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Sample records for enhance odor detection

  1. Odors Pulsed at Wing Beat Frequencies are Tracked by Primary Olfactory Networks and Enhance Odor Detection

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Shreejoy J.; Peters, Oakland J.; Staudacher, Erich M.; Kalwar, Faizan R.; Hatfield, Mandy N.; Daly, Kevin C.

    2009-01-01

    Each down stroke of an insect's wings accelerates axial airflow over the antennae. Modeling studies suggest that this can greatly enhance penetration of air and air-born odorants through the antennal sensilla thereby periodically increasing odorant-receptor interactions. Do these periodic changes result in entrainment of neural responses in the antenna and antennal lobe (AL)? Does this entrainment affect olfactory acuity? To address these questions, we monitored antennal and AL responses in the moth Manduca sexta while odorants were pulsed at frequencies from 10–72 Hz, encompassing the natural wingbeat frequency. Power spectral density (PSD) analysis was used to identify entrainment of neural activity. Statistical analysis of PSDs indicates that the antennal nerve tracked pulsed odor up to 30 Hz. Furthermore, at least 50% of AL local field potentials (LFPs) and between 7–25% of unitary spiking responses also tracked pulsed odor up to 30 Hz in a frequency-locked manner. Application of bicuculline (200 μM) abolished pulse tracking in both LFP and unitary responses suggesting that GABAA receptor activation is necessary for pulse tracking within the AL. Finally, psychophysical measures of odor detection establish that detection thresholds are lowered when odor is pulsed at 20 Hz. These results suggest that AL networks can respond to the oscillatory dynamics of stimuli such as those imposed by the wing beat in a manner analogous to mammalian sniffing. PMID:20407584

  2. Enhancement of retronasal odors by taste.

    PubMed

    Green, Barry G; Nachtigal, Danielle; Hammond, Samuel; Lim, Juyun

    2012-01-01

    Psychophysical studies of interactions between retronasal olfaction and taste have focused most often on the enhancement of tastes by odors, which has been attributed primarily to a response bias (i.e., halo dumping). Based upon preliminary evidence that retronasal odors could also be enhanced by taste, the present study measured both forms of enhancement using appropriate response categories. In the first experiment, subjects rated taste ("sweet," "sour," "salty," and "bitter") and odor ("other") intensity for aqueous samples of 3 tastants (sucrose, NaCl, and citric acid) and 3 odorants (vanillin, citral, and furaneol), both alone and in taste-odor mixtures. The results showed that sucrose, but not the other taste stimuli, significantly increased the perceived intensity of all 3 odors. Enhancement of tastes by odors was inconsistent and generally weaker than enhancement of odors by sucrose. A second experiment used a flavored beverage and a custard dessert to test whether the findings from the first experiment would hold for the perception of actual foods. Adding sucrose significantly enhanced the intensity of "cherry" and "vanilla" flavors, whereas adding vanillin did not significantly enhance the intensity of sweetness. It is proposed that enhancement of retronasal odors by a sweet stimulus results from an adaptive sensory mechanism that serves to increase the salience of the flavor of nutritive foods. PMID:21798851

  3. Enhancement of Retronasal Odors by Taste

    PubMed Central

    Nachtigal, Danielle; Hammond, Samuel; Lim, Juyun

    2012-01-01

    Psychophysical studies of interactions between retronasal olfaction and taste have focused most often on the enhancement of tastes by odors, which has been attributed primarily to a response bias (i.e., halo dumping). Based upon preliminary evidence that retronasal odors could also be enhanced by taste, the present study measured both forms of enhancement using appropriate response categories. In the first experiment, subjects rated taste (“sweet,” “sour,” “salty,” and “bitter”) and odor (“other”) intensity for aqueous samples of 3 tastants (sucrose, NaCl, and citric acid) and 3 odorants (vanillin, citral, and furaneol), both alone and in taste–odor mixtures. The results showed that sucrose, but not the other taste stimuli, significantly increased the perceived intensity of all 3 odors. Enhancement of tastes by odors was inconsistent and generally weaker than enhancement of odors by sucrose. A second experiment used a flavored beverage and a custard dessert to test whether the findings from the first experiment would hold for the perception of actual foods. Adding sucrose significantly enhanced the intensity of “cherry” and “vanilla” flavors, whereas adding vanillin did not significantly enhance the intensity of sweetness. It is proposed that enhancement of retronasal odors by a sweet stimulus results from an adaptive sensory mechanism that serves to increase the salience of the flavor of nutritive foods. PMID:21798851

  4. Pattern recognition for selective odor detection with gas sensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eungyeong; Lee, Seok; Kim, Jae Hun; Kim, Chulki; Byun, Young Tae; Kim, Hyung Seok; Lee, Taikjin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new pattern recognition approach for enhancing the selectivity of gas sensor arrays for clustering intelligent odor detection. The aim of this approach was to accurately classify an odor using pattern recognition in order to enhance the selectivity of gas sensor arrays. This was achieved using an odor monitoring system with a newly developed neural-genetic classification algorithm (NGCA). The system shows the enhancement in the sensitivity of the detected gas. Experiments showed that the proposed NGCA delivered better performance than the previous genetic algorithm (GA) and artificial neural networks (ANN) methods. We also used PCA for data visualization. Our proposed system can enhance the reproducibility, reliability, and selectivity of odor sensor output, so it is expected to be applicable to diverse environmental problems including air pollution, and monitor the air quality of clean-air required buildings such as a kindergartens and hospitals. PMID:23443378

  5. Pattern Recognition for Selective Odor Detection with Gas Sensor Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eungyeong; Lee, Seok; Kim, Jae Hun; Kim, Chulki; Byun, Young Tae; Kim, Hyung Seok; Lee, Taikjin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new pattern recognition approach for enhancing the selectivity of gas sensor arrays for clustering intelligent odor detection. The aim of this approach was to accurately classify an odor using pattern recognition in order to enhance the selectivity of gas sensor arrays. This was achieved using an odor monitoring system with a newly developed neural-genetic classification algorithm (NGCA). The system shows the enhancement in the sensitivity of the detected gas. Experiments showed that the proposed NGCA delivered better performance than the previous genetic algorithm (GA) and artificial neural networks (ANN) methods. We also used PCA for data visualization. Our proposed system can enhance the reproducibility, reliability, and selectivity of odor sensor output, so it is expected to be applicable to diverse environmental problems including air pollution, and monitor the air quality of clean-air required buildings such as a kindergartens and hospitals. PMID:23443378

  6. Detection of smoldering combustion of coal with an odor meter

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.C.

    1995-05-01

    A commercially available odor meter was evaluated as a detector of smoldering coal combustion, and compared with incipient carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) detection and a commercially available ionization-type smoke detector. Ten smoldering coal combustion experiments were conducted. For eight of the experiments, Pittsburgh seam coal with an average particle diameter of approximately 5 cm was heated by embedded electrical strip heaters. For two of the experiments mine size Pittsburgh seam coal was heated. Heating rates of 0.5, 0.8, and 1.1. kw were selected to provide experimental conditions characteristic of very slow and moderately fast heating for coal sample mass between 3 and 10 kg. It was found that the odor meter and smoke detector alarm had a good correlation, with the odor meter alarm occurring prior to the smoke alarm in four of the ten experiments. The odor meter gave an increase in its output signal above ambient equivalent to detecting 1 ppm of H{sub 2}S (ten times the odor threshold of H{sub 2}S) as an alarm value. This observed odor meter response occurred prior to the electrochemical detection of H{sub 2}S for five of the six experiments for which it was evaluated. In all six experiments for which the smoke optical density was evaluated, it was less than 0.023 m{sup -1} prior to the odor meter reaching alarm. In each of the eight experiments with 5 cm diameter coal particles the CO exceeded 5 ppm at odor meter alarm, while for the two experiments with mine size coal the CO was less than 3 ppm at odor meter alarm. The odor meter, as tested, is not a significant improvement over smoke and CO detectors. Because the odor meter responds to a variety of chemical compounds, with suitable modification and increased sensitivity it may be useful for detection of mine fires and thereby enhance mine safety.

  7. Canine detection odor signatures for explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Marc; Johnston, J. M.; Cicoria, Matt; Paletz, E.; Waggoner, L. Paul; Edge, Cindy C.; Hallowell, Susan F.

    1998-12-01

    Dogs are capable of detecting and discriminating a number of compounds constituting a complex odor. However, they use only a few of these to recognize a substance. The focus of this research is to determine the compounds dogs learn to use in recognizing explosives. This is accomplished by training dogs under behavioral laboratory conditions to respond differentially on separate levers to 1) blank air, 2) a target odor, such as an explosive, and 3) all other odors (non-target odors). Vapor samples are generated by a serial dilution vapor generator whose operation and output is characterized by GC/MS. Once dogs learn this three-lever discrimination, testing sessions are conducted containing a number of probe trials in which vapor from constituent compounds of the target is presented. Which lever the dogs respond to on these probe trials indicates whether they can smell the compound at all (blank lever) or whether it smells like toe target odor (e.g., the explosive) or like something else. This method was conducted using TNT, C-4, and commercial dynamite. The data show the dogs' reactions to each of the constituent compounds tested for each explosive. Analysis of these data reveal the canine detection odor signature for these explosives.

  8. Odor compound detection in male euglossine bees.

    PubMed

    Schiestl, F P; Roubik, D W

    2003-01-01

    Male euglossine bees collect fragrances from various sources, which they store and use for as yet unknown purposes. They are attracted, often specifically, to single odor compounds and blends thereof. We used gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and electroantennography (EAG) to investigate the response to 8 odor compounds by males of two euglossine species, Euglossa cybelia Moure and Eulaema polychroma (Mocsàry). In E. cybelia, we recorded EAD reactions in response to 1,8-cineole, methyl benzoate, benzyl actetate, methyl salicylate, eugenol, and methyl cinnamate. E. polychroma responded to the same compounds in EAG experiments, while (1s)(-)alpha-pinene and beta-pinene failed to trigger EAD or EAG responses in the bees. Blends of two compounds triggered larger responses than single compounds in EAG experiments with E. polychroma, however, when alpha-pinene was added, reactions decreased. In the light of existing data on the bees' behavior towards these odor compounds, our work indicates that both peripheral and central nervous processes influence the attraction of euglossine bees to odors. PMID:12647866

  9. Odor detection in Manduca sexta is optimized when odor stimuli are pulsed at a frequency matching the wing beat during flight.

    PubMed

    Daly, Kevin C; Kalwar, Faizan; Hatfield, Mandy; Staudacher, Erich; Bradley, Samual P

    2013-01-01

    Sensory systems sample the external world actively, within the context of self-motion induced disturbances. Mammals sample olfactory cues within the context of respiratory cycles and have adapted to process olfactory information within the time frame of a single sniff cycle. In plume tracking insects, it remains unknown whether olfactory processing is adapted to wing beating, which causes similar physical effects as sniffing. To explore this we first characterized the physical properties of our odor delivery system using hotwire anemometry and photo ionization detection, which confirmed that odor stimuli were temporally structured. Electroantennograms confirmed that pulse trains were tracked physiologically. Next, we quantified odor detection in moths in a series of psychophysical experiments to determine whether pulsing odor affected acuity. Moths were first conditioned to respond to a target odorant using Pavlovian olfactory conditioning. At 24 and 48 h after conditioning, moths were tested with a dilution series of the conditioned odor. On separate days odor was presented either continuously or as 20 Hz pulse trains to simulate wing beating effects. We varied pulse train duty cycle, olfactometer outflow velocity, pulsing method, and odor. Results of these studies, established that detection was enhanced when odors were pulsed. Higher velocity and briefer pulses also enhanced detection. Post hoc analysis indicated enhanced detection was the result of a significantly lower behavioral response to blank stimuli when presented as pulse trains. Since blank responses are a measure of false positive responses, this suggests that the olfactory system makes fewer errors (i.e. is more reliable) when odors are experienced as pulse trains. We therefore postulate that the olfactory system of Manduca sexta may have evolved mechanisms to enhance odor detection during flight, where the effects of wing beating represent the norm. This system may even exploit temporal structure in

  10. A broadly tuned mouse odorant receptor that detects nitrotoluenes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingyi; Haddad, Rafi; Chen, Sisi; Santos, Vanessa; Luetje, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    Mammals employ large numbers of odorant receptors to sample and identify volatile chemicals in the environment. These receptors are thought to vary not only in specificity for particular odorants, but also in breadth of tuning. That is, some odorant receptors are narrowly focused on a few closely related structures, while other odorant receptors may be “broadly tuned”, responding to a wide variety of odorant structures. Here we have performed a detailed examination the mouse odorant receptor MOR256-17, demonstrating that this receptor is broadly tuned. This receptor responds to odorant structures that span a significant portion of a multi-dimensional odor space. However, we found that broad tuning was not a defining characteristic of other members the MOR256 subfamily. Two additional members of this odorant receptor subfamily (MOR256-8 and MOR256-22) were more narrowly focused on small sets of odorant structures. Interestingly, the receptive range of MOR256-17 encompassed a variety of nitrotoluenes, including various TNT synthesis intermediates, degradation products and TNT itself, suggesting the potential utility of odorant receptors in the development of sensing technologies for the detection of explosives and other forms of contraband. PMID:22443178

  11. Olfactory responses to explosives associated odorants are enhanced by zinc nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christopher H; Pustovyy, Oleg; Dennis, John C; Moore, Timothy; Morrison, Edward E; Vodyanoy, Vitaly J

    2012-01-15

    Many odorants related to manufactured explosives have low volatilities and are barely detectable as odors. We previously reported that zinc metal nanoparticles increased rat olfactory epithelium responses, measured by electroolfactogram (EOG), to several odorants. Here, we report that nanomolar concentrations of zinc metal nanoparticles strongly enhanced olfactory responses to the explosives related odorants cyclohexanone, methyl benzoate, acetophenone, and eugenol. Rat olfactory epithelium was exposed to metal nanoparticles and odorant responses were quantified by EOG. Zinc nanoparticles added to explosive odorants strongly increased the odorant response in a dose-dependent manner. The enzymatic breakdown of the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was prevented by adding the membrane-permeable phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). This caused the olfactory cilia cAMP concentration to increase and generated EOG signals. The EOG responses generated by IBMX were not enhanced by zinc nanoparticles. Based on these observations, we conclude that zinc nanoparticles act at the receptor site and are involved in the initial events of olfaction. Our results suggest that zinc metal nanoparticles can be used to facilitate a canine detection of explosive odorants. PMID:22265566

  12. Odorization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The symposium on Odorization was held on August 19-21, 1980 in Chicago, Illinois. The intent of the symposium was to provide a thorough grounding in the fundamentals, current technology, and operating practices of odorization in the gas utility industry. A total of thirty one papers were presented covering a wide range of odorization topics from the behavior of the human olfactory system to odorant handling equipment, legal requirements, product liability, and litigation along with recent research and development in that area.

  13. Scopolamine Enhances Generalization between Odor Representations in Rat Olfactory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Donald A.

    2001-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) has a critical, modulatory role in plasticity in many sensory systems. In the rat olfactory system, both behavioral and physiological data indicate that ACh may be required for normal odor memory and synaptic plasticity. Based on these data, neural network models have hypothesized that ACh muscarinic receptors reduce interference between learned cortical representations of odors within the piriform cortex. In this study, odor receptive fields of rat anterior piriform cortex (aPCX) single-units for alkane odors were mapped before and after either a systemic injection of the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg) or aPCX surface application of 500 μM scopolamine (or saline/ACSF controls). Cross-habituation between alkanes differing by two to four carbons was then examined following a 50-sec habituating stimulus. The results demonstrate that neither aPCX spontaneous activity nor odor-evoked activity (receptive field) was affected by scopolamine, but that cross-habituation in aPCX neurons was enhanced significantly by either systemic or cortical scopolamine. These results indicate that scopolamine selectively enhances generalization between odor representations in aPCX in a simple memory task. Given that ACh primarily affects intracortical association fibers in the aPCX, the results support a role for the association system in odor memory and discrimination and indicate an important ACh modulatory control over this basic sensory process. PMID:11584075

  14. Sampling Technique for Robust Odorant Detection Based on MIT RealNose Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.

    2012-01-01

    This technique enhances the detection capability of the autonomous Real-Nose system from MIT to detect odorants and their concentrations in noisy and transient environments. The lowcost, portable system with low power consumption will operate at high speed and is suited for unmanned and remotely operated long-life applications. A deterministic mathematical model was developed to detect odorants and calculate their concentration in noisy environments. Real data from MIT's NanoNose was examined, from which a signal conditioning technique was proposed to enable robust odorant detection for the RealNose system. Its sensitivity can reach to sub-part-per-billion (sub-ppb). A Space Invariant Independent Component Analysis (SPICA) algorithm was developed to deal with non-linear mixing that is an over-complete case, and it is used as a preprocessing step to recover the original odorant sources for detection. This approach, combined with the Cascade Error Projection (CEP) Neural Network algorithm, was used to perform odorant identification. Signal conditioning is used to identify potential processing windows to enable robust detection for autonomous systems. So far, the software has been developed and evaluated with current data sets provided by the MIT team. However, continuous data streams are made available where even the occurrence of a new odorant is unannounced and needs to be noticed by the system autonomously before its unambiguous detection. The challenge for the software is to be able to separate the potential valid signal from the odorant and from the noisy transition region when the odorant is just introduced.

  15. Numerical simulations of odorant detection by biologically inspired sensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Schuech, R; Stacey, M T; Barad, M F; Koehl, M A R

    2012-03-01

    The antennules of many marine crustaceans enable them to rapidly locate sources of odorant in turbulent environmental flows and may provide biological inspiration for engineered plume sampling systems. A substantial gap in knowledge concerns how the physical interaction between a sensing device and the chemical filaments forming a turbulent plume affects odorant detection and filters the information content of the plume. We modeled biological arrays of chemosensory hairs as infinite arrays of odorant flux-detecting cylinders and simulated the fluid flow around and odorant flux into the hair-like sensors as they intercepted a single odorant filament. As array geometry and sampling kinematics were varied, we quantified distortion of the flux time series relative to the spatial shape of the original odorant filament as well as flux metrics that may be important to both organisms and engineered systems attempting to measure plume structure and/or identify chemical composition. The most important predictor of signal distortion is the ratio of sensor diameter to odorant filament width. Achieving high peak properties (e.g. sharpness) of the flux time series and maximizing the total number of odorant molecules detected appear to be mutually exclusive design goals. Sensor arrays inspired specifically by the spiny lobster Panulirus argus and mantis shrimp Gonodactylaceus falcatus introduce little signal distortion but these species' neural systems may not be able to resolve plume structure at the level of individual filaments via temporal properties of the odorant flux. Current chemical sensors are similarly constrained. Our results suggest either that the spatial distribution of flux across the aesthetasc array is utilized by P. argus and G. falcatus, or that such high spatiotemporal resolution is unnecessary for effective plume tracking. PMID:22155966

  16. Presynaptic GABA Receptors Mediate Temporal Contrast Enhancement in Drosophila Olfactory Sensory Neurons and Modulate Odor-Driven Behavioral Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Mahmut; Gorur-Shandilya, Srinivas; Kunst, Michael; Nitabach, Michael N.

    2016-01-01

    Contrast enhancement mediated by lateral inhibition within the nervous system enhances the detection of salient features of visual and auditory stimuli, such as spatial and temporal edges. However, it remains unclear how mechanisms for temporal contrast enhancement in the olfactory system can enhance the detection of odor plume edges during navigation. To address this question, we delivered to Drosophila melanogaster flies pulses of high odor intensity that induce sustained peripheral responses in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). We use optical electrophysiology to directly measure electrical responses in presynaptic terminals and demonstrate that sustained peripheral responses are temporally sharpened by the combined activity of two types of inhibitory GABA receptors to generate contrast-enhanced voltage responses in central OSN axon terminals. Furthermore, we show how these GABA receptors modulate the time course of innate behavioral responses after odor pulse termination, demonstrating an important role for temporal contrast enhancement in odor-guided navigation. PMID:27588305

  17. Presynaptic GABA Receptors Mediate Temporal Contrast Enhancement in Drosophila Olfactory Sensory Neurons and Modulate Odor-Driven Behavioral Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Raccuglia, Davide; Yan McCurdy, Li; Demir, Mahmut; Gorur-Shandilya, Srinivas; Kunst, Michael; Emonet, Thierry; Nitabach, Michael N

    2016-01-01

    Contrast enhancement mediated by lateral inhibition within the nervous system enhances the detection of salient features of visual and auditory stimuli, such as spatial and temporal edges. However, it remains unclear how mechanisms for temporal contrast enhancement in the olfactory system can enhance the detection of odor plume edges during navigation. To address this question, we delivered to Drosophila melanogaster flies pulses of high odor intensity that induce sustained peripheral responses in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). We use optical electrophysiology to directly measure electrical responses in presynaptic terminals and demonstrate that sustained peripheral responses are temporally sharpened by the combined activity of two types of inhibitory GABA receptors to generate contrast-enhanced voltage responses in central OSN axon terminals. Furthermore, we show how these GABA receptors modulate the time course of innate behavioral responses after odor pulse termination, demonstrating an important role for temporal contrast enhancement in odor-guided navigation. PMID:27588305

  18. Good odorant practices ensure safer operations. [Natural gas odorant detection methods

    SciTech Connect

    Oudman, P. )

    1993-12-01

    Regulations in Canada and the US require that combustible gas used as a fuel be odorized at such a level that a concentration in air of one-fifth the lower explosive limit the gas can be readily detected and recognized by a person with a normal sense of smell. These regulations do not specify how the odorant level should be determined. However, since the requirement is related to smell, the level should be determined by an olfactory method. There are two odorant monitoring methods commonly used by gas companies, the olfactory (odorometer) and the instrumentation (gas chromatograph) methods. The instrument method provides only quantitative results, which somehow must be related to an olfactory response. This paper discusses these methods.

  19. Odors enhance the salience of matching images during the attentional blink

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Amanda K.; Mattingley, Jason B.; Reinhard, Judith

    2013-01-01

    As any food critic knows, the visual presentation of a dish can enhance its aroma. Is the reverse also true? Here we investigated whether odors can enhance the salience of familiar visual objects at the limits of perceptual discrimination, using rapid serial visual presentations (RSVP) to induce an attentional blink (AB). We had participants view RSVP streams containing photographs of odor-related objects (lemon, orange, rose, and mint) amongst non-odor related distractors. In each trial, participants inhaled a single odor, which either matched the odor-related target within the stream (congruent trials), did not match the odor-related target (incongruent trials), or was irrelevant with respect to the target. Congruent odors significantly attenuated the AB for odor-related visual targets, compared with incongruent and irrelevant odors. The findings suggest that familiar odors can render matching visual objects more salient, thereby enhancing their competitive strength at the limits of temporal attention. PMID:24223539

  20. Canine detection odor signatures for mine-related explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, James M.; Williams, Marc; Waggoner, L. Paul; Edge, Cindy C.; Dugan, Regina E.; Hallowell, Susan F.

    1998-09-01

    Dogs are capable of detecting and discriminating a number of compounds constituting a complex odor. However, they use only a few of these to recognize a substance. The focus of this research is to determine the compounds dogs learn to use in recognizing explosives used in land mines. This is accomplished by training dogs under behavioral laboratory conditions to respond differentially on separate levers to (1) blank air, (2) a target odor such as an explosive, and (3) all other odors (non-target odors). Vapor samples are generated by a serial dilution vapor generator whose operation and output is characterized by GC/MS. Once dogs learn this three-lever discrimination, testing sessions are conducted containing a number of probe trials in which vapor from constituent compounds is presented. Which lever the dogs respond to on these probe trials indicates whether they can smell the compound at all (blank lever) or whether it smells like the target odor (e.g., the explosive) or like something else. This method was conducted using TNT and C-4. The data show the dogs' reactions to each of the constituent compounds tested for each explosive. Analysis of these data reveal the canine detection odor signature for these explosives.

  1. Sparse, Decorrelated Odor Coding in the Mushroom Body Enhances Learned Odor Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Andrew C.; Bygrave, Alexei; de Calignon, Alix; Lee, Tzumin; Miesenböck, Gero

    2014-01-01

    Summary Sparse coding may be a general strategy of neural systems to augment memory capacity. In Drosophila, sparse odor coding by the Kenyon cells of the mushroom body is thought to generate a large number of precisely addressable locations for the storage of odor-specific memories. However, it remains untested how sparse coding relates to behavioral performance. Here we demonstrate that sparseness is controlled by a negative feedback circuit between Kenyon cells and the GABAergic anterior paired lateral (APL) neuron. Systematic activation and blockade of each leg of this feedback circuit show that Kenyon cells activate APL and APL inhibits Kenyon cells. Disrupting the Kenyon cell-APL feedback loop decreases the sparseness of Kenyon cell odor responses, increases inter-odor correlations, and prevents flies from learning to discriminate similar, but not dissimilar, odors. These results suggest that feedback inhibition suppresses Kenyon cell activity to maintain sparse, decorrelated odor coding and thus the odor-specificity of memories. PMID:24561998

  2. Detecting odorous materials in water using quartz crystal microbalance sensors.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, S; Sugimoto, I

    2002-01-01

    Water drawn from rivers into purification plants must be checked for the presence of odorous materials because oil or organic-solvent contamination of the water may occur. If the detection of odorous materials in water is untimely or fails, the consequences can be serious. Therefore, the water must be checked continuously. We have developed a water-monitoring system that uses a highly sensitive electronic nose consisting of quartz crystal microbalance sensors to detect odorous materials in water. The nose is sensitive enough to detect petroleum hydrocarbons without water vapor at a low-ppb level. However, the nose is very sensitive to humidity and temperature. We have thus developed a method for accurately maintaining the humidity and temperature in the sensor cell. Experimental results show that the developed system can quickly detect contaminated water that was mixed with gasoline, kerosene, or benzene (concentration: several hundred ppb level), and we should be able to classify the pollutant by using pattern recognition of the dynamic sensor response. PMID:11936635

  3. Computational modeling and experimental validation of odor detection behaviours of classically conditioned parasitic wasp, Microplitis croceipes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To further improve the sensitivity of odor¬ and odor concentration detection of the Wasp Hound, searching behaviors of a food-conditioned wasp in a confined area with the conditioning odor were recorded. The experiments were recorded using a video camera. First, the wasps are individually hand condi...

  4. Individual human odor fallout as detected by trained canines.

    PubMed

    Vyplelová, Petra; Vokálek, Václav; Pinc, Ludvík; Pacáková, Zuzana; Bartoš, Luděk; Santariová, Milena; Čapková, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that if odor fallout (the release of a human's odor onto an untouched object) in human subjects exists, then holding a hand above an absorbent will produce a detectable scent which will be subsequently matched in a detection test by trained canines. Scents were collected from seven males to sterile cotton absorbent squares. The left hand was used to get the control scent and the right hand served as the target scent. Each experimental subject was sitting; his left hand was laid down on a cotton square for 3 min. The right hand was held 5 cm above another cotton square for 3 min. The scent identification was done by two specially trained police German shepherds. These canines had routinely performed scent identification line-ups as part of criminal investigation procedures. Both canines performed 14 line-ups and correctly matched the collected scents of all test subjects. The results suggest the existence of human odor fallout, whereby a human scent trace is left by humans even if they do not touch an object. PMID:24378296

  5. Malaria-induced changes in host odors enhance mosquito attraction

    PubMed Central

    De Moraes, Consuelo M.; Stanczyk, Nina M.; Betz, Heike S.; Pulido, Hannier; Sim, Derek G.; Read, Andrew F.; Mescher, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    Vector-borne pathogens may alter traits of their primary hosts in ways that influence the frequency and nature of interactions between hosts and vectors. Previous work has reported enhanced mosquito attraction to host organisms infected with malaria parasites but did not address the mechanisms underlying such effects. Here we document malaria-induced changes in the odor profiles of infected mice (relative to healthy individuals) over the course of infection, as well as effects on the attractiveness of infected hosts to mosquito vectors. We observed enhanced mosquito attraction to infected mice during a key period after the subsidence of acute malaria symptoms, but during which mice remained highly infectious. This attraction corresponded to an overall elevation in the volatile emissions of infected mice observed during this period. Furthermore, data analyses—using discriminant analysis of principal components and random forest approaches—revealed clear differences in the composition of the volatile blends of infected and healthy individuals. Experimental manipulation of individual compounds that exhibited altered emission levels during the period when differential vector attraction was observed also elicited enhanced mosquito attraction, indicating that compounds being influenced by malaria infection status also mediate vector host-seeking behavior. These findings provide important insights into the cues that mediate vector attraction to hosts infected with transmissible stages of malaria parasites, as well as documenting characteristic changes in the odors of infected individuals that may have potential value as diagnostic biomarkers of infection. PMID:24982164

  6. Determination of odor detection threshold in the Gottingen minipig.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Lene Vammen; Holm, Ida E; Herskin, Mette S; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Johansen, Marianne G; Jørgensen, Arne Lund; Ladewig, Jan

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the ability of Göttingen minipigs to acquire an olfaction-based operant conditioning task and to determine the detection threshold for ethyl acetate and ethanol. We used an automated olfactometer developed for rodents to train and test 14 pigs. Odor sampling and reliable responding were obtained after three to fifteen 160-trial sessions. Successful transfer of the task from ethyl acetate to ethanol was achieved in 1-4 sessions. Detection threshold for ethyl acetate varied between 10(-2)% and 10(-6)% v/v and for ethanol between 0.1% and 5 × 10(-6)% v/v. The results provide evidence that minipigs can successfully acquire 2-odorant discrimination using a food-rewarded instrumental conditioning paradigm for testing olfactory function. This olfactory discrimination paradigm provides reliable measures of olfactory sensitivity and thereby enables detection of changes in olfaction in a porcine model of Alzheimer's disease currently being developed. PMID:20693277

  7. Detection and classification of natural odors with an in vivo bioelectronic nose.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Liujing; Guo, Tiantian; Cao, Duanxi; Ling, Liquan; Su, Kaiqi; Hu, Ning; Wang, Ping

    2015-05-15

    The mammalian olfactory system is recognized as one of the most effective chemosensing systems. We thus investigated the potential of utilizing the rat's olfactory system to detect odors. By chronically coupling multiple microelectrodes to olfactory bulb of behaving rats, we extract an array of mitral/tufted cells (M/Ts) which could generate odor-specific temporal patterns of neural discharge. We performed multidimensional analysis of recorded M/Ts, finding that natural odors released from different fruit lead to distinct odor response patterns. Thus an array of M/Ts carried sufficient information to discriminate odors. This novel brain-machine interface using rat's olfaction presents a promising method for odor detection and discrimination, and it is the first step towards in vivo bioelectronic nose equipped with biological olfaction and artificial devices. PMID:25459058

  8. Pattern Recognition Algorithm for High-Sensitivity Odorant Detection in Unknown Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.

    2012-01-01

    In a realistic odorant detection application environment, the collected sensory data is a mix of unknown chemicals with unknown concentrations and noise. The identification of the odorants among these mixtures is a challenge in data recognition. In addition, deriving their individual concentrations in the mix is also a challenge. A deterministic analytical model was developed to accurately identify odorants and calculate their concentrations in a mixture with noisy data.

  9. Odorization II

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, G.G.; Attari, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Odorization is a small-scale but vital gas industry operation because of its important contribution to the safe use of gas. It is a field with complex technical problems related to the detection and behavior of the odorant materials used. In the 1987 symposium, a wide range of odorization topics was covered from the behavior of the human olfactory system to odorant handling equipment. Legal considerations and litigation were also included and, for the first time, presentations of LP gas odorization were given. The base of these proceedings is the speakers papers presented at the 1987 symposium supplemented with a number of unpublished papers from the 1984 session. In an effort to provide a comprehensive reference on the fundamentals and current practical technology of odorization in a single volume, a number of papers included in the 1980 symposium are also re-published here as well as one previously unpublished paper from the 1976 symposium. The volume is divided into the following nine sections: Introduction; Odorant Materials; Measurement of odor level; Measurement of odorant level; Automated odorization; LP gas odorization; Supplemental odorization; Odorization research; and Litigation. Forty-one papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  10. Blocking and the detection of odor components in blends.

