was confirmed by dynamic viscoelasticity analysis. The hybrids showed relatively high thermal stability. The co-curing of epoxidized soybean and linseed oils in the presence of clay produced hybrids with controlled mechanical and coating properties. The barrier property of the hybrid towards water vapor was superior to that of the oil polymer. The development of the present hybrids consisting of inexpensive renewable resources, triglyceride and clay is expected to contribute to global sustainability. PMID:15468227

  5. Plant essential oils and potassium metabisulfite as repellents for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Renkema, Justin M; Wright, Derek; Buitenhuis, Rose; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2016-01-01

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, is a globally invasive pest of soft-skinned fruit. Females oviposit into ripening fruit and larvae cause direct destruction of tissues. As many plant essential oils are permitted food additives, they may provide a safe means of protecting fruit from D. suzukii infestation in both conventional and organic production systems. Twelve oils and potassium metabisulfite (KMS) were screened in the laboratory as repellents for D. suzukii flies. Most essential oils deterred D. suzukii flies from cotton wicks containing attractive raspberry juice. Peppermint oil was particularly effective, preventing almost all flies from contacting treated wicks and remaining 100% repellent for 6 d post-application. Thyme oil was unique because it caused high male mortality and reduced the number of responding flies compared to other oils. KMS was not found to be repellent to D. suzukii, but may have fumigant properties, particularly at high concentrations. Peppermint oil appears to be the best candidate for field testing to determine the effectiveness and feasibility of using essential oils as part of a push-pull management strategy against D. suzukii. This is the first time that essential oils have been evaluated and proven effective in preventing fruit-infesting flies from contacting attractive stimuli. PMID:26893197

  6. Plant essential oils and potassium metabisulfite as repellents for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Renkema, Justin M.; Wright, Derek; Buitenhuis, Rose; Hallett, Rebecca H.

    2016-01-01

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, is a globally invasive pest of soft-skinned fruit. Females oviposit into ripening fruit and larvae cause direct destruction of tissues. As many plant essential oils are permitted food additives, they may provide a safe means of protecting fruit from D. suzukii infestation in both conventional and organic production systems. Twelve oils and potassium metabisulfite (KMS) were screened in the laboratory as repellents for D. suzukii flies. Most essential oils deterred D. suzukii flies from cotton wicks containing attractive raspberry juice. Peppermint oil was particularly effective, preventing almost all flies from contacting treated wicks and remaining 100% repellent for 6 d post-application. Thyme oil was unique because it caused high male mortality and reduced the number of responding flies compared to other oils. KMS was not found to be repellent to D. suzukii, but may have fumigant properties, particularly at high concentrations. Peppermint oil appears to be the best candidate for field testing to determine the effectiveness and feasibility of using essential oils as part of a push-pull management strategy against D. suzukii. This is the first time that essential oils have been evaluated and proven effective in preventing fruit-infesting flies from contacting attractive stimuli. PMID:26893197

  7. [Inhibition of Linseed Oil Autooxidation by Essential Oils and Extracts from Spice Plants].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Alinkina, E S; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I; Kiseleva, V I; Medvedeva, I B; Semenova, M G

    2015-01-01

    Clove bud essential oil, extracts from ginger, pimento and black pepper, or ascorbyl palmytate were studied as natural antioxidants for the inhibition of autooxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in linseed oil. Different methods were used to estimate antioxidant efficiency. These methods are based on the following parameters: peroxide values; peroxide concentration; content of degradation products of unsaturated fatty acid peroxides, which acted with thiobarbituric acid; diene conjugate content; the content of volatile compounds that formed as products of unsaturated fatty acid peroxide degradation; and the composition of methyl esters of fatty acids in samples of oxidized linseed oil. PMID:26353407

  8. Sensitivity and Antioxidant Response of Chlorella sp. MM3 to Used Engine Oil and Its Water Accommodated Fraction.

    PubMed

    Ramadass, Kavitha; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-07-01

    We exposed the microalgal strain, Chlorella sp. MM3, to unused or used engine oil, or their water accommodated fractions (WAFs) to determine growth inhibition and response of antioxidant enzymes. Oil type and oil concentration greatly affected the microalgal growth. Used oil at 0.04 % (0.4 g L(-1)) resulted in 50 % inhibition in algal growth, measured in terms of chlorophyll-a, while the corresponding concentration of unused oil was nontoxic. Similarly, used oil WAF showed significant toxicity to the algal growth at 10 % level, whereas WAF from unused oil was nontoxic even at 100 % concentration. Peroxidase enzyme in the microalga significantly increased with used oil at concentrations above 0.04 g L(-1) whereas the induction of superoxide dismutase and catalase was apparent only at 0.06 g L(-1). Activities of the antioxidant enzymes increased significantly when the microalga was exposed to 75 and 100 % WAF obtained from used oil. The used oil toxicity on microalga could be due to the presence of toxic soluble mono- and polyaromatic compounds, heavy metals, and other compounds attained by the oil during its use in the motor engines. PMID:27174464

  9. Multigene Engineering of Triacylglycerol Metabolism Boosts Seed Oil Content in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    van Erp, Harrie; Kelly, Amélie A.; Menard, Guillaume; Eastmond, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing the yield of oilseed crops is an important objective for biotechnologists. A number of individual genes involved in triacylglycerol metabolism have previously been reported to enhance the oil content of seeds when their expression is altered. However, it has yet to be established whether specific combinations of these genes can be used to achieve an additive effect and whether this leads to enhanced yield. Using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as an experimental system, we show that seed-specific overexpression of WRINKLED1 (a transcriptional regulator of glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis) and DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE1 (a triacylglycerol biosynthetic enzyme) combined with suppression of the triacylglycerol lipase SUGAR-DEPENDENT1 results in a higher percentage seed oil content and greater seed mass than manipulation of each gene individually. Analysis of total seed yield per plant suggests that, despite a reduction in seed number, the total yield of oil is also increased. PMID:24696520

  10. Oil shale plant siting methodology: A guide to permits and approvals

    SciTech Connect

    Nordin, J.S.; Hill, S.; Barker, F.; Renk, R.; Dean, J.

    1988-09-01

    This report is a guide to the permits and approvals required to develop an oil shale resource. The permitting requirements of the federal government, six states (Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio), and selected county or local governments are reviewed. The permits and approvals are organized into nine categories: (1) mineral leases and rights-of-way, (2) acquisition of a water supply, (3) environmental impact statement, (4) environmental quality (air quality, water quality, waste disposal, and wildlife values), (5) historical and cultural protection, (6) land use and socioeconomics, (7) prospecting and mining, (8) safety and health, and (9) transportation and communication. This report also contains examples of the permitting process required for the startup of two hypothetical oil shale plants. The first example is for a hypothetical 50,000 barrel-per-day oil shale plant located near Rio Blanco, Colorado. This plant uses conventional open pit mining and surface (Lurgi) processing of the shale. The permitting costs for this plant, including baseline data acquisition and monitoring, exceed $2 million. The second example, a 5,000 barrel-per-day demonstration plant in eastern Montgomery County, Kentucky, is based on open pit mining and surface (Hytort) processing of the shale. Permitting costs for the demonstration plant, including an environmental impact statement, could approach $500,000. Several potential impediments to the development of an oil shale resource are identified and discussed. 33 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S Appendix S to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants General Information This...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S Appendix S to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants General Information This...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S Appendix S to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants General Information This...

  14. Insecticidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils Against the Vine Mealybug, Planococcus ficus

    PubMed Central

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Αntonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3rd instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used. PMID:24766523

  15. Insecticidal activity of plant essential oils against the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus.

    PubMed

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Alphantonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos; Papatsakona, Panagiota; Tsora, Eleanna

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3(rd) instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used. PMID:24766523

  16. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume 2: Engineering. Volume 3: Costs and schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Engineering design details for the principal systems, system operating modes, site facilities, and structures of an engineering test facility (ETF) of a 200 MWE power plant are presented. The ETF resembles a coal-fired steam power plant in many ways. It is analogous to a conventional plant which has had the coal combustor replaced with the MHD power train. Most of the ETF components are conventional. They can, however, be sized or configured differently or perform additional functions from those in a conventional coal power plant. The boiler not only generates steam, but also performs the functions of heating the MHD oxidant, recovering seed, and controlling emissions.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume 2: Engineering. Volume 3: Costs and schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    Engineering design details for the principal systems, system operating modes, site facilities, and structures of an engineering test facility (ETF) of a 200 MWE power plant are presented. The ETF resembles a coal-fired steam power plant in many ways. It is analogous to a conventional plant which has had the coal combustor replaced with the MHD power train. Most of the ETF components are conventional. They can, however, be sized or configured differently or perform additional functions from those in a conventional coal power plant. The boiler not only generates steam, but also performs the functions of heating the MHD oxidant, recovering seed, and controlling emissions.

  18. Characterization of lipid oxidation in plant oils by micro-calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Dridi, Wafa; Toutain, Jean; Sommier, Alain; Essafi, Wafa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Cansell, Maud

    2016-04-15

    A new experimental device was developed, based on the measurement of the heat flux dissipated during chemical reactions. The technique was exploited for real time monitoring of lipid oxidation in plant oils. The thermopiles were used in adiabatic configuration in order to measure the entire heat flux and improve sensitivity. Measurements were operated with a resolution of few μW as required to follow low exothermic reactions like oxidation. The validation of the device was performed by correlating conjugated diene concentrations measured by spectrophotometry and the heat flux dissipated by oxidation reactions. Our experimental approach involved several plant oils analyzed in isothermal conditions. This novel technique provides a versatile, sensitive, solvent-free and yet low-cost method to assess lipid oxidation stability, particularly suitable for the fast screening of plant oils. PMID:26617007

  19. Understanding the control of acyl flux through the lipid metabolic network of plant oil biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Bates, Philip D

    2016-09-01

    Plant oil biosynthesis involves a complex metabolic network with multiple subcellular compartments, parallel pathways, cycles, and pathways that have a dual function to produce essential membrane lipids and triacylglycerol. Modern molecular biology techniques provide tools to alter plant oil compositions through bioengineering, however with few exceptions the final composition of triacylglycerol cannot be predicted. One reason for limited success in oilseed bioengineering is the inadequate understanding of how to control the flux of fatty acids through various fatty acid modification, and triacylglycerol assembly pathways of the lipid metabolic network. This review focuses on the mechanisms of acyl flux through the lipid metabolic network, and highlights where uncertainty resides in our understanding of seed oil biosynthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. PMID:27003249

  20. Effect of plant oils upon lipase and citric acid production in Yarrowia lipolytica yeast.

    PubMed

    Darvishi, Farshad; Nahvi, Iraj; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Hamid; Momenbeik, Fariborz

    2009-01-01

    The nonconventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica degrades very efficiently hydrophobic substrates to produce organic acids, single-cell oil, lipases, and so forth. The aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical behavior and simultaneous production of valuable metabolites such as lipase, citric acid (CA), and single-cell protein (SCP) by Yarrowia lipolytica DSM 3286 grown on various plant oils as sole carbon source. Among tested plant oils, olive oil proved to be the best medium for lipase and CA production. The Y. lipolytica DSM 3286 produced 34.6 +/- 0.1 U/mL of lipase and also CA and SCP as by-product on olive oil medium supplemented with yeast extract. Urea, as organic nitrogen, was the best nitrogen source for CA production. The results of this study suggest that the two biotechnologically valuable products, lipase and CA, could be produced simultaneously by this strain using renewable low-cost substrates such as plant oils in one procedure. PMID:19826636

  1. Effect of Plant Oils upon Lipase and Citric Acid Production in Yarrowia lipolytica Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Darvishi, Farshad; Nahvi, Iraj; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Hamid; Momenbeik, Fariborz

    2009-01-01

    The nonconventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica degrades very efficiently hydrophobic substrates to produce organic acids, single-cell oil, lipases, and so forth. The aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical behavior and simultaneous production of valuable metabolites such as lipase, citric acid (CA), and single-cell protein (SCP) by Yarrowia lipolytica DSM 3286 grown on various plant oils as sole carbon source. Among tested plant oils, olive oil proved to be the best medium for lipase and CA production. The Y. lipolytica DSM 3286 produced 34.6 ± 0.1 U/mL of lipase and also CA and SCP as by-product on olive oil medium supplemented with yeast extract. Urea, as organic nitrogen, was the best nitrogen source for CA production. The results of this study suggest that the two biotechnologically valuable products, lipase and CA, could be produced simultaneously by this strain using renewable low-cost substrates such as plant oils in one procedure. PMID:19826636

  2. Mosquito larvicidal activity of aromatic medicinal plant oils against Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2006-06-01

    Larvicidal activity of essential oils derived from 11 aromatic medicinal plants against early 4th-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens was tested in the laboratory. At 100 ppm, the essential oils of all plants caused 100% mortality against Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens pallens. At 25 ppm, the essential oils of Citrus bergamia, Cuminum myrrha, and Pimenta racemosa caused 100% mortality against larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens pallens. The oil of C. begamia caused 32.5% and 24.5% mortality against Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens pallens at 12.5 ppm, but 24.2% and 0% mortality against Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens pallens at 6.25 ppm, respectively. The oil of P. racemosa caused 52.3% and 38.5% mortality against Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens pallens at 12.5 ppm, but 32.2% and 0% mortality against Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens pallens at 6.25 ppm, respectively. The larvicidal activity of oils of C. bergamia, C. myrrha, and P. racemosa was significantly reduced when used at 6.25 ppm. These plants warrant further studies as possible agents for mosquito control. PMID:17019775

  3. Essential oil composition and nutrient analysis of selected medicinal plants in Sultanate of Oman

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Javid; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Abdul Latif; Albroumi, Muhammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the nutrients and essential oils of five medicinal plants, Juniperus excelsa (J. excelsa), Dodonaea viscosa, Euryops pinifolius, Teucrium polium (T. polium), and Helianthemum lippii that were collected from Jabal Al Akhdar, Oman. Methods Proximate parameters (moisture, dry matter, ash, crude fats, proteins, fibers, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and energy values) and nutrient analysis (K, Na, Ca, Fe, P, Mg etc.) were evaluated in the five medicinal plants using standard techniques. On the basis of these analysis, T. polium and J. excels were selected for essential oil analysis using a rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method and GC-MS. Results The results showed that leaves of J. excelsa had highest proportion of crude fats, fibers and energy value while ash was highest in T. polium. J. excelsa was also rich in essential minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron while the trace elements and heavy metals composition was marginal. A rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method to extract oil from medicinal plants species showed that only T. polium and J. excelsa yielded oil. The chemical composition of essential oils showed higher proportion of delta-3-carene, limonene, β-eudesmol, ledeneoxide (II), α-trans-bergamatene, linalyl acetate and germacrene. Conclusions J. excelsa and T. polium are a good source of proximate, minerals and essential oils, which can be considered for healthy life besides their medicinal values.

  4. Aromatic plant-derived essential oil: an alternative larvicide for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Pitasawat, B; Champakaew, D; Choochote, W; Jitpakdi, A; Chaithong, U; Kanjanapothi, D; Rattanachanpichai, E; Tippawangkosol, P; Riyong, D; Tuetun, B; Chaiyasit, D

    2007-04-01

    Five aromatic plants, Carum carvi (caraway), Apium graveolens (celery), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Zanthoxylum limonella (mullilam) and Curcuma zedoaria (zedoary) were selected for investigating larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors. Two laboratory-reared mosquito species, Anopheles dirus, the major malaria vector in Thailand, and Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in urban areas, were used. All of the volatile oils exerted significant larvicidal activity against the two mosquito species after 24-h exposure. Essential oil from mullilam was the most effective against the larvae of A. aegypti, while A. dirus larvae showed the highest susceptibility to zedoary oil. PMID:17337133

  5. Ohio Clean Fuels, Inc. , prototype commercial coal/oil co-processing plant project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    This report discusses the economics of coal as a source of domestic petroleum products and clean power production. The following topics are discussed: Economic incentives for the use of coal; applications of coal/oil coprocessing including (a) integration with a refinery; (b) cost reduction technique for alternate new supplies of oil; (c) power production meeting acid rain controls and comparative economics of copro powered facilities vs conventional power plant technology; costs of non-conventional supplies of crude and costs of coprocessing compared with offshore conventional oil. 10 refs., 1 fig., 20 tabs.

  6. Polymerization of Plant Oils in Carbon Dioxide Medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lewis acid catalyst, boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3•OEt2), catalyzed polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) in liquid carbon dioxide was conducted in an effort to develop useful biodegradable polymers. The ring-opening polymerization was employed at mild conditions, such as at room...

  7. Margarine from organogel of healthy vegetable oils and plant wax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organogelator that can turn vegetable oil into a gel with a small quantity has drawn a lot of interests as a potential alternative for saturated fats and trans fat-containing solid fats in margarine and spread products. However, it is not practically used in those products yet. This research shows...

  8. USE OF MELALEUCA ALTERNIFOLIA OIL FOR PLANT DISEASE CONTROL.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The essential oil from Melaleuca alternifolia has been used for pharmaceutical and household products and as an antiseptic treatment for human ailments. Growing public concern over the use of synthetic pesticides emphasizes the need for alternative treatments. Our work tests the effectiveness of m...

