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Sample records for english wetlands implications

  1. Seasonal dynamics and habitat specificity of mosquitoes in an English wetland: implications for UK wetland management and restoration.

    PubMed

    Medlock, Jolyon M; Vaux, Alexander G C

    2015-06-01

    We engaged in field studies of native mosquitoes in a Cambridgeshire Fen, investigating a) the habitat specificity and seasonal dynamics of our native fauna in an intensively managed wetland, b) the impact of water-level and ditch management, and c) their colonization of an arable reversion to flooded grassland wetland expansion project. Studies from April to October, 2010 collected 14,000 adult mosquitoes (15 species) over 292 trap-nights and ∼4,000 pre-imaginal mosquitoes (11 species). Open floodwater species (Aedes caspius and Aedes cinereus, 43.3%) and wet woodland species (Aedes cantans/annulipes and Aedes rusticus, 32.4%) dominated, highlighting the major impact of seasonal water-level management on mosquito populations in an intensively managed wetland. In permanent habitats, managing marginal ditch vegetation and ditch drying significantly affect densities of pre-imaginal anophelines and culicines, respectively. This study presents the first UK field evidence of the implications of wetland expansion through arable reversion on mosquito colonization. Understanding the heterogeneity of mosquito diversity, phenology, and abundance in intensively managed UK wetlands will be crucial to mitigating nuisance and vector species through habitat management and biocidal control. PMID:26047189

  2. Pluricentric Views towards English and Implications for ELT in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jianli, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of the classifications or models of English language have been proposed by a number of scholars who attempt to explain the differences in the ways English is used in different localities. This paper reviews three models of classification of English language, with an aim of drawing implications on how English Language Teaching (ELT) in…

  3. Botswana English: Implications for English Language Teaching and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alimi, Modupe

    2011-01-01

    Concerted efforts to characterise Botswana English (BE), though still referred to as "a variety in development", have validated its existence. However, the teaching and assessment of English in the high schools do not seem to have responded to the development of this variety. This paper discusses the viability of using Standard British English as…

  4. English in ASEAN: Implications for Regional Multilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The Charter of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was officially adopted in February 2009. Article 34 of the Charter states that, "The working language of ASEAN shall be English". In this article, I first briefly trace the development of English in ASEAN and demonstrate that, even in those countries of the ASEAN group which were…

  5. Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Patricia L.

    1986-01-01

    Suggests studying New York's wetlands, both in the classroom and in the field, to illustrate ecological concepts of diversity, succession, and adaptation and to learn about their importance in controlling flooding, erosion, and pollution. (NEC)

  6. Implications of agricultural encroachment on the carbon and greenhouse gas dynamics in tropical African wetlands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Matthew; Kansiime, Frank; Jones, Michael

    2015-04-01

    the production and emission of methane (CH4), and plant-facilitated emissions of up to 32 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 were measured from mature papyrus plants grown in a constructed wetland, suggesting that these wetlands may make a significant contribution to regional methane emissions. The conversion of the papyrus wetlands to agricultural land use has significant implications for the carbon budgets of these systems, as the decomposition of detrital material in addition to the carbon exported in the crop biomass resulted in a net loss of carbon of ~10 t C ha-1 yr-1. The development of sustainable wetland management strategies are therefore required to maintain and enhance the services provided by these ecosystems especially under increasing population pressures and future climatic scenarios.

  7. English as a Lingua Franca: Concepts, Use, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogo, Alessia

    2012-01-01

    Sowden's article raises a number of questions concerning English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) and criticizes it as a simplified and culturally neutral means of communication. In this response, I address the issues concerning the conceptualization and use of ELF as well as the implications for ELT. I provide up-to-date evidence of ELF research and show…

  8. Hydraulic characteristics of a constructed wetland: Implications for pollutant removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachniew, P.; Czuprynski, P.; Maloszewski, P.; Ozimek, T.

    2003-04-01

    Constructed wetlands are built in order to treat wastewaters of various origin with some degree of control over purification processes. Treatment wetlands improve water quality through removal of suspended solids, organics, nitrogen, phosphorus, pathogens (bacteria, parasites, viruses) and metals. Transformation and removal of pollutants from wastewaters occur via numerous interrelated physical, chemical and biological processes. The efficiency of soluble pollutants removal is related to the degree of contact between wastewaters and the reactive surfaces. Therefore knowledge of hydraulic phenomena is crucial in studies of wetland functioning. A subsurface flow wetland in Nowa Slupia, Poland was studied in order to find out relationships between hydraulic phenomena and wetland performance. The wetland consists of three parallel gravel beds overgrown by common reed with a total surface area of 6400 sq m, total active volume of around 900 cubic m and the average loading of around 4 l/s. Three tracer tests with bromide and tritium accompanied by observations of water quality, plant distribution and biomass were performed in summer and winter conditions. Tracer breakthrough curves obtained from tracer tests were used to identify sub-systems within the wetland and to infer their hydraulic properties (water residence times, active volumes, dispersive characteristics). Three reed beds receive different wastewater loadings and show different water residence times and dispersive characteristics. Wastewater flow occurs partly via surface overflow with apparent stagnant zones and preferential flow pathways. These flow patterns are reflected in complex structure of breakthrough curves. Inhomogenous wastewater distribution within the wetland is due to operation practices and clogging of the gravel beds with refractory organic matter. Observations of effluent water quality, plant distribution and biomass reflect these apparent inhomogenities in wastewater flow patterns. This work

  9. Implications of hydrologic variability on the succession of plants in Great Lakes wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    Primary succession of plant communities directed toward a climax is not a typical occurrence in wetlands because these ecological systems are inherently dependent on hydrology, and temporal hydrologic variability often causes reversals or setbacks in succession. Wetlands of the Great Lakes provide good examples for demonstrating the implications of hydrology in driving successional processes and for illustrating potential misinterpretations of apparent successional sequences. Most Great Lakes coastal wetlands follow cyclic patterns in which emergent communities are reduced in area or eliminated by high lake levels and then regenerated from the seed bank during low lake levels. Thus, succession never proceeds for long. Wetlands also develop in ridge and swale terrains in many large embayments of the Great Lakes. These formations contain sequences of wetlands of similar origin but different age that can be several thousand years old, with older wetlands always further from the lake. Analyses of plant communities across a sequence of wetlands at the south end of Lake Michigan showed an apparent successional pattern from submersed to floating to emergent plants as water depth decreased with wetland age. However, paleoecological analyses showed that the observed vegetation changes were driven largely by disturbances associated with increased human settlement in the area. Climate-induced hydrologic changes were also shown to have greater effects on plant-community change than autogenic processes. Other terms, such as zonation, maturation, fluctuations, continuum concept, functional guilds, centrifugal organization, pulse stability, and hump-back models provide additional means of describing organization and changes in vegetation; some of them overlap with succession in describing vegetation processes in Great Lakes wetlands, but each must be used in the proper context with regard to short- and long-term hydrologic variability.

  10. Freshwater Wetland Habitat Loss and Fragmentation: Implications for Aquatic Biodiversity Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolaver, B. D.; Pierre, J. P.; Labay, B. J.; Ryberg, W. A.; Hibbits, T. J.; Prestridge, H. L.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic land use changes have caused widespread wetland loss and fragmentation. This trend has important implications for aquatic biota conservation, including the semi-aquatic Western Chicken Turtle (Deirochelys reticularia miaria). This species inhabits seasonally inundated, ephemeral water bodies and adjacent uplands in the southeastern U.S. However, wetland conversion to agriculture and urbanization is thought to cause the species' decline, particularly in Texas, which includes the westernmost part of its range. Because the species moves only a few kilometers between wetlands, it particularly sensitive to habitat loss and fragmentation. Thus, as part of the only state-funded species research program, this study provides the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) with scientific data to determine if the species warrants protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). We use a species distribution model to map potentially suitable habitat for most of East Texas. We evaluate landscape-scale anthropogenic activities in this region which may be contributing to the species' decline. We identify areas of urbanization, agricultural expansion, forestry, and resulting wetland loss. We find that between 2001 and 2011 approximately 80 km2 of wetlands were lost in potentially suitable habitat, including the urbanizing Houston area. We use spatial geostatistics to quantify wetland habitat fragmentation. We also introduce the Habitat Alteration Index (HAI), which calculates total landscape alteration and mean probability of occurrence to identify high-quality habitat most at risk of recent anthropogenic alteration. Population surveys by biologists are targeting these areas and future management actions may focus on mitigating anthropogenic activities there. While this study focuses on D. r. miaria, this approach can evaluate wetland habitat of other aquatic organisms.

  11. Enhanced detection of wetland-stream connectivity using lidar:Implications for improved wetland conservation and management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of wetland–stream connectivity has been heightened due to the current dependence of wetland regulatory status on this connectivity, although the importance of wetland function to adjacent stream health has been and will continue to be substantial regardless of government policies and ...

  12. Widening Participation and English Language Proficiency: A Convergence with Implications for Assessment Practices in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Neil

    2013-01-01

    The widening participation agenda has important implications for those in English-medium higher education institutions responsible for the provision of English language support. Importantly, given the diverse nature of the "non-traditional" student cohort that is the focus of this agenda, that section of the student population…

  13. Business and Technology Students' Preferences for English-Language Accents: Implications for Business Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, James Calvert; Green, Diana J.; Rosewarne, David

    1997-01-01

    Multiple recordings of a message in various accents were heard by 218 college students, including 26 nonnative English speakers. Ranked English accents in descending order were General American, British, Australian, Indian, Estuary, and Japanese. Perceptual differences were related to gender, ethnicity, nationality, and region. Implications for…

  14. Remote Sensing of Wetland Hydrology: Implications for Water Quality Management in Agricultural Landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the substantial effect of agriculture on the ability of wetlands to function, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) serves a key role in wetland conservation and restoration. In order for the USDA to allocate funds to best manage wetlands, a better understanding of wetland functioning is ...

  15. Radar monitoring of wetland hydrology: Water quality implications for the Chesapeake Bay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wetlands are hydrologically dynamic ecosystems which have the potential to improve water quality. Unfortunately, many of the Chesapeake Bay’s wetlands, especially forested wetlands, have been lost or degraded due to human impacts primarily associated with agriculture and urban/suburban development. ...

  16. Quantifying groundwater discharge through fringing wetlands to estuaries: Seasonal variability, methods comparison, and implications for wetland-estuary exchange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tobias, C.R.; Harvey, J.W.; Anderson, I.C.

    2001-01-01

    Because groundwater discharge along coastal shorelines is often concentrated in zones inhabited by fringing wetlands, accurately estimating discharge is essential for understanding its effect on the function and maintenance of these ecosystems. Most previous estimates of groundwater discharge to coastal wetlands have been temporally limited and have used only a single approach to estimate discharge. Furthermore, groundwater input has not been considered as a major mechanism controlling pore-water flushing. We estimated seasonally varying groundwater discharge into a fringing estuarine wetland using three independent methods (Darcy's Law, salt balance, and Br- tracer). Seasonal patterns of discharge predicted by both Darcy's Law and the salt balance yielded similar seasonal patterns with discharge maxima and minima in spring and early fall, respectively. They differed, however, in the estimated magnitude of discharge by two- to fourfold in spring and by 10-fold in fall. Darcy estimates of mean discharge ranged between -8.0 and 80 L m-2 d-1, whereas the salt balance predicted groundwater discharge of 0.6 to 22 L m-2 d-1. Results from the Br- tracer experiment estimated discharge at 16 L m-2 d-t, or nearly equal to the salt balance estimate at that time. Based upon the tracer test, pore-water conductivity profiles, and error estimates for the Darcy and salt balance approaches, we concluded that the salt balance provided a more certain estimate of groundwater discharge at high flow (spring). In contrast, the Darcy method provided a more reliable estimate during low flow (fall). Groundwater flushing of pore water in the spring exported solutes to the estuary at rates similar to tidally driven surface exchange seen in previous studies. Based on pore-water turnover times, the groundwater-driven flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and NH4+ to the estuary was 11.9, 1.6, and 1.3 g C or g N m-2 wetland for the 90 d encompassing peak

  17. Surface elevation change and vegetation distribution dynamics in a subtropical coastal wetland: Implications for coastal wetland response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kerrylee; Saintilan, Neil; Woodroffe, Colin D.

    2014-08-01

    The response of coastal wetlands to sea-level rise is receiving global attention and observed changes in the distribution of mangrove and salt marsh are increasingly associated with global climate change, particularly sea-level and temperature rise, and potentially elevated carbon dioxide. Processes operating over smaller-spatial scales, such as rainfall variability and nutrient enrichment are also proposed as possible short-term drivers of changes in the distribution of mangrove and salt marsh. We consider the response of mangrove and salt marsh in a subtropical estuary to changes in environmental variables over a 12 year period by comparing rates of surface elevation change and vegetation distribution dynamics to hydrological and climatic variables, specifically water level and rainfall. This period of analysis captured inter-annual variability in sea level and rainfall associated with different phases of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We found that the mangrove and salt marsh trend of increasing elevation was primarily controlled by position within the tidal prism, in this case defined by inundation depth and distance to the tidal channel. Rainfall was not a primary driver of elevation trends in mangrove and salt marsh, but rainfall and water level variability did influence variability in elevation over the study period, though cross-correlation of these factors confounds identification of a single process driving this variability. These results highlight the scale-dependence of coastal wetland vegetation distribution dynamics; the longer-term trend of surface elevation increase and mangrove encroachment of salt marsh correlated with global sea-level trends, while short-term variability in surface elevation was related to local variability in water level and rainfall. Rates of surface elevation increase were found to lag behind rates of water level change within the Tweed River, which may facilitate further expansion of mangrove into salt marsh. This

  18. Aboriginal English: Some Grammatical Features and Their Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal English has been documented in widely separated parts of Australia and, despite some stylistic and regional variation, is remarkably consistent across the continent, and provides a vehicle for the common expression of Aboriginal identity. There is, however, some indeterminacy in the way in which the term is used in much academic and…

  19. Mathematical versus English Meaning in Implication and Disjunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    As mathematicians, we assign rigid meanings to words that may have a variety of interpretations in common language. This article considers meanings of "if" and "or" from everyday English that have caused students to misinterpret mathematical statements, and that are consistently overlooked by instructional materials in addressing students'…

  20. African American English: Implications for School Counseling Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Barto, Heather H.; Booker, Beverly L.; Smith, Kim V.; Barna, Jennifer; Maiden, Brian S.; Zegley, Linda; Felder, Monique T.

    2009-01-01

    African American English (AAE) refers to the systematic, rule-governed linguistic patterns of found among African Americans. This article provides an overview of AAE. More specifically, the article enumerates the historical underpinnings associated with AAE, identifies a representative set of AAE characteristics, reviews relevant research, and…

  1. Analyzing the Micro Coherence in English Writing and Implications for the Teaching of English Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sui, Dan-ni; Chen, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Based on LSA's (Latent Semantic Analysis) measuring textual coherence and Halliday and Hasan's cohesive concepts and their categorization of cohesive devices, this paper analyzes coherent relatedness and cohesive devices of 100 Chinese students' English writings. The results indicate that (1) LSA is proved to be an objective and appropriate method…

  2. English Genitives Derived from Predications: Implications for Teaching English as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLeish, Andrew

    1970-01-01

    This paper attempts to demonstrate the concept and method of deriving various English "true possessives" by nominalizing sentences of the form "X has Y." First considered is the motivation for deriving genetives from underlying sentences rather than for treating only the surface form of such genitives: the use of auxiliary verbs for predicating…

  3. The role of protected area wetlands in waterfowl habitat conservation: implications for protected area network design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beatty, William S.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Naylor, Luke W.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    The principal goal of protected area networks is biodiversity preservation, but efficacy of such networks is directly linked to animal movement within and outside area boundaries. We examined wetland selection patterns of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) during non-breeding periods from 2010 to 2012 to evaluate the utility of protected areas to migratory waterfowl in North America. We tracked 33 adult females using global positioning system (GPS) satellite transmitters and implemented a use-availability resource selection design to examine mallard use of wetlands under varying degrees of protection. Specifically, we examined effects of proximities to National Wildlife Refuges, private land, state wildlife management areas, Wetland Reserve Program easements (WRP), and waterfowl sanctuaries on mallard wetland selection. In addition, we included landscape-level variables that measured areas of sanctuary and WRP within the surrounding landscape of each used and available wetland. We developed 8 wetland selection models according to season (autumn migration, winter, spring migration), hunting season (present, absent), and time period (diurnal, nocturnal). Model averaged parameter estimates indicated wetland selection patterns varied across seasons and time periods, but ducks consistently selected wetlands with greater areas of sanctuary and WRP in the surrounding landscape. Consequently, WRP has the potential to supplement protected area networks in the midcontinent region. Additionally, seasonal variation in wetland selection patterns indicated considering the effects of habitat management and anthropogenic disturbances on migratory waterfowl during the non-breeding period is essential in designing protected area networks.

  4. High Stakes Testing: Issues, Implications, and Remedies for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solorzano, Ronald W.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the issues and implications of high stakes tests on English language learners (ELLs). As ELLs are being included in all high stakes assessments tied to accountability efforts (e.g., No Child Left Behind), it is crucial that issues related to the tests be critically evaluated relative to their use. In this case, academic…

  5. First Nations English Dialects in Canada: Implications for Speech-Language Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Jessica; Bernhardt, B. May

    2008-01-01

    The current study reports preliminary information gathered about First Nations English dialects in Canada and considers implications for speech-language pathology practice. Information was gathered from literature searches and forums of First Nations and non-First Nations speech-language pathologists, developmentalists, and linguists. The…

  6. Implications of Second Language Acquisition Theory for Business English Teaching in Current China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzhong, Zhu; Muchun, Wan

    2015-01-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) as a sub-branch of applied linguistics has been researched by Chinese and foreign scholars for over 40 years, but few researches have been done on its implications for Business English teaching which needs more language teaching theories to support. This paper makes a review of related studies, and puts forward a…

  7. Affective Education: Its Implications for Teaching a Communication Arts Course in the College English Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sada Mae

    This study reviews, analyzes, and summarizes the scientific research and professional literature pertaining to affective education (education concerned with the emotional needs of the learners) in order to determine its implications for a communication arts course in the English program. A review of the literature indicated that when the basic…

  8. A Quantitative Corpus-Based Approach to English Spatial Particles: Conceptual Symmetry and Its Pedagogical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Alvin Cheng-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate how conceptual symmetry plays a role in the use of spatial particles in English and to further examine its pedagogical implications via a corpus-based evaluation of the course books in senior high schools in Taiwan. More specifically, we adopt a quantitative corpus-based approach to investigate whether bipolar…

  9. Juvenile salmonid use of freshwater emergent wetlands in the floodplain and its implications for conservation management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henning, J.A.; Gresswell, R.E.; Fleming, I.A.

    2006-01-01

    A recent trend of enhancing freshwater emergent wetlands for waterfowl and other wildlife has raised concern about the effects of such measures on juvenile salmonids. We undertook this study to quantify the degree and extent of juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. utilization of enhanced and unenhanced emergent wetlands within the floodplain of the lower Chehalis River, Washington, and to determine the fate of the salmon using them. Enhanced emergent wetlands contained water control structures that provided an outlet for fish emigration and a longer hydroperiod for rearing than unenhanced wetlands. Age-0 and age-1 coho salmon O. kisutch were the most common salmonid at all sites, enhanced wetlands having significantly higher age-1 abundance than unenhanced wetlands that were a similar distance from the main-stem river. Yearling coho salmon benefited from rearing in two enhanced wetland habitats, where their specific growth rate and minimum estimates of survival (1.43%/d by weight and 30%; 1.37%/d and 57%) were comparable to those in other side-channel rearing studies. Dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased in emergent wetlands throughout the season and approached the limits lethal to juvenile salmon by May or June each year. Emigration patterns suggested that age-0 and age-1 coho salmon emigrated as habitat conditions declined. This observation was further supported by the results of an experimental release of coho salmon. Survival of fish utilizing emergent wetlands was dependent on movement to the river before water quality decreased or stranding occurred from wetland desiccation. Thus, our results suggest that enhancing freshwater wetlands via water control structures can benefit juvenile salmonids, at least in the short term, by providing conditions for greater growth, survival, and emigration. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  10. Benthic diatom composition in isolated forested wetlands subject to drying: implications for monitoring and assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of bioindicators for wetlands, especially ephemerally hydrated depressional and isolated wetlands, can be problematic because of seasonal hydrology and target organism biology. To determine if benthic diatoms could be used as a year-round biological indicator of w...

  11. Benthic diatom composition in wet and dry isolated forested wetlands: implications for monitoring and assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of bioindicators for wetlands, especially ephemerally hydrated depressional and isolated wetlands, can be problematic because of seasonal changes in hydrology and target organism biology. To determine if benthic diatoms could be used as a year-round biological ind...

  12. Impacts of the creation, expansion and management of English wetlands on mosquito presence and abundance - developing strategies for future disease mitigation.

    PubMed

    Medlock, Jolyon M; Vaux, Alexander G C

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases is increasing in Europe, partly due to the incursion of a number of invasive species known to be vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses, but also due to the involvement of native species in the transmission of West Nile virus and malaria. For some of these pathogens, there is a risk of the re-emergence of vector-borne diseases that were once widespread in Europe, but declined partly due to large-scale land-drainage projects. Some mosquito species exploit container habitats as breeding sites in urban areas; an adaptation to human-made micro-habitats resulting from increased urbanisation. However, many species thrive in natural wetland ecosystems. Owing to the impacts of climate change there is an urgent need for environmental adaptation, such as the creation of new wetlands to mitigate coastal and inland flooding. In some cases, these initiatives can be coupled with environmental change strategies to protect a range of endangered flora and fauna species by enhancing and extending wetland landscapes, which may by driven by European legislation, particularly in urban areas. This paper reviews field studies conducted in England to assess the impact of newly created wetlands on mosquito colonisation in a) coastal, b) urban and c) arable reversion habitats. It also considers the impact of wetland management on mosquito populations and explores the implications of various water and vegetation management options on the range of British mosquito species. Understanding the impact of wetland creation and management strategies on mosquito prevalence and the potential risk of increasing the levels of nuisance or disease vector species will be crucial in informing health and well-being risk assessments, guiding targeted control, and anticipating the social effects of extreme weather and climate change. Although new wetlands will certainly extend aquatic habitats for mosquitoes, not all species will become a major nuisance or a vector

  13. [Book review] Wetland birds: Habitat resources and conservation implications, by Milton W. Weller

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Milton Weller's love of wetlands and their inhabitants comes through in this book, and he continues a leadership role in a world of field ecologists where fewer and fewer are really experiencing the wet and wild.

  14. Patterns in Habitat and Fish Assemblages within Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands and Implications for Sampling Design

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discerning fish - habitat associations at a variety of spatial scales is relevant to evaluating stressor responses and assessment protocols in Great Lakes coastal wetlands. NMDS ordination of electrofishing catch-per-effort data identified an overriding influence of geography an...

  15. Stimulating a Great Lakes coastal wetland seed bank using portable cofferdams: implications for habitat rehabilitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kowalski, K.P.; Wilcox, D.A.; Wiley, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal wetland seed banks exposed by low lake levels or through management actions fuel the reestablishment of emergent plant assemblages (i.e., wetland habitat) critical to Great Lakes aquatic biota. This project explored the effectiveness of using portable, water-filled cofferdams as a management tool to promote the natural growth of emergent vegetation from the seed bank in a Lake Erie coastal wetland. A series of dams stretching approximately 450??m was installed temporarily to isolate hydrologically a 10-ha corner of the Crane Creek wetland complex from Lake Erie. The test area was dewatered in 2004 to mimic a low-water year, and vegetation sampling characterized the wetland seed bank response at low, middle, and high elevations in areas open to and protected from bird and mammal herbivory. The nearly two-month drawdown stimulated a rapid seed-bank-driven response by 45 plant taxa. Herbivory had little effect on plant species richness, regardless of the location along an elevation gradient. Inundation contributed to the replacement of immature emergent plant species with submersed aquatic species after the dams failed and were removed prematurely. This study revealed a number of important issues that must be considered for effective long-term implementation of portable cofferdam technology to stimulate wetland seed banks, including duration of dewatering, product size, source of clean water, replacement of damaged dams, and regular maintenance. This technology is a potentially important tool in the arsenal used by resource managers seeking to rehabilitate the functions and values of Great Lakes coastal wetland habitats.

  16. Dry down impacts on apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) demography: Implications for wetland water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darby, P.C.; Bennetts, R.E.; Percival, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa Say) are prey for several wetland-dependent predators, most notably for the endangered Florida snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis Vieillot). Management concerns for kites have been raised regarding the impacts of wetland dry downs on snails, but little data exists to validate these concerns. We simulated drying events in experimental tanks, where we observed that snail survival patterns, regardless of hydrology, were driven by a post-reproductive die off. In contrast to earlier reports of little to no dry down tolerance, we found that 70% of pre-reproductive adult-sized snails survived a 12-week dry down. Smaller size classes of snails exhibited significantly lower survival rates (< 50% after eight weeks dry). Field surveys showed that 77% of egg production occurs in April-June. Our hydrologic analyses of six peninsular Florida wetlands showed that most dry downs overlapped a portion of the peak snail breeding season, and 70% of dry downs were ??? 12 weeks in duration. Dry down timing can affect recruitment by truncating annual egg production and stranding juveniles. Dry down survival rates and seasonal patterns of egg cluster production helped define a range of hydrologic conditions that support robust apple snail populations, and illustrate why multiple characteristics of dry down events should be considered in developing target hydrologic regimes for wetland fauna. ?? 2008, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  17. River and Wetland Food Webs in Australia's Wet-Dry Tropics: General Principles and Implications for Management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, M. M.; Bunn, S. E.; Davies, P. M.

    2005-05-01

    The tropical rivers of northern Australia are internationally recognised for their high ecological and cultural values. They have largely unmodified flow regimes and are comparatively free of the impacts associated with intensive land use. However, there is growing demand for agricultural development and existing pressures, such as weeds and feral animals, threaten their ecological integrity. Using the international literature to provide a conceptual framework and drawing on limited published and unpublished data on rivers in northern Australia, we have derived five general principles about food webs and related ecosystem processes that both characterise tropical rivers of northern Australia and have important implications for their management. These are: (1) Seasonal hydrology is a strong driver of ecosystem processes and food web structure; (2) Hydrological connectivity is largely intact and underpins important terrestrial-aquatic food web subsidies; (3) River and wetland food webs are strongly dependent on algal production; (4) A few common macroconsumers species have a strong influence on benthic food webs; (5) Omnivory is widespread and food chains are short. These principles have implications for the management and protection of tropical rivers and wetlands of northern Australia and provide a framework for the formation of testable hypotheses in future research programs.

  18. Changes in wetland sediment elevation following major storms: implications for estimating trends in relative sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    Hurricanes can be important agents of geomorphic change in coastal marshes and mangrove forests. Hurricanes can cause large-scale redistribution of sediments within the coastal environment resulting in sedimentation, erosion, disruption of vegetated substrates, or some combination of these processes in coastal wetlands. It has been proposed that such sediment pulsing events are important at maintaining wetland sediment elevations in sediment-poor settings with high rates of relative sea-level rise, such as the Mississippi River Delta. But do these pulsing events result in a net gain in sediment elevation even when substantial amounts of sediment are deposited? Clearly sediment erosion and scour would result in a loss of elevation. But will a substantial sediment deposit on poorly consolidated sediments always result in a net gain in elevation? If the wetland vegetation is killed by wind, tidal surge, or the introduction of saline water, will there be a collapse of sediment elevation in the absence of root production and ongoing decomposition of root matter? During the past decade several wetlands where my colleagues and I have monitored sedimentation and elevation change have been struck by one to several hurricanes. This paper describes the range of sediment elevation responses to hurricane strikes, the suggested mechanisms driving those responses, the implications for estimating long-term trends in relative sea-level rise, and future research needs for improving our understanding of the role that major storms play in wetland sediment elevation dynamics. For many wetlands the change in sediment elevation was directly proportional to the amount of sediment deposited by the storm. But surprisingly, there was a loss of elevation in some wetlands with substantial sediment deposits. In these wetlands, the impact of the storm was either direct (sedimentation and compaction) or indirect (vegetation death), and the effect on sediment elevation was either permanent or

  19. Spatiotemporal dynamics of prairie wetland networks: power-law scaling and implications for conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Wright, Christopher K

    2010-07-01

    Although habitat networks show promise for conservation planning at regional scales, their spatiotemporal dynamics have not been well studied, especially in climate-sensitive landscapes. Here I use satellite remote sensing to compile wetland habitat networks from the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America. An ensemble of networks assembled across a hydrologic gradient from deluge to drought and a range of representative dispersal distances exhibits power-law scaling of important topological parameters. Prairie wetland networks are "meso-worlds" with mean topological distance increasing faster with network size than small-world networks, but slower than a regular lattice (or "large world"). This scaling implies rapid dispersal through wetland networks without some of the risks associated with "small worlds" (e.g., extremely rapid propagation of disease or disturbance). Retrospective analysis of wetland networks establishes a climatic envelope for landscape connectivity in the PPR, where I show that a changing climate might severely impact metapopulation viability and restrict long-distance dispersal and range shifts. More generally, this study demonstrates an efficient approach to conservation planning at a level of abstraction addressing key drivers of the global biodiversity crisis: habitat fragmentation and climatic change. PMID:20715611

  20. The Relationship between Mathematics and Language: Academic Implications for Children with Specific Language Impairment and English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Mary; Arizmendi, Genesis D.; Beal, Carole R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the relationship between mathematics and language to better understand the nature of the deficit and the academic implications associated with specific language impairment (SLI) and academic implications for English language learners (ELLs). Method: School-age children (N = 61; 20 SLI, 20 ELL, 21 native…

  1. Hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in coastal wetlands: implications for coastal conservation in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, R; Soulsby, C

    2001-01-29

    Groundwater in a shallow coastal aquifer in north east Scotland was monitored over the hydrological year October 1996-September 1997. Groundwater flow from inland areas sustained freshwater conditions in a dune-wetland complex of conservation importance. In particular, seasonal flooding of the coastal wetlands due to water table rise provided important roosting and breeding habitats for waterfowl. Hydrogeochemical analysis revealed that groundwater in the shallow sand aquifer was circum-neutral, and non-saline, despite being within 50 m of the sea and only 1 m above the mean high water mark. Calcium and HCO3 were the dominant cation and anion respectively, reflecting weathering processes in the aquifer. Use of the geochemical code NETPATH indicated that calcite weathering in shell fragments within the sand was the primary source of Ca and alkalinity generation. The concentrations of Na and Cl were also important, though these can be explained primarily by atmospheric inputs from precipitation. In detail, the spatial and temporal variation in groundwater chemistry was remarkably complex for what intuitively appeared a simple aquifer system. Temporal variations in groundwater chemistry mainly related to the seasonal event of groundwater recharge. Thus, the main period of rising groundwater levels resulted in a marked dilution of solutes in the aquifer, implying that water storage greatly increased in a relatively short period. A period of several weeks appeared to be required for dissolution processes to proceed to equilibrium. Spatial variation in groundwater chemistry appears to relate to the spatial distribution of geochemical processes in different hydrogeological units. Sulphate reduction, alkalinity generation and Fe precipitation appear to be locally important processes. The chemistry of groundwater maintains the wetland habitat by providing freshwater conditions that allow populations of various plant species to flourish. The potentially large recharge

  2. Strategies for Building Social Connection through English: Challenges for Immigrants and Implications for Teaching English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Leech, Kerry; Yates, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on ethnographic data from a longitudinal study of newly-arrived immigrants of non English-speaking background in the Australian Adult Migrant English Program to investigate their opportunities for using English and the language learning strategies (LLS) they used to make the most of these opportunities. Analysis of their reports…

  3. The Effects of the Use of English in Polish Product Advertisements: Implications for English for Business Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planken, Brigitte; van Meurs, Frank; Radlinska, Ania

    2010-01-01

    English has come to be widely used for the specific purpose of advertising to reach international target groups in various countries. However, few studies to date have investigated the use--and effects of--English in advertising in Eastern European countries. This study investigated the effect of English in advertisements from Polish glossy…

  4. Communicative English in the Primary Classroom: Implications for English-in-Education Policy and Practice in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamid, M. Obaidul; Honan, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    Globalisation and the global spread of English have led nation-states to introduce English into the early years of schooling to equip their citizens with communicative competence in order to compete within a global economy for individual and national development. In teaching English as a Second/Foreign Language, nations have adopted…

  5. Isotopic composition of methane released from wetlands: Implications for the increase in atmospheric methane

    SciTech Connect

    Quay, P.D.; King, S.L.; Lansdown, J.M.; Wilbur, D.O. )

    1988-12-01

    Measurements of the delta-C{sup 13} of methane released from tropical, temperate, and arctic wetland sites are reported. The mean delta C{sup 13} values (relative to PDB carbonate standard) for peat bogs and Alaskan tundra are {minus}53 + or{minus}8, {minus}66 + or{minus}5 and {minus}64 + or{minus}5{per thousand}, respectively. These measurements combined with methane flux estimates yield a flux-weighted global average delta-C{sup 13} value of {minus}59 + or{minus}6{per thousand} for methane released from wetlands, a major natural methane source. The agreement between the measured delta-C{sup 13} for methane emitted from wetlands and the calculated steady state value of approximately {minus}6{per thousand} for the delta-C{sup 13} of preindustrial methane sources suggests that methane was predominantly produced biogenically in the preindustrial era. The industrial era time rate of change of the delta-C{sup 13} of the global methane flux is calculated from estimates of the growth rate of the major anthropogenically derived methane sources and the C{sup 13} composition of these sources, and compared to the measured change in the delta-C{sup 13} of methane during the last 300 years. Based on these results, it is estimated that 13 + or{minus}8% of the current global methane flux is derived abiogenically from natural gas and biomass burning, whereas the remainder is derived biogenically primarily from wetlands, rice paddies, and livestock. 40 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Implications of climate change for wetland-dependent birds in the Prairie Pothole Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steen, Valerie; Skagen, Susan; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2016-01-01

    The habitats and food resources required to support breeding and migrant birds dependent on North American prairie wetlands are threatened by impending climate change. The North American Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) hosts nearly 120 species of wetland-dependent birds representing 21 families. Strategic management requires knowledge of avian habitat requirements and assessment of species most vulnerable to future threats. We applied bioclimatic species distribution models (SDMs) to project range changes of 29 wetland-dependent bird species using ensemble modeling techniques, a large number of General Circulation Models (GCMs), and hydrological climate covariates. For the U.S. PPR, mean projected range change, expressed as a proportion of currently occupied range, was −0.31 (± 0.22 SD; range − 0.75 to 0.16), and all but two species were projected to lose habitat. Species associated with deeper water were expected to experience smaller negative impacts of climate change. The magnitude of climate change impacts was somewhat lower in this study than earlier efforts most likely due to use of different focal species, varying methodologies, different modeling decisions, or alternative GCMs. Quantification of the projected species-specific impacts of climate change using species distribution modeling offers valuable information for vulnerability assessments within the conservation planning process.

  7. Mercury Geochemistry in a Wetland and its Implications for In-Situ Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.I.

    2002-03-28

    The objective of this study was to characterize the nature of Hg sorption on a wetland sediment with the intent of providing guidance for the selection of an appropriate in-situ remediation strategy. Total Hg concentrations in the sediments were as high as 10-mg/kg, whereas associated pore water Hg concentrations were below detection, less than 0.010-mg/L. Sediment Hg was not in an exchangeable form, and less than 8 percent of it was associated with organic matter. The remainder of the Hg was strongly associated with Fe-oxides and/or with a precipitated phase, presumably a sulfide. Sediment Hg concentrations were significantly correlated (r = 0.94) to Fe-oxide concentrations. Thermodynamic calculations based on field Eh/pH measurements and laboratory results suggest that under present field conditions meta-cinnabar (HgS) would not be stable due to the relatively low pH (approximately 4.2) and sulfate concentrations (0.14-mM) and high Eh levels at the study site. However, these calculations indicate that meta-cinnabar may have formed when the Hg first entered the wetland at elevated concentrations (approximately 5-mg/L). Given the ecologically sensitive nature of the wetland and the fact that the Hg is strongly bound to the sediment, it was concluded that a monitored natural attenuation approach for site remediation may be appropriate.

  8. Mangrove expansion in the Gulf of Mexico with climate change: Implications for wetland health and resistance to rising sea levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comeaux, Rebecca S.; Allison, Mead A.; Bianchi, Thomas S.

    2012-01-01

    Black mangroves ( Avicennia spp.) are hypothesized to expand their latitudinal range with global climate change in the 21st century, induced by a reduction in the frequency and severity of coastal freezes, which are known to limit mangrove colony extent and individual tree size. The Gulf of Mexico is a prime candidate for population expansion to occur because it is located at the northward limit of black mangrove habitat. This may come at the expense of existing coastal saline wetlands that are dominantly Spartina spp. marsh grasses. The present study was conducted to focus on the implications of a marsh to mangrove transition in Gulf wetlands, specifically: (1) wetland resistance to accelerating eustatic sea level rise (ESLR) rates; (2) resistance to wave attack in large storms (increased cyclonic storm frequency/intensity is predicted with future climate warming); and (3) organic carbon sequestration and wetland soil geochemistry. Field sites of adjacent and inter-grown Avicennia germinans mangrove and Spartina marsh populations in similar geomorphological setting were selected in back-barrier areas near Port Aransas and Galveston, TX. Elevation surveys in the more mature Port Aransas site indicate mangrove vegetated areas are 4 cm higher in elevation than surrounding marsh on an average regional scale, and 1-2 cm higher at the individual mangrove scale. 210Pb and 137Cs accumulation rates and loss on ignition data indicate that mineral trapping is 4.1 times higher and sediment organics are 1.7 times lower in mangroves at Port Aransas. This additional mineral trapping does not differ in grain size character from marsh accumulation. Elevation change may also be effected by soil displacement of higher root volumes in mangrove cores. Port Aransas porosities are lower in mangrove rooted horizons, with a corresponding increase in sediment strength, suggesting mangrove intervals are more resistant to wave-induced erosion during storm events. Port Aransas mangroves

  9. Pore Water Circulation in Isolated Wetlands: Implications to Internal Nutrient Loading.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadha, J. H.; Perkins, D. B.; Jawitz, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    The potential of wetland soils to accumulate and release pollutants including nutrients has been the motivation for numerous studies related to measuring the concentration, fate, and transport mechanisms of these substances in soils. While external nutrient loading from anthropogenic sources such as agricultural and cattle areas can be addressed through the implementation of Best Management Practices (BMPs), and interception strategies such as construction of storm-water treatment areas (STAs) in Florida, internal loading through shallow sediments has prevented the rapid improvement of water quality in numerous watersheds in South Florida, including the Lake Okeechobee drainage basin. The internal release of nutrients can occur via two different yet equally important mechanisms: advection and diffusion. These processes may mix the pore water not only within the sediment but also with the overlying water column over short periods of time (e.g., days or weeks). This provides sufficient time for diagenesis to alter the reactive chemical components of nutrients that may ultimately increase the nutrient fluxes to the overlying water column. The objectives of this research are to present a plausible and testable technique to collect pore water samples from saturated wetland soils, and to evaluate the importance of pore water circulation as a mechanism for mobilizing nutrients into the water column from within shallow sediments in isolated wetlands. Pore water sampling can be a difficult task to perform in low permeable wetland soils using standard sampling devices such as pore water equilibrators (peepers) and mechanical vises (Rheeburg squeezers). However, our attempt at using Multisamplers, which is in fact a multi-level piezometer capable of collecting up to ten pore water samples to a depth of 110 cm below the soil-water interface in a single deployment, proved to be a success. The ability to collect samples from multiple depths from a single location is an important

  10. English as a Multicultural Language: Implications from a Study of Japan's Junior High Schools' English Language Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Mieko

    2010-01-01

    Applying Kachru and Nelson's model of English spread and their categorisation into Inner/Outer/Expanding Circles, this content analysis of English as a Foreign Language textbooks used in Japanese junior high schools investigates which countries were introduced and further studies how Japan's domestic diversity was constructed in those textbooks.…

  11. Towards Implicational Scales for Use in Chicano English Composition. Papers in Southwest English 1: Research Techniques and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffer, Bates

    Dialect analysis should follow the procedure for analysis of a new language: collection of a corpus of words, stories, and sentences and identifying structural features of phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexicon. Contrastive analysis between standard English and the native language is used and the ethnic dialect of English is described and…

  12. Prey preferences of aquatic insects: potential implications for the regulation of wetland mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Saha, N; Aditya, G; Saha, G K

    2014-03-01

    Wetlands are potential sites for mosquito breeding and are thus important in the context of public health. The use of chemical and microbial controls is constrained in wetlands in view of their potential impact on the diverse biota. Biological control using generalist aquatic insects can be effective, provided a preference for mosquito larvae is exhibited. The mosquito prey preferences of water bugs and larvae of odonate species were evaluated using chironomid larvae, fish fingerlings and tadpoles as alternative prey. Manly's selectivity (αi ) values with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to judge prey preference patterns. Multivariate analysis of variance (manova) and standardized canonical coefficients were used to test the effects of density on prey selectivity. The αi values indicated a significant preference (P < 0.05) in all of the insect predators tested for mosquito larvae over the alternative prey as a density-dependent function. On a comparative scale, chironomid larvae had the highest impact as alternative prey. In a multiple-prey experiment, predators showed a similar pattern of preference for mosquito larvae over alternative prey, reflecting a significant (P < 0.05) niche overlap. The results suggest that, in a laboratory setting, these insect predators can effectively reduce mosquito density in the presence of multiple alternative prey. PMID:23437887

  13. Application of fish index of biological integrity (FIBI) in the Sanmenxia Wetland with water quality implications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Shan, Baoqing; Ao, Liang

    2014-08-01

    Long-term changes of fish biotic integrity in the Sanmenxia Wetland, North China, since the 1950s were assessed using the fish index of biological integrity (FIBI). The water and sediment quality was evaluated by the water quality index (WQI) and sediment pollution index (SPI). The results showed that FIBI continuously decreased from 46 to 20 during the past 5 decades, which indicated that the fish community state shifted from fair to very poor conditions, and damming by itself did not affect the fish biotic integrity. At the same time, WQI fell from 83 to 44.1, and SPI increased from 0.99 to 2.14 since the 1960s, resulting from fast regional socio-economic development and insufficient wastewater treatment. Correlation analysis suggested that water quality significantly affected biotic integrity (r=0.867, p<0.05) through direct effects on the fish community. As a representative example of many wetlands in North China, our study clearly demonstrated that the biological integrity was degraded, induced both by water quality deterioration and sediment pollution, further driven by the contradiction between rapid development of regional economy and lagging development of sewage treatment facilities, which were thought to be the main factor responsible for the degradation of biological integrity. PMID:25108715

  14. Seed germination of cirsium arvense and Lepidium latifolium: Implications for management of montane wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laubhan, M.K.; Shaffer, T.L.