    PubMed

    Hosler, J S; Smith, B H

    2000-09-01

    Recent studies of olfactory blocking have revealed that binary odorant mixtures are not always processed as though they give rise to mixture-unique configural properties. When animals are conditioned to one odorant (A) and then conditioned to a mixture of that odorant with a second (X), the ability to learn or express the association of X with reinforcement appears to be reduced relative to animals that were not preconditioned to A. A recent model of odor-based response patterns in the insect antennal lobe predicts that the strength of the blocking effect will be related to the perceptual similarity between the two odorants, i.e. greater similarity should increase the blocking effect. Here, we test that model in the honeybee Apis mellifera by first establishing a generalization matrix for three odorants and then testing for blocking between all possible combinations of them. We confirm earlier findings demonstrating the occurrence of the blocking effect in olfactory learning of compound stimuli. We show that the occurrence and the strength of the blocking effect depend on the odorants used in the experiment. In addition, we find very good agreement between our results and the model, and less agreement between our results and an alternative model recently proposed to explain the effect. PMID:10952879

  11. Different thresholds for detection and discrimination of odors in the honey bee (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Wright, Geraldine A; Smith, Brian H

    2004-02-01

    Naturally occurring odors used by animals for mate recognition, food identification and other purposes must be detected at concentrations that vary across several orders of magnitude. Olfactory systems must therefore have the capacity to represent odors over a large range of concentrations regardless of dramatic changes in the salience, or perceived intensity, of a stimulus. The stability of the representation of an odor relative to other odors across concentration has not been extensively evaluated. We tested the ability of honey bees to discriminate pure odorants across a range of concentrations at and above their detection threshold. Our study showed that pure odorant compounds became progressively easier for honey bees to discriminate with increasing concentration. Discrimination is, therefore, a function of odorant concentration. We hypothesize that the recruitment of sensory cell populations across a range of concentrations may be important for odor coding, perhaps by changing its perceptual qualities or by increasing its salience against background stimuli, and that this mechanism is a general property of olfactory systems. PMID:14977809

  12. Odors enhance slow-wave activity in non-rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Perl, Ofer; Arzi, Anat; Sela, Lee; Secundo, Lavi; Holtzman, Yael; Samnon, Perry; Oksenberg, Arie; Sobel, Noam; Hairston, Ilana S

    2016-05-01

    Most forms of suprathreshold sensory stimulation perturb sleep. In contrast, presentation of pure olfactory or mild trigeminal odorants does not lead to behavioral or physiological arousal. In fact, some odors promote objective and subjective measures of sleep quality in humans and rodents. The brain mechanisms underlying these sleep-protective properties of olfaction remain unclear. Slow oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) are a marker of deep sleep, and K complexes (KCs) are an EEG marker of cortical response to sensory interference. We therefore hypothesized that odorants presented during sleep will increase power in slow EEG oscillations. Moreover, given that odorants do not drive sleep interruption, we hypothesized that unlike other sensory stimuli odorants would not drive KCs. To test these hypotheses we used polysomnography to measure sleep in 34 healthy subjects (19 women, 15 men; mean age 26.5 ± 2.5 yr) who were repeatedly presented with odor stimuli via a computer-controlled air-dilution olfactometer over the course of a single night. Each participant was exposed to one of four odorants, lavender oil (n = 13), vetiver oil (n = 5), vanillin (n = 12), or ammonium sulfide (n = 4), for durations of 5, 10, and 20 s every 9-15 min. Consistent with our hypotheses, we found that odor presentation during sleep enhanced the power of delta (0.5-4 Hz) and slow spindle (9-12 Hz) frequencies during non-rapid eye movement sleep. The increase was proportionate to odor duration. In addition, odor presentation did not modulate the occurrence of KCs. These findings imply a sleep-promoting olfactory mechanism that may deepen sleep through driving increased slow-frequency oscillations. PMID:26888107

  13. Mechanisms of Odor-Tracking: Multiple Sensors for Enhanced Perception and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Marin, Alex; Duistermars, Brian J.; Frye, Mark A.; Louis, Matthieu

    2010-01-01

    Early in evolution, the ability to sense and respond to changing environments must have provided a critical survival advantage to living organisms. From bacteria and worms to flies and vertebrates, sophisticated mechanisms have evolved to enhance odor detection and localization. Here, we review several modes of chemotaxis. We further consider the relevance of a striking and recurrent motif in the organization of invertebrate and vertebrate sensory systems, namely the existence of two symmetrical olfactory sensors. By combining our current knowledge about the olfactory circuits of larval and adult Drosophila, we examine the molecular and neural mechanisms underlying robust olfactory perception and extend these analyses to recent behavioral studies addressing the relevance and function of bilateral olfactory input for gradient detection. Finally, using a comparative theoretical approach based on Braitenberg's vehicles, we speculate about the relationships between anatomy, circuit architecture and stereotypical orientation behaviors. PMID:20407585

  14. An Algorithm for 353 Odor Detection Thresholds in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Moreno, Ricardo; Cometto-Muñiz, J. Enrique; Cain, William S.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred and ninety three odor detection thresholds, ODTs, obtained by Nagata using the Japanese triangular bag method can be correlated as log (1/ODT) by a linear equation with R2 = 0.748 and a standard deviation, SD, of 0.830 log units; the latter may be compared with our estimate of 0.66 log units for the self-consistency of Nagata's data. Aldehydes, acids, unsaturated esters, and mercaptans were included in the equation through indicator variables that took into account the higher potency of these compounds. The ODTs obtained by Cometto-Muñiz and Cain, by Cometto-Muñiz and Abraham, and by Hellman and Small could be put on the same scale as those of Nagata to yield a linear equation for 353 ODTs with R2 = 0.759 and SD = 0.819 log units. The compound descriptors are available for several thousand compounds, and can be calculated from structure, so that further ODT values on the Nagata scale can be predicted for a host of volatile or semivolatile compounds. PMID:21976369

  15. Determining human exposure and sensory detection of odorous compounds released during showering.

    PubMed

    Omür-Ozbek, Pinar; Gallagher, Daniel L; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2011-01-15

    Modeling of human exposure to aqueous algal odorants geosmin (earthy), 2-methylisoborneol (musty), and (trans,cis)-2,6-nonadienal (cucumber, fishy), and the solvent trichloroethylene (sweet chemical), was investigated to improve the understanding of water-air transfer by including humans as sensors to detect contaminants. A mass-transfer model was employed to determine indoor air concentrations when water was used for showering under varying conditions (shower stall volume, water and air flow rate, temperature, aqueous odorant concentration, shower duration). Statistical application of multiple linear regression and tree regression were employed to determine critical model parameters. The model predicted that concentrations detectable to the human senses were controlled by temperature, odor threshold, and aqueous concentration for the steady-state model, whereas shower volume, air flow, and water flow are also important for the dynamic model and initial detection of the odorant immediately after the showering is started. There was excellent agreement of model predictions with literature data for human perception of algal odorants in their homes and complaints to water utilities. TCE performed differently than the algal odorants due to its higher Henry's law constant, in spite of similar gas and liquid diffusivities. The use of nontoxic odorants offers an efficient tool to calibrate indoor air/water shower models. PMID:21141853

  16. Plant odorants interfere with detection of sex pheromone signals by male Heliothis virescens

    PubMed Central

    Pregitzer, Pablo; Schubert, Marco; Breer, Heinz; Hansson, Bill S.; Sachse, Silke; Krieger, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    In many insects, mate finding relies on female-released sex pheromones, which have to be deciphered by the male olfactory system within an odorous background of plant volatiles present in the environment of a calling female. With respect to pheromone-mediated mate localization, plant odorants may be neutral, favorable, or disturbing. Here we examined the impact of plant odorants on detection and coding of the major sex pheromone component, (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald) in the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens. By in vivo imaging the activity in the male antennal lobe (AL), we monitored the interference at the level of olfactory sensory neurons (OSN) to illuminate mixture interactions. The results show that stimulating the male antenna with Z11-16:Ald and distinct plant-related odorants simultaneously suppressed pheromone-evoked activity in the region of the macroglomerular complex (MGC), where Z11-16:Ald-specific OSNs terminate. Based on our previous findings that antennal detection of Z11-16:Ald involves an interplay of the pheromone binding protein (PBP) HvirPBP2 and the pheromone receptor (PR) HR13, we asked if the plant odorants may interfere with any of the elements involved in pheromone detection. Using a competitive fluorescence binding assay, we found that the plant odorants neither bind to HvirPBP2 nor affect the binding of Z11-16:Ald to the protein. However, imaging experiments analyzing a cell line that expressed the receptor HR13 revealed that plant odorants significantly inhibited the Z11-16:Ald-evoked calcium responses. Together the results indicate that plant odorants can interfere with the signaling process of the major sex pheromone component at the receptor level. Consequently, it can be assumed that plant odorants in the environment may reduce the firing activity of pheromone-specific OSNs in H. virescens and thus affect mate localization. PMID:23060749

  17. Enhancement of odorant-induced responses in olfactory receptor neurons by zinc nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Viswaprakash, Nilmini; Dennis, John C; Globa, Ludmila; Pustovyy, Oleg; Josephson, Eleanor M; Kanju, Patrick; Morrison, Edward E; Vodyanoy, Vitaly J

    2009-09-01

    Zinc metal nanoparticles in picomolar concentrations strongly enhance odorant responses of olfactory sensory neurons. One- to 2-nm metallic particles contain 40-300 zinc metal atoms, which are not in an ionic state. We exposed rat olfactory epithelium to metal nanoparticles and measured odorant responses by electroolfactogram and whole-cell patch clamp. A small amount of zinc nanoparticles added to an odorant or an extracellular/intracellular particle perfusion strongly increases the odorant response in a dose-dependent manner. Zinc nanoparticles alone produce no odor effects. Copper, gold, or silver nanoparticles do not produce effects similar to those of zinc. If zinc nanoparticles are replaced by Zn(+2) ions in the same concentration range, we observed a reduction of the olfactory receptor neuron odorant response. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that zinc nanoparticles are closely located to the interface between the guanine nucleotide-binding protein and the receptor proteins and are involved in transferring signals in the initial events of olfaction. Our results suggest that zinc metal nanoparticles can be used to enhance and sustain the initial olfactory events. PMID:19525316

  18. Maintenance energy requirements of odor detection, explosive detection and human detection working dogs

    PubMed Central

    Witzel, Angela L.; Price, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Despite their important role in security, little is known about the energy requirements of working dogs such as odor, explosive and human detection dogs. Previous researchers have evaluated the energy requirements of individual canine breeds as well as dogs in exercise roles such as sprint racing. This study is the first to evaluate the energy requirements of working dogs trained in odor, explosive and human detection. This retrospective study evaluated twenty adult dogs who maintained consistent body weights over a six month period. During this time, the average energy consumption was \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$136\\pm 38~\\mathrm{kcal}\\cdot {\\mathrm{BW}}_{\\mathrm{kg}}^{0.75}$\\end{document}136±38kcal⋅BWkg0.75 or two times the calculated resting energy requirement (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\mathrm{RER}=70~\\mathrm{kcal}\\cdot {\\mathrm{BW}}_{\\mathrm{kg}}^{0.75}$\\end{document}RER=70kcal⋅BWkg0.75). No statistical differences were found between breeds, age or sex, but a statistically significant association (p = 0.0033, R-square = 0.0854) was seen between the number of searches a dog performs and their energy requirement. Based on this study’s population, it appears that working dogs have maintenance energy requirements similar to the 1974 National Research Council’s (NRC) maintenance energy requirement of \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt

  19. Detection and Classification of Human Body Odor Using an Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Wongchoosuk, Chatchawal; Lutz, Mario; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2009-01-01

    An electronic nose (E-nose) has been designed and equipped with software that can detect and classify human armpit body odor. An array of metal oxide sensors was used for detecting volatile organic compounds. The measurement circuit employs a voltage divider resistor to measure the sensitivity of each sensor. This E-nose was controlled by in-house developed software through a portable USB data acquisition card with a principle component analysis (PCA) algorithm implemented for pattern recognition and classification. Because gas sensor sensitivity in the detection of armpit odor samples is affected by humidity, we propose a new method and algorithms combining hardware/software for the correction of the humidity noise. After the humidity correction, the E-nose showed the capability of detecting human body odor and distinguishing the body odors from two persons in a relative manner. The E-nose is still able to recognize people, even after application of deodorant. In conclusion, this is the first report of the application of an E-nose for armpit odor recognition. PMID:22399995

  20. An odor detection system based on automatically trained mice by relative go no-go olfactory operant conditioning

    PubMed Central

    He, Jing; Wei, JingKuan; Rizak, Joshua D.; Chen, YanMei; Wang, JianHong; Hu, XinTian; Ma, YuanYe

    2015-01-01

    Odor detection applications are needed by human societies in various circumstances. Rodent offers unique advantages in developing biologic odor detection systems. This report outlines a novel apparatus designed to train maximum 5 mice automatically to detect odors using a new olfactory, relative go no-go, operant conditioning paradigm. The new paradigm offers the chance to measure real-time reliability of individual animal’s detection behavior with changing responses. All of 15 water-deprivation mice were able to learn to respond to unpredictable delivering of the target odor with higher touch frequencies via a touch sensor. The mice were continually trained with decreasing concentrations of the target odor (n-butanol), the average correct percent significantly dropped when training at 0.01% solution concentration; the alarm algorithm showed excellent recognition of odor detection behavior of qualified mice group through training. Then, the alarm algorithm was repeatedly tested against simulated scenario for 4 blocks. The mice acted comparable to the training period during the tests, and provided total of 58 warnings for the target odor out of 59 random deliveries and 0 false alarm. The results suggest this odor detection method is promising for further development in respect to various types of odor detection applications. PMID:25944031

  1. An odor detection system based on automatically trained mice by relative go no-go olfactory operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    He, Jing; Wei, JingKuan; Rizak, Joshua D; Chen, YanMei; Wang, JianHong; Hu, XinTian; Ma, YuanYe

    2015-01-01

    Odor detection applications are needed by human societies in various circumstances. Rodent offers unique advantages in developing biologic odor detection systems. This report outlines a novel apparatus designed to train maximum 5 mice automatically to detect odors using a new olfactory, relative go no-go, operant conditioning paradigm. The new paradigm offers the chance to measure real-time reliability of individual animal's detection behavior with changing responses. All of 15 water-deprivation mice were able to learn to respond to unpredictable delivering of the target odor with higher touch frequencies via a touch sensor. The mice were continually trained with decreasing concentrations of the target odor (n-butanol), the average correct percent significantly dropped when training at 0.01% solution concentration; the alarm algorithm showed excellent recognition of odor detection behavior of qualified mice group through training. Then, the alarm algorithm was repeatedly tested against simulated scenario for 4 blocks. The mice acted comparable to the training period during the tests, and provided total of 58 warnings for the target odor out of 59 random deliveries and 0 false alarm. The results suggest this odor detection method is promising for further development in respect to various types of odor detection applications. PMID:25944031

  2. Development Of An Electronic Nose For Environmental Monitoring: Detection Of Specific Environmentally Important Gases At Their Odor Detection Threshold Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentoni, Licinia; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena; Del Rosso, Renato; Centola, Paolo; Della Torre, Matteo; Demattè, Fabrizio

    2011-09-01

    The use of a sensor array is demonstrated to be an effective approach to evaluate hazardous odor (or gas) emissions from industrial sites1. Therefore the possibility to use electronic noses for the prolonged survey of odor emissions from industrial sites is of particular interest for environmental monitoring purposes2. At the Olfactometric Laboratory of the Politecnico di Milano, in collaboration with Sacmi Group, Imola, an innovative electronic nose for the continuous monitoring of environmental odors is being developed. The aim of this work is to show the laboratory tests conducted to evaluate the capability of the electronic nose to recognize some specific environmentally important gases at their odor detection threshold concentration. The laboratory studies up to now focused on ammonia and butyric acid, those being compounds that can typically be found in the emissions from waste treatment plants, that may cause health effects when they exceed a given concentration level. The laboratory tests proved the sensors to be sensitive towards the considered compounds and the system to be capable of discriminating between odorous or non-odorous air, with a detection limit comparable with the detection limit of human nose.

  3. Neuropeptide Y Enhances Olfactory Mucosa Responses to Odorant in Hungry Rats

    PubMed Central

    Negroni, Julia; Meunier, Nicolas; Monnerie, Régine; Salesse, Roland; Baly, Christine; Caillol, Monique; Congar, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays an important role in regulating appetite and hunger in vertebrates. In the hypothalamus, NPY stimulates food intake under the control of the nutritional status. Previous studies have shown the presence of NPY and receptors in rodent olfactory system, and suggested a neuroproliferative role. Interestingly, NPY was also shown to directly modulate olfactory responses evoked by a food-related odorant in hungry axolotls. We have recently demonstrated that another nutritional cue, insulin, modulates the odorant responses of the rat olfactory mucosa (OM). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effect of NPY on rat OM responses to odorants, in relation to the animal's nutritional state. We measured the potential NPY modulation of OM responses to odorant, using electro-olfactogram (EOG) recordings, in fed and fasted adult rats. NPY application significantly and transiently increased EOG amplitudes in fasted but not in fed rats. The effects of specific NPY-receptor agonists were similarly quantified, showing that NPY operated mainly through Y1 receptors. These receptors appeared as heterogeneously expressed by olfactory neurons in the OM, and western blot analysis showed that they were overexpressed in fasted rats. These data provide the first evidence that NPY modulates the initial events of odorant detection in the rat OM. Because this modulation depends on the nutritional status of the animal, and is ascribed to NPY, the most potent orexigenic peptide in the central nervous system, it evidences a strong supplementary physiological link between olfaction and nutritional processes. PMID:23024812

  4. Capacitance-modulated transistor detects odorant binding protein chiral interactions.

    PubMed

    Mulla, Mohammad Yusuf; Tuccori, Elena; Magliulo, Maria; Lattanzi, Gianluca; Palazzo, Gerardo; Persaud, Krishna; Torsi, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral events in olfaction involve odorant binding proteins (OBPs) whose role in the recognition of different volatile chemicals is yet unclear. Here we report on the sensitive and quantitative measurement of the weak interactions associated with neutral enantiomers differentially binding to OBPs immobilized through a self-assembled monolayer to the gate of an organic bio-electronic transistor. The transduction is remarkably sensitive as the transistor output current is governed by the small capacitance of the protein layer undergoing minute changes as the ligand-protein complex is formed. Accurate determination of the free-energy balances and of the capacitance changes associated with the binding process allows derivation of the free-energy components as well as of the occurrence of conformational events associated with OBP ligand binding. Capacitance-modulated transistors open a new pathway for the study of ultra-weak molecular interactions in surface-bound protein-ligand complexes through an approach that combines bio-chemical and electronic thermodynamic parameters. PMID:25591754

  5. Capacitance-modulated transistor detects odorant binding protein chiral interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulla, Mohammad Yusuf; Tuccori, Elena; Magliulo, Maria; Lattanzi, Gianluca; Palazzo, Gerardo; Persaud, Krishna; Torsi, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral events in olfaction involve odorant binding proteins (OBPs) whose role in the recognition of different volatile chemicals is yet unclear. Here we report on the sensitive and quantitative measurement of the weak interactions associated with neutral enantiomers differentially binding to OBPs immobilized through a self-assembled monolayer to the gate of an organic bio-electronic transistor. The transduction is remarkably sensitive as the transistor output current is governed by the small capacitance of the protein layer undergoing minute changes as the ligand-protein complex is formed. Accurate determination of the free-energy balances and of the capacitance changes associated with the binding process allows derivation of the free-energy components as well as of the occurrence of conformational events associated with OBP ligand binding. Capacitance-modulated transistors open a new pathway for the study of ultra-weak molecular interactions in surface-bound protein-ligand complexes through an approach that combines bio-chemical and electronic thermodynamic parameters.

  6. Capacitance-modulated transistor detects odorant binding protein chiral interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mulla, Mohammad Yusuf; Tuccori, Elena; Magliulo, Maria; Lattanzi, Gianluca; Palazzo, Gerardo; Persaud, Krishna; Torsi, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral events in olfaction involve odorant binding proteins (OBPs) whose role in the recognition of different volatile chemicals is yet unclear. Here we report on the sensitive and quantitative measurement of the weak interactions associated with neutral enantiomers differentially binding to OBPs immobilized through a self-assembled monolayer to the gate of an organic bio-electronic transistor. The transduction is remarkably sensitive as the transistor output current is governed by the small capacitance of the protein layer undergoing minute changes as the ligand–protein complex is formed. Accurate determination of the free-energy balances and of the capacitance changes associated with the binding process allows derivation of the free-energy components as well as of the occurrence of conformational events associated with OBP ligand binding. Capacitance-modulated transistors open a new pathway for the study of ultra-weak molecular interactions in surface-bound protein–ligand complexes through an approach that combines bio-chemical and electronic thermodynamic parameters. PMID:25591754

  7. Computational modeling and experimental validation of odor detection behaviors of classically conditioned parasitic wasp, Microplitis croceipes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhongkun; Kulasiri, Don; Samarasinghe, Sandhya; Rains, Glen; Olson, Dawn M

    2015-01-01

    A prototype chemical sensor named Wasp hound® that utilizes five classically conditioned parasitoid wasps, Microplitis croceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), to detect volatile odors was successfully implemented in a previous study. To improve the odor-detecting ability of Wasp Hound®, searching behaviors of an individual wasp in a confined area are studied and modeled through stochastic differential equations in this paper. The wasps are conditioned to 20 mg of coffee when associated with food and subsequently, tested to 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg of coffee. A stochastic model is developed and validated based on three positive behavioral responses (walking, rotation around odor source, and self-rotation) from conditioned wasps at four different test dosages. The model is capable to reproducing the behaviors of conditioned wasps, and can be used to improve the ability of Wasp Hound® to assess changes in odor concentration. The model simulation results show the behaviors of conditioned wasps are significantly different when tested at different coffee dosages. We conjecture that the searching behaviors of conditioned wasps are based on the temporal and spatial neuron activity of olfactory receptor neurons and glomeruli, which are strongly correlated to the training dosages. The overall results demonstrate the utility of mathematical models for interpreting experimental observations, gaining novel insights into the dynamic behavior of classically conditioned wasps, as well as broadening the practical uses of Wasp Hound. PMID:25482381

  8. Gas Chromatography Analysis with Olfactometric Detection (GC-O) as a Useful Methodology for Chemical Characterization of Odorous Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Brattoli, Magda; Cisternino, Ezia; Dambruoso, Paolo Rosario; de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Giungato, Pasquale; Mazzone, Antonio; Palmisani, Jolanda; Tutino, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) technique couples traditional gas chromatographic analysis with sensory detection in order to study complex mixtures of odorous substances and to identify odor active compounds. The GC-O technique is already widely used for the evaluation of food aromas and its application in environmental fields is increasing, thus moving the odor emission assessment from the solely olfactometric evaluations to the characterization of the volatile components responsible for odor nuisance. The aim of this paper is to describe the state of the art of gas chromatography-olfactometry methodology, considering the different approaches regarding the operational conditions and the different methods for evaluating the olfactometric detection of odor compounds. The potentials of GC-O are described highlighting the improvements in this methodology relative to other conventional approaches used for odor detection, such as sensoristic, sensorial and the traditional gas chromatographic methods. The paper also provides an examination of the different fields of application of the GC-O, principally related to fragrances and food aromas, odor nuisance produced by anthropic activities and odorous compounds emitted by materials and medical applications. PMID:24316571

  9. Analytical determination and detection of individual odor signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Ryan M.; Grigsby, Claude C.

    2012-06-01

    Despite the fact that therapeutic approaches and diagnostic capabilities have made tremendous advances in the past few decades, the associated costs with these treatments continue to rise. This fact, coupled with a rapidly aging population, threatens to cripple our nation's capability to deliver quality healthcare at reasonable and affordable price points. The research community must therefore look to implementing transformational approaches that revolutionize both the way we diagnose and treat patients. Emerging multi-disciplinary research in the fields of molecular biology, systems biology, and solid-state sensing is poised to make such a contribution. Here we highlight key critical insights in the field of human derived volatile organic compound (VOC) signatures and the potential for non-invasive diagnostics. With the aim of developing future VOC-based diagnostics, we identify some critical gaps in our knowledge of how these often complex signatures are influenced by genetics, physiological state, and population variance. Also, we highlight a few canine and solid-state sensing strategies to demonstrate that VOC-based breath diagnostics are feasible and we suggest a bio-inspired approach for optimizing sensor architectures. VOC based diagnostics should drastically enhance early detection of multiple diseases, increase the time for therapeutic intervention, provide the capability to monitor in real-time the efficacy of therapeutic treatments, provide the context of emerging pathological outbreaks across participating populations, and potentially decrease mortality associated with many diseases by orders of magnitude.

  10. Odor detection in rats with 3-methylindole-induced reduction of sensory input.

    PubMed

    Setzer, A K; Slotnick, B

    1998-12-01

    Rats were tested on odor-detection tasks after treatment with 400 mg/kg of 3-methyl-indole. As revealed by anterograde transport of horseradish peroxidase from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb glomeruli, treatment produced a severe (>97%) loss in sensory input relative to untreated controls. In almost all cases, only glomeruli in a restricted ventromedial segment of the bulb contained control levels of reaction product. In Experiment 1, five of nine experimental rats were anosmic or severely hyposmic, but the remaining four rats were able to detect amyl acetate vapor. In Experiment 2, four of seven experimental rats were anosmic, but the remaining three were able to detect each of four different odors. Among all experimental rats, those that were anosmic had significantly fewer glomeruli with dense anterograde transport than did those that could smell. Among rats that could smell, performance accuracy was related to the number of glomeruli with reaction product. PMID:9877415

  11. Impedance spectroscopy analysis of human odorant binding proteins immobilized on nanopore arrays for biochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanli; Zhang, Diming; Zhang, Qian; Huang, Yixuan; Luo, Senbiao; Yao, Yao; Li, Shuang; Liu, Qingjun

    2016-05-15

    Human odorant-binding proteins (hOBPs) not only can bind and transport odorants in the surrounding environment for sensing smells, but also play important roles in transmitting lots of biomolecules in different organs. Utilizing the properties of hOBPs, an electrochemical biosensor with nanopore array was developed to detect specific biomolecular ligands, such as aldehydes and fatty acids. The highly ordered nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide with diameter of 20-40 nm were fabricated with two-step oxidation. Through 2-carboxyethyl phosphonic acid, hOBPs were self-assembled on nanopores as the sensing membrane. With nanopore arrays, the impedance spectra showed quite different electron transfer processes in the frequency spectra, which could be characterized by the electron transfer resistance and electrical resistance of the porous membrane. Under stimulation of biomolecular ligands, series resistance of nanopores and hOBPs increased and showed a concentration-dependence feature, while the electron transfer resistance hardly changed. The nanopore based biosensor could sensitively detect biological ligands of benzaldehyde, docosahexaenoic acid, and lauric acid, which were closely related to or were potential biomarkers for cancers and other serious diseases. Equipped with hOBPs, the sensor exhibited promising potentials both in odorant and biomolecule detection for olfactory biosensing and in disease diagnosis and evaluation for biochemical detection. PMID:26710343

  12. Enhancement by T-type Ca2+ currents of odor sensitivity in olfactory receptor cells.

    PubMed

    Kawai, F; Miyachi, E

    2001-05-15

    Mechanisms underlying action potential initiation in olfactory receptor cells (ORCs) during odor stimulation were investigated using conventional and dynamic patch-clamp recording techniques. Under current-clamp conditions, action potentials generated by a least effective odor-induced depolarization were almost completely blocked by 0.1 mm Ni(2+), a T-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, but not by 0.1 mm Cd(2+), a high voltage-activated Ca(2+) channel blocker. Under voltage-clamp conditions, depolarizing voltage steps induced a fast transient inward current, which consisted of Na(+) (I(Na)) and T-type Ca(2+) (I(Ca,T)) currents. The amplitude of I(Ca,T) was approximately one-fourth of that of I(Na) (0.23 +/- 0.03, mean +/- SEM). Because both I(Na) and I(Ca,T) are known to show rapid inactivation, we examined how much I(Na) and I(Ca,T) are activated during the gradually depolarizing initial phase of receptor potentials. The ratio of I(Ca,T)/I(Na) during a ramp depolarization at the slope of 0.5 mV/msec was 0.56 +/- 0.03. Using the dynamic patch-clamp recording technique, we also recorded I(Ca,T) and I(Na) during the generation of odor-induced action potentials. This ratio of I(Ca,T)/I(Na) was 0.54 +/- 0.04. These ratios were more than twice as large as that (0.23) obtained from the experiment using voltage steps, suggesting that I(Ca,T) carries significant amount of current to generate the action potentials. We conclude that I(Ca,T) contributes to enhance odor sensitivity by lowering the threshold of spike generation in ORCs. PMID:11319242

  13. Reading Out Olfactory Receptors: Feedforward Circuits Detect Odors in Mixtures without Demixing.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Alexander; Rokni, Dan; Kapoor, Vikrant; Bethge, Matthias; Murthy, Venkatesh N

    2016-09-01

    The olfactory system, like other sensory systems, can detect specific stimuli of interest amidst complex, varying backgrounds. To gain insight into the neural mechanisms underlying this ability, we imaged responses of mouse olfactory bulb glomeruli to mixtures. We used this data to build a model of mixture responses that incorporated nonlinear interactions and trial-to-trial variability and explored potential decoding mechanisms that can mimic mouse performance when given glomerular responses as input. We find that a linear decoder with sparse weights could match mouse performance using just a small subset of the glomeruli (∼15). However, when such a decoder is trained only with single odors, it generalizes poorly to mixture stimuli due to nonlinear mixture responses. We show that mice similarly fail to generalize, suggesting that they learn this segregation task discriminatively by adjusting task-specific decision boundaries without taking advantage of a demixed representation of odors. PMID:27593177

  14. Detection and discrimination of mixed odor strands in overlapping plumes using an insect-antenna-based chemosensor system.