  9. Efficacy of plant extracts and oils as mosquito repellents.

    PubMed

    Thorsell, W; Mikiver, A; Malander, I; Tunón, H

    1998-08-01

    Some natural products, extract of Achillea millefolium (yarrow), birch/pine tar-, citronella-, clove-, eucalyptus-, geranium-, lavender-, lily of the valley- and peppermint oils have been tested for repellency in the laboratory against Aedes aegypti and in the field predominantly against Aedes communis and A. cinereus. The laboratory tests showed that yarrow extract exhibited a similar repellency as the reference substances N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide and N,N-diethyl-mandelic acid amide. A good repelling effect was also obtained with the oils of birch/pine tar and eucalyptus. The field tests revealed that the extracts and oils with good activity against Aedes aegypti also were effective against A. communis and A. cinereus. Furthermore oils of citronella and lily of the valley showed similar activity and were comparable with the used reference substances mentioned. Each of these natural products contained a great number of constituents when characterized by chromatography/mass spectrometry. Available data in the literature were gathered, both regarding mosquito repellency and toxicity for humans and larger animals, for each product as well as its major constituents. PMID:23195905

  10. Environmental interactions with the toxicity of plant essential oils to the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    George, D R; Sparagano, O A E; Port, G; Okello, E; Shiel, R S; Guy, J H

    2010-03-01

    The toxicity of a range of plant essential oils to the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acari: Dermanyssidae), a serious ectoparasitic pest of laying hens throughout Europe and elsewhere, was assessed in the laboratory. Dermanyssus gallinae may cause losses in egg production, anaemia and, in extreme cases, death of hens. With changes in legislation and consumer demand, alternatives to synthetic acaricides are needed to manage this pest. Fifty plant essential oils were selected for their toxicity to arthropods reported in the literature. Twenty-four of these essential oils were found to kill > 75% of adult D. gallinae in contact toxicity tests over a 24-h period at a rate of 0.21 mg/cm(2). Subsequent testing at lower rates showed that the essential oils of cade, manuka and thyme were especially toxic to adult D. gallinae. The toxicity of the seven most acaricidal essential oils was found to be stable at different temperatures likely to be encountered in commercial poultry housing (15 degrees C, 22 degrees C and 29 degrees C), although results suggest that humidity and dust might influence the toxicity of some of the oils tested. The toxicity of clove bud essential oil to D. gallinae, for example, was increased at high humidity and dust levels compared with ambient levels. The results suggest that certain essential oils may make effective botanical pesticides for use against D. gallinae, although it is likely that issues relating to the consistency of the toxic effect of some oils will determine which oils will be most effective in practice. PMID:20377725

  11. Essential Oils of Plants as Biocides against Microorganisms Isolated from Cuban and Argentine Documentary Heritage.

    PubMed

    Borrego, Sofía; Valdés, Oderlaise; Vivar, Isbel; Lavin, Paola; Guiamet, Patricia; Battistoni, Patricia; Gómez de Saravia, Sandra; Borges, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Natural products obtained from plants with biocidal activity represent an alternative and useful source in the control of biodeterioration of documentary heritage, without negative environmental and human impacts. In this work, we studied the antimicrobial activity of seven essential oils against microorganisms associated with the biodeterioration of documentary heritage. The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed using the agar diffusion method against 4 strains of fungi and 6 bacterial strains isolated from repositories air and documents of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba and the Historical Archive of the Museum of La Plata, Argentina. Anise and garlic oils showed the best antifungal activity at all concentrations studied, while oregano oil not only was effective against fungi tested but also prevented sporulation of them all. Orange sweet and laurel oils were ineffective against fungi. Clove, garlic, and oregano oils showed the highest antibacterial activity at 25% against Enterobacter agglomerans and Streptomyces sp., while only clove and oregano oils were effective against Bacillus sp. at all concentrations studied. This study has an important implication for the possible use of the natural products from plants in the control of biodeterioration of documentary heritage. PMID:23762760

  12. Genotoxic effects of catmint (Nepeta meyeri Benth.) essential oils on some weed and crop plants.

    PubMed

    Kekeç, Güzin; Mutlu, Salih; Alpsoy, Lokman; Sakçali, M Serdal; Atici, Ökkes

    2013-07-01

    This study investigates the genotoxicity of the essential oils extracted from the aerial parts of catmint (Nepeta meyeri Benth.) against two weeds (Bromus danthoniae and Lactuca serriola) and two crop plants (Brassica napus and Zea mays). The essential oils of N. meyeri analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry contained 14 compounds, with 4aα, 7α, 7aβ-nepetalactone (83.4%), 4aα, 7α, and 7aα-nepetalactone (8.83%) as the major components. The oils were diluted (25, 50, 100, and 150 ppm) and the solutions were applied to seeds or leaves of these plants. The study compared the germination percentage and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) results with the control group. The results showed that the oils had a strong inhibitory activity and caused a change in RAPD profiles in terms of variation in band intensity, loss of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control group. The results suggested that RAPD analysis could be applied as a suitable biomarker assay for the detection of genotoxic effects of plant allelochemicals. This study indicates the genotoxical potential of N. meyeri essential oils on weed and crop plants. PMID:22434692

  13. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 17. Plant section 2500 - Plant and Instrument Air

    SciTech Connect

    1981-05-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 17 which reports the design of Plant Section 2500 - Plant and Instrument Air. The plant and instrument air system is designed to provide dry, compressed air for a multitude of uses in plant operations and maintenance. A single centrifugal air compressor provides the total plant and instrument air requirements. An air drying system reduces the dew point of the plant and instrument air. Plant Section 2500 is designed to provide air at 100/sup 0/F and 100 psig. Both plant and instrument air are dried to a -40/sup 0/F dew point. Normal plant and instrument air requirements total 1430 standard cubic feet per minute.

  14. Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oils from Different Plants Against Three Stored-Product Insects

    PubMed Central

    Ayvaz, Abdurrahman; Sagdic, Osman; Karaborklu, Salih; Ozturk, Ismet

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the insecticidal activity of essential oils from oregano, Origanum onites L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), savory, Satureja thymbra L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and myrtle, Myrtus communis L. (Rosales: Myrtaceae) against three stored-product insects. Essential oils from three species of plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The major compounds in these essential oils were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their insecticidal activity was tested against adults of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). While the major compound found in oregano and savory was carvacrol, the main constituent of the myrtle was linalool. Among the tested insects, A. obtectus was the most tolerant species against the essential oils. However, the insecticidal activity of the myrtle oil was more pronounced than other oils tested against A. obtectus adults. The essential oils of oregano and savory were highly effective against P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, with 100% mortality obtained after 24 h at 9 and 25 µl/l air for P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, respectively. LC50 and LC99 values of each essential oil were estimated for each insect species. PMID:20578885

  15. Insecticidal activity of the essential oils from different plants against three stored-product insects.

    PubMed

    Ayvaz, Abdurrahman; Sagdic, Osman; Karaborklu, Salih; Ozturk, Ismet

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the insecticidal activity of essential oils from oregano, Origanum onites L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), savory, Satureja thymbra L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and myrtle, Myrtus communis L. (Rosales: Myrtaceae) against three stored-product insects. Essential oils from three species of plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The major compounds in these essential oils were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their insecticidal activity was tested against adults of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). While the major compound found in oregano and savory was carvacrol, the main constituent of the myrtle was linalool. Among the tested insects, A. obtectus was the most tolerant species against the essential oils. However, the insecticidal activity of the myrtle oil was more pronounced than other oils tested against A. obtectus adults. The essential oils of oregano and savory were highly effective against P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, with 100% mortality obtained after 24 h at 9 and 25 microl/l air for P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, respectively. LC(50) and LC(99) values of each essential oil were estimated for each insect species. PMID:20578885

  16. Trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities of essential oils from medicinal plants of Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Borges, Andrezza Raposo; Aires, Juliana Ramos de Albuquerque; Higino, Taciana Mirely Maciel; de Medeiros, Maria das Graças Freire; Citó, Antonia Maria das Graças Lopes; Lopes, José Arimatéia Dantas; de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz

    2012-10-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in Latin America. There are no vaccines available, the chemotherapy used to treat this illness has serious side effects and its efficacy on the chronic phase of disease is still a matter of debate. In a search for alternative treatment for Chagas disease, essential oils extracted from traditional medicinal plants Lippia sidoides, Lippia origanoides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Ocimum gratissimum, Justicia pectorales and Vitex agnus-castus were investigated in vitro for trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities. Essential Oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and submitted to chemical analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The concentration of essential oils necessary to inhibit 50% of the epimastigotes or amastigotes growth (IC(50)) and to kill 50% of trypomastigote forms (LC(50)) was estimated. The most prevalent chemical constituents of these essential oils were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. All essential oils tested demonstrated an inhibitory effect on the parasite growth and survival. L. sidoides and L. origanoides essential oils were the most effective against trypomastigote and amastigote forms respectively. No significant cytotoxic effects were observed in mouse peritoneal macrophages incubated with essential oils which were more selective against the parasites than mammalian cells. Taken together, our results point towards the use of these essential oils as potential chemotherapeutic agent against T. cruzi. PMID:22771867

  17. Critical review, comparative evaluation, cost update, and baseline data development services in oil shale mining, in-situ liquefaction, and above ground retorting processes from the environmental, permitting, and licensing viewpoints. Volume I. Oil-shale retorting process engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-15

    The present volume is the first of a series of three constituting the title study. It provides a brief but thorough description of six Oil Shale Retorting Processes, namely: Paraho, Tosco II, Oxidental Modified In-Situ, Rio Blanco, Union Oil, and Superior Oil. The processes are treated at Unit Operations level, including operations such as Mining, Crushing, Screening, Conveying, Hydrogenation (or Upgrading), Hydrogen Manufacturing Plant, Amine Treating, Low-Btu Gas Treating, Tail Gas Treating, Sulfur Recovery, Wastewater Treatment, Sour Waste Stripping, Refining, Spent Shale Disposal, etc. The present first volume of the study provides most process engineering information required in order for Control Requirements, at specific points of a given unit operations flowsheet, to be fully assessed. Flow sheets for unit operations presented in the present Volume I are only conceptual and qualitative. Some quantitative data on volumeric flow rates of specific flow streams are occasionally given. However, no systematic effort has been presently made to develop a numerical data base on process flow streams. This has been done in a much more systematic and thorough manner in another FMR study performed on behalf of DOE under title Source Terms for the Health and Environmental Effects Document (HEED) for Oil Shale - 1982. Additional original quantitative analysis has been performed by FMR towards developing material balances for specific oil shale feeds into specific retorting processes.

  18. Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes in Modified Plant Oil Composites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAninch, Ian M.; Wool, Richard P.

    2007-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with their impressive mechanical properties are ideal reinforcement material. Acrylated epoxidized soy oil (AESO) has been previously shown to have favorable interactions with carbon nanotubes; however a mixture of aggregates and dispersed tubes were found even at low CNT concentrations. In order to prevent re-aggregation, the CNTs were functionalized with a 10 carbon long aliphatic chain. These aliphatic chains are similar to the fatty acids that make up soy oil. Functionalization was verified using XPS and IR spectroscopy. These functionalized CNTs were dispersed by mechanical shear mixing into AESO both with and without styrene as a comonomer. No large aggregates were observed in the liquid, uncured, samples or in the final cured composites. Dispersion in the solid composites was verified using optical and electron microscopy. Better dispersion also resulted in improved mechanical properties.

  19. Repellent effectiveness of seven plant essential oils, sunflower oil and natural insecticides against horn flies on pastured dairy cows and heifers.

    PubMed

    Lachance, S; Grange, G

    2014-06-01

    Plant essential oils (basil, geranium, balsam fir, lavender, lemongrass, peppermint, pine and tea tree), mixed with either sunflower oil or ethyl alcohol, were applied at 5% concentrations to the sides of Holstein cattle. Pastured cattle treated with essential oils diluted in sunflower oil had less flies than the untreated control for a 24-h period. However, the essential oil treatments were not significantly different than the carrier oil alone. Barn-held heifers treated with essential oils and sunflower oil alone had significantly less flies than the untreated control for up to 8 h after treatment. Basil, geranium, lavender, lemongrass and peppermint repelled more flies than sunflower oil alone for a period ranging from 1.5 to 4 h after treatments applied to heifers. All essential oils repelled > 75% of the flies on the treated area for 6 and 8 h on pastured cows and indoor heifers, respectively. Geranium, lemongrass and peppermint stayed effective for a longer duration. Essential oils mixed with ethyl alcohol demonstrated less repellence than when mixed with the carrier oil. Safer's soap, natural pyrethrins without piperonyl butoxide and ethyl alcohol alone were not efficient at repelling flies. Essential oils could be formulated for use as fly repellents in livestock production. PMID:24382265

  20. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Several Plant Extracts and Oils against Some Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mariri, Ayman; Safi, Mazen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants are considered new resources for producing agents that could act as alternatives to antibiotics in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of 28 plant extracts and oils against four Gram-negative bacterial species. Methods: Experimental, in vitro, evaluation of the activities of 28 plant extracts and oils as well as some antibiotics against E. coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica O9, Proteus spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae was performed. The activity against 15 isolates of each bacterium was determined by disc diffusion method at a concentration of 5%. Microdilution susceptibility assay was used in order to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the plant extracts, oils, and antibiotics. Results: Among the evaluated herbs, only Origanum syriacum L., Thymus syriacus Boiss., Syzygium aromaticum L., Juniperus foetidissima Wild, Allium sativum L., Myristica fragrans Houtt, and Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. essential oils and Laurus nobilis L. plant extract showed anti-bacterial activity. The MIC50 values of these products against the Gram-negative organisms varied from 1.5 (Proteus spp. and K. pneumoniae( and 6.25 µl/ml (Yersinia enterocolitica O9 ) to 12.5 µl/ml (E. coli O:157). Conclusion: Among the studied essential oils, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. essential oils were the most effective. Moreover, Cephalosporin and Ciprofloxacin were the most effective antibiotics against almost all the studied bacteria. Therefore, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. could act as bactericidal agents against Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:24453392

  1. Methylesters of plant oils as diesel fuels, either straight or in blends

    SciTech Connect

    Pischinger, G.H.; Siekmann, R.W.; Falcon, A.M.; Fernandes, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    Engine and vehicle tests were carried out with three alternative Diesel fuels: straight methylester of soybean oil (MESO), 75 to 25 gasoil-MESO blend, and 68-23-9 gasoil-MESO-ethanol (anhydrous) blend. Fuel-relevant characteristics of the three Diesel alternatives are given, together with the phase diagram of the ternary blend. Power, torque and volumetric brake specific fuel consumption in an unmodified IDI Diesel engine reflect mainly the net volumetric heating values. Smoke decreases with the presence of oxygenate compounds as does the emission of CO, as measured on the chassis dynamometer. A rigorous durability bench test on straight MESO shows results entirely within VW specifications. Analyses have indicated that, for IDI engines, no lube-oil problems are anticipated. Investigation of compatibility of MESO with fuel system material reveals considerable similarity to gasoil, but some items may require adaptation or even substitution. 3 figures, 9 tables.

  2. Nematicidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils and Components From Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), Allspice (Pimenta dioica) and Litsea (Litsea cubeba) Essential Oils Against Pine Wood Nematode (Bursaphelenchus Xylophilus).

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2007-09-01

    Commercial plant essential oils from 26 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Good nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), allspice (Pimenta dioica) and litsea (Litsea cubeba). Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to identification of 12, 6 and 16 major compounds from ajowan, allspice and litsea oils, respectively. These compounds from three plant essential oils were tested individually for their nematicidal activities against the pinewood nematode. LC(50) values of geranial, isoeugenol, methyl isoeugenol, eugenol, methyl eugenol and neral against pine wood nematodes were 0.120, 0.200, 0.210, 0.480, 0.517 and 0.525 mg/ml, respectively. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pinewood nematode. PMID:19259498

  3. Nematicidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils and Components From Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), Allspice (Pimenta dioica) and Litsea (Litsea cubeba) Essential Oils Against Pine Wood Nematode (Bursaphelenchus Xylophilus)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Il-Kwon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2007-01-01

    Commercial plant essential oils from 26 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Good nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), allspice (Pimenta dioica) and litsea (Litsea cubeba). Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to identification of 12, 6 and 16 major compounds from ajowan, allspice and litsea oils, respectively. These compounds from three plant essential oils were tested individually for their nematicidal activities against the pinewood nematode. LC50 values of geranial, isoeugenol, methyl isoeugenol, eugenol, methyl eugenol and neral against pine wood nematodes were 0.120, 0.200, 0.210, 0.480, 0.517 and 0.525 mg/ml, respectively. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pinewood nematode. PMID:19259498

  4. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    PubMed Central

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N. Kirk; Cutler, G. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur. PMID:26010088

  5. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil and waste animal fats in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Alptekin, Ertan; Canakci, Mustafa; Sanli, Huseyin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, corn oil as vegetable oil, chicken fat and fleshing oil as animal fats were used to produce methyl ester in a biodiesel pilot plant. The FFA level of the corn oil was below 1% while those of animal fats were too high to produce biodiesel via base catalyst. Therefore, it was needed to perform pretreatment reaction for the animal fats. For this aim, sulfuric acid was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol in the pretreatment reactions. After reducing the FFA level of the animal fats to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with alkaline catalyst. Due to low FFA content of corn oil, it was directly subjected to transesterification. Potassium hydroxide was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for transesterification reactions. The fuel properties of methyl esters produced in the biodiesel pilot plant were characterized and compared to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. According to the results, ester yield values of animal fat methyl esters were slightly lower than that of the corn oil methyl ester (COME). The production cost of COME was higher than those of animal fat methyl esters due to being high cost biodiesel feedstock. The fuel properties of produced methyl esters were close to each other. Especially, the sulfur content and cold flow properties of the COME were lower than those of animal fat methyl esters. The measured fuel properties of all produced methyl esters met ASTM D6751 (S500) biodiesel fuel standards. PMID:25151441

  6. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N Kirk; Cutler, G Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur. PMID:26010088

  7. Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from garlic (Allium sativum) and clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata) oils against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2005-06-01

    Plant essential oils from 29 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against the Japanese termite, Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe, using a fumigation bioassay. Responses varied with plant material, exposure time, and concentration. Good insecticidal activity against the Japanese termite was achived with essential oils of Melaleuca dissitiflora, Melaleuca uncinata, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus polybractea, Eucalyptus radiata, Eucalyptus dives, Eucalyptus globulus, Orixa japonica, Cinnamomum cassia, Allium cepa, Illicium verum, Evodia officinalis, Schizonepeta tenuifolia, Cacalia roborowskii, Juniperus chinensis var. horizontalis, Juniperus chinensis var. kaizuka, clove bud, and garlic applied at 7.6 microL/L of air. Over 90% mortality after 3 days was achieved with O. japonica essential oil at 3.5 microL/L of air. E. citriodora, C. cassia, A. cepa, I. verum, S. tenuifolia, C. roborowskii, clove bud, and garlic oils at 3.5 microL/L of air were highly toxic 1 day after treatment. At 2.0 microL/L of air concentration, essential oils of I. verum, C. roborowskik, S. tenuifolia, A. cepa, clove bud, and garlic gave 100% mortality within 2 days of treatment. Clove bud and garlic oils showed the most potent antitermitic activity among the plant essential oils. Garlic and clove bud oils produced 100% mortality at 0.5 microL/L of air, but this decreased to 42 and 67% after 3 days of treatment at 0.25 microL/L of air, respectively. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of three major compounds from garlic oil and two from clove bud oils. These five compounds from two essential oils were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against Japanese termites. Responses varied with compound and dose. Diallyl trisulfide was the most toxic, followed by diallyl disulfide, eugenol, diallyl sulfide, and beta-caryophyllene. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for termite

  8. Characterization and effect of using Mahua oil biodiesel as fuel in compression ignition engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapilan, N.; Ashok Babu, T. P.; Reddy, R. P.

    2009-12-01

    There is an increasing interest in India, to search for suitable alternative fuels that are environment friendly. This led to the choice of Mahua Oil (MO) as one of the main alternative fuels to diesel. In this investigation, Mahua Oil Biodiesel (MOB) and its blend with diesel were used as fuel in a single cylinder, direct injection and compression ignition engine. The MOB was prepared from MO by transesterification using methanol and potassium hydroxide. The fuel properties of MOB are close to the diesel and confirm to the ASTM standards. From the engine test analysis, it was observed that the MOB, B5 and B20 blend results in lower CO, HC and smoke emissions as compared to diesel. But the B5 and B20 blends results in higher efficiency as compared to MOB. Hence MOB or blends of MOB and diesel (B5 or B20) can be used as a substitute for diesel in diesel engines used in transportation as well as in the agriculture sector.

  9. Fuel Properties Improvement of Jatropha Oil using Exhaust Heat of Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raheman, H.; Pradhan, P.

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present work is to design a helical coil heat exchanger to extract waste heat from exhaust gas of a diesel engine to improve the fuel properties of high viscous crude Jatropha oil (CJO). A detailed designed procedure of helical coil heat exchanger was reported in this paper. The results showed that the fuel properties like density and viscosity reduced by 2.13 and 48.76 % respectively by gaining temperature from exhaust gas. Finally preheated Jatropha oil (PJO) fueled to the 5.5 kW diesel engine and it operated smoothly with a maximum brake thermal efficiency of 29.15 % as compared to 29.88 and 28.33 % for HSD and CJO, respectively. The brake specific energy consumption of CJO and PJO was found to be only 2.84 and 5.47 % higher than that of HSD, respectively. Efficiency of the heat exchanger was found to be varying between 19 and 26 % with engine load.