    2006-01-01

    Cirsium arvense and Lepidium latifolium are species that can aggressively invade wetland margins and potentially reduce biodiversity and alter ecosystem function. Although expansion of these species primarily occurs via rhizomatous growth, seeds are thought to be important in initial establishment. We conducted this study to investigate differences in seed germination of C. arvense and L. latifolium in montane wetlands of Colorado and Wyoming, USA. We used germination chambers to simulate environmental conditions (photoperiod, day/night temperature) during three periods of the growing season at each site and evaluated seed germination in relation to three soil moisture levels and two soil depths. A combination of shallow (<1 cm) seed burial and wet conditions resulted in the greatest germination probability of C. arvense (x = 63.0%), 95% CI = 41.2-80.5%), whereas deep (2-3 cm) seed burial and saturated moisture conditions resulted in almost no germination (x?? = 0.3%, 95% CI = 0.1-1.3%). The maximum germination probability of 44.0% (CI = 28.1-61.4%) for L. latifolium also occurred in the shallow burial and wet treatment; however, only effects of seed burial were significant (P < 0.05). The estimated mean germination probability of deeply buried seeds was <1.0% (CI = 0.3-1.4%) compared to 32% (CI = 19.7-47.9%) for shallowly buried seeds. Our results suggest that each species has the ability to germinate at similar rates throughout the growing season and across a large portion of the moisture gradient. This suggests that management actions, including water-level manipulations, at any time during the growing season may stimulate germination. Although burial of seed to depths of 2-3 cm reduced the germination potential of both species, the use of mechanical implements may be problematic in established stands because new plants of both species easily sprout from root buds. Further, disturbance resulting from such actions diminishes the density and vigor of other plants

  15. Water movement and solute transport in permafrost wetlands: implications for inorganic carbon cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessen, Søren; Dahl Holmslykke, Hanne; Rasmussen, Kristine; Richardt, Niels; Engelund Holm, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions from thawing permafrost wetlands are an expected consequence of global warming. Addressing the pathways by which carbon is emitted, we investigated the hydrological and geochemical controls on the pore water chemistry of a permafrost wetland, with a shallow geological sequence comprising loam overlain by sphagnum peat, in Ilulissat, Greenland. A 400 m transect parallel to the general flow direction was established, along which water table measurements and slug tests were conducted, and the active layer thickness recorded (typically ~0.5 m). Also, in three detailed profiles along the transect, the vertical distributions of stable isotopes of water and major ion chemistry were investigated, by analysis of active layer pore water and water of melted core sections of permafrost. Concentrations of chloride (0.3-0.4 mM) did not show variation with depth, dismissing solute movement by ion freeze-out during fall freeze-up as a main control on the water chemistry. In addition, the observed vertical δ18O distribution did not to any extent conform to modelled Rayleigh distillation curves for the preferential inclusion of H218O into ice, which could be a scenario for fall freeze-up. The δ18O data therefore suggests either a rapid freeze-up or a simultaneous phase transition at all depths of the active layer, which in either case also would minimize potential ion freeze-out effects. Nevertheless, concentrations of major ions generally increased with depth. A conceptual model for water and solute transport was therefore established, according to which solutes are mobilized by weathering reactions in the loam and then transported upwards to the peat by diffusion. In the peat, lateral advective solute transport dominates. We applied the model to observed profiles of Ca, Mg, HCO3 and the partial CO2 pressure (PCO2). Concentrations of Ca, Mg and HCO3 increased with depth, reaching ~2 mM, ~2 mM and ~8 meq/L at the bottom of the active layer. Pore water at

  16. Radar monitoring of hydrology in Maryland's forested coastal plain wetlands: Implications for predicted climate change and improved mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner Lang, Megan

    Wetlands provide important services to society but Mid-Atlantic wetlands are at high risk for loss, with forested wetlands being especially vulnerable. Hydrology (flooding and soil moisture) controls wetland function and extent but it may be altered due to changes in climate and anthropogenic influence. Wetland hydrology must better understood in order to predict and mitigate the impact of these changes. Broad-scale forested wetland hydrology is difficult to monitor using ground-based and traditional remote sensing methods. C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data could improve the capability to monitor forested wetland hydrology but the abilities and limitations of these data need further investigation. This study examined: (1) the link between climate and wetland hydrology; (2) the ability of ENVISAT SAR (C-HH and C-VV) data to monitor inundation and soil moisture in forested wetlands; (3) limitations inherent to C-band data (incidence angle, polarization, and phenology) when monitoring forested wetland hydrology; and (4) the accuracy of forested wetland maps produced using SAR data. The study was primarily conducted near the Patuxent River in Maryland but the influence of incidence angle was considered along the Roanoke River in North Carolina. This study showed: (1) climate was highly correlated with wetland inundation; (2) significant differences in C-VV and C-HH backscatter existed between forested areas of varying hydrology (uplands and wetlands) throughout the year; (3) C-HH backscatter was better correlated to hydrology than C-VV backscatter; (4) correlations were stronger during the leaf-off season; (5) the difference in backscatter between flooded and non-flooded areas did not sharply decline with incidence angle, as predicted; and (6) maps produced using SAR data had relatively high accuracy levels. Based on these findings, I concluded that hydrology is influenced by climate at the study site, and C-HH data should be able to monitor changes in

  17. Accumulation of impact markers in desert wetlands and implications for the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Latorre, Claudio; Rech, Jason A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Martínez, Katherine E.; Budahn, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis contends that an extraterrestrial object exploded over North America at 12.9 ka, initiating the Younger Dryas cold event, the extinction of many North American megafauna, and the demise of the Clovis archeological culture. Although the exact nature and location of the proposed impact or explosion remain unclear, alleged evidence for the fallout comes from multiple sites across North America and a site in Belgium. At 6 of the 10 original sites (excluding the Carolina Bays), elevated concentrations of various “impact markers” were found in association with black mats that date to the onset of the Younger Dryas. Black mats are common features in paleowetland deposits and typically represent shallow marsh environments. In this study, we investigated black mats ranging in age from approximately 6 to more than 40 ka in the southwestern United States and the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. At 10 of 13 sites, we found elevated concentrations of iridium in bulk and magnetic sediments, magnetic spherules, and/or titanomagnetite grains within or at the base of black mats, regardless of their age or location, suggesting that elevated concentrations of these markers arise from processes common to wetland systems, and not a catastrophic extraterrestrial impact event. PMID:22529347

  18. Accumulation of impact markers in desert wetlands and implications for the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Latorre, Claudio; Rech, Jason A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Martinez, Katherine E.; Budahn, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis contends that an extraterrestrial object exploded over North America at 12.9 ka, initiating the Younger Dryas cold event, the extinction of many North American megafauna, and the demise of the Clovis archeological culture. Although the exact nature and location of the proposed impact or explosion remain unclear, alleged evidence for the fallout comes from multiple sites across North America and a site in Belgium. At 6 of the 10 original sites (excluding the Carolina Bays), elevated concentrations of various "impact markers" were found in association with black mats that date to the onset of the Younger Dryas. Black mats are common features in paleowetland deposits and typically represent shallow marsh environments. In this study, we investigated black mats ranging in age from approximately 6 to more than 40 ka in the southwestern United States and the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. At 10 of 13 sites, we found elevated concentrations of iridium in bulk and magnetic sediments, magnetic spherules, and/or titanomagnetite grains within or at the base of black mats, regardless of their age or location, suggesting that elevated concentrations of these markers arise from processes common to wetland systems, and not a catastrophic extraterrestrial impact event.

  19. Permafrost Melt in the Wetland-Dominated Zone of Discontinuous Permafrost - Implications for Basin Runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinton, W. L.; Hayashi, M.; Chasmer, L.; Hopkinson, C.

    2009-05-01

    Field studies were initiated in 1999 at Scotty Creek in the lower Liard River basin, NWT, Canada, to improve the understanding and model-representation of the major water flux and storage processes within this wetland- dominated zone of discontinuous permafrost. Over this period, permafrost melt has led to appreciable landscpae change. As a result, permafrost plateaus have been replaced by flat bogs and channel fens. Because these three peatland types have very different functions in the overall cycling and storage of water in the basins of this region, there is good reason to suspect that permafrost melt will lead to changes in basin runoff production. This paper documents the rates and patterns of permafrost loss in this region using a variety of ground-based and remotely sensed measurements. A mechanistic-based conceptual model of landscape evolution is presented that offers insights for water scientists and managers into how the on-going landscape change in this region resulting from climate and human disturbances may influence the basin hydrograph.

  20. Accumulation of impact markers in desert wetlands and implications for the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Pigati, Jeffrey S; Latorre, Claudio; Rech, Jason A; Betancourt, Julio L; Martínez, Katherine E; Budahn, James R

    2012-05-01

    The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis contends that an extraterrestrial object exploded over North America at 12.9 ka, initiating the Younger Dryas cold event, the extinction of many North American megafauna, and the demise of the Clovis archeological culture. Although the exact nature and location of the proposed impact or explosion remain unclear, alleged evidence for the fallout comes from multiple sites across North America and a site in Belgium. At 6 of the 10 original sites (excluding the Carolina Bays), elevated concentrations of various "impact markers" were found in association with black mats that date to the onset of the Younger Dryas. Black mats are common features in paleowetland deposits and typically represent shallow marsh environments. In this study, we investigated black mats ranging in age from approximately 6 to more than 40 ka in the southwestern United States and the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. At 10 of 13 sites, we found elevated concentrations of iridium in bulk and magnetic sediments, magnetic spherules, and/or titanomagnetite grains within or at the base of black mats, regardless of their age or location, suggesting that elevated concentrations of these markers arise from processes common to wetland systems, and not a catastrophic extraterrestrial impact event. PMID:22529347

  1. Environmental impacts and regulatory policy implications of spray disposal of dredged material in Louisiana wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.; Cowan, J.H., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The capabilities of a new wetland dredging technology were assessed along with associated newly developed state and federal regulatory policies to determine if policy expectations realistically match the technological achievement. Current regulatory practices require amelioration of spoil bank impacts upon abandonment of an oil/gas well, but this may not occur for many years or decades, if at all. Recently, a dreding method (high-pressure spray spoil disposal) was developed that does not create a spoil bank in the traditional sense. Its potential for reducing environmental impacts was recognized immediately by regulatory agencies for whom minimizing spoil bank impacts is a major concern. The use of high-pressure spray disposal as a suitable alternative to traditional dreding technology has been adopted as policy even though its value as a management tool has never been tested or verified. A qualitative evaluation at two spoil disposal sites in saline marsh indicates that high-pressure spray disposal may indeed have great potential to minimize impacts, but most of this potential remains unverified. Also, some aspects of current regulatory policy may be based on unrealistic expectations as to the ability of this new technology to minimize or eliminate spoil bank impacts.

  2. Plant growth under salinity and inundation stress: implications for sea-level rise on tidal wetland function

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change and sea-level rise (SLR) may increase salinity or inundation duration for tidal wetland organisms. To test the effects of these stressors on wetland productivity, we transplanted seedlings of seven common plant species to polyhaline, mesohaline and oligohaline tida...

  3. On Processing Chinese Ideographs and English Words: Some Implications from Stroop-Test Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Irving; Tsao, Yao-Chung

    1979-01-01

    When Chinese adults tried to name the color of characters which represented conflicting color words, they showed greater interference than did English speaking readers of the same task in English. This effect cannot be attributed to bilingualism. There may be fundamental differences in the perceptual demands of reading Chinese and English.…

  4. Constructing Gender in an English Dominant Kindergarten: Implications for Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hruska, Barbara L.

    2004-01-01

    This article is part of a year-long ethnographic study conducted in an English dominant kindergarten in the United States. The classroom comprised 6 Spanish-bilingual English language learners and 17 native English speakers. The study was based on a theoretical framework that views language as the site for constructing social meaning and…

  5. Language Ability of Young English Language Learners: Definition, Configuration, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    In this study I examined the dimensionality of the latent ability underlying language use that is needed to fulfill the demands young learners face in English-medium instructional environments, where English is used as the means of instruction for teaching subject matters. Previous research on English language use by school-age children provided…

  6. A multi-year comparison of IPCI scores for prairie pothole wetlands: implications of temporal and spatial variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.

    2011-01-01

    In the prairie pothole region of North America, development of Indices of Biotic Integrity (IBIs) to detect anthropogenic impacts on wetlands has been hampered by naturally dynamic inter-annual climate fluctuations. Of multiple efforts to develop IBIs for prairie pothole wetlands, only one, the Index of Plant Community Integrity (IPCI), has reported success. We evaluated the IPCI and its ability to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic variation using plant community data collected from 16 wetlands over a 4-year-period. We found that under constant anthropogenic influence, IPCI metric scores and condition ratings varied annually in response to environmental variation driven primarily by natural climate variation. Artificially forcing wetlands that occur along continuous hydrologic gradients into a limited number of discrete classes (e.g., temporary, seasonal, and semipermanent) further confounded the utility of IPCI metrics. Because IPCI scores vary significantly due to natural climate dynamics as well as human impacts, methodology must be developed that adequately partitions natural and anthropogenically induced variation along continuous hydrologic gradients. Until such methodology is developed, the use of the IPCI to evaluate prairie pothole wetlands creates potential formisdirected corrective or regulatory actions, impairment of natural wetland functional processes, and erosion of public confidence in the wetland sciences.

  7. A multi-year comparison of IPCI scores for prairie pothole wetlands: implications of temporal and spatial variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.

    2011-01-01

    In the prairie pothole region of North America, development of Indices of Biotic Integrity (IBIs) to detect anthropogenic impacts on wetlands has been hampered by naturally dynamic inter-annual climate fluctuations. Of multiple efforts to develop IBIs for prairie pothole wetlands, only one, the Index of Plant Community Integrity (IPCI), has reported success. We evaluated the IPCI and its ability to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic variation using plant community data collected from 16 wetlands over a 4-year-period. We found that under constant anthropogenic influence, IPCI metric scores and condition ratings varied annually in response to environmental variation driven primarily by natural climate variation. Artificially forcing wetlands that occur along continuous hydrologic gradients into a limited number of discrete classes (e.g., temporary, seasonal, and semi-permanent) further confounded the utility of IPCI metrics. Because IPCI scores vary significantly due to natural climate dynamics as well as human impacts, methodology must be developed that adequately partitions natural and anthropogenically induced variation along continuous hydrologic gradients. Until such methodology is developed, the use of the IPCI to evaluate prairie pothole wetlands creates potential for misdirected corrective or regulatory actions, impairment of natural wetland functional processes, and erosion of public confidence in the wetland sciences.

  8. Hindcasting Historical Breeding Conditions for an Endangered Salamander in Ephemeral Wetlands of the Southeastern USA: Implications of Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Houston C; Rypel, Andrew L; Jiao, Yan; Haas, Carola A; Gorman, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    The hydroperiod of ephemeral wetlands is often the most important characteristic determining amphibian breeding success, especially for species with long development times. In mesic and wet pine flatwoods of the southeastern United States, ephemeral wetlands were a common landscape feature. Reticulated flatwoods salamanders (Ambystoma bishopi), a federally endangered species, depend exclusively on ephemeral wetlands and require at least 11 weeks to successfully metamorphose into terrestrial adults. We empirically modeled hydroperiod of 17 A. bishopi breeding wetlands by combining downscaled historical climate-model data with a recent 9-year record (2006-2014) of observed water levels. Empirical models were subsequently used to reconstruct wetland hydrologic conditions from 1896-2014 using the downscaled historical climate datasets. Reconstructed hydroperiods for the 17 wetlands were highly variable through time but were frequently unfavorable for A. bishopi reproduction (e.g., only 61% of years, using a conservative estimate of development time [12 weeks], were conducive to larval development and metamorphosis). Using change-point analysis, we identified significant shifts in average hydroperiod over the last century in all 17 wetlands. Mean hydroperiods were shorter in recent years than at any other point since 1896, and thus less suitable for A. bishopi reproduction. We suggest that climate change will continue to impact the reproductive success of flatwoods salamanders and other ephemeral wetland breeders by reducing the number of years these wetlands have suitable hydroperiods. Consequently, we emphasize the importance of conservation and management for mitigating other forms of habitat degradation, especially maintenance of high quality breeding sites where reproduction can occur during appropriate environmental conditions. PMID:26910245

  9. Hindcasting Historical Breeding Conditions for an Endangered Salamander in Ephemeral Wetlands of the Southeastern USA: Implications of Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Houston C.; Rypel, Andrew L.; Jiao, Yan; Haas, Carola A.; Gorman, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    The hydroperiod of ephemeral wetlands is often the most important characteristic determining amphibian breeding success, especially for species with long development times. In mesic and wet pine flatwoods of the southeastern United States, ephemeral wetlands were a common landscape feature. Reticulated flatwoods salamanders (Ambystoma bishopi), a federally endangered species, depend exclusively on ephemeral wetlands and require at least 11 weeks to successfully metamorphose into terrestrial adults. We empirically modeled hydroperiod of 17 A. bishopi breeding wetlands by combining downscaled historical climate-model data with a recent 9-year record (2006–2014) of observed water levels. Empirical models were subsequently used to reconstruct wetland hydrologic conditions from 1896–2014 using the downscaled historical climate datasets. Reconstructed hydroperiods for the 17 wetlands were highly variable through time but were frequently unfavorable for A. bishopi reproduction (e.g., only 61% of years, using a conservative estimate of development time [12 weeks], were conducive to larval development and metamorphosis). Using change-point analysis, we identified significant shifts in average hydroperiod over the last century in all 17 wetlands. Mean hydroperiods were shorter in recent years than at any other point since 1896, and thus less suitable for A. bishopi reproduction. We suggest that climate change will continue to impact the reproductive success of flatwoods salamanders and other ephemeral wetland breeders by reducing the number of years these wetlands have suitable hydroperiods. Consequently, we emphasize the importance of conservation and management for mitigating other forms of habitat degradation, especially maintenance of high quality breeding sites where reproduction can occur during appropriate environmental conditions. PMID:26910245

  10. AMPHIBIAN OCCURRENCE AND AQUATIC INVADERS IN A CHANGING LANDSCAPE: IMPLICATIONS FOR WETLAND MITIGATION IN THE WILLAMETTE VALLEY, OREGON, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite concern about the conservation status of amphibians in western North America, few field studies have documented occurrence patterns of amphibians relative to potential stressors. We surveyed wetland fauna in Oregon Willamette Valley and used an information theoretic appro...

  11. Colonization of a newly constructed urban wetland by mosquitoes in England: implications for nuisance and vector species.

    PubMed

    Medlock, Jolyon M; Vaux, Alexander G C

    2014-12-01

    Urban wetlands are being created in the UK as part of sustainable urban drainage strategies, to create wetland habitats lost during development, to provide a habitat for protected species, and to increase the public's access to 'blue-space' for the improvement of health and well-being. Sewage treatment reedbeds are also being incorporated into newly constructed wetlands to offer an alternative approach to dealing with sewage. This field study aims to provide the first UK evidence of how such newly constructed aquatic habitats are colonized by mosquitoes. A number of new aquatic habitats were surveyed for immature mosquitoes every fortnight over the first two years following wetland construction. The majority of mosquitoes collected were Culex sp. and were significantly associated with the sewage treatment reedbed system, particularly following storm events and sewage inflow. Other more natural aquatic habitats that were subject to cycles of drying and re-wetting contributed the majority of the remaining mosquitoes colonizing. Colonization of permanent habitats was slow, particularly where fluctuations in water levels inhibited emergent vegetation growth. It is recommended that during the planning process for newly constructed wetlands consideration is given on a case-by-case basis to the impact of mosquitoes, either as a cause of nuisance or as potential vectors. Although ornithophagic Culex dominated in this wetland, their potential role as enzootic West Nile virus vectors should not be overlooked. PMID:25424253

  12. The concentrations of five heavy metals in components of an economically important urban coastal wetland in Ghana: public health and phytoremediation implications.

    PubMed

    Gbogbo, Francis; Otoo, Samuel D

    2015-10-01

    Sakumo II is an urban wetland and a receptacle for domestic and industrial wastes from two cities in Ghana. It however supports viable populations of fish and crabs, is cultivated for food crops and grazed by farm animals. Components of the wetland can therefore accumulate pollutants, but the public health and phytoremediation implications of this are yet to be evaluated. We analysed Cd, As, Hg, Cu and Pb in the lagoon water, sediment, green algae, eight species of aquatic macrophytes, seven species of arthropods and one species of fish. The concentrations of Pb were generally below detection limit whilst Cu was detected only in the lagoon water and Pheropsophus vertialis. Cadmium ranged from 21 ± 4 ppb in algae to 69 ± 12 ppb in Typha domingensis and was generally higher than As and Hg. The highest concentration of As was 11.7 ± 2.1 ppb in Pistia stratiotes whilst Hg was highest in lagoon water (4 ± 2 ppb). The Cd concentrations generally, and Hg concentrations in macrophytes, were higher than US EPA guidelines indicating the wetland's resources were unsafe for regular consumption. Among the emergent aquatic macrophytes, T. domingensis, Ludwigia sp. and Paspalum vaginatum, respectively, had the highest accumulation capacity for Cd, As and Hg, but the floating aquatic plant P. stratiotes appeared to be a better accumulator of Cd and As. PMID:26423633

  13. Response of an invasive native wetland plant to environmental flows: implications for managing regulated floodplain ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Vivian, Lyndsey M; Marshall, David J; Godfree, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    The natural flow regimes of rivers underpin the health and function of floodplain ecosystems. However, infrastructure development and the over-extraction of water has led to the alteration of natural flow regimes, resulting in the degradation of river and floodplain habitats globally. In many catchments, including Australia's Murray-Darling Basin, environmental flows are seen as a potentially useful tool to restore natural flow regimes and manage the degradation of rivers and their associated floodplains. In this paper, we investigated whether environmental flows can assist in controlling an invasive native floodplain plant in Barmah Forest, south-eastern Australia. We experimentally quantified the effects of different environmental flow scenarios, including a shallow (20 cm) and deeper (50 cm) flood of different durations (12 and 20 weeks), as well as drought and soil-saturated conditions, on the growth and survival of seedlings of Juncus ingens, a native emergent macrophyte that has become invasive in some areas of Barmah Forest following river regulation and alteration of natural flow regimes. Three height classes of J. ingens (33 cm, 17 cm and 12 cm) were included in the experiment to explicitly test for relationships between treatments, plant survival and growth, and plant height. We found that seedling mortality occurred in the drought treatment and in the 20-week flood treatments of both depths; however, mortality rates in the flood treatments depended on initial plant height, with medium and short plants (initial heights of ≤17 cm) exhibiting the highest mortality rates. Both the 20 cm and 50 cm flood treatments of only 12 weeks duration were insufficient to cause mortality in any of the height classes; indeed, shoots of plants in the 20 cm flood treatment were able to elongate through the water surface at rapid rates. Our findings have important implications for management of Barmah Forest and floodplain ecosystems elsewhere, as it demonstrates

  14. Functional and phylogenetic relatedness in temporary wetland invertebrates: current macroecological patterns and implications for future climatic change scenarios.

    PubMed

    Ruhí, Albert; Boix, Dani; Gascón, Stéphanie; Sala, Jordi; Batzer, Darold P

    2013-01-01

    In freshwater ecosystems, species compositions are known to be determined hierarchically by large to small‑scale environmental factors, based on the biological traits of the organisms. However, in ephemeral habitats this heuristic framework remains largely untested. Although temporary wetland faunas are constrained by a local filter (i.e., desiccation), we propose its magnitude may still depend on large-scale climate characteristics. If this is true, climate should be related to the degree of functional and taxonomic relatedness of invertebrate communities inhabiting seasonal wetlands. We tested this hypothesis in two ways. First, based on 52 biological traits for invertebrates, we conducted a case study to explore functional trends among temperate seasonal wetlands differing in the harshness (i.e., dryness) of their dry season. After finding evidence of trait filtering, we addressed whether it could be generalized across a broader climatic scale. To this end, a meta-analysis (225 seasonal wetlands spread across broad climatic categories: Arid, Temperate, and Cold) allowed us to identify whether an equivalent climate-dependent pattern of trait richness was consistent between the Nearctic and the Western Palearctic. Functional overlap of invertebrates increased from mild (i.e., Temperate) to harsher climates (i.e., Arid and Cold), and phylogenetic clustering (using taxonomy as a surrogate) was highest in Arid and lowest in Temperate wetlands. We show that, (i) as has been described in streams, higher relatedness than would be expected by chance is generally observed in seasonal wetland invertebrate communities; and (ii) this relatedness is not constant but climate-dependent, with the climate under which a given seasonal wetland is located determining the functional overlap and the phylogenetic clustering of the community. Finally, using a space-for-time substitution approach we suggest our results may anticipate how the invertebrate biodiversity embedded in these

  15. Late Quaternary dynamics of a South African floodplain wetland and the implications for assessing recent human impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tooth, S.; Rodnight, H.; McCarthy, T. S.; Duller, G. A. T.; Grundling, A. T.

    2009-05-01

    Knowledge of the long-term geomorphological dynamics of wetlands is limited, so currently there is an inadequate scientific basis for assessing anthropogenically induced changes and for developing conservation, remediation, and/or sustainable management guidelines for these fragile ecosystems. Along the upper Klip River, eastern South Africa, geomorphological and sedimentological investigations, geochronology, and remote sensing have been used to establish the late Quaternary dynamics of some internationally important floodplain wetlands, thus providing a reference condition against which to assess the extent of recent human impacts. Optically stimulated luminescence dating reveals that the wetlands have developed over at least the last 30 ky as a result of slow meander migration (< 0.2 m y - 1 ), irregular cutoff events, and infrequent avulsions (approximately one every 3-6 ky) that have occurred autogenically as a natural part of meander-belt development. Following European settlement in the Klip valley (late nineteenth century), however, modifications to local flora and fauna, as well as the initiation of local wetland drainage schemes, have had major impacts. In particular, proliferation of exotic willows and associated debris jams, and the artificial excavation of a 1.2-km-long channel section across the wetlands have initiated an ongoing avulsion that is characterised by failure (gradual abandonment) of the main channel and rapid incision of a headcutting channel. Compared to the pre-settlement condition, little change in lateral migration activity has occurred, but this avulsion provides a clear example of anthropogenically accelerated change, occurring only ~ 1 ky after the last natural avulsion and in a part of the wetlands where avulsions have not occurred previously. Subsequent human interventions have included installing weirs in an attempt to control the resulting erosion and promote reflooding, but ongoing maintenance has been required. In areas that

  16. Functional and Phylogenetic Relatedness in Temporary Wetland Invertebrates: Current Macroecological Patterns and Implications for Future Climatic Change Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Ruhí, Albert; Boix, Dani; Gascón, Stéphanie; Sala, Jordi; Batzer, Darold P.

    2013-01-01

    In freshwater ecosystems, species compositions are known to be determined hierarchically by large to small‑scale environmental factors, based on the biological traits of the organisms. However, in ephemeral habitats this heuristic framework remains largely untested. Although temporary wetland faunas are constrained by a local filter (i.e., desiccation), we propose its magnitude may still depend on large-scale climate characteristics. If this is true, climate should be related to the degree of functional and taxonomic relatedness of invertebrate communities inhabiting seasonal wetlands. We tested this hypothesis in two ways. First, based on 52 biological traits for invertebrates, we conducted a case study to explore functional trends among temperate seasonal wetlands differing in the harshness (i.e., dryness) of their dry season. After finding evidence of trait filtering, we addressed whether it could be generalized across a broader climatic scale. To this end, a meta-analysis (225 seasonal wetlands spread across broad climatic categories: Arid, Temperate, and Cold) allowed us to identify whether an equivalent climate-dependent pattern of trait richness was consistent between the Nearctic and the Western Palearctic. Functional overlap of invertebrates increased from mild (i.e., Temperate) to harsher climates (i.e., Arid and Cold), and phylogenetic clustering (using taxonomy as a surrogate) was highest in Arid and lowest in Temperate wetlands. We show that, (i) as has been described in streams, higher relatedness than would be expected by chance is generally observed in seasonal wetland invertebrate communities; and (ii) this relatedness is not constant but climate-dependent, with the climate under which a given seasonal wetland is located determining the functional overlap and the phylogenetic clustering of the community. Finally, using a space-for-time substitution approach we suggest our results may anticipate how the invertebrate biodiversity embedded in these

  17. Amphibian occurrence and aquatic invaders in a changing landscape: Implications for wetland mitigation in the Willamette Valley, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Adams, Michael J.; Leuthold, N.; Bury, R. Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Despite concern about the conservation status of amphibians in western North America, few field studies have documented occurrence patterns of amphibians relative to potential stressors. We surveyed wetland fauna in Oregon's Willamette Valley and used an information theoretic approach (AIC) to rank the associations between native amphibian breeding occurrence and wetland characteristics, non-native aquatic predators, and landscape characteristics in a mixed urban-agricultural landscape. Best predictors varied among the five native amphibians and were generally consistent with life history differences. Pacific tree frog (Pseudacris regilla) and long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) occurrence was best predicted by the absence of non-native fish. Northern red-legged frog (Rana a. aurora) and northwestern salamander (Ambystoma gracile) were most strongly related to wetland vegetative characteristics. The occurrence of rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa), a migratory species that makes extensive use of terrestrial habitats, was best predicted by greater forest cover within 1 km. The absence of non-native fish was a strong predictor of occurrence for four of the five native species. In contrast, amphibians were not strongly related to native fish presence. We found little evidence supporting negative effects of the presence of breeding populations of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) on any native species. Only the two Ambystoma salamanders were associated with wetland permanence. Northwestern salamanders (which usually have a multi-year larval stage) were associated with permanent waters, while long-toed salamanders were associated with temporary wetlands. Although all the species make some use of upland habitats, only one (rough-skinned newt) was strongly associated with surrounding landscape conditions. Instead, our analysis suggests that within-wetland characteristics best predict amphibian occurrence in this region. We recommend that wetland preservation and

  18. English in the Primary Classroom in Vietnam: Students' Lived Experiences and Their Social and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Lan Chi; Hamid, M. Obaidul; Renshaw, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Although the teaching of English as a foreign language in primary schools has emerged as one of the major language-in-education policy decisions, students' perspectives on primary English have received very little research attention. Drawing on data from a larger study, this paper depicts primary school students' lived experiences in the English…

  19. Pre-Service Education for Primary School English Teachers in Indonesia: Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zein, Subhan

    2016-01-01

    Although English is only an extra-curricular subject at primary level in Indonesia, expectations over the improved quality of the teachers are exceptionally high. This is the case in the past few years in which the low proficiency of primary English teachers and their lack of teaching competencies have repeatedly been pointed out as major…

  20. The Monitor Hypothesis and English Teachers in Botswana: Problems, Varieties and Implications for Language Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Ria; Kasule, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a brief investigation into what non-native English-speaking teachers (non-NESTs) perceive to be their difficulties with the English language. It was hypothesised that the confidence of such teachers, which affects the effectiveness with which they teach, would be low. Results from 15 randomly selected interviewees…

  1. English as an Object and Tool of Study in Classrooms: Interactional Effects and Pragmatic Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikula, Tarja

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses classroom discourse in Finnish EFL classrooms where English is the object of study and content-based (Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL)) classrooms where non-language subjects are taught in English. The students in both groups are Finnish teenagers. Approaching the data from a discourse-pragmatic perspective, the…

  2. Equitable Education of English Learners in the Common Core Age: Implications for Principal Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitenack, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights the importance of school principals in English Learners' academic achievement in the age of the Common Core State Standards. Revising the curriculum of administrator preparation programs to include a greater emphasis on curriculum and instruction is one approach to enhancing principal leadership for English Leaners. Another…

  3. Negative Concord in Child African American English: Implications for Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles-White, D'Jaris

    2004-01-01

    In this study, African American English (AAE)-speaking children's comprehension of 2 different types of double negative sentences was examined and contrasted with that of a comparison group of Standard American English (SAE)-speaking children. The first type of double negative, negative concord, involves 2 negative elements in a sentence that are…

  4. Contrast between Japanese and English Participant Identification: Its Implications for Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Senko K.

    1985-01-01

    Explores the surface structure observed in Japanese and English spontaneous oral narratives from the perspective of subject and theme. Although both the Japanese and the English narratives employ participant identification as a major cohesive ingredient, how referring forms are used and how they contribute to discourse organization differ. (SED)

  5. The Development of English as a Second Language with and without Specific Language Impairment: Clinical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradis, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research forum article is to provide an overview of typical and atypical development of English as a second language (L2) and to present strategies for clinical assessment with English language learners (ELLs). Method: A review of studies examining the lexical, morphological, narrative, and verbal memory abilities of…

  6. Learning through Standard English: Cognitive Implications for Post-Pidgin/-Creole Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    Despite their (albeit limited) access to Standard Australian English through education, Australian Indigenous communities have maintained their own dialect (Aboriginal English) for intragroup communication and are increasingly using it as a medium of cultural expression in the wider community. Most linguists agree that the most significant early…

  7. Japanese Media in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Sachiko Oda

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of English in the media in Japan, focusing on the role and history of English-language newspapers, radio, and television programs, as well as the proliferation of English-language films shown in Japanese cinemas. Discusses the implications of English in the Japanese media. (20 references) (MDM)

  8. Rapid Stable Isotope Turnover of Larval Fish in a Lake Superior Coastal Wetland: Implications for Diet and Life History Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trophic linkages of larval fish in Lake Superior coastal wetlands, rivers and embayments can be identified using naturally occurring differences in the stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (15N:14N, ?15N) and carbon (13C:12C, ?13C). We sampled pelagic fish larvae weekly during sprin...

  9. Variation of energy and carbon fluxes from a restored temperate freshwater wetland and implications for carbon market verification protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Frank E.; Bergamaschi, Brian; Sturtevant, Cove; Knox, Sara; Hastings, Lauren; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Detto, Matteo; Hestir, Erin L.; Drexler, Judith; Miller, Robin L.; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala; Verfaillie, Joseph; Baldocchi, Dennis; Snyder, Richard L.; Fujii, Roger

    2016-03-01

    Temperate freshwater wetlands are among the most productive terrestrial ecosystems, stimulating interest in using restored wetlands as biological carbon sequestration projects for greenhouse gas reduction programs. In this study, we used the eddy covariance technique to measure surface energy carbon fluxes from a constructed, impounded freshwater wetland during two annual periods that were 8 years apart: 2002-2003 and 2010-2011. During 2010-2011, we measured methane (CH4) fluxes to quantify the annual atmospheric carbon mass balance and its concomitant influence on global warming potential (GWP). Peak growing season fluxes of latent heat and carbon dioxide (CO2) were greater in 2002-2003 compared to 2010-2011. In 2002, the daily net ecosystem exchange reached as low as -10.6 g C m-2 d-1, which was greater than 3 times the magnitude observed in 2010 (-2.9 g C m-2 d-1). CH4 fluxes during 2010-2011 were positive throughout the year and followed a strong seasonal pattern, ranging from 38.1 mg C m-2 d-1 in the winter to 375.9 mg C m-2 d-1 during the summer. The results of this study suggest that the wetland had reduced gross ecosystem productivity in 2010-2011, likely due to the increase in dead plant biomass (standing litter) that inhibited the generation of new vegetation growth. In 2010-2011, there was a net positive GWP (675.3 g C m-2 yr-1), and when these values are evaluated as a sustained flux, the wetland will not reach radiative balance even after 500 years.

  10. Variation of energy and carbon fluxes from a restored temperate freshwater wetland and implications for carbon market verification protocols

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Frank; Bergamaschi, Brian; Sturtevant, Cove; Knox, Sarah; Hastings, Lauren; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Detto, Matteo; Hestir, Erin L.; Drexler, Judith; Miller, Robin L.; Matthes, Jaclyn; Verfaillie, Joseph; Baldocchi, Dennis; Snyder, Richard L.; Fujii, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Temperate freshwater wetlands are among the most productive terrestrial ecosystems, stimulating interest in using restored wetlands as biological carbon sequestration projects for greenhouse gas reduction programs. In this study, we used the eddy covariance technique to measure surface energy carbon fluxes from a constructed, impounded freshwater wetland during two annual periods that were 8 years apart: 2002–2003 and 2010–2011. During 2010–2011, we measured methane (CH4) fluxes to quantify the annual atmospheric carbon mass balance and its concomitant influence on global warming potential (GWP). Peak growing season fluxes of latent heat and carbon dioxide (CO2) were greater in 2002–2003 compared to 2010–2011. In 2002, the daily net ecosystem exchange reached as low as −10.6 g C m−2 d−1, which was greater than 3 times the magnitude observed in 2010 (−2.9 g C m−2 d−1). CH4 fluxes during 2010–2011 were positive throughout the year and followed a strong seasonal pattern, ranging from 38.1 mg C m−2 d−1 in the winter to 375.9 mg C m−2 d−1 during the summer. The results of this study suggest that the wetland had reduced gross ecosystem productivity in 2010–2011, likely due to the increase in dead plant biomass (standing litter) that inhibited the generation of new vegetation growth. In 2010–2011, there was a net positive GWP (675.3 g C m−2 yr−1), and when these values are evaluated as a sustained flux, the wetland will not reach radiative balance even after 500 years.

  11. Nitrous oxide exchanges with the atmosphere of a constructed wetland treating wastewater. Parameters and implications for emission factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, A. E.; Kasimir Klemedtsson, Å.; Klemedtsson, L.; Svensson, B. H.

    2003-07-01

    Static chamber measurements of N2O fluxes were taken during the 1998 and 1999 growth seasons in a Swedish constructed wetland receiving wastewater. The dominating plant species in different parts of the wetland were Lemna minor L., Typha latifolia L., Spirogyra sp. and Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) and Phalaris arundinacea (L.), respectively. There were large temporal and spatial variations in N2O fluxes, which ranged from consumption at -350 to emissions at 1791 μg N2O m-2 h-1. The largest positive flux occurred in October 1999 and the lowest in the middle of July 1999. The average N2O flux for the two years was 130 μg N2O m-2 h-1 (SD = 220). No significant differences in N2O fluxes were found between the years, even though the two growing seasons differed considerably with respect to both air temperature and precipitation. 15% of the fluxes were negative, showing a consumption of N2O. Consumption occurred on a few occasions at most measurement sites and ranged from 1-350 μg N2O m-2 h-1. 13-43% of the variation in N2O fluxes was explained by multiple linear regression analysis including principal components. Emission factors were calculated according to IPCC methods from the N2O fluxes in the constructed wetland. The calculated emission factors were always lower (0.02-0.27%) compared to the default factor provided by the IPCC (0.75%). Thus, direct application of the IPCC default factor may lead to overestimation of N2O fluxes from constructed wastewater-treating wetlands.

  12. English Vocabulary Instruction for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyak, Patrick C.; Bauer, Eurydice Bouchereau

    2009-01-01

    In this column Manyak and Bauer summarize key research addressing the English vocabulary development of English learners (ELs) and distill implications for instructional practice. First, the authors discuss several key studies that demonstrate the limitation of many ELs' English vocabulary knowledge and the negative impact of this limitation on…

  13. Promoting College Access among Latina/o English Language Learners: Implications for Professional School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Amy L.; Pérusse, Rachelle; Rojas, Eliana D.

    2015-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Education (2010), Latina/o English language learners (ELL students) are less likely to complete high school and attend college compared to their White non-Latina/o peers. Numerous factors affect Latina/o ELL students' academic achievement, including insufficient resources, acculturation issues, attitudinal…

  14. No ESL in English Schools: Language Policy in Quebec and Implications for TESL Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winer, Lise

    2007-01-01

    In this article, various aspects of official language policy in Quebec are seen as interacting with contested and contesting ideologies, as experienced by novice teachers in teaching English as a second or other language within the majority French school system. The context of TESL training in Quebec is described, focusing on legislative policy…

  15. Alignment of Standards, Assessment and Instruction: Implications for English Language Learners in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamud, Abdinur; Fleck, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the process and development of English Language Proficiency (ELP) standards and assessment in Ohio and to discuss issues related to alignment. The article addresses the importance of alignment among standards, instruction, and assessment, as well as the effect of alignment on students' academic…

  16. Neutral, Colluding or Subversive? Recognizing the Political Implications of the Marketing Subdiscourses in English Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Helen

    2001-01-01

    The marketing discourse pervading the restructured English public higher-education sector has several subdiscourses characterized as neutral (common-sensical), collusive (reinforcing the existing market system), or subversive. The third (postmodernist) discourse envisions marketing as a means of overturning tradition and allowing students to…

  17. The Transition to College of English Learner and Undocumented Immigrant Students: Resource and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Gloria M.; Cruz, Lisceth

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: The analysis contained in this article was commissioned by the Social Science Research Council's Transitions to College project. Although the historical context and contemporary issues associated with English learners (ELs) and undocumented immigrant students are in many ways distinct, the project team strongly believed that…

  18. Analogical Transfer by Spanish-English Bilinguals: Implications for Educational and Employment Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukumine, Eri; Kennison, Shelia M.