    PubMed

    Myrick, Andrew J; Park, Kye Chung; Hetling, John R; Baker, Thomas C

    2009-01-01

    Olfactory signals, a major means of communication in insects, travel in the form of turbulent odor plumes. In terrestrial environments, an odor blend emitted from a single point source exists in every strand of the plume, whereas, in confluent plumes from two different odor sources, the strands have some chance of being coincident and comprising a new third odor in those strands. Insects have the ability to detect and interpret necessary olfactory information from individual filamentous odor strands in complex multifilament odor plumes. However, behaviorists have had no way to measure the stimulus situations they are presenting to their temporally acute insect subjects when performing Y-tube olfactometer or confluent pheromone plume wind tunnel assays. We have successfully measured the degree of plume-strand mixing in confluent plumes in a wind tunnel by using a multichannel insect-antenna-based chemosensor. A PC-based computer algorithm to analyze antennal signals from the probe portion of the system performed real-time signal processing and, following a short training session, classified individual odorant/mixture strands at sub-second temporal resolution and a few tens of millimeters of spatial resolution. In our studies, the chemosensor classified a higher frequency of strands of two different odorants emitted from two closely spaced filter papers as being "mixed" when the sources were located only 1 or 2 cm apart than when the sources were 5 or 10 cm apart. These experiments demonstrate the chemosensor's potential to be used for measuring odor stimulus situations in more complex multiple-plume environments. PMID:19153799

  15. Musty odor of entomopathogens enhances disease-prevention behaviors in the termite Coptotermes formosanus.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Aya; Fujiwara-Tsujii, Nao; Akino, Toshiharu; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Yanagawa, Takashi; Shimizu, Susumu

    2011-09-01

    Termites often eliminate pathogens directly through mutual grooming, and are thereby prevent infections from entomopathogenic fungi. Our previous study confirmed that the antennae of Coptotermesformosanus sensitively responded to the musty odor of entomopathogenic fungi. However, it is unclear if this odor has any effect on termite behavior. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of fungal odor on termite behavior, especially on conidia removal. The musty odor was prepared as an aqueous solution by immersing conidia in distilled water. When untreated termites were mixed with fungal-odor-treated termites at a ratio of 4:1, mutual grooming and attack of treated termites were frequently observed. This indicated that the fungal odor triggered these behavioral responses. While some components of the fungal odor were found in all of the entomopathogenic fungi tested, the odor profiles differed among the isolates. PMID:21683707

  16. A surface acoustic wave bio-electronic nose for detection of volatile odorant molecules.

    PubMed

    Di Pietrantonio, F; Benetti, M; Cannatà, D; Verona, E; Palla-Papavlu, A; Fernández-Pradas, J M; Serra, P; Staiano, M; Varriale, A; D'Auria, S

    2015-05-15

    In this work, a "bio-electronic nose" for vapour phase detection of odorant molecules based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators is presented. The biosensor system is composed of an array of five SAW resonators coated with three types of odorant-binding proteins (OBPs): the wild-type OBP from bovine (wtbOBP), a double-mutant of the OBP from bovine (dmbOBP), and the wild-type OBP from pig (wtpOBP). High resolution deposition of OBPs onto the active area of SAW resonators was implemented through laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT). The resonant frequency shifts of the SAW resonators after the deposition of the biomolecules confirmed the immobilisation of the proteins onto the Al/Au inter-digital transducers (IDTs). In addition, a low increase of insertion losses with a limited degradation of Q-factors is reported. The "bio-electronic nose" fabricated by LIFT is tested in nitrogen upon exposure to separated concentrations of R-(-)-1-octen-3-ol (octenol) and R-(-)-carvone (carvone) vapours. The "bio-electronic nose" showed low detection limits for the tested compounds (i.e. 0.48 ppm for the detection of octenol, and 0.74 ppm for the detection of carvone). In addition, the bio-sensing system was able to discriminate the octenol molecules from the carvone molecules, making it pertinent for the assessment of food contamination by moulds, or for the evaluation of indoor air quality in buildings. PMID:25256781

  17. Suppression of Background Odor Effect in Odor Sensing System Using Olfactory Adaptation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohba, Tsuneaki; Yamanaka, Takao

    In this study, a new method for suppressing the background odor effect is proposed. Since odor sensors response to background odors in addition to a target odor, it is difficult to detect the target odor information. In the conventional odor sensing systems, the effect of the background odors are compensated by subtracting the response to the background odors (the baseline response). Although this simple subtraction method is effective for constant background odors, it fails in the compensation for time-varying background odors. The proposed method for the background suppression is effective even for the time-varying background odors.

  18. Determination of Odor Detection Threshold in the Göttingen Minipig

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Ida E.; Herskin, Mette S.; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Johansen, Marianne G.; Jørgensen, Arne Lund; Ladewig, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the ability of Göttingen minipigs to acquire an olfaction-based operant conditioning task and to determine the detection threshold for ethyl acetate and ethanol. We used an automated olfactometer developed for rodents to train and test 14 pigs. Odor sampling and reliable responding were obtained after three to fifteen 160-trial sessions. Successful transfer of the task from ethyl acetate to ethanol was achieved in 1–4 sessions. Detection threshold for ethyl acetate varied between 10−2% and 10−6% v/v and for ethanol between 0.1% and 5 × 10−6% v/v. The results provide evidence that minipigs can successfully acquire 2-odorant discrimination using a food-rewarded instrumental conditioning paradigm for testing olfactory function. This olfactory discrimination paradigm provides reliable measures of olfactory sensitivity and thereby enables detection of changes in olfaction in a porcine model of Alzheimer's disease currently being developed. PMID:20693277

  19. Enhancing Attraction of African Malaria Vectors to a Synthetic Odor Blend.

    PubMed

    Mweresa, Collins K; Mukabana, Wolfgang R; Omusula, Philemon; Otieno, Bruno; Van Loon, Joop J A; Takken, Willem

    2016-06-01

    The deployment of odor-baited tools for sampling and controlling malaria vectors is limited by a lack of potent synthetic mosquito attractants. A synthetic mixture of chemical compounds referred to as "the Mbita blend" (MB) was shown to attract as many host-seeking malaria mosquitoes as attracted to human subjects. We hypothesized that this effect could be enhanced by adding one or more attractive compounds to the blend. We tested changes in the capability of MB (ammonia + L-lactic acid + tetradecanoic acid +3-methyl-1-butanol + carbon dioxide) to attract host-seeking malaria mosquitoes by addition of selected dilutions of butyl-2-methylbutanoate (1:10,000), 2-pentadecanone (1:100), 1-dodecanol (1:10,000), and butan-1-amine (1:10,000,000). The experiments were conducted in semi-field enclosures and in a village in western Kenya. In semi-field enclosures, the attraction of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto females to MB-baited traps was not enhanced by adding butyl-2-methylbutanoate. There was, however, an increase in the proportion of An. gambiae caught in traps containing MB augmented with the selected dilutions of butan-1-amine, 2-pentadecanone, and 1-dodecanol. When tested in the village, addition of butan-1-amine to MB enhanced catches of female An. gambiae sensu lato, An. funestus, and Culex mosquitoes. 1-Dodecanol increased attraction of An. gambiae s.l. to the MB, while addition of 2-pentadecanone improved trap catches of An. funestus and Culex mosquitoes. This study demonstrates the possibility of enhancing synthetic odor blends for trapping the malarial mosquitoes An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus, as well as some culicine species. The findings provide promising results for the optimization and utilization of synthetic attractants for sampling and controlling major disease vectors. PMID:27349651

  20. Exposure to odors of rivals enhances sexual motivation in male giant pandas.

    PubMed

    Bian, Xiaoxing; Liu, Dingzhen; Zeng, Hua; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Hou, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Males will alter their mating behavior to cope with the presence of their competitors. Even exposure to odors from potential competitors can greatly increase male ejaculate expenditure in a variety of animals including insects, fishes, birds and rodents. Major efforts have been made to examine males' plastic responses to sperm competition and its fitness benefits. However, the effects of competitor absence on male's sexual motivation and behaviors remain unclear, which has been proposed to be one of the causes for the poor sexual performance of some captive mammals. This study revealed that sexual motivation can be greatly enhanced in captive male giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) by exposure to chemosensory cues from either one or three conspecifics males. It had been shown that potential rivals' odors increased males' chemosensory investigation behavior, as well as their observing, following and sniffing behaviors towards estrous females. Behaviors changed regardless of the number of rivals (one or three). Our results demonstrate the effects of potential competition on male giant pandas' sexual motivation and behavioral coping strategy. We anticipate that our research will provide a fresh insight into the mechanisms underlying poor sexual performance in male captive mammals, and valuable information for the practical management and ex situ conservation of endangered species. PMID:23940532

  1. Exposure to Odors of Rivals Enhances Sexual Motivation in Male Giant Pandas

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Xiaoxing; Liu, Dingzhen; Zeng, Hua; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Hou, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Males will alter their mating behavior to cope with the presence of their competitors. Even exposure to odors from potential competitors can greatly increase male ejaculate expenditure in a variety of animals including insects, fishes, birds and rodents. Major efforts have been made to examine males' plastic responses to sperm competition and its fitness benefits. However, the effects of competitor absence on male's sexual motivation and behaviors remain unclear, which has been proposed to be one of the causes for the poor sexual performance of some captive mammals. This study revealed that sexual motivation can be greatly enhanced in captive male giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) by exposure to chemosensory cues from either one or three conspecifics males. It had been shown that potential rivals' odors increased males' chemosensory investigation behavior, as well as their observing, following and sniffing behaviors towards estrous females. Behaviors changed regardless of the number of rivals (one or three). Our results demonstrate the effects of potential competition on male giant pandas' sexual motivation and behavioral coping strategy. We anticipate that our research will provide a fresh insight into the mechanisms underlying poor sexual performance in male captive mammals, and valuable information for the practical management and ex situ conservation of endangered species. PMID:23940532

  2. Multi-Sensor Integration to Map Odor Distribution for the Detection of Chemical Sources

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Acar, Levent

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of mapping odor distribution derived from a chemical source using multi-sensor integration and reasoning system design. Odor localization is the problem of finding the source of an odor or other volatile chemical. Most localization methods require a mobile vehicle to follow an odor plume along its entire path, which is time consuming and may be especially difficult in a cluttered environment. To solve both of the above challenges, this paper proposes a novel algorithm that combines data from odor and anemometer sensors, and combine sensors’ data at different positions. Initially, a multi-sensor integration method, together with the path of airflow was used to map the pattern of odor particle movement. Then, more sensors are introduced at specific regions to determine the probable location of the odor source. Finally, the results of odor source location simulation and a real experiment are presented. PMID:27384568

  3. Multi-Sensor Integration to Map Odor Distribution for the Detection of Chemical Sources.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Acar, Levent

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of mapping odor distribution derived from a chemical source using multi-sensor integration and reasoning system design. Odor localization is the problem of finding the source of an odor or other volatile chemical. Most localization methods require a mobile vehicle to follow an odor plume along its entire path, which is time consuming and may be especially difficult in a cluttered environment. To solve both of the above challenges, this paper proposes a novel algorithm that combines data from odor and anemometer sensors, and combine sensors' data at different positions. Initially, a multi-sensor integration method, together with the path of airflow was used to map the pattern of odor particle movement. Then, more sensors are introduced at specific regions to determine the probable location of the odor source. Finally, the results of odor source location simulation and a real experiment are presented. PMID:27384568

  4. Immunization alters body odor.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Bruce A; Opiekun, Maryanne; Yamazaki, Kunio; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2014-04-10

    Infections have been shown to alter body odor. Because immune activation accompanies both infection and immunization, we tested the hypothesis that classical immunization might similarly result in the alteration of body odors detectable by trained biosensor mice. Using a Y-maze, we trained biosensor mice to distinguish between urine odors from rabies-vaccinated (RV) and unvaccinated control mice. RV-trained mice generalized this training to mice immunized with the equine West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine compared with urine of corresponding controls. These results suggest that there are similarities between body odors of mice immunized with these two vaccines. This conclusion was reinforced when mice could not be trained to directly discriminate between urine odors of RV- versus WNV-treated mice. Next, we trained biosensor mice to discriminate the urine odors of mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; a general elicitor of innate immunological responses) from the urine of control mice. These LPS-trained biosensors could distinguish between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and RV-treated mouse urine. Finally, biosensor mice trained to distinguish between the odors of RV-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine did not generalize this training to discriminate between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine. From these experiments, we conclude that: (1) immunization alters urine odor in similar ways for RV and WNV immunizations; and (2) immune activation with LPS also alters urine odor but in ways different from those of RV and WNV. PMID:24524972

  5. Effect of dietary fat source and exercise on odorant-detecting ability of canine athletes.

    PubMed

    Altom, Eric K; Davenport, Gary M; Myers, Lawrence J; Cummins, Keith A

    2003-10-01

    Eighteen male English Pointers (2-4 years of age, 23.94+/-0.54 kg body weight) were allotted to three diet and two physical conditioning groups to evaluate the effect of level and source of dietary fat on the olfactory acuity of canine athletes subjected to treadmill exercise. Diet groups (6 dogs/diet) consisted of commercially prepared diets (minimum of 26% crude protein) containing 12% fat as beef tallow (A), 16% fat provided by equivalent amounts of beef tallow and corn oil (B), or 16% fat provided by equivalent amounts of beef tallow and coconut oil (C). This dietary formulation resulted in approximately 60% of the total fatty acid being saturated for diets A and C, while approximately 72% of the total fatty acids were unsaturated in diet B. One-half of the dogs within each dietary group were subjected to treadmill exercise 3 times per week for 30 min (8.05 km/h, 0% grade) for 12 weeks. All dogs were subjected to a submaximal exercise stress test (8.05 km/h, 10% slope for 60 min) every four weeks beginning at week 0. Olfactory acuity was measured utilizing behavioral olfactometry before and after each physical stress test. Non-conditioned (NON) dogs displayed a greater decrease (P<0.05) in olfactory acuity following exercise, while physically conditioned (EXE) dogs did not show a change from pre-test values. A diet by treatment interaction (P<0.10) was detected over the course of the study. NON dogs fed coconut oil had decreased odorant-detecting capabilities when week 4 values were compared with week 12 values. Feeding a diet that is predominately high in saturated fat may affect the odorant-detecting capabilities of working dogs. Additionally, these data indicate that utilization of a moderate physical conditioning program can assist canine athletes in maintaining olfactory acuity during periods of intense exercise. PMID:12893164

  6. Comparison of three lychee cultivar odor profiles using gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-sulfur detection.

    PubMed

    Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Perez-Cacho, Pilar Ruiz; Davenport, Thomas; Rouseff, Russell

    2007-03-01

    Odor volatiles in three major lychee cultivars (Mauritius, Brewster, and Hak Ip) were examined using gas chromatography-olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detection. Fifty-nine odor-active compounds were observed including 11 peaks, which were associated with sulfur detector responses. Eight sulfur volatiles were identified as follows: hydrogen sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, diethyl disulfide, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, 2-methyl thiazole, 2,4-dithiopentane, dimethyl trisulfide, and methional. Mauritius contained 25% and Brewster contained 81% as much total sulfur volatiles as Hak Ip. Cultivars were evaluated using eight odor attributes: floral, honey, green/woody, tropical fruit, peach/apricot, citrus, cabbage, and garlic. Major odor differences in cabbage and garlic attributes correlated with cultivar sulfur volatile composition. The 24 odor volatiles common to all three cultivars were acetaldehyde, ethanol, ethyl-3-methylbutanoate, diethyl disulfide, 2-methyl thiazole, 1-octen-3-one, cis-rose oxide, hexanol, dimethyl trisulfide, alpha-thujone, methional, 2-ethyl hexanol, citronellal, (E)-2-nonenal, linalool, octanol, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, menthol, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, beta-damascenone, 2-phenylethanol, beta-ionone, and 4-vinyl-guaiacol. PMID:17266328

  7. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Selectively Enhances Young Adult Perceived Pleasantness of Alcohol Odors

    PubMed Central

    Hannigan, John H.; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Sokol, Robert J.; Janisse, James; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (PAE) can lead to life-long neurobehavioral and social problems that can include a greater likelihood of early use and/or abuse of alcohol compared to older teens and young adults without PAE. Basic research in animals demonstrates that PAE influences later postnatal responses to chemosensory cues (i.e., odor & taste) associated with alcohol. We hypothesized that PAE would be related to poorer abilities to identify odors of alcohol-containing beverages, and would alter perceived alcohol odor intensity and pleasantness. To address this hypothesis we examined responses to alcohol and other odors in a small sample of young adults with detailed prenatal histories of exposure to alcohol and other drugs. The key finding from our controlled analyses is that higher levels of PAE were related to higher relative ratings of pleasantness for alcohol odors. As far as we are aware, this is the first published study to report the influence of PAE on responses to alcohol beverage odors in young adults. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that positive associations (i.e., “pleasantness”) to the chemosensory properties of alcohol (i.e., odor) are acquired prenatally and are retained for many years despite myriad interceding postnatal experiences. Alternate hypotheses may also be supported by the results. There are potential implications of altered alcohol odor responses for understanding individual differences in initiation of drinking, and alcohol seeking and high-risk alcohol-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:25600468

  8. Prenatal alcohol exposure selectively enhances young adult perceived pleasantness of alcohol odors.

    PubMed

    Hannigan, John H; Chiodo, Lisa M; Sokol, Robert J; Janisse, James; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can lead to life-long neurobehavioral and social problems that can include a greater likelihood of early use and/or abuse of alcohol compared to older teens and young adults without PAE. Basic research in animals demonstrates that PAE influences later postnatal responses to chemosensory cues (i.e., odor & taste) associated with alcohol. We hypothesized that PAE would be related to poorer abilities to identify odors of alcohol-containing beverages, and would alter perceived alcohol odor intensity and pleasantness. To address this hypothesis we examined responses to alcohol and other odors in a small sample of young adults with detailed prenatal histories of exposure to alcohol and other drugs. The key finding from our controlled analyses is that higher levels of PAE were related to higher relative ratings of pleasantness for alcohol odors. As far as we are aware, this is the first published study to report the influence of PAE on responses to alcohol beverage odors in young adults. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that positive associations (i.e., "pleasantness") to the chemosensory properties of alcohol (i.e., odor) are acquired prenatally and are retained for many years despite myriad interceding postnatal experiences. Alternate hypotheses may also be supported by the results. There are potential implications of altered alcohol odor responses for understanding individual differences in initiation of drinking, and alcohol seeking and high-risk alcohol-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:25600468

  9. Learning modifies odor mixture processing to improve detection of relevant components.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jen-Yung; Marachlian, Emiliano; Assisi, Collins; Huerta, Ramon; Smith, Brian H; Locatelli, Fernando; Bazhenov, Maxim

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees have a rich repertoire of olfactory learning behaviors, and they therefore are an excellent model to study plasticity in olfactory circuits. Recent behavioral, physiological, and molecular evidence suggested that the antennal lobe, the first relay of the olfactory system in insects and analog to the olfactory bulb in vertebrates, is involved in associative and nonassociative olfactory learning. Here we use calcium imaging to reveal how responses across antennal lobe projection neurons change after association of an input odor with appetitive reinforcement. After appetitive conditioning to 1-hexanol, the representation of an odor mixture containing 1-hexanol becomes more similar to this odor and less similar to the background odor acetophenone. We then apply computational modeling to investigate how changes in synaptic connectivity can account for the observed plasticity. Our study suggests that experience-dependent modulation of inhibitory interactions in the antennal lobe aids perception of salient odor components mixed with behaviorally irrelevant background odors. PMID:25568113

  10. Learning Modifies Odor Mixture Processing to Improve Detection of Relevant Components

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jen-Yung; Marachlian, Emiliano; Assisi, Collins; Huerta, Ramon; Smith, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees have a rich repertoire of olfactory learning behaviors, and they therefore are an excellent model to study plasticity in olfactory circuits. Recent behavioral, physiological, and molecular evidence suggested that the antennal lobe, the first relay of the olfactory system in insects and analog to the olfactory bulb in vertebrates, is involved in associative and nonassociative olfactory learning. Here we use calcium imaging to reveal how responses across antennal lobe projection neurons change after association of an input odor with appetitive reinforcement. After appetitive conditioning to 1-hexanol, the representation of an odor mixture containing 1-hexanol becomes more similar to this odor and less similar to the background odor acetophenone. We then apply computational modeling to investigate how changes in synaptic connectivity can account for the observed plasticity. Our study suggests that experience-dependent modulation of inhibitory interactions in the antennal lobe aids perception of salient odor components mixed with behaviorally irrelevant background odors. PMID:25568113

  11. Learning about natural variation of odor mixtures enhances categorization in early olfactory processing.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Fernando F; Fernandez, Patricia C; Smith, Brian H

    2016-09-01

    Natural odors are typically mixtures of several chemical components. Mixtures vary in composition among odor objects that have the same meaning. Therefore a central 'categorization' problem for an animal as it makes decisions about odors in natural contexts is to correctly identify odor variants that have the same meaning and avoid variants that have a different meaning. We propose that identified mechanisms of associative and non-associative plasticity in early sensory processing in the insect antennal lobe and mammalian olfactory bulb are central to solving this problem. Accordingly, this plasticity should work to improve categorization of odors that have the opposite meanings in relation to important events. Using synthetic mixtures designed to mimic natural odor variation among flowers, we studied how honey bees learn about and generalize among floral odors associated with food. We behaviorally conditioned honey bees on a difficult odor discrimination problem using synthetic mixtures that mimic natural variation among snapdragon flowers. We then used calcium imaging to measure responses of projection neurons of the antennal lobe, which is the first synaptic relay of olfactory sensory information in the brain, to study how ensembles of projection neurons change as a result of behavioral conditioning. We show how these ensembles become 'tuned' through plasticity to improve categorization of odors that have the different meanings. We argue that this tuning allows more efficient use of the immense coding space of the antennal lobe and olfactory bulb to solve the categorization problem. Our data point to the need for a better understanding of the 'statistics' of the odor space. PMID:27412003

  12. Enhanced Odor Discrimination and Impaired Olfactory Memory by Spatially Controlled Switch of AMPA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Genetic perturbations of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptors (AMPARs) are widely used to dissect molecular mechanisms of sensory coding, learning, and memory. In this study, we investigated the role of Ca2+-permeable AMPARs in olfactory behavior. AMPAR modification was obtained by depletion of the GluR-B subunit or expression of unedited GluR-B(Q), both leading to increased Ca2+ permeability of AMPARs. Mice with this functional AMPAR switch, specifically in forebrain, showed enhanced olfactory discrimination and more rapid learning in a go/no-go operant conditioning task. Olfactory memory, however, was dramatically impaired. GluR-B depletion in forebrain was ectopically variable (“mosaic”) among individuals and strongly correlated with decreased olfactory memory in hippocampus and cortex. Accordingly, memory was rescued by transgenic GluR-B expression restricted to piriform cortex and hippocampus, while enhanced odor discrimination was independent of both GluR-B variability and transgenic GluR-B expression. Thus, correlated differences in behavior and levels of GluR-B expression allowed a mechanistic and spatial dissection of olfactory learning, discrimination, and memory capabilities. PMID:16216087

  13. Sex and Genotype Differences in Odor Detection in the 3×Tg-AD and 5XFAD Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease at 6 Months of Age.

    PubMed

    Roddick, Kyle M; Roberts, Amelia D; Schellinck, Heather M; Brown, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    Deficits in odor identification and detection are early symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Two transgenic mouse models of AD, the 5XFAD and the 3×Tg-AD mice and their wildtype controls, were assessed for olfactory detection with decreasing concentrations of ethyl acetate in a go no-go operant olfactometer task at 6 months of age. For both the 5XFAD and their B6SJLF1 wildtype littermates, females made fewer errors in detecting the ethyl acetate than males on all but the lowest odor concentrations. Female 5XFAD mice performed slightly better than their female wildtype littermates on the higher odor concentrations, though not at the lowest concentration. The 3×Tg-AD females showed decreased olfactory detection compared with their wildtype B6129S1 controls, whereas there was no difference in the males. Therefore, although the 5XFAD mice showed no olfactory detection deficits, female 3×Tg-AD mice had impaired olfactory detection at low odor concentrations but males did not. This difference in odor detection should be considered in studies of olfactory learning and memory, as differences in performance may be due to sensory rather than cognitive factors, though detection seems unimpaired at high odor concentrations. PMID:26969629

  14. Urine odor

    MedlinePlus

    Urine odor refers to the smell from your urine. Urine odor varies. Most of the time, urine does not ... Most changes in urine odor are not a sign of disease and go away in time. Some foods and medicines, including vitamins, may affect your ...

  15. Assessing human exposure and odor detection during showering with crude 4-(methylcyclohexyl)methanol (MCHM) contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sain, Amanda E; Dietrich, Andrea M; Smiley, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Daniel L

    2015-12-15

    In 2014, crude (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol (MCHM) spilled, contaminating the drinking water of 300,000 West Virginians and requiring "do not use" orders to protect human health. When the spill occurred, known crude MCHM physicochemical properties were insufficient to predict human inhalation and ingestion exposures. Objectives are (1) determine Henry's Law Constants (HLCs) for 4-MCHM isomers at 7, 25, 40, and 80°C using gas chromatography; (2) predict air concentrations of 4-MCHM and methyl-4-methylcyclohexanecarboxylate (MMCHC) during showering using an established shower model; (3) estimate human ingestion and inhalation exposure to 4-MCHM and MMCHC; and (4) determine if predicted air 4-MCHM exceeded odor threshold concentrations. Dimensionless HLCs of crude cis- and trans-4-MCHM were measured to be 1.42×10(-4)±6% and 3.08×10(-4)±3% at 25°C, respectively, and increase exponentially with temperature as predicted by the van't Hoff equation. Shower air concentrations for cis- and trans-4-MCHM are predicted to be 0.089 and 0.390ppm-v respectively after 10min, exceeding the US EPA's 0.01ppm-v air screening level during initial spill conditions. Human exposure doses were predicted using measured drinking water and predicted shower air concentrations and found to greatly exceed available guidance levels in the days directly following the spill. Odors would be rapidly detected by 50% of individuals at aqueous concentrations below analytical gas chromatographic detection limits. MMCHC, a minor odorous component (0.935%) of crude MCHM, is also highly volatile and therefore is predicted to contribute to inhalation exposures and odors experienced by consumers. PMID:26311585

  16. Odor Mortis

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, Arpad Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This study, the third of a series on the odor signature of human decomposition, reports on the intermittent nature of chemical evolution from decomposing human remains, and focuses primarily on headspace analysis from soil associated with older human remains (10-60+ years) from different environments around the globe. Fifty grams of soil were collected in 40mL glass vials with polypropylene sealed lids from soil above known or suspected graves and from subsurface chemical plumes associated with human decompositional events. One hundred eighty six separate samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After comparison to relevant soil controls, approximately fifty volatile chemical compounds were identified as being associated with human remains. This manuscript reports these findings and identifies when and where they are most likely to be detected showing an overall decrease in cyclic and halogenated compounds and an increase in aldehydes and alkanes as time progresses. This research identifies the 'odor signatures' unique to the decomposition of human remains with projected ramifications on cadaver dog training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

  17. Effect of odor preexposure on acquisition of an odor discrimination in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hall, Nathaniel J; Smith, David W; Wynne, Clive D L

    2014-06-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the impact of odor preexposure treatments on the acquisition of an olfactory discrimination in dogs. In the first experiment, four groups of dogs were each given five days' odor-exposure treatment prior to discrimination training. Dogs in the exposure group were exposed to anise extract (S+) for 30 min daily. Dogs in the Pavlovian-relevant pairing group received six daily delayed-conditioning trials to the same S+. The Pavlovian-irrelevant pairing group received conditioning trials to almond extract (S'). Dogs in the control group received no pretreatment. All of the dogs were then trained to detect S+ from a background pine odor (an AX-vs.-X discrimination). The Pavlovian-relevant pairing group acquired the odor discrimination significantly faster than all of the other exposure and control groups, and the remaining groups acquired the discrimination at the same rate as the no-exposure control group. In a second experiment, we extended these results to a within-subjects design using an AX-versus-BX discrimination. Six dogs were simultaneously trained on two different odor discriminations, one discrimination in which the S+ was previously Pavlovian conditioned, and one discrimination in which the S+ was novel. All of the dogs learned the odor discrimination with the previously conditioned S+ faster than they learned the novel odor discrimination, replicating the results of Experiment 1, and demonstrating that familiarity in the form of Pavlovian conditioning enhances odor-discrimination training. The potential mechanisms of the facilitated transfer of a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus to discrimination training are discussed. PMID:24464655

  18. A novel quantitation approach for maximizing detectable targets for offensive/volatile odorants with diverse functional groups by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    A multitude of analytical systems are needed to analyze diverse odorants with various functionalities. In this study, an experimental method was developed to assess the maximum covering range of odorants using a single experimental setup consisting of a thermal desorber-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system. To this end, a total of 20 offensive odorants (aldehyde, ketone, ester, alcohol, aromatic, sulfide, amine, and carboxyl) were selected and tested by a single system. The analytical results of standards and environmental samples were evaluated in a number of respects. In the analysis of the standards, all targets were quantified via Carbopack (C + B + X) tube sampling while operating the thermal desorber at ‑25 °C. The method detection limits of 18 targets (exception of 2 out of the 20 targets: acetaldehyde and methanethiol) were excellent (mean 0.04 ± 0.03 ppb) in terms of their odor threshold values (74.7 ± 140 ~ 624 ± 1,729 ppb). The analysis of organic fertilizer plant samples at a pig farm (slurry treatment facility, compost facility, and ambient air) confirmed the presence of 18 odorants from 0.03 ppb (dimethyldisulfide, ambient sample) to 522 ppb (methyl ethyl ketone, slurry treatment facility). As such, our method allowed simultaneous quantitation of most key odorants with sufficient reliability and sensitivity.