  10. A low cost mid-infrared sensor for on line contamination monitoring of lubricating oils in marine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Mohammadi, L.; Kullmann, F.; Holzki, M.; Sigloch, S.; Klotzbuecher, T.; Spiesen, J.; Tommingas, T.; Weismann, P.; Kimber, G.

    2010-04-01

    The chemical and physical condition of oils in marine engines must be monitored to ensure optimum performance of the engine and to avoid damage by degraded oil not adequately lubricating the engine. Routine monitoring requires expensive laboratory testing and highly skilled analysts. This work describes the adaptation and implementation of a mid infrared (MIR) sensor module for continued oil condition monitoring in two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines. The developed sensor module will help to reduce costs in oil analysis by eliminating the need to collect and send samples to a laboratory for analysis. The online MIR-Sensor module measures the contamination of oil with water, soot, as well as the degradation indicated by the TBN (Total Base Number) value. For the analysis of water, TBN, and soot in marine engine oils, four spectral regions of interest have been identified. The optical absorption in these bands correlating with the contaminations is measured simultaneously by using a four-field thermopile detector, combined with appropriate bandpass filters. Recording of the MIR-absorption was performed in a transmission mode using a flow-through cell with appropriate path length. Since in this case no spectrometer is required, the sensor including the light source, the flowthrough- cell, and the detector can be realised at low cost and in a very compact manner. The optical configuration of the sensor with minimal component number and signal intensity optimisation at the four-field detector was implemented by using non-sequential ray tracing simulation. The used calibration model was robust enough to predict accurately the value for soot, water, and TBN concentration for two-stroke and four-stroke engine oils. The sensor device is designed for direct installation on the host engine or machine and, therefore, becoming an integral part of the lubrication system. It can also be used as a portable stand-alone system for machine fluid analysis in the field.

  11. Physico-chemical change and heat stability of extra virgin olive oils flavoured by selected Tunisian aromatic plants.

    PubMed

    Ayadi, M A; Grati-Kamoun, N; Attia, H

    2009-10-01

    Objectives of this work were studying physico-chemical change and heat stability of olive oils flavoured by selected Tunisian aromatic plants. Flavoured olive oils were prepared by maceration of fresh plant materials (rosemary, lavender, sage, menthe, basil, lemon and thyme) with olive oil at a 5% w/w level for 15 days. A sensorial evaluation was applied to select more appreciate flavoured olive oils by consumers. An oxidative procedure was applied to test the stability of selected flavoured olive oils: oils samples were kept in glass bottles and heated at 60 and 130 degrees C during 55 days and 6h, respectively. The resistance to oxidation of these selected flavoured oils was compared to a control samples by measuring PV, K232 and K270 values and change in chlorophyll, carotenes and polyphénols contents. Obtained results show that addition of aromatic plants causes a slight increase in free acidity and viscosity of aromatised olive oils. L*, b* and a* values show that addition of thyme cause a great change in olive oil colours. Heat stability results shows that from selected aromatic plants, rosemary was effectiveness against oxidation followed by thyme and lemon. However, olive oil flavoured with basil exhibit a similar behaviour versus thermal oxidation then the natural olive oil. PMID:19635520

  12. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Diesel B3 Mixed with Crude Palm Oil

    PubMed Central

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5–17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7–33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6–52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10–39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine). PMID:24688402

  13. Performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil.

    PubMed

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5-17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7-33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6-52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10-39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine). PMID:24688402

  14. THz time-domain spectroscopy on plant oils and animal fats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ying; Guo, Lantao; Wang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xi Cheng

    2005-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation, generated by ultra short laser pulses, occupies a broad band on electromagnetic spectrum chart. This radiation band belongs to far-infrared. It is a new research field of studying THz radiation interacting with materials especially with biomaterials. The paper shows experimental results of five plant oil samples from different kind of plants and two kinds of animal fat samples by using THz-TDS (THz time-domain spectroscopy) technology. The refraction indices and the absorption coefficients of these samples are measured in the range from 0.2 to 2.0 THz. The results show that different oils have different refraction indices. For oil samples, refraction indices decrease slowly while their coefficients of absorption increase with the increases of THz frequency. For the animal fat samples, the refraction indices show almost no change while the absorption coefficients increase with the increasing THz frequency. The absorption coefficients increase with the increasing temperature.

  15. Characterization of oils and chemical analyses of the seeds of wild plants.

    PubMed

    Eromosele, I C; Eromosele, C O; Akintoye, A O; Komolafe, T O

    1994-12-01

    The Chemical compositions of the seeds of some wild plants have been investigated. The seeds of Hematostaphis berteri, Balanites aegytiaca and Ximenia americana contain high levels of oils with values in the range, 38.2-54.5% (w/w). The iodine values of the oils were determined and, for Ximenia americana, the value was high, i.e., 149.8 mg/100 g. The storage properties of the oil of Hematostaphis berteri were examined over a period of fifty six days by exposure to light at ambient temperature. The peroxide value of the oil over the period increased by 12-fold of its initial value of 27.5 mEq/kg, suggesting light susceptibility to photo-oxidative degradation. The proximate protein contents were low but the concentrations of mineral elements in the seeds examined were generally high, exceeding the values for the corresponding mesocarps by several orders of magnitude. PMID:7716119

  16. Organic Chemistry and the Native Plants of the Sonoran Desert: Conversion of Jojoba Oil to Biodiesel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daconta, Lisa V.; Minger, Timothy; Nedelkova, Valentina; Zikopoulos, John N.

    2015-01-01

    A new, general approach to the organic chemistry laboratory is introduced that is based on learning about organic chemistry techniques and research methods by exploring the natural products found in local native plants. As an example of this approach for the Sonoran desert region, the extraction of jojoba oil and its transesterification to…

  17. Oil productivity and composition of sunflower as a function of hybrid and planting date

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is potential cash crop for the southeastern United States for production of cooking oil or biodiesel. Two years of experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of location (five locations in Mississippi), planting date (April 20, May 20, and June 20), and hybrid...

  18. Economic implications of substituting plant oils for diesel fuel. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, R.C.; Collins, G.S.; Lacewell, R.D.; Chang, H.C.

    1983-08-01

    This study of expected economic impacts of substituting plant oils for diesel fuel consisted of two components: (1) analysis of oilseed production and oilseed crushing capacity in the US and Texas and (2) simulation of impacts on US cropping patterns, crop prices, producer rent, and consumer surplus. The primary oilseed crops considered were soybeans, cottonseed, sunflowers, and peanuts. 19 references, 2 figures, 14 tables.

  19. Plant oil-based polymers prepared in green media and functionalized into useful materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conversion of plant oils to polymers has attracted renewed attention in recent years in order to replace or augment the traditional petro-chemical based polymers and resins. This is due to concern for the environment, waste disposal, and depletion of fossil and non renewable feedstocks. In this ...

  20. APPLICATION OF OIL AGGLOMERATION FOR EFFLUENT CONTROL FROM COAL CLEANING PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the potential applicability of oil agglomeration for the control of black water effluents from coal cleaning plants processing four different coals. Removal and recovery of the coal from each of the black waters produced aqueous suspensions of mineral matter ...

  1. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants against several foodborne and spoilage bacteria.

    PubMed

    Silva, Nuno; Alves, Sofia; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Amaral, Joana S; Poeta, Patrícia

    2013-12-01

    The antimicrobial activity of essential oils extracted from a variety of aromatic plants, often used in the Portuguese gastronomy was studied in vitro by the agar diffusion method. The essential oils of thyme, oregano, rosemary, verbena, basil, peppermint, pennyroyal and mint were tested against Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative strains (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). For most essential oils examined, S. aureus, was the most susceptible bacteria, while P. aeruginosa showed, in general, least susceptibility. Among the eight essential oils evaluated, thyme, oregano and pennyroyal oils showed the greatest antimicrobial activity, followed by rosemary, peppermint and verbena, while basil and mint showed the weakest antimicrobial activity. Most of the essential oils considered in this study exhibited a significant inhibitory effect. Thyme oil showed a promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, thus revealing its potential as a natural preservative in food products against several causal agents of foodborne diseases and food spoilage. In general, the results demonstrate that, besides flavoring the food, the use of aromatic herbs in gastronomy can also contribute to a bacteriostatic effect against pathogens. PMID:23444311

  2. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from the edible aromatic plant Aristolochia delavayi.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Jian; Njateng, Guy S S; He, Wen-Jia; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Gu, Jian-Long; Chen, Shan-Na; Du, Zhi-Zhi

    2013-11-01

    The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Aristolochia delavayi Franch. (Aristolochiaceae), a unique edible aromatic plant consumed by the Nakhi (Naxi) people in Yunnan, China, was investigated using GC/MS analysis. In total, 95 components, representing more than 95% of the oil composition, were identified, and the main constituents found were (E)-dec-2-enal (52.0%), (E)-dodec-2-enal (6.8%), dodecanal (3.35%), heptanal (2.88%), and decanal (2.63%). The essential oil showed strong inhibitory activity (96% reduction) of the production of bacterial volatile sulfide compounds (VSC) by Klebsiella pneumoniae, an effect that was comparable with that of the reference compound citral (91% reduction). Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and the isolated major compound against eight bacterial and six fungal strains were evaluated. The essential oil showed significant antibacterial activity against Providencia stuartii and Escherichia coli, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 3.9 to 62.5 μg/ml. The oil also showed strong inhibitory activity against the fungal strains Trichophyton ajelloi, Trichophyton terrestre, Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC values ranging from 3.9 to 31.25 μg/ml, while (E)-dec-2-enal presented a lower antifungal activity than the essential oil. PMID:24243612

  3. Fumigant toxicity of the essential oils of some African plants against Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Omolo, M O; Okinyo, D; Ndiege, I O; Lwande, W; Hassanali, A

    2005-03-01

    The essential oils from 15 species of African plants selected by ethnobotanical considerations and field inspection (odour and presence of insects) were screened for fumigant toxicity to Anopheles gambiae s.s. in the laboratory. Essential oils from 6 species showed varying levels of toxicity, with Conyza newii (Compositae) and Plectranthus marruboides (Labiateae) being the most potent. Fifty compounds representing approximately 74% of the essential oil of C. newii were identified by GC-MS and GC-coinjection (for available standards). The major and some of the minor constituents of the two oils were assayed at different doses. Two compounds, from C. newii, perillaldehyde and perillyl alcohol, exhibited higher fumigant toxicity (LD50 = 1.05 x 10(-4) and 2.52 x 10(-4) mg cm(-3), respectively) than the parent oil (2.0 x 10(-3) mg cm(-3)). GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of P. marruboides gave results similar to that previously reported. Interestingly, none of its components were active, suggesting that the insecticidal activity of the oil results from either some of the minor components or as a blend effect of some of the major constituents. PMID:15830848

  4. An attempt of postharvest orange fruit rot control using essential oils from Mediterranean plants.

    PubMed

    Camele, Ippolito; De Feo, Vincenzo; Altieri, Luciana; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Luigi Rana, Gian

    2010-12-01

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested at different doses against four fungi known as causal agents of post-harvest orange fruit rot: Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, Phytophthora citrophthora, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris (Family Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Family Verbenaceae), and Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Carum carvi (Family Apiaceae). Because preliminary in vitro experiments showed that only the oils from V. officinalis, T. vulgaris, and O. vulgare exhibited some fungistatic activity against the above-named fungi, these three essential oils were used in successive in vivo tests carried out to protect healthy "Washington navel" orange fruits from artificial infection by the same micromycetes. The essential oil of T. vulgaris, at a 2,000 ppm dose, controlled fruit rot by B. cinerea, P. citrophthora, and R. stolonifer but was ineffective against P. italicum. Essential oils of V. officinalis and O. vulgare inhibited infection by the first two fungi and only by P. citrophthora, respectively. This finding represents an important result, with the goal of using the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their positive effect on their safety and shelf life. PMID:20874226

  5. Evaluation of chemical and antiviral properties of essential oils from South American plants.

    PubMed

    Duschatzky, Claudia B; Possetto, Mirta L; Talarico, Laura B; García, Cybele C; Michis, Fabiana; Almeida, Norma V; de Lampasona, Marina P; Schuff, Carola; Damonte, Elsa B

    2005-01-01

    The essential oils of seven aromatic plants from Córdoba, San Luis and San Juan Provinces (Argentina) were isolated by steam distillation and analysed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. The oils were screened for cytotoxicity and in vitro inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) and Junin virus (JUNV) by a virucidal test. The oils showed a variable virucidal action according to the virus. The better relationship between cytotoxicity and antivirus action was observed with the essential oils of Heterothalamus alienus and Buddleja cordobensis against JUNV, with virucidal concentration 50% (VC50) values of 44.2 and 39.0 ppm and therapeutic indices (cytotoxicity to virucidal activity ratio) of 3.3 and 4.0, respectively. The inhibitory action was exerted by a direct interaction of virions with the oils. Virions inactivated with B. cordobensis and H. alienus essential oil were not affected in their ability to bind to the host cell. The therapeutic indices shown by these essential oils in toto were very modest, but given the complexity of their chemical composition the future identification of the precise active principle may allow the elimination of cytotoxic components and increase the selectivity of the effective compound. PMID:16130522

  6. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from plants against selected pathogenic and saprophytic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Elgayyar, M; Draughon, F A; Golden, D A; Mount, J R

    2001-07-01

    The beneficial health effects of extracts from many types of plants that are used as seasoning agents in foods and beverages have been claimed for centuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected herb and spice essential oils for control of growth and survival of microorganisms. Inhibition of growth was tested by the paper disc agar diffusion method. Antibiotic susceptibility discs were used as control. Minimum lethal concentration (MLC) was determined by the tube dilution method. Essential oils from anise, angelica, basil, carrot, celery, cardamom, coriander, dill weed, fennel, oregano, parsley, and rosemary were evaluated. Inhibition ranged from complete with oregano to no inhibition with carrot oil for each of the test strains that included: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O:157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus plantarum, Aspergillus niger, Geotrichum, and Rhodotorula. Oregano essential oil showed the greatest inhibition (zone, > or = 70 to 80 mm) (MLC, approximately 8 ppm). Coriander and basil were also highly inhibitory (MLC, approximately 25 to 50 ppm) to E. coli O:157:H7 and to the other bacteria and fungi tested. Anise oil was not particularly inhibitory to bacteria (inhibition zone, approximately 25 mm); however, anise oil was highly inhibitory to molds. Because some of the herbal and spice essential oils are highly inhibitory to selected pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, they may provide alternatives and supplements to conventional antimicrobial additives in foods. PMID:11456186

  7. Bioactivity of selected plant essential oils against the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Chang, Hui-Ting; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Wei-June

    2003-08-01

    The bioactivity of 14 essential oils from five plants has been studied using the brine shrimp lethality test and the Aedes aegypti larvicidal assay. All essential oils screened had LC50 values smaller than 200 microg/ml, showing significant lethality against brine shrimp. In addition, nine of the 14 essential oils tested showed toxicity against the fourth-instar A. aegypti larvae in 24 h (LC50<100 microg/ml). Of these, the leaf and bark essential oils of Cryptomeria japonica demonstrated high larvicidal activity, the most active being the leaf essential oil of C. japonica, with a LC50=37.6 microg/ml (LC90=71.9 microg/ml), followed by the bark essential oil of C. japonica also showing high activity against A. aegypti larvae, with a LC50=48.1 microg/ml (LC90=130.3 microg/ml). The results obtained from this study suggest that the leaf and bark essential oils of C. japonica are promising as larvicides against A. aegypti larvae and could be useful in the search for new natural larvicidal compounds. PMID:12676507

  8. Options for reducing oil content of sludge from a petroleum wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae-Soon; Lee, Jae-Young

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants at petroleum refineries often produce substantial quantities of sludge with relatively high concentrations of oil. Disposal of this waste is costly, in part because the high oil content requires use of secure disposal methods akin to handling of hazardous wastes. This article examines the properties of oily sludge and evaluates optional methods for reducing the oil content of this sludge to enable use of lower cost disposal methods. To reduce the oil content or break the structure of oily sludge, preliminary lab-scale experiments involving mechanical treatment, surfactant extraction, and oxidation are conducted. By applying surfactants, approximately 36% to 45% of oils are extracted from oily sludge. Of this, about 33% of oils are rapidly oxidised via radiation by an electron beam within 10 s of exposure. The Fenton reaction is effective for destruction of oily sludge. It is also found that 56% of oils were removed by reacting oily sludge with water containing ozone of 0.5 mg l(-1) over a period of 24 h. Oxidation using ozone thus can also be effectively used as a pretreatment for oily sludge. PMID:26261236

  9. Activity of Six Essential Oils Extracted from Tunisian Plants against Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Chaftar, Naouel; Girardot, Marion; Quellard, Nathalie; Labanowski, Jérôme; Ghrairi, Tawfik; Hani, Khaled; Frère, Jacques; Imbert, Christine

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of six essential oils extracted from Tunisian plants, i.e., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Juniperus phoenicea L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta graveolens L., and Thymus vulgaris L., and to evaluate their activity against Legionella pneumophila (microdilution assays). Eight Legionella pneumophila strains were studied, including the two well-known serogroup 1 Lens and Paris strains as controls and six environmental strains isolated from Tunisian spas belonging to serogroups 1, 4, 5, 6, and 8. The essential oils were generally active against L. pneumophila. The activities of the A. herba-alba, C. sinensis, and R. officinalis essential oils were strain-dependent, whereas those of the J. phoenicea and T. vulgaris oils, showing the highest anti-Legionella activities, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) lower than 0.03 and lower than or equal to 0.07 mg/ml, respectively, were independent of the strains' serogroup. Moreover, the microorganisms treated with T. vulgaris essential oil were shorter, swollen, and less electron-dense compared to the untreated controls. Isoborneol (20.91%), (1S)-α-pinene (18.30%) β-phellandrene (8.08%), α-campholenal (7.91%), and α-phellandrene (7.58%) were the major components isolated from the J. phoenicea oil, while carvacrol (88.50%) was the main compound of the T. vulgaris oil, followed by p-cymene (7.86%). This study highlighted the potential interest of some essential oils extracted from Tunisian plants as biocides to prevent the Legionella risk. PMID:26460561

  10. Antibacterial activities of plant essential oils against Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Wen; Chang, Wei-Lung; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Cheng, Sen-Sung

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs) extracted from Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaves and different tissues of Cryptomeria japonica against pathogenic Legionella pneumophila at 42 degrees C. Ten kinds of EOs were extracted by water distillation and their chemical constituents were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The results showed that cinnamon leaf EO possessed stronger anti-L. pneumophila activity than C. japonica EO. In particular, the highest bactericidal effect was noted in contact with C. osmophloeum leaf EO of cinnamaldehyde type (characterized by its major constituent of cinnamaldehyde accounting for 91.3% of EO), regardless of contacted cell concentration (2 and 4 log CFU ml(-1)) or exposure time (10 and 60 min). Cinnamaldehyde is responsible for anti-L. pneumophila activity based on the results of antimicrobial testing and statistical analysis. Stepwise regression analyses show that EO concentration is the most significant factor affecting the bioactivity of EO. It is concluded that C. osmophloeum leaf oil of cinnamaldehyde type and its major constituent, cinnamaldehyde, possess strong anti-L. pneumophila activities, and have the great potential to be used as an antibacterial agent to control legionellosis associated with hot tubs and spa facilities widely used in homes and resorts. PMID:17659763

  11. Phytoremediation of Alberta oil sand tailings using native plants and fungal endophytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repas, T.; Germida, J.; Kaminskyj, S.