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigated analogical transfer during problem solving by bilinguals. In a study with 50 Spanish-English bilinguals, participants solved a target problem whose solution was similar to that of a preceding source problem. The source problem was always presented in the 2nd language; the target problem was always presented in the…

  19. The Most Frequently Used Spoken American English Idioms: A Corpus Analysis and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dilin

    2003-01-01

    Most teaching and reference materials on English idioms are primarily intuition based. As such, they often include seldom-used idioms and incorrect descriptions of the meaning and use of some idioms, hence limiting their usefulness to ESOL students. This article demonstrates how this problem can be addressed through a corpus-based study of the…

  20. The Use of Video Self-Modeling with English Language Learners: Implications for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Jennifer; Burlingame, Cheryl; Onuegbulem, Cybeles; Yoshikawa, Koichi; Rojas, Eliana D.

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of video self-modeling (VSM) to improve reading fluency for English language learners (ELLs) is explored. A review of the literature demonstrates the success of VSM in improving non-ELL students' fluency. Preliminary research with culturally and linguistically diverse students implies that the intervention can be equally effective…

  1. "The Babel Myth": The English-Only Movement and Its Implications for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Ingrid

    1992-01-01

    Discusses attempts to make English the official language of the United States, examines the pros and cons, and describes the impact of these efforts on libraries. An example at the Monterey Park Public Library (California) is examined; meeting the needs of all members of the community is addressed; and possible future outlooks are suggested. (four…

  2. Conjunctive Cohesion in English Language EU Documents--A Corpus-Based Analysis and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trebits, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study which forms part of a larger-scale research project investigating the use of English in the documents of the European Union (EU). The documents of the EU show various features of texts written for legal, business and other specific purposes. Moreover, the translation services of the EU institutions often…

  3. The Politics of ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages): Implications for Citizenship and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Christine; Starkey, Hugh; Green, Andy

    2010-01-01

    A number of countries in Europe, including the UK, have adopted language and citizenship tests or courses as a requirement for granting citizenship to immigrants. To acquire citizenship, immigrants to the UK must pass a test on British society and culture, or demonstrate progress in the English language. For those with an insufficient command of…

  4. Ethnic Identity and Acculturation of English as Second Language Learners: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado, Jose M.; Kushner, Jason D.; Barr, Jason; Korz, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Ethnic identity and acculturation are significant issues of English as Second Language students in the intermediate grades. Research has encompassed acculturation and ethnic identity as two distinct elements that differentiate particular ethnic groups. The present study investigates acculturation and ethnic identity and their correlation across…

  5. Mathematics, Power, and Language: Implications from Lived Experiences to Empower English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uribe-Flórez, Lida J.; Araujo, Blanca; Franzak, Mark; Haynes Writer, Jeanette

    2014-01-01

    Because the English learners' (ELs) population is growing in the United States, teacher candidates should be provided with experiences that prepare them to effectively teach and empower linguistically/culturally diverse students. Teacher candidates should be provided with opportunities to learn skills that engage ELs in mathematics. In this…

  6. "Bearing Down" on Student Non-Completion: Implications and Consequences for English Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longden, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    This article traces recent policy developments relating to full-time undergraduate student retention within the English higher education system. It focuses specifically on the changing government policies and strategies designed to influence institutional behavior to promote widening participation while attending to the student experience and…

  7. A Comparative Study of English and Spanish Vowel Systems: Theoretical and Practical Implications for Teaching Pronunciation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odisho, Edward Y.

    A study examines two major types of vowel systems in languages, centripetal and centrifugal. English is associated with the centripetal system, in which vowel quality and quantity (rhythm) are heavily influenced by stress. In this system, vowels have a strong tendency to move toward the center of the vowel area. Spanish is associated with the…

  8. English by Radio: Implications for Non-Formal Language Education. Occasional Paper #12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhoof, Maurice; And Others

    A 5-year research and development program, known as the Radio Language Arts Project (RLAP), was conducted in Kenya to develop, implement, and test the effectiveness of an instructional system that uses radio to teach English as a foreign language in the first three grades of primary school. The initial project year was spent in establishing and…

  9. Complex Text and New Common Standards in the United States: Pedagogical Implications for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, George C.; Walqui, Aída; Pearson, P. David

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, new common state standards in English language arts and disciplinary literacy require K-12 students to "read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently." Issues of text complexity have spurred debates in the mainstream literacy, educational practice, and policy…

  10. Train-borne Measurements of Enhanced Wet Season Methane Emissions in Northern Australia - Implications for Australian Tropical Wetland Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutscher, N. M.; Griffith, D. W.; Paton-Walsh, C.

    2008-12-01

    We present the first transect measurements of CH4, CO2, CO and N2O taken on the Ghan railway travelling on a N-S transect of the Australian continent between Adelaide (34.9°S, 138.6°E) and Darwin (12.5°S, 130.9°E). The Ghan crosses Australia from the mainly agricultural mid-latitude south through the arid interior to the wet-dry tropical savannah south of and around Darwin. In the 2008 wet season (February) we observed a significant latitudinal gradient of CH4 increasing towards the north. The same pattern was observed in the late 2008 wet season (March-April), with a smaller latitudinal gradient. These will be compared with a dry season transect, to be undertaken in September/October 2008. The Air Pollution Model (TAPM), a regional scale prognostic meteorological model, is used to estimate the surface methane source strength required to explain the observed latitudinal gradient in CH4 in the wet season, and investigate the source type. Fluxes from cattle and termites together contribute up to 25% of the enhancements seen, leaving wetlands as the major source of wet season methane in the Australian tropics. Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane to the atmosphere, and tropical wetlands are responsible for the majority of the interannual variation in methane source strength. We attempt to quantify the annual methane flux contributed by anaerobic organic breakdown due to wet- season flooding in tropical Northern Territory.

  11. INFLUENCES OF LANDSCAPE CONTEXT, HYDROLOGY, AND NON-NATIVE SPECIES ON WETLAND FAUNAL COMMUNITIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR REGIONAL CONSERVATION AND MITIGATION PRACTICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two main issues affecting wetland fauna appear to be spacial arrangement of wetlands and widespread changes in wetland hydrology at the landscape context. EPA-ORD and the USGS in Corvalis are conducting field surveys, laboratory trials, enclosure experiments, and spatiall...

  12. Freshwater Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides descriptions about freshwater wetlands, such as marshes, swamps, and bogs. Contains three learning activities which deal with unusual wetland plants, the animals and plants in a typical marsh, and the effects of a draught on a swamp. Included are reproducible handouts and worksheets for two of the activities. (TW)

  13. Rapid wetland expansion during European settlement and its implication for marsh survival under modern sediment delivery rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirwan, Matthew L.; Murray, A. Brad; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Corbett, D. Reide

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in sea-level rise rates are thought to dominate the formation and evolution of coastal wetlands. Here we demonstrate a contrasting scenario in which land-use-related changes in sediment delivery rates drive the formation of expansive marshland, and vegetation feedbacks maintain their morphology despite recent sediment supply reduction. Stratigraphic analysis and radiocarbon dating in the Plum Island Estuary (Massachusetts, United States) suggest that salt marshes expanded rapidly during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries due to increased rates of sediment delivery following deforestation associated with European settlement. Numerical modeling coupled with the stratigraphic observations suggests that existing marshland could survive, but not form under the low suspended sediment concentrations observed in the estuary today. These results suggest that many of the expansive marshes that characterize the modern North American coast are metastable relicts of high nineteenth century sediment delivery rates, and that recent observations of degradation may represent a slow return to pre-settlement marsh extent. In contrast to ecosystem management practices in which restoring pre-anthropogenic conditions is seen as a way to increase ecosystem services, our results suggest that widespread efforts to restore valuable coastal wetlands actually prevent some systems from returning to a natural state.

  14. [Sedimentological Implications of the change in the coverage of mangrove forest in Boca Zacate, Térraba-Sierpa National Wetlands, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Silva Benavides, Ana Margarita; Picado Barboza, Jorge; Mora Rodríguez, Fernando; González Gairaud, Carmen

    2015-09-01

    In the last sixty years many geomorphological changes have occurred in Costa Rica's Térraba-Sierpe National Wetlands. Changes in coastal geomorphology are generally associated with erosion or accretion of sediment, which has led to the removal of sections of mangrove forests or sediment banks colonized by mangroves. The aim of this study was to analyze sedimentation as a leading process in the dynamics of coastal morphology and its implications for mangrove forest cover in the Boca Zacate area of Térraba-Sierpe wetlands. The study was conducted in the sectors of Bocón, Brujo and Coco Island in Boca Zacate, from 2008 to 2013. The research was based on a multi-temporal analysis of coastal morphology using aerial photographs from the years 1948, 1960, 1974, 1978, 1984, 1992 and 2011. The following measurements were also performed: monthly sedimentation rate (g/cm2/day), and granulometric composition and content of chemical elements in the sediments of the study area. These last two measurements were performed once each in the dry and rainy seasons during the years of study. The results indicated that over the past 60 years, Boca Zacate has witnessed a process of sustained erosion; from 1948 through 2001, losing 10.6 % of its land and approximately 8.9 % of its forest cover. It has also experienced accretion in the area of Coco Island. The Brujo sector showed the highest sedimentation rate and the Camibar estuary, the lowest. The dominant type of sediment in all study sites was sand, followed by clay and silt. The most widespread chemical elements (mg/L) included magnesium, calcium and potassium; others, such as manganese, iron, aluminum, phosphorus, zinc and copper, were measured in smaller amounts. Transport, composition and quantity of sediment in Boca Zacate are crucial to the changes that have occurred on the coastal area of La Boca, where the presence of dead trees was evident. This geomorphological analysis holds great importance for future guidelines and

  15. Hydraulic Geometry and Microtopography of Tidal Freshwater Forested Wetlands and Implications for Restoration, Columbia River, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Coleman, Andre M.; Borde, Amy B.; Sinks, Ian A.

    2008-01-01

    The hydrologic reconnection of tidal channels, riverine floodplains, and main stem channels are among responses by ecological restoration practitioners to the increasing fragmentation and land conversion occurring in coastal and riparian zones. Design standards and monitoring of such ecological restoration depend upon the characterization of reference sites that vary within and among regions. Few locales, such as the 235 km tidal portion of the Columbia River on the West Coast U.S.A., remain in which the reference conditions and restoration responses of tidal freshwater forested wetlands on temperate zone large river floodplains can be compared. This study developed hydraulic geometry relationships for Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce) dominated tidal forests (swamps) in the vicinity of Grays Bay on the Columbia River some 37 km from the Pacific Coast using field surveys and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. Scaling relationships between catchment area and the parameters of channel cross-sectional area at outlet and total channel length were comparable to tidally influenced systems of San Francisco Bay and the United Kingdom. Dike breaching, culvert replacement, and tide gate replacement all affected channel cross-sectional geometry through changes in the frequency of over-marsh flows. Radiocarbon dating of buried wood provided evidence of changes in sedimentation rates associated with diking, and restoration trajectories may be confounded by historical subsidence behind dikes rendering topographical relationships with water level incomparable to reference conditions. At the same time, buried wood is influencing the development of channel morphology toward characteristics resembling reference conditions. Ecological restoration goals and practices in tidal forested wetland regions of large river floodplains should reflect the interactions of these controlling factors.

  16. Negative concord in child African American English: implications for specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Coles-White, D'Jaris

    2004-02-01

    In this study, African American English (AAE)-speaking children's comprehension of 2 different types of double negative sentences was examined and contrasted with that of a comparison group of Standard American English (SAE)-speaking children. The first type of double negative, negative concord, involves 2 negative elements in a sentence that are interpreted together as single negation. The second type of double negative, called true double negation, involves 2 negatives that are interpreted as independent negatives. A cross-sectional cohort of 61 (35 AAE, 26 SAE) typically developing children ranging in age from 5;2 (years;months) to 7;11 participated. The children responded to story-based grammatical judgment tasks that required them to differentiate between negative concord and true double negation. Results revealed no statistically significant differences between AAE- and SAE-speaking children in the way they interpreted negative concord and true double negation. However, there were significantly more correct responses to negative concord sentences across combined groups. In particular, the older children (i.e., 7-year-olds) produced more correct responses to negative concord than did the younger group (i.e., 5-year-olds). Explanations for these findings are framed in terms of children's knowledge about sentences with 2 negatives, the constraints affecting the interpretation of 2 negatives that include negative concord, and the clinical importance of negative concord for assessing specific language impairment in child AAE speakers. PMID:15072540

  17. Zambia Wetland

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) illustrate surface changes to the wetlands and other surfaces in central Zambia resulting from an unusually lengthy wet season. The Kafue Flats appear relatively dry on July 19, 2003 (upper images), ...

  18. Forested wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Lugo, A.E.; Brinson, M.; Brown, S.

    1990-01-01

    Forested wetlands have important roles in global biogeochemical cycles, supporting freshwater and saltwater commercial fisheries, and in providing a place for wildlife of all kinds to flourish. Scientific attention towards these ecosystems has lagged with only a few comprehensive works on forested wetlands of the world. A major emphasis of this book is to develop unifying principles and data bases on the structure and function of forested wetlands, in order to stimulate scientific study of them. Wetlands are areas that are inundated or saturated by surface-water or ground-water, at such a frequency and duration that under natural conditions they support organisms adapted to poorly aerated and/or saturated soil. The strategy of classifying the conditions that control the structure and behavior of forested wetlands by assuming that the physiognomy and floristic composition of the system will reflect the total energy expenditure of the ecosystem; and the structural and functional characteristics of forested wetlands from different parts of the world are the major topics covered.

  19. What Makes a Wetland a Wetland?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides descriptions of and activities about various kinds of wetlands. Contains seven learning activities ranging from creating wetland scenes with picture cutouts to actually exploring a wetland. Includes reproducible handouts and worksheets for several of the activities. (TW)

  20. Community structure of fishes inhabiting aquatic refuges in a threatened Karst wetland and its implications for ecosystem management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kobza, Robert M.; Trexler, J.C.; Loftus, W.F.; Perry, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    We illustrate the importance of subsurface refuges for conservation of aquatic fauna with our studies of karstic wetlands in Everglades National Park, Florida, USA. Managers have proposed that water levels there should not fall more than 46 cm below ground level for more than 90 days annually. In four areas, 84% of solution holes were less than 46 cm deep and holes deeper than lm were rare (<3 km-2). Null-model analysis indicated no "structure" in the solution-hole fish communities early in the dry season, but that structure emerged as drying progressed. Native cyprinodontiforms were abundant in shallow solution holes that dry annually under current management, while predatory species (often non-native) tended to dominate deeper holes. Water quality was correlated with hole volume and with composition of late dry-season fish communities. Tremendous losses of fish biomass occurred when water levels fell below 46 cm from ground surface. Most native taxa were unlikely to survive in the deep refuges that held predatory non-native taxa. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Intraspecific variation in growth of marsh macrophytes in response to salinity and soil type: Implications for wetland restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic diversity within plant populations can influence plant community structure along environmental gradients. In wetland habitats, salinity and soil type are factors that can vary along gradients and therefore affect plant growth. To test for intraspecific growth variation in response to these factors, a greenhouse study was conducted using common plants that occur in northern Gulf of Mexico brackish and salt marshes. Individual plants of Distichlis spicata, Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus californicus, and Schoenoplectus robustus were collected from several locations along the coast in Louisiana, USA. Plant identity, based on collection location, was used as a measure of intraspecific variability. Prepared soil mixtures were organic, silt, or clay, and salinity treatments were 0 or 18 psu. Significant intraspecific variation in stem number, total stem height, or biomass was found in all species. Within species, response to soil type varied, but increased salinity significantly decreased growth in all individuals. Findings indicate that inclusion of multiple genets within species is an important consideration for marsh restoration projects that include vegetation plantings. This strategy will facilitate establishment of plant communities that have the flexibility to adapt to changing environmental conditions and, therefore, are capable of persisting over time. ?? Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation 2009.

  2. The Most Frequent Phrasal Verbs in English Language EU Documents--A Corpus-Based Analysis and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trebits, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the use of phrasal verbs in English language documents of the European Union (EU) as part of a larger-scale project examining the use of English in EU texts from various aspects including lexical, lexico-grammatical and textual features. Phrasal verbs, known to represent one of the most difficult aspects of learning English,…

  3. A phonemic implicational feature hierarchy of phonological contrasts for English-speaking children.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Stephanie F; Klee, Thomas; Carson, Cecyle Perry; Carson, David

    2005-08-01

    Contrastive feature hierarchies have been developed and used for some time in depicting typical phonological development and in guiding therapy decisions. Previous descriptions of feature use have been based on independent analyses and usually phonetic inventories. However, recent trends in phonology include a relational analysis of phonemic inventories (D. Ingram & K. D. Ingram, 2001). The current investigation was a relational analysis of the phonemic inventories of 40 typically developing 2-year-old American-English-speaking children. Consonant inventories were derived from spontaneous speech samples using the Logical International Phonetics Programs computer software (D. K. Oller & R. E. Delgado, 1999). Cluster analysis was used to determine the grouping of contrastive features. Four levels emerged. Level I included [consonant], [sonorant], and [coronal], Level II included [voice], Level III included [anterior], [continuant], and [nasal], and Level IV included [lateral] and [strident]. Results suggested that the resulting 4-level phonemic feature hierarchy might be used to classify the phonological systems of children with phonological disorders. PMID:16378476

  4. Spatiotemporal patterns of wetland occurrence in the prairie pothole region of eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kahara, S.N.; Mockler, R.M.; Higgins, K.F.; Chipps, S.R.; Johnson, R.R.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated changes in wetland abundance, size, and classification between average (19791986) and above-average (19951999) precipitation periods for two physiographic regions in eastern South Dakota. Temporal shifts in wetland numbers, area, and class varied by topographic location. In high wetland density areas (> 8 wetlands/100 ha), our data suggests that larger, semipermanent wetlands expanded and absorbed nearby wetland basins into their margins, resulting in a net "loss" or disappearance of temporary and seasonal wetlands in above-average water condition years. "Losses" described here are not deemed permanent as in cases of draining or filling, and wetlands may re-form when water conditions return to normal. Nevertheless, temporary disappearance of smaller more isolated wetlands may have implications for breeding waterfowl and other fauna. Percent change of semipermanent basin numbers was positively correlated with wetland density, whereas the opposite was true for seasonal wetlands. Loss of temporary wetlands was correlated with wetland aggregation within the sample area. However, in low wetland density areas, the number and size of seasonal and temporary wetlands generally increased following above-average precipitation. We suggest that wetlands' spatial arrangement be considered along with traditional wetland quantification techniques to better account for shifts in wetland habitat in dry versus wet years. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  5. Acquisition of the stop-spirant alternation in bilingual Mexican Spanish-English speaking children: theoretical and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Oglivie, Trianna; Maiefski, Olivia; Schertz, Jessamyn

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics of typical acquisition of the Mexican Spanish stop-spirant alternation in bilingual Spanish-English speaking children and to shed light on the theoretical debate over which sound is the underlying form in the stop-spirant allophonic relationship. We predicted that bilingual children would acquire knowledge of this allophonic relationship by the time they reach age 5;0 (years;months) and would demonstrate higher accuracy on the spirants, indicating their role as the underlying phoneme. This quasi-longitudinal study examined children's single word samples in Spanish from ages 2;4-8;2. Samples were phonetically transcribed and analyzed for accuracy, substitution errors and acoustically for intensity ratios. Bilingual children demonstrated overall higher accuracy on the voiced stops as compared to the spirants. Differences in substitution errors across ages were found and acoustic analyses corroborated perceptual findings. The clinical implication of this research is that bilingual children may be in danger of overdiagnosis of speech sound disorders because acquisition of this allophonic rule in bilinguals appears to differ from what has been found in previous studies examining monolingual Spanish speakers. PMID:25118791

  6. Acquisition of the stop-spirant alternation in bilingual Mexican Spanish–English speaking children: Theoretical and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Oglivie, Trianna; Maiefski, Olivia; Schertz, Jessamyn

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics of typical acquisition of the Mexican Spanish stop-spirant alternation in bilingual Spanish–English speaking children and to shed light on the theoretical debate over which sound is the underlying form in the stop-spirant allophonic relationship. We predicted that bilingual children would acquire knowledge of this allophonic relationship by the time they reach age 5;0 (years;months) and would demonstrate higher accuracy on the spirants, indicating their role as the underlying phoneme. This quasi-longitudinal study examined children’s single word samples in Spanish from ages 2;4–8;2. Samples were phonetically transcribed and analyzed for accuracy, substitution errors and acoustically for intensity ratios. Bilingual children demonstrated overall higher accuracy on the voiced stops as compared to the spirants. Differences in substitution errors across ages were found and acoustic analyses corroborated perceptual findings. The clinical implication of this research is that bilingual children may be in danger of overdiagnosis of speech sound disorders because acquisition of this allophonic rule in bilinguals appears to differ from what has been found in previous studies examining monolingual Spanish speakers. PMID:25118791

  7. Temporal and spatial variability in water quality of wetlands in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolitan area: Implications for monitoring strategies and designs.

    PubMed

    Detenbeck, N E; Taylor, D L; Lima, A; Hagley, C

    1996-03-01

    Temporal and spatial variability in wetland water-quality variables were examined for twenty-one wetlands in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area and eighteen wetlands in adjacent Wright County. Wetland water quality was significantly affected by contact with the sediment (surface water vs. groundwater), season, degree of hydrologic isolation, wetland class, and predominant land-use in the surrounding watershed (p<0.05). Between years, only nitrate and particulate nitrogen concentrations varied significantly in Wright County wetland surface waters. For eight water-quality variables, the power of a paired before-and-after comparison design was greater than the power of a completely randomized design. The reverse was true for four other water-quality variables. The power of statistical tests for different classes of water-quality variables could be ranked according to the predominant factors influencing these: climate factors>edaphic factors>detritivory>land-use factors>biotic-redox or other multiple factors.For two wetlands sampled intensively, soluble reactive phosphate and total dissolved phosphorus were the most spatially variable (c.v.=76-249%), while temperature, color, dissolved organic carbon, and DO were least variable (c.v.=6-43%). Geostatistical analyses demonstrated that the average distance across which water-quality variables were spatially correlated (variogram range) was 61-112% of the mean radius of each wetland. Within the shallower of the two wetlands, nitrogen speciation was explained as a function of dissolved oxygen, while deeper marsh water-quality variables were explained as a function of water depth or distance from the wetland edge. Compositing water-quality samples produced unbiased estimates of individual sample means for all water quality variables examined except for ammonium. PMID:24198069

  8. Wetlands ecology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R. (Principal Investigator); Carter, V. L.; Mcginness, J. W., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The ERTS imagery analyzed provides approximately 2/3 coverage of the test site. Analysis was made using visual methods, density slicing, and multispectral analysis. Preliminary conclusions reached are that most, if not all, of the investigation objectives can be met. Saline and near-saline wetlands can be delineated from ERTS-1 images as the wetland-upland boundaries and land-water interface are clearly defined. Major plant species or communities such as Spartina alterniflora (high and low vigor forms), Spartina patens/Distichlis spicata, and Juncus roemarianus can be discriminated and spoil disposal areas identified.

  9. Inland Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Area Cooperative Educational Services, New Haven, CT. Environmental Education Center.

    This material includes student guide sheets, reference materials, and tape script for the audio-tutorial unit on Inland Wetlands. A set of 35mm slides and an audio tape are used with the material. The material is designed for use with Connecticut schools, but it can be adapted to other localities. The materials emphasize characteristics of inland…

  10. Coastal Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Area Cooperative Educational Services, New Haven, CT. Environmental Education Center.

    This material includes student guide sheets, reference materials, and tape script for the audio-tutorial unit on Inland Wetlands. A set of 35mm slides and an audio tape are used with the materials. The material is designed for use with Connecticut schools, but it can be adapted to other localities. The unit materials emphasize the structure,…

  11. Saltwater Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides information about saltwater wetlands. Contains seven learning activities which deal with "making" a mud snail, plants and animals of mangroves, and the effects of tides on salt marshes. Included are reproducible handouts and worksheets for several of the activities. (TW)

  12. Riparian Wetlands: Mapping

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian wetlands are critical systems that perform functions and provide services disproportionate to their extent in the landscape. Mapping wetlands allows for better planning, management, and modeling, but riparian wetlands present several challenges to effective mapping due t...

  13. Our Valuable Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    1988-01-01

    Defines wetlands and lists several types of wetland habitat. Describes explorations that can be done with secondary school students including the baby boom, a food pyramid, and microenvironments. Includes a classroom poster with text on the variety of wetlands. (CW)

  14. The Academic and Social-Emotional Needs of Secondary Latino English Learners: Implications for Screening, Identification, and Instructional Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Olivo, Sara M.; Preciado, Jorge A.; Sanford, Amanda K.; Perry, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Nationwide statistics show that English Learners in grades 6-12 are often among the lowest performing students in all academic areas and have some of the highest rates of dropout. Their academic deficiencies are usually attributed to their limited English language proficiency, often ignoring the social-emotional, behavioral, and cognitive problems…

  15. English-Language Learners: Implications of Limited Vocabulary for Cross-Language Transfer of Phonemic Awareness with Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwill, Kim; Blanchard, Jay; Christie, James; Gorin, Joanna S.; Garcia, Herman S.

    2010-01-01

    Research examined the influence of native vocabulary development on cross-language transfer of phonemic awareness. Participants were Spanish-speaking kindergartners learning English in immersion classrooms. Results indicated that limited Spanish vocabulary development negatively influenced cross-language transfer of phonemic awareness to English.…

  16. Designing Email Tasks for the Business English Classroom: Implications from a Study of Hong Kong's Key Industries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Email has revolutionised the way in which professionals work and companies operate, and yet has received surprisingly little scholarly attention in English for Specific Purposes and has an unexpectedly muted presence in many Business English textbooks. The dearth of research into email use in globalised business settings may be one of the factors…

  17. Language Ideologies: Critical Perspectives on the Official English Movement. Volume 1: Education and the Social Implications of Official Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Roseann Duenas, Ed.

    This collection of essays addresses the complicated and divisive issues at the heart of the debate over language diversity and the English Only movement in United States public education. Blending social, political, and legal analyses of the ideologies of language with perspectives on the impact of the English Only movement on education and in…

  18. Foreword: function, classification and management of Asian wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turnipseed, D. Phil; Middleton, Beth A.

    2014-01-01

    Asian wetland conservation is critical for future environmental protection in the region, but these wetlands are understudied. In particular, there is a lack of research studies published in English due to the limited access of Asian researchers to western scientific journals. This special feature of Wetlands showcases primary research conducted in Asian wetlands and was sponsored by various agencies of the U.S. and Chinese governments including the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of State, and The State Forestry Administration of the People’s Republic of China. The featured articles should be of great value to wetland scientists, managers and policy-makers with an interest in the conservation of Asian wetlands.

  19. Whose English Counts? Native Speakers as English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grill, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The author, a teacher educator, explains that because of a lack of training in language studies, many teachers do not view language as linguists do. She identifies three misconceptions (and the implications they have for English language learners) that still persist in education: Standard English is the best and most correct form of English,…

  20. Quantifying Wetland Dynamics and Hydrologic Function with Landsat Thematic Mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rover, J. A.; Wright, C.; Wylie, B. K.; Euliss, N. H.

    2007-12-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America spans the glaciated prairies from Alberta, Canada, to central Iowa. The region contains hundreds of thousands of wetlands that provide habitat for an estimated 50 to 80 percent of North America's waterfowl. The composition of species that use the PPR are a function of wetland water chemistry. The water chemistry is driven by wetland functional processes that determine hydrogeochemical interactions of surface water, ground water, and their connectivity to other wetlands. As wetlands cycle from drought to deluge, significant surface water fluctuations can alter water chemistry and hydroperiods, influencing the composition of wetland communities. We quantified these temporal water dynamics with Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery, spanning a 17-year period during a drought-deluge cycle. Using clustering techniques, we grouped wetlands based on their functional responses to climate and quantified the traits of each cluster. We found that wetlands receiving groundwater discharge respond very differently to climatic shifts than wetlands functioning as recharge basins. In addition, wetlands with closed basins are less dynamic than wetlands located in open basins. Accuracies of the initial classification ranged from 75 to 100 percent. This study offers the first insight into wetland dynamics at a regional scale with implications for modeling biogeochemistry and ecosystem services across the PPR. Although this method was developed in the Missouri Coteau and nearby drift plains of the PPR, we believe this technique is applicable to other regions.

  1. Ecosystem level methane fluxes from tidal freshwater and brackish marshes of the Mississippi River Delta: Implications for coastal wetland carbon projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holm, Guerry O.; Perez, Brian C.; McWhorter, David E.; Krauss, Ken W.; Johnson, Darren J.; Raynie, Richard C.; Killebrew, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfate from seawater inhibits methane production in tidal wetlands, and by extension, salinity has been used as a general predictor of methane emissions. With the need to reduce methane flux uncertainties from tidal wetlands, eddy covariance (EC) techniques provide an integrated methane budget. The goals of this study were to: 1) establish methane emissions from natural, freshwater and brackish wetlands in Louisiana based on EC; and 2) determine if EC estimates conform to a methane-salinity relationship derived from temperate tidal wetlands with chamber sampling. Annual estimates of methane emissions from this study were 62.3 g CH4/m2/yr and 13.8 g CH4/m2/yr for the freshwater and brackish (8–10 psu) sites, respectively. If it is assumed that long-term, annual soil carbon sequestration rates of natural marshes are ~200 g C/m2/yr (7.3 tCO2e/ha/yr), healthy brackish marshes could be expected to act as a net radiative sink, equivalent to less than one-half the soil carbon accumulation rate after subtracting methane emissions (4.1 tCO2e/ha/yr). Carbon sequestration rates would need case-by-case assessment, but the EC methane emissions estimates in this study conformed well to an existing salinity-methane model that should serve as a basis for establishing emission factors for wetland carbon offset projects.

  2. Plain English in Corporate Disclosures: Review and Implications for Consumers, Producers, and the Free-Market System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Rhonda

    2000-01-01

    Considers how the Internet is revolutionizing the investment world and how the Securities and Exchange Commission recently passed a rule requiring businesses to use plain English to try and rid disclosures of their traditionally complex and ambiguous language. (SC)

  3. Discrepancies between bilinguals' performance on the Spanish and English versions of the WAIS Digit Span task: Cross-cultural implications.

    PubMed

    López, Enrique; Steiner, Alexander J; Hardy, David J; IsHak, Waguih W; Anderson, W Brantley

    2016-01-01

    This study explored within-subjects differences in the performance of 40 bilingual participants on the English and Spanish versions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Digit Span task. To test the linguistic hypothesis that individuals would perform worse in Spanish because of its syllabic demand, we compared the number of syllables correctly recalled by each participant for every correct trial. Our analysis of the correct number of syllables remembered per trial showed that participants performed significantly better (i.e., recalling more syllables) in Spanish than in English on the total score. Findings suggest the Spanish version of the Digit Span (total score) was significantly more difficult than the English version utilizing traditional scoring methods. Moreover, the Forward Trial, rather than the Backward Trial, was more likely to show group differences between both language versions. Additionally, the Spanish trials of the Digit Span were correlated with language comprehension and verbal episodic memory measures, whereas the English trials of the Digit Span were correlated with confrontational naming and verbal fluency tasks. The results suggest that more research is necessary to further investigate other cognitive factors, rather than just syllabic demand, that might contribute to performance and outcome differences on the WAIS Digit Span in Spanish-English bilinguals. PMID:26786894

  4. Stable isotopes as indicators of water and salinity sources in a southeast Australian coastal wetland: identifying relict marine water, and implications for future change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currell, Matthew J.; Dahlhaus, Peter; , Hiroyuki, Ii

    2015-03-01

    The Lake Connewarre Complex is an internationally protected wetland in southeast Australia, undergoing increasing environmental change due to urbanisation. Stable isotopes of water (δ18O and δ2H) and other geochemical indicators were used to assess sources of water and salinity in the shallow groundwater and surface-water systems, and to better understand groundwater/surface-water interactions. While much of the shallow groundwater is saline (from 1.27 to 50.3 g/L TDS) with overlapping salinities across water groups, stable isotopes allow clear delineation of two distinct sources of water and salinity: marine water with δ18O between -1.4 and +1.3 ‰ and ion ratios characteristic of seawater; and meteoric water with δ18O between -6.1 and -3.6 ‰ containing cyclic salts, probably concentrated by plant transpiration. Groundwater bodies in shallow sediments beneath the wetlands have salinities and stable isotopic compositions intermediate between fresh wetland surface water and a marine water end-member. This marine-type water is likely relict seawater emplaced when the wetlands were connected to the estuary, prior to modern river regulation. Freshwater input to underlying groundwater is a recent consequence of this regulation. Future predicted changes such as increased stormwater inflow, will increase rates of freshwater leakage to shallow groundwater, favouring the proliferation of exotic reed species.

  5. Species Composition, Distribution and Habitat Types of Odonata in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and the Associated Conservation Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Lorinda A.; Bowker, Meyrick B.; Tarboton, Warwick; Downs, Colleen T.

    2014-01-01

    Maputaland–Pondoland–Albany, South Africa has been identified as a biodiversity hotspot and centre for endemism. Odonata make good indicators of freshwater ecosystem health. Consequently we compiled a list of Odonata species recorded to date in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park. We then detailed important species in terms of endemism, conservation status, and potential as indicator species. Finally, we compared Odonata assemblages of different sites sampled within the park to illustrate habitat importance. Species identified during two formal surveys and incidental observations made during the study period were combined with an existing database to compile an accurate and up to date species list for the iSimangaliso Wetland Park. Data from this study were then analyzed to determine which water bodies had the most similar species composition. The Dragonfly Biotic Index (DBI) value of each study area was also determined. We recorded 68 odonate species in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, adding 13 species to the Ezemvelo KwaZulu-Natal Wildlife database for the area. This brings the total number of Odonata species for the iSimangaliso Wetland Park to 86. Eight species are red-listed, 12 are restricted in South Africa to the coastal plains of northern KwaZulu-Natal, and the remainder occurs widely across the southern African savanna. Analyses indicate that species odonate assemblages were most similar in water bodies with comparable habitats. iSimangaliso Wetland Park is identified as an important area for Odonata diversity and endemism, a trend also reflected by the DBI values. Shifts in the existing species assemblages would indicate changes within the ecosystem and thus this species account provides necessary baseline data for the area. Species Conservation efforts should thus target water bodies of varying habitat types to protect greater species diversity. PMID:24662948

  6. FORT BELKNAP WETLANDS MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The product activities include: 1) Conducting wetland inventories and wetland assessments in the Milk River Watershed. This will include wetland delineations, and the collection of vascular plants and plant identification. Currently there is no baseline data of wetland activite...

  7. Wonderful Wetlands: An Environmental Education Curriculum Guide for Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King County Parks Div., Redmond, WA.

    This curriculum guide was designed to give teachers, students, and society a better understanding of wetlands in the hope that they learn why wetlands should be valued and preserved. It explores what is meant by wetlands, functions and values of wetlands, wetland activities, and wetland offerings which benefit animal and plant life, recreation,…

  8. Geographically isolated wetlands: Rethinking a misnomer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mushet, David M.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Cohen, Matthew J.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie G.; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Walls, Susan

    2015-01-01

    We explore the category “geographically isolated wetlands” (GIWs; i.e., wetlands completely surrounded by uplands at the local scale) as used in the wetland sciences. As currently used, the GIW category (1) hampers scientific efforts by obscuring important hydrological and ecological differences among multiple wetland functional types, (2) aggregates wetlands in a manner not reflective of regulatory and management information needs, (3) implies wetlands so described are in some way “isolated,” an often incorrect implication, (4) is inconsistent with more broadly used and accepted concepts of “geographic isolation,” and (5) has injected unnecessary confusion into scientific investigations and discussions. Instead, we suggest other wetland classification systems offer more informative alternatives. For example, hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classes based on well-established scientific definitions account for wetland functional diversity thereby facilitating explorations into questions of connectivity without an a priori designation of “isolation.” Additionally, an HGM-type approach could be used in combination with terms reflective of current regulatory or policymaking needs. For those rare cases in which the condition of being surrounded by uplands is the relevant distinguishing characteristic, use of terminology that does not unnecessarily imply isolation (e.g., “upland embedded wetlands”) would help alleviate much confusion caused by the “geographically isolated wetlands” misnomer.

  9. Profiling the Phonological Processes Shaping the Fossilized IL of Adult Learners of English as a Foreign Language: Some Theoretical Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroy, Rafael

    2001-01-01

    Describes the frozen interlanguage (IL) of adult learners of English in a natural setting to profile phonological processes that underlie their output. Also examines the impact on learners' oral behavior and the role played by transfer and developmental processes in such behavior. Analysis yields 10 processes shaping learners' IL that are…

  10. An Evaluation of Online Machine Translation of Arabic into English News Headlines: Implications on Students' Learning Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadhim, Kais A.; Habeeb, Luwaytha S.; Sapar, Ahmad Arifin; Hussin, Zaharah; Abdullah, Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, online Machine Translation (MT) is used widely with translation software, such as Google and Babylon, being easily available and downloadable. This study aims to test the translation quality of these two machine systems in translating Arabic news headlines into English. 40 Arabic news headlines were selected from three online sources,…

  11. The Impact of High Stakes Testing on the Academic Achievement of English Language Learners in Texas Public Education: National Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petterway, Arthur L.; Kritsonis, William Allan; Herrington, David

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the issues and challenges faced by English Language Learners (ELLs) and the public schools that absorb them. Ample research has been conducted on the intrinsic validity of standardized assessments, and separately, on the factors affecting the assimilation and integration of ELLs. However, the reliability…

  12. Measuring English Linguistic Proficiency and Functional Health Literacy Levels in Two Languages: Implications for Reaching Latino Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; Britigan, Denise H.; Murnan, Judy; King, Keith; Vaughn, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to determine the health literacy levels of Latinos in the Greater Cincinnati Area in both English and Spanish by utilizing two standardized quantitative measures of health literacy, and to undertake an assessment of the relationship between language, health literacy and acculturation in this community. Given a rapid…

  13. Total and Conceptual Vocabulary in Spanish-English Bilinguals from 22 to 30 Months: Implications for Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Core, Cynthia; Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Senor, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Vocabulary assessment holds promise as a way to identify young bilingual children at risk for language delay. This study compares 2 measures of vocabulary in a group of young Spanish-English bilingual children to a single-language measure used with monolingual children. Method: Total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were used to…

  14. How Language Proficiency Tests Mislead Us about Ability: Implications for English Language Learner Placement in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macswan, Jeff; Rolstad, Kellie

    2006-01-01

    The authors argue that English language learner (ELL) language assessment policy and poor language tests partly account for ELLs' disproportionate representation in special education. Previous research indicates that many states routinely assess ELLs' first language (L1) at initial enrollment and that ELLs identified as limited in both languages…

  15. Mitigating oil and gas impacts in coastal wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, Donald R.; Holmes, Joseph C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This abstract refers to technical recommendations for avoiding, minimizing, and restoring (i.e., mitigating) drilling site access impacts related to oil and gas activities in coastal wetlands through regulatory review, drawing mostly from the Louisiana experience. The two standard methods used to access wetland drilling locations are canals and roads, both of which require dredging. Each access method impacts wetland values and functions and each has been implicated directly and indirectly in wetland loss by converting marsh habitat to open water or upland habitat and by altering the local hydrologic regime. However, numerous regulatory management techniques exist and should be employed to avoids minimize, and restore canal and road-dump impacts.

  16. Wetland Characteristics and Denitrification

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation serves as an initial summary of our wetland field work's watershed characteristics hydrologic characteristics, water quality measurements, and denitrification assays. We present our measurement results in the context of wetland type (Estuarine, Freshwater Mars...

  17. Total and Conceptual Vocabulary in Spanish–English Bilinguals From 22 to 30 Months: Implications for Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Core, Cynthia; Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Señor, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Vocabulary assessment holds promise as a way to identify young bilingual children at risk for language delay. This study compares 2 measures of vocabulary in a group of young Spanish–English bilingual children to a single-language measure used with monolingual children. Method Total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were used to measure mean vocabulary size and growth in 47 Spanish–English bilingually developing children from 22 to 30 months of age based on results from the MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI; Fenson et al., 1993) and the Inventario del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas (Jackson-Maldonado et al., 2003). Bilingual children’s scores of total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were compared with CDI scores for a control group of 56 monolingual children. Results The total vocabulary measure resulted in mean vocabulary scores and average rate of growth similar to monolingual growth, whereas conceptual vocabulary scores were significantly smaller and grew at a slower rate than total vocabulary scores. Total vocabulary identified the same proportion of bilingual children below the 25th percentile on monolingual norms as the CDI did for monolingual children. Conclusion These results support the use of total vocabulary as a means of assessing early language development in young bilingual Spanish–English speaking children. PMID:24023382

  18. Are isolated wetlands isolated?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Loren M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Haukos, David A.

    2011-01-01

    While federal regulations during the past 10 years have treated isolated wetlands as unconnected to aquatic resources protected by the Clean Water Act, they provide critical ecosystem services to society that extend well beyond their wetland boundaries. The authors offer well-documented examples from the scientific literature on some of the ecosystem services provided by isolated wetlands to society and other ecosystems.