  19. A novel quantitation approach for maximizing detectable targets for offensive/volatile odorants with diverse functional groups by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    A multitude of analytical systems are needed to analyze diverse odorants with various functionalities. In this study, an experimental method was developed to assess the maximum covering range of odorants using a single experimental setup consisting of a thermal desorber-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system. To this end, a total of 20 offensive odorants (aldehyde, ketone, ester, alcohol, aromatic, sulfide, amine, and carboxyl) were selected and tested by a single system. The analytical results of standards and environmental samples were evaluated in a number of respects. In the analysis of the standards, all targets were quantified via Carbopack (C + B + X) tube sampling while operating the thermal desorber at −25 °C. The method detection limits of 18 targets (exception of 2 out of the 20 targets: acetaldehyde and methanethiol) were excellent (mean 0.04 ± 0.03 ppb) in terms of their odor threshold values (74.7 ± 140 ~ 624 ± 1,729 ppb). The analysis of organic fertilizer plant samples at a pig farm (slurry treatment facility, compost facility, and ambient air) confirmed the presence of 18 odorants from 0.03 ppb (dimethyldisulfide, ambient sample) to 522 ppb (methyl ethyl ketone, slurry treatment facility). As such, our method allowed simultaneous quantitation of most key odorants with sufficient reliability and sensitivity. PMID:27404037

  20. A novel quantitation approach for maximizing detectable targets for offensive/volatile odorants with diverse functional groups by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    A multitude of analytical systems are needed to analyze diverse odorants with various functionalities. In this study, an experimental method was developed to assess the maximum covering range of odorants using a single experimental setup consisting of a thermal desorber-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system. To this end, a total of 20 offensive odorants (aldehyde, ketone, ester, alcohol, aromatic, sulfide, amine, and carboxyl) were selected and tested by a single system. The analytical results of standards and environmental samples were evaluated in a number of respects. In the analysis of the standards, all targets were quantified via Carbopack (C + B + X) tube sampling while operating the thermal desorber at -25 °C. The method detection limits of 18 targets (exception of 2 out of the 20 targets: acetaldehyde and methanethiol) were excellent (mean 0.04 ± 0.03 ppb) in terms of their odor threshold values (74.7 ± 140 ~ 624 ± 1,729 ppb). The analysis of organic fertilizer plant samples at a pig farm (slurry treatment facility, compost facility, and ambient air) confirmed the presence of 18 odorants from 0.03 ppb (dimethyldisulfide, ambient sample) to 522 ppb (methyl ethyl ketone, slurry treatment facility). As such, our method allowed simultaneous quantitation of most key odorants with sufficient reliability and sensitivity. PMID:27404037

  1. Combinatorial effects of odorants on mouse behavior.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Luis R; Kondoh, Kunio; Ye, Xiaolan; Yoon, Kyoung-Hye; Hernandez, Marcus; Buck, Linda B

    2016-06-01

    The mechanisms by which odors induce instinctive behaviors are largely unknown. Odor detection in the mouse nose is mediated by >1, 000 different odorant receptors (ORs) and trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs). Odor perceptions are encoded combinatorially by ORs and can be altered by slight changes in the combination of activated receptors. However, the stereotyped nature of instinctive odor responses suggests the involvement of specific receptors and genetically programmed neural circuits relatively immune to extraneous odor stimuli and receptor inputs. Here, we report that, contrary to expectation, innate odor-induced behaviors can be context-dependent. First, different ligands for a given TAAR can vary in behavioral effect. Second, when combined, some attractive and aversive odorants neutralize one another's behavioral effects. Both a TAAR ligand and a common odorant block aversion to a predator odor, indicating that this ability is not unique to TAARs and can extend to an aversive response of potential importance to survival. In vitro testing of single receptors with binary odorant mixtures indicates that behavioral blocking can occur without receptor antagonism in the nose. Moreover, genetic ablation of a single receptor prevents its cognate ligand from blocking predator odor aversion, indicating that the blocking requires sensory input from the receptor. Together, these findings indicate that innate odor-induced behaviors can depend on context, that signals from a single receptor can block innate odor aversion, and that instinctive behavioral responses to odors can be modulated by interactions in the brain among signals derived from different receptors. PMID:27208093

  2. Combinatorial effects of odorants on mouse behavior

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, Luis R.; Kondoh, Kunio; Ye, Xiaolan; Yoon, Kyoung-hye; Hernandez, Marcus; Buck, Linda B.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which odors induce instinctive behaviors are largely unknown. Odor detection in the mouse nose is mediated by >1, 000 different odorant receptors (ORs) and trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs). Odor perceptions are encoded combinatorially by ORs and can be altered by slight changes in the combination of activated receptors. However, the stereotyped nature of instinctive odor responses suggests the involvement of specific receptors and genetically programmed neural circuits relatively immune to extraneous odor stimuli and receptor inputs. Here, we report that, contrary to expectation, innate odor-induced behaviors can be context-dependent. First, different ligands for a given TAAR can vary in behavioral effect. Second, when combined, some attractive and aversive odorants neutralize one another’s behavioral effects. Both a TAAR ligand and a common odorant block aversion to a predator odor, indicating that this ability is not unique to TAARs and can extend to an aversive response of potential importance to survival. In vitro testing of single receptors with binary odorant mixtures indicates that behavioral blocking can occur without receptor antagonism in the nose. Moreover, genetic ablation of a single receptor prevents its cognate ligand from blocking predator odor aversion, indicating that the blocking requires sensory input from the receptor. Together, these findings indicate that innate odor-induced behaviors can depend on context, that signals from a single receptor can block innate odor aversion, and that instinctive behavioral responses to odors can be modulated by interactions in the brain among signals derived from different receptors. PMID:27208093

  3. Detection of piperonal emitted from polymer controlled odor mimic permeation systems utilizing Canis familiaris and solid phase microextraction-ion mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Macias, Michael S; Guerra-Diaz, Patricia; Almirall, José R; Furton, Kenneth G

    2010-02-25

    Currently, in the field of odor detection, there is generally a wider variation in limit of detections (LODs) for canines than instruments. The study presented in this paper introduces an improved protocol for the creation of controlled odor mimic permeation system (COMPS) devices for use as standards in canine training and discusses the canine detection thresholds of piperonal, a starting material for the illicit drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), when exposed to these devices. Additionally, this paper describes the first-ever reported direct comparison of solid phase microextraction-ion mobility spectrometry (SPME-IMS) to canine detection for the MDMA odorant, piperonal. The research presented shows the reliability of COMPS devices as low cost field calibrants providing a wide range of odorant concentrations for biological and instrumental detectors. The canine LOD of piperonal emanating from the 100 ng s(-1) COMPS was found to be 1 ng as compared to the SPME-IMS LOD of piperonal in a static, closed system at 2 ng, with a linear dynamic range from 2 ng to 11 ng. The utilization of the COMPS devices would allow for training that will reduce the detection variability between canines and maintain improved consistency for training purposes. Since both SPME and IMS are field portable technologies, it is expected that this coupled method will be useful as a complement to canine detection for the field detection of MDMA. PMID:20044224

  4. Odor detection by humans of lineal aliphatic aldehydes and helional as gauged by dose-response functions.

    PubMed

    Cometto-Muñiz, J Enrique; Abraham, Michael H

    2010-05-01

    We have measured concentration detection (i.e., psychometric) functions to determine the odor detectability of homologous aliphatic aldehydes (propanal, butanal, hexanal, octanal, and nonanal) and helional. Subjects (16 < or = n < or = 18) used a 3-alternative forced-choice procedure against carbon-filtered air (blanks), under an ascending concentration approach. Generation, delivery, and control of each vapor were achieved via an 8-station vapor delivery device. Gas chromatography served to quantify the concentrations presented. Group and individual functions were modeled by a sigmoid (logistic) equation. Odor detection thresholds (ODTs) were defined as the concentration producing a detectability (P) halfway (P = 0.5) between chance (P = 0.0) and perfect detection (P = 1.0). ODTs decreased with carbon chain length: 2.0, 0.46, 0.33, and 0.17 ppb, respectively, from propanal to octanal, but the threshold increased for nonanal (0.53 ppb), revealing maximum sensitivity for the 8-carbon member. The strong olfactory receptor (OR) ligands octanal and helional (0.14 ppb) showed the lowest thresholds. ODTs fell at the lower end of previously reported values. Interindividual variability (ODT ratios) amounted to a factor ranging from 10 to 50, lower than typically reported, and was highest for octanal and hexanal. The behavioral dose-response functions emerge at concentrations 2-5 orders of magnitude lower than those required for functions tracing the activation of specific human ORs by the same aldehydes in cell/molecular studies, after all functions were expressed as vapor concentrations. PMID:20190010

  5. Detection of diacetyl (caramel odor) in presumptive identification of the "Streptococcus milleri" group.

    PubMed

    Chew, T A; Smith, J M

    1992-11-01

    The caramel odor associated with the "Streptococcus milleri" group was shown to be attributable to the formation of the metabolite diacetyl. Levels of diacetyl in the 22- to 200-mg/liter range were produced by 68 strains of the "S. milleri" group; apart from one strain of Streptococcus mutans, all 92 other strains of streptococci belonging to 12 species produced < 13 mg of diacetyl per liter. Quantitation of diacetyl levels from cultures of streptococci is suggested as a rapid presumptive test for the "S. milleri" group. PMID:1452678

  6. Detection of diacetyl (caramel odor) in presumptive identification of the "Streptococcus milleri" group.

    PubMed Central

    Chew, T A; Smith, J M

    1992-01-01

    The caramel odor associated with the "Streptococcus milleri" group was shown to be attributable to the formation of the metabolite diacetyl. Levels of diacetyl in the 22- to 200-mg/liter range were produced by 68 strains of the "S. milleri" group; apart from one strain of Streptococcus mutans, all 92 other strains of streptococci belonging to 12 species produced < 13 mg of diacetyl per liter. Quantitation of diacetyl levels from cultures of streptococci is suggested as a rapid presumptive test for the "S. milleri" group. PMID:1452678

  7. Knockdown of microplitis mediator odorant receptor involved in the sensitive detection of two chemicals.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke-Ming; Ren, Li-Yan; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Wu, Kong-Ming; Guo, Yu-Yuan

    2012-03-01

    Odorant receptors are thought to play critical roles in the perception of chemosensory stimuli by insects. The primary method to address the functions of odorant receptors in insects is to use in vitro binding assays between the receptors and potential chemical stimuli. We injected MmedOrco dsRNA into the abdominal cavity of a braconid wasp, Microplitis mediator, and assayed for expression of this gene 72 h after treatment (RNAi). Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that the level of mRNA expression in MmedOrco dsRNA-treated M. mediator was significantly reduced (>90%) when compared with water-treated controls. Furthermore, electroantennogram (EAG) responses of M. mediator to two chemical attractants, nonanal and farnesene, were also reduced significantly (~70%) in RNAi-treated M. mediator when compared to controls. RNAi-treated M. mediator also responded by walking/flying at a lower rate to both chemicals when compared with controls in a Y-tube olfactometer bioassay, which provides direct evidence that MmedOrco plays an important role in perception of nonanal and farnesene in M. mediator. PMID:22402893

  8. Breath odor

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube) in place. The breath may have an ammonia-like odor (also described as urine-like or " ... kidney failure (can cause breath to smell like ammonia ) Diabetes (fruity or sweet chemical smell associated with ...

  9. Quantitative measurement of odor detection thresholds using an air dilution olfactometer, and association with genetic variants in a sample of diverse ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Gillian R.; Krithika, S; Edwards, Melissa; Kavanagh, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Genetic association studies require a quantitative and reliable method for odor threshold assessment in order to examine the contribution of genetic variants to complex olfactory phenotypes. Our main goal was to assess the feasibility of a portable Scentroid air dilution olfactometer for use in such studies. Using the Scentroid SM110C and the SK5 n-butanol Sensitivity Kit (IDES Canada Inc.), n-butanol odor thresholds were determined for 182 individuals of diverse ancestry (mean age: 20.4 ± 2.5 years; n = 128 female; n = 54 male). Threshold scores from repeat participants were used to calculate a test–retest reliability coefficient, which was statistically significant (r = 0.754, p < 0.001, n = 29), indicating that the Scentroid provides reliable estimates of odor thresholds. In addition, we performed a preliminary genetic analysis evaluating the potential association of n-butanol odor thresholds to six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) putatively involved in general olfactory sensitivity (GOS). The results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed no significant association between the SNPs tested and threshold scores. However, our sample size was relatively small, and our study was only powered to identify genetic markers with strong effects on olfactory sensitivity. Overall, we find that the Scentroid provides reliable quantitative measures of odor detection threshold and is well suited for genetic studies of olfactory sensitivity. PMID:25392755

  10. Odor from a chemical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, T.K.

    1995-06-01

    Early odor-detection measurements categorized chemicals according to odor quality. Recent methods focus on the odor threshold, or the quantitative amount of a chemical in air that can be detected by the human sense of smell. Researchers characterize and quantify odor using an array of sensory and analytical procedures. Humans possess one of the dullest mammalian senses of smell; however, they can recognize about 10,000 distinct odors at concentrations ranging from less than 1 part per billion to several hundred thousand parts per million. Each time humans inhale, they chemically analyze microscopic pieces of the environment that make physical contact with the nerves in their noses. Individual molecules travel up the nose to a sheet of moist, mucus-bathed tissue that consists of about 5 million smell-sensing, olfactory neurons. After dissolving in the mucus, odor molecules ``float`` into appropriately shaped receptor pockets. A series of cellular reactions then transmit impulses to the limbic system, hippocampus and, finally, the neocortex. Odor detection is an important defense mechanism. The author presents the odor thresholds for selected organic compounds, and other hazardous chemicals.

  11. An assessment of detection canine alerts using flowers that release methyl benzoate, the cocaine odorant, and an evaluation of their behavior in terms of the VOCs produced.

    PubMed

    Cerreta, Michelle M; Furton, Kenneth G

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, the high frequency of illicit substance abuse reported in the United States has made the development of efficient and rapid detection methods important. Biological detectors, such as canines (Canis familiaris), are valuable tools for rapid, on-site identification of illicit substances. However, research indicates that in many cases canines do not alert to the contraband, but rather to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are released from the contraband, referred to as the "active odor." In 2013, canine accuracy and reliability were challenged in the Supreme Court case, State of Florida v. Jardines. In this case, it was stated that if a canine alerts to the active odor, and not the contraband, the canine's accuracy and selectivity could be questioned, since many of these compounds have been found in common household products. Specifically, methyl benzoate, the active odor of cocaine, has been found to be the most abundant compound produced by snapdragon flowers. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the odor profiles of various species of snapdragon flowers to assess how significantly methyl benzoate contributes to the total VOC profile or fragrance that is produced. Particularly, this study examines the VOCs released from newly grown snapdragon flowers and determines its potential at eliciting a false alert from specially trained detection canines. The ability of detection canines to differentiate between cocaine and snapdragon flowers was determined in order to validate the field accuracy and discrimination power of these detectors. An optimized method using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) was used to test the different types and abundances of compounds generated from snapdragon flowers at various stages throughout the plants' life cycle. The results indicate that although methyl benzoate is present in the odor profile of snapdragon flowers, other

  12. Evidence of rapid recovery from perceptual odor adaptation using a new stimulus paradigm.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Wendy M; LaRue, Allison K; Rosen, Jason M; Aggarwal, Somi; Shukla, Ruchi M; Monir, Joe; Smith, David W

    2014-05-01

    By attenuating neural and perceptual responses to sustained stimulation, adaptation enhances the detection of new, transient stimuli. Disadaptation serves a similarly important role as a temporal filter for chemoreceptor cells, producing rapid recovery of sensitivity upon termination of the adapting odorant. Previous research from our laboratory indicated that a rapid form of odor adaptation can be measured using a novel, simultaneous-odorant paradigm. In the present study, we extended the earlier method by measuring recovery from adaptation. Perceptual odor adaptation was measured by estimating psychophysical detection thresholds in a group of college-aged student volunteers (N = 20; 12 females, eight males) for a self-adapting odorant, vanilla extract. To induce adaptation, the time between the onset of the adapting odorant and the onset of the target odorant was systematically varied. By first quantifying adaptation, recovery of sensitivity could therefore be investigated by using different time points following the termination of the adapting odorant. Consistent with our previous work, thresholds estimated in the presence of the simultaneous adapting odorant were significantly increased, reflecting a decrease in sensitivity due to adaptation. Conversely, approximately 100 ms following termination of the adapting stimulus (the briefest delay tested), sensitivity began to rapidly recover. Nevertheless, some residual adaptation was evident at the longest offset delay of 500 ms. These findings suggest that the recovery from adaptation proceeds at least as rapidly as the onset of adaptation, a finding that is consistent with physiological evidence from olfactory receptors. These data also suggest the effectiveness of this new odorant paradigm in characterizing the temporal characteristics underlying these critical olfactory mechanisms. PMID:24500750

  13. Navigational strategies used by insects to find distant, wind-borne sources of odor.

    PubMed

    Cardé, Ring T; Willis, Mark A

    2008-07-01

    Insects locate many resources important to survival by tracking along wind-borne odor plumes to their source. It is well known that plumes are patchy distributions of high concentration packets of odor interspersed with clean air, not smooth Gaussian distributions of odor intensity. This realization has been crucial to our understanding of plume-tracking behavior, because insect locomotory movements and sensory processing typically take place in the range of tens to hundreds of milliseconds, permitting them to respond to the rapid changes in odor concentration they experience in plumes. Because odor plumes are not comprised of smooth concentration gradients, they cannot provide the directional information necessary to allow plume-tracking insects to steer toward the source. Many experiments have shown that, in the species examined, successful source location requires two sensory inputs: the presence of the attractive odor and the detection of the direction of the wind bearing that odor. All plume-tracking insects use the wind direction as the primary directional cue that enables them to steer their movements toward the odor source. Experimental manipulations of the presence and absence of the odor, and the presence, absence, or direction of the wind during plume tracking, have begun to resolve the relationship between these two sensory inputs and how they shape the maneuvers we observe. Experiments, especially those undertaken in the natural wind and odor environments of the organisms in question and those directed at understanding the neural processing that underlie plume tracking, promise to enhance our understanding of this remarkable behavior. PMID:18581182

  14. Odors Discrimination by Olfactory Epithelium Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingjun; Hu, Ning; Ye, Weiwei; Zhang, Fenni; Wang, Hua; Wang, Ping

    2011-09-01

    Humans are exploring the bionic biological olfaction to sense the various trace components of gas or liquid in many fields. For achieving the goal, we endeavor to establish a bioelectronic nose system for odor detection by combining intact bioactive function units with sensors. The bioelectronic nose is based on the olfactory epithelium of rat and microelectrode array (MEA). The olfactory epithelium biosensor generates extracellular potentials in presence of odor, and presents obvious specificity under different odors condition. The odor response signals can be distinguished with each other effectively by signal sorting. On basis of bioactive MEA hybrid system and the improved signal processing analysis, the bioelectronic nose will realize odor discrimination by the specific feature of signals response to various odors.

  15. Odor Experience Facilitates Sparse Representations of New Odors in a Large-Scale Olfactory Bulb Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shanglin; Migliore, Michele; Yu, Yuguo

    2016-01-01

    Prior odor experience has a profound effect on the coding of new odor inputs by animals. The olfactory bulb, the first relay of the olfactory pathway, can substantially shape the representations of odor inputs. How prior odor experience affects the representation of new odor inputs in olfactory bulb and its underlying network mechanism are still unclear. Here we carried out a series of simulations based on a large-scale realistic mitral-granule network model and found that prior odor experience not only accelerated formation of the network, but it also significantly strengthened sparse responses in the mitral cell network while decreasing sparse responses in the granule cell network. This modulation of sparse representations may be due to the increase of inhibitory synaptic weights. Correlations among mitral cells within the network and correlations between mitral network responses to different odors decreased gradually when the number of prior training odors was increased, resulting in a greater decorrelation of the bulb representations of input odors. Based on these findings, we conclude that the degree of prior odor experience facilitates degrees of sparse representations of new odors by the mitral cell network through experience-enhanced inhibition mechanism. PMID:26903819

  16. Odor Experience Facilitates Sparse Representations of New Odors in a Large-Scale Olfactory Bulb Model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shanglin; Migliore, Michele; Yu, Yuguo

    2016-01-01

    Prior odor experience has a profound effect on the coding of new odor inputs by animals. The olfactory bulb, the first relay of the olfactory pathway, can substantially shape the representations of odor inputs. How prior odor experience affects the representation of new odor inputs in olfactory bulb and its underlying network mechanism are still unclear. Here we carried out a series of simulations based on a large-scale realistic mitral-granule network model and found that prior odor experience not only accelerated formation of the network, but it also significantly strengthened sparse responses in the mitral cell network while decreasing sparse responses in the granule cell network. This modulation of sparse representations may be due to the increase of inhibitory synaptic weights. Correlations among mitral cells within the network and correlations between mitral network responses to different odors decreased gradually when the number of prior training odors was increased, resulting in a greater decorrelation of the bulb representations of input odors. Based on these findings, we conclude that the degree of prior odor experience facilitates degrees of sparse representations of new odors by the mitral cell network through experience-enhanced inhibition mechanism. PMID:26903819

  17. Natural gas odor level testing: Instruments and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, E.H.

    1995-12-01

    An odor in natural and LP gases is necessary. The statistics are overwhelming; when gas customers can smell a leak before the percentage of gas in air reaches a combustible mixture, the chances of an accident are greatly reduced. How do gas companies determine if there is sufficient odor reaching every gas customers home? Injection equipment is important. The rate and quality of odorant is important. Nevertheless, precision odorization alone does not guarantee that customers` homes always have gas with a readily detectable odor. To secure that goal, odor monitoring instruments are necessary.

  18. Rose odor can innately counteract predator odor.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Mutsumi; Imada, Masato; Murakami, Toyotaka; Aizawa, Shin; Sato, Takaaki

    2011-03-24

    When animals smell a predator odor such as 2,5-Dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT), even if it is a novel substance, the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is activated, causing stress-like behaviors. Although the medial part of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (mBST) is known to be involved in this process, the mechanism remains unclear. Moreover, it is unknown whether there is any odor that can counteract the predator odor, even when the odorants are novel substances for the animals. In this study, we assessed whether rose odor can counteract by counting the number of activated neurons in mice brain following the presentation of rose odor with or without TMT for 30 min. The number of activated cells in the mBST and in the ventrorostral part of the anterior piriform cortex (APC) was significantly reduced by a mixture of TMT and rose odor; however, no significant differences were noted in the dorsal part of the APC and in the olfactory bulb (OB) following TMT presentation with or without rose odor. The results suggest that rose odor may counteract the TMT-induced stress response in the OB and/or APC and suppress the neural circuit to the mBST. It also indicates that there are some odors that can innately counteract predator odor, even when they have not been experienced before. PMID:21266167

  19. The Hydrodynamics and Odorant Transport Phenomena of Olfaction in the Hammerhead Shark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rygg, Alex; Craven, Brent

    2013-11-01

    The hammerhead shark possesses a unique head morphology that is thought to facilitate enhanced olfactory performance. The olfactory organs, located at the distal ends of the cephalofoil, contain numerous lamellae that increase the surface area for olfaction. Functionally, for the shark to detect chemical stimuli, water-borne odors must reach the olfactory sensory epithelium that lines these lamellae. Thus, odorant transport from the aquatic environment to the sensory epithelium is the first critical step in olfaction. Here we investigate the hydrodynamics and odorant transport phenomena of olfaction in the hammerhead shark based on an anatomically-accurate reconstruction of the head and olfactory chamber from high-resolution micro-CT and MRI scans of a cadaver specimen. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow in the reconstructed model reveal the external and internal hydrodynamics of olfaction during swimming. Odorant transport in the olfactory organ is investigated using a multi-scale approach, whereby molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to calculate odorant partition coefficients that are subsequently utilized in macro-scale CFD simulations of odorant deposition. The hydrodynamic and odorant transport results are used to elucidate several important features of olfactory function in the hammerhead shark.

  20. Odor-taste interactions: effects of attentional strategies during exposure.

    PubMed

    Prescott, John; Johnstone, Victoria; Francis, Joanne

    2004-05-01

    Through repeated pairings with a tastant such as sucrose, odors are able to take on the tastant's qualities, e.g. by becoming more sweet smelling. When such odors are subsequently experienced with a sweet tastant in solution, the mixture is often given a higher sweetness rating than the tastant alone. Odor-induced taste enhancement appears to be sensitive to whether an odor-taste combination is viewed analytically as a set of discrete qualities, or synthetically as a flavor. The present research attempted to determine if adoption of these different perceptual approaches during co-exposure with sucrose would influence the extent to which an odor would become sweet smelling and subsequently enhance sweetness intensity. In Experiment 1, subjects received multiple exposures to mixtures of sucrose with low sweetness, low familiarity odors or, as a control, the odors and sucrose solutions separately. Two groups that received mixtures made intensity ratings that promoted either synthesis or analysis of the individual elements in the mixtures. The odors became sweeter smelling irrespective of group. Only adopting a synthetic strategy produced odors that enhanced sweetness in solution. However, these effects were also shown with a 'non-exposed' control odor. This could be accounted for if the single co-exposure with sucrose that all odors received in the pre-test was able to produce sweeter odors. A second experiment confirmed this prediction. Thus, while even a single co-exposure with sucrose is sufficient to produce a sweeter odor, the adoption of a synthetic perceptual strategy during the co-exposure is necessary to produce an odor that will enhance sweetness. These data are consistent with associative leaning accounts of how odors take on taste qualities and also support the interpretation that these effects reflect the central integration of odors and tastes into flavors. PMID:15150146

  1. Diagnostic odor recognition

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt; Phan; Desandre; Lobon; Hsu

    2000-10-01

    Many diseases, toxic ingestions, and intoxications have characteristic odors. These odors may provide diagnostic clues that affect rapid treatment long before laboratory confirmation or clinical deterioration. Odor recognition skills, similar to auscultation and palpation skills, require teaching and practical exposure. Dr. Goldfrank and colleagues recognized the importance of teaching odor recognition to emergency service providers. They proposed the "sniffing bar" method for odor recognition training. OBJECTIVES: (1) To identify the recognition rates of medically important odors among emergency care providers. (2) To investigate the effectiveness of teaching odor recognition. Hypothesis: The recognition rates of medically important odors will increase after teaching exposure. METHODS: The study exposed emergency care providers to 11 tubes of odors. Identifications of each substance were recorded. After corrective feedback, subjects were re-tested on their ability to identify the odors. Analysis of odor recognition improvement after teaching was done via chi-square test. RESULTS: Improvement in identification after teaching was seen in all odors. However, the improvement was significant only in the lesscommon substances because their initial recognition was especially low. Significant changes may improve with a larger sample size. Subjects often confuse the odors of alcohol with acetone, and wintergreen with camphor. CONCLUSIONS: The recognition rates are higher for the more-common odors, and lower for the less-common odors. Teaching exposures to the less well-known odors are effective and can significantly improve the recognition rate of these substances. Because odor recognition may affect rapid diagnosis and treatment of certain medical emergencies such as toxic ingestion, future studies should investigate the correlation between odor recognition and the ability to identify corresponding medical emergencies. PMID:11015270

  2. Identifying and tracking key odorants from cattle feedlots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabue, Steven; Scoggin, Kenwood; McConnell, Laura; Maghirang, Ronaldo; Razote, Edna; Hatfield, Jerry

    2011-08-01

    Odors from cattle feedlots can negatively affect air quality in local communities. Our objectives were the following: 1) identify key odor-causing compounds using odor activity values (OAVs) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) techniques; 2) compare odor threshold values from published databases; and 3) track the movement of odors from a cattle feedlot to receptor community. Odorous compounds emitted from a cattle feedlot were sampled on-site, 250 m downwind and 3.2 km downwind using both sorbent tubes and denuders. Sorbent tubes were analyzed by both GC-MS and GC-MS-O and key odorants determined using both OAV and GC-Surface Nasal Impact Frequency (SNIF) analysis, while denuders were analyzed by ion chromatography. Odorant concentrations had a diurnal pattern with peak concentrations during early morning and late evening periods. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were the most abundant of the major odorants. Odorants with concentrations above their odor threshold values at the feedlot included amines, VFAs, phenol compounds, and indole compounds. Key odorants at the feedlot were VFAs and phenol compounds, but their relative importance diminished with downwind distance. Indole compounds, while not the key odorants at the feedlot, increased in relative importance downwind of the feedlot. In general, the odorous compounds identified by GC-SNIF and OAV as having fecal/manure nature were similar. GC-SNIF was the more sensitive analytical technique; it identified several compounds that may have contributed to the unpleasantness of the cattle feedlot odor, but its throughput was extremely low thereby limiting its usefulness. There is a need to improve field sampling devices and odor threshold databases to enhance understanding and confidence in evaluating odors.

  3. Deconstructing multisensory enhancement in detection.

    PubMed

    Pannunzi, Mario; Pérez-Bellido, Alexis; Pereda-Baños, Alexandre; López-Moliner, Joan; Deco, Gustavo; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2015-03-15

    The mechanisms responsible for the integration of sensory information from different modalities have become a topic of intense interest in psychophysics and neuroscience. Many authors now claim that early, sensory-based cross-modal convergence improves performance in detection tasks. An important strand of supporting evidence for this claim is based on statistical models such as the Pythagorean model or the probabilistic summation model. These models establish statistical benchmarks representing the best predicted performance under the assumption that there are no interactions between the two sensory paths. Following this logic, when observed detection performances surpass the predictions of these models, it is often inferred that such improvement indicates cross-modal convergence. We present a theoretical analyses scrutinizing some of these models and the statistical criteria most frequently used to infer early cross-modal interactions during detection tasks. Our current analysis shows how some common misinterpretations of these models lead to their inadequate use and, in turn, to contradictory results and misleading conclusions. To further illustrate the latter point, we introduce a model that accounts for detection performances in multimodal detection tasks but for which surpassing of the Pythagorean or probabilistic summation benchmark can be explained without resorting to early cross-modal interactions. Finally, we report three experiments that put our theoretical interpretation to the test and further propose how to adequately measure multimodal interactions in audiotactile detection tasks. PMID:25520431

  4. Deconstructing multisensory enhancement in detection

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Bellido, Alexis; Pereda-Baños, Alexandre; López-Moliner, Joan; Deco, Gustavo; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the integration of sensory information from different modalities have become a topic of intense interest in psychophysics and neuroscience. Many authors now claim that early, sensory-based cross-modal convergence improves performance in detection tasks. An important strand of supporting evidence for this claim is based on statistical models such as the Pythagorean model or the probabilistic summation model. These models establish statistical benchmarks representing the best predicted performance under the assumption that there are no interactions between the two sensory paths. Following this logic, when observed detection performances surpass the predictions of these models, it is often inferred that such improvement indicates cross-modal convergence. We present a theoretical analyses scrutinizing some of these models and the statistical criteria most frequently used to infer early cross-modal interactions during detection tasks. Our current analysis shows how some common misinterpretations of these models lead to their inadequate use and, in turn, to contradictory results and misleading conclusions. To further illustrate the latter point, we introduce a model that accounts for detection performances in multimodal detection tasks but for which surpassing of the Pythagorean or probabilistic summation benchmark can be explained without resorting to early cross-modal interactions. Finally, we report three experiments that put our theoretical interpretation to the test and further propose how to adequately measure multimodal interactions in audiotactile detection tasks. PMID:25520431

  5. Predicting Odor Perceptual Similarity from Odor Structure

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Tali; Frumin, Idan; Khan, Rehan M.; Sobel, Noam

    2013-01-01

    To understand the brain mechanisms of olfaction we must understand the rules that govern the link between odorant structure and odorant perception. Natural odors are in fact mixtures made of many molecules, and there is currently no method to look at the molecular structure of such odorant-mixtures and predict their smell. In three separate experiments, we asked 139 subjects to rate the pairwise perceptual similarity of 64 odorant-mixtures ranging in size from 4 to 43 mono-molecular components. We then tested alternative models to link odorant-mixture structure to odorant-mixture perceptual similarity. Whereas a model that considered each mono-molecular component of a mixture separately provided a poor prediction of mixture similarity, a model that represented the mixture as a single structural vector provided consistent correlations between predicted and actual perceptual similarity (r≥0.49, p<0.001). An optimized version of this model yielded a correlation of r = 0.85 (p<0.001) between predicted and actual mixture similarity. In other words, we developed an algorithm that can look at the molecular structure of two novel odorant-mixtures, and predict their ensuing perceptual similarity. That this goal was attained using a model that considers the mixtures as a single vector is consistent with a synthetic rather than analytical brain processing mechanism in olfaction. PMID:24068899

  6. Acoustic enhancement for photo detecting devices

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G; Senesac, Lawrence R; Van Neste, Charles W

    2013-02-19

    Provided are improvements to photo detecting devices and methods for enhancing the sensitivity of photo detecting devices. A photo detecting device generates an electronic signal in response to a received light pulse. An electro-mechanical acoustic resonator, electrically coupled to the photo detecting device, damps the electronic signal and increases the signal noise ratio (SNR) of the electronic signal. Increased photo detector standoff distances and sensitivities will result.

  7. Resolution enhanced sound detecting apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, J. M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus is described for enhancing the resolution of a sound detector of the type which includes an acoustic mirror for focusing sound from an object onto a microphone to enable the determination of the location from which the sound arises. The enhancement apparatus includes an enclosure which surrounds the space between the mirror and microphone, and contains a gas heavier than air, such as Freon, through which sound moves slower and therefore with a shorter wavelength than in air, so that a mirror of given size has greater resolving power. An acoustically transparent front wall of the enclosure which lies forward of the mirror, can include a pair of thin sheets with pressured air between them, to form an end of the region of heavy gas into a concave shape.