    2012-04-01

    Fungal endophytes colonize host plants without causing disease. Some endophytes confer plant tolerance to harsh environments. One such endophyte, Trichoderma harzianum strain TSTh20-1, was isolated from a plant growing on Athabasca oil sand tailings. Tailing sands are a high volume waste product from oil sand extraction that the industry is required to remediate. Tailing sands are low in organic carbon and mineral nutrients, and are hydrophobic due to residual polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Typically, tailing sands are remediated by planting young trees in large quantities of mulch plus mineral fertilizer, which is costly and labour intensive. In greenhouse trials, TSTh20-1 supports growth of tomato seedlings on tailing sands without fertilizer. The potential use of TSTh20-1 in combination with native grasses and forbs to remediate under field conditions is being assessed. Twenty-three commercially available plant species are being screened for seed germination and growth on tailing sands in the presence of TSTh20-1. The best candidates from this group will be used in greenhouse and small scale field trials. Potential mechanisms that contribute to endophyte-induced plant growth promotion, such as plant hormone production, stress tolerance, mineral solubilization, and uptake are also being assessed. As well, TSTh20-1 appears to be remarkably frugal in its nutrient requirements and the possibility that this attribute is characteristic of other plant-fungal endophytes from harsh environments is under study.

  12. Human factors engineering in oil and gas--a review of industry guidance.

    PubMed

    Robb, Martin; Miller, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Oil and gas exploration and production activities are carried out in hazardous environments in many parts of the world. Recent events in the Gulf of Mexico highlight those risks and underline the importance of considering human factors during facility design. Ergonomic factors such as machinery design, facility and accommodation layout and the organization of work activities have been systematically considered over the past twenty years on a limited number of offshore facility design projects to a) minimize the occupational risks to personnel, b) support operations and maintenance tasks and c) improve personnel wellbeing. During this period, several regulators and industry bodies such as the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM), the UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE), Oil and Gas Producers (OGP), and Norway's Petroleum Safety Authority (PSA) have developed specific HFE design standards and guidance documents for the application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) to the design and operation of Oil and Gas projects. However, despite the existence of these guidance and recommended design practise documents, and documented proof of their value in enhancing crew safety and efficiency, HFE is still not well understood across the industry and application across projects is inconsistent. This paper summarizes the key Oil and Gas industry bodies' HFE guidance documents, identifies recurring themes and current trends in the use of these standards, provides examples of where and how these HFE standards have been used on past major offshore facility design projects, and suggests criteria for selecting the appropriate HFE strategy and tasks for future major oil and gas projects. It also provides a short history of the application of HFE to the offshore industry, beginning with the use of ASTM F 1166 to a major operator's Deepwater Gulf of Mexico facility in 1990 and the application of HFE to diverse world regions. This

  13. Out-of-plane piezoelectric microresonator and oscillator circuit for monitoring engine oil contamination with diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, J.; Manzaneque, T.; Ruiz-Díez, V.; Jiménez-Márquez, F.; Kucera, M.; Pfusterschmied, G.; Wistrela, E.; Schmid, U.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    Real-time monitoring of the physical properties of liquids is an important subject in the automotive industry. Contamination of lubricating oil by diesel soot has a significant impact on engine wear. Resonant microstructures are regarded to be a precise and compact solution for tracking the viscosity and density of lubricant oils. Since the measurement of pure shear forces do not allow an independent determination of the density and viscosity, two out-of-plane modes for the monitoring of oil dilution with diesel have been selected. The first one (12-mode) is working at 51 kHz and the second mode (14-mode) at 340 kHz. Two parameters were measured: the quality factor and the resonance frequency from which the viscosity and density of the fluids under test can be determined, requiring only a small amount of test liquid. A PLL-based oscillator circuit was implemented based on each resonator. Our results demonstrate the performance of the resonator in oils with viscosity up to 90 mPa·s. The quality factor measured at 25°C was 7 for the 12-mode and 19 for the 14-mode. A better resolution in density and viscosity was obtained for the 14-mode, showing a resolution of 3.92·10-5 g/ml for the density and 1.27·10-1 mPa·s for the viscosity, in pure lubricant oil SAE 0W30. An alternative tracking system, based on a discrete oscillator circuit, was tested with the same resonator, showing a comparable stability and supporting our approach.

  14. Genetic engineering of novel flower colors in floricultural plants: recent advances via transgenic approaches.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Since the first successful genetic engineering of flower color in petunia, several new techniques have been developed and applied to modify flower color not only in model plants but also in floricultural plants. A typical example is the commercial violet-flowered carnation "Moondust series" developed by Suntry Ltd. and Florigene Ltd. More recently, blue-flowered roses have been successfully produced and are expected to be commercially available in the near future. In recent years, successful modification of flower color by sophisticated regulation of flower-pigment metabolic pathways has become possible. In this chapter, we review recent advances in flower color modification by genetic engineering, especially focusing on the methodology. We have included our own recent results on successful production of flower-color-modified transgenic plants in a model plant, tobacco and an ornamental plant, gentian. Based on these results, genetic engineering of flower color for improvement of floricultural plants is discussed. PMID:20099113

  15. Replacing the whole barrel of oil with plants and microbes

    ScienceCinema

    Simmons, Blake

    2014-06-24

    In this May 13, 2013 talk, Blake Simmons discusses how scientists are exploring how plants and microbes can be used to replace many of the everyday goods we use that are derived from petroleum. To watch the entire entire Science at the Theater event, in which seven of our scientists present BIG ideas in eight minutes each.

  16. Replacing the whole barrel of oil with plants and microbes

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Blake

    2013-05-29

    In this May 13, 2013 talk, Blake Simmons discusses how scientists are exploring how plants and microbes can be used to replace many of the everyday goods we use that are derived from petroleum. To watch the entire entire Science at the Theater event, in which seven of our scientists present BIG ideas in eight minutes each.

  17. Laboratory endurance test of a sunflower oil blend in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Kaufman, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper compares the effects of using a 25 to 75 blend (v/v) of alkali refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel in a diesel engine as compared to a baseline test on diesel fuel. There were no significant problems with engine operation during the baseline test. However, problems were experienced while using the blended fuel. The major problems were (1) abnormal buildup on the injection nozzle tips, (2) injector needle sticking, (3) secondary injection, (4) carbon buildup in the intake ports, (5) carbon deposits on the exhaust valve stems, (6) carbon filling of the compression ring grooves, and (7) abnormal lacquer and varnish buildup on the third piston land. 6 figures, 4 tables.

  18. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Main elements of the design are identified and explained, and the rationale behind them was reviewed. Major systems and plant facilities are listed and discussed. Construction cost and schedule estimates are presented, and the engineering issues that should be reexamined are identified. The latest (1980-1981) information from the MHD technology program is integrated with the elements of a conventional steam power electric generating plant.

  19. Who lives near coke plants and oil refineries An exploration of the environmental inequity hypothesis

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, J.D.; Beaulieu, N.D.; Sussman, D.; Sadowitz, M.; Li, Y.C. )

    1999-04-01

    Facility-specific information on pollution was obtained for 36 coke plants and 46 oil refineries in the US and matched with information on populations surrounding these 82 facilities. These data were analyzed to determine whether environmental inequities were present, whether they were more economic or racial in nature, and whether the racial composition of nearby communities has changed significantly since plants began operations. The Census tracts near coke plants have a disproportionate share of poor and nonwhite residents. Multivariate analyses suggest that existing inequities are primarily economic in nature. The findings for oil refineries are not strongly supportive of the environmental inequity hypothesis. Rank ordering of facilities by race, poverty, and pollution produces limited (although not consistent) evidence that the more risky facilities tend to be operating in communities with above-median proportions of nonwhite residents (near coke plants) and Hispanic residents (near oil refineries). Over time, the radical makeup of many communities near facilities has changed significantly, particularly in the case of coke plants sited in the early 1900s. Further risk-oriented studies of multiple manufacturing facilities in various industrial sectors of the economy are recommended.

  20. Following basal stem rot in young oil palm plantings.

    PubMed

    Panchal, G; Bridge, P D

    2005-01-01

    The PCR primer GanET has previously been shown to be suitable for the specific amplification of DNA from Ganoderma boninense. A DNA extraction and PCR method has been developed that allows for the amplification of the G. boninense DNA from environmental samples of oil palm tissue. The GanET primer reaction was used in conjunction with a palm-sampling programme to investigate the possible infection of young palms through cut frond base surfaces. Ganoderma DNA was detected in frond base material at a greater frequency than would be expected by comparison with current infection levels. Comparisons are made between the height of the frond base infected, the number of frond bases infected, and subsequent development of basal stem rot. The preliminary results suggest that the development of basal stem rot may be more likely to occur when young lower frond bases are infected. PMID:15750744

  1. Influence of vegetable oil based alternate fuels on residue deposits and components wear in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Goettler, H.; Pratt, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    A 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend (v/v) of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a non-ionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil were evaluated as fuels in a direct injected, turbocharged, intercooled, 4-cylinder Allis-Chalmers diesel engine during a 200-hour EMA cycle laboratory screening endurance test. Engine performance on Phillips 2-D reference fuel served as baseline for the experimental fuels. This investigation employed an analysis of variance to compare CRC carbon and lacquer ratings and wear of engine parts for all tested fuels. The paper deals with carbon and lacquer formation and its effect on long-term engine performance as experienced during the operation with the alternate fuels. Significantly heavier deposits than for the diesel fuel were observed for the microemulsion and 25-75 sunflower oil blend. particularly on the exhaust and intake valve stems, on the piston lands, and in the piston grooves. In all tests engine wear was not significant. The final dimensions of the measured elements did not exceed the manufacturer's initial parts specifications.

  2. Rhamnolipids Increase the Phytotoxicity of Diesel Oil Towards Four Common Plant Species in a Terrestrial Environment.

    PubMed

    Marecik, Roman; Wojtera-Kwiczor, Joanna; Lawniczak, Lukasz; Cyplik, Paweł; Szulc, Alicja; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Chrzanowski, Lukasz

    2012-09-01

    The study focused on assessing the influence of rhamnolipids on the phytotoxicity of diesel oil-contaminated soil samples. Tests evaluating the seed germination and growth inhibition of four terrestrial plant species (alfalfa, sorghum, mustard and cuckooflower) were carried out at different rhamnolipid concentrations (ranging from 0 to 1.200 mg/kg of wet soil). The experiments were performed in soil samples with a different diesel oil content (ranging from 0 to 25 ml/kg of wet soil). It was observed that the sole presence of rhamnolipids may be phytotoxic at various levels, which is especially notable for sorghum (the germination index decreased to 41 %). The addition of rhamnolipids to diesel oil-contaminated soil samples contributed to a significant increase of their phytotoxicity. The most toxic effect was observed after a rhamnolipid-supplemented diesel oil biodegradation, carried out with the use of a hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria consortium. The supplemention of rhamnolipids (600 mg/kg of wet soil) resulted in a decrease of seed germination of all studied plant species and an inhibition of microbial activity, which was measured by the 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride tests. These findings indicate that the presence of rhamnolipids may considerably increase the phytotoxicity of diesel oil. Therefore, their use at high concentrations, during in situ bioremediation processes, should be avoided in a terrestrial environment. PMID:22865941

  3. Repellent activity of selected plant essential oils against the malarial fever mosquito Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, S; Jebanesan, A

    2007-12-01

    In recent years, use of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for vector control. In this study, essential oils extracted by steam distillation from leaves of five plant species Centella asiatica L., Ipomoea cairica L., Momordica charantia L., Psidium guajava L. and Tridax procumbens L. were evaluated for their topical repellency effects against malarial vector Anopheles stephensi in mosquito cages. All essential oils were tested at three different concentrations (2, 4 and 6%). Of these, the essential oils of I. cairica, M. charantia and T. procumbens exhibited relatively high repellency effect (>300 minutes at 6% concentration), followed by C. asiatica and P. guajava which showed less effective (< 150 minutes at 6 % concentration). However, the ethanol applied arm served as control provided maximum 8.0 minutes repellency in this study. In general, clear dose-response relationships were established in all essential oils, with the highest concentration of 6% provided high repellency effect. The results obtained from this study suggest that essential oils of I. cairica, M. charantia and T. procumbens are promising as repellents at 6% concentration against An. stephensi and could be useful in the search for new natural repellent compounds. PMID:18209711

  4. Rare earths: atmospheric signatures for oil-fired power plants and refineries

    SciTech Connect

    Olmez, I.; Gordon, G.E.

    1985-09-06

    The concentration pattern of rare earth elements on fine airborne particles (less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter) is distorted from the crustal abundance pattern in areas influenced by emissions from oil-fired plants and refineries. For example, the ratio of lanthanum to samarium is often greater than 20 compared to a crustal ratio less than 6. The unusual pattern apparently results from the distribution of rare earths in zeolite catalysts used in refining oil. Oil industry emissions perturb the rare earth pattern even at remote locations such as the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii. Rare earth ratios are probably better for long-range tracing of oil emissions than vanadium and nickel concentrations because the ratios of rare earths on fine particles are probably not influenced by deposition and other fractionating processes. Emissions from oil-fired plants can be differentiated from those of refineries on an urban scale by the much smaller amounts of vanadium in the latter. 30 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  5. Rare earths: atmospheric signatures for oil-fired power plants and refineries.

    PubMed

    Olmez, I; Gordon, G E

    1985-09-01

    The concentration pattern of rare earth elements on fine airborne particles (less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter) is distorted from the crustal abundance pattern in areas influenced by emissions from oil-fired plants and refineries. For example, the ratio of lanthanum to samarium is often greater than 20 compared to a crustal ratio less than 6. The unusual pattern apparently results from the distribution of rare earths in zeolite catalysts used in refining oil. Oil industry emissions perturb the rare earth pattern even at remote locations such as the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii. Rare earth ratios are probably better for long-range tracing of oil emissions than vanadium and nickel concentrations because the ratios of rare earths on fine particles are probably not influenced by deposition and other fractionating processes. Emissions from oil-fired plants can be differentiated from those of refineries on an urban scale by the much smaller amounts of vanadium in the latter. PMID:17782528

  6. Colorimetric Method for Identifying Plant Essential Oil Components That Affect Biofilm Formation and Structure

    PubMed Central

    Niu, C.; Gilbert, E. S.

    2004-01-01

    The specific biofilm formation (SBF) assay, a technique based on crystal violet staining, was developed to locate plant essential oils and their components that affect biofilm formation. SBF analysis determined that cinnamon, cassia, and citronella oils differentially affected growth-normalized biofilm formation by Escherichia coli. Examination of the corresponding essential oil principal components by the SBF assay revealed that cinnamaldehyde decreased biofilm formation compared to biofilms grown in Luria-Bertani broth, eugenol did not result in a change, and citronellol increased the SBF. To evaluate these results, two microscopy-based assays were employed. First, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to examine E. coli biofilms cultivated in flow cells, which were quantitatively analyzed by COMSTAT, an image analysis program. The overall trend for five parameters that characterize biofilm development corroborated the findings of the SBF assay. Second, the results of an assay measuring growth-normalized adhesion by direct microscopy concurred with the results of the SBF assay and CLSM imaging. Viability staining indicated that there was reduced toxicity of the essential oil components to cells in biofilms compared to the toxicity to planktonic cells but revealed morphological damage to E. coli after cinnamaldehyde exposure. Cinnamaldehyde also inhibited the swimming motility of E. coli. SBF analysis of three Pseudomonas species exposed to cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, or citronellol revealed diverse responses. The SBF assay could be useful as an initial step for finding plant essential oils and their components that affect biofilm formation and structure. PMID:15574886

  7. Effectiveness of lotions based on essential oils from aromatic plants against permethrin resistant Pediculus humanus capitis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Audino, Paola; Vassena, Claudia; Zerba, Eduardo; Picollo, María

    2007-10-01

    In Argentina, field populations of the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) have developed resistance to permethrin and other pyrethroids. Thus, the aim of this work was the development of a lotion containing essential oils from plants and an alcoholic coadjuvant to improve biological effect. Ethanol + isopropanol (1 + 1 in volume) 50% in water and ethanol 96% were taken as bases for preparation of experimental lotions containing essential oils from plants. We found that experimental lotions containing lavender, peppermint and eucalyptus oils in a 5% composition and the combination of eucalyptus and peppermint in a total concentration of 10%, dissolved in 50% ethanol + isopropanol (1 + 1) in water, showed the best knockdown effect. On the other side, lotion containing peppermint oil and eucalyptus oil (1 + 1) 10%, dissolved in ethanol 96%, showed to be as effective as the best commercial lotion now available in Argentina. Furthermore, addition of 1-dodecanol in all cases increased the effectiveness of all the experimental lotions. This difference is significantly important for 1-dodecanol concentration of 10%, reaching a toxic activity compared to the best commercial lotion available in the market. PMID:17647002

  8. Decreased seed oil production in FUSCA3 Brassica napus mutant plants.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Nosheen; Duncan, Robert W; Stasolla, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Canola (Brassica napus L.) oil is extensively utilized for human consumption and industrial applications. Among the genes regulating seed development and participating in oil accumulation is FUSCA3 (FUS3), a member of the plant-specific B3-domain family of transcription factors. To evaluate the role of this gene during seed storage deposition, three BnFUSCA3 (BnFUS3) TILLING mutants were generated. Mutations occurring downstream of the B3 domain reduced silique number and repressed seed oil level resulting in increased protein content in developing seeds. BnFUS3 mutant seeds also had increased levels of linoleic acid, possibly due to the reduced expression of ω-3 FA DESATURASE (FAD3). These observed phenotypic alterations were accompanied by the decreased expression of genes encoding transcription factors stimulating fatty acid (FA) synthesis: LEAFY COTYLEDON1 and 2 (LEC1 and 2) ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE 3 (BnABI3) and WRINKLED1 (WRI1). Additionally, expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism, glycolysis, and FA modifications were down-regulated in developing seeds of the mutant plants. Collectively, these transcriptional changes support altered sucrose metabolism and reduced glycolytic activity, diminishing the carbon pool available for the synthesis of FA and ultimately seed oil production. Based on these observations, it is suggested that targeted manipulations of BnFUS3 can be used as a tool to influence oil accumulation in the economically important species B. napus. PMID:26302483

  9. Lessons Learned on University Education Programs of Chemical Engineering Principles for Nuclear Plant Operations - 13588

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Jun-hyung

    2013-07-01

    University education aims to supply qualified human resources for industries. In complex large scale engineering systems such as nuclear power plants, the importance of qualified human resources cannot be underestimated. The corresponding education program should involve many topics systematically. Recently a nuclear engineering program has been initiated in Dongguk University, South Korea. The current education program focuses on undergraduate level nuclear engineering students. Our main objective is to provide industries fresh engineers with the understanding on the interconnection of local parts and the entire systems of nuclear power plants and the associated systems. From the experience there is a huge opportunity for chemical engineering disciple in the context of giving macroscopic overview on nuclear power plant and waste treatment management by strengthening the analyzing capability of fundamental situations. (authors)