  19. Wetlands, Wildlife, and People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the problems created when wetlands are drained or altered by humans. Provides a brief case study of the Everglades as an example of the effects of human intervention. Presents four learning activities (along with reproducible worksheets) that deal with the benefits of wetlands, and some debated issues over wetlands. (TW)

  20. Wetlands: An Interdisciplinary Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerniak, Charlene M.

    2004-01-01

    The topic of wetlands provides a rich context for curriculum integration. This unit contains seven activities that integrate environmental science with math, technology, social studies, language arts, and other disciplines. In this series, students will identify plants and animals found in wetlands, understand the function of wetlands through the…

  1. Freshwater Wetlands: A Citizen's Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, Inc., Hobart, NY.

    The purpose of this "primer" for the general public is to describe the general characteristics of wetlands and how wetland alteration adversely affects the well-being of humans. Particular emphasis is placed on wetlands in New York State and the northeast. Topics discussed include wetland values, destruction of wetlands, the costs of wetland…

  2. The Militarisation of English Schools: Troops to Teaching and the Implications for Initial Teacher Education and Race Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadderton, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the implications of the Troops to Teaching (TtT) programme, to be introduced in England in autumn 2013, for Initial Teacher Education (ITE) and race equality. TtT will fast-track ex-armed service members to teach in schools, without necessarily the requirement of a university degree. Employing theories of white supremacy,…

  3. Teaching English in Untracked Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Sarah Warshauer; Delp, Verda; Crawford, Suzanne Mills

    2005-01-01

    This teacher-researcher/university-researcher collaboration focuses on teaching and learning in untracked English classes, but has implications for all classrooms where students have different needs. We primarily examine the teacher-researcher's (Delp's) eighth-grade untracked English class but also include data from a group of beginning teachers…

  4. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L.; Isaacson, H.R.

    1992-12-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  5. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. ); Isaacson, H.R. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  6. China English and ELT for English Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Mingjuan

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a general study of one of varieties of English--China English and its influence on English Language Teaching (ELT) for English majors. The status of English as an International language breaks the situation in which British English or American English is the sole standard. English becomes World Englishes, taking on a plural form,…

  7. English Leadership Quarterly. 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent the quarterly for 1991. Articles in number 1 deal with whole language and include: "CEL: Shorter and Better" (Myles D. Eley); "Toward a New Philosophy of Language Learning" (Kathleen Strickland); "Whole Language: Implications for Secondary Classrooms" (Barbara King-Shaver); "Whole…

  8. Removal processes for arsenic in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Lizama A, Katherine; Fletcher, Tim D; Sun, Guangzhi

    2011-08-01

    Arsenic pollution in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its toxicity and chronic effects on human health. This concern has generated increasing interest in the use of different treatment technologies to remove arsenic from contaminated water. Constructed wetlands are a cost-effective natural system successfully used for removing various pollutants, and they have shown capability for removing arsenic. This paper reviews current understanding of the removal processes for arsenic, discusses implications for treatment wetlands, and identifies critical knowledge gaps and areas worthy of future research. The reactivity of arsenic means that different arsenic species may be found in wetlands, influenced by vegetation, supporting medium and microorganisms. Despite the fact that sorption, precipitation and coprecipitation are the principal processes responsible for the removal of arsenic, bacteria can mediate these processes and can play a significant role under favourable environmental conditions. The most important factors affecting the speciation of arsenic are pH, alkalinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, the presence of other chemical species--iron, sulphur, phosphate--,a source of carbon, and the wetland substrate. Studies of the microbial communities and the speciation of arsenic in the solid phase using advanced techniques could provide further insights on the removal of arsenic. Limited data and understanding of the interaction of the different processes involved in the removal of arsenic explain the rudimentary guidelines available for the design of wetlands systems. PMID:21549410

  9. Gas Research Institute wetland research program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkey, P.L.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Isaacson, H.R.

    1992-12-01

    As part of three ongoing research projects, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) is studying the natural gas industry`s impacts on wetlands and how to manage operations so that impacts can be minimized or eliminated. The objective of the first project is to gain a better understanding of the causes and processes of wetland loss in the Louisiana deltaic plain and what role gas pipeline canals play in wetland loss. On the basis of information gathered from the first projects, management and mitigation implications for pipeline construction and maintenance will be evaluated. The objective of the second project is to assess the floral and faunal communities on existing rights-of-way (ROWs) that pass through numerous types of wetlands across the United States. The emphasis of the project is on pipelines that were installed within the past five years. The objective of the third project is to evaluate the administrative, jurisdictional, technical, and economic issues of wetland mitigation banking. This paper discusses these projects, their backgrounds, some of the results to date, and the deliverables.

  10. Gas Research Institute wetland research program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkey, P.L.; Zimmerman, R.E. ); Isaacson, H.R. )

    1992-01-01

    As part of three ongoing research projects, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) is studying the natural gas industry's impacts on wetlands and how to manage operations so that impacts can be minimized or eliminated. The objective of the first project is to gain a better understanding of the causes and processes of wetland loss in the Louisiana deltaic plain and what role gas pipeline canals play in wetland loss. On the basis of information gathered from the first projects, management and mitigation implications for pipeline construction and maintenance will be evaluated. The objective of the second project is to assess the floral and faunal communities on existing rights-of-way (ROWs) that pass through numerous types of wetlands across the United States. The emphasis of the project is on pipelines that were installed within the past five years. The objective of the third project is to evaluate the administrative, jurisdictional, technical, and economic issues of wetland mitigation banking. This paper discusses these projects, their backgrounds, some of the results to date, and the deliverables.

  11. Redox Transformations of Mercury in Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amyot, M.

    2007-12-01

    Wetlands are valued for their high biodiversity and for their ecosystem services. However, we still have a poor understanding of their role in the redox transformation of contaminants such as mercury. We first propose a brief overview of past studies conducted on wetlands from different latitudes. In most instances, photochemical processes are determinant in the upper portion of the water column. At the sediment/water interface, evidence is currently supporting a significant contribution of bacterial communities, as promoters of Hg(II) reduction, particularly in the presence of anoxia. A multi-year study was recently conducted on Hg redox cycling in a fluvial wetland of the St. Lawrence River, where wetland restoration could have unintended consequences. In addition to photochemistry and bacterial reduction, Hg redox cycling was affected by epiphytes living on macrophytes, through adsorption/absorption processes. Redox studies such as this one have been historically seen as having implication for water/air flux studies, since Hg(0) is volatile. We here also discuss the potential bioavailability of Hg(0) towards bacteria. An emerging axis of our wetland research effort deals with beaver dams, which are in expansion and shown to produce high levels of methylHg

  12. Wetlands: Earth's Kidneys

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands are unique, diverse, and productive habitats that emerge at the fringe of aquatic and upland land systems. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines wetlands as "areas that are regularly inundated by surface water or groundwater and characterized by a preva...

  13. Wetlands and Web Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisone-Bartels, Dede

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the preservation of areas like the Shoreline Park (California) wetlands depends on educating students about the value of natural resources. Describes the creation of a Web page on the wetlands for third-grade students by seventh-grade art and ecology students. Outlines the technical process of developing a Web page. (DSK)

  14. Reactions to Ann Arbor: Vernacular Black English and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteman, Marcia Farr, Ed.

    The papers in this collection provide a brief state-of-the-art statement on the role of non-standard dialects of English in education and on some implications of the Ann Arbor decision. The following papers are included: (1) "Vernacular Black English: Setting the Issues in Time," by Roger W. Shuy; (2) "Beyond Black English: Implications of the Ann…

  15. Remote sensing of wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roller, N. E. G.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of using remote sensing to inventory wetlands and the related topics of proper inventory design and data collection are discussed. The material presented shows that aerial photography is the form of remote sensing from which the greatest amount of wetlands information can be derived. For extensive, general-purpose wetlands inventories, however, the use of LANDSAT data may be more cost-effective. Airborne multispectral scanners and radar are, in the main, too expensive to use - unless the information that these sensors alone can gather remotely is absolutely required. Multistage sampling employing space and high altitude remote sensing data in the initial stages appears to be an efficient survey strategy for gathering non-point specific wetlands inventory data over large areas. The operational role of remote sensing insupplying inventory data for application to several typical wetlands management problems is illustrated by summary descriptions of past ERIM projects.

  16. HISTORIC WETLANDS OF PRUDENCE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten wetland sites around Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island have been selected for a multidisciplinary study. These wetland sites are being studied to develop indicators of "wetland health." The study includes assessing the ecological conditions of the wetlands in the past, and the c...

  17. Earphone English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Francisca

    2002-01-01

    Describes Earphone English, a student club sponsored through a partnership between Berkeley High School and the Berkeley Public Library that offers students whose primary language is not English to practice their spoken and aural English skills. Discusses the audiobooks used in the program and the importance of multicultural content and age…

  18. Teaching English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemanich, Donald, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Articles in this volume of the "Illinois English Bulletin" include "Competencies in Teaching English" by Alan C. Purves, which sets forth a tentative model for planning competency-based instruction and certification based on concepts, teaching acts, skills, and strategies; "Passing the Buck Versus the Teaching of English" by Dennis Q. McInerny,…

  19. Current Perspectives on Teaching World Englishes and English as a Lingua Franca

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore recent research into World Englishes (henceforth WEs) and English as a Lingua Franca (ELF), focusing on its implications for TESOL, and the extent to which it is being taken into account by English language teachers, linguists, and second language acquisition researchers. After a brief introduction…

  20. Common Ground and Different Realities: World Englishes and English as a Lingua Franca

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidlhofer, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the "world Englishes paradigm" and English as a lingua franca (ELF) research, despite important differences, have much in common. Both share the pluricentric assumption that "English" belongs to all those who use it, and both are concerned with the sociolinguistic, socio-psychological, and applied linguistic implications of…

  1. American English vs. British English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahheidaripour, Gholamabbass

    1997-01-01

    The present study, using a totally direct method, investigates, within the framework of sociolinguistics and foreign language teaching in Iran, whether teachers of English prefer British or American variety of English language, and whether their preference corresponds to their performance on a related test. Thirty Iranian English language teachers…

  2. Researching the Uses of the English Language in the Law Job Market in the Sultanate of Oman: Implications for Policy-Practice Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Issa, Ali S. M.

    2014-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman is a developing country that has accepted the English language as a significant tool for modernization. This was best interpreted in the opening of Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) in 1986, which has delivered its different academic programmes totally or partially through the English language. One of the colleges of SQU has…

  3. English-lus Multilingualism as the New Linguistic Capital? Implications of University Students' Attitudes towards Languages of Instruction in a Multilingual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapwijk, Nanda; Van der Walt, Christa

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates university students' attitudes and perceptions about language in a multilingual country where most instruction is in English and annual national literacy results have been declining for at least 15 years. Despite this decline, English seems to be entrenched as the language of instruction, and at university it seems a…

  4. The implications of using large ensembles of climate scenarios for the management of river ecology in an English chalk stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, C. F.; Lopez, A.; New, M.

    2009-04-01

    Climate change is likely to impact on freshwater ecology, the delivery of regulatory commitments to ecological status and the management of water resources. It is becoming increasingly important for European environment agencies to use and develop methods to aid planning and abstraction licensing procedures and policies in the face of climate change and with the introduction of the Water Framework Directive. Studies have been carried out in the past to investigate the implications of climate change for biodiversity. However, predicting the future is fraught with uncertainty, an area which has not been dealt with in great depth in the past. This study has been undertaken to draw on the results of new methodologies to address the uncertainties inherent in modelling future climate and assess their usability for decision-making in water resources allocations specifically in considering interactions between flow and invertebrate communities The River Itchen was chosen as the case study catchment on the strength of having a long-term coupled ecological and flow dataset and having been an area of intensive study in the past. It is a chalk stream located in the south of England and a candidate Special Area of Conservation. It has also been designated a Special Site of Scientific Interest achieved due to the number of rare species, and the richness of the macro-invertebrate community in the river catchment. An ensemble of 246 transient simulations for future climate was obtained from ClimatePrediction.net which were then used to drive a rainfall-runoff model. In order to link the modelled river flow to ecology, the Lotic Invertebrate Flow Evaluation score has been used where the invertebrate community is linked to flow largely through sensitivity to water velocity and siltation, driven by flow variability at sites with fixed channel dimensions The large ensemble of climate scenarios and thereby flow and ecological indices allows the exploration of the risk of the river of

  5. Isolated wetlands of the southeastern United States: abundance and expected condition

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the wake of two U.S. Supreme Court decisions that severely curtailed federal protection for isolated wetlands in the U.S. (i.e., those completely surrounded by uplands), the true extent of the wetlands impacted, and thus, the implications of the decisions, is unknown. Best pro...

  6. Exporting the European Idea of a National Language: Some Educational Implications of the Use of English and Indigenous Languages in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolicz, Jerzy J.; Nical, Illuminado

    1997-09-01

    The Philippines has a bilingual education policy, using English and a major indigenous language, Tagalog, renamed "Filipino". This article describes a study on the problem facing approximately two thirds of the population who do not have English or Filipino as their first or home language. Senior secondary school students were asked abut their attitudes towards English, Filipino and their home language (Cebuana, Ilocano or Waray). Attitudes to the three languages differed. Some respondents favoured Filipino over English, others vice versa. Most respondents showed attachment to their home languages. The study concluded that it is possible for Filipinos to be literate in their mother tongue and still be fluent in Filipino, as the national language of the country, with English continuing in its role as the international language.

  7. Wetland functional health assessment using remote sensing and other techniques: Literature search and overview. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Patience, N.; Klemas, V.

    1993-03-01

    Contents: introduction; remote sensing of wetland biomass and other wetland condition indicators; conceptual approaches in wetland assessment; wetland extent and type; landscape and wetland patterns; wetland biomass and productivity; wetland vegetation; wetland habitat quality; wetland hydrology; and conclusions and recommendations.

  8. Wetlands: their use and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Although destruction of United States wetlands has slowed, their continued conversion, especially in certain inland regions of the country, may pose adverse ecological effects over the next few decades. The Army Corps of Engineers' regulatory program (Section 404 of the Clean Water Act) protects most coastal wetlands, but provides no protection for 95% of the country's wetlands which remain inland. These inland, freshwater wetlands, converted for agricultural purposes, comprise 80% of the wetland losses over the past 30 years. This report outlines options for more effective federal management, such as the mapping and categorizing of wetlands to determine relative values. In effect, agencies can focus protection programs on higher-value wetlands, especially those threatened by agricultural conversion. The report also discusses the contradictory federal policies aimed at wetlands; for example, the tax code encourages the development and draining of wetlands at the same time that federal regulations discourage their destruction.

  9. Soil-Gas Identification of Environmental Factors Affecting CO2 Concentrations Beneath a Playa Wetland: Implications for Soil-Gas Monitoring at Carbon Storage Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanak, K.; Bennett, P.

    2009-12-01

    Strategies for identifying and interpreting the effects of environmental factors on near-surface CO2 concentrations are essential to developing accurate monitoring protocols at carbon storage sites. Based on the results of a three-year study of a natural analogue we present, 1) a method for using soil-gas to identify near-surface CO2 cycling, and 2) a framework for developing monitoring protocols and site evaluation for near-surface monitoring. Near-surface CO2 production, consumption, and re-distribution was observed in the vadose-zone of a highly CO2-reactive playa wetland in the Texas High Plains. Atmospheric conditions, organic and inorganic soil carbon, subsurface pressure, water flux, and surface and groundwater chemistry were compared to real-time background measurements of CO2, CH4, O2+Ar, and N2 from depths up to 45 feet. Carbon isotopes and spatially and temporally variable concentrations of CO2 ≤ 17%, CH4 ≤ 2%, and O2 from 21-0% indicate CO2 and CH4 are produced by microbes. Molar gas ratios of O2 and CO2 distinguish between oxidation of organic matter (CH2O + O2 → CO2 + H2O), CH4 oxidation (CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O), and potentially acetate fermentation (CH3COOH → CH4 + CO2). O2 consumption and distribution is regulated by water flux that supplies dissolved organics to microbes at depth and regulates oxygen supply by blocking vertical permeability and atmospheric gas exchange. A surface flux experiment indicates that when playa floors are dry, subsurface wetting fronts from rain events or previous ponding periods block vertical permeability resulting in surface flux measurements that do not represent subsurface conditions. Samples with CO2+O2 < 21% and N2 > 78% identify dissolution of CO2 and carbonate minerals into recharging groundwater resulting in loss of pore pressure and chemically-induced advection of atmosphere into pores. Inverse geochemical reaction modeling (PHREEQC) of playa surface water and perched groundwater in high PCO2 zones

  10. Wetlands and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, R H

    2001-01-01

    There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health interactions are many. There is a need to take into account the landscape, spatial boundaries, and cross-boundary interactions in water development projects as well as alternative methods to provide water for human needs. The research challenges that need to be addressed are discussed. PMID:11426273

  11. Avian utilization of subsidence wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrot, J.R.; Conley, P.S.; Smout, C.L.

    1995-09-01

    Diverse and productive wetlands have resulted from coal mining in the midwest. The trend from surface to underground mining has increased the potential for subsidence. Planned subsidence of longwall mining areas provides increased opportunities for wetland habitat establishment. Planned subsidence over a 180 meter (590 foot) deep longwall mine in southern Illinois during 1984 to 1986 produced three subsidence wetlands totaling 15 hectares (38 acres). The resulting palustrine emergent wetlands enhanced habitat diversity within the surrounding palustrine forested unsubsided area. Habitat assessments and evaluations of avian utilization of the subsidence wetlands were conducted during February 1990 through October 1991. Avian utilization was greatest within the subsided wetlands. Fifty-three bird species representing seven foraging guilds utilized the subsidence wetlands. Wading/fishing, dabbling waterfowl, and insectivorous avian guilds dominated the subsidence wetlands. The subsidence wetlands represented ideal habitat for wood ducks and great blue herons which utilized snags adjacent to and within the wetlands for nesting (19 great blue heron nests produced 25 young). Dense cover and a rich supply of macroinvertebrates provide excellent brood habitat for wood ducks, while herpetofauna and ichthyofauna provided abundant forage in shallow water zones for great blue herons and other wetland wading birds. The diversity of game and non-game avifauna utilizing the subsidence areas demonstrated the unique value of these wetlands. Preplanned subsidence wetlands can help mitigate loss of wetland habitats in the midwest.

  12. Maori English.

    PubMed

    Maclagan, Margaret; King, Jeanette; Gillon, Gail

    2008-08-01

    The Maori language is the language of the indigenous people of New Zealand. Today, not all Maori speak the Maori language, and many Maori as well as non-Maori speak Maori English, the fastest growing of the main varieties of New Zealand English. This paper provides a background to the linguistic situation of the Maori populace in New Zealand, including the current revitalization of the Maori language and the increasing use of Maori English. Speech-language therapists working with Maori clients now see children who are monolingual speakers of standard New Zealand English or monolingual speakers of Maori English, young children who are being raised as bilingual speakers of Maori and English, and older people who are relatively fluent in Maori. PMID:18608235

  13. Coastal wetlands of Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, Andrew H.; Kangas, Patrick J.; Megonigal, J. Patrick; Perry, Matthew C.; Whigham, Dennis F.; Batzer, Darold P., (Edited By)

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are prominent landscapes throughout North America. The general characteristics of wetlands are controversial, thus there has not been a systematic assessment of different types of wetlands in different parts of North America, or a compendium of the threats to their conservation. Wetland Habitats of North America adopts a geographic and habitat approach, in which experts familiar with wetlands from across North America provide analyses and syntheses of their particular region of study. Addressing a broad audience of students, scientists, engineers, environmental managers, and policy makers, this book reviews recent, scientifically rigorous literature directly relevant to understanding, managing, protecting, and restoring wetland ecosystems of North America.

  14. Wetland InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wdowinski, S.; Kim, S.; Amelung, F.; Dixon, T.

    2006-12-01

    Wetlands are transition zones where the flow of water, the nutrient cycling, and the sun energy meet to produce a unique and very productive ecosystem. They provide critical habitat for a wide variety of plant and animal species, including the larval stages of many ocean fish. Wetlands also have a valuable economical importance, as they filter nutrients and pollutants from fresh water used by human and provide aquatic habitats for outdoor recreation, tourism, and fishing. Globally, many such regions are under severe environmental stress, mainly from urban development, pollution, and rising sea level. However, there is increasing recognition of the importance of these habitats, and mitigation and restoration activities have begun in a few regions. A key element in wetlands conservation, management, and restoration involves monitoring its hydrologic system, as the entire ecosystem depends on its water supply. Heretofore, hydrologic monitoring of wetlands are conducted by stage (water level) stations, which provide good temporal resolution, but suffer from poor spatial resolution, as stage station are typically distributed several, or even tens of kilometers, from one another. Wetland application of InSAR provides the needed high spatial resolution hydrological observations, complementing the high temporal resolution terrestrial observations. Although conventional wisdom suggests that interferometry does not work in vegetated areas, several studies have shown that both L- and C-band interferograms with short acquisition intervals (1-105 days) can maintain excellent coherence over wetlands. In this study we explore the usage of InSAR for detecting water level changes in various wetland environments around the world, including the Everglades (south Florida), Louisiana Coast (southern US), Chesapeake Bay (eastern US), Pantanal (Brazil), Okavango Delta (Botswana), and Lena Delta (Siberia). Our main study area is the Everglades wetland (south Florida), which is covered by

  15. Association between wetland disturbance and biological attributes in floodplain wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chipps, S.R.; Hubbard, D.E.; Werlin, K.B.; Haugerud, N.J.; Powell, K.A.; Thompson, John; Johnson, T.

    2006-01-01

    We quantified the influence of agricultural activities on environmental and biological conditions of floodplain wetlands in the upper Missouri River basin. Seasonally-flooded wetlands were characterized as low impact (non-disturbed) or high impact (disturbed) based on local land use. Biological data collected from these wetlands were used to develop a wetland condition index (WCI). Fourteen additional wetlands were sampled to evaluate the general condition of seasonally-flooded floodplain wetlands. Structural and functional attributes of macrophyte, algae, and macroinvertebrate communities were tested as candidate metrics for assessing biotic responses. The WCI we developed used six biological metrics to discriminate between disturbed and non-disturbed wetlands: 1) biomass of Culicidae larvae, 2) abundance of Chironomidae larvae, 3) macroinvertebrate diversity, 4) total number of plant species, 5) the proportion of exotic plant species, and 6) total number of sensitive diatom species. Disturbed wetlands had less taxa richness and species diversity and more exotic and nuisance (e.g., mosquitoes) species. Environmental differences between low and high impact wetlands included measures of total potassium, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, alkalinity, conductance, and sediment phosphorus concentration. Canonical analyses showed that WCI scores were weakly correlated (P = 0.057) with environmental variables in randomly selected wetlands. In addition, mean WCI score for random wetlands was higher than that for high impact wetlands, implying that floodplain wetlands were less impacted by the types of agricultural activities affecting high impact sites. Inter-year sampling of some wetlands revealed that WCI metrics were correlated in 2000 and 2001, implying that biological metrics provided useful indicators of disturbance in floodplain wetlands. ?? 2006, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  16. Hydrologic functions of prairie wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaBaugh, J.W.; Winter, T.C.; Rosenberry, D.O.

    1998-01-01

    Wetlands in the prairie known as potholes or sloughs represent an ever-changing mosaic of surface waters interacting with the atmosphere, groundwater, and each other in a variety of ways. Studies of groups of adjacent wetlands in different parts of the glaciated North American prairie have enabled some connections to be made between hydrologic processes, biological communities, and use of these wetlands by wetland-dependent wildlife. Understanding controls on variability in water levels, water volume, and salinity in these wetlands sets the stage for understanding controls on biological communities utilizing these wetlands. The role that natural variability in water and salinity plays in making these wetlands an important resource for waterfowl will provide an important context for those who are responsible for artificially altering the variability of water and salinity in prairie wetlands.

  17. North Atlantic Coastal Tidal Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    The book chapter provides college instructors, researchers, graduate and advanced undergraduate students, and environmental consultants interested in wetlands with foundation information on the ecology and conservation concerns of North Atlantic coastal wetlands. The book c...

  18. Fish assemblages, connectivity, and habitat rehabilitation in a diked Great Lakes coastal wetland complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kowalski, Kurt P.; Wiley, Michael J.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    Fish and plant assemblages in the highly modified Crane Creek coastal wetland complex of Lake Erie were sampled to characterize their spatial and seasonal patterns and to examine the implications of the hydrologic connection of diked wetland units to Lake Erie. Fyke netting captured 52 species and an abundance of fish in the Lake Erie–connected wetlands, but fewer than half of those species and much lower numbers and total masses of fish were captured in diked wetland units. Although all wetland units were immediately adjacent to Lake Erie, there were also pronounced differences in water quality and wetland vegetation between the hydrologically isolated and lake-connected wetlands. Large seasonal variations in fish assemblage composition and biomass were observed in connected wetland units but not in disconnected units. Reestablishment of hydrologic connectivity in diked wetland units would allow coastal Lake Erie fish to use these vegetated habitats seasonally, although connectivity does appear to pose some risks, such as the expansion of invasive plants and localized reductions in water quality. Periodic isolation and drawdown of the diked units could still be used to mimic intermediate levels of disturbance and manage invasive wetland vegetation.

  19. Maori English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclagan, Margaret; King, Jeanette; Gillon, Gail

    2008-01-01

    The Maori language is the language of the indigenous people of New Zealand. Today, not all Maori speak the Maori language, and many Maori as well as non-Maori speak Maori English, the fastest growing of the main varieties of New Zealand English. This paper provides a background to the linguistic situation of the Maori populace in New Zealand,…

  20. SPECIAL ENGLISH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Language Services, Inc., Washington, DC.

    THIS 14-VOLUME SERIES OF TECHNICAL ENGLISH TEXTS IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE PRACTICE IN TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY FOR NON-NATIVE SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH. LANGUAGE FLUENCY LEVEL IS UPPER-INTERMEDIATE/ADVANCED. THE VARIOUS FIELDS OF INDUSTRY WHICH THE TEXTS DEAL WITH ARE AS FOLLOWS--(1) AGRICULTURE--BOOK 1, SOILS (2) AGRICULTURE--BOOK 2, FIELD CROPS (3)…

  1. Wetlands: The changing regulatory landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, R.M. )

    1993-05-01

    Protection of wetlands became a national issue in 1988 when President George Bush pledged no net loss of wetlands in the US under his [open quotes]environmental presidency.[close quotes] As wetlands became a national issue, the job of protecting them became an obligation for many groups, including hydro-power developers. Now, when a site selected for development includes an area that may be classified as a wetland, the developer quickly discovers the importance of recognizing and protecting these natural habitats. Federal legislation severely limits development of wetland, and most states increase the restrictions with their own wetlands regulations. The difficulty of defining wetlands complicates federal and state enforcement. Land that appears to be dry may in fact be classified as a wetland. So, even if a site appears dry, potential hydro developers must confirm whether or not any jurisdictional wetlands are present. Regulated lands include much more than marshes and swamps. Further complicating the definition of wetlands, a recent court decision found that even artificially created wetlands, such as man-made ponds, may be subject to regulation. Hydro developers must be aware of current regulatory requirements before they consider development of any site that may contain wetlands. To be certain that a site is [open quotes]buildable[close quotes] from the standpoint of wetlands regulation, a developer must verify (with the help of state agencies) that the property does not contain any jurisdictional wetlands. If it does, the regulatory process before development becomes much more complicated. For the short term, uncertainty abounds and extreme caution is in order. Because the regulatory process has become so complex and an agreeable definition of wetlands so elusive, the trend among the Corps and collaborating agencies is to constrict nationwide permits in favor of narrowing the jurisdictional definition of wetlands.

  2. NATIONAL WETLANDS INVENTORY (NWI) MAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Wetland Inventory digital data files are records of wetlands location and classification as defined by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. This data set is one of a series available in 7.5 minute by 7.5 minute blocks containing ground planimetric coordinates of wetlands p...

  3. Developing a New Wetland Habitat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Rosalie

    2006-01-01

    This article features a project at Ohio's Miami Valley Career Technology Center (MVCTC) which has made a real difference in the wetland environment on campus. The goals of the wetland project were to replace a poorly functioning tile system and develop two wetland areas for local and migratory wildlife. The environmental/natural resources students…

  4. Wetland Mapping: History and Trends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, the biologic, aesthetic, and economic values of wetlands were largely unappreciated. Wetlands within the United States have been and are continuing to disappear at a rapid rate. Efforts are being made to conserve remaining wetlands and many regulatory policies have been adopted in su...

  5. Wetlands: water, wildlife, plants, & people

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank, (artist)

    1996-01-01

    Wetlands are part of all our lives. They can generally be described as transitional areas between land and deepwater habitats. There are many different kinds of wetlands, and they can be found in many different habitat types, from forests to deserts; some are maintained by saltwater, others by freshwater. This poster shows general types of diverse wetlands and demonstrates how people and wetlands can benefit by living together. The diversity of plants and animals is shown in cartooned pictures. As with plants and animals, there are many different common names for the various wetland types. The common names used on this poster were used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in the publication "Wetlands-Status and Trends in the Conterminous United States, Mid-1970's to Mid-1980's." Estuarine wetland types--salt marshes and mangrove swamps--are labeled in red letters. The estuary is where ocean saltwater and river freshwater mix. The estuary is labeled in orange letters. The inland wetland types-inland marshes and wet meadows, forested wetlands, and shrub wetlands-are labeled in yellow. Other wetlands are present in rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. The water bodies associated with these wetlands are labeled in black. The poster is folded into 8.5" x 11" panels; front and back panels can easily be photocopied.

  6. ISOLATED WETLANDS: STATE-OF-THE-SCIENCE AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Supreme Court case of Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County v. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (SWANCC) has had profound implications on the legal status of isolated wetlands. As a result of this decision, policymakers and regulators need information on the ecological...

  7. ISOLATED WETLANDS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS: AN ECOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recent U.S. Supreme Court case of Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County v. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (SWANCC) has had profound implications on the legal status of isolated wetlands. As a result of this decision, policymakers need ecological information on the definit...

  8. Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gnaneswar Gude, Veera; Magbanua, Benjamin; Truax, Dennis D; Martin, James L

    2016-10-01

    An update on the current research and development of the treatment technologies, which utilize natural processes or passive components in wastewater treatment, is provided in this paper. The main focus is on wetland systems and their applications in wastewater treatment (as an advanced treatment unit or decentralized system), nutrient and pollutant removal (metals, industrial and emerging pollutants including pharmaceutical compounds). A summary of studies involving the effects of vegetation, wetland design and modeling, hybrid and innovative systems, storm water treatment and pathogen removal is also included. PMID:27620086

  9. Remote sensing of wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butera, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    Results are given for three separate investigations of remote sensing over wetlands, including the delineations of roseau cane and mangrove from both Landsat and aircraft MSS data, and the delineation of wetland communities for potential waste assimilation in a coastal river floodplain from Landsat MSS data only. Attention is also given to data processing and analysis techniques of varying levels of sophistication, which must increase with surface cover diversity. All computer processing in these studies was performed on a minicomputer configured with the adequate memory, image display capability, and associated peripherals, using state-of-the-art digital MSS data analysis software.

  10. Ensuring Disaster Risk Reduction via Sustainable Wetland Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, S. W.; Lindborg, R.; Nyström, S.; Silengo, M.; Tumbo, M.; Koutsouris, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland ecosystems around the world are increasingly being targeted as land use development 'hotspots' under growing concerns of climate variability and food security. Anthropogenic encroachment on natural wetland ecosystems can have direct consequences locally through loss of biodiversity and regionally through increased disaster risks associated with, for example, flooding. We consider two regionally-relevant wetland ecosystems in eastern Africa, namely Zambia's Lukanga Swamps and Tanzania's Kilombero Valley, experiencing varying trajectories of development under climatic variations. These regions have been targeted for inclusive, multi-stakeholder initiatives that aim at developing agricultural potential through combinations of large and small scale irrigation schemes. Through our data-driven analysis we highlight the potential for shifts in hydrologic regime of each wetland ecosystem which can have significant regional impacts on disaster risks. In the case of the Lukanga Swamps, wetlands maintain water table fluctuations that help mitigate water cycling with implications for the downstream flooding impact of annual rains. With regards to Kilombero Valley, understanding seasonal changes in hydrological processes and storages provides the cornerstone for managing future water resource impacts/feedbacks under different scenarios of land management. This work emphasizes the need to tailor strategies towards sustainable uses of wetlands that reduce disaster risks regionally while contributing to improved community health and wellbeing. It remains an open (and fundamental) question of how to best define management recommendations and activities that not only achieve climate resiliency but also are acceptable for stakeholders without compromising the balance between ecosystem service supply and biodiversity conservation.

  11. FGD liner experiments with wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsch, W.J.; Ahn, C.; Wolfe, W.E.

    1999-07-01

    The construction of artificial wetlands for wastewater treatment often requires impermeable liners not only to protect groundwater resources but also to ensure that there is adequate water in the wetland to support appropriate aquatic life, particularly wetland vegetation. Liners or relatively impervious site soils are very important to the success of constructed treatment wetlands in areas where ground water levels are typically close to the ground surface. This study, carried out at the Olentangy River Wetland Research Park, investigated the use of FGD material from sulfur scrubbers as a possible liner material for constructed wetlands. While several studies have investigated the use of FGD material to line ponds, no studies have investigated the use of this material as a liner for constructed wetlands. They used experimental mesocosms to see the effect of FGD liner materials in constructed wetlands on water quality and on wetland plant growth. This paper presents the results of nutrient analyses and physicochemical investigation of leachate and surface outflow water samples collected from the mesocosms. Plant growth and biomass of wetland vegetation are also included in this paper. First two year results are reported by Ahn et al. (1998, 1999). The overall goal of this study is the identification of advantages and disadvantages of using FGD by-product as an artificial liner in constructed wetlands.

  12. English Only: The Creation and Maintenance of an Academic Underclass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Candace

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I address the present-day political and pedagogical implications of the imposition of one year of English only immersion on limited English proficient (LEP) students. The article also presents a case study of an inner-city community in Massachusetts during the early years -- 1968-1974 -- of transition from English only to…

  13. Bilingual Creativity in Chinese English: Ha Jin's "In the Pond."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hang

    2002-01-01

    Addresses issues related to bilingual creativity in Chinese English and their implications for world Englishes in the Chinese context. The language examined is drawn from Ha Jin's novella, "In the Pond, in which the author's use of English is nativized in the Chinese context in order to recast the cultural meanings of the language. (Author/VWL)

  14. REFINE WETLAND REGULATORY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tribes will work toward refining a regulatory program by taking a draft wetland conservation code with permitting incorporated to TEB for review. Progress will then proceed in developing a permit tracking system that will track both Tribal and fee land sites within reservati...

  15. Wading into Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Wading into Wetlands." Contents are organized into the following sections: (1)…

  16. Gulf Coast Wetlands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Wetlands of the Gulf Coast     View Larger ... highlights coastal areas of four states along the Gulf of Mexico: Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and part of the Florida panhandle. The ... date:  Oct 15, 2001 Images:  Gulf Coast location:  United States Gulf of ...

  17. WETLANDS TREATMENT DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA sponsored a project to collect and catalog information from wastewater treatment wetlands into a computer database. PA has also written a user friendly, stand-alone, menu-driven computer program to allow anyone with DOS 3.3 or higher to access the information in the ...

  18. A Wetland Camp for Upland Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soniat, Lyle; Duggan, Suzanne

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a workshop to provide an opportunity for north Louisiana teachers to learn firsthand about Louisiana's coastal wetlands. The multidisciplinary sessions focused on coastal wetland ecosystems, covering wetland productivity, the functions and value of wetlands, current wetland issues, water quality, botany, geology, fisheries management,…

  19. Implications of the Socio-Cultural Context for the Co-Construction of Talk in a Task-Based English as a Foreign Language Classroom in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article I investigate how Japanese students manage interaction together in a task-based English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom. Using methods from conversation analysis and focusing on the contextual dimensions of language, I analyse data from a real classroom task with a view to understanding the ways in which social processes and…

  20. The Implications of Expanding the Instruction Time for the English Language Teaching Policy Implementation in the Sultanate of Oman: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Issa, Ali S. M.

    2013-01-01

    This study asks questions and elicits answers about the importance of English language teaching (ELT) instruction time on the national curriculum in the Sultanate of Oman from an ideological perspective. It triangulates data from semi-structured interviews made with different agents involved in the Omani ELT system and representing different…

  1. Spanish-Speaking Mexican-American Families' Involvement in School-Based Activities and Their Children's Literacy: The Implications of Having Teachers Who Speak Spanish and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Sandra; Dearing, Eric; Weiss, Heather B.

    2012-01-01

    For a sample of low-income, Spanish-speaking Mexican-American families (n = 72), we investigated associations between family involvement in school-based activities and children's literacy in their preferred language (English or Spanish) during early elementary school. We gave special attention to the potential moderating role of teacher fluency in…

  2. Gas exchange in wetlands: Controls and remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    This project was directed toward the quantification of fluxes of gaseous biogenic sulfur compounds from freshwater wetlands. These compounds (primarily hydrogen sulfide (H2S), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS)) have been implicated in the regulation of planetary albedo by the formation of microscopic atmospheric aerosols when they oxidize, and the further role of these aerosols as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The role of continental sources and sinks for these compounds is poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to quantify the source and sink strength of high latitude wetlands, and to delineate factors that regulate this flux.

  3. Mapping hydrologic connectivity of geographically isolated wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameli, Ali; Creed, Irena

    2016-04-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs) are characterized as depressional landscape features completely surrounded by uplands. These small and typically circular landscape features represent a vast majority of wetlands in various landscapes in North America (98% of all wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region). Geographical isolation, however, does not imply the hydrological isolation. Although geospatial data (e.g., aerial photos) suggested that GIWs lack a persistent surface water connection, the groundwater connection between GIWs and navigable downstream waters can be substantial with large fluxes at the regional scales. The surface/subsurface connections among GIWs and between GIWs and navigable waters are difficult to map and quantify. This is intimately tied to the fact that an efficient incorporation of these small geometric features and characterization of the mechanisms behind these connectivities are challenging within grid-based simulators. We used a physically-based grid-free groundwater-surface water interaction and surface flow routing schemes to map and assess the watershed-scale GIWs connectivity within an extensively studied watershed at the Canadian prairie pothole region with high density of GIWs. The results showed that there is a persistent subsurface connectivity among GIWs and between GIWs and navigable waters. Surface connection was rare and only occurred during extreme events. The results of this paper have significant implications for developing scientifically grounded environmental policy for protection of GIWs within North American Prairie.

  4. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Yam, Rita S. W.; Fan, Yen-Tzu; Wang, Tzu-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae) has extensively invaded most Asian constructed wetlands and its massive herbivory of macrophytes has become a major cause of ecosystem dysfunctioning of these restored habitats. We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Effects of macrophytes on snail feeding, growth and fecundity responses were evaluated. Results indicated that P. canaliculata reared on Ipomoea had the highest feeding and growth rates with highest reproductive output, but all individuals fed with Phragmites showed lowest feeding rates and little growth with poorest reproductive output. Plant N and P contents were important for enhancing palatability, supporting growth and offspring quantity of P. canaliculata, whilst toughness, cellulose and phenolics had critically deterrent effects on various life-history traits. Although snail offspring quality was generally consistent regardless of maternal feeding conditions, the reduced growth and offspring quantity of the poorly-fed snails in constructed wetlands dominated by the less-palatable macrophytes could limit the invasive success of P. canaliculata. Effective bottom-up control of P. canaliculata in constructed wetlands should involve selective planting strategy using macrophytes with low nutrient and high toughness, cellulose and phenolic contents. PMID:26927135

  5. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Yam, Rita S W; Fan, Yen-Tzu; Wang, Tzu-Ting

    2016-03-01

    Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae) has extensively invaded most Asian constructed wetlands and its massive herbivory of macrophytes has become a major cause of ecosystem dysfunctioning of these restored habitats. We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Effects of macrophytes on snail feeding, growth and fecundity responses were evaluated. Results indicated that P. canaliculata reared on Ipomoea had the highest feeding and growth rates with highest reproductive output, but all individuals fed with Phragmites showed lowest feeding rates and little growth with poorest reproductive output. Plant N and P contents were important for enhancing palatability, supporting growth and offspring quantity of P. canaliculata, whilst toughness, cellulose and phenolics had critically deterrent effects on various life-history traits. Although snail offspring quality was generally consistent regardless of maternal feeding conditions, the reduced growth and offspring quantity of the poorly-fed snails in constructed wetlands dominated by the less-palatable macrophytes could limit the invasive success of P. canaliculata. Effective bottom-up control of P. canaliculata in constructed wetlands should involve selective planting strategy using macrophytes with low nutrient and high toughness, cellulose and phenolic contents. PMID:26927135

  6. Hydrological management for improving nutrient assimilative capacity in plant-dominated wetlands: A modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhihao; Yang, Zhifeng; Yin, Xinan; Cai, Yanpeng; Sun, Tao

    2016-07-15

    Wetland eutrophication is a global environmental problem. Besides reducing pollutant emissions, improving nutrient assimilative capacity in wetlands is also significant for preventing eutrophication. Hydrological management can improve nutrient assimilative capacity in wetlands through physical effects on the dilution capacity of water body and ecological effects on wetland nutrient cycles. The ecological effects are significant while were rarely considered in previous research. This study focused on the ecological effects of hydrological management on two crucial nutrient removal processes, plant uptake and biological denitrification, in plant-dominated wetlands. A dual-objective optimization model for hydrological management was developed to improve wetland nitrogen and phosphorus assimilative capacities, using upstream reservoir release as water regulating measure. The model considered the interactions between ecological processes and hydrological cycles in wetlands, and their joint effects on nutrient assimilative capacity. Baiyangdian Wetland, the largest freshwater wetland in northern China, was chosen as a case study. The results found that the annual total assimilative capacity of nitrogen (phosphorus) was 4754 (493) t under the optimal scheme for upstream reservoir operation. The capacity of nutrient removal during the summer season accounted for over 80% of the annual total removal capacity. It was interesting to find that the relationship between water inflow and nutrient assimilative capacity in a plant-dominated wetland satisfied a dose-response relationship commonly describing the response of an organism to an external stressor in the medical field. It illustrates that a plant-dominated wetland shows similar characteristics to an organism. This study offers a useful tool and some fresh implications for future management of wetland eutrophication prevention. PMID:27085151

  7. The Implications of Orthographic Intraference for the Teaching and Description of ESL: The Educated Nigerian English Examples (Implicaciones de la Intraferencia Ortográfica para la Enseñanza y Descripción del Inglés como Segunda Lengua: Ejemplos Inglés Nigeriano Formal)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekundayo, Omowumi Steve Bode

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines orthographic intraference and its implications for teaching and describing English as a second language (ESL). Orthographic intraference is used here to denote instances of single word spelling, acronyms, mix up of homophones, homonyms and compound word spelling arising not from interference but from orthographic rules and…

  8. World's wetlands. [Ecology and productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, R.

    1981-02-01

    The 70 million acres of wetlands represent a valuable US resource, providing spawning and nursery grounds for animals, productive areas for photosynthesis, cleansing water, and absorbing floods. Wetlands perform a valuable function in species diversification by nurturing vulnerable plants and animals. The formation of peat affects the carbon dioxide cycle by slowing the recycling of carbon dioxide. Research is needed to determine what will happen as development in the Arctic zones destroys peat and wetlands. (DCK)

  9. Concerns and Issues in the Professional Education of English Teachers, 1963-1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Majorie Nichols

    The purpose of this study was to identify major trends in the professional education of English teachers in the decade 1963-1973 as set forth in the records and publications of the National Council of Teachers of English and the Conference on English Education, and to consider their implications for future directions in English teacher education.…

  10. Restoration of Ailing Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Oswald J.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes) can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide. PMID:22291573

  11. Freshwater wetlands and wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    This volume is a product of the Freshwater Wetlands and Wildlife symposium held in Charleston, South Carolina, on March 24--27, 1986 and contains 94 papers. The stimulus for the symposium came from our interest in augmenting the findings of the long-term research programs on freshwater wetlands and wildlife that have been carried out on the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The symposium provided a forum on an international scale for the exchange of data about freshwater ecosystems: their functions, uses, and their future. The papers in this volume address issues related to natural, man-managed, and degraded ecosystems. The volume is divided into two sections. The first section deals with the functions and values of wetlands, including their use as habitat for plants and animals, their role in trophic dynamics, and their basic processes. The second section treats the subject of their status and management, including techniques for assessing their value, laws for protecting them, and plans for properly managing them. Individual papers will be indexed and entered separately on the energy data base.