  8. Predicting Odor Pleasantness with an Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Rafi; Medhanie, Abebe; Roth, Yehudah; Harel, David; Sobel, Noam

    2010-01-01

    A primary goal for artificial nose (eNose) technology is to report perceptual qualities of novel odors. Currently, however, eNoses primarily detect and discriminate between odorants they previously “learned”. We tuned an eNose to human odor pleasantness estimates. We then used the eNose to predict the pleasantness of novel odorants, and tested these predictions in naïve subjects who had not participated in the tuning procedure. We found that our apparatus generated odorant pleasantness ratings with above 80% similarity to average human ratings, and with above 90% accuracy at discriminating between categorically pleasant or unpleasant odorants. Similar results were obtained in two cultures, native Israeli and native Ethiopian, without retuning of the apparatus. These findings suggest that unlike in vision and audition, in olfaction there is a systematic predictable link between stimulus structure and stimulus pleasantness. This goes in contrast to the popular notion that odorant pleasantness is completely subjective, and may provide a new method for odor screening and environmental monitoring, as well as a critical building block for digital transmission of smell. PMID:20418961

  9. Graded Encoding of Food Odor Value in the Drosophila Brain

    PubMed Central

    Beshel, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Odors are highly evocative, yet how and where in the brain odors derive meaning remains unknown. Our analysis of the Drosophila brain extends the role of a small number of hunger-sensing neurons to include food-odor value representation. In vivo two-photon calcium imaging shows the amplitude of food odor-evoked activity in neurons expressing Drosophila neuropeptide F (dNPF), the neuropeptide Y homolog, strongly correlates with food-odor attractiveness. Hunger elevates neural and behavioral responses to food odors only, although food odors that elicit attraction in the fed state also evoke heightened dNPF activity in fed flies. Inactivation of a subset of dNPF-expressing neurons or silencing dNPF receptors abolishes food-odor attractiveness, whereas genetically enhanced dNPF activity not only increases food-odor attractiveness but promotes attraction to aversive odors. Varying the amount of presented odor produces matching graded neural and behavioral curves, which can function to predict preference between odors. We thus demonstrate a possible motivationally scaled neural “value signal” accessible from uniquely identifiable cells. PMID:24089477

  10. Testing for odor discrimination and habituation in mice.

    PubMed

    Arbuckle, Erin P; Smith, Gregory D; Gomez, Maribel C; Lugo, Joaquin N

    2015-01-01

    This video demonstrates a technique to establish the presence of a normally functioning olfactory system in a mouse. The test helps determine whether the mouse can discriminate between non-social odors and social odors, whether the mouse habituates to a repeatedly presented odor, and whether the mouse demonstrates dishabituation when presented with a novel odor. Since many social behavior tests measure the experimental animal's response to a familiar or novel mouse, false positives can be avoided by establishing that the animals can detect and discriminate between social odors. There are similar considerations in learning tests such as fear conditioning that use odor to create a novel environment or olfactory cues as an associative stimulus. Deficits in the olfactory system would impair the ability to distinguish between contexts and to form an association with an olfactory cue during fear conditioning. In the odor habitation/dishabituation test, the mouse is repeatedly presented with several odors. Each odor is presented three times for two minutes. The investigator records the sniffing time directed towards the odor as the measurement of olfactory responsiveness. A typical mouse shows a decrease in response to the odor over repeated presentations (habituation). The experimenter then presents a novel odor that elicits increased sniffing towards the new odor (dishabituation). After repeated presentation of the novel odor the animal again shows habituation. This protocol involves the presentation of water, two or more non-social odors, and two social odors. In addition to reducing experimental confounds, this test can provide information on the function of the olfactory systems of new knockout, knock-in, and conditional knockout mouse lines. PMID:25992586

  11. Robotic Vision With Enhanced Detection Of Edges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, V. L.; Shawaga, L.; Walsh, P.; Kambies, K.

    1993-01-01

    Robotic vision subsystem provides enhanced detection of edges as it preprocesses image of target moving in six degrees of freedom. Subsystem designed to filter out high (spatial) frequency components in image, with frequency response tuned to size of object detected. Blurring and background noise reduced to avoid false detection of moving target. Image produced used by another vision subsystem guiding robot to mate with target. Produces less noise and operates more reliably.

  12. Characterizing odors from cattle feedlots with different odor techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odors from cattle feedlots negatively affect local communities. The purpose of this study was to characterize odors and odorants using different odor sampling techniques. Odors were characterized with field olfactometers (Nasal Ranger®), sensory techniques (GC-O) and analytical techniques (sorbent t...

  13. Human Odorant Reception in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Liu, Nannan

    2015-01-01

    The common bed bug Cimex lectularius is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and currently resurgent in many developed countries. The ability of bed bugs to detect human odorants in the environment is critical for their host-seeking behavior. This study deciphered the chemical basis of host detection by investigating the neuronal response of olfactory sensilla to 104 human odorants using single sensillum recording and characterized the electro-physiological responses of bed bug odorant receptors to human odorants with the Xenopus expression system. The results showed that the D type of olfactory sensilla play a predominant role in detecting the human odorants tested. Different human odorants elicited different neuronal responses with different firing frequencies and temporal dynamics. Particularly, aldehydes and alcohols are the most effective stimuli in triggering strong response while none of the carboxylic acids showed a strong stimulation. Functional characterization of two bed bug odorant receptors and co-receptors in response to human odorants revealed their specific responses to the aldehyde human odorants. Taken together, the findings of this study not only provide exciting new insights into the human odorant detection of bed bugs, but also offer valuable information for developing new reagents (attractants or repellents) for the bed bug control. PMID:26522967

  14. Human Odorant Reception in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Liu, Nannan

    2015-01-01

    The common bed bug Cimex lectularius is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and currently resurgent in many developed countries. The ability of bed bugs to detect human odorants in the environment is critical for their host-seeking behavior. This study deciphered the chemical basis of host detection by investigating the neuronal response of olfactory sensilla to 104 human odorants using single sensillum recording and characterized the electro-physiological responses of bed bug odorant receptors to human odorants with the Xenopus expression system. The results showed that the D type of olfactory sensilla play a predominant role in detecting the human odorants tested. Different human odorants elicited different neuronal responses with different firing frequencies and temporal dynamics. Particularly, aldehydes and alcohols are the most effective stimuli in triggering strong response while none of the carboxylic acids showed a strong stimulation. Functional characterization of two bed bug odorant receptors and co-receptors in response to human odorants revealed their specific responses to the aldehyde human odorants. Taken together, the findings of this study not only provide exciting new insights into the human odorant detection of bed bugs, but also offer valuable information for developing new reagents (attractants or repellents) for the bed bug control. PMID:26522967

  15. Human fine body hair enhances ectoparasite detection

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Isabelle; Siva-Jothy, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Although we are relatively naked in comparison with other primates, the human body is covered in a layer of fine hair (vellus and terminal hair) at a relatively high follicular density. There are relatively few explanations for the evolutionary maintenance of this type of human hair. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that human fine body hair plays a defensive function against ectoparasites (bed bugs). Our results show that fine body hair enhances the detection of ectoparasites through the combined effects of (i) increasing the parasite's search time and (ii) enhancing its detection. PMID:22171023

  16. Odor Landscapes in Turbulent Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celani, Antonio; Villermaux, Emmanuel; Vergassola, Massimo

    2014-10-01

    The olfactory system of male moths is exquisitely sensitive to pheromones emitted by females and transported in the environment by atmospheric turbulence. Moths respond to minute amounts of pheromones, and their behavior is sensitive to the fine-scale structure of turbulent plumes where pheromone concentration is detectible. The signal of pheromone whiffs is qualitatively known to be intermittent, yet quantitative characterization of its statistical properties is lacking. This challenging fluid dynamics problem is also relevant for entomology, neurobiology, and the technological design of olfactory stimulators aimed at reproducing physiological odor signals in well-controlled laboratory conditions. Here, we develop a Lagrangian approach to the transport of pheromones by turbulent flows and exploit it to predict the statistics of odor detection during olfactory searches. The theory yields explicit probability distributions for the intensity and the duration of pheromone detections, as well as their spacing in time. Predictions are favorably tested by using numerical simulations, laboratory experiments, and field data for the atmospheric surface layer. The resulting signal of odor detections lends itself to implementation with state-of-the-art technologies and quantifies the amount and the type of information that male moths can exploit during olfactory searches.

  17. Feasibility Study of Odor Biosensor Using Dissociate Neuronal Culture with Gene Expression of Ionotropic Odorant Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanada, Norio; Sakurai, Takeshi; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Bakkum, Douglas; Kanzaki, Ryohei; Takahashi, Hirokazu

    We propose a highly sensitive and real-time odor biosensor by expressing ionotropic odorant receptors of insects into dissociated cultures of neurons of rats. The odorant-gated ion channel structure of insect odorant receptor is expected to allow easy functional expression into cells. The neuronal dissociated cultures of rats have two significant advantages: a long lifetime comparable to rats, i.e., a few years; and amplification ability from weak ionic currents of odorant receptors into easily detectable action potentials of neurons. In the present work, in order to show the feasibility of the proposed sensor, we attempt to express the pheromone receptors of silkmoth, Bombyx mori, into cultured neurons of rats. We demonstrate that 10% of neuronal cells transfected using Lipofectamine successfully expressed pheromone receptors, and that these cells showed significant increase of calcium signals by 50% at the presentation of pheromone.

  18. Effect of fragrance use on discrimination of individual body odor

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Caroline; Havlíček, Jan; Roberts, S. Craig

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that artificial fragrances may be chosen to complement or enhance an individual’s body odor, rather than simply masking it, and that this may create an odor blend with an emergent quality that is perceptually distinguishable from body odor or fragrance alone. From this, it can be predicted that a new emergent odor might be more easily identified than an individual’s body odor in isolation. We used a triangle test paradigm to assess whether fragrance affects people’s ability to distinguish between individual odors. Six male and six female donors provided axillary odor samples in three conditions (without fragrance, wearing their own fragrance, and wearing an assigned fragrance). In total, 296 female and 131 male participants selected the odd one from three odor samples (two from one donor, one from another; both of the same sex). We found that participants could discriminate between the odors at above chance levels in all three odor conditions. Olfactory identification ability (measured using Sniffin’ Sticks) positively predicted discrimination performance, and sex differences in performance were also observed, with female raters being correct more often than men. Success rates were also higher for odors of male donors. Additionally, while performance was above chance in all conditions, individual odor discrimination varied across the three conditions. Discrimination rate was significantly higher in the “no fragrance” condition than either of the fragranced conditions. Importantly, however, discrimination rate was also significantly higher in the “own fragrance” condition than the “assigned fragrance” condition, suggesting that naturally occurring variance in body odor is more preserved when blended with fragrances that people choose for themselves, compared with other fragrances. Our data are consistent with the idea that fragrance choices are influenced by fragrance interactions with an individual’s own body odor

  19. Odor investigation of a Portland cement plant

    SciTech Connect

    Pleus, R.C.

    1998-12-31

    The main concern expressed by Smithville residents is whether the odors they were smelling during odor events were due to chemicals that could cause adverse health effects. Odors were allegedly emanating from the town`s Portland cement plant. The purpose of the study was to measure the ambient air for 20 reduced sulfur, 50 volatile organic compounds, and air samples for olfactometric analysis. Carbonyl sulfide was found to be at a concentration that could create a sense of odor and irritation. This sense of irritation may be due to a physiological response by the central nervous system, and is not associated with any known adverse effects. This physiological response could account for some or all of the irritation experienced by residents during odor events. Comparing chemical concentrations that were detected in air samples to standard and recognized guidelines for acceptable exposure, all measured concentrations were found to be well below the acceptable criteria. From these data the authors conclude that no acute or chronic adverse health effects are expected at the concentrations of the chemicals detected downwind of the cement plant, either routinely or during odor events.

  20. The Effects of Odor Quality and Temporal Asynchrony on Modulation of Taste Intensity by Retronasal Odor.

    PubMed

    Isogai, Tomoyuki; Wise, Paul M

    2016-09-01

    The experiments had 2 main goals: 1) to add to the sparse literature on how retronasal aromas interact with bitter tastes, and 2) to determine whether modulation of taste intensity by aroma depends on temporal contiguity, as one might expect if flavor interactions depend on cross-modal binding (similar to object perception in other modalities). An olfactometer-gustometer allowed independent oral presentation of odorized air and liquid samples. First, using simultaneous presentation of odors and tastes (Experiments 1a-d) we found that a "sweet-smelling" aroma enhanced the rated sweetness of sucrose and decreased the rated bitterness of sucrose octaacetate (SOA), and that a "bitter-smelling" aroma enhanced the bitterness of SOA and decreased the sweetness of sucrose. Thus, with respect to effects on taste intensity, sweet and bitter aromas mimicked mixture-interactions between sweet and bitter tastes under current conditions. Next (Experiment 2), both odors were again paired with both tastes, with a parametric manipulation of odor onset. Odor presentation ranged from before taste delivery to after taste delivery. Enhancement of taste intensity was greatest with simultaneous onset, and greatly attenuated with offsets of 1s. These results are consistent with the idea that enhancement of taste by retronasal aroma depends on a temporal binding window like many other cross-modal interactions. The effects of temporal offsets on suppression of taste were inconclusive. These findings are discussed within the context of past work on odor-taste interactions. PMID:27143280

  1. Visually induced motion sickness can be alleviated by pleasant odors.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Stelzmann, Daniela; Paillard, Aurore; Hecht, Heiko

    2015-05-01

    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a common side effect in virtual environments and simulators. Several countermeasures against VIMS exist, but a reliable method to prevent or ease VIMS is unfortunately still missing. In the present study, we tested whether olfactory cues can alleviate VIMS. Sixty-two participants were exposed to a 15-min-long video showing a first-person-view bicycle ride that had successfully induced VIMS in previous studies. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups; the first group was exposed to a pleasant odor (rose) while watching the video, the second group was exposed to an unpleasant odor (leather), and the third group was not exposed to any odor. VIMS was measured using a verbal rating scale (0-20) and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Results showed that only half of the participants who were exposed to the odor did notice it (n = 21), whereas the other half failed to detect the odor. However, among those participants who did notice the odor, the rose scent significantly reduced the severity of VIMS compared to the group that did not notice the odor. A moderate positive correlation between odor sensitivity and VIMS showed that participants with higher odor sensitivity also reported stronger VIMS. Our results demonstrate that olfaction can modulate VIMS and that a pleasant odor can potentially reduce VIMS. The relationship between olfactory perception, olfactory sensibility, and VIMS is discussed. PMID:25633319

  2. Improved performance on clerical tasks associated with administration of peppermint odor.

    PubMed

    Barker, Shannon; Grayhem, Pamela; Koon, Jerrod; Perkins, Jessica; Whalen, Allison; Raudenbush, Bryan

    2003-12-01

    Previous research indicates the presence of certain odors is associated with enhanced task performance. The present study investigated use of peppermint odor during typing performance, memorization, and alphabetization. Participants completed the protocol twice--once with peppermint odor present and once without. Analysis indicated significant differences in the gross speed, net speed, and accuracy on the typing task, with odor associated with improved performance. Alphabetization also improved significantly under the odor condition but not typing duration or memorization. These results suggest peppermint odor may promote a general arousal of attention, so participants stay focused on their task and increase performance. PMID:14738372

  3. Enhanced detection of glycoproteins in polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, G; Marshall, S; Cabrera, M; Horvat, A

    1988-05-01

    A highly sensitive and simple method to enhance detection of glycoproteins resolved by either one- or two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is described. The method is a modification of the procedure described by D. Fargeaud et al. (D. Fargeaud, J. C. Benoit, F. Kato, and G. Chappuis (1984) Arch. Virol. 80, 69-82) that uses concanavalin A conjugated with fluorescein isothyocyanate to detect the carbohydrate moiety of glycoproteins. Briefly, the electrophoresed gel is exposed to the fluorescent lectin, thoroughly washed, and sequentially transferred to 50% methanol in deionized water and to absolute methanol. The result is an abrupt dehydration of the gel which turns evenly white and stiff. At least a twofold enhancement of fluorescence is obtained as detected by exposing the treated gel to an appropriate uv source. The sensitivity of the procedure allows us to detect purified immunoglobulin molecules by their carbohydrate content in the range of 0.2 microgram of total protein. The specificity of the detection is demonstrated by a comparison with the corresponding polypeptide profile obtained by silver nitrate staining of the gel. PMID:3394948

  4. Olfactory systems and neural circuits that modulate predator odor fear

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Lorey K.

    2014-01-01

    When prey animals detect the odor of a predator a constellation of fear-related autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral responses rapidly occur to facilitate survival. How olfactory sensory systems process predator odor and channel that information to specific brain circuits is a fundamental issue that is not clearly understood. However, research in the last 15 years has begun to identify some of the essential features of the sensory detection systems and brain structures that underlie predator odor fear. For instance, the main (MOS) and accessory olfactory systems (AOS) detect predator odors and different types of predator odors are sensed by specific receptors located in either the MOS or AOS. However, complex predator chemosignals may be processed by both the MOS and AOS, which complicate our understanding of the specific neural circuits connected directly and indirectly from the MOS and AOS to activate the physiological and behavioral components of unconditioned and conditioned fear. Studies indicate that brain structures including the dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, and the medial amygdala (MeA) appear to be broadly involved in predator odor induced autonomic activity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress hormone secretion. The MeA also plays a key role in predator odor unconditioned fear behavior and retrieval of contextual fear memory associated with prior predator odor experiences. Other neural structures including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the ventral hippocampus (VHC) appear prominently involved in predator odor fear behavior. The basolateral amygdala (BLA), medial hypothalamic nuclei, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are also activated by some but not all predator odors. Future research that characterizes how distinct predator odors are uniquely processed in olfactory systems and neural circuits will provide significant insights into the differences of how diverse predator

  5. Fusion and normalization to enhance anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, R.; Atkinson, G.; Antoniades, J.; Baumback, M.; Chester, D.; Edwards, J.; Goldstein, A.; Haas, D.; Henderson, S.; Liu, L.

    2009-05-01

    This study examines normalizing the imagery and the optimization metrics to enhance anomaly and change detection, respectively. The RX algorithm, the standard anomaly detector for hyperspectral imagery, more successfully extracts bright rather than dark man-made objects when applied to visible hyperspectral imagery. However, normalizing the imagery prior to applying the anomaly detector can help detect some of the problematic dark objects, but can also miss some bright objects. This study jointly fuses images of RX applied to normalized and unnormalized imagery and has a single decision surface. The technique was tested using imagery of commercial vehicles in urban environment gathered by a hyperspectral visible/near IR sensor mounted in an airborne platform. Combining detections first requires converting the detector output to a target probability. The observed anomaly detections were fitted with a linear combination of chi square distributions and these weights were used to help compute the target probability. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) quantitatively assessed the target detection performance. The target detection performance is highly variable depending on the relative number of candidate bright and dark targets and false alarms and controlled in this study by using vegetation and street line masks. The joint Boolean OR and AND operations also generate variable performance depending on the scene. The joint SUM operation provides a reasonable compromise between OR and AND operations and has good target detection performance. In addition, new transforms based on normalizing correlation coefficient and least squares generate new transforms related to canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and a normalized image regression (NIR). Transforms based on CCA and NIR performed better than the standard approaches. Only RX detection of the unnormalized of the difference imagery in change detection provides adequate change detection performance.

  6. Enhanced photoacoustic detection using photonic crystal substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yunfei; Liu, Kaiyang; McClelland, John; Lu, Meng

    2014-04-21

    This paper demonstrates the enhanced photoacoustic sensing of surface-bound light absorbing molecules and metal nanoparticles using a one-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) substrate. The PC structure functions as an optical resonator at the wavelength where the analyte absorption is strong. The optical resonance of the PC sensor provides an intensified evanescent field with respect to the excitation light source and results in enhanced optical absorption by surface-immobilized samples. For the analysis of a light absorbing dye deposited on the PC surface, the intensity of photoacoustic signal was enhanced by more than 10-fold in comparison to an un-patterned acrylic substrate. The technique was also applied to detect gold nanorods and exhibited more than 40 times stronger photoacoustic signals. The demonstrated approach represents a potential path towards single molecule absorption spectroscopy with greater performance and inexpensive instrumentation.

  7. Analysis of Key Odorants in Roasted Green Tea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, Yuzo; Sawai, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    This research aims to identify key odorants in roasted green tea. The aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 25 odor-active peaks with the flavor dilution factors of ≥ 16. We identified 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine as the most important odorant in roasted green tea with the highest flavor dilution factor of 4096. In addition, tetramethylpyrazine, 2,3-diethyl-5- methylpyrazine were also detected as potent odorants with the high flavor dilution factors. These three alkylpyrazines would be key contributors to aroma of roasted green tea.

  8. Odorant-Binding Protein: Localization to Nasal Glands and Secretions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pevsner, Jonathan; Sklar, Pamela B.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    1986-07-01

    An odorant-binding protein (OBP) was isolated from bovine olfactory and respiratory mucosa. We have produced polyclonal antisera to this protein and report its immunohistochemical localization to mucus-secreting glands of the olfactory and respiratory mucosa. Although OBP was originally isolated as a pyrazine binding protein, both rat and bovine OBP also bind the odorants [3H]methyldihydrojasmonate and 3,7-dimethyl-octan-1-ol as well as 2-isobutyl-3-[3H]methoxypyrazine. We detect substantial odorant-binding activity attributable to OBP in secreted rat nasal mucus and tears but not in saliva, suggesting a role for OBP in transporting or concentrating odorants.

  9. Odor characterization from barns and slurry treatment facilities at a commercial swine facility in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Sang-Hee; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Lee, Min-Hee; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Bo-Won; Cho, Sung-Back; Hwang, Ok-Hwa; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar

    2015-10-01

    In this study, emission characteristics of major odorants in pig confinement facilities were investigated through comparative analysis between odorant composition and odor intensity. Odorant samples in ambient air were collected from five different paired sampling sites: (1) in- and outside of windowless pig barn, (2) in- and outside of open pig barn, (3) before/after slurry treatment (via liquid fertilization), (4) before/after composting, and (5) two reference background sites on a pig confinement facility. A total of 47 compounds consisting of key offensive odorants (such as reduced sulfur and volatile organic compounds) were measured from each selected site. When the results are compared in terms of odor intensity, a list of odorants (sulfur compounds, volatile fatty acids, phenols, and indoles) were generally seen at enhanced levels on most sites. In two types of pig barn facilities (windowless ('W') and open ('O')), butyric and valeric acid were the predominant species. The removal efficiency of odorants was quite different between the two slurry treatment approaches of composting and liquid fertilization. Although the efficiencies of odor removal in the former were not sufficient, that of the latter was fairly significant in terms of odor intensity. However, some odorants like hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, p-cresol, and butyric acid were still retained above the odor threshold level. Accordingly, odorant emissions from animal housing facilities can be characterized most effectively by key odorants such as volatile fatty acids and reduced sulfur species.

  10. An enhanced Monte Carlo outlier detection method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangxiao; Li, Peiwu; Mao, Jin; Ma, Fei; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qi

    2015-09-30

    Outlier detection is crucial in building a highly predictive model. In this study, we proposed an enhanced Monte Carlo outlier detection method by establishing cross-prediction models based on determinate normal samples and analyzing the distribution of prediction errors individually for dubious samples. One simulated and three real datasets were used to illustrate and validate the performance of our method, and the results indicated that this method outperformed Monte Carlo outlier detection in outlier diagnosis. After these outliers were removed, the value of validation by Kovats retention indices and the root mean square error of prediction decreased from 3.195 to 1.655, and the average cross-validation prediction error decreased from 2.0341 to 1.2780. This method helps establish a good model by eliminating outliers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26226927

  11. Odor Control Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Amos; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Dispersion, chemical oxidation, and masking are reviewed as techniques primarily employed for odor control. Devices and systems, costs, and problems of measurement are considered in light of environmental agencies' efforts to curb smelly emissions. (BL)

  12. Enhanced detection with bimodal sonar displays.

    PubMed

    Doll, T J; Hanna, T E

    1989-10-01

    Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) required to detect narrow-band signals in white noise were compared for bimodal and single-modality sonar displays at two levels of signal uncertainty and two degrees of spatial compatibility between the auditory and visual displays. In bimodal test conditions the auditory and visual signals were equated in detectability for each subject. An adaptive, two-alternative, forced-choice procedure was used to maintain a constant percentage of correct responses. The decrement in performance with increased signal uncertainty was significantly greater for visual than for auditory displays, suggesting that auditory displays offer advantages for real-world sonar operations. Bimodal displays produced a reliable advantage in SNR required for detection over single-modality displays. Increased compatibility between the visual and auditory displays did not increase the advantage of bimodal presentation, nor did increased signal uncertainty. It was concluded that bimodal displays enhance operators' perceptual sensitivity. The magnitude of the enhancement was consistent with optimal integration of information in the two modalities. PMID:2625348

  13. Evaluation of the active odorants in Amontillado sherry wines during the aging process.

    PubMed

    Moyano, Lourdes; Zea, Luis; Moreno, Jose A; Medina, Manuel

    2010-06-01

    Odor compounds in Amontillado sherry white wine obtained by means of biological aging first and oxidative aging second in American oak casks were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry. Sniffing revealed fruity, fatty, chemical, spicy, vegetable, floral and empyreumatic odors, the first being the most common. Olfactometric intensity was assessed on a four-point scale. Most changes were detected during the first years of the oxidative aging step. Ethyl isobutanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl octanoate, and eugenol were the strongest odor compounds detected by sniffing in wines. The odor spectrum values for all active odorants were calculated in relation to ethyl octanoate, this compound being the most potent odorant. On the basis of olfactometric intensities and odor spectrum values, ethyl octanoate, ethyl butanoate, eugenol, ethyl isobutanoate, and sotolon can be deemed the main group of potent odorants in Amontillado wines. These compounds maintained similar relative contributions to the aroma profile during the oxidative aging step. PMID:20465212

  14. Odor impact of volatiles emitted from marijuana, cocaine, heroin and their surrogate scents

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Somchai; Koziel, Jacek A.

    2015-01-01

    Volatile compounds emitted into headspace from illicit street drugs have been identified, but until now odor impact of these compounds have not been reported. Data in support of identification of these compounds and their odor impact to human nose are presented. In addition, data is reported on odor detection thresholds for canines highlighting differences with human ODTs and needs to address gaps in knowledge. New data presented here include: (1) compound identification, (2) gas chromatography (GC) column retention times, (3) mass spectral data, (4) odor descriptors from 2 databases, (5) human odor detection thresholds from 2 databases, (6) calculated odor activity values, and (7) subsequent ranking of compounds by concentration and ranking of compounds by odor impact (reported as calculated odor activity values). For further interpretation and discussion, see Rice and Koziel [1] and Rice [2]. PMID:26958621

  15. Odor annoyance of environmental chemicals: sensory and cognitive influences.

    PubMed

    van Thriel, Christoph; Kiesswetter, Ernst; Schäper, Michael; Juran, Stephanie A; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Kleinbeck, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    In low concentrations, environment pollutants like volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be perceived via olfaction. Modulators of odor-mediated health effects include age, gender, or personality traits related to chemical sensitivity. Severe multi-organ symptoms in response to odors also characterize a syndrome referred to as idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI). One prominent feature of IEI is self-reported odor hypersensitivity that is usually not accompanied by enhanced olfactory functioning. The impact of interindividual differences in olfactory functioning on chemosensory perceptions is sparsely investigated, and therefore this study addressed the influences of different types of modulators, including olfactory functioning. In a psychophysical scaling experiment, an age-stratified sample of 44 males and females was examined. After controlled application of nine concentrations of six chemicals by flow-olfactometry, the participants rated four olfactory and nine trigeminal perceptions. Weak effects were found for gender and age, as well as some modulating effects of self-reported chemical sensitivity and odor discrimination ability. For chemical sensitivity, the results were as expected: Subjects with higher sensitivity reported stronger perceptions. The individual odor threshold (n-butanol) exerted no influence on the subjects' ratings of olfactory and trigeminal perceptions. Surprisingly, above-average odor discrimination ability was associated with lower ratings of odor intensity and nausea. This particular aspect of olfactory functioning might be a reflection of a more objective odor evaluation model buffering emotional responses to environmental odors. PMID:18569576

  16. Control of DMSO in wastewater to prevent DMS nuisance odors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xianhao; Wodarczyk, Michael; Lendzinski, Robert; Peterkin, Earl; Burlingame, Gary A

    2009-07-01

    A "canned corn-like" odor was periodically detected at Philadelphia's Northeast Water Pollution Control Plant (NEWPCP) for more than two decades. Previous research concluded that it was caused by dimethyl sulfide (DMS), from the reduction of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) discharged by a local industrial customer. Several process modifications were implemented at the industrial site to eliminate the "canned corn-like" odor. Results showed that enhancing DMSO recovery by 25% and equalizing the aqueous wash discharge over a longer period of time reduced the DMSO source peak discharge from 1124 to 49 kg/h, and the peak concentrations of DMSO and DMS at the NEWPCP by 81 and 88%. Reduction of DMSO discharge by segregating the first wash for off-site disposal further reduced the peak discharge of DMSO from 49 to 18 kg/h at the source, and DMSO and DMS concentrations at the NEWPCP by 48 and 92%. Segregation of the dehydration distillate for off-site disposal reduced DMSO discharge by 3 kg/h. Modifications by concentrating a higher percentage of the DMSO into the first wash and increasing the DMSO solvent recovery by an additional 33% reduced the total DMSO discharge from 522 to 200 kg and peak discharge rate from 15 to 6 kg/h. All of these process modifications collectively reduced the DMSO source discharge by 92% and the DMSO concentration received at NEWPCP by 97%, from 12 mg/L to approximately 500 microg/L. At this reduced concentration, the company's wastewater discharge was no longer found to cause the "canned corn" odor at the fence line of NEWPCP, thereby mitigating any further need for odor control. PMID:19443008

  17. An Odor Timer in Milk? Synchrony in the Odor of Milk Effluvium and Neonatal Chemosensation in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Al Aïn, Syrina; Belin, Laurine; Patris, Bruno; Schaal, Benoist

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian newborns exhibit avid responsiveness to odor compounds emanating from conspecific milk. Milk is however developmentally heterogeneous in composition as a function of both evolved constraints and offspring demand. The present study aimed to verify whether milk odor attractivity for neonates is equally distributed along lactation in Mus musculus (Balb-c strain). Therefore, we exposed pups varying in age to milk samples collected from females in different lactational stages. The pups were assayed at postnatal days 2 (P2), 6 (P6) and 15 (P15) in a series of paired-choice tests opposing either murine milk and a blank (water), or two samples of milk collected in different stages of lactation [lactation days 2 (L2), 6 (L6), and 15 L15)]. Pups of any age were able to detect, and were attracted to, the odor of the different milk. When milk from different lactational stages were simultaneously presented, P2 pups oriented for a similar duration to the odors of L2 and of L6 milk, but significantly less to the odor of L15 milk. Next, P6 pups roamed equivalently over L2 and L6 milk odors, but still less over the odor of L15 milk. Finally, P15 pups explored as much L15 milk odor as the odors of both L2 and L6 milk. This developmental shift in milk attractivity is discussed in terms of changing chemosensory properties of milk and of shifting chemosensory abilities/experience of pups. PMID:23133511

  18. Anomaly detection enhanced classification in computer intrusion detection

    SciTech Connect

    Fugate, M. L.; Gattiker, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes work with the goal of enhancing capabilities in computer intrusion detection. The work builds upon a study of classification performance, that compared various methods of classifying information derived from computer network packets into attack versus normal categories, based on a labeled training dataset. This previous work validates our classification methods, and clears the ground for studying whether and how anomaly detection can be used to enhance this performance, The DARPA project that initiated the dataset used here concluded that anomaly detection should be examined to boost the performance of machine learning in the computer intrusion detection task. This report investigates the data set for aspects that will be valuable for anomaly detection application, and supports these results with models constructed from the data. In this report, the term anomaly detection means learning a model from unlabeled data, and using this to make some inference about future data. Our data is a feature vector derived from network packets: an 'example' or 'sample'. On the other hand, classification means building a model from labeled data, and using that model to classify unlabeled (future) examples. There is some precedent in the literature for combining these methods. One approach is to stage the two techniques, using anomaly detection to segment data into two sets for classification. An interpretation of this is a method to combat nonstationarity in the data. In our previous work, we demonstrated that the data has substantial temporal nonstationarity. With classification methods that can be thought of as learning a decision surface between two statistical distributions, performance is expected to degrade significantly when classifying examples that are from regions not well represented in the training set. Anomaly detection can be seen as a problem of learning the density (landscape) or the support (boundary) of a statistical distribution so that

  19. High and low roads to odor valence? A choice response-time study.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Jonas K; Bowman, Nicholas E; Gottfried, Jay A

    2013-10-01

    Valence and edibility are two important features of olfactory perception, but it remains unclear how they are read out from an olfactory input. For a given odor object (e.g., the smell of rose or garlic), does perceptual identification of that object necessarily precede retrieval of information about its valence and edibility, or alternatively, are these processes independent? In the present study, we studied rapid, binary perceptual decisions regarding odor detection, object identity, valence, and edibility for a set of common odors. We found that decisions regarding odor-object identity were faster than decisions regarding odor valence or edibility, but slower than detection. Mediation analysis revealed that odor valence and edibility decision response times were predicted by a model in which odor-object identity served as a mediator along the perceptual pathway from detection to both valence and edibility. According to this model, odor valence is determined through both a "low road" that bypasses odor objects and a "high road" that utilizes odor-object information. Edibility evaluations are constrained to processing via the high road. The results outline a novel causal framework that explains how major perceptual features might be rapidly extracted from odors through engagement of odor objects early in the processing stream. PMID:23875569

  20. Enhanced endoscopic detection of early colon cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandar, Gowra; Trowers, Eugene A.