  10. Bioefficacy of essential oils of medicinal plants against housefly, Musca domestica L.

    PubMed

    Morey, Rashmi A; Khandagle, Abhay J

    2012-10-01

    The housefly Musca domestica L. is recognized as a public health pest causing a serious threat to human and livestock by vectoring many infectious diseases. Chemical control method commonly used against this pest, though effective, has some major disadvantages, such as development of insect resistance and bioaccumulation. Pest management strategies for populations of houseflies are needed. Presently, bioinsecticides, especially those derived from plant origin, have been increasingly evaluated in controlling insects of medical importance. In order to search for effective and ecofriendly control agents, the essential oils of Mentha piperita, Zingiber officinalis, Emblica officinalis, and Cinnamomum verum were evaluated for their larvicidal, attractant/repellent, and oviposition attractant/deterrent activity against M. domestica. The highest larvicidal activity, i.e., C(50) = 104 ppm was shown by M. piperita. This oil also exhibited 96.8% repellency at the concentration of 1%. The highest oviposition deterrence activity of 98.1% was also exhibited by M. piperita oil at the concentration of 1%. Among the remaining plants, the essential oil of Z. officinalis exhibited significant bioactivities against M. domestica with larvicidal activity, i.e., lethal concentration (LC)(50) = 137 ppm, repellency of 84.9 and 98.1% oviposition deterrence both at 1% concentration. The other two plant oils, viz., C. verum and E. officinalis, showed relatively moderate bioefficacy with larvicidal activity, i.e., LC(50) = 159 and 259 ppm, repellency of 77.9 and 63.0% while oviposition deterrence of 60.0 and 42.6%, respectively. The result revealed that the essential oils of M. piperita have control potential against M. domestica and should be further explored as a component of integrated vector management program. PMID:22777704

  11. The enrichment behavior of natural radionuclides in pulverized oil shale-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-12-01

    The oil shale industry is the largest producer of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) waste in Estonia. Approximately 11-12 million tons of oil shale containing various amounts of natural radionuclides is burned annually in the Narva oil shale-fired power plants, which accounts for approximately 90% of Estonian electricity production. The radionuclide behavior characteristics change during the fuel combustion process, which redistributes the radionuclides between different ash fractions. Out of 24 operational boilers in the power plants, four use circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology and twenty use pulverized fuel (PF) technology. Over the past decade, the PF boilers have been renovated, with the main objective to increase the efficiency of the filter systems. Between 2009 and 2012, electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in four PF energy blocks were replaced with novel integrated desulphurization technology (NID) for the efficient removal of fly ash and SO2 from flue gases. Using gamma spectrometry, activity concentrations and enrichment factors for the (238)U ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) and (232)Th ((232)Th, (228)Ra) family radionuclides as well as (40)K were measured and analyzed in different PF boiler ash fractions. The radionuclide activity concentrations in the ash samples increased from the furnace toward the back end of the flue gas duct. The highest values in different PF boiler ash fractions were in the last field of the ESP and in the NID ash, where radionuclide enrichment factors were up to 4.2 and 3.3, respectively. The acquired and analyzed data on radionuclide activity concentrations in different PF boiler ashes (operating with an ESP and a NID system) compared to CFB boiler ashes provides an indication that changes in the fuel (oil shale) composition and boiler working parameters, as well as technological enhancements in Estonian oil shale fired power plants, have had a combined effect on the distribution patterns of natural radionuclides

  12. Metabolic engineering of astaxanthin biosynthesis in maize endosperm and characterization of a prototype high oil hybrid.

    PubMed

    Farré, Gemma; Perez-Fons, Laura; Decourcelle, Mathilde; Breitenbach, Jürgen; Hem, Sonia; Zhu, Changfu; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul; Fraser, Paul D; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2016-08-01

    Maize was genetically engineered for the biosynthesis of the high value carotenoid astaxanthin in the kernel endosperm. Introduction of a β-carotene hydroxylase and a β-carotene ketolase into a white maize genetic background extended the carotenoid pathway to astaxanthin. Simultaneously, phytoene synthase, the controlling enzyme of carotenogenesis, was over-expressed for enhanced carotenoid production and lycopene ε-cyclase was knocked-down to direct more precursors into the β-branch of the extended ketocarotenoid pathway which ends with astaxanthin. This astaxanthin-accumulating transgenic line was crossed into a high oil- maize genotype in order to increase the storage capacity for lipophilic astaxanthin. The high oil astaxanthin hybrid was compared to its astaxanthin producing parent. We report an in depth metabolomic and proteomic analysis which revealed major up- or down- regulation of genes involved in primary metabolism. Specifically, amino acid biosynthesis and the citric acid cycle which compete with the synthesis or utilization of pyruvate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, the precursors for carotenogenesis, were down-regulated. Nevertheless, principal component analysis demonstrated that this compositional change is within the range of the two wild type parents used to generate the high oil producing astaxanthin hybrid. PMID:26931320

  13. Engineering and Economics of the USGS Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal (CARA) Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.; White, Loring P.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2008-01-01

    This Open-File report contains illustrative materials, in the form of PowerPoint slides, used for an oral presentation given at the Fourth U.S. Geological Survey Workshop on Reserve Growth of petroleum resources held on March 10-11, 2008. The presentation focused on engineering and economic aspects of the Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal (CARA) project, with a special emphasis on the costs related to the development of hypothetical oil and gas fields of different sizes and reservoir characteristics in the North Danmarkshavn Basin off the northeast coast of Greenland. The individual PowerPoint slides highlight the topics being addressed in an abbreviated format; they are discussed below, and are amplified with additional text as appropriate. Also included in this report are the summary results of a typical ?run? to generate the necessary capital and operating costs for the development of an offshore oil field off the northeast coast of Greenland; the data are displayed in MS Excel format generated using Questor software (IHS Energy, Inc.). U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acknowledges that this report includes data supplied by IHS Energy, Inc.; Copyright (2008) all rights reserved. IHS Energy has granted USGS the permission to publish this report.

  14. Engine dynamometer evaluation of oil formulation factors for improved field sludge protection

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, D.R.; Robson, R.

    1987-01-01

    Recent examples of sludge incidence in vehicles operated on API SF, SF/CC and SF/CD category oils in both severe duty and normal consumer service from Europe and North America are presented. A comparison of the chemical and morphological characteristics of sludge taken from these vehicles is summarized, as are the sludge-preventing capabilities of various North American and European reference oils. The design and execution of a series of oil formulation understanding programs aimed at evaluating the influence of viscosity modifier chemistry, viscosity grade and various detergent inhibitor package variables on sludge deposit prevention in the M102E and PV-2 (Sequence V-D replacement) engine test being developed by CEC and ASTM, respectively, is presented. The knowledge derived from these formulation programs is used to develop prototype technologies designed to meet the requirements of Volkswaggen 501.01 specifications for black sludge inhibition and the proposed API PS-3 (SG) category and Daimler Benz P.226.3.

  15. LD50 and repellent effects of essential oils from Argentinian wild plant species on Varroa destructor.

    PubMed

    Ruffinengo, Sergio; Eguaras, Martin; Floris, Ignazio; Faverin, Claudia; Bailac, Pedro; Ponzi, Marta

    2005-06-01

    The repellent and acaricidal effects of some essential oils from the most typical wild plant species of northern Patagonia, Argentina, on Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman were evaluated using a complete exposure test. Honey bees, Apis mellifera L., and mites (five specimens of each per dish) were introduced in petri dishes having different oil concentrations (from 0.1 to 25 micro per cage). Survival of bees and mites was registered after 24, 48, and 72 h. An attraction/repellence test was performed using a wax tube impregnated with essential oil and another tube containing wax only. The lowest LD50 values for mites were registered for Acantholippia seriphioides (A. Gray) Mold. (1.27 microl per cage) and Schinus molle L. (2.65 microl per cage) after 24 h, and for Wedelia glauca (Ortega) O. Hoffm. ex Hicken (0.59 microl per cage) and A. seriphioides (1.09 microl per cage) after 72 h of treatment. The oil with the highest selectivity ratio (A. mellifera LD50/V. destructor LD50) was the one extracted from S. molle (>16). Oils of Lippia junelliana (Mold.) Troncoso, Minthostachys mollis (HBK) Grieseb., and Lippia turbinata Grieseb. mixed with wax had repellent properties. None of the oils tested had attractive effects on Varroa mites. PMID:16022288

  16. Activity of essential oils from Brazilian medicinal plants on Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Leme, Ewerton Eduardo; Delarmelina, Camila; Soares, Andressa Almeida; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson

    2007-05-01

    Essential oils obtained from leaves of 29 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened against 13 different Escherichia coli serotypes. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system and their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined by microdilution method. Essential oil from Cymbopogon martinii exhibited a broad inhibition spectrum, presenting strong activity (MIC between 100 and 500 microg/mL) against 10 out of 13 Escherichia coli serotypes: three enterotoxigenic, two enteropathogenic, three enteroinvasive and two shiga-toxin producers. C. winterianus inhibited strongly two enterotoxigenic, one enteropathogenic, one enteroinvasive and one shiga-toxin producer serotypes. Aloysia triphylla also shows good potential to kill Escherichia coli with moderate to strong inhibition. Other essential oils showed antimicrobial properties, however with a more restricted action against the serotypes studied. Chemical analysis of Cymbopogon martinii essential oil performed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including geraniol, geranyl acetate and trans-cariophyllene, which tested separately, indicated geraniol as antimicrobial active compound. The significant antibacterial activity of Cymbopogon martinii oil suggests that they could serve as a source for compounds with therapeutic potential. PMID:17210236

  17. Virucidal activity and chemical composition of essential oils from aromatic plants of central west Argentina.

    PubMed

    García, Cybele C; Acosta, Eliana G; Carro, Ana C; Fernández Belmonte, María C; Bomben, Renata; Duschatzky, Claudia B; Perotti, Marina; Schuff, Carola; Damonte, Elsa B

    2010-08-01

    The essential oils of seven aromatic plants from central west Argentina were isolated by steam distillation and analyzed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. The oils were screened for cytotoxicity and in vitro inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) and Junin virus (JUNV). The oils showed a variable virucidal action according to the virus. JUNV was the least susceptible virus in comparison with HSV-1 and DENV-2. The better relationship between cytotoxicity and inhibitory activity was observed for the essential oil of Lantana grisebachiii (Seckt.) var. grisebachii against DENV-2 and HSV-1 with IC50 (inhibitory concentration 50%) values of 21.1 and 26.1 ppm, respectively. This effect was specific since the selectivity indices (ratio cytotoxicity/virucidal activity) were > 23.7 and > 19.1 for DENV-2 and HSV-1, respectively. Furthermore, the oil from L. grisebachii was also an effective inhibitor of HSV-2 and acyclovir resistant variants of herpes virus. This study demonstrates the effective and selective inhibitory activity of the essential oil from Lantana grisebachii against HSV and DENV by direct virus inactivation. PMID:20839642

  18. Metabolic engineering approaches for production of biochemicals in food and medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sarah A; Roberts, Susan C

    2014-04-01

    Historically, plants are a vital source of nutrients and pharmaceuticals. Recent advances in metabolic engineering have made it possible to not only increase the concentration of desired compounds, but also introduce novel biosynthetic pathways to a variety of species, allowing for enhanced nutritional or commercial value. To improve metabolic engineering capabilities, new transformation techniques have been developed to allow for gene specific silencing strategies or stacking of multiple genes within the same region of the chromosome. The 'omics' era has provided a new resource for elucidation of uncharacterized biosynthetic pathways, enabling novel metabolic engineering approaches. These resources are now allowing for advanced metabolic engineering of plant production systems, as well as the synthesis of increasingly complex products in engineered microbial hosts. The status of current metabolic engineering efforts is highlighted for the in vitro production of paclitaxel and the in vivo production of β-carotene in Golden Rice and other food crops. PMID:24556196

  19. Larvicidal activity of Brazilian plant essential oils against Coenagrionidae larvae.

    PubMed

    Silva, D T; Silva, L L; Amaral, L P; Pinheiro, C G; Pires, M M; Schindler, B; Garlet, Q I; Benovit, S C; Baldisserotto, B; Longhi, S J; Kotzian, C B; Heinzmann, B M

    2014-08-01

    Odonate larvae can be serious pests that attack fish larvae, postlarvae, and fingerlings in fish culture tanks, causing significant loss in the supply and production of juveniles. This study reports a screen of the essential oils (EOs) of Nectandra megapotamica (Sprengel) Mez, Nectandra grandiflora Nees, Hesperozygis ringens (Bentham) Epling, Ocimum gratissimum L., Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hooker) Troncoso, and Lippia sidoides Chamisso against Coenagrionidae larvae. In addition, the most effective EO and its 50% lethal concentration (LC50) and chemical analysis are described. The larvae of Acanthagrion Selys, Homeoura Kennedy, Ischnura Charpentier, and Oxyagrion Selys were used to assess the EO effects. EO obtained from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed the highest larvicidal effects at 19 h of treatment. The major constituents of the EO of H. ringens include pulegone and limonene, while eugenol and Z-beta-ocimene predominate in the EO of O. gratissimum, and carvacrol and rho-cymene were the major compounds of the EO of L. sidoides. Leaf EOs from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed activity against Coenagrionidae larvae at similar concentrations with LC50s of 62.92, 75.05, and 51.65 microl liter(-1), respectively, and these were considered the most promising treatments. PMID:25195467

  20. Engineering support for magnetohydrodynamic power plant analysis and design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, A. W.; Chait, I. L.; Marchmont, G.; Rogali, R.; Shikar, D.

    1980-01-01

    The major factors which influence the economic engineering selection of stack inlet temperatures in combined cycle MHD powerplants are identified and the range of suitable stack inlet temperatures under typical operating conditions is indicated. Engineering data and cost estimates are provided for four separately fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) system designs for HTAH system thermal capacity levels of 100, 250, 500 and 1000 MWt. An engineering survey of coal drying and pulverizing equipment for MHD powerplant application is presented as well as capital and operating cost estimates for varying degrees of coal pulverization.

  1. Engineering support for magnetohydrodynamic power plant analysis and design studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, A. W.; Chait, I. L.; Marchmont, G.; Rogali, R.; Shikar, D.

    1980-08-01

    The major factors which influence the economic engineering selection of stack inlet temperatures in combined cycle MHD powerplants are identified and the range of suitable stack inlet temperatures under typical operating conditions is indicated. Engineering data and cost estimates are provided for four separately fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) system designs for HTAH system thermal capacity levels of 100, 250, 500 and 1000 MWt. An engineering survey of coal drying and pulverizing equipment for MHD powerplant application is presented as well as capital and operating cost estimates for varying degrees of coal pulverization.

  2. Rapid analytical method for the determination of aflatoxins in plant-derived dietary supplement and cosmetic oils.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Noreen; Molyneux, Russell J

    2010-04-14

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as healthier alternatives to animal-based fats and oils. More recently, there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from tree nuts (almonds, pistachios, and walnuts) and botanicals (borage, evening primrose, and perilla) both for direct human consumption (e.g., as salad dressings) and for the preparation of cosmetics, soaps, and fragrance oils. This has raised the issue as to whether or not exposure to aflatoxins can result from such oils. Although most crops are subject to analysis and control, it has generally been assumed that plant oils do not retain aflatoxins due to the high polarity and lipophobicity of these compounds. There is virtually no scientific evidence to support this supposition, and available information is conflicting. To improve the safety and consistency of botanicals and dietary supplements, research is needed to establish whether or not oils used directly, or in the formulation of products, contain aflatoxins. A validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in plant-derived oils is essential to establish the safety of dietary supplements for consumption or cosmetic use that contain such oils. The aim of this research was therefore to develop an HPLC method applicable to a wide variety of oils from different plant sources spiked with aflatoxins, thereby providing a basis for a comprehensive project to establish an intra- and interlaboratory validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in dietary supplements and cosmetics formulated with plant oils. PMID:20235534

  3. A Rapid Analytical Method for Determination of Aflatoxins in Plant-Derived Dietary Supplement and Cosmetic Oils

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Noreen; Molyneux, Russell J.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as more healthy alternatives to animal based fats and oils. More recently there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from tree nuts (almonds, pistachios and walnuts) and botanicals (borage, evening primrose and perilla) both for direct human consumption (e.g. as salad dressings) but also for preparation of cosmetics, soaps, and fragrance oils. This has raised the issue as to whether or not exposure to aflatoxins can result from such oils. Although most crops are subject to analysis and control, it has generally been assumed that plant oils do not retain aflatoxins due to their high polarity and lipophobicity of these compounds. There is virtually no scientific evidence to support this supposition and available information is conflicting. To improve the safety and consistency of botanicals and dietary supplements, research is needed to establish whether or not oils used directly, or in the formulation of products, contain aflatoxins. A validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in plant-derived oils is essential, in order to establish the safety of dietary supplements for consumption or cosmetic use that contain such oils. The aim of this research was therefore to develop an HPLC method applicable to a wide variety of oils from different plant sources spiked with aflatoxins, thereby providing a basis for a comprehensive project to establish an intra- and inter-laboratory validated analytical method for analysis of aflatoxins in dietary supplements and cosmetics formulated with plant oils. PMID:20235534

  4. {ital In situ} measurement of fuel in the cylinder wall oil film of a combustion engine by LIF spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, J.E. II; Armfield, J.S.; Barber, T.E.; Storey, J.M.; Wachter, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    Hydrocarbon emissions remain an important concern for the automotive industry due to increasingly strict regulations. In an investigation of possible emission sources within the engine, the concentration of fuel absorbed in the oil film on the cylinder wall of a small internal combustion engine has been measured with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy. A laser pulse from a nitrogen laser (337.1 nm) provided the excitation, and the fluorescence was monitored with an intensified-charge-coupled device (ICCD) array mounted to a spectrometer. The excitation laser pulse was launched through a window in the engine head onto a fiber-optic probe mounted flush with the cylinder wall. The laser-excited oil film on the fiber-optic probe produced an LIF signal that was collected by the fiber-optic probe and analyzed for fuel content. The timing of the laser pulse and ICCD gate were controlled in order to synchronize the collection of data with a particular point in the engine cycle. Measurements made {ital in situ}, while the engine was running, yield information on the amount of unburned fuel stored in the oil film for various engine conditions. Fuel-in-oil concentrations were determined for various engine temperatures during cold starts, for different fuel enrichment levels, and as a function of the crank angle of the engine cycle. Fuel concentrations as high as 50{percent} were detected during cold starts, and fuel concentrations reached levels greater than 25{percent} for warm engine operation. Changes in the fuel content were also found to be related to enrichment and crank angle. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  5. Biodegradation of complex hydrocarbons in spent engine oil by novel bacterial consortium isolated from deep sea sediment.