  12. Living English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speight, Stephen

    1977-01-01

    The latest (July, 1976) edition of the "Concise Oxford Dictionary" is seen as "prescriptive," and of limited use to foreigners, since it lacks an international phonetic transcription. It is questioned whether sufficient treatment is given to new words, scientific words, non-British English, obscene language, change of meaning, and obsolescence.…

  13. English Downfall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theamishaugur

    2009-01-01

    In a remix of the infamous Hitler meme--taking a scene from the movie, "Downfall" (2005), and adding subtitles appropriate (in this case) for "Kairos" readers--theamishaugur makes a pointed, humorous (to some) commentary on the status of multimodal composition scholars in English departments during job market season.

  14. Chesapeake Bay subsidence monitored as wetlands loss continues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerem, R. S.; van Dam, T. M.; Schenewerk, M. S.

    Fragile wetland ecosystems, which support an abundance of wildlife, are being lost around the Chesapeake Bay at an alarming rate due to an increase in sea level. For example, one third of the total area of the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge (Figure 1) (approximately 20 km2) was lost between 1938 and 1979 [Leatherman, 1992]. Approximately 4,100 km2 of the perimeter of the Chesapeake Bay are covered by wetlands of which 58% forested wetlands and 28% are salt marshes. It is likely that many factors are responsible for the wetlands loss, some that have global implications, and some that reflect local phenomena.Understanding the mechanisms responsible for wetlands deterioration and loss, however, has been impeded by the lack of adequate data including quantitative monitoring of the types and distribution of flora, Tthe boundaries of specific habitat types, and data on the spatial variations in sea level and land subsidence. This article focuses on the latter problem, which is to determine the relative roles of sea level rise and land subsidence in the region. Over the past four years, a small network of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers have been installed near tide gauges in the Chesapeake Bay to help determine the cause of relative sea level rise in this region. These receivers are just beginning to yield results.

  15. Association Between Wetland Disturbance and Biological Attributes in Floodplain Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our study explored the relationship between agricultural related disturbance and variation in wetland biota. Our results are intended to provide resource managers with information and tools to asess the condition of floodplain wetlands and make better decisions in terms of their...

  16. EPA METHODS FOR EVALUATING WETLAND CONDITION, WETLANDS CLASSIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1999, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began work on this series of reports entitled Methods for Evaluating Wetland Condition. The purpose of these reports is to help States and Tribes develop methods to evaluate 1) the overall ecological condition of wetlands us...

  17. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are characterized by the frequent use of substitution, approximation, circumlocution, literal translation, exemplification, word-coinage, repetition, and the infrequent use of cultural-knowledge and paralinguistic CSs. The rare use of paralinguistic strategies is found to be typical of Chinese English learners. The high frequency of literal translation, one first language (L1)-based strategy in our study sample, suggests that FL learners' use of L1-based CSs may depend more upon the developmental stage of their target language than the typology distance between L1 and the target language. The frequency of repetition reveals one fact that the Chinese English learners lack variety and flexibility in their use of CSs. Based on these findings, it was indicated that learners' use of CSs is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the development stage of their interlanguage and their cultural background are identified as two important factors. Some implications are finally suggested for the English foreign language teaching practice in China. PMID:25134668

  18. Implications of discontinuous elevation gradients on fragmentation and restoration in patterned wetlands Read More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/ES11-00119.1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zweig, Christa L.; Reichert, Brian E.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2011-01-01

    Large wetlands around the world face the possibility of degradation, not only from complete conversion, but also from subtle changes in their structure and function. While fragmentation and isolation of wetlands within heterogeneous landscapes has received much attention, the disruption of spatial patterns/processes within large wetland systems and the resulting fragmentation of community components are less well documented. A greater understanding of pattern/process relationships and landscape gradients, and what occurs when they are altered, could help avoid undesirable consequences of restoration actions. The objective of this study is to determine the amount of fragmentation of sawgrass ridges due to artificial impoundment of water and how that may be differentially affected by spatial position relative to north and south levees. We also introduce groundbreaking evidence of landscape-level discontinuous elevation gradients within WCA3AS by comparing generalized linear and generalized additive models. These relatively abrupt breaks in elevation may have non-linear effects on hydrology and vegetation communities and would be crucial in restoration considerations. Modeling suggests there are abrupt breaks in elevation as a function of northing (Y-coordinate). Fragmentation indices indicate that fragmentation is a function of elevation and easting (X-coordinate), and that fragmentation has increased from 1988-2002. When landscapes change and the changes are compounded by non-linear landscape variables that are described herein, the maintenance processes change with them, creating a degraded feedback loop that alters the system's response to structuring variables and diminishes our ability to predict the effects of restoration projects or climate change. Only when these landscape variables and linkages are clearly defined can we predict the response to potential perturbations and apply the knowledge to other landscape-level wetland systems in need of future

  19. Space-based detection of wetlands' surface water level changes from L-band SAR interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wdowinski, S.; Kim, S.-W.; Amelung, F.; Dixon, T.H.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F.; Sonenshein, R.

    2008-01-01

    Interferometric processing of JERS-1 L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data acquired over south Florida during 1993-1996 reveals detectable surface changes in the Everglades wetlands. Although our study is limited to south Florida it has implication for other large-scale wetlands, because south Florida wetlands have diverse vegetation types and both managed and natural flow environments. Our analysis reveals that interferometric coherence level is sensitive to wetland vegetation type and to the interferogram time span. Interferograms with time spans less than six months maintain phase observations for all wetland types, allowing characterization of water level changes in different wetland environments. The most noticeable changes occur between the managed and the natural flow wetlands. In the managed wetlands, fringes are organized, follow patterns related to some of the managed water control structures and have high fringe-rate. In the natural flow areas, fringes are irregular and have a low fringe-rate. The high fringe rate in managed areas reflects dynamic water topography caused by high flow rate due to gate operation. Although this organized fringe pattern is not characteristic of most large-scale wetlands, the high level of water level change enables accurate estimation of the wetland InSAR technique, which lies in the range of 5-10??cm. The irregular and low rate fringe pattern in the natural flow area reflects uninterrupted flow that diffuses water efficiently and evenly. Most of the interferograms in the natural flow area show an elongated fringe located along the transitional zone between salt- and fresh-water wetlands, reflecting water level changes due to ocean tides. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Processes contributing to resilience of coastal wetlands to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stagg, Camille L.; Krauss, Ken W.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Cormier, Nicole; Conner, William H.; Swarzenski, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify processes that contribute to resilience of coastal wetlands subject to rising sea levels and to determine whether the relative contribution of these processes varies across different wetland community types. We assessed the resilience of wetlands to sea-level rise along a transitional gradient from tidal freshwater forested wetland (TFFW) to marsh by measuring processes controlling wetland elevation. We found that, over 5 years of measurement, TFFWs were resilient, although some marginally, and oligohaline marshes exhibited robust resilience to sea-level rise. We identified fundamental differences in how resilience is maintained across wetland community types, which have important implications for management activities that aim to restore or conserve resilient systems. We showed that the relative importance of surface and subsurface processes in controlling wetland surface elevation change differed between TFFWs and oligohaline marshes. The marshes had significantly higher rates of surface accretion than the TFFWs, and in the marshes, surface accretion was the primary contributor to elevation change. In contrast, elevation change in TFFWs was more heavily influenced by subsurface processes, such as root zone expansion or compaction, which played an important role in determining resilience of TFFWs to rising sea level. When root zone contributions were removed statistically from comparisons between relative sea-level rise and surface elevation change, sites that previously had elevation rate deficits showed a surplus. Therefore, assessments of wetland resilience that do not include subsurface processes will likely misjudge vulnerability to sea-level rise.

  1. Malaysia Promotes Excellence in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murugesan, Vinodini

    2003-01-01

    Highlights the role of English in Malaysia, English in the education system, students learning English, English teachers, instruction and the syllabus, inservice support, private English education, English in tertiary education, and opportunities for teachers in Malaysia. (VWL)

  2. PERFORMANCE CRITERIA FOR WETLAND RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new publication from EPA Wetland Research Program called An Approach to Improving Decision Making in Wetland Restoration and Creation is a synthesis of five years of research done under the program. ach book chapter takes an aspect of the approach and develops it. undamentally,...

  3. Critical Questions in Wetland Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands are transitional between terrestrial and aquatic environments. As such, they perform important ecological functions (e.g., nutrient cycling, flood abatement) providing a variety of ecosystem services on which humans rely. Wetlands are also one of the world’s most e...

  4. HUMAN IMPACTS TO MINNESOTA WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Minnesota's 3.6 million ha of wetlands have been impacted by a variety of human activities, including agricultural drainage, urbanization, water control, and nonpoint source pollution. ore than half of Minnesota's wetlands have been destroyed since the first European settlers arr...

  5. WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY ARTIFICIAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies of artificial wetlands at Santee, California demonstrated the capacity of wetlands systems for integrated secondary and advanced treatment of municipal wastewaters. When receiving a blend of primary and secondary wastewaters at a blend ratio of 1:2 (6 cm per day: 12 cm pe...

  6. Wetland indicators. A guide to wetland identification, delineation, classification, and mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Tiner, R.W.

    1999-07-01

    Understand the current concept of wetland and methods for identifying, describing, classifying, and delineating wetlands with ``Wetland Indicators'' capturing the current state of science's role in wetland recognition and mapping. Environmental scientists and others involved with wetland regulations can strengthen their knowledge about wetlands, and the use of various indicators, to support their decisions on difficult wetland determinations. professor Tiner primarily focuses on plants, soils, and other signs of wetland hydrology in the soil, or on the surface of wetlands in his discussion of the book.

  7. The Rising Tide of Estuary English: The Changing Nature of Oral British Business Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, James Calvert

    1995-01-01

    Defines "Estuary English," a fast-growing accent of British English that is spreading across England. Discusses its usage in the British business community; its acceptability and future; and its implications for business communicators, teachers, and consultants. (SR)

  8. Official English or English Only.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalker, James C.

    1988-01-01

    Traces the historical background of language diversity in the United States. Argues that the desire to maintain English as the common language of the United States will be brought about more effectively through the American tradition of persuasion and democracy than through linguistic legislation. (ARH)

  9. Influence of wetland size on aquatic communities within wetland reservoir subirrigation systems in northwestern Ohio.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishment of a water management system known as the wetland-reservoir subirrigation system (WRSIS) results in the creation of wetlands adjacent to agricultural fields. Specifically, each WRSIS consists of one wetland designed to process agricultural chemicals (WRSIS wetlands) and one wetland to ...

  10. Post-sampling mortality and non-response patterns in the English Cancer Patient Experience Survey: Implications for epidemiological studies based on surveys of cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Gary A.; Saunders, Catherine L.; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Background Surveys of the experience of cancer patients are increasingly being introduced in different countries and used in cancer epidemiology research. Sampling processes, post-sampling mortality and survey non-response can influence the representativeness of cancer patient surveys. Methods We examined predictors of post-sampling mortality and non-response among patients initially included in the sampling frame of the English Cancer Patient Experience Survey. We also compared the respondents’ diagnostic case-mix to other relevant populations of cancer patients, including incident and prevalent cases. Results Of 109,477 initially sampled cancer patients, 6273 (5.7%) died between sampling and survey mail-out. Older age and diagnosis of brain, lung and pancreatic cancer were associated with higher risk of post-sampling mortality. The overall response rate was 67% (67,713 respondents), being >70% for the most affluent patients and those diagnosed with colon or breast cancer and <50% for Asian or Black patients, those under 35 and those diagnosed with brain cancer. The diagnostic case-mix of respondents varied substantially from incident or prevalent cancer cases. Conclusions Respondents to the English Cancer Patient Experience Survey represent a population of recently treated cancer survivors. Although patient survey data can provide unique insights for improving cancer care quality, features of survey populations need to be acknowledged when analysing and interpreting findings from studies using such data. PMID:26797675

  11. Climate Change and Intertidal Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Pauline M.; Adam, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause—the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the “squeeze” experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change. PMID:24832670

  12. Hydrology of Mid-Atlantic Freshwater Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrology is a key variable in the structure and function of a wetland; it is a primary determinant of wetland type, and it drives many of the functions a wetland performs and in turn the services it provides. However, wetland hydrology has been understudied. Efforts by Riparia s...

  13. Wetlands: Water, Wildlife, Plants, and People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Describes wetlands and explains their importance to man and ecology. Delineates the role of water in wetlands. Describes how wetlands are classified: estuarine, riverine, lacustrine, palustrine, and marine. Accompanying article is a large, color poster on wetlands. Describes an activity where metaphors are used to explore the functions of…

  14. Applied wetlands science and technology. 2. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    The book provides the fundamentals for defining and regulating wetlands, as well as identifying and delineating wetlands. Functions and values, ecological assessments, and minimization of impacts to wetlands are covered as is background information on wetland enhancement, restoration, creation, and monitoring.

  15. 77 FR 63326 - Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... this process through a notice in the Federal Register (73 FR 53439, September 16, 2008). We released... in the Federal Register (76 FR 65525, October 21, 2011). Huron Wetland Management District was..., Madison, and Sand Lake Wetland Management Districts from October 21, 2011 to November 21, 2011 (76...

  16. Factors influencing wetland use by Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naugle, D.E.; Gleason, J.S.; Jenks, J.A.; Higgins, K.F.; Mammenga, P.W.; Nusser, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Seasonal and semi-permanent wetlands in eastern South Dakota were surveyed in 1995 and 1996 to identify habitat characteristics influencing wetland use by Canada geese (Branta canadensis maxima). Position of a wetland within the landscape and its area were important landscape-scale features influencing wetland use by geese. Our delineation of potential Canada goose habitat using a wetland geographic information system indicated that distribution and area of semi-permanent wetlands likely limit Canada goose occurrence in regions outside the Prairie Coteau. Periodicity in hydrologic cycles within landscapes also may influence goose use of wetlands in eastern South Dakota.

  17. ENGLISH AND THE DISADVANTAGED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FAGAN, EDWARD R., ED.

    PART 1 OF THIS COLLECTION OF ARTICLES BY THE STAFF AND PARTICIPANTS OF AN NDEA SUMMER INSTITUTE IN ENGLISH FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH DESCRIBES ATTITUDES AND VIEWPOINTS ON THE PLACE OF ENGLISH IN THE DAILY LIVES OF STUDENTS AND CONTAINS ARTICLES ON "ENGLISH FOR WHAT" BY CHARLES WEINGARTNER, "ENGLISH TEACHING AND DROP-OUTS" AND "ENGLISH AND THE…

  18. English Teaching Profile: Bahrain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A profile of the state of English and English instruction in Bahrain covers the following topics: description of the role and status of English language use in industry and commerce, government, and education; the role of English at all levels of the educational system; the availability, characteristics, and qualifications of teachers of English;…

  19. English in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jernudd, Bjorn H.

    This paper provides a review of "English Transported: Essays on Australasian English," edited by W. S. Ramson. The book is a collection of articles on the various types of English spoken mainly in Australia and New Zealand. Articles discuss such varieties as nineteenth and twentieth century Australian English, New Zealand English, Pidgin English…

  20. Rainwater lenses in wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, S. C.; Schot, P. P.; Bootsma, M. C.

    2003-04-01

    In the Netherlands, drainage and groundwater abstraction in wetlands has lead to deterioration of fen vegetation through lowering of the phreatic level. This enables recharge of local, acid precipitation and the development of rainwater lenses which float on alkaline groundwater. These lenses prevent upward seeping of the groundwater reaching the fen root zone. In the nature reserve Ilperveld (The Netherlands), a ditch/trench system was dug for the purpose of creating run-off for acid rainwater in wet periods, and to enable neutral surface water in dry periods. Sods were removed to decrease the evapotranspiration. Knowledge of the form and behaviour of rainwater lenses in the root zone of wetlands is a prerequisite in fen restoration projects in order to design effective and cost-efficient measures. With a saturated-unsaturated solute transport model (HYDRUS-2D), numerical simulations were performed. Model results are compared with temporal and spatial measurements of electrical conductivity measured in the Ilperveld. Furthermore, results of temporal dynamics of rainwater lenses are shown as function of (i) the phreatic level, (ii) the number of drainage canals and (iii) the groundwater inflow fluxes.

  1. Atrazine remediation in wetland microcosms.

    PubMed

    Runes, H B; Bottomley, P J; Lerch, R N; Jenkins, J J

    2001-05-01

    Laboratory wetland microcosms were used to study treatment of atrazine in irrigation runoff by a field-scale-constructed wetland under controlled conditions. Three experiments, in which 1 ppm atrazine was added to the water column of three wetland, one soil control, and one water control microcosm, were conducted. Atrazine dissipation from the water column and degradate formation (deethylatrazine [DEA]; deisopropylatrazine [DIA]; and hydroxyatrazine [HA]) were monitored. Atrazine dissipation from the water column of wetland microcosms was biphasic. Less than 12% of the atrazine applied to wetland microcosms remained in the water column on day 56. Atrazine degradates were observed in water and sediment, with HA the predominant degradate. Analysis of day 56 sediment samples indicated that a significant portion of the initial application was detected as the parent compound and HA. Most probable number (MPN) assays demonstrated that atrazine degrader populations were small in wetland sediment. Wetland microcosms were able to reduce atrazine concentration in the water column via sorption and degradation. Based on results from this study, it is hypothesized that plant uptake contributed to atrazine dissipation from the water column. PMID:11337869

  2. Hydrogeologic characterization of Illinois wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Miner, J.J.; Miller, M.V.; Rorick, N.L.; Fucciolo, C.S. )

    1994-04-01

    The Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), under contract from the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), is evaluating a series of selected wetlands and sites proposed for wetland construction and/or restoration. The program is associated with wetland mitigation for unavoidable effects of state highway construction. The goal of this ongoing program is: (1) to collect commonly lacking geologic, geomorphic, hydrologic, and geochemical data from various wetland sites; and (2) to create a database of this information for use by government agencies and the private sector. Some of the potential uses of this database include: (1) determination of history, role, and possible life cycle of various wetland types allowing more effective design criteria; (2) functional comparison of constructed or restored wetlands versus natural wetlands; (3) testing of wetland hypotheses and delineation techniques under a variety of known hydrogeologic conditions in Illinois; (4) hydrogeologic assessment of potential mitigation sites against a suite of known sites; and (5) determination of data and collection methods appropriate for hydrogeologic wetland studies. A series of tasks is required to complete each study. Historical information is collected from ISGS records, including data regarding topography, soils, sediments, bedrock, and local well records. A field-testing plan is prepared, which includes goals of the study, methods, research potential, and potential results. An initial report is prepared after geologic and geochemical characterization and the installation of needed ground water monitoring wells and surface water gauges. After one year of water-level monitoring, a final report is prepared regarding the present conditions of a site. Further monitoring may be required to determine the performance at constructed and/or restored sites.

  3. Effects of climate on numbers of northern prairie wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    The amount of water held in individual wetland basins depends not only on local climate patterns but also on groundwater flow regime, soil permeability, and basin size. Most wetland basins in the northern prairies hold water in some years and are dry in others. To assess the potential effect of climate change on the number of wetland basins holding water in a given year, one must first determine how much of the variability in number of wet basins is accounted for by climatic variables. I used multiple linear regression to examine the relationship between climate variables and percentage of wet basins throughout the Prairie Pothole Region of Canada and the United States. The region was divided into three areas: parkland, Canadian grassland, and United States grassland (i.e., North Dakota and South Dakota). The models - which included variables for spring and fall temperature, yearly precipitation, the previous year's count of wet basins, and for grassland areas, the previous fall precipitation - accounted for 63 to 65% of the variation in the number of wet basins. I then explored the sensitivities of the models to changes in temperature and precipitation, as might be associated with increased greenhouse gas concentrations. Parkland wetlands are shown to be much more vulnerable to increased temperatures than are wetlands in either Canadian or United States grasslands. Sensitivity to increased precipitation did not vary geographically. These results have implications for waterfowl and other wildlife populations that depend on availability of wetlands in the parklands for breeding or during periods of drought in the southern grasslands.

  4. Methane Fluxes from Subtropical Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLucia, N.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Bernacchi, C.

    2013-12-01

    It is well documented that green house gas concentrations have risen at unequivocal rates since the industrial revolution but the disparity between anthropogenic sources and natural sources is uncertain. Wetlands are one example of a natural ecosystem that can be a substantial source or sink for methane (CH4) depending on climate conditions. Due to strict anaerobic conditions required for CH4-generating microorganisms, natural wetlands are one of the main sources for biogenic CH4. Although wetlands occupy less than 5% of total land surface area, they contribute approximately 20% of total CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. The processes regulating CH4 emissions are sensitive to land use and management practices of areas surrounding wetlands. Variation in adjacent vegetation or grazing intensity by livestock can, for example, alter CH4 fluxes from wetland soils by altering nutrient balance, carbon inputs and hydrology. Therefore, understanding how these changes will affect wetland source strength is essential to understand the impact of wetland management practices on the global climate system. In this study we quantify wetland methane fluxes from subtropical wetlands on a working cattle ranch in central Florida near Okeechobee Lake (27o10'52.04'N, 81o21'8.56'W). To determine differences in CH4 fluxes associated with land use and management, a replicated (n = 4) full factorial experiment was designed for wetlands where the surrounding vegetation was (1) grazed or un-grazed and (2) composed of native vegetation or improved pasture. Net exchange of CH4 and CO2 between the land surface and the atmosphere were sampled with a LICOR Li-7700 open path CH4 analyzer and Li-7500A open path CO2/H20 analyzer mounted in a 1-m3 static gas-exchange chamber. Our results showed and verified that CH4 emissions from subtropical wetlands were larger when high soil moisture was coupled with high temperatures. The presence of cattle only amplified these results. These results help quantify

  5. Small and Large-scale Drivers of Denitrification Patterns in "Accidental" Urban Wetlands in Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchy, A. K.; Palta, M. M.; Childers, D. L.; Stromberg, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal patterns of microbial conversion of nitrate (NO3-) to nitrogen (N) gas (denitrification) is important for predicting permanent losses of reactive N from systems. In many landscapes, wetlands serve as hotpots of denitrification by providing optimal condition for denitrifiers (sub-oxic, carbon-rich sediments). Much research on denitrification has occurred in non-urban or highly managed urban wetlands. However, in urban landscapes N-rich stormwater is often discharged into areas not designed or managed to reduce N loads. "Accidental" wetlands forming at these outfalls may have the capacity to remove NO3-; however, these "accidental" urban wetlands can contain novel soils and vegetation, and are subject to unique hydrologic conditions that could create spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification that differ from those predicted in non-urban counterparts. We performed denitrification enzyme assays (measuring denitrification potential, or DP) on soil samples taken from nine wetlands forming at storm drain outfalls in Phoenix, AZ. The wetlands ranged from perennially flooded, to intermittently flooded (~9 months/year), to ephemerally flooded (2-3 weeks/year). To assess spatial variation in carbon availability to denitrifiers, samples were taken from 3-4 dominant vegetation patch types within each wetland. To assess temporal variation in DP, samples were taken across three seasons differing in rainfall pattern. We found small- and large-scale spatiotemporal patterns in DP that have important implications for management of urban wetlands for stormwater quality. DP varied among plant patches and was typically highest in patches of Ludwigia peploides, indicating that plant species type may mediate within-wetland variations in carbon availability, and therefore NO3- removal capacity. We found a range of responses in DP among wetlands to season, which appeared to be driven in part by flood regime: DP in perennially-flooded wetlands was

  6. A Structural History of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, John

    This book combines a traditional history-of-the-language approach with modern linguistic analysis to discuss the history of English from Old English through Middle English, Early Modern English, Authoritarian English, Mature Modern English, to American English. The book begins with a discussion of the present status and structure of English. Each…

  7. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Constructed wetlands have been demonstrated effective in removing organic, metal, and nutrient elements including nitrogen and phosphorus from municipal wastewaters, mine drainage, industrial effluents, and agricultural runoff. The technology is waste stream-specific, requiring...

  8. 76 FR 22785 - Wetland Conservation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... Water Act (CWA) and Title XII of the Food Security Act of 1985 (FSA). The MOA was developed to... Subjects in 7 CFR Part 12 Administrative practices and procedures, Soil conservation, Wetlands. For...

  9. REMOTE SENSING AND GIS WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Learn how photographs and computer sensor generated images can illustrate conditions of hydrology, extent, change over time, and impact of events such as hurricanes and tornados. Other topics include: information storage and modeling, and evaluation of wetlands for managing reso...

  10. Study of natural wetlands associated with acid mine drainage. Final research report Jul 87-Dec 90

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, L.R.

    1990-12-01

    Thirty-five natural wetlands impacted by acid mine drainage (mostly in western PA) were surveyed for abiotic and biotic parameters in relation to water quality. Using treatment efficiency and area-adjusted mass retention as wetland performance indices, correlation analyses and multiple regression techniques were employed to evaluate the influence of the wetland parameters on the mitigation of pH, Fe, Mn, and Al. Elevation of pH was correlated with large, broad, low-flow wetlands with shallow, non-channelized surface water, inlet alkalinity, and dense populations of vascular plants and bryophytes. Moderate and high iron concentrations interfered with the mitigation of pH. High Fe treatment efficiencies were correlated to low flows, large areas, broad shapes, non-channelized flows, exposed locations, a diverse and dense vegetative cover, and inlet alkalinity. Large wetlands having lush vascular plant cover and receiving alkaline waters low in total iron concentrations were implicated in significant Mn treatment. Outlet Fe concentrations were usually in compliance in wetlands that significantly lowered Mn concentrations. Algae tolerate manganese but probably do not play an active role in its elimination. Reliable indices of wetland performance include area-adjusted mass retention (for pH) and treatment efficiency (for metals).

  11. Ecohydraulics and Estuarine Wetland Rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, J. F.; Howe, A.; Saintilan, N.; Spencer, J.

    2004-12-01

    The hydraulics or water flow in wetlands is known to be a key factor influencing ecosystem development in estuarine wetland environments. The relationship is indirect, with the hydraulics of wetlands influencing a host of factors including soil salinity, waterlogging, sediment transport, sediment chemistry, vegetation dispersal and growth and nutrient availability and cycling. The relationship is also not one way, with the hydraulics of wetlands being influenced by plant and animal activity. Understanding these complex interactions is fundamental for the adequate management of estuarine wetlands. Listed as a Wetland of International Importance under the 1971 Ramsar Convention, the Hunter River estuary is regarded as the most significant site for migratory shorebirds in New South Wales, Australia. Over the past 20 years, the number of migratory shorebirds in the estuary has sharply declined from 8,000 to 4,000 approx. Alteration of bird habitat is believed to be one of the reasons for this alarming trend. In 2004 we started a three-year program to investigate the links between hydraulics, sediment, benthic invertebrates, vegetation and migratory shorebird habitat in the estuary. During the first year we have focused on a highly disturbed part of the Hunter estuary wetlands located on Ash Island. The area is one of the major roosting sites in the estuary and is characterized by a complex hydraulic regime due to a restricted tidal interchange with the Hunter River and the presence of infrastructure for the maintenance of power lines (i.e., roads, bridges, culverts). Salt marshes, mudflat and mangroves are the dominant vegetation types. The monitoring program includes measurements of water levels, salinity, discharge, velocity, turbulence, sediment transport and deposition, plant species and density, soil composition and benthic invertebrates coordinated with observations of bird habitat utilization on a number of locations throughout the wetland and for different flow

  12. Landscape characteristics of a stream and wetland mitigation banking program.

    PubMed

    BenDor, Todd; Sholtes, Joel; Doyle, Martin W

    2009-12-01

    In the United States, stream restoration is an increasing part of environmental and land management programs, particularly under the auspices of compensatory mitigation regulations. Markets and regulations surrounding stream mitigation are beginning to mirror those of the well-established wetland mitigation industry. Recent studies have shown that wetland mitigation programs commonly shift wetlands across space from urban to rural areas, thereby changing the functional characteristics and benefits of wetlands in the landscape. However, it is not yet known if stream mitigation mirrors this behavior, and if so, what effects this may have on landscape-scale ecological and hydrological processes. This project addresses three primary research questions. (1) What are the spatial relationships between stream and wetland impact and compensation sites as a result of regulations requiring stream and wetland mitigation in the State of North Carolina? (2) How do stream impacts come about due to the actions of different types of developers, and how do the characteristics of impacts sites compare with compensation sites? (3) To what extent does stream compensation relocate high-quality streams within the river network, and how does this affect localized (intrawatershed) loss or gain of aquatic resources? Using geospatial data collected from the North Carolina Division of Water Quality and the Army Corps of Engineers' Wilmington District, we analyzed the behavior of the North Carolina Ecosystem Enhancement Program in providing stream and wetland mitigation for the State of North Carolina. Our results suggest that this program provides mitigation (1) in different ways for different types of permittees; (2) at great distances (both Euclidean and within the stream network) from original impacts; (3) in significantly different places than impacts within watersheds; and (4) in many cases, in different watersheds from original impacts. Our analysis also reveals problems with regulator

  13. Hydrologic indices for nontidal wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lent, R.M.; Weiskel, P.K.; Lyford, F.P.; Armstrong, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    Two sets of hydrologic indices were developed to characterize the water-budget components of nontidal wetlands. The first set consisted of six water-budget indices for input and output variables, and the second set consisted of two hydrologic interaction indices derived from the water-budget indices. The indices then were applied to 19 wetlands with previously published water-budget data. Two trilinear diagrams for each wetland were constructed, one for the three input indices and another for the three output indices. These two trilinear diagrams then were combined with a central quadrangle to form a Piper-type diagram, with data points from the trilinear diagrams projected onto the quadrangle. The quadrangle then was divided into nine fields that summarized the water-budget information. Two quantitative "interaction indices" were calculated from two of the six water-budget indices (precipitation and evapotranspiration). They also were obtained graphically from the water-budget indices, which were first projected to the central quadrangle of a Piper-type diagram from the flanking trilinear plots. The first interaction index (l) defines the strength of interaction between a wetland and the surrounding ground- and surface-water system. The second interaction index (S) defines the nature of the interaction between the wetland and the surrounding ground- and surface-water system (source versus sink). Evaluation of these indices using published wetland water-budget data illustrates the usefulness of the technique.

  14. World Englishes and English-Using Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachru, Braj B.

    1997-01-01

    A review of literature since 1990 on world English focuses on theoretical, conceptual, descriptive, ideological, and power-related issues, including: types of diaspora; English-using communities; dynamics of those communities; monolingual paradigms and heteroglossic English forms; transcultural literary creativity; codification and authentication…

  15. Airport expansion requires major wetlands mitigation project

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the steps taken to mitigate the impact to existing wetlands by creating new wetlands in an airport expansion project. The project addressed maintaining suitable amounts of wetlands to accommodate peak waterfowl populations, moving of high voltage power transmission towers, and maintaining agricultural and hunting interests. This project involved recreating of open water areas, marsh habitat, mud flat habitat, saline meadow habitat, maintaining two existing wetlands in the area of the new wetlands without disturbing them, and improving upland habitat surrounding the new wetlands.

  16. Methylmercury Bioaccumulation in Rice and Wetland Biota: employing integrated indices of processes that drive methylmercury risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagles-Smith, C.; Ackerman, J.; Windham-Myers, L.; Fleck, J.

    2013-12-01

    concentrations increased across rice fields from inlets to outlets indicating that in situ processes enhanced MeHg production rice fields, whereas concentrations decreased from inlets to outlets in managed wetlands. Finally, our preliminary results suggest organic carbon associated with rice plants was an important contributor to fish Hg concentrations, whereas plants in managed wetlands were not strongly linked to fish Hg concentrations. Our preliminary findings suggest that there are strong linkages between biogeochemical processes inherent in rice wetlands and MeHg cycling and bioaccumulation, which are further described in a companion presentation by Windham-Myers (this session). These results have important implications for managing MeHg risk in areas with extensive rice agriculture.

  17. Our nation's wetlands (video). Audio-Visual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Department of the Interior is custodian of approximately 500 million acres of federally owned land and has an important role to play in the management of wetlands. To contribute to the President's goal of no net loss of America's remaining wetlands, the Department of the Interior has initiated a 3-point program consisting of wetlands protection, restoration, and research: Wetlands Protection--Reduce wetlands losses on federally owned lands and encourage state and private landholders to practice wetlands conservation; Wetlands Restoration--Increase wetlands gains through the restoration and creation of wetlands on both public and private lands; Wetlands Research--Provide a foundation of scientific knowledge to guide future actions and decisions about wetlands. The audiovisual is a slide/tape-to-video transfer illustrating the various ways Interior bureaus are working to preserve our Nation's wetlands. The tape features an introduction by Secretary Manuel Lujan on the importance of wetlands and recognizing the benefit of such programs as the North American Waterfowl Management Program.

  18. The Role of Culture in English Language Education: Key Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    English language education is in the process of change regarding teacher identity and the ownership of English. Cultural issues are implicated in this change. Critical cosmopolitan approaches in the social sciences are critiquing the primacy of national cultures which they consider a Western imposition on the emergent identities of the Periphery.…

  19. English in the National Curriculum: The Cox Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Use of English, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Discusses implications of the Cox Report on English instruction in Great Britain. Questions the definitions of aims and responsibilities outlined in the report. Suggests that the magnitude of what teachers are called upon to teach and assess will diffuse rather than concentrate attention on what matters most in English as a distinctive subject.…

  20. Global English and Local Language Policies: What Denmark Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the mythology and imagery underpinning global English, the many labels used to describe English, and the transition from an imperialist language into one that meshes with ongoing processes of Europeanization and Americanization, largely through the influence of transnational corporations. Implications are drawn for Danish, in Denmark, a…

  1. English as a Lingua Franca: Towards Changing Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leichsenring, Andrew; McBride, Paul; Ogane, Ethel; Milliner, Brett

    2015-01-01

    The Center for English as a Lingua Franca (CELF), an initiative of a private university in Tokyo, was founded with serious consideration given to the pedagogical implications of the widespread use of English as a lingua franca (ELF). Such deliberation is not yet prevalent among academics and practitioners who should be most affected by ELF…

  2. Language, Society, and Education: A Profile of Black English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeStefano, Johanna S.

    The selections in this book reflect a concern for understanding urban ghetto vernicular and its implications for teachers. Chapter one provides preliminary information on Black English and an orientation to the linguistic viewpoint taken by the remaining articles. Chapter two discusses the social conditions under which Black English may be spoken;…

  3. Two Analyses of the ASL to English Continuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, James; Allen, Thomas

    A study examined English grammatical characteristics used in the signing of teachers of hearing-impaired students, using a diglossic continuum between American Sign Language (ASL) and English. Scalogram analysis or implicational scaling, a traditional tool in variation theory useful for analyzing samples where there are a small number of tokens…

  4. Issues in Reconstructing Earlier African-American English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfram, Walt

    2000-01-01

    Identifies the major issues that need to be confronted in resolving the controversy over the historical roots of African American Vernacular English. and discusses their implications for reconstruction. (Author/VWL)

  5. Sequestration of carbon and phosphorus in subtropical grazed historically isolated wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, J. D.; Jawitz, J. W.

    2009-12-01

    Hydrologic restoration of ditched and drained wetlands within the 12000 km2 Lake Okeechobee basin (LOB), FL is expected to promote carbon (C) accretion and phosphorus (P) retention. The majority of P loading to Lake Okeechobee is attributed to historical pasture fertilization and continued high density cattle activity which perpetuate elevated P transport to the lake from dairies and cow/calf operations. Isolated wetlands which dominate the LOB landscape have been historically ditched to increase pasture area for grazing. Current best management practices intended to reduce P transport to the lake include the option of fencing wetlands in cattle pastures to prevent cattle access. The objective of this study was to develop a predictive model of the dynamics of wetland biomass, soil accretion, C and P. The coupled effects of grazing intensity, highly transient water level, and seasonality were incorporated. The model was conditioned based on approximately three years of monitoring data from four isolated wetlands in the LOB. Drought-induced declining water table resulted in decreased wetland plant biomass in both grazed and ungrazed simulations but reduction was more severe in the grazed simulations. High intensity grazing during flooded conditions resulted in declines in wetland plant biomass due to disconnection between leaves and the air column. Standing biomass and C and P storage in vegetation increased with the exclusion of grazing in these wetlands. Although vegetation nutrient storage is short term, biomass turnover supports accretion of soil and associated C and P. Predicted implications for C and P sequestration at the watershed scale and reduction of P load to the lake are directly related to the wetland area that can be excluded from grazing.

  6. "Until" in Singapore English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bao, Zhiming; Wee, Lionel

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated the syntax and semantics of the word "until" in Standard British English and Singapore English. While the word is used similarly in the two languages, it has uses in Singapore English not available in Standard Spoken English, paralleling the word "dao" in Chinese and suggesting a substrate influence that is structural in…

  7. On Observing World English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urdang, Lawrence

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the current state of World English. Subjects addressed include standard accents and dialects, prejudicial attitudes toward nonstandard "local" usages, the use of English as the language of diplomacy, American influences on the language, and the fracturing of English in non-English-speaking countries around the world. (17 references) (JL)

  8. English for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Daniel D.; And Others

    The text for English as a second language is designed to help Peace Corps volunteers and Korean teachers of English improve English language instruction in South Korea. It is not a complete course, but a review of basic English grammar for use in classroom communication, designed as a basis for curriculum and materials development. Topics covered…

  9. English Plus. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewelling, Vickie W.

    Recent efforts to make English the only official language of the United States have spurred an "English Plus" language advocacy movement, based on the belief that all U.S. residents should have the opportunity to become proficient in English and one or more other languages. For non-native English speakers, this means opportunity to acquire…

  10. English as "Tyrannosaurus Rex."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swales, John M.

    1997-01-01

    The increasing domination of English as the world's leading medium of international professional communication has begun to impact English for Academic Purposes (EAP) programs, specifically the question of whether English is becoming too successful. The article argues that resistance to the "triumphalism" of English is a responsibility of EAP…

  11. English Teaching in Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arazi, Blanca

    2002-01-01

    Examines the teaching of English in Argentina, a country that has had a myriad of English language teaching activities at all levels for many decades--mostly in British English. Looks at English in binational centers, in schools, and at the university level; methodological approach; language assessment; teacher training; and the current economic…

  12. Michigan Wetlands: Yours To Protect. A Citizen's Guide to Local Involvement in Wetland Protection. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwikiel, Wilfred

    This guidebook is designed to assist concerned Michigan citizens, local governments, conservation organizations, landowners, and others in their efforts to initiate wetlands protection activities. Chapter 1 focuses on wetland functions, values, losses, and the urgent need to protect wetland resources. Chapter 2 discusses wetland identification and…

  13. Official English and English Plus: An Update. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewelling, Vickie W.