    1999-06-01

    Enhanced endoscopic detection of small flat adenomas is becoming increasingly important as they have a reported 14 percent incidence of dysplasia when compared with 5% incidence in polypod adenomas of the same size. These lesions even when invasive do not show up against the translucent surrounding mucosa making endoscopic detection difficult. Dye spraying with indigo carmine makes their morphology clear, with well-circumscribed borders. Dye spraying and magnifying endoscopes can be used to observe pit patterns on the surface of the bowel. Combining dye spraying and high-resolution video endoscopy demonstrates well the colorectal epithelial surface. Scanning immersion video endoscopy visualizes the epithelial surface of the colorectal mucosa by high-resolution endoscopy after filling the lumen with water. Endoscopic ultrasound can be used to see if the lesion is intramucosal or not and assess the depth of invasion if malignancy is presented. Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy has the potential to detect colonic dysplasia in vivo. Combining such technologies with conventional colonoscopy can help in the surveillance of large areas of colonic mucosa for the presence of dysplasia. Guided biopsy can replace random biopsy based on information provided at the time of colonoscopic examination.

  1. Enhancement of optical detectability with polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, Walter G.

    1999-07-01

    Low detectability is a major consideration for combat platforms. Exposed surfaces are painted or coated black to minimize optical or near infrared detectability; this is a fallacy in regard to polarization. The percent polarization of a diffuse (non specular) surface is inversely proportional to the surface reflectance (also known as albedo). Thus a dark surface with a reflectance of 2% can have a percent polarization of approximately 100%. (The percent polarization is the ratio of the difference between two orthogonal polarized measurements ratioed to the sum multiplied by 100). Experimental measurements of diffuse surfaces with albedos between 2% and 90% show this inverse relationship to be obeyed from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. Imagery has been obtained on various aircraft coatings that verify the inverse relationship between surface albedo and percent polarization in the green, red and near infrared wavelength bands. The imagery was obtained in the three bands with the Kodak digital cameras, which downloaded on to CD ROMs. Imagery has also been obtained on laboratory samples that verify the inverse relationship between albedo and polarization. The conclusion is that very high polarization of a dark aircraft enhances the detectability such that it is easily recognized optically using polarization. This effect has not been recognized in signature reduction. Imagery will be presented and the inverse relationship between surface albedo and percent polarization will be demonstrated.

  2. Selectivity of odorant receptors in insects

    PubMed Central

    Bohbot, Jonathan D.; Dickens, Joseph C.

    2012-01-01

    Insect olfactory receptors (ORs) detect chemicals, shape neuronal physiology, and regulate behavior. Although ORs have been categorized as “generalists” and “specialists” based on their ligand spectrum, both electrophysiological studies and recent pharmacological investigations show that ORs specifically recognize non-pheromonal compounds, and that our understanding of odorant-selectivity mirrors our knowledge of insect chemical ecology. As we are progressively becoming aware that ORs are activated through a variety of mechanisms, the molecular basis of odorant-selectivity and the corollary notion of broad-tuning need to be re-examined from a pharmacological and evolutionary perspective. PMID:22811659

  3. Detection of the Odor Signature of Ovarian Cancer using DNA-Decorated Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehayias, Christopher; Kybert, Nicholas; Yodh, Jeremy; Johnson, A. T. Charlie

    Carbon nanotubes are low-dimensional materials that exhibit remarkable chemical and bio-sensing properties and have excellent compatibility with electronic systems. Here, we present a study that uses an electronic olfaction system based on a large array of DNA-carbon nanotube field effect transistors vapor sensors to analyze the VOCs of blood plasma samples collected from patients with malignant ovarian cancer, patients with benign ovarian lesions, and age-matched healthy subjects. Initial investigations involved coating each CNT sensor with single-stranded DNA of a particular base sequence. 10 distinct DNA oligomers were used to functionalize the carbon nanotube field effect transistors, providing a 10-dimensional sensor array output response. Upon performing a statistical analysis of the 10-dimensional sensor array responses, we showed that blood samples from patients with malignant cancer can be reliably differentiated from those of healthy control subjects with a p-value of 3 x 10-5. The results provide preliminary evidence that the blood of ovarian cancer patients contains a discernable volatile chemical signature that can be detected using DNA-CNT nanoelectronic vapor sensors, a first step towards a minimally invasive electronic diagnostic technology for ovarian cancer.

  4. Suppression of Odorant Responses by Odorants in Olfactory Receptor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurahashi, Takashi; Lowe, Graeme; Gold, Geoffrey H.

    1994-07-01

    Odorants activate an inward current in vertebrate olfactory receptor cells. Here it is shown, in receptor cells from the newt, that odorants can also suppress this current, by a mechanism that is distinct from inhibition and adaptation. Suppression provides a simple explanation for two seemingly unrelated phenomena: the anomalously long latency of olfactory transduction and the existence of an "off response" at the end of a prolonged stimulus. Suppression may influence the perception of odorants by masking odorant responses and by sharpening the odorant specificities of single cells.

  5. Efficacy of using multiple open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometers in an odor emission episode investigation at a semiconductor manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Yung-Chieh; Wu, Chang-Fu; Chang, Pao-Erh; Chen, Shin-Yu; Hwang, Yaw-Huei

    2011-08-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of simultaneously employing three open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometers with 3-day consecutive monitoring, using an odor episode as an example. The corresponding monitoring paths were allocated among the possible emission sources of a semiconductor manufacturing plant and the surrounding optoelectronic and electronic-related factories, which were located in a high-tech industrial park. There was a combined total odor rate of 43.9% for the three monitoring paths, each comprised of 736 continuous 5-minute monitoring records and containing detectable odor compounds, such as ammonia, ozone, butyl acetate, and propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA). The results of the logistic regression model indicated that the prevailing south wind and the OP-FTIR monitoring path closest to the emission source in down-wind direction resulted in a high efficacy for detecting odorous samples with odds ratios (OR) of 3.8 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.9-5.0) and 5.1 (95% CI: 3.6-7.2), respectively. Meanwhile, the odds ratio for detecting ammonia odorous samples was 7.5 for Path II, which was downwind closer to the possible source, as compared to Path III, downwind far away from the possible source. PGMEA could not be monitored at Path II but could be at Path III, indicating the importance of the monitoring path and flow ejection velocities inside the stacks on the monitoring performance of OP-FTIR. Besides, an odds ratio of 5.1 for odorous sample detection was obtained with south prevailing wind comprising 65.0% of the monitoring time period. In general, it is concluded that OP-FTIR operated with multiple paths simultaneously shall be considered for investigation on relatively complicated episodes such as emergency of chemical release, multiple-source emission and chemical monitoring for odor in a densely populated plant area to enhance the efficacy of OP-FTIR monitoring. PMID:21621818

  6. A framework for identifying characteristic odor compounds in municipal wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Agus, Eva; Zhang, Lifeng; Sedlak, David L

    2012-11-15

    Municipal wastewater often contains trace amounts of organic compounds that can compromise aesthetics of drinking water and undermine public confidence if a small amount of effluent enters the raw water source of a potable water supply. To efficiently identify compounds responsible for odors in wastewater effluent, an analytical framework consisting of gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography with olfactometry detection (GC-Olf) coupled with flavor profile analysis (FPA) was used to identify and monitor compounds that could affect the aesthetics of drinking water. After prioritizing odor peaks detected in wastewater effluent by GC-Olf, the odorous components were tentatively identified using retention indices, mass spectra and odor descriptors. Wastewater effluent samples were typically dominated by earthy-musty odors with additional odors in the amine, sulfidic and fragrant categories. 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (246TCA), geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (2MIB) were the main sources of the earthy/musty odors in wastewater effluent. The other odors were attributable to a suite of compounds, which were detected in some but not all of the wastewater effluents at levels well in excess of their odor thresholds. In most cases, the identities of odorants were confirmed using authentic standards. The fate of these odorous compounds, including 2-pyrrolidone, methylnaphthalenes, vanillin and 5-hydroxyvanillin (5-OH-vanillin), should be considered in future studies of water systems that receive effluent from upstream sources. PMID:22981490

  7. Retronasal odor concentration coding in glomeruli of the rat olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Shree Hari; Short, Shaina M.; Verhagen, Justus V.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian olfactory system processes odorants presented orthonasally (inhalation through the nose) and also retronasally (exhalation), enabling identification of both external as well as internal objects during food consumption. There are distinct differences between ortho- and retronasal air flow patterns, psychophysics, multimodal integration, and glomerular responses. Recent work indicates that rats can also detect odors retronasally, that rats can associate retronasal odors with tastes, and that their olfactory bulbs (OBs) can respond to retronasal odorants but differently than to orthonasal odors. To further characterize retronasal OB input activity patterns, experiments here focus on determining the effects of odor concentration on glomerular activity by monitoring calcium activity in the dorsal OB of rats using a dextran-conjugated calcium-sensitive dye in vivo. Results showed reliable concentration-response curves that differed between odorants, and recruitment of additional glomeruli, as odor concentration increased. We found evidence of different concentration-response functions between glomeruli, that in turn depended on odor. Further, the relation between dynamics and concentration differed remarkably among retronasal odorants. These dynamics are suggested to reduce the odor map ambiguity based on response amplitude. Elucidating the coding of retronasal odor intensity is fundamental to the understanding of feeding behavior and the neural basis of flavor. These data further establish and refine the rodent model of flavor neuroscience. PMID:25386123

  8. Behavioral reactions to novel food odors by intertidal hermit crabs.

    PubMed

    Tran, Mark V

    2015-04-01

    Novel food items represent important food resources for generalist scavengers, such as intertidal hermit crabs. For animals that rely heavily on olfaction to mediate foraging, their first encounters with novel food items come from the detection of novel food odors. Although crustaceans have been shown to possess sensory mechanisms for processing novel odors, little is known about the level of stimulus reinforcement needed to maintain behavioral responses to novel food odors upon subsequent exposures. In the context of foraging, reinforcement of a novel food odor comes from feeding on the novel food item after sensory detection of the food item. This study tested the behavioral responses of hermit crabs to a novel food odor over repeated exposures both with and without stimulus reinforcement. The results show that stimulus reinforcement is needed for the animals to maintain their baseline level of behavioral responses to the novel food odors. Animals that were allowed to feed on the novel food item after first exposure (reinforced treatment) maintained strong behavioral reactions to the novel food odor during subsequent exposures. The behavioral reactions of animals that were not allowed to feed on the novel food item after first exposure (unreinforced treatment) rapidly declined. PMID:25562193

  9. Processing of odor stimuli by neuronal network models of the olfactory bulb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wick, Stuart; Wiechert, Martin; Riecke, Hermann; Friedrich, Rainer

    2007-03-01

    The space of perceptable odors is high-dimensional and its representation in the various brain structures is still poorly understood. We focus on the olfactory bulb, which constitutes the first processing stage for odor stimuli after they have been sensed by receptor neurons. Experimentally it is found that the correlations between the outputs of the bulb are significantly reduced relative to those of the corresponding inputs, thus enhancing the discriminability of similar odors. We have generated a firing-rate-based network model with parameters derived from experimental data that reproduces decorrelation. Here we use this model to investigate the dependence of stimulus representations on odor concentration. We address the possibility of a change in perceived odor identity with changing concentration and the dependence of odor discriminability on odor concentration. We interpret some of our results within a simple mean-field model for the neural activity.

  10. Health effects of indoor odorants.

    PubMed

    Cone, J E; Shusterman, D

    1991-11-01

    People assess the quality of the air indoors primarily on the basis of its odors and on their perception of associated health risk. The major current contributors to indoor odorants are human occupant odors (body odor), environmental tobacco smoke, volatile building materials, bio-odorants (particularly mold and animal-derived materials), air fresheners, deodorants, and perfumes. These are most often present as complex mixtures, making measurement of the total odorant problem difficult. There is no current method of measuring human body odor, other than by human panel studies of expert judges of air quality. Human body odors have been quantitated in terms of the "olf" which is the amount of air pollution produced by the average person. Another quantitative unit of odorants is the "decipol," which is the perceived level of pollution produced by the average human ventilated by 10 L/sec of unpolluted air or its equivalent level of dissatisfaction from nonhuman air pollutants. The standard regulatory approach, focusing on individual constituents or chemicals, is not likely to be successful in adequately controlling odorants in indoor air. Besides the current approach of setting minimum ventilation standards to prevent health effects due to indoor air pollution, a standard based on the olf or decipol unit might be more efficacious as well as simpler to measure. PMID:1821378

  11. Health effects of indoor odorants.

    PubMed Central

    Cone, J E; Shusterman, D

    1991-01-01

    People assess the quality of the air indoors primarily on the basis of its odors and on their perception of associated health risk. The major current contributors to indoor odorants are human occupant odors (body odor), environmental tobacco smoke, volatile building materials, bio-odorants (particularly mold and animal-derived materials), air fresheners, deodorants, and perfumes. These are most often present as complex mixtures, making measurement of the total odorant problem difficult. There is no current method of measuring human body odor, other than by human panel studies of expert judges of air quality. Human body odors have been quantitated in terms of the "olf" which is the amount of air pollution produced by the average person. Another quantitative unit of odorants is the "decipol," which is the perceived level of pollution produced by the average human ventilated by 10 L/sec of unpolluted air or its equivalent level of dissatisfaction from nonhuman air pollutants. The standard regulatory approach, focusing on individual constituents or chemicals, is not likely to be successful in adequately controlling odorants in indoor air. Besides the current approach of setting minimum ventilation standards to prevent health effects due to indoor air pollution, a standard based on the olf or decipol unit might be more efficacious as well as simpler to measure. PMID:1821378

  12. Odor coding in a disease-transmitting herbivorous insect, the Asian citrus psyllid.

    PubMed

    Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; McInally, Shane; Forster, Lisa; Luck, Robert; Ray, Anandasankar

    2014-07-01

    Olfactory systems discriminate odorants very efficiently and herbivorous insects use them to find hosts in confounding and complex odor landscapes. The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, feeds on citrus flush and transmits Candidatus Liberibacter that causes citrus greening disease globally. Here, we perform a systematic analysis of odor detection in the ACP antenna using single-unit electrophysiology of rhinarial plate sensilla to a large panel of odorants from plants. We identify neurons that respond strongly to odorants found in the host citrus plants. Comparisons with the generalist yeast-feeding Drosophila melanogaster and specialist anthropophilic Anopheles gambiae reveal differences in odor-coding strategies for the citrus-seeking ACP. These findings provide a foundation for understanding host-odor coding in herbivorous insects. PMID:24904081

  13. Effects of Visual Priming on Taste-Odor Interaction

    PubMed Central

    van Beilen, Marije; Bult, Harold; Renken, Remco; Stieger, Markus; Thumfart, Stefan; Cornelissen, Frans; Kooijman, Valesca

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of visual characteristics other than colour on flavor perception, and the complex interactions between more than two sensory modalities. This study focused on the effects of recognizability of visual (texture) information on flavor perception of odorized sweet beverages. Participants rated the perceived sweetness of odorized sucrose solutions in the presence or absence of either a congruent or incongruent visual context. Odors were qualitatively reminiscent of sweet foods (strawberry and caramel) or not (savoury). Visual context was either an image of the same sweet foods (figurative context) or a visual texture derived from this product (non-figurative context). Textures were created using a texture synthesis method that preserved perceived food qualities while removing object information. Odor-taste combinations were rated sweeter within a figurative than a non-figurative context. This behaviour was exhibited for all odor-taste combinations, even in trials without images, indicating sustained priming by figurative visual context. A non-figurative context showed a transient sweetening effect. Sweetness was generally enhanced most by the strawberry odor. We conclude that the degree of recognizability of visual information (figurative versus non-figurative), influences flavor perception differently. Our results suggest that this visual context priming is mediated by separate sustained and transient processes that are differently evoked by figurative and non-figurative visual contexts. These components operate independent of the congruency of the image-odor-taste combinations. PMID:21969852

  14. Habituation of glomerular responses in the olfactory bulb following prolonged odor stimulation reflects reduced peripheral input

    PubMed Central

    Ogg, M. Cameron; Bendahamane, Mounir; Fletcher, Max L.

    2015-01-01

    Following prolonged odor stimulation, output from olfactory bulb (OB) mitral/tufted (M/T) cells is decreased in response to subsequent olfactory stimulation. Currently, it is unclear if this decrease is a function of adaptation of peripheral olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) responses or reflects depression of bulb circuits. We used wide-field calcium imaging in anesthetized transgenic GCaMP2 mice to compare excitatory glomerular layer odor responses before and after a 30-s odor stimulation. Significant habituation of subsequent glomerular odor responses to both the same and structurally similar odorants was detected with our protocol. To test whether depression of OSN terminals contributed to this habituation, olfactory nerve layer (ON) stimulation was used to drive glomerular layer responses in the absence of peripheral odor activation of the OSNs. Following odor habituation, in contrast to odor-evoked glomerular responses, ON stimulation-evoked glomerular responses were not habituated. The difference in response between odor and electrical stimulation following odor habituation provides evidence that odor response reductions measured in the glomerular layer of the OB are most likely the result of OSN adaptation processes taking place in the periphery. PMID:26441516

  15. Identification of candidate odorant receptors in Asian corn borer Ostrinia furnacalis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Ozaki, Katsuhisa; Ishikawa, Yukio; Matsuo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    In lepidopteran insects, odorant receptors are involved in the perception of sex pheromones and general odorants. In the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, although several pheromone receptors have been identified, no general odorant receptor has been reported. In this study, an RNA sequencing analysis was carried out to identify the whole repertoire of the odorant receptors expressed in the antennae of O. furnacalis. Among 12 million reads obtained from the antennae of male and female moths, 52 candidate odorant receptors were identified, including 45 novel ones. Expression levels of candidate odorant receptors were estimated by read mapping and quantitative reverse transcription PCR. These analyses confirmed that the expression of the previously identified pheromone receptors was highly male biased. In contrast, none of the newly identified odorant receptors showed male-biased expression. Three of the newly identified odorant receptors showed female-biased expression. Two of them were the most highly expressed odorant receptors in the female antennae, suggesting that they may be involved in the detection of odorants important for the induction of female-specific behaviors such as oviposition site selection. In addition, candidate genes of 21 ionotropic receptors, 5 gustatory receptors, 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins, and 26 odorant degrading enzymes were identified. Our results provide a basis for further analysis of the chemosensory system in the Ostrinia species. PMID:25803580

  16. Odorant-sensitive phospholipase C in insect antennae.

    PubMed

    Boekhoff, I; Strotmann, J; Raming, K; Tareilus, E; Breer, H

    1990-01-01

    Exogenous tritiated phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate added to antennal preparations from locust and cockroach was hydrolysed releasing inositol trisphosphate. High activity of phospholipase C was detected in the soluble as well as in the membrane fraction. At low free calcium concentrations hydrolysis of the labelled lipid was stimulated by odorants and pheromones in a GTP-dependent manner. Consequently the level of inositol trisphosphate in antennal preparations increased upon odorant stimulation. PMID:2176800

  17. Odor identification: perceptual and semantic dimensions.

    PubMed

    Cain, W S; de Wijk, R; Lulejian, C; Schiet, F; See, L C

    1998-06-01

    Five studies explored identification of odors as an aspect of semantic memory. All dealt in one way or another with the accessibility of acquired olfactory information. The first study examined stability and showed that, consistent with personal reports, people can fail to identify an odor one day yet succeed another. Failure turned more commonly to success than vice versa, and once success occurred it tended to recur. Confidence ratings implied that subjects generally knew the quality of their answers. Even incorrect names, though, often carried considerable information which sometimes reflected a semantic and sometimes a perceptual source of errors. The second study showed that profiling odors via the American Society of Testing and Materials list of attributes, an exercise in depth of processing, effected no increment in the identifiability/accessibility beyond an unelaborated second attempt at retrieval. The third study showed that subjects had only a weak ability to predict the relative recognizability of odors they had failed to identify. Whereas the strength of the feeling that they would 'know' an answer if offered choices did not associate significantly with performance for odors, it did for trivia questions. The fourth study demonstrated an association between ability to discriminate among one set of odors and to identify another, but this emerged only after subjects had received feedback about identity, which essentially changed the task to one of recognition and effectively stabilized access. The fifth study illustrated that feedback improves performance dramatically only for odors involved with it, but that mere retrieval leads to some improvement. The studies suggest a research agenda that could include supplemental use of confidence judgments both retrospectively and prospectively in the same subjects to indicate the amount of accessible semantic information; use of second and third guesses to examine subjects' simultaneously held hypotheses about

  18. Droplet Enhanced Fluorescence for Ultrasensitive Detection Using Inkjet.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hulie; Katagiri, Daisuke; Ogino, Taisuke; Nakajima, Hizuru; Kato, Shungo; Uchiyama, Katsumi

    2016-06-21

    A fluorescence enhanced phenomenon was found within a micrometer-sized liquid droplet, and it was adopted to construct droplet enhanced fluorescence (DEF) for ultrasensitive fluorescence detection. In this paper, an inkjet was utilized to eject perfect spherical droplets to construct a microspherical resonator and to develop a DEF system. It was utilized to implement ultrasensitive fluorescence detection in a liquid specimen with a volume of several microliters. The DEF detection of fluorescent molecules, fluorescein sodium, was used as a model to validate the proposed enhanced fluorescence detection method. A low limit of detection (LOD) for fluorescein sodium of 124 pM was obtained. The sensitive detection of single stranded DNA (ssDNA) was experimentally completed, with a wide range of linearity with a LOD of 312 pM. The proposed mechanism can be used as an ultrasensitive detection technique for analyzing microliters of liquid samples. PMID:27282958

  19. Visualizing mushroom body response to a conditioned odor in honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Till; Menzel, Randolf

    2001-11-01

    Combining differential conditioning with optophysiological recordings of bee brain activity allows the investigation of learning-related changes in complex neural systems. In this study we focused on the mushroom bodies of the bee brain. Presenting different odors to the animal leads to significant activation of the mushroom body lips. After differential conditioning, the rewarded odor leads to stronger activation than it did before training. Activation by the unrewarded odor remains unchanged. These results resemble findings in the bee's antennal lobes, which are the first olfactory relay station in the insect brain. As an integrative neural network, enhanced activation of the mushroom body lip may carry additional information, i.e., for processing odor concentrations.

  20. Distant Odors: Identifying Key Odors Associated With Cattle Feedlots Downwind

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Research Council identified odors as the most significant animal emission at the local level and has highlighted the need for the development of standardized protocols for sampling and analysis of odors. To date, however, little progress has been made on identifying sampling and analys...

  1. Swine odor analyzed by odor panels and chemical techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Research Council identified odors as a significant animal emission at the local level, and highlighted the need for the development of standardized protocols for sampling and analysis. In this study, odorous air from swine manure was analyzed by both human panels and with analytical tec...

  2. Infrared-enhanced TV for fire detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Closed-circuit television is superior to conventional smoke or heat sensors for detecting fires in large open spaces. Single TV camera scans entire area, whereas many conventional sensors and maze of interconnecting wiring might be required to get same coverage. Camera is monitored by person who would trip alarm if fire were detected, or electronic circuitry could process camera signal for fully-automatic alarm system.

  3. Relationship between odor perception and depression in the Japanese elderly.

    PubMed

    Satoh, S; Morita, N; Matsuzaki, I; Konishi, T; Nakano, T; Minoshita, S; Arizono, H; Saito, S; Ayabe, A S

    1996-10-01

    Odor perception has been studied in patients with various mental disorders; however, no consensus has been reached as to its detection, identification, or pleasantness/unpleasantness of odors especially in patients with depression. One hundred and nineteen normal elderly individuals living at home were exposed to odors of rose, perfume, white ginger, Indian ink, cigarette smoke, milk, feces and orange scent using the scratch and sniff method. They were asked to rate the strength of each odor, its pleasantness or unpleasantness, their liking for it, and their familiarity with it. They were also asked to complete a self-rating depression scale (SDS). The relationship of the score of each psychological olfactory scale with the SDS score and the difference in the score of each psychological scale between high-SDS and low-SDS groups are discussed. PMID:9201790

  4. Olfactory aversive conditioning alters olfactory bulb mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor responses

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Max L.

    2012-01-01

    The anatomical organization of receptor neuron input into the olfactory bulb (OB) allows odor information to be transformed into an odorant-specific spatial map of mitral/tufted (M/T) cell glomerular activity at the upper level of the OB. In other sensory systems, neuronal representations of stimuli can be reorganized or enhanced following learning. While the mammalian OB has been shown to undergo experience-dependent plasticity at the glomerular level, it is still unclear if similar representational change occurs within (M/T) cell glomerular odor representations following learning. To address this, odorant-evoked glomerular activity patterns were imaged in mice expressing a GFP-based calcium indicator (GCaMP2) in OB (M/T) cells. Glomerular odor responses were imaged before and after olfactory associative conditioning to aversive foot shock. Following conditioning, we found no overall reorganization of the glomerular representation. Training, however, did significantly alter the amplitudes of individual glomeruli within the representation in mice in which the odor was presented together with foot shock. Further, the specific pairing of foot shock with odor presentations lead to increased responses primarily in initially weakly activated glomeruli. Overall, these results suggest that associative conditioning can enhance the initial representation of odors within the OB by enhancing responses to the learned odor in some glomeruli. PMID:22461771

  5. Odorants for Surveillance and Control of the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri)

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V.; Forster, Lisa; Guda, Tom; Ray, Anandasankar

    2014-01-01

    Background The Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, can transmit the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter while feeding on citrus flush shoots. This bacterium causes Huanglongbing (HLB), a major disease of citrus cultivation worldwide necessitating the development of new tools for ACP surveillance and control. The olfactory system of ACP is sensitive to variety of odorants released by citrus plants and offers an opportunity to develop new attractants and repellents. Results In this study, we performed single-unit electrophysiology to identify odorants that are strong activators, inhibitors, and prolonged activators of ACP odorant receptor neurons (ORNs). We identified a suite of odorants that activated the ORNs with high specificity and sensitivity, which may be useful in eliciting behavior such as attraction. In separate experiments, we also identified odorants that evoked prolonged ORN responses and antagonistic odorants able to suppress neuronal responses to activators, both of which can be useful in lowering attraction to hosts. In field trials, we tested the electrophysiologically identified activating odorants and identified a 3-odor blend that enhances trap catches by ∼230%. Conclusion These findings provide a set of odorants that can be used to develop affordable and safe odor-based surveillance and masking strategies for this dangerous pest insect. PMID:25347318

  6. Structure-odor relationships of linalool, linalyl acetate and their corresponding oxygenated derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsharif, Shaimaa; Banerjee, Ashutosh; Buettner, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Linalool 1 is an odorant that is commonly perceived as having a pleasant odor, but is also known to elicit physiological effects such as inducing calmness and enhancing sleep. However, no comprehensive studies are at hand to show which structural features are responsible for these prominent effects. Therefore, a total of six oxygenated derivatives were synthesized from both 1 and linalyl acetate 2, and were tested for their odor qualities and relative odor thresholds (OTs) in air. Linalool was found to be the most potent odorant among the investigated compounds, with an average OT of 3.2 ng/L, while the 8-hydroxylinalool derivative was the least odorous compound with an OT of 160 ng/L; 8-carboxylinalool was found to be odorless. The odorant 8-oxolinalyl acetate, which has very similar odor properties to linalool, was the most potent odorant besides linalool, exhibiting an OT of 5.9 ng/L. By comparison, 8-carboxylinalyl acetate had a similar OT (6.1 ng/L) as its corresponding 8-oxo derivative but exhibited divergent odor properties (fatty, greasy, musty). Overall, oxygenation on carbon 8 had a substantial effect on the aroma profiles of structural derivatives of linalool and linalyl acetate.

  7. Structure-odor relationships of linalool, linalyl acetate and their corresponding oxygenated derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Elsharif, Shaimaa A.; Banerjee, Ashutosh; Buettner, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Linalool 1 is an odorant that is commonly perceived as having a pleasant odor, but is also known to elicit physiological effects such as inducing calmness and enhancing sleep. However, no comprehensive studies are at hand to show which structural features are responsible for these prominent effects. Therefore, a total of six oxygenated derivatives were synthesized from both 1 and linalyl acetate 2, and were tested for their odor qualities and relative odor thresholds (OTs) in air. Linalool was found to be the most potent odorant among the investigated compounds, with an average OT of 3.2 ng/L, while the 8-hydroxylinalool derivative was the least odorous compound with an OT of 160 ng/L; 8-carboxylinalool was found to be odorless. The odorant 8-oxolinalyl acetate, which has very similar odor properties to linalool, was the most potent odorant besides linalool, exhibiting an OT of 5.9 ng/L. By comparison, 8-carboxylinalyl acetate had a similar OT (6.1 ng/L) as its corresponding 8-oxo derivative but exhibited divergent odor properties (fatty, greasy, musty). Overall, oxygenation on carbon 8 had a substantial effect on the aroma profiles of structural derivatives of linalool and linalyl acetate. PMID:26501053

  8. Toward an Objective Enhanced-V Detection Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunner, Jason; Feltz, Wayne; Moses, John; Rabin, Robert; Ackerman, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The area of coldest cloud tops above thunderstorms sometimes has a distinct V or U shape. This pattern, often referred to as an "enhanced-V' signature, has been observed to occur during and preceding severe weather in previous studies. This study describes an algorithmic approach to objectively detect enhanced-V features with observations from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite and Low Earth Orbit data. The methodology consists of cross correlation statistics of pixels and thresholds of enhanced-V quantitative parameters. The effectiveness of the enhanced-V detection method will be examined using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer image data from case studies in the 2003-2006 seasons. The main goal of this study is to develop an objective enhanced-V detection algorithm for future implementation into operations with future sensors, such as GOES-R.

  9. Odor analysis of decomposing buried human remains

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, Arpad Alexander; Smith, Rob R; Thompson, Cyril V; Burnett, Michael N; Dulgerian, Nishan; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2008-01-01

    This study, conducted at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility (ARF), lists and ranks the primary chemical constituents which define the odor of decomposition of human remains as detected at the soil surface of shallow burial sites. Triple sorbent traps were used to collect air samples in the field and revealed eight major classes of chemicals which now contain 478 specific volatile compounds associated with burial decomposition. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and were collected below and above the body, and at the soil surface of 1.5-3.5 ft. (0.46-1.07 m) deep burial sites of four individuals over a 4-year time span. New data were incorporated into the previously established Decompositional Odor Analysis (DOA) Database providing identification, chemical trends, and semi-quantitation of chemicals for evaluation. This research identifies the 'odor signatures' unique to the decomposition of buried human remains with projected ramifications on human remains detection canine training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

  10. Idaho Explosives Detection System: Development and Enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Edward L Reber; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; Ann E. Egger; Paul J. Petersen

    2007-12-01

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System (IEDS) was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks carrying bulk explosives into military bases. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of sodium iodide (NaI) detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A computer connects to the system by Ethernet and is able to control the system remotely. The system was developed to detect bulk explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-minute measurement time. In 2004, a full-scale prototype IEDS system was built for testing and continued development. System performance was successfully tested using different types of real explosives with a variety of cargo at the INL from November 2005 through February 2006. Recently, the first deployable prototype system was constructed and shipped to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio and will be in operation by March 2007. The capability of passively detecting radiological material within a delivery truck has also been added.