    PubMed

    Ganesh Kumar, A; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Joshi, Gajendra; Magesh Peter, D; Dharani, G; Kirubagaran, R

    2014-10-01

    Complex hydrocarbon and aromatic compounds degrading marine bacterial strains were isolated from deep sea sediment after enrichment on spent engine (SE) oil. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the isolates were related to members of the Pseudoalteromonas sp., Ruegeria sp., Exiguobacterium sp. and Acinetobacter sp. Biodegradation using 1% (v/v) SE oil with individual and mixed strains showed the efficacy of SE oil utilization within a short retention time. The addition of non-ionic surfactant 0.05% (v/v) Tween 80 as emulsifying agent enhanced the solubility of hydrocarbons and renders them more accessible for biodegradation. The degradation of several compounds and the metabolites formed during the microbial oxidation process were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. The potential of this consortium to biodegrade SE oil with and without emulsifying agent provides possible application in bioremediation of oil contaminated marine environment. PMID:25171211

  6. Quality control of automotive engine oils with mass-sensitive chemical sensors--QCMs and molecularly imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Dickert, F L; Forth, P; Lieberzeit, P A; Voigt, G

    2000-04-01

    Molecularly imprinted polyurethanes were used as sensor materials for monitoring the degradation of automotive engine oils. Imprinting with characteristic oils permits the analysis of these complex mixtures without accurately knowing their composition. Mass-sensitive quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) coated with such layers exhibit mass effects in addition to frequency shifts caused by viscosity, which can be compensated by an uncoated quartz or a non-imprint layer. Incorporation of degradation products into the imprinted coatings is a bulk phenomenon, which is proven by variation of the sensor layer height. Therefore, the resulting sensor effects are determined by the degradation products in the oil. PMID:11227411

  7. A review on palm oil mill biogas plant wastewater treatment using coagulation-ozonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dexter, Z. D.; Joseph, C. G.; Zahrim, A. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) generated from the palm oil industry is highly polluted and requires urgent attention for treatment due to its high organic content. Biogas plant containing anaerobic digester is capable to treat the high organic content of the POME while generating valuable biogas at the same time. This green energy from POME is environmental-friendly but the wastewater produced is still highly polluted and blackish in colour. Therefore a novel concept of combining coagulation with ozonation treatment is proposed to treat pollution of this nature. Several parameters should be taken under consideration in order to ensure the effectiveness of the hybrid treatment including ozone dosage, ozone contact time, pH of the water or wastewater, coagulant dosage, and mixing and settling time. This review paper will elucidate the importance of hybrid coagulation-ozonation treatment in producing a clear treated wastewater which is known as the main challenge in palm oil industry

  8. Virucidal activity of essential oils from aromatic plants of San Luis, Argentina.

    PubMed

    García, C C; Talarico, L; Almeida, N; Colombres, S; Duschatzky, C; Damonte, E B

    2003-11-01

    Essential oils obtained from eight aromatic plants of San Luis Province, Argentina, were screened for virucidal activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), Junin virus (JUNV) and dengue virus type 2 (DEN-2). The most potent inhibition was observed with the essential oil of Lippia junelliana and Lippia turbinata against JUNV with virucidal concentration 50% (VC(50)) values in the range 14-20 ppm, whereas Aloysia gratissima, Heterotheca latifolia and Tessaria absinthioides inhibited JUNV in the range 52-90 ppm. The virucidal activity was time- and temperature-dependent. The essential oils of A. gratissima, Artemisia douglasiana, Eupatorium patens and T. absinthioides inactivated HSV-1 at 65-125 ppm. However, only A. douglasiana and E. patens had any discernible effect on DEN-2 infectivity with VC(50) values of 60 and 150 ppm, respectively. PMID:14595590

  9. Genetic Engineering for Disease Resistance in Ornamental Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This symposium is intended to facilitate communication between researchers in Hungary, Romania, and other countries who are interested in micropropagation of ornamental plants. Some of the work that has been done in the Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit that involves micropropagation is descr...

  10. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of plant essential oils from Benin against Anopheles gambiae (Giles)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance in sub-Saharan Africa and especially in Benin is a major public health issue hindering the control of the malaria vectors. Each Anopheles species has developed a resistance to one or several classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. Therefore, it is urgent to find alternative compounds to conquer the vector. In this study, the efficacies of essential oils of nine plant species, which are traditionally used to avoid mosquito bites in Benin, were investigated. Methods Essential oils of nine plant species were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. These oils were tested on susceptible “kisumu” and resistant “ladji-Cotonou” strains of Anopheles gambiae, following WHO test procedures for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vector mosquitoes. Results Different chemical compositions were obtained from the essential oils of the plant species. The major constituents identified were as follows: neral and geranial for Cymbopogon citratus, Z-carveol, E-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol and E-p-mentha-2,8-dienol for Cymbopogon giganteus, piperitone for Cymbopogon schoenanthus, citronellal and citronellol for Eucalyptus citriodora, p-cymene, caryophyllene oxide and spathulenol for Eucalyptus tereticornis, 3-tetradecanone for Cochlospermum tinctorium and Cochlospermum planchonii, methyl salicylate for Securidaca longepedunculata and ascaridole for Chenopodium ambrosioides. The diagnostic dose was 0.77% for C. citratus, 2.80% for E. tereticornis, 3.37% for E. citriodora, 4.26% for C. ambrosioides, 5.48% for C. schoenanthus and 7.36% for C. giganteus. The highest diagnostic doses were obtained with S. longepedunculata (9.84%), C. tinctorium (11.56%) and C. planchonii (15.22%), compared to permethrin 0.75%. A. gambiae cotonou, which is resistant to pyrethroids, showed significant tolerance to essential oils from C. tinctorium and S. longepedunculata as expected but was

  11. Metabolic engineering of oilseed crops to produce high levels of novel acetyl glyceride oils with reduced viscosity, freezing point and calorific value.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinjie; Rice, Adam; McGlew, Kathleen; Shaw, Vincent; Park, Hyunwoo; Clemente, Tom; Pollard, Mike; Ohlrogge, John; Durrett, Timothy P

    2015-08-01

    Seed oils have proved recalcitrant to modification for the production of industrially useful lipids. Here, we demonstrate the successful metabolic engineering and subsequent field production of an oilseed crop with the highest accumulation of unusual oil achieved so far in transgenic plants. Previously, expression of the Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase (EaDAcT) gene in wild-type Arabidopsis seeds resulted in the accumulation of 45 mol% of unusual 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols (acetyl-TAGs) in the seed oil (Durrett et al., 2010 PNAS 107:9464). Expression of EaDAcT in dgat1 mutants compromised in their ability to synthesize regular triacylglycerols increased acetyl-TAGs to 65 mol%. Camelina and soybean transformed with the EaDAcT gene accumulate acetyl-triacylglycerols (acetyl-TAGs) at up to 70 mol% of seed oil. A similar strategy of coexpression of EaDAcT together with RNAi suppression of DGAT1 increased acetyl-TAG levels to up to 85 mol% in field-grown transgenic Camelina. Additionally, total moles of triacylglycerol (TAG) per seed increased 20%. Analysis of the acetyl-TAG fraction revealed a twofold reduction in very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA), consistent with their displacement from the sn-3 position by acetate. Seed germination remained high, and seedlings were able to metabolize the stored acetyl-TAGs as rapidly as regular triacylglycerols. Viscosity, freezing point and caloric content of the Camelina acetyl-TAG oils were reduced, enabling use of this oil in several nonfood and food applications. PMID:25756355

  12. Comparative analysis of the long-term performance of a diesel engine on vegetable oil based alternate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Goettler, H.; Pratt, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    A 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend (v/v) of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a non-ionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil were evaluated as fuels in a direct injected, turbo-charged, intercooled, 4-cylinder Allis-Chalmers diesel engine during 200-hour EMA cycle laboratory screening endurance tests. Engine performance on Phillips 2-D reference fuel served as baseline for the experimental fuels. The experiment was conducted to develop prediction equations to determine the effects of alternate fuels on long-term engine performance. Least squares regression procedures were used to analyze long-term effects the test fuels had on engine performance and to simultaneously compare the test fuels. Several variables were used to measure engine performance. These response variables were volumetric fuel flow, energy input, power output, brake specific energy consumption, exhaust temperature and exhaust smoke. The predictor variables were time of the EMA cycle and fuel type. Two multivariate tests were performed in this analysis. The first tested the significance of time on the response variable. The second tested the fuel effect. Both tests were significant. The results of the univariate regressions indicated that time had a significant effect only on exhaust temperature. In all other cases, time was not a factor. However, significant difference in the intercepts of the prediction equations were found between tested fuels.

  13. Engineering the use of green plants to reduce produced water disposal volume.

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchman, R.; Mollock, G. N.; Negri, M. C.; Settle, T.

    1998-01-29

    In 1990, the Laboratory began an investigation into biological approaches for the reduction of water produced from oil and gas wells. In the spring of 1995, the Company began an on-site experiment at an oil/gas lease in Oklahoma using one of these approaches. The process, known as phytoremediation, utilizes the ability of certain salt tolerant plants to draw the produced water through their roots, transpire the water from their leaves, and thereby reduce overall water disposal volumes and costs. At the Company experimental site, produced water flows through a trough where green plants (primarily cordgrass) have been planted in pea gravel. The produced water is drawn into the plant through its roots, evapotranspirates and deposits a salt residue on the plant leaves. The plant leaves are then harvested and used by a local rancher as cattle feed. The produced water is tested to assure it contains nothing harmful to cattle. In 1996, the Company set up another trough to compare evaporation rates using plants versus using an open container without plants. Data taken during all four seasons (water flow rate, temperature, pH, and conductivity) have shown that using plants to evapotranspirate produced water is safe, more cost effective than traditional methods and is environmentally sound.

  14. Recommendations to the NRC on human engineering guidelines for nuclear power plant maintainability

    SciTech Connect

    Badalamente, R.V.; Fecht, B.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Eklund, J.D.; Hartley, C.S.

    1986-03-01

    This document contains human engineering guidelines which can enhance the maintainability of nuclear power plants. The guidelines have been derived from general human engineering design principles, criteria, and data. The guidelines may be applied to existing plants as well as to plants under construction. They apply to nuclear power plant systems, equipment and facilities, as well as to maintenance tools and equipment. The guidelines are grouped into seven categories: accessibility and workspace, physical environment, loads and forces, maintenance facilities, maintenance tools and equipment, operating equipment design, and information needs. Each chapter of the document details specific maintainability problems encountered at nuclear power plants, the safety impact of these problems, and the specific maintainability design guidelines whose application can serve to avoid these problems in new or existing plants.

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Seven Essential Oils From Iranian Aromatic Plants Against Common Causes of Oral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Zomorodian, Kamiar; Ghadiri, Pooria; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Moein, Mohammad Reza; Mehriar, Peiman; Bahrani, Farideh; Golzar, Tahereh; Pakshir, Keyvan; Fani, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over the past two decades, there has been a growing trend in using oral hygienic products originating from natural resources such as essential oils (EOs) and plant extracts. Seven aromatic plants used in this study are among popular traditional Iranian medicinal plants with potential application in modern medicine as anti-oral infectious diseases. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oils from seven medicinal plants against pathogens causing oral infections. Materials and Methods: The chemical compositions of EOs distilled from seven plants were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These plants included Satureja khuzestanica, S. bachtiarica, Ocimum sanctum, Artemisia sieberi, Zataria multiflora, Carum copticum and Oliveria decumbens. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was evaluated by broth micro-dilution in 96 well plates as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methods. Results: The tested EOs inhibited the growth of examined oral pathogens at concentrations of 0.015-16 µL/mL. Among the examined oral pathogens, Enterococcus faecalis had the highest Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) and Minimum Microbicidal Concentrations (MMCs). Of the examined EOs, S. khuzestanica, Z. multiflora and S. bachtiarica, showed the highest antimicrobial activities, respectively, while Artemisia sieberi exhibited the lowest antimicrobial activity. Conclusions: The excellent antimicrobial activities of the tested EOs might be due to their major phenolic or alcoholic monoterpenes with known antimicrobial activities. Hence, these EOs can be possibly used as an antimicrobial agent in treatment and control of oral pathogens. PMID:25793100

  16. Acute toxicity of virgin and used engine oil enriched with copper nano particles in the earthworm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodabandeh, M.; Koohi, M. K.; Roshani, A.; Shahroziyan, E.; Badri, B.; Pourfallah, A.; Shams, Gh; Hobbenaghi, R.; Sadeghi-Hashjin, G.

    2011-07-01

    In spite of development of nanotechnology and creation of new opportunities for industry, new applications and products initiated by this technology may cause harmful effects on human health and environment. Unfortunately, there is no sufficient information on the harmful effects caused by application of some nano materials; the current knowledge in this field is limited solely to the nano particles but not the final products. Nano cupper particles, as one of the common materials produced in industrial scale is widely used as additives into engine oil to reduce friction and improve lubrication. However, the difference between the effects of virgin and used conventional engine oil (CEO) and the engine oil containing cupper nano particles (NEO) on the environment is not known. Earthworm, as a one of the species which could live and survive in different sorts of earth and has a certain role in protecting the soil structure and fertility, was used in this experiment. In accordance with the recommended method of OECD.1984, Filter Paper test in 24 and 48 h based on 8 concentrations in the range of 3×10-3 - 24×10-3 ml/cm2 and Artificial Soil test in 7 and 14 days based on 7 concentrations in the range of 0.1 mg/kg - 100 g/kg were carried out to study earthworms in terms of lifetime (LC50), morphology and pathology. It was shown that the 48 h LC50 for virgin CEO, virgin NEO, used CEO(8000 km) and used NEO (8000 km) were 6×10-3, 23×10-3, 24×10-3 and 16×10-3 ml/cm2 respectively. Furthermore, 14-day LC50 in artificial soil for all cases were above 100 g/kg. It is concluded that virgin CEO is more toxic than virgin NEO. Meanwhile, the CEO shows significant reduction in toxicity after consumption and the used NEO shows more toxicity in comparison to virgin product. It seems that more investigations on the effects of final products specifically after consumption is necessary because the products after consumption have the most contact with environment and subsequently

  17. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Design Requirements Document (DRD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigo, H. S.; Bercaw, R. W.; Burkhart, J. A.; Mroz, T. S.; Bents, D. J.; Hatch, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    A description and the design requirements for the 200 MWe (nominal) net output MHD Engineering Test Facility (ETF) Conceptual Design, are presented. Performance requirements for the plant are identified and process conditions are indicated at interface stations between the major systems comprising the plant. Also included are the description, functions, interfaces and requirements for each of these major systems. The lastest information (1980-1981) from the MHD technology program are integrated with elements of a conventional steam electric power generating plant.

  18. Assessment of ISLOCA risk-methodology and application to a combustion engineering plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.L.; Auflick, J.L.; Haney, L.N.

    1992-04-01

    Inter-system loss-of-coolant accidents (ISLOCAs) have been identified as important contributors to offsite risk for some nuclear power plants. A methodology has been developed for identifying and evaluating plant-specific hardware designs, human factors issues, and accident consequence factors relevant to the estimation of ISOLOCA core damage frequency and risk. This report presents a detailed of description of the application of this analysis methodology to a Combustion Engineering plant.

  19. Essential-oil polymorphism in the 'resurrection plant' Myrothamnus moschatus and associated ethnobotanical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Randrianarivo, Emmanuel; Rasoanaivo, Philippe; Nicoletti, Marcello; Razafimahefa, Solofoniaina; Lefebvre, Manon; Papa, Fabrizio; Vittori, Sauro; Maggi, Filippo

    2013-11-01

    Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis (GC/MS) of essential oils obtained from populations of the resurrection plant Myrothamnus moschatus, growing in different areas of Madagascar, allowed identification of three main chemotypes in the species. The first one was provided by plants with a high content of trans-pinocarveol and pinocarvone; the second one involved plants with high percentages of limonene, cis- and trans-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol, and β-selinene; and the third chemotype was characterized by plants with high levels of oxygenated sesquiterpenes such as caryophyllene oxide and α- and β-isomers of caryophylla-4(12),8(13)-dien-5-ol. Chemical data were supported by chemometric technique as the principal component analysis. Furthermore, the relationship between the dioecy and phytochemistry within one population was also considered. Finally, correlations between chemical variations and ethnobotanical data were assessed. PMID:24243607

  20. Quality and Trace Element Profile of Tunisian Olive Oils Obtained from Plants Irrigated with Treated Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Benincasa, Cinzia; Gharsallaoui, Mariem; Perri, Enzo; Briccoli Bati, Caterina; Ayadi, Mohamed; Khlif, Moncen; Gabsi, Slimane

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the use of treated wastewater (TWW) to irrigate olive plants was monitored. This type of water is characterized by high salinity and retains a substantial amount of trace elements, organic and metallic compounds that can be transferred into the soil and into the plants and fruits. In order to evaluate the impact of TWW on the overall quality of the oils, the time of contact of the olives with the soil has been taken into account. Multi-element data were obtained using ICP-MS. Nineteen elements (Li, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Mo, Ba and La) were submitted for statistical analysis. Using analysis of variance, linear discriminant analysis and principal component analysis it was possible to differentiate between oils produced from different batches of olives whose plants received different types of water. Also, the results showed that there was correlation between the elemental and mineral composition of the water used to irrigate the olive plots and the elemental and mineral composition of the oils. PMID:22654625

  1. A Study on Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Compression Ignition Engine Using Fish Oil Biodiesel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesha, D. K.; Thimmannachar, Rajiv K.; Simhasan, R.; Nagappa, Manjunath; Gowda, P. M.

    2012-07-01

    Bio-fuel is a clean burning fuel made from natural renewable energy resource; it operates in C. I. engine similar to the petroleum diesel. The rising cost of diesel and the danger caused to the environment has led to an intensive and desperate search for alternative fuels. Among them, animal fats like the fish oil have proven to be a promising substitute to diesel. In this experimental study, A computerized 4-stroke, single cylinder, constant speed, direct injection diesel engine was operated on fish oil-biodiesel of different blends. Three different blends of 10, 20, and 30 % by volume were used for this study. Various engine performance, combustion and emission parameters such as Brake Thermal Efficiency, Brake Specific Fuel Consumption, Heat Release Rate, Peak Pressure, Exhaust Gas Temperature, etc. were recorded from the acquired data. The data was recorded with the help of an engine analysis software. The recorded parameters were studied for varying loads and their corresponding graphs have been plotted for comparison purposes. Petroleum Diesel has been used as the reference. From the properties and engine test results it has been established that fish oil biodiesel is a better replacement for diesel without any engine modification.

  2. Omics Approaches for the Engineering of Pathogen Resistant Plants.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Casati, Diego F; Pagani, María A; Busi, María V; Bhadauria, Vijai

    2016-01-01

    The attack of different pathogens, such as bacteria, fungi and viruses has a negative impact on crop production. In counter such attacks, plants have developed different strategies involving the modification of gene expression, activation of several metabolic pathways and post-translational modification of proteins, which culminate into the accumulation of primary and secondary metabolites implicated in plant defense responses. The recent advancement in omics techniques allows the increase coverage of plants transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes during pathogen attack, and the modulation of the response after the infection. Omics techniques also allow us to learn more about the biological cycle of the pathogens in addition to the identification of novel virulence factors in pathogens and their host targets. Both approaches become important to decipher the mechanism underlying pathogen attacks and to develop strategies for improving disease-resistant plants. In this review, we summarize some of the contribution of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and metallomics in devising the strategies to obtain plants with increased resistance to pathogens. These approaches constitute important research tools in the development of new technologies for the protection against diseases and increase plant production. PMID:26363625

  3. ATTRACTIVENESS TO ANASTREPHA LUDENS (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) OF PLANT ESSENTIAL OILS AND A SYNTHETIC FOOD-ODOR LURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attractiveness of 26 plant essential oils to the Mexican fruit fly was investigated in citrus orchard experiments. Anise, rose/grape seed, and tea tree oils were more attractive than unbaited traps, but none approached the attractiveness of Advanced Pheromone Technologies’ AFF lure, a synthetic foo...