    This digest provides an overview of the opposing sides in the Official English debate--Official English and English Plus. Proponents of Official English seek to make English the official language of the United States through passage of a constitutional amendment. The movement is spearheaded by two groups, U.S. English and English First. Official…

  14. Quantification of training load during one-, two- and three-game week schedules in professional soccer players from the English Premier League: implications for carbohydrate periodisation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Liam; Orme, Patrick; Di Michele, Rocco; Close, Graeme L; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2016-07-01

    Muscle glycogen is the predominant energy source for soccer match play, though its importance for soccer training (where lower loads are observed) is not well known. In an attempt to better inform carbohydrate (CHO) guidelines, we quantified training load in English Premier League soccer players (n = 12) during a one-, two- and three-game week schedule (weekly training frequency was four, four and two, respectively). In a one-game week, training load was progressively reduced (P < 0.05) in 3 days prior to match day (total distance = 5223 ± 406, 3097 ± 149 and 2912 ± 192 m for day 1, 2 and 3, respectively). Whilst daily training load and periodisation was similar in the one- and two-game weeks, total accumulative distance (inclusive of both match and training load) was higher in a two-game week (32.5 ± 4.1 km) versus one-game week (25.9 ± 2 km). In contrast, daily training total distance was lower in the three-game week (2422 ± 251 m) versus the one- and two-game weeks, though accumulative weekly distance was highest in this week (35.5 ± 2.4 km) and more time (P < 0.05) was spent in speed zones >14.4 km · h(-1) (14%, 18% and 23% in the one-, two- and three-game weeks, respectively). Considering that high CHO availability improves physical match performance but high CHO availability attenuates molecular pathways regulating training adaptation (especially considering the low daily customary loads reported here, e.g., 3-5 km per day), we suggest daily CHO intake should be periodised according to weekly training and match schedules. PMID:26536538

  15. Influence of wetland type, hydrology, and wetland destruction on aquatic communities within wetland reservoir subirrigation systems in northwestern Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishment of an agricultural water recycling system known as the wetland reservoir subirrigation system (WRSIS) results in the creation of two different types of wetlands adjacent to agricultural fields. Each WRSIS consists of one treatment wetland designed to process agricultural contaminants (...

  16. DESIGN PRINCIPLES FOR WETLAND TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Published data pertaining to the treatment of wastewater by 26 wetlands have been assembled and analyzed to identify general principles for successful design of wetland facilities. Source of operating data have been tabulated. Performance is correlated with overall system feature...

  17. Quantifying The Water Quality Services Of Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands are well recognized for their potential for providing a wide range of important ecological services including their ability to provide water quality protection. Watershed-scale water quality trading could create market driven incentives to restore and construct wetlands...

  18. National water summary on wetland resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fretwell, J. D., (compiler); Williams, John S.; Redman, Phillip J.

    1996-01-01

    This National Water Summary on Wetland Resources documents wetland resources in the United States. It presents an overview of the status of knowledge of wetlands at the present time-what they are, where they are found, why they are important, and the controversies surrounding them, with an emphasis on their hydrology. Wetland resources in each State, the District of Columbia (combined with Maryland), Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the western Pacific Islands are described.

  19. Insight into Learners' Identity in the Korean English as a Lingua Franca Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Haesoon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore Korean English learners' identity and pedagogical implications of the findings. After a brief explanation about why the manners of examining English learners' identity can be diverse according to their sociocultural context, as an agency of Korean English learners' identity representation, their…

  20. Landscape context mediates influence of local food abundance on wetland use by wintering shorebirds in an agricultural valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taft, Oriane W.; Haig, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    While it is widely understood that local abundance of benthic invertebrates can greatly influence the distribution and abundance of wetland birds, no studies have examined if wetland landscape context can mediate this relationship. We studied the influence of wetland food abundance and landscape context on use of agricultural wetlands by wintering dunlin (Calidris alpina) and killdeer (Charadrius vociferus) in the Willamette Valley of Oregon, USA, over two winters (1999a??2000, 2000a??2001) of differing rainfall and subsequent habitat distribution. We monitored bird use (frequency of occurrence and abundance) at a sample of wetlands differing in local food abundance (density and biomass) and landscape context [adjacent shorebird habitat (defined as ha of wet habitat with less than 50% vegetative cover and within a 2-km radius) and nearest neighbor distance]. We evaluated predictive models for bird use using linear regression and the Cp criterion to select the most parsimonious model. During the dry winter (2000a??2001), dunlin exhibited greater use of sites with higher invertebrate density and biomass but also with more adjacent shorebird habitat and closest to a wetland neighbor. However, neither landscape context nor food abundance were important predictors of dunlin use during the wet winter (1999a??2000). Use of sites by killdeer was unrelated to either local food abundance or landscape context measures during both winters. Our findings contribute to a growing recognition of the importance of landscape structure to wetland birds and highlight a number of implications for the spatial planning and enhancement of wetlands using a landscape approach.

  1. Microbial Community Structure in Lake and Wetland Sediments from a High Arctic Polar Desert Revealed by Targeted Transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Stoeva, Magdalena K.; Aris-Brosou, Stéphane; Chételat, John; Hintelmann, Holger; Pelletier, Philip; Poulain, Alexandre J.

    2014-01-01

    While microbial communities play a key role in the geochemical cycling of nutrients and contaminants in anaerobic freshwater sediments, their structure and activity in polar desert ecosystems are still poorly understood, both across heterogeneous freshwater environments such as lakes and wetlands, and across sediment depths. To address this question, we performed targeted environmental transcriptomics analyses and characterized microbial diversity across three depths from sediment cores collected in a lake and a wetland, located on Cornwallis Island, NU, Canada. Microbial communities were characterized based on 16S rRNA and two functional gene transcripts: mcrA, involved in archaeal methane cycling and glnA, a bacterial housekeeping gene implicated in nitrogen metabolism. We show that methane cycling and overall bacterial metabolic activity are the highest at the surface of lake sediments but deeper within wetland sediments. Bacterial communities are highly diverse and structured as a function of both environment and depth, being more diverse in the wetland and near the surface. Archaea are mostly methanogens, structured by environment and more diverse in the wetland. McrA transcript analyses show that active methane cycling in the lake and wetland corresponds to distinct communities with a higher potential for methane cycling in the wetland. Methanosarcina spp., Methanosaeta spp. and a group of uncultured Archaea are the dominant methanogens in the wetland while Methanoregula spp. predominate in the lake. PMID:24594936

  2. North Dakota Wetlands Discovery Guide. Photocopy Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Nancy J., Ed.; And Others

    This booklet contains games and activities that can be photocopied for classroom use. Activities include Wetland Terminology, Putting on the Map, Erosional Forces, Water in...Water out, Who Lives Here?, Wetlands in Disguise, Dichotomous Plant Game, Algae Survey, Conducting an Algal Survey, Water Quality Indicators Guide, Farming Wetlands, Wetlands…

  3. WETLANDS MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to address the environmental problems associated with wetlands on the Blackfeet Reservation, the Blackfeet Tribe completed a Wetlands Conservation Strategy (WCS) for the Blackfeet Indian Reservation. In fiscal year 2002 the Wetlands Program is proposing to focus on Comp...

  4. AMPHIBIANS AS BIOINDICATORS OF WETLAND CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    King county has over ten years of data on the distribution and abundance of amphibians in wetlands. Changes in wetland amphibian composition are being analyzed in relationship to physical changes within wetlands and surrounding land-use development and change. In addition to tes...

  5. 75 FR 18146 - Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation and... available in fiscal year (FY) 2010 for the Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program (WREP) throughout the United... enhance conservation outcomes on wetlands and adjacent lands. WREP targets and leverages resources...

  6. 40 CFR 257.9 - Wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (b) For purposes of this section, wetlands means those areas that are defined in 40 CFR 232.2(r). ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Wetlands. 257.9 Section 257.9... Location Restrictions § 257.9 Wetlands. (a) Owners or operators of new units and lateral expansions...

  7. 40 CFR 257.9 - Wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (b) For purposes of this section, wetlands means those areas that are defined in 40 CFR 232.2(r). ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wetlands. 257.9 Section 257.9... Location Restrictions § 257.9 Wetlands. (a) Owners or operators of new units and lateral expansions...

  8. 40 CFR 257.9 - Wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (b) For purposes of this section, wetlands means those areas that are defined in 40 CFR 232.2(r). ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wetlands. 257.9 Section 257.9... Location Restrictions § 257.9 Wetlands. (a) Owners or operators of new units and lateral expansions...

  9. "Harry Potter" and the English Language Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coatney, Kathy

    2001-01-01

    Describes one teacher's success with using "Harry Potter" in a program to teach elementary school English language learners. Provides comprehension strategies incorporated to help learners understand the story. Highlights the importance of creating a classroom environment with a low level of anxiety, the implications of the program, and the value…

  10. English Only Movement: Confrontation with Language Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ovando, Carlos J.

    A discussion of the movement to make English the only official language in the United States' multilingual society examines the nature and scope of the movement and draws instructional and language policy implications for teaching situations involving language-minority populations. It draws a relationship between the politics of language diversity…

  11. Vowel Quantity and Syllabification in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Argues that there is phonological gemination in English based on distribution of vowel qualities in medial and final syllables. The analysis, cast in terms of optimality theory, has implications in several domains: (1) ambisyllabicity is not the right way to capture aspiration and flapping; (2) languages in which stress depends on vowel quality…

  12. Remote sensing of coastal wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardisky, M. A.; Klemas, V.; Gross, M. F.

    1986-01-01

    Various aircraft and satellite sensors for detecting and mapping wetlands properties are examined. The uses of color IR photography to map coastal vegetation, and of Landsat MSS and TM and SPOT data to quantify biomass and productivity for large wetland areas are discussed. For spectral estimation of biomass and productivity, the relation between radiance and biomass needs to be studied; the quantity and orientation of dead biomass and the amount of soil reflectance in comparison with vegetation reflectance in a given target area affect the spectral estimation of biomass. The radiometric evaluation of brackish wetland, and remote sensing in mangroves are described. The collection of images in narrow, contiguous spectral band using imaging spectrometry is considered.

  13. What Are Wetlands are Where Are They?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, E.

    2011-12-01

    The first empirical models of methane emission from natural wetlands were developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s following the first field measurements of wetland methane fluxes. Since the mid-1990s, a suite of empirical, ecosystem, and process-based models of increasing complexity have been developed to simulate methane emissions from wetlands. Inputs to these models typically include climate variables, and vegetation and soil characteristics; they simulate soil temperature/thaw, water-table position, carbon supply and processes of production, transport, oxidation and emission of methane. A standard approach has been to apply the CH4 models to an externally-defined wetland data set due to the difficulty of modeling the distribution of wetlands themselves. More recently, researchers have begun characterizing methane-producing environments based on, inter alia, modeled soil hydrological dynamics and satellite-derived surface inundation. However, modeling the distribution and dynamics of methane-producing wetlands remains a fundamental challenge in understanding the role of wetlands in the global methane cycle under past, current and future climates. The wide spectrum of vegetation, hydrological regime, chemistry, soils, and seasonality means that defining wetlands is not straightforward and, although multiple systems describing local and regional wetland environments exist, none encompasses their global diversity particularly with regard to methane-relevant characteristics. Recent work by Petrescu et al. (Glob. Biogeochem. Cycl., 24/4, 2010) highlights the sensitivity of modeled emissions to uncertainties in wetland distributions. We hypothesize that differences among wetland distributions can be explained primarily by the methods, purposes and instruments used to produce the distributions. The lack of a comprehensive definition of wetlands for methane studies, together with approaches with different strengths and weaknesses for identifying the spectrum of

  14. Effects of wetlands creation on groundwater flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hensel, B.R.; Miller, M.V.

    1991-01-01

    Changes in groundwater flow were observed near four Experimental Wetland Areas (EWAs) constructed along a reach of the Des Plaines River in northeastern Illinois. These changes were observed during monthly monitoring of groundwater elevation in nested piezometers and shallow observation wells before and after the wetlands were filled with water. A numerical model was calibrated with observed data and used to estimate seepage from the wetlands into the Des Plaines River. After the wetlands became operational, groundwater levels in adjacent wells increased by about 0.5m, while water levels in wells distant from the wetlands decreased. The increase in groundwater levels near the wetlands is a result of seepage from the wetlands. Numerical predictions of seepage from the wetlands are 60-150 m3 day-1 for two wetlands situated over sand and gravel and less than 1 m3 day-1 for two wetlands situated over clayey till. The difference in seepage rates is attributed to two factors. First, the hydraulic conductivity of the sand and gravel unit is greater than that of the till, and thus there is less mounding and a greater capacity for transmitting water beneath the wetlands overlying this deposit. Secondly, the wetlands located over till are groundwater flow-through ponds, whereas the wetlands over the sand and gravel are primarily groundwater recharge areas. The model was used to estimate that seepage from the wetlands will double groundwater discharge into the Des Plaines River and a tributary relative to pre-operational discharge from the study area. Overall, the wetlands have acted as a constant head boundary, stabilizing groundwater flow patterns. ?? 1991.

  15. Methane emissions from canopy wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinson, G. O.; Conrad, R.

    2012-12-01

    Ground wetlands are the main natural source of methane but they fail to explain the observed amounts of methane over tropical forests. Bromeliad tanks are discrete habitats for aquatic organisms and up to several thousand of bromeliad individuals per hectare of tropical forest create a unique canopy wetland ecosystem in neotropical forests. Recently, we have discovered that canopy wetlands inhabit methanogenic archaea, emit substantial amounts of methane and may help to explain the high amounts of methane over neotropical forests. However, the pathway of methane formation and potential methane production in canopy wetlands of different tropical forest ecosystems have not yet been studied. In this study, we investigated the stable carbon isotope fractionation, methanogenic pathway and potential methane production of bromeliad tanks along an elevation gradient in neotropical forests for the first time. We sampled the bromeliad tank-substrate of 3 tank bromeliads per functional type and elevation (1000 m, 2000 m and 3000 m above the sea level). We distinguished three functional types of tank bromeliads, based on plant architecture and ecological niche preference. Functional type I-tank bromeliads are concentrated in the understory and on the ground. Functional type II and type III are concentrated in the mid and overstory. We conducted tank-substrate incubation experiments and measured CH4, CO2, 13CH4 and 13CO2 at regular time intervals during the incubation period. The methane production potential of bromeliad tanks correlated positively with tank-substrate carbon concentration and decreased with increasing canopy height and increasing elevation. The dominant pathway of methane formation in bromeliad tanks was hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis (>50%) and this dominance increased with increasing canopy height and increasing elevation. Our results provide novel insights into the pathway of methane formation in neotropical canopy wetlands and suggest that canopy height is

  16. Integrated wetlands for food production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ray Zhuangrui; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-07-01

    The widespread use of compound pelleted feeds and chemical fertilizers in modern food production contribute to a vast amount of residual nutrients into the production system and adjacent ecosystem are major factors causing eutrophication. Furthermore, the extensive development and application of chemical compounds (such as chemical pesticides, disinfectants and hormones used in enhancing productivity) in food production process are hazardous to the ecosystems, as well as human health. These unsustainable food production patterns cannot sustain human living in the long run. Wetlands are perceived as self-decontamination ecosystems with high productivities. This review gives an overview about wetlands which are being integrated with food production processes, focusing on aquaculture. PMID:27131797

  17. Radioiodine concentrated in a wetland.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Daniel I; Zhang, Saijin; Roberts, Kimberly A; Schwehr, Kathy; Xu, Chen; Creeley, Danielle; Ho, Yi-Fang; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Yeager, Chris M; Santschi, Peter H

    2014-05-01

    Most subsurface environmental radioactivity contamination is expected to eventually resurface in riparian zones, or wetlands. There are a number of extremely sharp biogeochemical interfaces in wetlands that could alter radionuclide speciation and promote accumulation. The objective of this study was to determine if a wetland concentrated (129)I emanating from a former waste disposal basin located on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina, USA. Additionally, studies were conducted to evaluate the role of sediment organic matter in immobilizing the radioiodine. Groundwater samples were collected along a 0.7-km transect away from the seepage basin and in the downstream wetlands. The samples were analyzed for (129)I speciation (iodide (I(-)), iodate (IO3(-)), and organo-I). Groundwater (129)I concentrations in many locations in the wetlands (as high as 59.9 Bq L(-1)(129)I) were greatly elevated with respect to the source term (5.9 Bq L(-1)(129)I). (129)I concentration profiles in sediment cores were closely correlated to organic matter concentrations (r(2) = 0.992; n = 5). While the sediment organic matter promoted the uptake of (129)I to the wetland sediment, it also promoted the formation of a soluble organic fraction: 74% of the wetland groundwater (129)I could pass through a 1 kDa (<1 nm) membrane and only 26% of the (129)I was colloidal. Of that fraction that could pass through a 1 kDa membrane, 39% of the (129)I was organo-I. Therefore, while wetlands may be highly effective at immobilizing aqueous (129)I, they may also promote the formation of a low-molecular-weight organic species that does not partition to sediments. This study provides a rare example of radioactivity concentrations increasing rather than decreasing as it migrates from a point source and brings into question assumptions in risk models regarding continuous dilution of released contaminants. PMID:24075117

  18. Monitoring wetlands change using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    A wetlands monitoring study was initiated as part of Delaware's LANDSAT applications demonstration project. Classifications of digital data are conducted in an effort to determine the location and acreage of wetlands loss or gain, species conversion, and application for the inventory and typing of freshwater wetlands. A multi-seasonal approach is employed to compare data from two different years. Unsupervised classifications were conducted for two of the four dates examined. Initial results indicate the multi-seasonal approach allows much better separation of wetland types for both tidal and non-tidal wetlands than either season alone. Change detection is possible but generally misses the small acreages now impacted by man.

  19. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments.

    PubMed

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability. PMID:26645076

  20. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F.; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  1. The land value impacts of wetland restoration.

    PubMed

    Kaza, Nikhil; BenDor, Todd K

    2013-09-30

    U.S. regulations require offsets for aquatic ecosystems damaged during land development, often through restoration of alternative resources. What effect does large-scale wetland and stream restoration have on surrounding land values? Restoration effects on real estate values have substantial implications for protecting resources, increasing tax base, and improving environmental policies. Our analysis focuses on the three-county Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, North Carolina region, which has experienced rapid development and extensive aquatic ecological restoration (through the state's Ecosystem Enhancement Program [EEP]). Since restoration sites are not randomly distributed across space, we used a genetic algorithm to match parcels near restoration sites with comparable control parcels. Similar to propensity score analysis, this technique facilitates statistical comparison and isolates the effects of restoration sites on surrounding real estate values. Compared to parcels not proximate to any aquatic resources, we find that, 1) natural aquatic systems steadily and significantly increase parcel values up to 0.75 mi away, and 2) parcels <0.5 mi from EEP restoration sites have significantly lower sale prices, while 3) parcels >0.5 mi from EEP sites gain substantial amenity value. When we control for intervening water bodies (e.g. un-restored streams and wetlands), we find a similar inflection point whereby parcels <0.5 mi from EEP sites exhibit lower values, and sites 0.5-0.75 mi away exhibit increased values. Our work points to the need for higher public visibility of aquatic ecosystem restoration programs and increased public information about their value. PMID:23792789

  2. Remote Sensing of Global Wetland Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Elaine; Prigent, Catherine; Birkett, Charon; Coe, Mike; Hasen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Although natural wetlands only cover about 4% of the earth's ice-free land surface, they are the world's largest methane (CH4) source and the only one dominated by climate. In addition, wetlands affect climate by modulating temperatures and heat fluxes, storing water, increasing evaporation, and altering the seasonality of runoff and river discharge to the oceans. Current CH4 emissions from wetlands are relatively well understood but the sensitivity of wetlands and their emissions to climate variations remains the largest uncertainty in the global CH4 cycle and could strongly influence predictions of future climate. Therefore, characterizing climate-sensitive processes prevailing in the world's wetlands is crucial to understanding and predicting physical and biogeochemical responses of wetlands to interannual and longer-term climate variations. Recent research has resulted in the first generation of models to predict methane emissions from wetlands but the models must still be applied to static data on wetland distributions. Moreover, no models currently exist to realistically predict the distribution and dynamics of wetlands themselves for the current, or any other, climate. The dominant obstacle to modeling wetland dynamics has been lack of remote sensing techniques and data useful for characterizing quantitatively the seasonal and interannual variations of wetlands. We report on initial remote sensing studies undertaken to validate a global hydrological model linking rivers, takes and wetlands. Using a combination of SSM/I microwave and TOPEX Poseidon altimetry data sets, we developed and applied techniques to quantify inundation extent and duration for several large wetlands in tropical Africa and South America. Our initial results indicate that seasonally-inundated wetlands can be well characterized over large spatial scales and at monthly time scales using these remote sensing data. The results also confirm that currently available remote sensing products can

  3. Assessing Phosphorus Loading in Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, H. K.

    2011-12-01

    Hari K. Pant Lehman College of the City University of New York, Department of Environmental, Geographic and Geological Sciences, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, NY 10468; hari.pant@lehman.cuny.edu Depending on ecosystem's resilience, hydro-climatic changes brought upon by global climate change may cause nonlinear and/or irreversible changes in phosphorus (P) dynamic, and instigate P enrichment in freshwater wetlands. Thus, the studies of the influence of expected global climate change and its impacts on P stability in wetlands are in critical need to help manage, or increase the resilience of freshwater wetland ecosystems against undesirable changes. The objectives of this study were to assess P sorption in sediments, and help to estimate potential internal loading of P to the water column from the sediments. Sediment samples were collected from freshwater wetlands that are located within Pelham Bay Park, Bronx, New York. Although P sorption maxima (Smax) of the sediments were high in general (up to 1667 mg kg-1), the equilibrium P concentrations (EPC0) were also fairly high (0.09 -0.24 mg L-1), indicating substantial amounts of P may remain available for biological uptake in the water columns. High percentages of hysteretic P (>96%), as indicated by P retained values (Pr), along with a significant correlation between Smax and oxalate-extractable Fe (r = 0.89), suggest that changes in sediment/water chemistry such as redox status/acidity could cause massive P release to the water columns.

  4. The National Wetland Condition Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA) was conducted in 2011 by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Vegetation, algae, soil, water chemistry,and hydrologic data were collected at each of 1138 sites across the contiguous US. Ecological condition was ass...

  5. Nevada Test Site Wetlands Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    D. J. Hansen

    1997-05-01

    This report identifies 16 Nevada Test Site (NTS) natural water sources that may be classified by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as jurisdictional wetlands and identifies eight water sources that may be classified as waters of the United States. These water sources are rare, localized habitats on the NTS that are important to regional wildlife and to isolated populations of water tolerant plants and aquatic organisms. No field investigations on the NTS have been conducted in the past to identify those natural water sources which would be protected as rare habitats and which may fall under regulatory authority of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1997. This report identifies and summarizes previous studies of NTS natural water sources, and identifies the current DOE management practices related to the protection of NTS wetlands. This report also presents management goals specific for NTS wetlands that incorporate the intent of existing wetlands legislation, the principles of ecosystem management, and the interests of regional land managers and other stakeholders.

  6. CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS IN THE USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Constructed wetlands are becoming increasingly popular for wastewater treatment around the world. his interest has been due to their low construction and maintenance costs and their appeal as natural treatment systems. etlands have been used to treat a wide variety of wastewaters...

  7. The Call of the Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Patrick

    1998-01-01

    Frogwatch is a volunteer monitoring program developed in response to worldwide concern about declining populations of amphibians. Outlines a frog-monitoring program and a wetland study to be conducted alone or together. Explains the basics, including choosing a frog, introducing the topic, mapping, recordkeeping, equipment, survey procedures, and…

  8. Environmental Education in Wetland Ecosystems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papapanagou, Eirini; Tiniakou, Argyro; Georgiadis, Theodoros

    2005-01-01

    An educational package based on the Messolongi wetland area and designed to develop environmental awareness amongst Greek secondary students is described. The package includes a book and a pedagogical guide for the teacher, as well as a hypermedia application/CD-ROM and worksheets for the student. The entire educational package combines recent…

  9. Popular Culture and English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Hilary Taylor

    1987-01-01

    Explores the origins and elements of popular culture--noting that English instruction and popular culture need not be mutually exclusive, and that selected materials from popular culture may serve goals of the English curriculum without compromising them. (NKA)

  10. English Clubs: Introducing English to Young Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afia, Jawida Ben

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces an approach taken in Tunisia to introduce English as a foreign language to children in primary school classrooms. The author states that in Tunisia, children in primary schools are first taught Arabic and then French. The government does not want to overburden the students with English learning. Then, the author describes…

  11. English 200: Intermediate Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    "English 200: Intermediate Composition" is a program elective for English majors and a writing-intensive elective for nonmajors at Southern Connecticut State University (SCSU), a comprehensive institution of 11,000 undergraduate and graduate (master's level) students. English 200 is described in the departmental course catalog as a course "in…

  12. English in Fiji.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Jeff

    1989-01-01

    Traces the history of English in Fiji, especially in relation to education. The role of English in interethnic communication and as a language of wider communication with the outside world is discussed, and features of Fiji English, a local language variety, are described. (Author/CB)

  13. English in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzau, Y. F.; And Others

    This collection of writings on the history and status of English language teaching (ELT) in China includes the following essays: "Historical Background" (Y. F. Dzau); "How English is Taught in Tertiary Educational Institutions" (Dzau); "Teaching English in Chinese Secondary Schools" (Yu Yining); "Teachers, Students, and Administrators" (Dzau);…

  14. English for Diplomats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noss, Richard B.

    A course in English as a second language for diplomats, offered in Washington, D.C. is described. The course consists of two levels: the first aims at non-native speakers of English with threshold proficiency, and the second is designed for current and prospective personnel in foreign diplomatic services of non-English-speaking countries. The…

  15. Sentential Negation in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  16. Aboriginal English. PEN 93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eades, Diana

    This report focuses on the teaching of English to Aboriginal children in primary schools in Australia. A definition and analysis of dialectal differences between Aboriginal (Australian) English and Standard (Australian) English is offered that includes the phonological, morpho-syntactic, lexico-semantic, and pragmatic differences of the Aboriginal…

  17. Moodling English Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coskun, Abdullah; Arslan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to emphasize the importance of using Moodle in foreign language learning and teaching by reviewing relevant literature and introducing a Moodle-based environment aiming to help English learners to practice their English by themselves. Firstly, the use of Moodle in education and more specifically in English Language Teaching is…

  18. English Teaching Profile: Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Brazil provides an overview of the Brazilian geographic, historical, and political context and the role of English in the society in general and in the educational system. The following topics are covered: an outline of the status of English use and instruction in the educational system…

  19. English Teaching Profile: Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A review of the status of English language instruction in Colombia provides an overview of the role of English in the society in general and outlines the status of English use and instruction in the educational system at all levels (elementary, secondary, postsecondary, and teacher education). The following topics are covered: the characteristics…

  20. English Teaching Profile: Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This profile of the English language teaching situation in Colombia discusses the role of English in the educational system and in Colombian society. The status of English as the country's first foreign language is examined. It is noted that because Spanish is sufficient for most needs and because there is a relatively small number of Colombians…

  1. Impacts of natural wetland degradation on dissolved carbon dynamics in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, C. C.; Wang, L. L.; Guo, Y. D.; Song, Y. Y.; Yang, G. S.; Li, Y. C.

    2011-02-01

    study might have important implications that the impact of building of artificial ditches on dissolved carbon of waters more fully reflected in increases of dissolved carbon resulting from wetland degradation rather than increases in the artificial ditch itself.

  2. USGS research on Florida's isolated freshwater wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres, Arturo E.; Haag, Kim H.; Lee, Terrie M.; Metz, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has studied wetland hydrology and its effects on wetland health and ecology in Florida since the 1990s. USGS wetland studies in Florida and other parts of the Nation provide resource managers with tools to assess current conditions and regional trends in wetland resources. Wetland hydrologists in the USGS Florida Water Science Center (FLWSC) have completed a number of interdisciplinary studies assessing the hydrology, ecology, and water quality of wetlands. These studies have expanded the understanding of wetland hydrology, ecology, and related processes including: (1) the effects of cyclical changes in rainfall and the influence of evapotranspiration; (2) surface-water flow, infiltration, groundwater movement, and groundwater and surfacewater interactions; (3) the effects of water quality and soil type; (4) the unique biogeochemical components of wetlands required to maintain ecosystem functions; (5) the effects of land use and other human activities; (6) the influences of algae, plants, and invertebrates on environmental processes; and (7) the effects of seasonal variations in animal communities that inhabit or visit Florida wetlands and how wetland function responds to changes in the plant community.

  3. Influence of summer water-level variability on St. Lawrence River-wetland fish assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, J.E., Jr.; Barkley, J.L.; Johnson, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Water-level and associated variability are substantial influences on wetland and shallow aquatic communities. The Akwesasne Wetland Complex is an extensive St. Lawrence River system affected by water regulation. The responses of fish assemblages to short-term summer water-level variation were examined throughout this section of the St. Lawrence River and its tributaries. An influence of water-level variability was detected on abundance of three common species [bluntnose minnow (Pimephales notatus), rock bass (Amboplites rupestris), and white sucker (Catastomus commersonii)] and explained 30-44% of variation. This influence has implications for water regulation and natural resource management, and a larger scope evaluation may reveal more extensive effects.

  4. The National Wetland Condition Assessment: National Data on Wetland Quality to Inform and Improve Wetlands Protection

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in collaboration with states, tribes, the US Fish and Wildlife Service (US FWS), and other federal partners will conduct the first-ever National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA) in 2011. The NWCA is designed to build on the succ...

  5. Heterogeneity in a Suburban River Network: Understanding the Impact of Fluvial Wetlands on Dissolved Oxygen and Metabolism in Headwater Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, J. S.; Wollheim, W. M.; Sheehan, K.; Lightbody, A.

    2014-12-01

    Low dissolved oxygen content in rivers threatens fish populations, aquatic organisms, and the health of entire ecosystems. River systems with high fluvial wetland abundance and organic matter, may result in high metabolism that in conjunction with low re-aeration rates, lead to low oxygen conditions. Increasing abundance of beaver ponds in many areas may exacerbate this phenomenon. This research aims to understand the impact of fluvial wetlands, including beaver ponds, on dissolved oxygen (D.O.) and metabolism throughout the headwaters of the Ipswich R. watershed, MA, USA. In several fluvial wetland dominated systems, we measured diel D.O. and metabolism in the upstream inflow, the surface water transient storage zones of fluvial wetland sidepools, and at the outflow to understand how the wetlands modify dissolved oxygen. D.O. was also measured longitudinally along entire surface water flow paths (x-y km long) to determine how low levels of D.O. propagate downstream. Nutrient samples were also collected to understand how their behavior was related to D.O. behavior. Results show that D.O. in fluvial wetlands has large swings with periods of very low D.O. at night. D.O. swings were also seen in downstream outflow, though lagged and somewhat attenuated. Flow conditions affect the level of inundation and the subsequent effects of fluvial wetlands on main channel D.O.. Understanding the D.O. behavior throughout river systems has important implications for the ability of river systems to remove anthropogenic nitrogen.

  6. CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR TREATMENT OF HEAVY METALS IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF: CHEMICAL SPECIATION OF WETLAND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy metals in urban stormwater runoff are primarily removed by sedimentation in stormwater best management practices (BMPs) such as constructed wetlands. Heavy metals accumulated in wetland sediments may be potentially toxic to benthic invertebrates and aquatic microorganisms, ...

  7. EVALUATING THE CUMULATIVE EFFECTS OF ALTERATION ON NEW ENGLAND WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In New England, patterns of glacial deposition strongly influence wetland occurrence and function. any wetlands are associated with permeable deposits and owe their existence to groundwater discharge. ll wetlands, whether developed on deposits of high or low permeability, are oft...

  8. THE USE OF WETLANDS FOR WATER POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands such as marshes, swamps and artificial wetlands, have been shown to remove selected pollutants from urban stormwater runoff and treated municipal wastewaters. Wetlands have produced reduction in BOD, pathogens, and some hydrocarbons, and excel in nitrogen removal. They h...

  9. DEVELOPING A REGULATORY PROGRAM FOR ISOLATED WETLANDS IN WASHINGTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Supreme Court's recent decision on isolated wetlands leaves many wetlands in Washington unprotected. Previously these wetlands were regulated through use of state-issued CWA ?401 water quality certifications, during the Corps of Engineers ?404 permitting process. But since ...

  10. Forested wetlands constructed for mitigation of destroyed natural wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Pugh, S.B.; Deller, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    Forested wetlands constructed for mitigation were evaluated at six sites in Maryland to determine the success of these areas for providing suitable wildlife habitat. Natural forested wetlands were used as reference sites. Initial mortality of planted woody shrubs and trees was high (avg. 55%) and mostly attributed to excessive moisture. The number of woody seedlings from natural regeneration was inversely proportional to the amount of grass cover on the site, which was planted for erosion control. The number of volunteer woody seedlings was also inversely proportional to the distance from adjacent natural forests. Preliminary data indicate that cost does not support use of transplants and that enhancement of soil with organic supplements, followed by widespread and heavy seeding of woody plants would be more efficient and effective. Wildlife use of areas measured by avian surveys and trapping of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians showed that in general wildlife species were more representative of open grassland areas than forested habitats. Natural succession of the sites probably will take at least 20-30 years before typical values and functions of forested wetlands are obtained.

  11. English Non-Uniformity: A Non-Adult Form of Ethnic English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Steven Owen

    The paper examines interpretive aspects of English non-uniformity among fifth and sixth grade Native Americans at Laguna Elementary School, Laguna, New Mexico. Speaker assessments of instances of uninflected "be" are ordered to form an implicational scale. The variability in the students' assessment pattern is compared to previous inter-ethnic…

  12. Are wetlands the reservoir for avian cholera?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Wetlands have long been suspected to be an important reservoir for Pasteurella multocida and therefore the likely source of avian cholera outbreaks. During the fall of 1995a??98 we collected sediment and water samples from 44 wetlands where avian cholera epizootics occurred the previous winter or spring. We attempted to isolate P. multocida in sediment and surface water samples from 10 locations distributed throughout each wetland. We were not able to isolate P. multocida from any of the 440 water and 440 sediment samples collected from these wetlands. In contrast, during other investigations of avian cholera we isolated P. multocida from 20 of 44 wetlands, including 7% of the water and 4.5% of the sediment samples collected during or shortly following epizootic events. Our results indicate that wetlands are an unlikely reservoir for the bacteria that causes avian cholera.

  13. SLOSS or Not? Factoring Wetland Size Into Decisions for Wetland Conservation, Enhancement, Restoration, and Creation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mitigation or replacement of several small impacted wetlands or sites with fewer large wetlands can occur deliberately through the application of functional assessment methods (e.g., Adamus 1997) or coincidentally as the result of market-based mechanisms for wetland mitigation ba...

  14. Characteristic community structure of Florida's subtropical wetlands: the Florida wetland condition index

    EPA Science Inventory

    Depending upon the classification scheme applied, there are between 10 and 45 different wetland types in Florida. Land use and land cover change has a marked effect on wetland condition, and different wetland types are affected differentially depending on many abiotic and biotic ...

  15. Hydrogeomorphic classification for Great Lakes coastal wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albert, Dennis A.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Ingram, Joel W.; Thompson, Todd A.

    2005-01-01

    A hydrogeomorphic classification scheme for Great Lakes coastal wetlands is presented. The classification is hierarchical and first divides the wetlands into three broad hydrogeomorphic systems, lacustrine, riverine, and barrier-protected, each with unique hydrologic flow characteristics and residence time. These systems are further subdivided into finer geomorphic types based on physical features and shoreline processes. Each hydrogeomorphic wetland type has associated plant and animal communities and specific physical attributes related to sediment type, wave energy, water quality, and hydrology.

  16. Spatial modeling of potential hydrologic connectivity among isolated wetlands and jurisdictional surface waters for the Dougherty Plain in southwestern Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deemy, J. B.; Hepinstall-Cymerman, J.; Kirkman, L.; Rasmussen, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    monitoring wetlands to other hydrographic features. Nearly one fifth of the approximately 200 predicted wetlands on site were connected to other hydrographic features by potential drainages. Preliminary soil assessments within the potential drainages connecting wetlands to surface waters indicate the presence of redoximorphic characters and hydric soils in more than half of those sampled. Potential flow paths are further used to determine optimal hydrologic monitoring sites during high water events for temporal components of biological, chemical and hydrologic connectivity. These data may have important implications for quantifying ecosystem services provided by geographically isolated wetlands in southwestern Georgia.

  17. Expanding Literacies: English Teaching and the New Workplace. SUNY Series, Literacy, Culture, and Learning: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garay, Mary Sue, Ed.; Bernhardt, Stephen A., Ed.

    This collection of 18 essays explores how English teaching at both secondary and postsecondary levels can be made more relevant to work. Titles and authors are as follows: "Of Work and English" (Mary Sue Garay); "Toward a Working English for Twenty-First Century Schools and Colleges" (Mary Sue Garay); "Work in Transition: Trends and Implications"…

  18. English as Lingua Franca and English in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berns, Margie

    2009-01-01

    One of the objectives of English as Lingua Franca (ELF) researchers is an account of the unique features of English that they have found in the speech of European users of English. These features, it is argued, describe a variety of English which they label "English as Lingua Franca". The choice of this particular term is problematic because, as a…

  19. Wise Use of Wetlands: Current State of Protection and Utilization of Chinese Wetlands and Recommendations for Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanxia; Yao, Yong; Ju, Meiting

    2008-06-01

    Wetland protection and utilization sometimes appear to be in conflict, but promoting the wise use of wetlands can solve this problem. All countries face the challenge of sustainable development of wetlands to a greater or lesser extent, but the problem is especially urgent in developing countries, such as China, that want to accelerate their economic development without excessive environmental cost. Chinese wetlands contribute greatly to economic development, but improper use of these natural resources has endangered their existence. It is thus necessary to provide scientific guidance to managers and users of wetlands. In this paper, we analyze the present status of Chinese wetland protection and utilization, and discuss problems in six categories: a lack of public awareness of the need for wetland protection; insufficient funding for wetland protection and management; an imperfect legal system to protect wetlands; insufficient wetland research; lack of coordination among agencies and unclear responsibilities; and undeveloped technologies related to wetland use and protection. The wise use of Chinese wetlands will require improvements in four main areas: increased wetland utilization research, scientific management of wetland utilization, improved laws and regulations to protect wetlands, and wider dissemination of wetland knowledge. Based on these categories, we propose a framework for the optimization of wetland use by industry to provide guidance for China and other countries that cannot sacrifice economic benefits to protect their wetlands.

  20. Genetic Evidence for Contrasting Wetland and Savannah Habitat Specializations in Different Populations of Lions (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Moore, Andy E; Cotterill, Fenton P D Woody; Winterbach, Christiaan W; Winterbach, Hanlie E K; Antunes, Agostinho; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    South-central Africa is characterized by an archipelago of wetlands, which has evolved in time and space since at least the Miocene, providing refugia for animal species during Pleistocene arid episodes. Their importance for biodiversity in the region is reflected in the evolution of a variety of specialist mammal and bird species, adapted to exploit these wetland habitats. Populations of lions (Panthera leo) across south-central and east Africa have contrasting signatures of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and biparental nuclear DNA in wetland and savannah habitats, respectively, pointing to the evolution of distinct habitat preferences. This explains the absence of genetic admixture of populations from the Kalahari savannah of southwest Botswana and the Okavango wetland of northern Botswana, despite separation by only 500 km. We postulate that ancestral lions were wetland specialists and that the savannah lions evolved from populations that were isolated during arid Pleistocene episodes. Expansion of grasslands and the resultant increase in herbivore populations during mesic Pleistocene climatic episodes provided the stimulus for the rapid population expansion and diversification of the highly successful savannah lion specialists. Our model has important implications for lion conservation. PMID:26695079

  1. Spectroscopic evidence of uranium immobilization in acidic wetlands by natural organic matter and plant roots

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Dien; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C.; Jaffé, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Segre, Carlo U.; Chen, Ning; Jiang, De-Tong; et al

    2015-03-03

    Biogeochemistry of uranium in wetlands plays important roles in U immobilization in storage ponds of U mining and processing facilities but has not been well understood. The objective of this work was to study molecular mechanisms responsible for high U retention by Savannah River Site (SRS) wetland sediments under varying redox and acidic (pH = 2.6–5.8) conditions using U L₃-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Uranium in the SRS wetland sediments existed primarily as U(VI) bonded as a bidentate to carboxylic sites (U–C bond distance at ~2.88 Å), rather than phenolic or other sites of natural organic matter (NOM). In microcosms simulatingmore » the SRS wetland processes, U immobilization on roots was two orders of magnitude higher than on the adjacent brown or more distant white sands in which U was U(VI). Uranium on the roots were both U(IV) and U(VI), which were bonded as a bidentate to carbon, but the U(VI) may also form a U phosphate mineral. After 140 days of air exposure, all U(IV) was re-oxidized to U(VI) but remained as a bidentate bonding to carbon. This study demonstrated NOM and plant roots can highly immobilize U(VI) in the SRS acidic sediments, which has significant implication for the long-term stewardship of U-contaminated wetlands.« less

  2. Spectroscopic evidence of uranium immobilization in acidic wetlands by natural organic matter and plant roots

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dien; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C.; Jaffé, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Segre, Carlo U.; Chen, Ning; Jiang, De-Tong; Newville, Matthew; Lanzirotti, Antonio

    2015-03-03

    Biogeochemistry of uranium in wetlands plays important roles in U immobilization in storage ponds of U mining and processing facilities but has not been well understood. The objective of this work was to study molecular mechanisms responsible for high U retention by Savannah River Site (SRS) wetland sediments under varying redox and acidic (pH = 2.6–5.8) conditions using U L₃-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Uranium in the SRS wetland sediments existed primarily as U(VI) bonded as a bidentate to carboxylic sites (U–C bond distance at ~2.88 Å), rather than phenolic or other sites of natural organic matter (NOM). In microcosms simulating the SRS wetland processes, U immobilization on roots was two orders of magnitude higher than on the adjacent brown or more distant white sands in which U was U(VI). Uranium on the roots were both U(IV) and U(VI), which were bonded as a bidentate to carbon, but the U(VI) may also form a U phosphate mineral. After 140 days of air exposure, all U(IV) was re-oxidized to U(VI) but remained as a bidentate bonding to carbon. This study demonstrated NOM and plant roots can highly immobilize U(VI) in the SRS acidic sediments, which has significant implication for the long-term stewardship of U-contaminated wetlands.