  11. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: Part 2. Odor emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was an add-on project to the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) and focused on comprehensive measurement of odor emissions considering variations in seasons, animal types and olfactometry laboratories. Odor emissions from four of 14 NEAMS sites with nine barns/rooms (two dair...

  12. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: Part 6.Odor activity value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a growing concern with air and odor emissions from agricultural facilities. A supplementary research project was conducted to complement the U.S. National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS). The overall goal of the project was to establish odor and chemical emission factors for animal...

  13. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: Part 2 - odor emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was an add-on project to the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) and focused on comprehensive measurement of odor emissions. Odor emissions from two animal species (dairy and swine) from four sites with nine barns/rooms (two dairy barns in Wisconsin, two dairy barns and two sw...

  14. Relationship between molecular structure, concentration and odor qualities of oxygenated aliphatic molecules.

    PubMed

    Laing, D G; Legha, P K; Jinks, A L; Hutchinson, I

    2003-01-01

    Increasing the concentration of an odorant increases the number of receptor cells and glomeruli in the olfactory bulb that are stimulated, and it is commonly acknowledged that these represent increased numbers of receptor types. Currently, it is not known whether a receptor type is associated with a unique quality and a unique molecular feature of an odorant, or its activation is used by the brain in a combinatorial manner with other activated receptor types to produce a characteristic quality. The present study investigated the proposal that a molecular feature common to several aliphatic odorants and known to be the key feature required to stimulate the same mitral cells in the olfactory bulb results in a quality that is common to the odorants. Since the common structural feature may activate a specific receptor type possibly at a similar concentration, the qualities of the odorants were determined at seven concentrations where the lowest and highest concentrations were the detection threshold (DT) and 729DT of each subject. A list of 146 descriptors was used by 15 subjects to describe the qualities of each odorant at each concentration. The results indicate that each of the five odorants was characterized by different qualities and the qualities of four of the odorants changed with changes in concentration. Importantly, no quality common to each of the odorants that had the same molecular feature could be identified and it is proposed that identification of the odorants occurs via a combinatorial mechanism involving several types of receptors. PMID:12502524

  15. Serial position effects in recognition memory for odors.

    PubMed

    Reed, P

    2000-03-01

    Five experiments examined recognition memory for sequentially presented odors. Participants were presented with a sequence of odors and then had to identify an odor from the list in a test probe containing 2 odors. All experiments demonstrated enhanced recognition of odors presented at the start and end of a series, compared with those presented in the middle of the series when a 3-s retention interval between list termination and test was used. In Experiments 2 and 3, when a 30-s or 60-s retention interval was used, participants performed at slightly lower levels, although the serial position function was similar to that obtained with the 3-s retention interval. These results were noted with a 5-item (Experiments 1 and 4), 7-item (Experiment 2), 6-item (Experiment 3), and 4-item (Experiment 5) list of odors. As the number of test trials increased, recognition performance decreased, indicating a strong role for olfactory fatigue or interference in these procedures. A verbal suppression task, used in Experiments 4 and 5, had little influence on serial-position-based performance. PMID:10764103

  16. Odor and pheromone sensing via chemoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Ma, Minghong

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionally, chemosensation is an ancient but yet enigmatic sense. All organisms ranging from the simplest unicellular form to the most advanced multicellular creature possess the capability to detect chemicals in the surroundings. Conversely, all living things emit some forms of smells, either as communicating signals or as by-products of metabolism. Many species (from worms, insects to mammals) rely on the olfactory systems which express a large number of chemoreceptors to locate food and mates and to avoid danger. Most chemoreceptors expressed in olfactory organs are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and can be classified into two major categories: odorant receptors (ORs) and pheromone receptors, which principally detect general odors and pheromones, respectively. In vertebrates, these two types of receptors are often expressed in two distinct apparatuses: The main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO), respectively. Each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) in the MOE typically expresses one type of OR from a large repertoire. General odors activate ORs and their host OSNs (ranging from narrowly- to broadly-tuned) in a combinatorial manner and the information is sent to the brain via the main olfactory system leading to perception of smells. In contrast, pheromones stimulate relatively narrowly-tuned receptors and their host VNO neurons and the information is sent to the brain via the accessory olfactory system leading to behavioral and endocrinological changes. Recent studies indicate that the functional separation between these two systems is blurred in some cases and there are more subsystems serving chemosensory roles. This chapter focuses on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying odor and pheromone sensing in rodents, the best characterized vertebrate models. PMID:22399397

  17. Enhancing implicit change detection through action.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Philip; Tuennermann, Jan; Roker-Knight, Nancy; Winter, Dorina; Scharlau, Ingrid; Bridgeman, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Implicit change detection demonstrates how the visual system can benefit from stored information that is not immediately available to conscious awareness. We investigated the role of motor action in this context. In the first two experiments, using a one-shot implicit change-detection paradigm, participants responded to unperceived changes either with an action (jabbing the screen at the guessed location of a change) or with words (verbal report), and sat either 60 cm or 300 cm (with a laser pointer) away from the display. Our observers guessed the locations of changes at a reachable distance better with an action than with a verbal judgment. At 300 cm, beyond reach, the motor advantage disappeared. In experiment 3, this advantage was also unavailable when participants sat at a reachable distance but responded with hand-held laser pointers near their bodies. We conclude that a motor system specialized for real-time visually guided behavior has access to additional visual information. Importantly, this system is not activated by merely executing an action (experiment 2) or presenting stimuli in one's near space (experiment 3). It is activated only when both conditions are fulfilled, which implies that it is the actual contact that matters to the visual system. PMID:21180353

  18. Acoustic emission beamforming for enhanced damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaskey, Gregory C.; Glaser, Steven D.; Grosse, Christian U.

    2008-03-01

    As civil infrastructure ages, the early detection of damage in a structure becomes increasingly important for both life safety and economic reasons. This paper describes the analysis procedures used for beamforming acoustic emission techniques as well as the promising results of preliminary experimental tests on a concrete bridge deck. The method of acoustic emission offers a tool for detecting damage, such as cracking, as it occurs on or in a structure. In order to gain meaningful information from acoustic emission analyses, the damage must be localized. Current acoustic emission systems with localization capabilities are very costly and difficult to install. Sensors must be placed throughout the structure to ensure that the damage is encompassed by the array. Beamforming offers a promising solution to these problems and permits the use of wireless sensor networks for acoustic emission analyses. Using the beamforming technique, the azmuthal direction of the location of the damage may be estimated by the stress waves impinging upon a small diameter array (e.g. 30mm) of acoustic emission sensors. Additional signal discrimination may be gained via array processing techniques such as the VESPA process. The beamforming approach requires no arrival time information and is based on very simple delay and sum beamforming algorithms which can be easily implemented on a wireless sensor or mote.

  19. Readily implemented enhanced sinusoid detection in noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, K. V.

    1992-03-01

    Significant efforts have been devoted, spanning many years, to the problem of sinusoid detection in noise. Many of these efforts have produced superb, yet complex, algorithms which may be difficult to use for a wide segment of the Digital Signal Processing (DSP) community. This paper presents a simple, easily implemented and highly effective method which solves this problem. This method severely degrades non-sinusoidal noise while leaving the embedded sinusoid(s) relatively undisturbed. The algorithm, simply put, exploits the difference between the net effect of integration and differentiation of sinusoids versus the effect of these operations on random noise and other signal sequences. The cross-correlation of sine wave with its differentiated (and/or integrated) self is quite high. Conversely, the cross-reduction of a noise sequence with its differentiated (and/or integrated) self is much lower. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that for sequences consisting of a sinusoid in noise, significant signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs) in the correlation results are achievable using a combination of differentiation (and/or integration) and cross-correlation operations on such sequences. This technique has been applied to actual Doppler radar data, as well as to synthesized data, with excellent improvement in signal detection capability.

  20. Readily implemented enhanced sinusoid detection in noise

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, K.V.

    1992-03-05

    Significant efforts have been devoted, spanning many years, to the problem of sinusoid detection in noise. Many of these efforts have produced superb, yet complex, algorithms which may be difficult to use for a wide segment of the Digital Signal Processing (DSP) community. This paper presents a simple, easily implemented and high effective method which solves this problem. This method severely degrades non-sinusoidal noise while leaving the embedded sinusoid(s) relatively undisturbed. The algorithm, simply put, exploits the difference between the net effect of integration and differentiation of sinusoids versus the effect of these operations on random noise and other signal sequences. The cross-correlation of sine wave with its differentiated (and/or integrated) self is quite high. Conversely, the cross-reduction of a noise sequence with its differentiated (and/or integrated) self is much lower. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that for sequences consisting of a sinusoid in noise, significant signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs) in the correlation results are achievable using a combination of differentiation (and/or integration) and cross-correlation operations on such sequences. This technique has been applied to actual Doppler radar data, as well as to synthesized data, with excellent improvement in signal detection capability. 4 refs.

  1. Field Air Sampling and Simultaneous Chemical and Sensory Analysis of Livestock Odorants with Sorbent Tube GC-MS/Olfactometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shicheng; Cai, Lingshuang; Koziel, Jacek A.; Hoff, Steven; Clanton, Charles; Schmidt, David; Jacobson, Larry; Parker, David; Heber, Albert

    2009-05-01

    Characterization and quantification of livestock odorants is one of the most challenging analytical tasks because odor-causing gases are very reactive, polar and often present at very low concentrations in a complex matrix of less important or irrelevant gases. The objective of this research was to develop a novel analytical method for characterization of the livestock odorants including their odor character, odor intensity, and hedonic tone and to apply this method for quantitative analysis of the key odorants responsible for livestock odor. Sorbent tubes packed with Tenax TA were used for field sampling. The automated one-step thermal desorption module coupled with multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry system was used for simultaneous chemical and odor analysis. Fifteen odorous VOCs and semi-VOCs identified from different livestock species operations were quantified. Method detection limits ranges from 40 pg for skatole to 3590 pg for acetic acid. In addition, odor character, odor intensity and hedonic tone associated with each of the target odorants are also analyzed simultaneously. We found that the mass of each VOCs in the sample correlates well with the log stimulus intensity. All of the correlation coefficients (R2) are greater than 0.74, and the top 10 correlation coefficients were greater than 0.90.

  2. Coding Odorant Concentration Through Activation Timing Between the Medial and Lateral Olfactory Bulb

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhishang; Belluscio, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY In mammals, each olfactory bulb (OB) contains a pair of mirror-symmetric glomerular maps organized to reflect odorant receptor identity. The functional implication of maintaining these symmetric medial-lateral maps within each OB remains unclear. Here, using in vivo multi-electrode recordings to simultaneously detect odorant-induced activity across the entire OB, we reveal a timing difference in the odorant-evoked onset latencies between the medial and lateral halves. Interestingly, the latencies in the medial and lateral OB decreased at different rates as odorant concentration increased, causing the timing difference between them to also diminish. As a result, output neurons in the medial and lateral OB fired with greater synchrony at higher odorant concentrations. Thus, we propose that temporal differences in activity between the medial and lateral OB can dynamically code odorant concentration, which is subsequently decoded in the olfactory cortex through the integration of synchronous action potentials. PMID:23168258

  3. Odor-cued taste avoidance: a simple and robust test of mouse olfaction.

    PubMed

    Slotnick, Burton; Coppola, David M

    2015-05-01

    In odor-cued taste avoidance (OCTA), thirsty mice, offered either an odorized nonaversive fluid (S+) or an odorized aversive fluid (S-), quickly learn to use odor to avoid drinking the S-. Acquisition of both odor detection and odor discrimination tasks is very rapid with learning evidenced in most cases by either long response times or total avoidance on the second presentation of the S- stimulus. OCTA is perhaps one of the simplest conditioning procedures for assessing olfaction in mice; it requires only a test box, drinkometer circuit, and thirsty mice accustomed to drinking in the apparatus. Its advantages over the most commonly used alternatives, habituation-dishabituation, and the mouse dig test, are discussed. PMID:25787943

  4. A comparison of methods for the assessment of odor impacts on air quality: Field inspection (VDI 3940) and the air dispersion model CALPUFF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranzato, Laura; Barausse, Alberto; Mantovani, Alice; Pittarello, Alberto; Benzo, Maurizio; Palmeri, Luca

    2012-12-01

    Unpleasant odors are a major cause of public complaints concerning air quality and represent a growing social problem in industrialized countries. However, the assessment of odor pollution is still regarded as a difficult task, because olfactory nuisance can be caused by many different chemical compounds, often found in hard-to-detect concentrations, and the perception of odors is influenced by subjective thresholds; moreover, the impact of odor sources on air quality is mediated by complex atmospheric dispersion processes. The development of standardized assessment approaches to odor pollution and proper international regulatory tools are urgently needed. In particular, comparisons of the methodologies commonly used nowadays to assess odor impacts on air quality are required. Here, we assess the olfactory nuisance caused by an anaerobic treatment plant for municipal solid waste by means of two alternative techniques: the field inspection procedure and the atmospheric dispersion model CALPUFF. Our goal was to compare rigorously their estimates of odor nuisance, both qualitatively (spatial extent of odor impact) and quantitatively (intensity of odor nuisance). To define the impact of odors, we referred to the German standards, based on the frequency of odor episodes in terms of odor hours. We report a satisfying, although not perfect agreement between the estimates provided by the two techniques. For example, they assessed similar spatial extents of odor pollution, but different frequencies of odor episodes in locations where the odor nuisance was highest. The comparison highlights strengths and weaknesses for both approaches. CALPUFF is a cheaper methodology which can be used predictively, but fugitive emissions are difficult to model reliably, because of uncertainty regarding timing, location and emission rate. Field inspection takes into account the role of human perception, but unlike the model it does not always characterize precisely the extent of the odor

  5. Sonoclot(®)-based method to detect iron enhanced coagulation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vance G; Henderson, Jon

    2016-07-01

    Thrombelastographic methods have been recently introduced to detect iron mediated hypercoagulability in settings such as sickle cell disease, hemodialysis, mechanical circulatory support, and neuroinflammation. However, these inflammatory situations may have heme oxygenase-derived, coexistent carbon monoxide present, which also enhances coagulation as assessed by the same thrombelastographic variables that are affected by iron. This brief report presents a novel, Sonoclot-based method to detect iron enhanced coagulation that is independent of carbon monoxide influence. Future investigation will be required to assess the sensitivity of this new method to detect iron mediated hypercoagulability in clinical settings compared to results obtained with thrombelastographic techniques. PMID:26497986

  6. Enhanced Landmine Detection from Low Resolution IR Image Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tiesheng; Gu, Irene Yu-Hua; Tjahjadi, Tardi

    We deal with the problem of landmine field detection using low-resolution infrared (IR) image sequences measured from airborne or vehicle-borne passive IR cameras. The proposed scheme contains two parts: a) employ a multi-scale detector, i.e., a special type of isotropic bandpass filters, to detect landmine candidates in each frame; b) enhance landmine detection through seeking maximum consensus of corresponding landmine candidates over image frames. Experiments were conducted on several IR image sequences measured from airborne and vehicle-borne cameras, where some results are included. As shown in our experiments, the landmine signatures have been significantly enhanced using the proposed scheme, and automatic detection results are reasonably good. These methods can therefore be applied to assisting humanitarian demining work for landmine field detection.

  7. Photonic Crystal Enhanced Fluorescence for Early Breast Cancer Biomarker Detection

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Brian T.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Photonic crystal surfaces offer a compelling platform for improving the sensitivity of surface-based fluorescent assays used in disease diagnostics. Through the complementary processes of photonic crystal enhanced excitation and enhanced extraction, a periodic dielectric-based nanostructured surface can simultaneously increase the electric field intensity experienced by surface-bound fluorophores and increase the collection efficiency of emitted fluorescent photons. Through the ability to inexpensively fabricate photonic crystal surfaces over substantial surface areas, they are amenable to single-use applications in biological sensing, such as disease biomarker detection in serum. In this review, we will describe the motivation for implementing high-sensitivity, multiplexed biomarker detection in the context of breast cancer diagnosis. We will summarize recent efforts to improve the detection limits of such assays though the use of photonic crystal surfaces. Reduction of detection limits is driven by low autofluorescent substrates for photonic crystal fabrication, and detection instruments that take advantage of their unique features. PMID:22736539

  8. Neonatal Responsiveness to the Odor of Amniotic and Lacteal Fluids: A Test of Perinatal Chemosensory Continuity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlier, Luc; Schaal, Benoist; Soussignan, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Studied head-orientation response of breast-feeding neonates in paired-choice odor tests. Found that 2-day olds detected amniotic fluid and colostrum, treating them as similar sensorily and/or hedonically. Four-day olds exhibited a preference for breast milk. Three-day olds oriented longer toward the odor of their own amniotic fluid than alien…

  9. Experience Modifies Olfactory Acuity: Acetylcholine-Dependent Learning Decreases Behavioral Generalization between Similar Odorants

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Max L.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Perceptual learning has been demonstrated in several thalamocortical sensory systems wherein experience enhances sensory acuity for trained stimuli. This perceptual learning is believed to be dependent on changes in sensory cortical receptive fields. Sensory experience and learning also modifies receptive fields and neural response patterns in the mammalian olfactory system; however, to date there has been little reported evidence of learned changes in behavioral olfactory acuity. The present report used a bradycardial orienting response and cross-habituation paradigm that allowed assessment of behavioral discrimination of nearly novel odorants, and then used the same paradigm to examine odorant discrimination after associative olfactory conditioning with similar or dissimilar odorants. The results demonstrate that associative conditioning can enhance olfactory acuity for odors that are the same as or similar to the learned odorant, but not for odors dissimilar to the learned odorant. Furthermore, scopolamine injected before associative conditioning can block the acquisition of this learned enhancement in olfactory acuity. These results could have important implications for mechanisms of olfactory perception and memory, as well as for correlating behavioral olfactory acuity with observed spatial representations of odorant features in the olfactory system. PMID:11784813

  10. Nuisance Odors: Is there a Concern - 12340

    SciTech Connect

    Brounstein, Robert A.

    2012-07-01

    Nuisance odors are generally thought of as just being annoying or unpleasant and not causing any physiological harm to our internal organs or other biologic systems. Yet during an excavation of buried animal remains, field workers experienced a multitude of symptoms that are associated with exposures to toxic materials. An examination of the decomposition process revealed that there is a potential off-gassing of a number of common, yet harmful chemicals including ammonia, mercaptans, hydrogen sulfide, butyric acid and phenol. In addition, other compounds, that have limited information such as established health data and occupational exposure limits, were also potential contaminants-of-concern. While a variety of monitoring and sampling techniques were used to assess worker exposures, all results indicated non-detectable airborne concentrations. Nevertheless, workers were experiencing such symptoms as nausea and headaches. As such, protective measures were necessary for field personnel to continue work while having confidence that the project was instituting sincere steps to ensure their health and safety. Researching the possible reasons for the causes of workers exhibiting adverse health effects from nuisance odors revealed that such exposures initiate electrochemical pathways, starting from the olfactory bulb to the brain, followed by a transfer of information to such biologic systems as the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. These systems, in turn, secrete hormones that cause a number of involuntary reactions; many of which are observed as typical adverse health effects, when in fact, they are merely reactions caused by the brain's memory; most likely created from previous experiences to unpleasant odors. The concern then focuses of how the Occupational Safety and Health community shall respond to such workplace exposures. Future work in this area may need to focus on the viability of current occupational exposure limits and the possibility of revising these

  11. Olfactory Sensitivity for Six Predator Odorants in CD-1 Mice, Human Subjects, and Spider Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Sarrafchi, Amir; Odhammer, Anna M. E.; Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa; Laska, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Using a conditioning paradigm, we assessed the olfactory sensitivity of six CD-1 mice (Mus musculus) for six sulfur-containing odorants known to be components of the odors of natural predators of the mouse. With all six odorants, the mice discriminated concentrations <0.1 ppm (parts per million) from the solvent, and with five of the six odorants the best-scoring animals were even able to detect concentrations <1 ppt (parts per trillion). Four female spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) and twelve human subjects (Homo sapiens) tested in parallel were found to detect the same six odorants at concentrations <0.01 ppm, and with four of the six odorants the best-scoring animals and subjects even detected concentrations <10 ppt. With all three species, the threshold values obtained here are generally lower than (or in the lower range of) those reported for other chemical classes tested previously, suggesting that sulfur-containing odorants may play a special role in olfaction. Across-species comparisons showed that the mice were significantly more sensitive than the human subjects and the spider monkeys with four of the six predator odorants. However, the human subjects were significantly more sensitive than the mice with the remaining two odorants. Human subjects and spider monkeys significantly differed in their sensitivity with only two of the six odorants. These comparisons lend further support to the notion that the number of functional olfactory receptor genes or the relative or absolute size of the olfactory bulbs are poor predictors of a species’ olfactory sensitivity. Analysis of odor structure–activity relationships showed that in both mice and human subjects the type of alkyl rest attached to a thietane and the type of oxygen moiety attached to a thiol significantly affected olfactory sensitivity. PMID:24278296

  12. Unexpected plant odor responses in a moth pheromone system.

    PubMed

    Rouyar, Angéla; Deisig, Nina; Dupuy, Fabienne; Limousin, Denis; Wycke, Marie-Anne; Renou, Michel; Anton, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Male moths rely on olfactory cues to find females for reproduction. Males also use volatile plant compounds (VPCs) to find food sources and might use host-plant odor cues to identify the habitat of calling females. Both the sex pheromone released by conspecific females and VPCs trigger well-described oriented flight behavior toward the odor source. Whereas detection and central processing of pheromones and VPCs have been thought for a long time to be highly separated from each other, recent studies have shown that interactions of both types of odors occur already early at the periphery of the olfactory pathway. Here we show that detection and early processing of VPCs and pheromone can overlap between the two sub-systems. Using complementary approaches, i.e., single-sensillum recording of olfactory receptor neurons, in vivo calcium imaging in the antennal lobe, intracellular recordings of neurons in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) and flight tracking in a wind tunnel, we show that some plant odorants alone, such as heptanal, activate the pheromone-specific pathway in male Agrotis ipsilon at peripheral and central levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plant odorant with no chemical similarity to the molecular structure of the pheromone, acting as a partial agonist of a moth sex pheromone. PMID:26029117

  13. Unexpected plant odor responses in a moth pheromone system

    PubMed Central

    Rouyar, Angéla; Deisig, Nina; Dupuy, Fabienne; Limousin, Denis; Wycke, Marie-Anne; Renou, Michel; Anton, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Male moths rely on olfactory cues to find females for reproduction. Males also use volatile plant compounds (VPCs) to find food sources and might use host-plant odor cues to identify the habitat of calling females. Both the sex pheromone released by conspecific females and VPCs trigger well-described oriented flight behavior toward the odor source. Whereas detection and central processing of pheromones and VPCs have been thought for a long time to be highly separated from each other, recent studies have shown that interactions of both types of odors occur already early at the periphery of the olfactory pathway. Here we show that detection and early processing of VPCs and pheromone can overlap between the two sub-systems. Using complementary approaches, i.e., single-sensillum recording of olfactory receptor neurons, in vivo calcium imaging in the antennal lobe, intracellular recordings of neurons in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) and flight tracking in a wind tunnel, we show that some plant odorants alone, such as heptanal, activate the pheromone-specific pathway in male Agrotis ipsilon at peripheral and central levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plant odorant with no chemical similarity to the molecular structure of the pheromone, acting as a partial agonist of a moth sex pheromone. PMID:26029117

  14. Could contrast-enhanced CT detect STEMI prior to electrocardiogram?

    PubMed

    Sabbagh, Chadi; Rahi, Mayda; Baz, Maria; Haddad, Fadi; Helwe, Omar; Aoun, Noel; Ibrahim, Tony; Abdo, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    We present here a case in which contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) was the first diagnostic tool to detect myocardial hypoperfusion in a patient with atypical symptoms and normal electrocardiogram (ECG) on admission. An ST-segment elevation was detected thereafter on a second ECG realized several minutes after CT with raised troponin levels. Percutaneous coronary intervention was performed after failure of thrombolysis and confirmed occlusion of the left anterior descending artery. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of high-resolution contrast-enhanced CT with or without coronary angiography in the workup of suspected myocardial infarction in the setting of a normal ECG. PMID:25085282

  15. The relationship between chemical concentration and odor activity value explains the inconsistency in making a comprehensive surrogate scent training tool representative of illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Rice, Somchai; Koziel, Jacek A

    2015-12-01

    This report highlights the importance of an individual chemical's odor impact in the olfactory identification of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. There are small amounts of highly odorous compounds present in headspace of these drugs, with very low odor detection thresholds, that are more likely responsible for contributing to the overall odor of these drugs. Previous reports of the most abundant compounds in headspace can mislead researchers when dealing with whole odor of these drugs. Surrogate scent formulations, therefore, must match the odor impact of key compounds and not just the chemical abundance of compounds. The objective of this study was to compare odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from illicit drug samples of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin to surrogate smell formulations using simultaneous sensory (via human olfaction) and chemical analyses. Use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) allowed VOCs in drug headspace to be extracted and pre-concentrated on site, and analyzed by multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (MDGC-MS-O). Use of MDGC-MS-O allowed for further separation of odorous compounds and simultaneous detection by the human nose of the separate odor parts that make up the total aroma of these drugs. The compounds most abundant in headspace were not the most odor impactful when ranked by odor activity values (OAVs) (defined as ratio of concentration to odor detection threshold, ODT). There were no apparent correlations between concentrations and OAVs. A 1g marijuana surrogate lacked in odor active acids, aldehydes, ethers, hydrocarbons, N-containing, and S-containing VOCs and was overabundant in odor active alcohols and aromatics compared with real marijuana. A 1g cocaine surrogate was overabundant in odor active alcohols, aldehydes, aromatics, esters, ethers, halogenates, hydrocarbons, ketones and N-containing compounds compared with real. A 1g heroin surrogate should contain less odor active acids

  16. Interplay between sniffing and odorant sorptive properties in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Líbano, Daniel; Kay, Leslie M.

    2012-01-01

    For decades it has been known that the olfactory sensory epithelium can act like a chromatograph, separating odorants based on their air-mucus sorptive properties (Mozell and Jagodowicz, 1973). It has been hypothesized that animals could take advantage of this property, modulating sniffing behavior to manipulate airflow and thereby direct odorant molecules to the portions of the olfactory epithelium where they are best detected (Schoenfeld and Cleland, 2005). We report here a test of this hypothesis in behaving rats, monitoring respiratory activity through diaphragm EMG, which allowed us to estimate nasal airflow. In our test rats had to detect either low-sorption (LS) or high-sorption (HS) monomolecular odorant targets from the same stimulus set of six binary odor mixtures. We found that it is more difficult for rats to detect LS than HS targets. Even though sniffing bouts are the same duration for each group (approximately 500 ms), sniffing longer and using more inhalations results in better performance for rats assigned to detect LS targets. LS-detecting rats also increase the duration of individual inhalations (81 msec for LS- vs. 69 msec for HS-detecting rats) and sniff at lower frequencies (7.8 Hz for LS- vs. 8.6 Hz for HS-detecting rats) when learning to sense the target. When LS-detecting rats do discriminate well, they do so with lower airflow, more sniffs and lower frequency sniffing than HS-detecting counterparts. These data show that rats adjust sniff strategies as a function of odorant sorptiveness and provide support for the chromatographic and zonation hypotheses. PMID:23115193

  17. Light-weight analyzer for odor recognition

    DOEpatents

    Vass, Arpad A; Wise, Marcus B

    2014-05-20

    The invention provides a light weight analyzer, e.g., detector, capable of locating clandestine graves. The detector utilizes the very specific and unique chemicals identified in the database of human decompositional odor. This detector, based on specific chemical compounds found relevant to human decomposition, is the next step forward in clandestine grave detection and will take the guess-work out of current methods using canines and ground-penetrating radar, which have historically been unreliable. The detector is self contained, portable and built for field use. Both visual and auditory cues are provided to the operator.

  18. Signal enhancement in electronic detection of DNA hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentil, C.; Philippin, G.; Bockelmann, U.

    2007-01-01

    Electronic detection of the specific recognition between complementary DNA sequences is investigated. DNA probes are immobilized at different lateral positions on a Poly( L -lysine)-coated surface of an integrated silicon transistor array. Hybridization and field effect detection are done with the solid surface immersed in electrolyte solutions. Differential measurements are performed, where DNA hybridization leads to surface potential shifts between the transistors of the array. We experimentally show that these differential signals of hybridization can be enhanced significantly by changing the salt concentration between hybridization and detection.

  19. Asphaltene detection using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS).

    PubMed

    Alabi, O O; Edilbi, A N F; Brolly, C; Muirhead, D; Parnell, J; Stacey, R; Bowden, S A

    2015-04-28

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy using a gold substrate and excitation at 514 nm can detect sub parts per million quantities of asphaltene and thereby petroleum. This simple format and sensitivity make it transformative for applications including sample triage, flow assurance, environmental protection and analysis of unique one of a kind materials. PMID:25812164

  20. Enhanced buried UXO detection via GPR/EMI data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masarik, Matthew P.; Burns, Joseph; Thelen, Brian T.; Kelly, Jack; Havens, Timothy C.

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the enhancements to detection of buried unexploded ordinances achieved by combining ground penetrating radar (GPR) data with electromagnetic induction (EMI) data. Novel features from both the GPR and the EMI sensors are concatenated as a long feature vector, on which a non-parametric classifier is then trained. The classifier is a boosting classifier based on tree classifiers, which allows for disparate feature values. The fusion algorithm was applied to a government-provided dataset from an outdoor testing site, and significant performance enhancements were obtained relative to classifiers trained solely on the GPR or EMI data. It is shown that the performance enhancements come from a combination of improvements in detection and in clutter rejection.