  4. Recovery Act Production of Algal BioCrude Oil from Cement Plant Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Weber; Norman Whitton

    2010-09-30

    The consortium, led by Sunrise Ridge Algae Inc, completed financial, legal, siting, engineering and environmental permitting preparations for a proposed demonstration project that would capture stack gas from an operating cement plant and convert the carbon dioxide to beneficial use as a liquid crude petroleum substitute and a coal substitute, using algae grown in a closed system, then harvested and converted using catalyzed pyrolysis.

  5. Analysis of the piston ring/liner oil film development during warm-up for an SI-engine

    SciTech Connect

    Froelund, K.; Schramm, J.; Tian, T.; Wong, V.; Hochgreb, S.

    1996-12-31

    A one-dimensional ring-pack lubrication model developed at MIT is applied to simulate the oil film behavior during the warm-up period of a Kohler spark ignition engine. This is done by making assumptions for the evolution of the oil temperatures during warm-up and that the oil control ring during downstrokes is fully flooded. The ring-pack lubrication model includes features such as three different lubrication regimes, i.e. pure hydrodynamic lubrication, boundary lubrication and pure asperity contact, nonsteady wetting of both inlet and outlet of the piston ring, capability to use all ring face profiles that can be approximated by piece-wise polynomials and, finally, the ability to model the rheology of multi-grade oils. Not surprisingly, the simulations show that by far the most important parameter is the temperature dependence of the oil viscosity. This dependence is subsequently examined further by choosing different oils. The baseline oil is SAE 10W30 and results are compared to those using the SAE 30 and the SAE 10W50 oils.

  6. Toxic effects of six plant oils alone and in combination with controlled atmosphere on Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae).

    PubMed

    Wang, J J; Tsai, J H; Ding, W; Zhao, Z M; Li, L S

    2001-10-01

    Six plant essential oils alone as repellent and fumigant, and in combination with the controlled atmosphere against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel were assessed in the laboratory. These essential oils were extracted from the leaves of six source plants: Citrus tangerina Tanaka, Citrus aurantium L., Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, Pinus sylvestris L., Cupressus funebris End]., and Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. The repellency test indicated that L. bostrychophila adults were repelled by filter paper strips treated with six essential oils. Of these essential oils, the C. funebris oil was most effective followed by that of F. sylvestris, C. tangerina, C. bergamia, and E. citriodora. The average repellency of the C. aurantium oil against L. bostrychophila adults was significantly lower than other five test oils by day 14. These essential oils had a high level of toxicity in the fumigation assay against L. bostrychophila adults at both 10 and 20 ppm. When combined with two controlled atmosphere treatments (12% CO2 + 9% O2, and 10% CO2 + 5% O2, balanced N2), the toxicity of plant oils was enhanced significantly. PMID:11681697

  7. Monitoring of the Physical and Chemical Properties of a Gasoline Engine Oil during Its Usage

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Behnam; Semnani, Abolfazl; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza; Shakoori Langeroodi, Hamid; Hakim Davood, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of a mineral-based gasoline engine oil have been monitored at 0, 500, 1000, 2000, 3500, 6000, 8500, and 11500 kilometer of operation. Tracing has been performed by inductively coupled plasma and some other techniques. At each series of measurements, the concentrations of twenty four elements as well as physical properties such as: viscosity at 40 and 100°C; viscosity index; flash point; pour point; specific gravity; color; total acid and base numbers; water content have been determined. The results are indicative of the decreasing trend in concentration of additive elements and increasing in concentration for wear elements. Different trends have been observed for various physical properties. The possible reasons for variations in physical and chemical properties have been discussed. PMID:22567569

  8. Monitoring of the Physical and Chemical Properties of a Gasoline Engine Oil during Its Usage.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Behnam; Semnani, Abolfazl; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza; Shakoori Langeroodi, Hamid; Hakim Davood, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of a mineral-based gasoline engine oil have been monitored at 0, 500, 1000, 2000, 3500, 6000, 8500, and 11500 kilometer of operation. Tracing has been performed by inductively coupled plasma and some other techniques. At each series of measurements, the concentrations of twenty four elements as well as physical properties such as: viscosity at 40 and 100°C; viscosity index; flash point; pour point; specific gravity; color; total acid and base numbers; water content have been determined. The results are indicative of the decreasing trend in concentration of additive elements and increasing in concentration for wear elements. Different trends have been observed for various physical properties. The possible reasons for variations in physical and chemical properties have been discussed. PMID:22567569

  9. A study of oil lubrication in a rotating engine using stroboscopic neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillinger, Burkhard; Brunner, Johannes; Calzada, Elbio

    2006-11-01

    Even at modern high-flux neutron sources, the required exposure time for one neutron radiography image with high counting statistics is in the order of 1 s. Continuous time-resolved imaging of objects in motion is thus very limited in time resolution and signal dynamics. However, repetitive motions can be recorded with a stroboscopic technique: A triggerable accumulating detector is triggered for many identical time windows of the cyclic motion until sufficient fluence is accumulated for one image. The image is read out, the delay for the time window is shifted and the recording repeated until a complete movie of the cyclic motion can be put together. We report about a study of oil flux in a running, electrically driven BMW engine out of current production.

  10. Time-dependent variations in milk fatty acid content of goats fed 3 different plant oils.

    PubMed

    Martínez Marín, A L; Gómez-Cortés, P; Gómez Castro, G; Juárez, M; Pérez Alba, L; Pérez Hernández, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2013-05-01

    The effect of sampling time on milk fatty acid (FA) composition after separately adding 3 plant oils to an oil-free control diet (67% cereal-soybean-based concentrate and 33% alfalfa hay) was studied in 12 Malagueña goats. Individual animals were randomly allocated to 1 of the 4 treatments: control, 48 g/d of added high oleic (OSO) or regular (RSO) sunflower oil, or linseed oil (LO). Individual milk samples were taken at 0 (covariate), 1, 12, 24, 72, 120, 192, 312, and 504 h after the beginning of the experiment. Milk FA contents (g/100g of total FA methyl esters) were analyzed in a completely randomized design with repeated measures using PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Comparing results of 15 chosen FA (for example, medium-chain saturated FA trans-11 C18:1, cis-9,trans-11 C18:2, trans-10 C18:1, and C18:3n-3) indicated that throughout the duration of the experiment, feeding the control diet had little influence on the concentrations of most FA in milk. Most changes in milk FA composition due to oil supplementation had occurred within 192 h since the beginning of the experiment. However, the concentrations of 2 FA (trans-10 C18:1 in RSO and C18:3n-3 in LO treatments) continued to change until 504 h. By comparing FA values in milk fat from oil treatments with those of the control at the same sampling times, typical value differences for the 3 supplementary oils found at 504 h (21 d) were also observed at 312 h from the beginning of the experiment (13 d) and even earlier in some FA, such as medium-chain saturated FA at 120 h in RSO and LO and at 72 h in OSO, cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and trans-10 C18:1 at 24h in RSO, trans-11 C18:1 at 12h in RSO and LO, and C18:3n-3 at 1h in LO. In the conditions assayed in these experiments, reliable results of milk FA changes were obtained at sampling times shorter than 21 d. Monitoring early changes in milk FA after the addition of plant oils to diets could help in the study of rumen and mammary metabolism of dietary

  11. Single- and dual-fiber fluorescence probes: application to oil-film measurements in an internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Ghandhi, J B

    2000-10-20

    Single- and dual-fiber fluorescence probes have been utilized to study oil-film behavior in a firing Diesel engine. A detailed analysis of the response characteristics of these probes was performed, and universal response curves have been generated through identification of the appropriate nondimensional parameters. For single-fiber probes a single curve was obtained, and for dual-fiber probes families of curves were identified based on three geometric dimensionless parameters. The complementary response characteristics of the single- and dual-fiber probes allows determination of the oil distribution within the piston-liner gap. The dual-fiber probe is not sensitive at small distances. Thus its signal originates solely from the piston surface, whereas the single-fiber probe is most sensitive at small distances and hence to the wall oil film. The engine data from the dual-fiber probe confirmed the presence of an oil film on the piston and provided a means of quantifying the transport of this oil within the engine. PMID:18354541

  12. Testing and preformance measurement of straight vegetable oils as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, Arunachalam

    Rising fuel prices, growing energy demand, concerns over domestic energy security and global warming from greenhouse gas emissions have triggered the global interest in bio-energy and bio-fuel crop development. Backlash from these concerns can result in supply shocks of traditional fossil fuels and create immense economic pressure. It is thus widely argued that bio-fuels would particularly benefit developing countries by off-setting their dependencies on imported petroleum. Domestically, the transportation sector accounts for almost 40% of liquid fuel consumption, while on-farm application like tractors and combines for agricultural purposes uses close to an additional 18%. It is estimated that 40% of the farm budget can be attributed to the fuel costs. With the cost of diesel continuously rising, farmers are now looking at using Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) as an alternative fuel by producing their own fuel crops. This study evaluates conventional diesel compared to the use of SVO like Camelina, Canola and Juncea grown on local farms in Colorado for their performance and emissions on a John Deere 4045 Tier-II engine. Additionally, physical properties like density and viscosity, metal/mineral content, and cold flow properties like CFPP and CP of these oils were measured using ASTM standards and compared to diesel. It was found that SVOs did not show significant differences compared to diesel fuel with regards to engine emissions, but did show an increase in thermal efficiency. Therefore, this study supports the continued development of SVO production as a viable alternative to diesel fuels, particularly for on-farm applications. The need for providing and developing a sustainable, economic and environmental friendly fuel alternative has taken an aggressive push which will require a strong multidisciplinary education in the field of bio-energy. Commercial bio-energy development has the potential to not only alleviate the energy concerns, but also to give renewed

  13. Vanadium contamination of lichens and tree foliage in the vicinity of three oil-fired power plants in Eastern Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Juichang, R.; Freedman, B.; Coles, C.; Zwicker, B.; Holzbecker, J.; Chatt, A.

    1995-06-01

    Vanadium concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis in samples of epiphytic lichens and tree foliage collected at sites along 10 transects in the vicinity of three oil-fired power plants in eastern Canada. The vanadium concentrations in plants decreased exponentially with increasing distance from the power plants. Substantially larger concentrations of vanadium occurred in lichen tissues than in tree foliage. Lichens clearly are more suitable for biomonitoring environmental contamination with vanadium near oil-fired power plants. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Evaluation of Army engine oils in hydraulic/power-transmission-system components. Final report, August 1984-November 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Marbach, H.W.; Lestz, S.J.

    1985-11-01

    The objective of the MACI Hydraulic System and Components Program is to perform technical evaluation and assessment of commerically available qualified and fielded Army engine oils and to determine if such oils can be used as hydraulic fluids in Army commercial construction equipment and material-handling equipment. Five Army specification engine lubricants--four MIL-L-2104D (one grade 10W, one grade 30, two grade 15W-40) and one MIL-L-46167, grade 0W-20--were evaluated using four critical component performance tests used by manufacturers. Data compiled from this and previous work have shown that the limiting factors of the Army engine oils used as hydraulic and multipurpose power transmission fluids appear to be (1) wet-brake chatter noise, (2) hydraulic-pump wear problems with some piston pumps using MIL-L-46167 Arctic engine oils at temperatures hotter-than-expected Arctic conditions, and possibly (3) copper corrosion. The prime area of concern is the wet-brake chatter noise.

  15. Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), anise (Pimpinella anisum) and garlic (Allium sativum) oils against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    PubMed

    Park, Ii-Kwon; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Do-Hyung; Choi, In-Ho; Kim, Lee-Sun; Bak, Won-Chull; Choi, Joon-Weon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2006-08-01

    Plant essential oils from 40 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against larvae of Lycoriella ingénue (Dufour) using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus smithii RT Baker, horseradish, anise and garlic at 10 and 5 microL L(-1) air. Horseradish, anise and garlic oils showed the most potent insecticidal activities among the plant essential oils. At 1.25 microL L(-1), horseradish, anise and garlic oils caused 100, 93.3 and 13.3% mortality, but at 0.625 microL L(-1) air this decreased to 3.3, 0 and 0% respectively. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of one major compound from horseradish, and three each from anise and garlic oils. These seven compounds and m-anisaldehyde and o-anisaldehyde, two positional isomers of p-anisaldehyde, were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against larvae of L. ingenua. Allyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic, followed by trans-anethole, diallyl disulfide and p-anisaldehyde with LC(50) values of 0.15, 0.20, 0.87 and 1.47 microL L(-1) respectively. PMID:16786497

  16. Acaricidal properties of the formulations based on essential oils from Cymbopogon winterianus and Syzygium aromaticum plants.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Valéria; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo; da Silva, Márcio Roberto; Daemon, Erik; da Silva, Luciane Santos; Guimarães, Flávia del Gaudio; de Mendonça, Alessandra Esther; Folly, Evelize; Vilela, Fernanda Maria Pinto; do Amaral, Lilian Henriques; Cabral, Lucio Mendes; do Amaral, Maria da Penha Henriques

    2014-12-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has caused serious harm to livestock raising in Brazil, considering the costs of controlling it, loss of revenue due to smaller production of milk and meat, and damage to leather, in addition to transmitting diseases. The use of medicinal plants is considered an alternative to the recurring resistance to chemicals. Due to the need for efficient alternatives with less environmental impact, this study aimed to develop contact formulations with essential oils from the Java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) plants and to assess in vitro the effects in different stages of the tick cycle. In the present study, concentrations from 0.5-15.0% of the essential oils incorporated in the formulations were used. The ticks from different geographical areas were treated with those formulations, and their effects on the production levels of eggs, on the larvae hatching, and their efficiency on ticks were assessed. The obtained results were compared with other commercial acaricidal products. After the 20th day of treatment, the formulations with citronella essential oil had 2.09-55.51% efficiency, depending on the concentration of the oil incorporated. The efficiency of the treatment with formulations containing clove essential oil was higher, from 92.47-100%. The results showed the acaricidal effects of the formulations tested when compared to commercial chemical products. In vivo studies should be performed in order to assess the efficiency of those formulations in the fields, aiming to use these products as an alternative for controlling cattle ticks. PMID:25199555

  17. Comparison of the Insecticidal Characteristics of Commercially Available Plant Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Norris, Edmund J; Gross, Aaron D; Dunphy, Brendan M; Bessette, Steven; Bartholomay, Lyric; Coats, Joel R

    2015-09-01

    Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae are two mosquito species that represent significant threats to global public health as vectors of Dengue virus and malaria parasites, respectively. Although mosquito populations have been effectively controlled through the use of synthetic insecticides, the emergence of widespread insecticide-resistance in wild mosquito populations is a strong motivation to explore new insecticidal chemistries. For these studies, Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae were treated with commercially available plant essential oils via topical application. The relative toxicity of each essential oil was determined, as measured by the 24-h LD(50) and percentage knockdown at 1 h, as compared with a variety of synthetic pyrethroids. For Ae. aegypti, the most toxic essential oil (patchouli oil) was ∼1,700-times less toxic than the least toxic synthetic pyrethroid, bifenthrin. For An. gambiae, the most toxic essential oil (patchouli oil) was ∼685-times less toxic than the least toxic synthetic pyrethroid. A wide variety of toxicities were observed among the essential oils screened. Also, plant essential oils were analyzed via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify the major components in each of the samples screened in this study. While the toxicities of these plant essential oils were demonstrated to be lower than those of the synthetic pyrethroids tested, the large amount of GC/MS data and bioactivity data for each essential oil presented in this study will serve as a valuable resource for future studies exploring the insecticidal quality of plant essential oils. PMID:26336230

  18. Growing Plants to Power Our Engines and Feed the World

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre Dick

    2015-12-15

    Photosynthesis uses light from the sun and carbon dioxide from the air to make chemicals that can be converted into energy-rich biofuels. Plants, however, transform less than five percent of the solar energy they capture into harvestable chemical energy. The New Mexico Consortium and Los Alamos National Laboratory are working on strategies to improve the energy yield in algae and plant systems, resulting in more fuel in our tanks and more food on our plates, without releasing additional carbon into the atmosphere.

  19. Bacterial Endophytes Isolated from Plants in Natural Oil Seep Soils with Chronic Hydrocarbon Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Lumactud, Rhea; Shen, Shu Yi; Lau, Mimas; Fulthorpe, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum, and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with class Actinobacteria as the dominant group in all species except S. canadensis, which was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Microbacterium foliorum and Plantibacter flavus were present in all the plants, with M. foliorum showing predominance in D. glomerata and both endophytic bacterial species dominated T. aureum. More than 50% of the isolates demonstrated degradative capabilities for octanol, toluene, naphthalene, kerosene, or motor oil based on sole carbon source growth screens involving the reduction of tetrazolium dye. P. flavus isolates from all the sampled plants showed growth on all the petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) substrates tested. Mineralization of toluene and naphthalene was confirmed using gas-chromatography. 16S based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed significant differences between the endophytic bacterial communities showing them to be plant host specific at this site. To our knowledge, this is the first account of the degradation potential of bacterial endophytes in these commonly occurring pioneer plants that were not previously known as phytoremediating plants. PMID:27252685

  20. Modified application of HS-SPME for quality evaluation of essential oil plant materials.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Szewczyk, Joanna; Dybowski, Michal P

    2016-01-01

    The main limitation in the standard application of head space analysis employing solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) for the evaluation of plants as sources of essential oils (EOs) are different quantitative relations of EO components from those obtained by direct analysis of EO which was got in the steam distillation (SD) process from the same plant (EO/SD). The results presented in the paper for thyme, mint, sage, basil, savory, and marjoram prove that the quantitative relations of EO components established by HS-SPME procedure and direct analysis of EO/SD are similar when the plant material in the HS-SPME process is replaced by its suspension in oil of the same physicochemical character as that of SPME fiber coating. The observed differences in the thyme EO composition estimated by both procedures are insignificant (F(exp)plant material quality and thus may improve the efficiency of analytical laboratories. PMID:26695252

  1. Fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils against Camptomyia corticalis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Ran; Haribalan, Perumalsamy; Son, Bong-Ki; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of 98 plant essential oils against third instars of cecidomyiid gall midge Camptomyia corticalis (Loew) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was examined using a vapor-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with that of a conventional insecticide dichlorvos. Based on 24-h LC50 values, all essential oils were less toxic than dichlorvos (LC50, 0.027 mg/cm3). The LC50 of caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed, armoise (Artemisia vulgaris L.), clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf], niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora Gaertner), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cassia especial (Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume), Dalmatian sage (Salvia offcinalis L.), red thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), bay [Pimenta racemosa (P. Mill.) J.W. Moore], garlic (Allium sativum L.), and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) oils is between 0.55 and 0.60 mg/cm3. The LC50 of cassia (C. cassia, pure and redistilled), white thyme (T. vulgaris), star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f.), peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.), wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) bark, sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), Roman chamomile [Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.], eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.),Virginian cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana L.), pimento berry [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.], summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) oils is between 0.61 and 0.99 mg/cm3. All other essential oils tested exhibited low toxicity to the cecidomyiid larvae (LC50, >0.99 mg/cm3). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on the active essential oils as potential larvicides for the control of C. corticalis populations as fumigants with contact action. PMID:22928313

  2. Application of microwave irradiation for the removal of polychlorinated biphenyls from siloxane transformer and hydrocarbon engine oils.