  3. Spectroscopic evidence of uranium immobilization in acidic wetlands by natural organic matter and plant roots.

    PubMed

    Li, Dien; Kaplan, Daniel I; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C; Jaffé, Peter R; Koster van Groos, Paul; Scheckel, Kirk G; Segre, Carlo U; Chen, Ning; Jiang, De-Tong; Newville, Matthew; Lanzirotti, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Biogeochemistry of uranium in wetlands plays important roles in U immobilization in storage ponds of U mining and processing facilities but has not been well understood. The objective of this work was to study molecular mechanisms responsible for high U retention by Savannah River Site (SRS) wetland sediments under varying redox and acidic (pH = 2.6-5.8) conditions using U L3-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Uranium in the SRS wetland sediments existed primarily as U(VI) bonded as a bidentate to carboxylic sites (U-C bond distance at ∼2.88 Å), rather than phenolic or other sites of natural organic matter (NOM). In microcosms simulating the SRS wetland processes, U immobilization on roots was 2 orders of magnitude higher than on the adjacent brown or more distant white sands in which U was U(VI). Uranium on the roots were both U(IV) and U(VI), which were bonded as a bidentate to carbon, but the U(VI) may also form a U phosphate mineral. After 140 days of air exposure, all U(IV) was reoxidized to U(VI) but remained as a bidentate bonding to carbon. This study demonstrated NOM and plant roots can highly immobilize U(VI) in the SRS acidic sediments, which has significant implication for the long-term stewardship of U-contaminated wetlands. PMID:25634067

  4. Unique Organic Matter and Microbial Properties in the Rhizosphere of a Wetland Soil.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Daniel I; Xu, Chen; Huang, Shan; Lin, Youmin; Tolić, Nikola; Roscioli-Johnson, Kristyn M; Santschi, Peter H; Jaffé, Peter R

    2016-04-19

    Wetlands attenuate the migration of many contaminants through a wide range of biogeochemical reactions. Recent research has shown that the rhizosphere, the zone near plant roots, in wetlands is especially effective at promoting contaminant attenuation. The objective of this study was to compare the soil organic matter (OM) composition and microbial communities of a rhizosphere soil (primarily an oxidized environment) to that of the bulk wetland soil (primarily a reduced environment). The rhizosphere had elevated C, N, Mn, and Fe concentrations and total bacteria, including Anaeromyxobacter, counts (as identified by qPCR). Furthermore, the rhizosphere contained several organic molecules that were not identified in the nonrhizosphere soil (54% of the >2200 ESI-FTICR-MS identified compounds). The rhizosphere OM molecules generally had (1) greater overall molecular weights, (2) less aromaticity, (3) more carboxylate and N-containing COO functional groups, and (4) a greater hydrophilic character. These latter two OM properties typically promote metal binding. This study showed for the first time that not only the amount but also the molecular characteristics of OM in the rhizosphere may in part be responsible for the enhanced immobilization of contaminants in wetlands. These finding have implications on the stewardship and long-term management of contaminated wetlands. PMID:27091553

  5. Quantifying Wetland Functions: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, K. W.; Rogers, J. S.; Hoffman, A. R.; Wu, C.; Hoopes, J. A.; Armstrong, D. E.

    2007-05-01

    Wetlands are reputed to reduce peak flows and improve water quality by trapping sediment and phosphorus. However, there are relatively few studies that quantify these wetland functions. This paper reports on a study of a 45-hectare wetland in southern Wisconsin. The wetland is traversed by a stream channel that drains a predominantly agricultural 17.4 km2 watershed. During the spring and summer of 2006, we collected stage data and water samples at stations upstream and downstream of the wetland, with the former accounting for 82% of the contributing area. Continuous measurements of water stage at these stations were used to construct a streamflow record. During storm events water samples were taken automatically at 2-hour intervals for the first 12 samples and 8-hour intervals for the next 12 samples. Samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total phosphorus, and dissolved reactive phosphorus. Ten events were observed during the observation period; the two largest events were 1 to 2-year storms. One-dimensional unsteady flow routing was used to estimate the maximum extent of wetland inundation for each event. When normalized for flow volume, all peak flows were attenuated by the wetland, with the maximum attenuation corresponding to the intermediate events. The reduced attenuation of the larger events appears to be due to filling of storage, either due to antecedent conditions or the event itself. In the case of sediment, the amount leaving the wetland in the two largest storms, which accounted for 96% of the exported sediment during the period of observation, was twice the amount entering the wetland. The failure of the wetland to trap sediment is apparently due to the role of drainage ditches, which trap sediment during the wetland-filling phase and release it during drainage. The export of sediment during the largest events appears to result from remobilization of sediment deposited in the low-gradient stream channel during smaller events. This

  6. North American wetlands and mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Rey, Jorge R; Walton, William E; Wolfe, Roger J; Connelly, C Roxanne; O'Connell, Sheila M; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E; Laderman, Aimlee D

    2012-12-01

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. PMID:23222252

  7. Conservation and protection of Georgia's freshwater wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Georgia's freshwater wetlands are a valuable natural resource. Despite this fact, they are vanishing at an alarming rate. One objective of the research presented in this dissertation was to try to determine why freshwater wetlands have been so little esteemed historically that their destruction has until lately drawn little attention. In addition, it was hoped that this research would lead to conclusions about the extent of Georgia's freshwater wetlands and the status of their conservation and protection. A further goal of the study was to generate ideas about how better to protect this resource, and to examine policy issues that must be addressed in association with the problem. Interest in freshwater wetlands is part of a continuum of interests and events associated with environmental awareness that has its roots in the late 1800's and early 1900's. An understanding of the history of the environmental movement and the maturation of environmental philosophy provides needed background against which the issues associated with preservation of freshwater wetlands must be viewed. The first two chapters are thus devoted to an exploration of the history of environmental awareness and activism. In the third chapter, historical material about freshwater wetlands in the, US is presented. The final section is dedicated to a discussion of freshwater wetlands in Georgia. Georgia's boundaries encompass five physiographic provinces. Freshwater wetlands are found in all of these regions, but the type of wetland varies among them. In the northern part of the state, freshwater wetlands are scarce, but in the southern half of the state they are so common as to be considered a dominant feature of the landscape. Among the threats to Georgia's wetlands are urban development, agricultural conversion, impoundment, and pollution.

  8. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Jorge R.; Walton, William E.; Wolfe, Roger J.; Connelly, Roxanne; O’Connell, Sheila M.; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E.; Laderman, Aimlee D.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. PMID:23222252

  9. English: History, Diversity and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graddol, David, Ed.; And Others

    Essays examine development of the English language from Old English to the present, characteristics and use of contemporary varieties, and what the language means to speakers around the world. "English Voices" (Joan Swann) raises issues and questions about variation in English, to be addressed in later chapters. "English Manuscripts: The Emergence…

  10. Thanking Responders in Cameroon English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouafeu, Yves Talla Sando

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of authentic or genuine interactions among Cameroon English speakers reveals that conversational routines in this variety of English differ a good deal from those obtained in other varieties of English, non-native varieties of English inclusive, and more specifically in native varieties of English. This paper looks at "thanking…

  11. English Teaching Profile: Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role and status of English in Sierra Leone are examined, with attention directed to: (1) English within the education system, (2) teachers of English, (3) materials support; (4) educational administration for English teaching, (5) development and planning, (6) British support for the teaching of English, and (7) commercial opportunities.…

  12. Macroinvertebrate abundance, water chemistry, and wetland characteristics affect use of wetlands by avian species in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Pendelton, G.W.; Bennatti, C.R.; Mingo, T.M.; Stromborg, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    Our objective was to determine use by avian species (e.g., piscivores, marsh birds, waterfowl, selected passerines) of 29 wetlands in areas with low ( 5.51. All years combined use of wetlands by broods was greater on wetlands with pH ??? 5.51 (77.4%) in contract to wetlands with pH > 5.51 that supported 21.8% of the broods. High mean brood density was associated with mean number of Insecta per wetland. For lentic wetlands created by beaver, those habitats contained vegetative structure and nutrients necessary to provide cover to support invertebrate populations that are prey of omnivore and insectivore species. The fishless status of a few wetlands may have affected use by some waterfowl species and obligate piscivores. ?? Springer 2006.

  13. INTERNATIONAL ENGLISH MANUAL

    SciTech Connect

    AMADOR, MABLE; KELLER, YVONNE KELLER

    2002-02-22

    This document presents a set of guidelines for authors who wish to express themselves more clearly to foreign readers, or readers whose first language is not American English. Topics include idioms, technical terms, jargon, word meaning, acronyms, and international conventions of measurement. The guidelines will help writers of technical documents present their ideas more effectively to audiences that may include individuals whose first language is not American English, including audiences with individuals from other English-speaking countries.

  14. Bilingual Education: Legal Issues and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha M.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews legal activity since the "Lau" decision that has focused on obligations of school districts to address the needs of English deficient students. Explores the decision's implications for further federal and state roles in establishing educational policy. (Author/GC)

  15. CLEAN WATER ACT SECTION 404 WETLANDS VIOLATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands are "areas that are soaked or flooded by surface or ground water frequently enough or for sufficient duration to support plants, birds, animals. and aquatic life. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs, estuaries, and other inland and coastal areas, and a...

  16. EPA - NEW ENGLAND NATIONAL WETLANDS INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    NWI digital data files are records of wetlands location and classification as defined by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. This dataset is one of a series available in 7.5 minute by 7.5 minute blocks containing ground planimetric coordinates of wetlands point, line, and are...

  17. 40 CFR 257.9 - Wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (b) For purposes of this section, wetlands means those areas that are defined in 40 CFR 232.2(r). ... protect ecological resources by addressing the following factors: (i) Erosion, stability, and migration potential of native wetland soils, muds and deposits used to support the unit; (ii) Erosion, stability,...

  18. 40 CFR 257.9 - Wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (b) For purposes of this section, wetlands means those areas that are defined in 40 CFR 232.2(r). ... protect ecological resources by addressing the following factors: (i) Erosion, stability, and migration potential of native wetland soils, muds and deposits used to support the unit; (ii) Erosion, stability,...

  19. 40 CFR 230.41 - Wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wetlands. 230.41 Section 230.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts on Special Aquatic Sites § 230.41 Wetlands. (a)(1)...

  20. DESDynI Applications Report: Wetlands Section

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need to map wetlands is critical for monitoring and modeling water quality, invasive species, water quality, flood extent, wildlife habitat and carbon storage. Although the mapping and monitoring of wetlands has historically been challenging, the increased availability of synthetic aperture rada...

  1. WEST PLUM CREEK WETLANDS ASSESSMENT PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will assist Douglas County and other conservation partners by assessing the types and locations of wetland resources in the watershed. This study will involve site visits by ecologists, botanists, and other wetland experts. Study results will be mapped using GIS so...

  2. Swine wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the passive technologies being used for animal wastewater treatment is constructed wetlands. We have investigated swine lagoon wastewater treatment in both continuous marsh and marsh-pond-marsh (MPM) type constructed wetlands for their nitrogen treatment efficiency, ammonia volatilization, de...

  3. 76 FR 777 - National Wetland Plant List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... basis for the names included within the proposed list, National List of Vascular Plant Species that... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers ZRIN 0710-ZA06 National Wetland Plant List AGENCY: U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Wetland Plant...

  4. Wetlands as energy-dissipating systems.

    PubMed

    Pokorný, Jan; Květ, Jan; Rejšková, Alžběta; Brom, Jakub

    2010-12-01

    Since wetlands are ecosystems that have an ample supply of water, they play an important role in the energy budgets of their respective landscapes due to their capacity to shift energy fluxes in favor of latent heat. Rates of evapotranspiration in wetlands are commonly as high as 6-15 mm day⁻¹, testifying to the large amount of energy that is dissipated through this process. Emergent or semi-emergent wetland macrophytes substantially influence the solar energy distribution due to their high capacity for transpiration. Wetland ecosystems in eutrophic habitats show a high primary production of biomass because of the highly efficient use of solar energy in photosynthesis. In wetlands associated with the slow decomposition of dead organic matter, such as oligotrophic marshes or fens and bogs, the accumulation of biomass is also high, in spite of the rather low primary production of biomass. Most of the energy exchange in water-saturated wetlands is, however, linked with heat balance, whereby the largest proportion of the incoming energy is dissipated during the process of evapotranspiration. An example is shown of energy fluxes during the course of a day in the wetland ecosystem of Mokré Louky (Wet Meadows) near Třeboň. The negative consequences of the loss of wetlands for the local and regional climate are discussed. PMID:21086105

  5. 40 CFR 258.12 - Wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... means those areas that are defined in 40 CFR 232.2(r). ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wetlands. 258.12 Section 258.12... SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.12 Wetlands. (a) New MSWLF units and...

  6. 40 CFR 258.12 - Wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... means those areas that are defined in 40 CFR 232.2(r). ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Wetlands. 258.12 Section 258.12... SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.12 Wetlands. (a) New MSWLF units and...

  7. 40 CFR 258.12 - Wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... means those areas that are defined in 40 CFR 232.2(r). ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wetlands. 258.12 Section 258.12... SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.12 Wetlands. (a) New MSWLF units and...

  8. Teaching English in Francophone Senegal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kay

    2002-01-01

    Examines the English teaching situation in the African Francophone country of Senegal. Discusses education in general in Senegal, English clubs, English teacher preparation, exchange and study abroad programs, and professional activities and organizations. (Author/VWL)

  9. Wetlands mapping with spot multispectral scanner data

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr. ); Jensen, J.R. . Dept. of Geography)

    1989-01-01

    Government facilities such as the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant (SRP) near Aiken, South Carolina, often use remote sensing data to assist in environmental management. Airborne multispectral scanner (MSS) data have been acquired at SRP since 1981. Various types of remote sensing data have been used to map and characterize wetlands. Regional Landsat MSS and TM satellite data have been used for wetlands mapping by various government agencies and private organizations. Furthermore, SPOT MSS data are becoming available and provide opportunities for increased spacial resolution and temporal coverage for wetlands mapping. This paper summarizes the initial results from using five dates of SPOT MSS data from April through October, 1987, as a means to monitor seasonal wetland changes in freshwater wetlands of the SRP. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  10. ERTS-1 investigation of wetlands ecology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R. (Principal Investigator); Carter, V.; Mcginness, J.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Data from aircraft can be used for large scale mapping where detailed information is necessary, whereas Landsat-1 data are useful for rapid mapping of gross wetland boundaries and vegetative composition and assessment of seasonal change plant community composition such as high and low growth forms of Spartina alterniflora, Juncus roemarianus, and Spartina cynosuroides. Spoil disposal and wetland ditching activities may also be defined. Wetland interpretation is affected by tidal stage; drainage patterns are more easily detected at periods of low water. Species discrimination is easier at periods of high water during the growing season; upper wetland boundaries in fresh water tidal marshes are more easily delineated during the winter months when marsh vegetation is largely dead or dormant. Fresh water discharges from coastal streams may be inferred from the species composition of contiguous wetlands.

  11. Reconstruction of Anacostia wetlands: success?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammerschlag, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    Historically, the tidal Anacostia River in Washington, D.C. had been an extensive system of freshwater tidal marshes replete with a full array of wetland vegetation dominated by wild rice. The local Nacochtank Indians had found the abundant fish and wildlife sufficient to sustain their daily lives. White man's intrusion upon the landscape gradually brought about deterioration of the natural (and associated cultural) system. Total demise followed mid-20th century dredge and fill channelization, which was conducted from the confluence of the Anacostia with the Potomac near the heart of Washington, D.C. to the terminus of the tidal regime at Bladensburg, Maryland. The National Park Service (NPS) became the manager for much of the land along the Anacostia, particularly the eastern bank. As part of its planning effort, the NPS envisioned returning portions of the Anacostia under its control to a natural system as a vignette. The concept was based on bringing back as comprehensive a collection of vegetation and wildlife as possible through the reestablishment of tidal marshes at Kenilworth and Kingman. The resultant wetlands were to be made accessible to the public both logistically and through a well designed interpretative program. In fact, this vision has been realized due to an impressive cooperative effort among a number of Federal and local agencies and organizations. In 1993, 32 acres of freshwater tidal marsh were reconstructed at Kenilworth. Based upon the 5-year monitoring program that has been in place since reconstruction, several generalizations may be made concerning the degree of success of the marsh reconstruction. Water quality in the marsh system and nearby tidal waters has not been noticeably improved. The poor quality may be clue to the overwhelmingly high loads (e.g., sediment, nutrients, etc.) brought in on the twice daily tidal cycle from the Anacostia and to the relatively small volume of water which actually interacts with the emergent marsh

  12. Wetland Microbial Community Response to Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theroux, S.; Hartman, W.; Tringe, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland restoration has been proposed as a potential long-term carbon storage solution, with a goal of engineering geochemical dynamics to accelerate peat accretion and encourage greenhouse gas (GHG) sequestration. However, wetland microbial community composition and metabolic rates are poorly understood and their predicted response to wetland restoration is a veritable unknown. In an effort to better understand the underlying factors that shape the balance of carbon flux in wetland soils, we targeted the microbial communities along a salinity gradient ranging from freshwater tidal marshes to hypersaline ponds in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and shotgun metagenomics, coupled with greenhouse gas measurements, we sampled sixteen sites capturing a range in salinity and restoration status. Seawater delivers sulfate to wetland ecosystems, encouraging sulfate reduction and discouraging methane production. As expected, we observed the highest rates of methane production in the freshwater wetlands. Recently restored wetlands had significantly higher rates of methane production compared to their historic counterparts that could be attributed to variations in trace metal and organic carbon content in younger wetlands. In contrast, our sequencing results revealed an almost immediate return of the indigenous microbial communities following seasonal flooding and full tidal restoration in saline and hypersaline wetlands and managed ponds. Notably, we found elevated methane production rates in hypersaline ponds, the result of methylotrophic methane production confirmed by sequence data and lab incubations. Our study links belowground microbial communities and their aboveground greenhouse gas production and highlights the inherent complexity in predicting wetland microbial response in the face of both natural and unnatural disturbances.

  13. The extent and expected condition of isolated wetlands in the southeastern and mid-Atlantic states, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the wake of two United States (US) Supreme Court decisions in the past decade, federal protection for isolated wetlands (i.e., those completely surrounded by uplands) has been severely curtailed. However, the extent of the resource impacted and thus the implications for the c...

  14. Wetland reclamation by accelerating succession

    SciTech Connect

    Rushton, B.T.

    1988-01-01

    This research analyzed mechanisms and processes for accelerating natural succession in order to restore soils and forests on clay setting areas left from phosphate mining in central Florida. Field measurements of succession on unreclaimed clay ponds showed wet sites dominated by dense stands of small shrubby willows even after 60 years with succession arrested because of a shortage of seeds for later stage trees. For drier sites an orderly procession of pioneer wetland trees colonized when wetland seed sources were within 20 meters. The first woody species were willows, myrtles, and baccharis followed in 5 to 10 years by red maple and elm. Oaks colonized slightly drier elevations. Hackberry, cherry, and sweetgum were also found. Experiments in which 3000 seedlings of 11 species were planted in six clay settling areas demonstrated succession can be accelerated. After the first growing season, results suggest that mixed swamp vegetation typical of floodplains may be the most suitable forested wetland community for settling pond reclamation. Percent survival was best for Carolina ash, American elm, and red maple. Some alluvial floodplain species were intermediate in success with 74% survival for baldcypress, 61% for sweetgum, and 61% for laurel oak. Trees from bayheads had the least survival with 52% for swampbay and 41% for loblolly bay. Poorest survival for all species planted (39%) was swamp tupelo. Floodplain species which required fairly dry conditions had poor survival, i.e., southern magnolia (53%) and cabbage palm (43%). Planted tree seedlings were more cost effective than placing seeds on the ground and covering them with litter. A simulation model with hydrologic regimes and outside seeding was used to summarize the operation of the successional system. Simulation that suggested trends for a longer time period than those observed in the field trials are yet to be confirmed.

  15. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  16. 7 CFR 1410.10 - Restoration of wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restoration of wetlands. 1410.10 Section 1410.10... Restoration of wetlands. (a) An owner or operator who entered into a CRP contract on land that is suitable for restoration to wetlands or that was restored to wetlands while under such contract, may, if approved by...

  17. 7 CFR 12.32 - Converted wetland identification criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Converted wetland identification criteria. 12.32 Section 12.32 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.32 Converted wetland identification criteria. (a) Converted...

  18. 7 CFR 12.30 - NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands. 12.30 Section 12.30 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.30 NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands. (a) Technical...

  19. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  20. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  1. 7 CFR 1467.9 - Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. 1467.9 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.9 Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. (a) Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program (WREP). (1)...

  2. 7 CFR 12.30 - NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands. 12.30 Section 12.30 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.30 NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands. (a) Technical...

  3. 7 CFR 1410.10 - Restoration of wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restoration of wetlands. 1410.10 Section 1410.10... Restoration of wetlands. (a) An owner or operator who entered into a CRP contract on land that is suitable for restoration to wetlands or that was restored to wetlands while under such contract, may, if approved by...

  4. 7 CFR 12.32 - Converted wetland identification criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Converted wetland identification criteria. 12.32 Section 12.32 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.32 Converted wetland identification criteria. (a) Converted...

  5. 7 CFR 1467.9 - Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. 1467.9 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.9 Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. (a) Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program (WREP). (1)...

  6. 7 CFR 1410.10 - Restoration of wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restoration of wetlands. 1410.10 Section 1410.10... Restoration of wetlands. (a) An owner or operator who entered into a CRP contract on land that is suitable for restoration to wetlands or that was restored to wetlands while under such contract, may, if approved by...

  7. 7 CFR 1467.9 - Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. 1467.9 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.9 Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. (a) Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program (WREP). (1)...

  8. 7 CFR 1410.10 - Restoration of wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restoration of wetlands. 1410.10 Section 1410.10... Restoration of wetlands. (a) An owner or operator who entered into a CRP contract on land that is suitable for restoration to wetlands or that was restored to wetlands while under such contract, may, if approved by...

  9. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  10. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  11. 7 CFR 1410.10 - Restoration of wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration of wetlands. 1410.10 Section 1410.10... Restoration of wetlands. (a) An owner or operator who entered into a CRP contract on land that is suitable for restoration to wetlands or that was restored to wetlands while under such contract, may, if approved by...

  12. 7 CFR 12.30 - NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands. 12.30 Section 12.30 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.30 NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands. (a) Technical...

  13. 7 CFR 1467.9 - Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. 1467.9 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.9 Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. (a) Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program (WREP). (1)...

  14. 7 CFR 1467.9 - Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. 1467.9 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.9 Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. (a) Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program (WREP). (1)...

  15. On leadership and success in professional wetland science

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Society of Wetland Scientists and the wetland profession are fortunate to have an abundance of leaders. These leaders respond to the needs of the Society for guidance and direction. They also consistently advance wetland science and improve the quality of wetland management...

  16. Modeling natural wetlands: A new global framework built on wetland observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, E.; Romanski, J.; Olefeldt, D.

    2015-12-01

    Natural wetlands are the world's largest methane (CH4) source, and their distribution and CH4 fluxes are sensitive to interannual and longer-term climate variations. Wetland distributions used in wetland-CH4 models diverge widely, and these geographic differences contribute substantially to large variations in magnitude, seasonality and distribution of modeled methane fluxes. Modeling wetland type and distribution—closely tied to simulating CH4 emissions—is a high priority, particularly for studies of wetlands and CH4 dynamics under past and future climates. Methane-wetland models either prescribe or simulate methane-producing areas (aka wetlands) and both approaches result in predictable over- and under-estimates. 1) Monthly satellite-derived inundation data include flooded areas that are not wetlands (e.g., lakes, reservoirs, and rivers), and do not identify non-flooded wetlands. 2) Models simulating methane-producing areas overwhelmingly rely on modeled soil moisture, systematically over-estimating total global area, with regional over- and under-estimates, while schemes to model soil-moisture typically cannot account for positive water tables (i.e., flooding). Interestingly, while these distinct hydrological approaches to identify wetlands are complementary, merging them does not provide critical data needed to model wetlands for methane studies. We present a new integrated framework for modeling wetlands, and ultimately their methane emissions, that exploits the extensive body of data and information on wetlands. The foundation of the approach is an existing global gridded data set comprising all and only wetlands, including vegetation information. This data set is augmented with data inter alia on climate, inundation dynamics, soil type and soil carbon, permafrost, active-layer depth, growth form, and species composition. We investigate this enhanced wetland data set to identify which variables best explain occurrence and characteristics of observed

  17. AVIRIS spectra of California wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Michael F.; Ustin, Susan L.; Klemas, Vytautas

    1988-01-01

    Spectral data gathered by the AVIRIS from wetlands in the Suisun Bay area of California on 13 October 1987 were analyzed. Spectra representing stands of numerous vegetation types (including Sesuvium verrucosum, Scirpus acutus and Scirpus californicus, Xanthium strumarium, Cynadon dactylon, and Distichlis spicata) and soil were isolated. Despite some defects in the data, it was possible to detect vegetation features such as differences in the location of the chlorophyll red absorption maximum. Also, differences in cover type spectra were evident in other spectral regions. It was not possible to determine if the observed features represent noise, variability in canopy architecture, or chemical constituents of leaves.

  18. Reshaping High School English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirie, Bruce

    This book takes up the question of what shape high school English studies should take in the coming years. It describes an English program that blends philosophical depth with classroom practicality. Drawing examples from commonly taught texts such as "Macbeth,""To Kill a Mockingbird," and "Lord of the Flies," the book places literary analysis…

  19. Explaining English Middle Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kabyong

    2009-01-01

    The current paper attempts to account for the formation of English middle sentences. Discussing a set of previous analyses on the construction under investigation we show, following the assumptions of Oosten(1986) and Iwata(1999), that English middle constructions should be divided into two types: generic middle constructions and non-generic…

  20. Learning English, Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Using science notebooks effectively in the classroom can encourage students who are learning English to keep up and keep interested. English language proficiency might head the list of content areas that schools can teach properly and effectively through science. Amaral, Garrison, and Klentschy (2002) reported that a successful inquiry-based…

  1. Towards Developmental World Englishes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Kingsley; Graddol, David; Meierkord, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    Over the last three decades scholars promoting the world Englishes paradigm (WE) have worked towards establishing a more positive attitude towards international varieties of English. However, despite the best intentions of Western linguists working in this field, there is an obvious imbalance between the developed and developing world in many…

  2. English in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Bernadette; Richards, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    This article seeks to lay out the use and importance of English in Malaysia from the time when the British ruled what was then Malaya to the present moment. When the British came to colonize the country, they brought with them their culture, their language and their beliefs. They introduced the English language as the medium of instruction in the…

  3. Thinking in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Ruth A.

    It is proposed that a major obstacle for intermediate-level learners of English as a Second Language is the transition from thinking in the native language to thinking in English, that this transition must be made before proceeding from the intermediate level, and that it should begin as early as possible in language training. Early in-class…

  4. English in Myanmar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fen, Wong Soon

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the development of English in Myanmar. It begins by tracing the changing role and status of English and Myanmar from the colonial period, which has had an impact on the current education structure. The paper outlines the structure of the education system and the recent reforms that reflect the rising importance…

  5. Non-Standard English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Bruce

    The present paper reviews recent research in the area of nonstandard English: the major results to date, the significance of this research for education, and suggestions for further research. The notion of "standard" English resists precise definition; there is not a simple set of linguistic features which can be said to define it. The term…

  6. English in Indian Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khubchandani, Lachman M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the use of English in urban India, with specific focus on the three domains of mass media, print, television, and advertising. Points to the emergence of Angrezi, which can potentially take a divergent path as an Ausbau language different from the global English. Brings under discussion interesting examples of bilingual and biscriptal…

  7. Scientific and Technical English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaclavik, Jaroslav

    Technical English differs from everyday English because of the specialized contexts in which it is used and because of the specialized interests of scientists and engineers. This text provides exercises in technical and scientific exposition in the following fields: mathematics, physics, temperature effects, mechanics, dynamics, conservation of…

  8. Teaching English in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji, Ed.; And Others

    English language instruction, which is considered very important in Japan, is offered in 90 percent of all secondary schools and is studied by almost all students, even though it is an elective subject. English is considered a cultural and commercial link with the western world and has been taught in Japan since the mid-nineteenth century. Most…

  9. English "Si," Only "No."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Victor, Jr.

    The English-only movement is about more than language; underlying it is bigotry against non-White, non-English-speaking immigrants. The term "Hispanic" is itself a Census Bureau creation which ignores the cultural and linguistic differences between such groups as the Mexican, Cuban, and Nicaraguan immigrants. The argument that a single language…

  10. English for Global Peacekeeping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossey, Mark

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the work of the British Council's Peacekeeping English Project: why the British Council is undertaking this work, why is it being sponsored, what exactly is being done and what are the key issues in English for peacekeeping and other security forces.

  11. English for Business Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Vijay K.; Bremner, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The concept of Business English has undergone some major shifts in the last few years because of a number of developments, such as advances in genre theory and the coming together of English for Business Purposes and Business Communication, inspired by the realization that there is a gap to be bridged between the academy and the globalized…

  12. California's English Learner Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    English Learner (EL) students in California's schools are numerous and diverse, and they lag behind their native-English-speaking peers. Closing the achievement gap for EL students has been a long-standing goal for California educators, and there are some signs of success. Now that EL funding and curriculum issues are receiving a fresh level of…

  13. Cambodian-English Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreign Service (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Foreign Service Inst.

    This volume contains a Cambodian-English and an English-Cambodian glossary, with approximately 8,000 and 7,500 entries respectively. The entries are the vocabulary contained in the introductory lessons and subject matter modules (entitled "The Land and the Economy,""The Political Institutions,""The Social Institutions" and "The Individual in…

  14. Abbreviations in Maritime English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Zhirong

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the phenomena that more and more abbreviations occur in maritime English correspondences, the composing laws of the abbreviations in maritime English correspondence are analyzed, and the correct methods to answer the abbreviations are pointed out, and the translation method of abbreviations are summarized in this article, and the…

  15. Spatiotemporal analysis of encroachment on wetlands: a case of Nakivubo wetland in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Isunju, John Bosco; Kemp, Jaco

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands provide vital ecosystem services such as water purification, flood control, and climate moderation among others, which enhance environmental quality, promote public health, and contribute to risk reduction. The biggest threat to wetlands is posed by human activities which transform wetlands, often for short-term consumptive benefits. This paper aimed to classify and map recent land cover and provide a multi-temporal analysis of changes from 2002 to 2014 in the Nakivubo wetland through which wastewater from Kampala city drains to Lake Victoria in Uganda. The paper contributes through spatially congruent change maps showing site-specific land cover conversions. In addition, it gives insight into what happened to the wetlands, why it happened, how the changes in the wetlands affect the communities living in them, and how the situation could be better managed or regulated in future. The analysis is based on very high resolution (50-62 cm) aerial photos and satellite imagery, focus group discussions, and key informant interviews. Overall, the analysis of losses and gains showed a 62 % loss of wetland vegetation between 2002 and 2014, mostly attributable to crop cultivation. Cultivation in the wetland buffering the lake shore makes it unstable to anchor. The 2014 data shows large portions of the wetland calved away by receding lake waves. With barely no wetland vegetation buffer around the lake, the heavily polluted wastewater streams will lower the quality of lake water. Furthermore, with increased human activities in the wetland, exposure to flooding and pollution will be likely to have a greater impact on the health and livelihoods of vulnerable communities. This calls for a multi-faceted approach, coordination of the various stakeholders and engagement of wetland-dependent communities as part of the solution, and might require zoning out the wetland and restricting certain activities to specific zones. PMID:26935734

  16. Determination of the health of Lunyangwa wetland using Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Msilimba, Golden

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are major sources of various ecological goods and services including storage and distribution of water in space and time which help in ensuring the availability of surface and groundwater throughout the year. However, there still remains a poor understanding of the range of values of water quality parameters that occur in wetlands either in its impacted state or under natural conditions. It was thus imperative to determine the health of Lunyangwa wetland in Mzuzu City in Malawi in order to classify and determine its state. This study used the Escom's Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index Field Guide to determine the overall characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland and to calculate its combined Wetland Index Score. Data on site information, field measurements (i.e. EC, pH, temperature and DO) and physical characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland were collected from March, 2013 to February, 2014. Results indicate that Lunyangwa wetland is a largely open water zone which is dominated by free-floating plants on the water surface, beneath surface and emergent in substrate. Furthermore, the wetland can be classified as of a C ecological category (score = 60-80%), which has been moderately modified with moderate risks of the losses and changes occurring in the natural habitat and biota in the wetland. It was observed that the moderate modification and risk were largely because of industrial, agricultural, urban/social catchment stressors on the wetland. This study recommends an integrated and sustainable management approach coupled with continuous monitoring and evaluation of the health of the wetland for all stakeholders in Mzuzu City. This would help to maintain the health of Lunyangwa wetland which is currently at risk of being further modified due to the identified catchment stressors.

  17. Growth of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin ex. Steudel in mine water treatment wetlands: effects of metal and nutrient uptake.

    PubMed

    Batty, Lesley C; Younger, Paul L

    2004-11-01

    The abandoned mine of Shilbottle Colliery, Northumberland, UK is an example of acidic spoil heap discharge that contains elevated levels of many metals. Aerobic wetlands planted with the common reed, Phragmites australis, were constructed at the site to treat surface runoff from the spoil heap. The presence of a perched water table within the spoil heap resulted in the lower wetlands receiving acidic metal contaminated water from within the spoil heap while the upper wetland receives alkaline, uncontaminated surface runoff from the revegetated spoil. This unique situation enabled the comparison of metal uptake and growth of plants used in treatment schemes in two cognate wetlands. Results indicated a significant difference in plant growth between the two wetlands in terms of shoot height and seed production. Analyses of metal and nutrient concentrations within plant tissues provided the basis for three hypotheses to explain these differences: (i) the toxic effects of high levels of metals in shoot tissues, (ii) the inhibition of Ca (an essential nutrient) uptake by the presence of metals and H+ ions, and (iii) low concentrations of bioavailable nitrogen sources resulting in nitrogen deficiency. This has important implications for the engineering of constructed wetlands in terms of the potential success of plant establishment and vegetation development. PMID:15276276

  18. Hydrologic and vegetative removal of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii Surrogate microspheres in coastal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Jennifer N; Daniels, Miles E; Watson, Fred G; Oates, Stori C; Miller, Melissa A; Conrad, Patricia A; Shapiro, Karen; Hardin, Dane; Dominik, Clare; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A; Miller, Woutrina A

    2013-03-01

    Constructed wetland systems are used to reduce pollutants and pathogens in wastewater effluent, but comparatively little is known about pathogen transport through natural wetland habitats. Fecal protozoans, including Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii, are waterborne pathogens of humans and animals, which are carried by surface waters from land-based sources into coastal waters. This study evaluated key factors of coastal wetlands for the reduction of protozoal parasites in surface waters using settling column and recirculating mesocosm tank experiments. Settling column experiments evaluated the effects of salinity, temperature, and water type ("pure" versus "environmental") on the vertical settling velocities of C. parvum, G. lamblia, and T. gondii surrogates, with salinity and water type found to significantly affect settling of the parasites. The mesocosm tank experiments evaluated the effects of salinity, flow rate, and vegetation parameters on parasite and surrogate counts, with increased salinity and the presence of vegetation found to be significant factors for removal of parasites in a unidirectional transport wetland system. Overall, this study highlights the importance of water type, salinity, and vegetation parameters for pathogen transport within wetland systems, with implications for wetland management, restoration efforts, and coastal water quality. PMID:23315738

  19. Pollutant swapping: greenhouse gas emissions from wetland systems constructed to mitigate agricultural pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, Adam; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; McNamara, Niall

    2014-05-01

    significant, the impacts of this may be greatly diminished when considering wetland size in relation to catchment area. As such, this increased understanding will be valuable when considering the implications of rural land use management for water quality improvement. This knowledge could also be applied to further enhancing our knowledge of gas regional/global gas emissions from freshwater systems, which at the moment are poorly constrained.

  20. The wetland continuum: a conceptual framework for interpreting biological studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euliss, N.H., Jr.; LaBaugh, J.W.; Fredrickson, L.H.; Mushet, D.M.; Swanson, G.A.; Winter, T.C.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Nelson, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a conceptual model, the wetland continuum, which allows wetland managers, scientists, and ecologists to consider simultaneously the influence of climate and hydrologic setting on wetland biological communities. Although multidimensional, the wetland continuum is most easily represented as a two-dimensional gradient, with ground water and atmospheric water constituting the horizontal and vertical axis, respectively. By locating the position of a wetland on both axes of the continuum, the potential biological expression of the wetland can be predicted at any point in time. The model provides a framework useful in the organization and interpretation of biological data from wetlands by incorporating the dynamic changes these systems undergo as a result of normal climatic variation rather than placing them into static categories common to many wetland classification systems. While we developed this model from the literature available for depressional wetlands in the prairie pothole region of North America, we believe the concept has application to wetlands in many other geographic locations.

  1. The paleohydrology of Lower Cretaceous seasonal wetlands, Isle of Wight, southern England

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, V.P.; Taylor, K.G.; Beck, V.H.

    2000-05-01

    The floodplain deposits of the Wealden Group (Lower Cretaceous) of the Isle of Wight, southern England, were formed in a seasonal wetland setting, a type of environment widespread today along higher-order tropical and subtropical river systems but rarely identified in the geological record. The unit consists of four main lithofacies: sheet sandstones with dinosaur footprint casts; green-gray mudstones with vertebrate remains, abundant lignite, pyrite, and siderite; spectacularly color-mottled mudstones with goethite and locally pseudo-anticlines; and red mudstones with pseudo-anticlines, hematite, and carbonate nodules. The sheet sandstones are interpreted as crevasse deposits; the green-gray mudstones were deposited in shallow ponds on the floodplain, which acted as sinks for debris released by local floods following wildfires; the mottled mudstones represent surface-water gley soils formed in seasonally waterlogged areas; and the red mudstones resemble present-day Vertisols that formed on topographically elevated areas only intermittently flooded. These mudstones show vertical transitions from one to another, and although they could be interpreted as components of simple catenas, the absence of associated facies changes implies that topographic differences were not the only control. It is proposed that these three mudstone types formed as seasonal wetland catenas, in which differences in soil drainage conditions resulted from variations in the flooding hydroperiod affecting areas with minor relief differences, rather than drainage variability simply reflecting static topographic differences. Such seasonal wetland systems are rarely documented in the stratigraphic record despite being a widespread environment in present-day tropical regions, and the Wealden deposits are used to identify criteria for the recognition of this important environment in the rock record. These southern English wetlands are compared with other Lower Cretaceous wetlands from northern Spain

  2. A Study of Natural and Restored Wetland Hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bayless, E. Randall; Arihood, Leslie D.; Sidle, William C.; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are jointly studying the hydrology of a long-existing natural wetland and a recently restored wetland in the Kankakee River Valley in northwestern Indiana. In characterizing the two wetlands, project investigators are testing innovative methods to identify the analytical tools best suited for evaluating the success of wetland restoration. Investigators also are examining and comparing the relations between hydrology and restored wetland vegetation.

  3. Linking ecosystem processes to sustainable wetland management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euliss, Ned H.; Smith, Loren M.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Browne, Bryant A.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of concern over problems associated with the future of managed wetlands in North America, nearly two dozen wetland scientists and managers met in February 2006 at Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge in New Mexico and discussed a sustainable approach to wetland management. This approach links science with management by focusing on underlying wetland processes. From that meeting, several papers were developed and published in Wetlands to address these concerns (Euliss et al. 2008, Smith et al. 2008, Wilcox 2008). This article summarizes our first paper, Euliss et al. (2008), and a future Newsletter article will summarize Smith et al. (2008). Realization of the role that complex interactions play in maintaining ecosystems, coupled with increasing demands of humans for ecosystem services, has prompted much interest in ecosystem management. Not surprisingly, sustainability of ecosystems has become an explicitly stated goal of many natural resource agencies and, in some cases, has been legislatively mandated to ensure provision of resources for future generations. However, examples of sustainable ecosystem management are uncommon because management goals often focus on specific deliverables rather than processes that sustain ecosystems. This paper has three sections: (1) perspectives in which we provide a bit of history, (2), ecological consequences of a static view, and (3) suggestions to aid wetland managers link management goals with critical ecosystem processes responsible for provision of wetland services.

  4. Advancing the use of minirhizotrons in wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Iversen, Colleen M; Murphy, Meaghan T.; Allen, Michael F.; Childs, Joanne; Eissenstat, David M.; Lilleskov, Erik A.; Sarjala, Tytti M.; Sloan, Victoria L.; Sullivan, Patrick F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Wetlands store a substantial amount of carbon (C) in deep soil organic matter deposits, and play an important role in global fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane. Fine roots (i.e., ephemeral roots that are active in water and nutrient uptake) are recognized as important components of biogeochemical cycles in nutrient-limited wetland ecosystems. However, quantification of fine-root dynamics in wetlands has generally been limited to destructive approaches, possibly because of methodological difficulties associated with the unique environmental, soil, and plant community characteristics of these systems. Non-destructive minirhizotron technology has rarely been used in wetland ecosystems. Scope: Our goal was to develop a consensus on, and a methodological framework for, the appropriate installation and use of minirhizotron technology in wetland ecosystems. Here, we discuss a number of potential solutions for the challenges associated with the deployment of minirhizotron technology in wetlands, including minirhizotron installation and anchorage, capture and analysis of minirhizotron images, and upscaling of minirhizotron data for analysis of biogeochemical pools and parameterization of land surface models. Conclusions: The appropriate use of minirhizotron technology to examine relatively understudied fine-root dynamics in wetlands will advance our knowledge of ecosystem C and nutrient cycling in these globally important ecosystems.

  5. Modeling heavy metal removal in wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Lung, W.S.; Light, R.N.

    1994-12-31

    Although the use of wetland ecosystems to purify water has gained increased attention only recently, it has been recognized as a wastewater treatment technique for centuries. While considerable research has occurred to quantify the nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) removal mechanisms of wetlands, relatively few investigators have focused on the mechanisms of heavy metal removal and uptake by wetland sediments and plants. The quantification of the assimilative capacity of heavy metals by wetland ecosystems is a critical component in the design and use of wetlands for this purpose. A computer model has been developed to simulate the fate and transport of heavy metals introduced to a wetland ecosystem. Modeled water quality variables include phytoplankton biomass and productivity; macrophyte (Nulumbo lutea) biomass; total phosphorus in the water column; dissolved copper in the water column and sediments; particulate copper in the water column and sediments; and suspended solids. These variables directly affect the calculated rate of copper uptake by macrophytes, and the rate of copper recycling as a function of the decomposition of copper-laden biomass litter. The model was calibrated using total phosphorus and chlorophyll a data from the Old Woman Creek Wetland in Ohio. Verification of the model was achieved using data on the copper content of the macrophyte Nelumbo lutea.

  6. Uranium Immobilization in Wetland Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul G.; Li, Dien; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C.; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Scheckel, Kirk

    2014-05-01

    In wetlands, which are a major feature at the groundwater-surface water interface, plants deliver oxygen to the subsurface to keep root tissue aerobic. Some of this oxygen leaches into the rhizosphere where it will oxidize iron that typically precipitates on or near roots. Furthermore, plans provide carbon via root exudates and turnover, which in the presence of the iron oxides drives the activity of heterotrophic iron reducers in wetland soils. Oxidized iron is an important electron acceptor for many microbially-driven transformations, which can affect the fate and transport of several pollutants. It has been shown that heterotrophic iron reducing organisms, such as Geobacter sp., can reduce water soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). The goal of this study was to determine if and how iron cycling in the wetland rhizosphere affects uranium dynamics. For this purpose, we operated a series of small-scale wetland mesocosms in a greenhouse to simulate the discharge of uranium-contaminated groundwater to surface waters. The mesocosms were operated with two different Fe(II) loading rates, two plant types, and unplanted controls. The mesocosms contained zones of root exclusion to differentiate between the direct presence and absence of roots in the planted mesocosms. The mesocosms were operated for several month to get fully established, after which a U(VI) solution was fed for 80 days. The mesocosms were then sacrificed and analyzed for solid-associated chemical species, microbiological characterization, micro-X-ray florescence (µ-XRF) mapping of Fe and U on the root surface, and U speciation via X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES). Results showed that bacterial numbers including Geobacter sp., Fe(III), as well as total uranium, were highest on roots, followed by sediments near roots, and lowest in zones without much root influence. Results from the µ-XRF mapping on root surfaces indicated a strong spatial correlation between Fe and U. This correlation was

  7. Macroinvertebrate abundance, water chemistry, and wetland characteristics affect use of wetlands by avian species in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Pendleton, G.W.; Bennatti, C.R.; Mingo, T.M.; Stromborg, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    Our objective was to determine use by avian species (e.g., piscivores, marsh birds, waterfowl, selected passerines) of 29 wetlands in areas with low ( 5.51. All years combined use of wetlands by broods was greater on wetlands with pH 5.51 that supported 21.8% of the broods. High mean brood density was associated with mean number of Insecta per wetland. For lentic wetlands created by beaver, those habitats contained vegetative structure and nutrients necessary to provide cover to support invertebrate populations that are prey of omnivore and insectivore species. The fishless status of a few wetlands may have affected use by some waterfowl species and obligate piscivores.

  8. English Learners: Reaching the Highest Level of English Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Gilbert C., Ed.

    This collection of papers examines the critical literacy development of English learners, focusing on English reading instruction in an immersion setting, English language development, and cultural issues pertaining to English learners in and out of the classroom. The 16 papers include the following: (1) "Reading and the Bilingual Student: Fact…

  9. Learner Views on English and English Language Teaching in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Na; Lin, Chih-Kai; Wiley, Terrence G.

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1980s, China has represented one of the major growth areas in the world for English language education, and studying English has been a priority among its foreign language educational policies. As English has gained more popularity in China, some have noted the potential value of English as a means to greater educational access and…

  10. English(es) in Urban Contexts: Politics, Pluralism, and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkland, David E.

    2010-01-01

    English as taught in city schools does not always reflect the Englishes city students travel with. Their urban English landscape is enriched by a procession of many voices that march in various directions in, around, and through the monuments of the city. These languages--Englishes, in this case--which have been traded on through various public…

  11. Constructing English as a Ugandan Language through an English Textbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stranger-Johannessen, Espen

    2015-01-01

    English is a national language in Uganda and is widely used in elite areas such as politics and business, but most Ugandans master English to only a limited degree. In this situation, English can be seen as either a foreign language or a second language--influencing how English is taught. One goal of language teaching espoused in this article is…

  12. Experiences with constructed wetland systems in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngchul, Kim; Gilson, Hwang; Jin-Woo, Lee; Je-Chul, Park; Dong-Sup, Kim; Min-Gi, Kang; in-Soung, Chang

    2006-10-01

    In spite of the low temperature during the winter season and the high land environment, the wetland treatment system is gaining popularity in Korea because of its lower construction cost and simplicity in operation and maintenance. Many different types of wetland treatment systems have been built during the last 10 years, among which the free water surface wetland has been predominant. Most of the large-scale systems are government projects for improving the water quality of the streams flowing into the estuary dikes and reservoirs. The covering plants used in this system are different in different areas but cattails and reeds or their combinations are common. Constructed wetlands in Korea can be characterized by their shallow depths and short hydraulic residence times. There is no established flow pattern and configuration rules for constructing wetlands, but many efforts have been made with a view to improving their ecological function. Flow control is the most difficult problem in designing a riverbed or riparian wetland. There have been scores of flow rate control devices developed for wetlands, but none of them guarantee wetlands’ safety against flooding. In earlier wetland construction, the building materials were mainly soil. Recently, strong and durable building materials such as rocks, gravel beds, concrete and steel are used at vulnerable places to protect them from erosion. Our investigation indicated that the wetland system would be an appropriate technology because it is not only cheaper to construct, but also requires less maintenance work. However, we suffer from the reduced effectiveness in performance during the winter. We need to evaluate the partial treatment accomplished during 6 to 7 months per year.

  13. Phosphorus Retention and Storage by Isolated Wetlands in the Lake Ocheechobee Basin, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkaczyk, M.; Jawitz, J.

    2003-04-01

    Wetlands are one of the most promising technologies for use in controlling nutrients from agricultural operations. Their effectiveness, however, depends on the retention capacity of the wetland, contaminant load and the desired effluent quality. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of isolated wetlands for attenuation of phosphorus (P) export from the basin. Small isolated wetlands comprise 16.6 % of the landscape in Lake Okeechobee basin, located in south-central Florida. The lake provides flood protection, water supply for agricultural and urban areas, and it is a critical habitat for wildlife. Excessive phosphorus loading causes algal blooms and detrimental changes in biological communities of Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades ecosystem. The land use in the Okeechobee basin is primarily dairy farms and cow-calf operations. Studies conducted within the past two decades have implicated these land uses as a prominent source of the P loading from manure, fertilizers and runoff. Due to poor retention by sandy soils, much of the P is ultimately exported downstream through the Taylor Creek-Nubbin Slough and Kissimmee River to Lake Okeechobee. Despite numerous efforts to reduce P loading from these watersheds, continued improvements are necessary to further reduce nutrients runoff. This research is a multi-year effort to optimize the P removal and assimilation capacity of on-farm treatment wetlands thorough hydrologic manipulation to describe long-term P retention by wetlands. Field data collection is ongoing at four ranch sites selected for this project. Initially, hypothetical case simulations will be evaluated using several modeling methodologies: one-dimensional mass balance based input-output analysis, two-dimensional variably saturated water flow and solute transport model, and three-dimensional analysis at the watershed scale.

  14. Wetland Expansion on the Southern Edge of the West Siberian Sphagnum Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peregon, A.

    2006-12-01

    The southern border of Vasyugan wetland was chosen to analyse the long term trend in organic carbon (peat) accumulation and wetland expansion processes. In our study, the comprehensive field (soil/peat and geobotanical) studies were conducted and the results were extrapolated using Landsat ETM+ satellite images. Two types of interaction (ecotones) between forest and wetland were revealed within the study area. Variations in the trend of peat accumulation were found in two types of ecotones, strongly affected by topography and chemical properties of the mineral subsoil of wetland basin. One ecotone is represented by a range of forest ecosystems on flat terrain, and differs from another by the absence of reed communities. Flat topography, coupled with loamy structure and poorness of the subsoil provide conditions for the "permanent" formation of wetlands in the forest ecotone. Progression of the Sphagnum wetlands toward the adjoining deciduous forests was confirmed by existence of the residual soils, recently covered by peat sediments. Another, forest-reeds ecotone is situated on the more uneven terrain providing the path for water flow from the periphery of wetland basin. This causes the recurrence of drying and wetting of upper peat layers, resulting in the fluctuation in the carbon-storage capability of the area and recurring peat degradation on the periphery of peatland basin. The reed ecosystems are the sure indicator of carbonates located close to the land surface. The high concentration of carbonates in subsoil inhibits the advance of Sphagnum mosses and subsequent expansion of wetlands (i.e. "intermittent" wetland formation). Finally, the forest wetland boundary areas on the satellite images were classified into different types of ecotones described earlier. The final layout, prepared in the scale of 1:200K, demonstrates the evident activity of the wetland expansion processes even in the relatively dry climate without excess of precipitation over evaporation

  15. Wetland classification in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowardin, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    Wetland is part of a continuum of land types between deep water and dryland. Only one wetland classification was available for the United States prior to preparation of the new system described here, but numerous regional and special-purpose classifications are in use. The new classification is hierarchical, progressing from five systems (marine, estuarine, lacustrine, riverine, and palustrine) at the most general level to dominance types based on plant or animal communities at the most specific level . The system is currently in use for prototype maps of wetlands of the United States. It is hoped that it may be incorporated into a classification of all land.

  16. Issues and Developments in English and Applied Linguistics (IDEAL), Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Wayne B., Ed.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Articles in this volume of the journal on English as a Second Language and applied linguistics include: "The 'ng' Challenge: Five Simple Rules for Pronunciation Prediction" (Carol A. Buss); "The Effect of Markedness on Epenthesis in Spanish/English Interlanguage" (Robert S. Carlisle); "Proficiency-Based Instruction: Implications for Methodology"…

  17. Syntactic Features of Korea English: Word Order, Ellipsis, Articles, Prepositions, Passive, and Miscellaneous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seong, Myeong-Hee; Lee, Kang-Youg

    2008-01-01

    For the recent discussions on the status of English in the global context and its implication for English language teaching (Canagarajah, 2006; Jenkins, 2003, 2005, 2006a, 2006b; Kachru, 1985, 1991, 1992a, 1992b; Modiano, 1999a, 1999b; Rajagopalan, 2004), some ELT researchers (Lee, 2007; Park, 2006, 2007) have conducted a full-scaled documentation…

  18. The Third Way: A Call for Breaking the Dependency on the Mainstream English Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davari, Hossein; Aghagolzadeh, Ferdows; Golfam, Arsalan; Kambuziya, Aliyeh Kord Zafaranlu

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide spread of English, especially through the tenets and assumptions of the mainstream English language teaching (ELT) has had ideological, socio-cultural and political implications in the field of education. Reviewing these tenets and assumptions, this paper attempts to reveal this growing industry through publicizing the spread of…

  19. Acquisition of /s/-Clusters in Spanish-English Bilingual Children with Phonological Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yavas, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the development of English two-member onset #sC clusters in Spanish-English bilingual children with phonological disorders. Data from 30 children were analysed in terms of correct and incorrect productions, implicational relationships, and possible groupings according to the sonority index of the second member of the…

  20. Principles and Practices for Teaching English as an International Language. ESL & Applied Linguistics Professional Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsagoff, Lubna, Ed.; McKay, Sandra Lee, Ed.; Hu, Guangwei, Ed.; Renandya, Willy A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    What general principles should inform a socioculturally sensitive pedagogy for teaching English as an International Language and what practices would be consistent with these principles? This text explores the pedagogical implications of the continuing spread of English and its role as an international language, highlighting the importance of…

  1. iPoetry: Creating Space for New Literacies in the English Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curwood, Jen Scott; Cowell, Lora Lee H.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the use of digital poetry in a secondary English classroom and its implications for adolescents' multimodal composition and identity development. The authors--an English teacher and a library media specialist--collaborated over the course of three years to design, implement, and reiterate a digital poetry curriculum. Through…

  2. Strategies and Resources for Mainstream Teachers of English Language Learners. By Request Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Bracken; Railsback, Jennifer

    This booklet presents practical, research-based principles and instructional strategies that mainstream teachers can use to meet the needs of linguistically diverse students who are English Language Learners (ELLs), focusing on the following: "In Context: English Language Learners and No Child Left Behind"; "The Implications of No Child Left…

  3. Lost Opportunities to Learn: The Effects of Education Policy on Primary Language Instruction for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kate

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the implications that state educational policies, such as high-stakes testing in English and Proposition 227, have on teaching and learning in primary language instruction for English learners in California. Utilizing cultural-historical activity theory of learning and development, this qualitative case study uncovers the…

  4. Application of EPA wetland research program approach to a floodplain wetland restoration assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Kolka, R., K.; Trettin, C., C.; Nelson, E., A.; Barton, C., D.; Fletcher, D., E.

    2002-01-01

    Kolka, R.K., C.C. Trettin, E.A. Nelson, C.D. Barton, and D.E. Fletcher. 2002. Application of the EPA Wetland Research Program Approach to a floodplain wetland restoration assessment. J. Env. Monitoring & Restoration 1(1):37-51. Forested wetland restoration assessment is difficult because of the timeframe necessary for the development of a forest ecosystem. The development of a forested wetland ecosystem includes the recovery of hydrology, soils, vegetation, and faunal communities. To assess forested wetland restoration projects, measures need to be developed that are sensitive to early changes in community development and are predictive of future conditions. In this study we apply the EPS's Wetland Research Program's (WRP) approach to assess the recovery of two thermally altered riparian wetland systems in South Carolina. In one of the altered wetland systems, approximately 75% of the wetland was planted with bottomland tree seedlings in an effort to hasten recovery. Individual studies addressing hydrology, soils, vegetation, and faunal communities indicate variable recovery responses.

  5. Teaching Social Studies for Newcomer English Language Learners: Toward Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Yoonjung

    2013-01-01

    Through this case study the author explores how an exemplary teacher utilized social studies curriculum and pedagogy to engage English language learners (ELLs) in learning in a culturally relevant and meaningful way and discusses practical implications for teaching and learning.

  6. Predicting English Word Reading Skills for Spanish-Speaking Students in First Grade

    PubMed Central

    Páez, Mariela; Rinaldi, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the word reading skills in English and Spanish for a sample of 244 Spanish-speaking, English-learning (hence, bilingual) students in first grade and presents a predictive model for English word reading skills. The children in the study were assessed at the end of kindergarten and first grade, respectively. Data were gathered with 3 subtests of the Woodcock Language Proficiency Battery and a researcher-developed phonological awareness task. Results showed that, on average, children's English word reading skills were similar to monolingual norms whereas their Spanish word reading skills averaged 1 SD below the mean. English vocabulary, English phonological awareness, and Spanish word reading skills in kindergarten were found to be significant predictors of English word reading skills in first grade. Educational implications for screening language and reading skills and promising areas for targeted instruction for this population are discussed. PMID:20396623

  7. English Language Teaching in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adoniou, Misty

    2001-01-01

    Highlights English language teaching in Greece, both in the government school system and in private English language education, focusing on the teachers, the classrooms, the classroom and syllabus, and inservice support. Discusses English in higher education, opportunities for teachers in Greece, and support for all teachers of English in Greece.…

  8. History of the English Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Curriculum Project, Atlanta, GA.

    This curriculum guide, developed for pre-kindergartners through grade 12 as part of the total English curriculum, is concerned with the English language as it is now known and as it evolved from its Indo-European roots. Materials include (1) an overview of the origin and development of the English language from Old English through middle English…

  9. Standards and Dialects in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shopen, Timothy; Williams, Joseph M.

    A collection of essays on linguistic variation in English that distinguishes communities and social groups from one another includes: "Standard English: Biography of a Symbol" (Shirley Brice Heath); "The Rise of Standard English" (Margaret Shaklee); "English Orthography" (Wayne O'Neil); "How Pablo Says 'Love' and 'Stove'" and "An Afterword: How…

  10. My Hesitation to Speak English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oda, Naruha

    2015-01-01

    Even though English was the author's favorite subject, she was not good at speaking in English, and always tried to avoid it. However, it did not matter because she did not have to speak to demonstrate her English ability. After entering university, her lack of confidence in speaking English became a major issue, and other students face the same…

  11. Learning English in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreck, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Today, English language learners (ELLs)--students whose primary language is other than English--are the fastest-growing major school population in the United States. Between 2000-01 and 2010-11, the number of these students, whose level of English proficiency is not sufficient to support learning in a regular English language classroom, rose 18…

  12. Wetland tree transpiration modified by river-floodplain connectivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Scott T; Krauss, Ken W.; Cochran, J. Wesley; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrologic connectivity provisions water and nutrient subsidies to floodplain wetlands and may be particularly important in floodplains with seasonal water deficits through its effects on soil moisture. In this study, we measured sapflow in 26 trees of two dominant floodplain forest species (Celtis laevigata and Quercus lyrata) at two hydrologically distinct sites in the lower White River floodplain in Arkansas, USA. Our objective was to investigate how connectivity-driven water table variations affected water use, an indicator of tree function. Meteorological variables (photosynthetically active radiation and vapor pressure deficit) were the dominant controls over water use at both sites; however, water table variations explained some site differences. At the wetter site, highest sapflow rates were during a late-season overbank flooding event, and no flood stress was apparent. At the drier site, sapflow decreased as the water table receded. The late-season flood pulse that resulted in flooding at the wetter site did not affect the water table at the drier site; accordingly, higher water use was not observed at the drier site. The species generally associated with wetter conditions (Q. lyrata) was more positively responsive to the flood pulse. Flood water subsidy lengthened the effective growing season, demonstrating ecological implications of hydrologic connectivity for alleviating water deficits that otherwise reduce function in this humid floodplain wetland.

  13. Examining Gas Flux Interactions in Wetland-Dominated Permafrost Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenward, A.; Quinton, W.; Petrone, R.

    2009-05-01

    Northern boreal wetland complexes have been identified as substantial reservoirs for greenhouse gases and play a crucial role in both regional and global carbon budgets. These reservoirs are not only responding to shifts in atmospheric temperatures, but are also under additional pressure from increasing permafrost degradation. This study examines the carbon (CO2) respiration and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of a high boreal wetland during the 2008 spring melt season, located near Fort Simpson (61o18'N, 121o 18'W), Northwest Territories. Gas flux was monitored daily with a dynamic closed-system chamber at nine sites in order to characterize and compare the gas flux gradients for three terrain types typical of the lower Liard River valley: channel fens, ombrotrophic flat bogs and peat plateaus. Each terrain site shows a clear pattern of increasing respiration rate during the transition period from snowmelt to senescence; however significant variation in this rate of change between terrain types is apparent. In order to determine how the fluxes change for each terrain during a period of active layer growth in relation to each other, controlling environmental variables (soil moisture, air temperature, relative humidity, and photosynthetic active radiation) were measured to derive any significant relationships. Additionally, the spatial variability of parameters such as soil moisture, snow and frost table depth, water table depth, and plant communities were investigated. This provides information on the gas flux characteristics for specific terrain features with implications for predicting the future regional flux for this area as a sink or source for carbon.

  14. Wetland tree transpiration modified by river-floodplain connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Scott T.; Krauss, Ken W.; Cochran, J. Wesley; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.

    2016-03-01

    Hydrologic connectivity provisions water and nutrient subsidies to floodplain wetlands and may be particularly important in floodplains with seasonal water deficits through its effects on soil moisture. In this study, we measured sapflow in 26 trees of two dominant floodplain forest species (Celtis laevigata and Quercus lyrata) at two hydrologically distinct sites in the lower White River floodplain in Arkansas, USA. Our objective was to investigate how connectivity-driven water table variations affected water use, an indicator of tree function. Meteorological variables (photosynthetically active radiation and vapor pressure deficit) were the dominant controls over water use at both sites; however, water table variations explained some site differences. At the wetter site, highest sapflow rates were during a late-season overbank flooding event, and no flood stress was apparent. At the drier site, sapflow decreased as the water table receded. The late-season flood pulse that resulted in flooding at the wetter site did not affect the water table at the drier site; accordingly, higher water use was not observed at the drier site. The species generally associated with wetter conditions (Q. lyrata) was more positively responsive to the flood pulse. Flood water subsidy lengthened the effective growing season, demonstrating ecological implications of hydrologic connectivity for alleviating water deficits that otherwise reduce function in this humid floodplain wetland.

  15. Relative effects of landscape-scale wetland amount and landscape matrix quality on wetland vertebrates: a 'meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Quesnelle, Pauline E; Lindsay, Kathryn E; Fahrigi, Lenore

    2015-04-01

    Conservation management of wetland-dependent species generally focuses on preserving or increasing wetland habitat. However, the quality of the landscape matrix (the intervening non-wetland portion of the landscape) has been shown to be more important than wetland availability for some wetland-dependent species. We used meta-analysis to compare the effects of wetland amount (measured as the area of wetland habitat in a landscape) and matrix quality (measured as the area of forest cover in the same landscape) on the population abundance of wetland-dependent vertebrates. We combined data across 63 studies conducted in forested ecoregions worldwide and extracted 330 population responses for 155 species, at the spatial scale that best predicted the effects of wetland. amount and forest amount for each response. In addition, to ensure that our results were not biased by the scale selected, we assessed whether the relative effects of wetland and forest amount were scale dependent. We found that the amount of wetland in a landscape had a larger effect than the amount of forest on the abundance of mammals and birds whereas, surprisingly, for amphibians the amount of forest in a landscape was more important than the amount of wetland. For reptiles, both wetland amount and forest amount showed only weak,effects on abundance. These results were not scale dependent, i.e., they were consistent across spatial scales. Our results suggest that the population distribution of wetland-dependent amphibians is more strongly related to landscape matrix quality than to wetland availability in a landscape, likely due to their requirement for access to terrestrial resources. We conclude that conservation policies for wetland biodiversity that focus only on wetland habitat will be ineffective in conserving many of these species. In addition, population viability analyses based only on wetland amount may overestimate the capacity of a landscape to support populations of wetland

  16. Feasibility of using geothermal effluents for waterfowl wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    1981-09-01

    This project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using geothermal effluents for developing and maintaining waterfowl wetlands. Information in the document pertains to a seven State area the West where geothermal resources have development potential. Information is included on physiochemical characteristics of geothermal effluents; known effects of constituents in the water on a wetland ecosystem and water quality criteria for maintaining a viable wetland; potential of sites for wetland development and disposal of effluent water from geothermal facilities; methods of disposal of effluents, including advantages of each method and associated costs; legal and institutional constraints which could affect geothermal wetland development; potential problems associated with depletion of geothermal resources and subsidence of wetland areas; potential interference (adverse and beneficial) of wetlands with ground water; special considerations for wetlands requirements including size, flows, and potential water usage; and final conclusions and recommendations for suitable sites for developing demonstration wetlands.

  17. Balancing the Needs of China's Wetland Conservation and Rice Production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongjun; Wang, Guoping; Lu, Xianguo; Jiang, Ming; Mendelssohn, Irving A

    2015-06-01

    China's rice policy for protecting paddy fields and constructing rice production bases is in conflict with its wetland conservation strategy. The policy will increase the rice planting area, the loss of remaining wetlands, and environmental pollution, with intensive application of fertilizers and heavy use of pesticides. The key to resolving this conflict is to bring rice production in compliance with wetland conservation and sustainable agriculture. An operational, sound regulatory program is needed to improve China's wetland conservation. Using wetland conservation in the US as an example, we argue that more effective technical guidelines for wetland inventory and monitoring are necessary to support the implementation of the regulatory program. Agricultural conservation programs are also needed to stop further wetland loss from agricultural usages. An ecoagricultural strategy and practice should be adopted for rice production to reduce pollution and loss of remaining wetlands. Agroecological engineering tools can be used to reduce the impacts of nutrient- and pesticide-enriched agricultural runoff to wetlands. PMID:25955310

  18. 40 CFR 230.41 - Wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... biological productivity of wetlands ecosystems by smothering, by dewatering, by permanently flooding, or by... eliminate nutrient exchange by a reduction of the system's productivity, or by altering current patterns...

  19. 40 CFR 230.41 - Wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... biological productivity of wetlands ecosystems by smothering, by dewatering, by permanently flooding, or by... eliminate nutrient exchange by a reduction of the system's productivity, or by altering current patterns...

  20. Mountain wetlands: efficient uranium filters - potential impacts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, D.E.; Otton, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Sediments in 67 of 145 Colorado wetlands sampled by the US Geological Survey contain moderate (20 ppm) or greater concentrations of uranium (some as high as 3000 ppm) based on dry weight. The proposed maximum contaminant level (MCL) for uranium in drinking water is 20 ??g/l or 20 ppb. By comparison, sediments in many of these wetlands contain 3 to 5 orders of magnitude more uranium than the proposed MCL. Wetlands near the workings of old mines may be trapping any number of additional metals/elements including Cu, Pb, Zn, As and Ag. Anthropogenic disturbances and natural changes may release uranium and other loosely bound metals presently contained in wetland sediments. -from Authors

  1. Do Geographically Isolated Wetlands Influence Landscape Functions?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landscape functions such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support depend on the exchange of solutes, particles, energy, and organisms between elements in hydrological and habitat networks. Wetlands are important network elements, providing hyd...

  2. A Constructed Wetland: From Monitoring To Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowal, Dan

    1998-01-01

    Presents a water-quality monitoring project in a Denver school that has evolved into an experiment using a constructed wetland system to treat the acid-mine drainage from an abandoned gold mine. (PVD)

  3. Coastal wetlands: an integrated ecosystem approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2009-01-01

    Coastal wetlands are under a great deal of pressure from the dual forces of rising sea level and the intervention of human populations both along the estuary and in the river catchment. Direct impacts include the destruction or degradation of wetlands from land reclamation and infrastructures. Indirect impacts derive from the discharge of pollutants, changes in river flows and sediment supplies, land clearing, and dam operations. As sea level rises, coastal wetlands in most areas of the world migrate landward to occupy former uplands. The competition of these lands from human development is intensifying, making the landward migration impossible in many cases. This book provides an understanding of the functioning of coastal ecosystems and the ecological services that they provide, and suggestions for their management. In this book a CD is included containing color figures of wetlands and estuaries in different parts of the world.

  4. REMOTE SENSING AND GIS FOR WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In identifying and characterizing wetland and adjacent features, the use of remote sensor and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technologies has been valuable. Remote sensors such as photographs and computer-sensor generated images can illustrate conditions of hydrology, exten...

  5. Wetland Mitigation Monitoring at the Fernald Preserve - 13200

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Jane; Bien, Stephanie; Decker, Ashlee; Homer, John; Wulker, Brian

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for 7.2 hectares (17.8 acres) of mitigation wetland at the Fernald Preserve, Ohio. Remedial activities affected the wetlands, and mitigation plans were incorporated into site-wide ecological restoration planning. In 2008, the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees developed a comprehensive wetland mitigation monitoring approach to evaluate whether compensatory mitigation requirements have been met. The Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Plan provided a guideline for wetland evaluations. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) wetland mitigation monitoring protocols were adopted as the means for compensatory wetland evaluation. Design, hydrologic regime, vegetation, wildlife, and biogeochemistry were evaluated from 2009 to 2011. Evaluations showed mixed results when compared to the Ohio EPA performance standards. Results of vegetation monitoring varied, with the best results occurring in wetlands adjacent to forested areas. Amphibians, particularly ambystomatid salamanders, were observed in two areas adjacent to forested areas. Not all wetlands met vegetation performance standards and amphibian biodiversity metrics. However, Fernald mitigation wetlands showed substantially higher ratings compared to other mitigated wetlands in Ohio. Also, soil sampling results remain consistent with other Ohio mitigated wetlands. The performance standards are not intended to be 'pass/fail' criteria; rather, they are reference points for use in making decisions regarding future monitoring and maintenance. The Trustees approved the Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Report with the provision that long-term monitoring of the wetlands continues at the Fernald Preserve. (authors)

  6. English airplane construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwencke, D

    1930-01-01

    English airplane construction is presented with a particular emphasis on metal construction techniques. Steel rib and fuselage construction are discussed as well as the use of duralumin in construction.

  7. English for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulin, Andre

    1974-01-01

    Examines four publications meant for intermediate or even advanced learners of English: first, two handbooks of commercial correspondence, then, two methods designed to develop the four basic language skills. (Author/PMP)

  8. Acidification of experimental wetlands: Effects on wetland productivity and survival of juvenile black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Chu, D.S.; Bunck, C.M.; Mingo, T.M.; Schaffner, W.W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Six man-made wetlands (0.02 ha each) and pen-reared broods of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) were used to assess the effects of reduced pH on the quality of fish- free, palustrine habitat for brood rearing. Acid treatment was assigned randomly among newly constructed wetlands during April through June 1984-85, to simulate depressed pH from snowmelt and spring rain. Sampling of chlorophyll epiphytic growth, zooplankton and macroinvertebrates confirmed reduced productivity of acidified (pH 5.0) versus control (pH 6.8) wetlands. Primary productivity was particularly reduced in acidified wetlands in early spring as indicated by high water transparency and low chlorophyll a concentrations. Chlrophyll a concentrations showed treatment (p = 0.01) and date (p = 0.05) effects, but no interaction, and dry weight of epiphytic growth was lower (p = 0.03) in acidified versus control wetlands. Numbers of zooplankton were similar in experimental wetlands, although controls generally exceeded acidified wetlands in abundance; only a single treatment effect for cladocerans (p = 0.1) was detected. Sweep net samples yielded greater numbers (p = 0.03), taxa (p = 0.01) and biomass (p = 0.07) of macroinvertebrates in control wetlands with gastropods, pelecypods and leeches notably reduced by acidification. Placement of 18 broods (female with four 10-day-old ducklings) for 10-day trials on experimental wetlands revealed limited growth, altered behaviour and marked reduction in survival of ducklings on acidified wetlands. An inadequate number of invertebrates is indicated as the cause for poor duckling productivity on acidified wetlands

  9. Remote Sensing and Wetland Ecology: a South African Case Study

    PubMed Central

    De Roeck, Els R.; Verhoest, Niko E.C.; Miya, Mtemi H.; Lievens, Hans; Batelaan, Okke; Thomas, Abraham; Brendonck, Luc

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing offers a cost efficient means for identifying and monitoring wetlands over a large area and at different moments in time. In this study, we aim at providing ecologically relevant information on characteristics of temporary and permanent isolated open water wetlands, obtained by standard techniques and relatively cheap imagery. The number, surface area, nearest distance, and dynamics of isolated temporary and permanent wetlands were determined for the Western Cape, South Africa. Open water bodies (wetlands) were mapped from seven Landsat images (acquired during 1987 – 2002) using supervised maximum likelihood classification. The number of wetlands fluctuated over time. Most wetlands were detected in the winter of 2000 and 2002, probably related to road constructions. Imagery acquired in summer contained fewer wetlands than in winter. Most wetlands identified from Landsat images were smaller than one hectare. The average distance to the nearest wetland was larger in summer. In comparison to temporary wetlands, fewer, but larger permanent wetlands were detected. In addition, classification of non-vegetated wetlands on an Envisat ASAR radar image (acquired in June 2005) was evaluated. The number of detected small wetlands was lower for radar imagery than optical imagery (acquired in June 2002), probably because of deterioration of the spatial information content due the extensive pre-processing requirements of the radar image. Both optical and radar classifications allow to assess wetland characteristics that potentially influence plant and animal metacommunity structure. Envisat imagery, however, was less suitable than Landsat imagery for the extraction of detailed ecological information, as only large wetlands can be detected. This study has indicated that ecologically relevant data can be generated for the larger wetlands through relatively cheap imagery and standard techniques, despite the relatively low resolution of Landsat and Envisat imagery

  10. Projecting the Hydrologic Impacts of Climate Change on Montane Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Hamlet, Alan F.; Palen, Wendy J.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Halabisky, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are globally important ecosystems that provide critical services for natural communities and human society. Montane wetland ecosystems are expected to be among the most sensitive to changing climate, as their persistence depends on factors directly influenced by climate (e.g. precipitation, snowpack, evaporation). Despite their importance and climate sensitivity, wetlands tend to be understudied due to a lack of tools and data relative to what is available for other ecosystem types. Here, we develop and demonstrate a new method for projecting climate-induced hydrologic changes in montane wetlands. Using observed wetland water levels and soil moisture simulated by the physically based Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model, we developed site-specific regression models relating soil moisture to observed wetland water levels to simulate the hydrologic behavior of four types of montane wetlands (ephemeral, intermediate, perennial, permanent wetlands) in the U. S. Pacific Northwest. The hybrid models captured observed wetland dynamics in many cases, though were less robust in others. We then used these models to a) hindcast historical wetland behavior in response to observed climate variability (1916–2010 or later) and classify wetland types, and b) project the impacts of climate change on montane wetlands using global climate model scenarios for the 2040s and 2080s (A1B emissions scenario). These future projections show that climate-induced changes to key driving variables (reduced snowpack, higher evapotranspiration, extended summer drought) will result in earlier and faster drawdown in Pacific Northwest montane wetlands, leading to systematic reductions in water levels, shortened wetland hydroperiods, and increased probability of drying. Intermediate hydroperiod wetlands are projected to experience the greatest changes. For the 2080s scenario, widespread conversion of intermediate wetlands to fast-drying ephemeral wetlands will likely reduce

  11. Projecting the Hydrologic Impacts of Climate Change on Montane Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Lee, Se-Yeun; Ryan, Maureen E; Hamlet, Alan F; Palen, Wendy J; Lawler, Joshua J; Halabisky, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are globally important ecosystems that provide critical services for natural communities and human society. Montane wetland ecosystems are expected to be among the most sensitive to changing climate, as their persistence depends on factors directly influenced by climate (e.g. precipitation, snowpack, evaporation). Despite their importance and climate sensitivity, wetlands tend to be understudied due to a lack of tools and data relative to what is available for other ecosystem types. Here, we develop and demonstrate a new method for projecting climate-induced hydrologic changes in montane wetlands. Using observed wetland water levels and soil moisture simulated by the physically based Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model, we developed site-specific regression models relating soil moisture to observed wetland water levels to simulate the hydrologic behavior of four types of montane wetlands (ephemeral, intermediate, perennial, permanent wetlands) in the U. S. Pacific Northwest. The hybrid models captured observed wetland dynamics in many cases, though were less robust in others. We then used these models to a) hindcast historical wetland behavior in response to observed climate variability (1916-2010 or later) and classify wetland types, and b) project the impacts of climate change on montane wetlands using global climate model scenarios for the 2040s and 2080s (A1B emissions scenario). These future projections show that climate-induced changes to key driving variables (reduced snowpack, higher evapotranspiration, extended summer drought) will result in earlier and faster drawdown in Pacific Northwest montane wetlands, leading to systematic reductions in water levels, shortened wetland hydroperiods, and increased probability of drying. Intermediate hydroperiod wetlands are projected to experience the greatest changes. For the 2080s scenario, widespread conversion of intermediate wetlands to fast-drying ephemeral wetlands will likely reduce

  12. Pesticide mass budget in a stormwater wetland.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Elodie; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands are reactive landscape zones that provide ecosystem services, including the improvement of water quality. Field studies distinguishing pesticide degradation from retention to evaluate the sink and source functions of wetlands are scarce. This study evaluated based on a complete mass budget the partitioning, retention, and degradation of 12 pesticides in water, suspended solids, sediments, and organisms in a wetland receiving contaminated runoff. The mass budget showed the following: (i) dissolved pesticides accounted for 95% of the total load entering the wetland and the pesticide partitioning between the dissolved phase and the suspended solids varied according to the molecules, (ii) pesticides accumulated primarily in the <250 μm bed sediments during spring and late summer, and (iii) the hydrological regime or the incoming pesticide loads did not influence the pesticide dissipation, which varied according to the molecules and the wetland biogeochemical conditions. The vegetation enhanced the pesticide degradation during the vegetative phase and the pesticides were released during plant senescence. The dithiocarbamates were degraded under oxic conditions in spring, whereas glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) degradation occurred under reducing conditions during the summer. The complete pesticide mass budget indicates the versatility of the pesticide sink and source functions of wetland systems. PMID:25003558

  13. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, Matthew J.; Creed, Irena F.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Basu, Nandita; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Craft, Christopher; D’Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E.; Jawitz, James W.; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Lewis, David Bruce; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Mushet, David M.; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C.; Smith, Lora; Walls, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bodies to create spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the timing, flow paths, and magnitude of network connectivity. These attributes signal a critical role for GIWs in sustaining a portfolio of landscape functions, but legal protections remain weak despite preferential loss from many landscapes. GIWs lack persistent surface water connections, but this condition does not imply the absence of hydrological, biogeochemical, and biological exchanges with nearby and downstream waters. Although hydrological and biogeochemical connectivity is often episodic or slow (e.g., via groundwater), hydrologic continuity and limited evaporative solute enrichment suggest both flow generation and solute and sediment retention. Similarly, whereas biological connectivity usually requires overland dispersal, numerous organisms, including many rare or threatened species, use both GIWs and downstream waters at different times or life stages, suggesting that GIWs are critical elements of landscape habitat mosaics. Indeed, weaker hydrologic connectivity with downstream waters and constrained biological connectivity with other landscape elements are precisely what enhances some GIW functions and enables others. Based on analysis of wetland geography and synthesis of wetland functions, we argue that sustaining landscape functions requires conserving the entire continuum of wetland connectivity, including GIWs.

  14. Identification and characterization of wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Rosensteel, B.A.; Trettin, C.C.

    1993-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify, characterize, and map the wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed. A preliminary wetland categorization system based on the Cowardin classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) with additional site-specific topographic, vegetation, and disturbance characteristic modifiers was developed to characterize the type of wetlands that exist in the Bear Creek watershed. An additional objective was to detect possible relationships among site soils, hydrology, and the occurrence of wetlands in the watershed through a comparison of existing data with the field survey. Research needs are discussed in the context of wetland functions and values and regulatory requirements for wetland impact assessment and compensatory mitigation.

  15. GEOGRAPHICALLY ISOLATED WETLANDS IN EASTERN CAROLINA: SOUTHEAST ISOLATED WETLANDS ASSESSMENT, QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN (JULY 2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Southeastern Isolated Wetlands Assessment is the new Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (REMAP) project in EPA Region 4. The project will produce data and synthesis on the ways that isolated wetlands can protect downstream water quality at a watershed s...

  16. WETLAND MORPHOLOGIC AND BIOGEOGRAPHIC INFLUENCES ON ALGAL RESPONSES TO NUTRIENT LOADING IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are testing the influence of wetland morphology (protected vs. riverine) and biogeography (upper vs. lower Great Lakes) on algal responses to nutrients in Great Lakes Coastal wetlands. Principal components analysis using nutrient-specific GIS data was used to select sites wit...

  17. Swine lagoon wastewater treatment in marsh-pond/floating wetland-marsh constructed wetland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Constructed wetlands have been used effectively to reduce the mass loads of organic and nutrient components from swine anaerobic lagoons. Continuous marsh wetlands with gentle slope and intermittent flows seem to be the best for promoting oxidation and minimizing ammonia volatilization. However, the...

  18. Ethnolinguistically Relevant Pedagogy: Empowering English Language Learners in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burden, Joe W., Jr.; Columna, Luis; Hodge, Samuel R.; Mansilla, Patricia Martinez de la Vega

    2013-01-01

    People from diverse cultures interpret languages and gestures differently (Columna & Lieberman, 2011). It is not surprising, therefore, that communication differences may have negative implications for teachers and English language learners in K-12 physical education environments. To address this issue, we advocate preparing physical education…

  19. English as an International Language: A Curriculum Blueprint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Aya; Friedrich, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The use of English as an international language (EIL) and its implications for teaching have attracted much scholarly attention. However, much of the discussion has remained at an abstract level and not provided pedagogical ideas that are theoretically sound, informed by research, and at the same time specific enough to be useful in the classroom.…

  20. Spread of English and Westernization in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Abed, Fawwaz; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A questionnaire was distributed to Saudi Arabian undergraduates in order to investigate their attitudes toward Westernization, national identity, and religious commitment. Results revealed that learning English did not "Westernize" students nor weaken national identity. Implications and recommendations for establishing a rigid language policy in…