    PubMed

    Antonetti, Claudia; Licursi, Domenico; Raspolli Galletti, Anna Maria; Martinelli, Marco; Tellini, Filippo; Valentini, Giorgio; Gambineri, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    The removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) both from siloxane transformer oil and hydrocarbon engine oil was investigated through the application of microwave (MW) irradiation and a reaction system based on polyethyleneglycol (PEG) and potassium hydroxide. The influence of the main reaction parameters (MW irradiation time, molecular weight of PEG, amount of added reactants and temperature) on the dechlorination behavior was studied. Promising performances were reached, allowing about 50% of dechlorination under the best experimental conditions, together time and energy saving compared to conventional heating systems. Moreover, an interesting dechlorination degree (up to 32%) was achieved for siloxane transformer oil when MW irradiation was employed as the unique driving force. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time in which MW irradiation is tested as the single driving force for the dechlorination of these two types of PCB-contaminated oils. PMID:27281539

  3. Particulate morphology of waste cooking oil biodiesel and diesel in a heavy duty diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Joonsik; Jung, Yongjin; Bae, Choongsik

    2014-08-01

    The effect of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) on the particulate matters (PM) of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine was experimentally investigated and compared with commercial diesel fuel. Soot agglomerates were collected with a thermophoretic sampling device installed in the exhaust pipe of the engine. The morphology of soot particles was analyzed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also conducted to study chemical composition of soot particles. Based on the TEM images, it was revealed that the soot derived from WCO biodiesel has a highly graphitic shell-core arrangement compared to diesel soot. The mean size was measured from averaging 400 primary particles for WCO biodiesel and diesel respectively. The values for WCO biodiesel indicated 19.9 nm which was smaller than diesel's 23.7 nm. From the TGA results, WCO biodiesel showed faster oxidation process. While the oxidation of soot particles from diesel continued until 660°C, WCO biodiesel soot oxidation terminated at 560°C. Elemental analysis results showed that the diesel soot was mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen. On the other hand, WCO biodiesel soot contained high amount of oxygen species.

  4. Fundamentals of power plant performance for utility engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This three-volume, looseleaf text reviews power plant components and their operation from a performance perspective and presents the basics of performance testing. It provides the background to develop performance monitoring programs that improve component performance and provide operators with performance feedback and maintenance planning information.

  5. In silico identification and comparative genomics of candidate genes involved in biosynthesis and accumulation of seed oil in plants.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arti; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Genes involved in fatty acids biosynthesis, modification and oil body formation are expected to be conserved in structure and function in different plant species. However, significant differences in the composition of fatty acids and total oil contents in seeds have been observed in different plant species. Comparative genomics was performed on 261 genes involved in fatty acids biosynthesis, TAG synthesis, and oil bodies formation in Arabidopsis, Brassica rapa, castor bean and soybean. In silico expression analysis revealed that stearoyl desaturase, FatB, FAD2, oleosin and DGAT are highly abundant in seeds, thereby considered as ideal candidates for mining of favorable alleles in natural population. Gene structure analysis for major genes, ACCase, FatA, FatB, FAD2, FAD3 and DGAT, which are known to play crucial role in oil synthesis revealed that there are uncommon variations (SNPs and INDELs) which lead to varying content and composition of fatty acids in seed oil. The predicted variations can provide good targets for seed oil QTL identification, understanding the molecular mechanism of seed oil accumulation, and genetic modification to enhance seed oil yield in plants. PMID:22312320

  6. In Silico Identification and Comparative Genomics of Candidate Genes Involved in Biosynthesis and Accumulation of Seed Oil in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arti; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Genes involved in fatty acids biosynthesis, modification and oil body formation are expected to be conserved in structure and function in different plant species. However, significant differences in the composition of fatty acids and total oil contents in seeds have been observed in different plant species. Comparative genomics was performed on 261 genes involved in fatty acids biosynthesis, TAG synthesis, and oil bodies formation in Arabidopsis, Brassica rapa, castor bean and soybean. In silico expression analysis revealed that stearoyl desaturase, FatB, FAD2, oleosin and DGAT are highly abundant in seeds, thereby considered as ideal candidates for mining of favorable alleles in natural population. Gene structure analysis for major genes, ACCase, FatA, FatB, FAD2, FAD3 and DGAT, which are known to play crucial role in oil synthesis revealed that there are uncommon variations (SNPs and INDELs) which lead to varying content and composition of fatty acids in seed oil. The predicted variations can provide good targets for seed oil QTL identification, understanding the molecular mechanism of seed oil accumulation, and genetic modification to enhance seed oil yield in plants. PMID:22312320

  7. Potential of biologically active plant oils to control mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens, Diptera: Culicidae) from an Egyptian locality.

    PubMed

    Khater, Hanem Fathy; Shalaby, Afaf Abdel-Salam

    2008-01-01

    The insecticidal effect of six commercially available plant oils was tested against 4th larval instars of Culex pipiens. Larvae were originally collected from Meit El-Attar, Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, and then reared in the laboratory until F1 generation. The LC50 values were 32.42, 47.17, 71.37, 83.36, 86.06, and 152.94 ppm for fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-grecum), earth almond (Cyperus esculentus), mustard (Brassica compestris), olibanum (Boswellia serrata), rocket (Eruca sativa), and parsley (Carum ptroselinum), respectively. The tested oils altered some biological aspects of C. pipiens, for instance, developmental periods, pupation rates, and adult emergences. The lowest concentrations of olibanum and fenugreek oils caused remarkable prolongation of larval and pupal durations. Data also showed that the increase of concentrations was directly proportional to reduction in pupation rates and adult emergences. Remarkable decrease in pupation rate was achieved by mustard oil at 1000 ppm. Adult emergence was suppressed by earth almond and fenugreek oils at 25 ppm. In addition, the tested plant oils exhibited various morphological abnormalities on larvae, pupae, and adult stages. Consequently, fenugreek was the most potent oil and the major cause of malformation of both larval and pupal stages. Potency of the applied plant oils provided an excellent potential for controlling C. pipiens. PMID:18488090

  8. Fractions of calcium in the plant-soil system affected by the application of olive oil wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Lara, F; Azcón, M; Quesada, J L; Polo, A

    1998-09-01

    A pot experiment using calcareous soil was conducted in a growth chamber to examine the effects of olive oil wastewater applications on Ca fractions in the plant and on exchangeable Ca in soil after plant growth. The experimental treatments consisted of two rates of olive oil wastewater, two mineral fertilizer treatments including K, which supplied K in amounts equivalent to the K supplied by the olive oil wastewater treatments, a mineral fertilizer without K treatment (F), and a control. The pots were sown with ryegrass which was harvested 3 times at monthly intervals. The high rate of olive oil wastewater resulted in a prolonged increases in dry matter production. It also resulted in a reduction in the concentrations of soluble Ca, bound Ca, inorganic insoluble Ca and organic insoluble Ca in the plant shoots relative to the control and the F treatment. The low rate of olive oil wastewater produced similar but less marked effects, with decreases being observed in the soluble Ca and bound Ca fractions. After 3 months of plant growth, soil exchangeable Ca was higher in the control and F treatment soils than in the soils receiving olive oil wastewater or K fertilizer. At this time, there were no significant differences in exchangeable Ca between the soils receiving olive oil wastewater and those treated with K fertilizer. PMID:9731309

  9. Energy Return on Investment (EROI) for Forty Global Oilfields Using a Detailed Engineering-Based Model of Oil Production

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Adam R.; Sun, Yuchi; Bharadwaj, Sharad; Livingston, David; Tan, Eugene; Gordon, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the energy return on investment (EROI) for oil production generally rely on aggregated statistics for large regions or countries. In order to better understand the drivers of the energy productivity of oil production, we use a novel approach that applies a detailed field-level engineering model of oil and gas production to estimate energy requirements of drilling, producing, processing, and transporting crude oil. We examine 40 global oilfields, utilizing detailed data for each field from hundreds of technical and scientific data sources. Resulting net energy return (NER) ratios for studied oil fields range from ≈2 to ≈100 MJ crude oil produced per MJ of total fuels consumed. External energy return (EER) ratios, which compare energy produced to energy consumed from external sources, exceed 1000:1 for fields that are largely self-sufficient. The lowest energy returns are found to come from thermally-enhanced oil recovery technologies. Results are generally insensitive to reasonable ranges of assumptions explored in sensitivity analysis. Fields with very large associated gas production are sensitive to assumptions about surface fluids processing due to the shifts in energy consumed under different gas treatment configurations. This model does not currently include energy invested in building oilfield capital equipment (e.g., drilling rigs), nor does it include other indirect energy uses such as labor or services. PMID:26695068

  10. Energy Return on Investment (EROI) for Forty Global Oilfields Using a Detailed Engineering-Based Model of Oil Production.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Adam R; Sun, Yuchi; Bharadwaj, Sharad; Livingston, David; Tan, Eugene; Gordon, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the energy return on investment (EROI) for oil production generally rely on aggregated statistics for large regions or countries. In order to better understand the drivers of the energy productivity of oil production, we use a novel approach that applies a detailed field-level engineering model of oil and gas production to estimate energy requirements of drilling, producing, processing, and transporting crude oil. We examine 40 global oilfields, utilizing detailed data for each field from hundreds of technical and scientific data sources. Resulting net energy return (NER) ratios for studied oil fields range from ≈2 to ≈100 MJ crude oil produced per MJ of total fuels consumed. External energy return (EER) ratios, which compare energy produced to energy consumed from external sources, exceed 1000:1 for fields that are largely self-sufficient. The lowest energy returns are found to come from thermally-enhanced oil recovery technologies. Results are generally insensitive to reasonable ranges of assumptions explored in sensitivity analysis. Fields with very large associated gas production are sensitive to assumptions about surface fluids processing due to the shifts in energy consumed under different gas treatment configurations. This model does not currently include energy invested in building oilfield capital equipment (e.g., drilling rigs), nor does it include other indirect energy uses such as labor or services. PMID:26695068

  11. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus midgut cell line to evaluate insecticidal potency of different plant essential oils.

    PubMed

    Rizwan-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Aljabr, Ahmed Mohammed

    2015-03-01

    Cell cultures can be a potent and strong tool to evaluate the insecticidal efficiency of natural products. Plant essential oils have long been used as the fragrance or curative products around the world which means that they are safer to be used in close proximity of humans and mammals. In this study, a midgut cell line, developed from Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (RPW-1), was used for screening essential oils from nine different plants. Assays revealed that higher cell mortality was observed at 500 ppm which reached to 86, 65, 60, 59, 56, 54, 54, 53, and 53%, whereas lowest cell mortality at 1 ppm remained at 41, 23, 20, 17, 16, 15, 14, 13, and 10%, for Azadirachta indica, Piper nigrum, Mentha spicata, Cammiphora myrrha, Elettaria cardamomum, Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa, Schinus molle, and Rosmarinus officinalis, respectively. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assay revealed the percentage of cell growth inhibition was highest at 500 ppm and remained at 48, 45, 42, 37, 34, 29, 24, 22, and 18% against A. indica, P. nigrum, M. spicata, C. myrrha, E. cardamomum, Z. officinale, C. longa, S. molle, and R. officinalis, respectively. Lowest LC50 value (7.98 ppm) was found for A. indica, whereas the highest LC50 (483.11 ppm) was against R. officinalis. Thus, in this study, essential oils of A. indica exhibited the highest levels of toxicity, whereas those from R. officinalis exhibited the lowest levels of toxicity toward RPW-1 cells. PMID:25381034

  12. Mosquito larvicidal properties of essential oil of an indigenous plant, Ipomoea cairica Linn.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Thekkevilayil George; Rao, Sunder; Lal, Shiv

    2004-08-01

    Laboratory bioassay of the essential oil extracted from an indigenous plant, Ipomoea cairica, commonly known as 'Railway creeper', was carried out against the larvae of four vector species of mosquitoes in order to evaluate its mosquito larvicidal effect. Bioassay test revealed that the essential oil of the plant possess remarkable larvicidal properties as it could induce 100% mortality in the larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus (100 ppm), Aedes aegypti (120 ppm), Anopheles stephensi (120 ppm), and Culex quinquefasciatus (170 ppm) mosquitoes at concentrations rangeing from 100 to 170 ppm. The LC(50) and LC(90) values estimated for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi, and Cx. quinquefasciatus were 14.8 and 78.3, 22.3 and 92.7, 14.9 and 109.9, and 58.9 and 161.6 ppm, respectively. The essential oil was found to be most highly toxic to the larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus followed by Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi, and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. PMID:15329451

  13. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  14. Comparing terpenes from plant essential oils as pesticides for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    PubMed

    Sparagano, O; Khallaayoune, K; Duvallet, G; Nayak, S; George, D

    2013-11-01

    Resistance to conventional synthetic pesticides has been widely reported in ticks, parasitic mites and other pests of veterinary and medical significance. New and novel approaches to manage these pests are therefore needed to ensure efficient control programmes that can be implemented now and in the future. Recent research in this area has focused on the pesticidal potential of plant essential oils. These products are attractive as pesticide candidates on the grounds of low mammalian toxicity, short environmental persistence and complex chemistries (limiting the development of pest resistance against them). Although issues may exist concerning reliability in efficacy of essential oils, these may be overcome by identifying and developing bioactive oil components for use in pest management. In the current work, three such components (terpenes) found in essential oils (eugenol, geraniol and citral) were tested against the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. All provided 100% mortality in toxicity tests when undiluted. Even at 1% of this dose, eugenol was 20% effective against experimental pest populations, although the remaining terpenes were largely ineffective at this concentration. PMID:24589115

  15. Anti-quorum sensing activity of essential oils from Colombian plants.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Colorado, Beatriz; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Stashenko, Elena E; Wagner-Döbler, Irene; Kunze, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils from Colombian plants were characterised by GC-MS, and assayed for anti-quorum sensing activity in bacteria sensor strains. Two major chemotypes were found for Lippia alba, the limonene-carvone and the citral (geranial-neral). For other species, the main components included α-pinene (Ocotea sp.), β-pinene (Swinglea glutinosa), cineol (Elettaria cardamomun), α-zingiberene (Zingiber officinale) and pulegone (Minthostachys mollis). Several essential oils presented promising inhibitory properties for the short chain AHL quorum sensing (QS) system, in Escherichia coli containing the biosensor plasmid pJBA132, in particular Lippia alba. Moderate activity as anti-QS using the same plasmid, were also found for selected constituents of essential oils studied here, such as citral, carvone and α-pinene, although solely at the highest tested concentration (250 µg mL(-1)). Only citral presented some activity for the long chain AHL QS system, in Pseudomonas putida containing the plasmid pRK-C12. In short, essential oils from Colombian flora have promising properties as QS modulators. PMID:21936639

  16. Chemotypic Variation of Essential Oils in the Medicinal Plant, Anemopsis californica

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Holguín, Andrea L.; Holguín, F. Omar; Micheletto, Sandra; Goehle, Sondra; Simon, Julian A.; O’Connell, Mary A.

    2008-01-01

    Anemopsis californica (Saururaceae) commonly called yerba mansa, is an important medicinal plant in many deserts in the southwestern region of North America. Populations of A. californica, collected throughout New Mexico, were examined for chemical variability in roots and rhizomes for select monocyclic (cymene, limonene, piperitone and thymol) and bicyclic (α-pinene, 1,8-cineole and myrtenol) monoterpenoid and phenylpropanoid (methyleugenol, isoeugenol and elemicin) derived essential oil components. Three distinct chemotypes were detected using a hierarchical clustering analysis on the concentration of 10 different analytes in three individuals from each of 17 populations. One chemotype was characterized by high elemicin concentrations, a second chemotype by high methyleugenol concentrations and the third by high piperitone and thymol concentrations. Steam distilled oil was used to screen for anticancer bioactivity. A. californica root oils demonstrated anti-proliferative activity against AN3CA and HeLa cells in vitro but no activity against lung, breast, prostate or colon cancer cells. The IC50 values for the root oil were 0.056% and 0.052% (v/v) for the AN3CA and HeLa cells respectively. PMID:18177907

  17. Bio-Based Nano Composites from Plant Oil and Nano Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jue; Hong, Chang K.; Wool, Richard P.

    2003-03-01

    We explored the combination of nanoclay with new chemically functionalized, amphiphilic, plant oil resins to form bio-based nanocomposites with improved physical and mechanical properties. These can be used in many new applications, including the development of self-healing nanocomposites through controlled reversible exfoliation/intercalation, and self-assembled nano-structures. Several chemically modified triglyceride monomers of varying polarity, combined with styrene (ca 30include acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO), maleated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO) and soybean oil pentaerythritol glyceride maleates (SOPERMA), containing either hydroxyl group or acid functionality or both. The clay used is a natural montmorillonite modified with methyl tallow bis-2-hydroxyethyl quaternary ammonium chloride, which has hydroxyl groups. Both XRD and TEM showed a completely exfoliated structure at 3 wtwhen the clay content is above 5 wtconsidered a mix of intercalated and partially exfoliated structure. The controlled polarity of the monomer has a major effect on the reversible dispersion of clay in the polymer matrix. The bio-based nanocomposites showed a significant increase in flexural modulus and strength. Supported by EPA and DoE

  18. Antibacterial activities of plant-derived compounds and essential oils toward Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter malonaticus.

    PubMed

    Fraňková, Adéla; Marounek, Milan; Mozrová, Věra; Weber, Jaroslav; Klouček, Pavel; Lukešová, Daniela

    2014-10-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus are opportunistic pathogens that cause infections in children and immunocompromised adults. In the present study, the antibacterial activity of 19 plant-derived compounds, 5 essential oils, and an extract of propolis were assessed against C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus. The effects of most of these antimicrobials have not been reported previously. Both strains were susceptible to thymol, carvacrol, thymoquinone, p-cymene, linalool, camphor, citral, eugenol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde as well as cinnamon, lemongrass, oregano, clove, and laurel essential oils; their minimum inhibitory concentrations varied between 0.1 and 2.0 mg/mL. As an alternative treatment method, vapors of the volatiles were tested as an indirect treatment. Vapors of trans-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, oregano, and cinnamon essential oils inhibited both tested strains, while vapors of linalool were only active against C. sakazakii. To our knowledge, this study is the first time that the inhibitory activity of the vapors of these compounds and essential oils has been reported against Cronobacter spp. PMID:25062020

  19. Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  20. Chemotypic variation of essential oils in the medicinal plant, Anemopsis californica.

    PubMed

    Medina-Holguín, Andrea L; Holguín, F Omar; Micheletto, Sandra; Goehle, Sondra; Simon, Julian A; O'Connell, Mary A

    2008-02-01

    Anemopsis californica (Saururaceae) commonly called yerba mansa, is an important medicinal plant in many deserts in the southwestern region of North America. Populations of A. californica, collected throughout New Mexico, were examined for chemical variability in roots and rhizomes for select monocyclic (cymene, limonene, piperitone and thymol) and bicyclic (alpha-pinene, 1,8-cineole and myrtenol) monoterpenoid and phenylpropanoid (methyleugenol, isoeugenol and elemicin) derived essential oil components. Three distinct chemotypes were detected using a hierarchical clustering analysis on the concentration of 10 different analytes in three individuals from each of 17 populations. One chemotype was characterized by high elemicin concentrations, a second chemotype by high methyleugenol concentrations and the third by high piperitone and thymol concentrations. Steam distilled oil was used to screen for anticancer bioactivity. A. californica root oils demonstrated anti-proliferative activity against AN3CA and HeLa cells in vitro but no activity against lung, breast, prostate or colon cancer cells. The IC(50) values for the root oil were 0.056% and 0.052% (v/v) for the AN3CA and HeLa cells, respectively. PMID:18177907