  1. Nanostructured Surfaces and Detection Instrumentation for Photonic Crystal Enhanced Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhery, Vikram; George, Sherine; Lu, Meng; Pokhriyal, Anusha; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2013-01-01

    Photonic crystal (PC) surfaces have been demonstrated as a compelling platform for improving the sensitivity of surface-based fluorescent assays used in disease diagnostics and life science research. PCs can be engineered to support optical resonances at specific wavelengths at which strong electromagnetic fields are utilized to enhance the intensity of surface-bound fluorophore excitation. Meanwhile, the leaky resonant modes of PCs can be used to direct emitted photons within a narrow range of angles for more efficient collection by a fluorescence detection system. The multiplicative effects of enhanced excitation combined with enhanced photon extraction combine to provide improved signal-to-noise ratios for detection of fluorescent emitters, which in turn can be used to reduce the limits of detection of low concentration analytes, such as disease biomarker proteins. Fabrication of PCs using inexpensive manufacturing methods and materials that include replica molding on plastic, nano-imprint lithography on quartz substrates result in devices that are practical for single-use disposable applications. In this review, we will describe the motivation for implementing high-sensitivity fluorescence detection in the context of molecular diagnosis and gene expression analysis though the use of PC surfaces. Recent efforts to improve the design and fabrication of PCs and their associated detection instrumentation are summarized, including the use of PCs coupled with Fabry-Perot cavities and external cavity lasers. PMID:23624689

  2. Extraordinary sensitivity enhancement by metasurfaces in terahertz detection of antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lijuan; Gao, Weilu; Shu, Jie; Ying, Yibin; Kono, Junichiro

    2015-01-01

    We have detected trace amounts of molecules of antibiotics (kanamycin sulfate) dispersed on metasurfaces with terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. Utilizing the extraordinary optical transmission resonance of an array of square-shaped slits on a silicon substrate at ~0.3 THz, we were able to monitor varying concentrations of kanamycin sulfate as low as ~100 picogram/L. In contrast, the lowest detectable concentration of kanamycin sulfate on silicon without any metallic structure was ~1 gram/L. This dramatic ~1010 times enhancement of sensitivity is due to the near-field enhancement of THz electric fields by the metamaterial structure. This result thus demonstrates the power and usefulness of metamaterial-assisted THz spectroscopy in trace molecular detection for biological and chemical sensing as well as for food product quality and safety inspection and control. PMID:25728144

  3. Extraordinary sensitivity enhancement by metasurfaces in terahertz detection of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lijuan; Gao, Weilu; Shu, Jie; Ying, Yibin; Kono, Junichiro

    2015-01-01

    We have detected trace amounts of molecules of antibiotics (kanamycin sulfate) dispersed on metasurfaces with terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. Utilizing the extraordinary optical transmission resonance of an array of square-shaped slits on a silicon substrate at ~0.3 THz, we were able to monitor varying concentrations of kanamycin sulfate as low as ~100 picogram/L. In contrast, the lowest detectable concentration of kanamycin sulfate on silicon without any metallic structure was ~1 gram/L. This dramatic ~10(10) times enhancement of sensitivity is due to the near-field enhancement of THz electric fields by the metamaterial structure. This result thus demonstrates the power and usefulness of metamaterial-assisted THz spectroscopy in trace molecular detection for biological and chemical sensing as well as for food product quality and safety inspection and control. PMID:25728144

  4. Extraordinary sensitivity enhancement by metasurfaces in terahertz detection of antibiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Lijuan; Gao, Weilu; Shu, Jie; Ying, Yibin; Kono, Junichiro

    2015-03-01

    We have detected trace amounts of molecules of antibiotics (kanamycin sulfate) dispersed on metasurfaces with terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. Utilizing the extraordinary optical transmission resonance of an array of square-shaped slits on a silicon substrate at ~0.3 THz, we were able to monitor varying concentrations of kanamycin sulfate as low as ~100 picogram/L. In contrast, the lowest detectable concentration of kanamycin sulfate on silicon without any metallic structure was ~1 gram/L. This dramatic ~1010 times enhancement of sensitivity is due to the near-field enhancement of THz electric fields by the metamaterial structure. This result thus demonstrates the power and usefulness of metamaterial-assisted THz spectroscopy in trace molecular detection for biological and chemical sensing as well as for food product quality and safety inspection and control.

  5. Proposed Objective Odor Control Test Methodology for Waste Containment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vos, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    The Orion Cockpit Working Group has requested that an odor control testing methodology be proposed to evaluate the odor containment effectiveness of waste disposal bags to be flown on the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. As a standardized "odor containment" test does not appear to be a matter of record for the project, a new test method is being proposed. This method is based on existing test methods used in industrial hygiene for the evaluation of respirator fit in occupational settings, and takes into consideration peer reviewed documentation of human odor thresholds for standardized contaminates, industry stardnard atmostpheric testing methodologies, and established criteria for laboratory analysis. The proposed methodology is quantitative, though it can readily be complimented with a qualitative subjective assessment. Isoamyl acetate (IAA - also known at isopentyl acetate) is commonly used in respirator fit testing, and there are documented methodologies for both measuring its quantitative airborne concentrations. IAA is a clear, colorless liquid with a banana-like odor, documented detectable smell threshold for humans of 0.025 PPM, and a 15 PPB level of quantation limit.

  6. Nanocellulose-Zeolite Composite Films for Odor Elimination.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Neda; Mashayekhy Rad, Farshid; Mace, Amber; Ansari, Farhan; Akhtar, Farid; Nilsson, Ulrika; Berglund, Lars; Bergström, Lennart

    2015-07-01

    Free standing and strong odor-removing composite films of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) with a high content of nanoporous zeolite adsorbents have been colloidally processed. Thermogravimetric desorption analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy combined with computational simulations showed that commercially available silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 have a high affinity and uptake of volatile odors like ethanethiol and propanethiol, also in the presence of water. The simulations showed that propanethiol has a higher affinity, up to 16%, to the two zeolites compared with ethanethiol. Highly flexible and strong free-standing zeolite-CNF films with an adsorbent loading of 89 w/w% have been produced by Ca-induced gelation and vacuum filtration. The CNF-network controls the strength of the composite films and 100 μm thick zeolite-CNF films with a CNF content of less than 10 vol % displayed a tensile strength approaching 10 MPa. Headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis showed that the CNF-zeolite films can eliminate the volatile thiol-based odors to concentrations below the detection ability of the human olfactory system. Odor removing zeolite-cellulose nanofibril films could enable improved transport and storage of fruits and vegetables rich in odors, for example, onion and the tasty but foul-smelling South-East Asian Durian fruit. PMID:26061093

  7. 46 CFR 76.15-60 - Odorizing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-60 Odorizing units. Each carbon dioxide... the scent of wintergreen, the detection of which will serve as an indication that carbon dioxide gas is present in a protected area and any other area into which the carbon dioxide may migrate....

  8. 46 CFR 76.15-60 - Odorizing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-60 Odorizing units. Each carbon dioxide... the scent of wintergreen, the detection of which will serve as an indication that carbon dioxide gas is present in a protected area and any other area into which the carbon dioxide may migrate....

  9. 46 CFR 95.15-60 - Odorizing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-60 Odorizing units. Each carbon dioxide... the scent of wintergreen, the detection of which will serve as an indication that carbon dioxide gas is present in a protected area and any other area into which the carbon dioxide may migrate....

  10. 46 CFR 76.15-60 - Odorizing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-60 Odorizing units. Each carbon dioxide... the scent of wintergreen, the detection of which will serve as an indication that carbon dioxide gas is present in a protected area and any other area into which the carbon dioxide may migrate....

  11. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: Part 3. Chemical emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to measure the long-term odor emissions and corresponding concentrations and emissions of 20 odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study was an add-on study to the National Air Emission Monitoring Study (NAEMS). Odor and odorous gas measurements at four NAEM...

  12. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: Part 3 - chemical emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was an add-on study to the National Air Emission Monitoring Study (NAEMS). The objective of this study was to measure odor emissions and corresponding concentrations and emissions of target odorous gases. Odor and odorous gas measurements at four NAEMS sites (dairy barns in Wisconsin-WI5B...

  13. Mammalian Odor Information Recognition by Implanted Microsensor Array in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jun; Dong, Qi; Zhuang, Liujing; Liu, Qingjun; Wang, Ping

    2011-09-01

    The mammalian olfactory system has an exquisite capacity to rapidly recognize and discriminate thousands of distinct odors in our environment. Our research group focus on reading information from olfactory bulb circuit of anethetized Sprague-Dawley rat and utilize artificial recognition system for odor discrimination. After being stimulated by three odors with concentration of 10 μM to rat nose, the response of mitral cells in olfactory bulb is recorded by eight channel microwire sensor array. In 20 sessions with 3 animals, we obtained 30 discriminated individual cells recordings. The average firing rates of the cells are Isoamyl acetate 26 Hz, Methoxybenzene 16 Hz, and Rose essential oil 11 Hz. By spike sorting, we detect peaks and analyze the interspike interval distribution. Further more, principal component analysis is applied to reduce the dimensionality of the data sets and classify the response.

  14. Rat preference for food-related odors.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, E; Ono, T; Uwano, T; Takashima, Y; Kawasaki, M

    1991-01-01

    Preferences for food-related odors and the effects of fasting on those preferences were investigated during rat bar pressing for brief odor presentation. A rat was housed in an equilateral octagonal cage and had free access to food and water, except during fasting. Among 8 food-related odor substances (black pepper, cheese, coffee, milk, nut, peppermint, plum and orange), black pepper, milk and coffee were most preferred, and cheese was least preferred, but even the bar pressing rate for cheese was above the operant level. This data indicates that all 8 odors were preferred by rats, although there were different degrees of preference in individual animals. Fasting substantially increased the rate of bar pressing for odors and changed the odors preferences. This result was probably due to increased search for food and water. Since bar pressing was reinforced by nothing other than odor presentation, the results reveal inherent odor preferences of rats. PMID:1959035

  15. Ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection in common fluids

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shikuan; Dai, Xianming; Stogin, Birgitt Boschitsch; Wong, Tak-Sing

    2016-01-01

    Detecting target analytes with high specificity and sensitivity in any fluid is of fundamental importance to analytical science and technology. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has proven to be capable of detecting single molecules with high specificity, but achieving single-molecule sensitivity in any highly diluted solutions remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate a universal platform that allows for the enrichment and delivery of analytes into the SERS-sensitive sites in both aqueous and nonaqueous fluids, and its subsequent quantitative detection of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) down to ∼75 fM level (10−15 mol⋅L−1). Our platform, termed slippery liquid-infused porous surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SLIPSERS), is based on a slippery, omniphobic substrate that enables the complete concentration of analytes and SERS substrates (e.g., Au nanoparticles) within an evaporating liquid droplet. Combining our SLIPSERS platform with a SERS mapping technique, we have systematically quantified the probability, p(c), of detecting R6G molecules at concentrations c ranging from 750 fM (p > 90%) down to 75 aM (10−18 mol⋅L−1) levels (p ≤ 1.4%). The ability to detect analytes down to attomolar level is the lowest limit of detection for any SERS-based detection reported thus far. We have shown that analytes present in liquid, solid, or air phases can be extracted using a suitable liquid solvent and subsequently detected through SLIPSERS. Based on this platform, we have further demonstrated ultrasensitive detection of chemical and biological molecules as well as environmental contaminants within a broad range of common fluids for potential applications related to analytical chemistry, molecular diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and national security. PMID:26719413

  16. Ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection in common fluids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shikuan; Dai, Xianming; Stogin, Birgitt Boschitsch; Wong, Tak-Sing

    2016-01-12

    Detecting target analytes with high specificity and sensitivity in any fluid is of fundamental importance to analytical science and technology. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has proven to be capable of detecting single molecules with high specificity, but achieving single-molecule sensitivity in any highly diluted solutions remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate a universal platform that allows for the enrichment and delivery of analytes into the SERS-sensitive sites in both aqueous and nonaqueous fluids, and its subsequent quantitative detection of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) down to ∼75 fM level (10(-15) mol⋅L(-1)). Our platform, termed slippery liquid-infused porous surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SLIPSERS), is based on a slippery, omniphobic substrate that enables the complete concentration of analytes and SERS substrates (e.g., Au nanoparticles) within an evaporating liquid droplet. Combining our SLIPSERS platform with a SERS mapping technique, we have systematically quantified the probability, p(c), of detecting R6G molecules at concentrations c ranging from 750 fM (p > 90%) down to 75 aM (10(-18) mol⋅L(-1)) levels (p ≤ 1.4%). The ability to detect analytes down to attomolar level is the lowest limit of detection for any SERS-based detection reported thus far. We have shown that analytes present in liquid, solid, or air phases can be extracted using a suitable liquid solvent and subsequently detected through SLIPSERS. Based on this platform, we have further demonstrated ultrasensitive detection of chemical and biological molecules as well as environmental contaminants within a broad range of common fluids for potential applications related to analytical chemistry, molecular diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and national security. PMID:26719413

  17. Enhancement of Visual Motion Detection Thresholds in Early Deaf People

    PubMed Central

    Shiell, Martha M.; Champoux, François; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    In deaf people, the auditory cortex can reorganize to support visual motion processing. Although this cross-modal reorganization has long been thought to subserve enhanced visual abilities, previous research has been unsuccessful at identifying behavioural enhancements specific to motion processing. Recently, research with congenitally deaf cats has uncovered an enhancement for visual motion detection. Our goal was to test for a similar difference between deaf and hearing people. We tested 16 early and profoundly deaf participants and 20 hearing controls. Participants completed a visual motion detection task, in which they were asked to determine which of two sinusoidal gratings was moving. The speed of the moving grating varied according to an adaptive staircase procedure, allowing us to determine the lowest speed necessary for participants to detect motion. Consistent with previous research in deaf cats, the deaf group had lower motion detection thresholds than the hearing. This finding supports the proposal that cross-modal reorganization after sensory deprivation will occur for supramodal sensory features and preserve the output functions. PMID:24587381

  18. Enhancement of visual motion detection thresholds in early deaf people.

    PubMed

    Shiell, Martha M; Champoux, François; Zatorre, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    In deaf people, the auditory cortex can reorganize to support visual motion processing. Although this cross-modal reorganization has long been thought to subserve enhanced visual abilities, previous research has been unsuccessful at identifying behavioural enhancements specific to motion processing. Recently, research with congenitally deaf cats has uncovered an enhancement for visual motion detection. Our goal was to test for a similar difference between deaf and hearing people. We tested 16 early and profoundly deaf participants and 20 hearing controls. Participants completed a visual motion detection task, in which they were asked to determine which of two sinusoidal gratings was moving. The speed of the moving grating varied according to an adaptive staircase procedure, allowing us to determine the lowest speed necessary for participants to detect motion. Consistent with previous research in deaf cats, the deaf group had lower motion detection thresholds than the hearing. This finding supports the proposal that cross-modal reorganization after sensory deprivation will occur for supramodal sensory features and preserve the output functions. PMID:24587381

  19. Masera's organ responds to odorants.

    PubMed

    Marshall, D A; Maruniak, J A

    1986-02-26

    Electroolfactogram (EOG) recordings from the rat septal olfactory organ (SO) provide the first demonstration of its broad-range chemosensitivity, and clearly establish this structure as a functioning component of the mammalian intranasal chemosensory system. SO sensitivity to lower concentrations of at least one common test odorant (pentyl acetate) exceeds that at sites located on the septal portion of the main olfactory neuroepithelium. Signals from the SO, as first proposed, thus could have an alerting function and provide information relevant to odor stimulus assessment. PMID:3697687

  20. CONTROLLING ODOROUS EMISSIONS FROM IRON FOUNDRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the control of odorous emissions from iron foundries. he main process sources of odors in iron foundries are mold and core making, casting, and sand shakeout. he odors are usually caused by chemicals, which may be present as binders and other additives to the...

  1. Optogenetic Stimulation of Lateral Amygdala Input to Posterior Piriform Cortex Modulates Single-Unit and Ensemble Odor Processing

    PubMed Central

    Sadrian, Benjamin; Wilson, Donald A.

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory information is synthesized within the olfactory cortex to provide not only an odor percept, but also a contextual significance that supports appropriate behavioral response to specific odor cues. The piriform cortex serves as a communication hub within this circuit by sharing reciprocal connectivity with higher processing regions, such as the lateral entorhinal cortex and amygdala. The functional significance of these descending inputs on piriform cortical processing of odorants is currently not well understood. We have employed optogenetic methods to selectively stimulate lateral and basolateral amygdala (BLA) afferent fibers innervating the posterior piriform cortex (pPCX) to quantify BLA modulation of pPCX odor-evoked activity. Single unit odor-evoked activity of anesthetized BLA-infected animals was significantly modulated compared with control animal recordings, with individual cells displaying either enhancement or suppression of odor-driven spiking. In addition, BLA activation induced a decorrelation of odor-evoked pPCX ensemble activity relative to odor alone. Together these results indicate a modulatory role in pPCX odor processing for the BLA complex. This interaction could contribute to learned changes in PCX activity following associative conditioning, as well as support alternate patterns of odor processing that are state-dependent. PMID:26733819

  2. The state of the art of odorant receptor deorphanization: A report from the orphanage

    PubMed Central

    Peterlin, Zita; Firestein, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    The odorant receptors (ORs) provide our main gateway to sensing the world of volatile chemicals. This involves a complex encoding process in which multiple ORs, each of which detects its own set of odorants, work as an ensemble to produce a distributed activation code that is presumably unique to each odorant. One marked challenge to decoding the olfactory code is OR deorphanization, the identification of a set of activating odorants for a particular receptor. Here, we survey various methods used to try to express defined ORs of interest. We also suggest strategies for selecting odorants for test panels to evaluate the functional expression of an OR. Integrating these tools, while retaining awareness of their idiosyncratic limitations, can provide a multi-tiered approach to OR deorphanization, spanning the initial discovery of a ligand to vetting that ligand in a physiologically relevant setting. PMID:24733839

  3. The state of the art of odorant receptor deorphanization: a report from the orphanage.

    PubMed

    Peterlin, Zita; Firestein, Stuart; Rogers, Matthew E

    2014-05-01

    The odorant receptors (ORs) provide our main gateway to sensing the world of volatile chemicals. This involves a complex encoding process in which multiple ORs, each of which detects its own set of odorants, work as an ensemble to produce a distributed activation code that is presumably unique to each odorant. One marked challenge to decoding the olfactory code is OR deorphanization, the identification of a set of activating odorants for a particular receptor. Here, we survey various methods used to try to express defined ORs of interest. We also suggest strategies for selecting odorants for test panels to evaluate the functional expression of an OR. Integrating these tools, while retaining awareness of their idiosyncratic limitations, can provide a multi-tiered approach to OR deorphanization, spanning the initial discovery of a ligand to vetting that ligand in a physiologically relevant setting. PMID:24733839

  4. Image enhancement techniques applied to solar feature detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Artur J.

    This dissertation presents the development of automatic image enhancement techniques for solar feature detection. The new method allows for detection and tracking of the evolution of filaments in solar images. Series of H-alpha full-disk images are taken in regular time intervals to observe the changes of the solar disk features. In each picture, the solar chromosphere filaments are identified for further evolution examination. The initial preprocessing step involves local thresholding to convert grayscale images into black-and-white pictures with chromosphere granularity enhanced. An alternative preprocessing method, based on image normalization and global thresholding is presented. The next step employs morphological closing operations with multi-directional linear structuring elements to extract elongated shapes in the image. After logical union of directional filtering results, the remaining noise is removed from the final outcome using morphological dilation and erosion with a circular structuring element. Experimental results show that the developed techniques can achieve excellent results in detecting large filaments and good detection rates for small filaments. The final chapter discusses proposed directions of the future research and applications to other areas of solar image processing, in particular to detection of solar flares, plages and sunspots.

  5. Plasmon resonance enhanced mechanical detection of ligand binding

    SciTech Connect

    Ariyaratne, Amila; Zocchi, Giovanni

    2015-01-05

    Small molecule binding to the active site of enzymes typically modifies the mechanical stiffness of the enzyme. We exploit this effect, in a setup which combines nano-mechanics and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) enhanced optics, for the label free detection of ligand binding to an enzyme. The large dynamic range of the signal allows to easily obtain binding curves for small ligands, in contrast to traditional SPR methods which rely on small changes in index of refraction. Enzyme mechanics, assessed by nano-rheology, thus emerges as an alternative to electronic and spin resonances, assessed by traditional spectroscopies, for detecting ligand binding.

  6. Morphological operators for enhanced polarimetric image target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, João. M.; Rosario, Dalton S.

    2015-09-01

    We introduce an algorithm based on morphological filters with the Stokes parameters that augments the daytime and nighttime detection of weak-signal manmade objects immersed in a predominant natural background scene. The approach features a tailored sequence of signal-enhancing filters, consisting of core morphological operators (dilation, erosion) and higher level morphological operations (e.g., spatial gradient, opening, closing) to achieve a desired overarching goal. Using representative data from the SPICE database, the results show that the approach was able to automatically and persistently detect with a high confidence level the presence of three mobile military howitzer surrogates (targets) in natural clutter.

  7. Evaluation of Food Freshness and Locality by Odor Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Takayuki; Shimada, Koji; Kamimura, Hironobu; Kaneki, Noriaki

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food freshness and locality can be classified using a food evaluation system consisting four SnO2-semiconductor gas sensors and a solid phase column, into which collecting aroma materials. The temperature of sensors was periodically changed to be in unsteady state and thus, the sensor information was increased. The parameters (in quefrency band) were extracted from sensor information using cepstrum analysis that enable to separate superimposed information on sinusoidal wave. The quefrency was used as parameters for principal component and discriminant analyses (PCA and DCA) to detect food freshness and food localities. We used three kinds of strawberries, people can perceive its odors, passed from one to three days after harvest, and kelps and Ceylon tea, people are hardly to perceive its odor, corrected from five areas as sample. Then, the deterioration of strawberries and localities of kelps and Ceylon teas were visually evaluated using the numerical analyses. While the deteriorations were classified using PCA or DCA, the localities were classified only by DCA. The findings indicate that, although odorant intensity influenced the method detecting food quality, the quefrency obtained from odorant information using cepstrum analysis were available to detect the difference in the freshness and the localities of foods.

  8. Recombinant Temporal Aberration Detection Algorithms for Enhanced Biosurveillance

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Sean Patrick; Burkom, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Objective Broadly, this research aims to improve the outbreak detection performance and, therefore, the cost effectiveness of automated syndromic surveillance systems by building novel, recombinant temporal aberration detection algorithms from components of previously developed detectors. Methods This study decomposes existing temporal aberration detection algorithms into two sequential stages and investigates the individual impact of each stage on outbreak detection performance. The data forecasting stage (Stage 1) generates predictions of time series values a certain number of time steps in the future based on historical data. The anomaly measure stage (Stage 2) compares features of this prediction to corresponding features of the actual time series to compute a statistical anomaly measure. A Monte Carlo simulation procedure is then used to examine the recombinant algorithms’ ability to detect synthetic aberrations injected into authentic syndromic time series. Results New methods obtained with procedural components of published, sometimes widely used, algorithms were compared to the known methods using authentic datasets with plausible stochastic injected signals. Performance improvements were found for some of the recombinant methods, and these improvements were consistent over a range of data types, outbreak types, and outbreak sizes. For gradual outbreaks, the WEWD MovAvg7+WEWD Z-Score recombinant algorithm performed best; for sudden outbreaks, the HW+WEWD Z-Score performed best. Conclusion This decomposition was found not only to yield valuable insight into the effects of the aberration detection algorithms but also to produce novel combinations of data forecasters and anomaly measures with enhanced detection performance. PMID:17947614

  9. Transplant Antennae and Host Brain Interact to Shape Odor Perceptual Space in Male Moths

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong-Gyu; Poole, Kathy; Linn, Charles E.; Vickers, Neil J.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral responses to odors rely first upon their accurate detection by peripheral sensory organs followed by subsequent processing within the brain’s olfactory system and higher centers. These processes allow the animal to form a unified impression of the odor environment and recognize combinations of odorants as single entities. To investigate how interactions between peripheral and central olfactory pathways shape odor perception, we transplanted antennal imaginal discs between larval males of two species of moth Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa that utilize distinct pheromone blends. During metamorphic development olfactory receptor neurons originating from transplanted discs formed connections with host brain neurons within olfactory glomeruli of the adult antennal lobe. The normal antennal receptor repertoire exhibited by males of each species reflects the differences in the pheromone blends that these species employ. Behavioral assays of adult transplant males revealed high response levels to two odor blends that were dissimilar from those that attract normal males of either species. Neurophysiological analyses of peripheral receptor neurons and central olfactory neurons revealed that these behavioral responses were a result of: 1. the specificity of H. virescens donor olfactory receptor neurons for odorants unique to the donor pheromone blend and, 2. central odor recognition by the H. subflexa host brain, which typically requires peripheral receptor input across 3 distinct odor channels in order to elicit behavioral responses. PMID:26816291

  10. Characterization of typical potent odorants in cola-flavored carbonated beverages by aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-01-28

    The aroma-active compounds in typical cola-flavored carbonated beverages were characterized using gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The potent odorants in the top three U.S. brands of regular colas were identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Among the numerous odorants identified, eugenol (spicy, clovelike, sweet) and coumarin (sweet, herbaceous) were predominant in all colas. Other predominant odorants in at least one brand included guaiacol (smoky) and linalool (floral, sweet), while 1,8-cineole (minty, eucalyptus-like) was a moderately potent odorant in all colas. Determination of the enantiomeric compositions indicated that (R)-(-)-linalool (34.5%) was a more potent odorant than the (S)-(+)-enantiomer (65.6%) due to its much lower odor detection threshold. In addition, lemon-lime and cooling attributes determined by sensory descriptive analysis had the highest odor intensities among the eight sensory descriptors. The aroma profiles of the three colas were in good agreement with the potent odorants identified by AEDA. PMID:25528884

  11. Odor-Specific Loss of Smell Sensitivity with Age as Revealed by the Specific Sensitivity Test.

    PubMed

    Seow, Yi-Xin; Ong, Peter K C; Huang, Dejian

    2016-07-01

    The perception of odor mixtures plays an important role in human food intake, behavior, and emotions. Decline of smell acuity with normal aging could impact food perception and preferences at various ages. However, since the landmark Smell Survey by National Geographic, little has been elucidated on differences in the onset and extent of loss in olfactory sensitivity toward single odorants. Here, using the Specific Sensitivity test, we show the onset and extent of loss in both identification and detection thresholds of odorants with age are odorant-specific. Subjects of Chinese descent in Singapore (186 women, 95 men), aged 21-80 years, were assessed for olfactory sensitivity of 10 odorants from various odor groups. Notably, subjects in their 70s required 179 times concentration of rose-like odorant (2-phenylethanol) than subjects in the 20s, while thresholds for onion-like 2-methyloxolane-3-thiol only differed by 3 times between the age groups. In addition, identification rate for 2-phenylethanol was negatively correlated with age throughout adult life whereas mushroom-like oct-1-en-3-ol was equally identified by subjects across all ages. Our results demonstrated the girth of differentiated olfactory loss due to normal ageing, which potentially affect overall perception and preferences of odor mixtures with age. PMID:27001718

  12. Detection of volatile organic compounds using surface enhanced Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, A S; Maiti, A; Ileri, N; Bora, M; Larson, C C; Britten, J A; Bond, T C

    2012-03-22

    The authors present the detection of volatile organic compounds directly in their vapor phase by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates based on lithographically-defined two-dimensional rectangular array of nanopillars. The type of nanopillars is known as the tapered pillars. For the tapered pillars, SERS enhancement arises from the nanofocusing effect due to the sharp tip on top. SERS experiments were carried out on these substrates using various concentrations of toluene vapor. The results show that SERS signal from a toluene vapor concentration of ppm level can be achieved, and the toluene vapor can be detected within minutes of exposing the SERS substrate to the vapor. A simple adsorption model is developed which gives results matching the experimental data. The results also show promising potential for the use of these substrates in environmental monitoring of gases and vapors.

  13. Modeling indoor odor-odorant concentrations and the relative humidity effect on odor perception at a water reclamation plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tingting; Sattayatewa, Chakkrid; Venkatesan, Dhesikan; Noll, Kenneth E.; Pagilla, Krishna R.; Moschandreas, Demetrios J.

    2011-12-01

    Models formulated to associate odors and odorants in many industrial and agricultural fields ignore the potential effect of relative humidity on odor perception, and are not validated. This study addresses literature limitations by formulating a model that includes relative humidity and by validating the model. The model employs measured paired values, n = 102, of indoor odors and odorants from freshly dewatered biosolids in a post-digestion dewatering building of a Water Reclamation Plant (WRP). A random sub-sample of n = 32 is used to validate the model by associating predicted vs. measured values ( R2 = 0.90). The model is validated again with a smaller independent database from a second WRP ( R2 = 0.85). Moreover this study asserts that reduction of hydrogen sulfide concentrations, conventionally used as a surrogate of sewage odors, to acceptable levels does not assure acceptable odor levels. It is concluded that: (1) The addition of relative humidity results in a stronger association between odors and odorants than the use of H 2S alone; (2) the two step model validation indicates that the model is not simply site-specific but can be applied to similar facilities; and (3) the model is a promising tool for designing odor and odorant control strategies, the ultimate goal of engineering studies.

  14. Chemical characterization of odors due to some industrial and urban facilities in Izmir, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dincer, Faruk; Muezzinoglu, Aysen

    The relationship between odor concentrations (olfactometry) and chemical concentrations (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, GC-MS) was studied for the odorous air compositions of a rendering plant, a sanitary landfill and an industrial area with large petroleum and petrochemical industries. Samples taken from the university campus located in a non-industrial and non-urban area were also studied for several organic components for comparison. Ambient air samples were taken into special bags by using an odor sampling device designed for field sampling of odors. In the laboratory odorous chemicals in the samples were transferred into adsorbent tubes and analyzed using a combination of thermal desorption and GC-MS. Results point to different characteristics of the odorous gases and air in and around the urban and industrial sources. Among the 64 specific compounds studied, 49 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in rendering plant, 53 VOCs were detected in sanitary landfill and 44 VOCs were detected in petroleum and petrochemical industries. The compounds measured in the odorous gas composition are the alkanes, alkenes, carbonyls, arenes, chlorinated and other halogenated compounds and organic chlorides as well as the volatile fatty acids.

  15. Multivariate prediction of odor from pig production based on in-situ measurement of odorants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Jonassen, Kristoffer E. N.; Løkke, Mette Marie; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.; Feilberg, Anders

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate a prediction model for odor from pig production facilities based on measurements of odorants by Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Odor measurements were performed at four different pig production facilities with and without odor abatement technologies using a newly developed mobile odor laboratory equipped with a PTR-MS for measuring odorants and an olfactometer for measuring the odor concentration by human panelists. A total of 115 odor measurements were carried out in the mobile laboratory and simultaneously air samples were collected in Nalophan bags and analyzed at accredited laboratories after 24 h. The dataset was divided into a calibration dataset containing 94 samples and a validation dataset containing 21 samples. The prediction model based on the measurements in the mobile laboratory was able to explain 74% of the variation in the odor concentration based on odorants, whereas the prediction models based on odor measurements with bag samples explained only 46-57%. This study is the first application of direct field olfactometry to livestock odor and emphasizes the importance of avoiding any bias from sample storage in studies of odor-odorant relationships. Application of the model on the validation dataset gave a high correlation between predicted and measured odor concentration (R2 = 0.77). Significant odorants in the prediction models include phenols and indoles. In conclusion, measurements of odorants on-site in pig production facilities is an alternative to dynamic olfactometry that can be applied for measuring odor from pig houses and the effects of odor abatement technologies.

  16. NO and N2O detection employing cavity enhanced technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtas, J.; Medrzycki, R.; Rutecka, B.; Mikolajczyk, J.; Nowakowski, M.; Szabra, D.; Gutowska, M.; Stacewicz, T.; Bielecki, Z.

    2012-06-01

    The article describes an application of cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy for nitric oxide and nitrous oxide detection. Both oxides are important greenhouse gases that are of large influence on environment, living organisms and human health. These compounds are also biomarkers of some human diseases. They determine the level of acid rain, and can be used for characterization of specific explosive materials. Therefore the sensitive detectors of these gases are of great importance for many applications: from routine air monitoring in industrial and intensive traffic areas, to detection of explosives in airports, finally for medicine investigation, for health care, etc. Our compact detection system provides opportunity for simultaneous measure of both NO and N2O concentration at ppb level. Its sensitivity is comparable with sensitivities of instruments based on other methods, e.g. gas chromatography or mass spectrometry.

  17. New gas chromatography-olfactometric investigative method, and its application to cooked Silurus glanis (European catfish) odor characterization.

    PubMed

    Hallier, Arnaud; Courcoux, Philippe; Sérot, Thierry; Prost, Carole

    2004-11-12

    A new gas chromatography-olfactometric method, gas chromatography-global olfactometry omission detection (GC-GOOD), was applied to dynamic headspace odor extracts of Silurus glanis (European catfish). The GC-GOOD method is based on the omission test theory and uses a gas chromatograph coupled with a three-way valve and an a flame ionization detector. The GC-GOOD method enabled the identification of key families of volatile compounds in the S. glanis global odor and the elucidation of the interactions occurring between these families. Significant main effects were observed for the families of volatile compounds exhibiting cooked odor, grassy odor and alcohol, solvent and plastic odors. Omission of these families involved a loss of odor similarity. PMID:15595551

  18. Cognitive Facilitation Following Intentional Odor Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews evidence that, in addition to incidental olfactory pollutants, intentional odor delivery can impact cognitive operations both positively and negatively. Evidence for cognitive facilitation/interference is reviewed alongside four potential explanations for odor-induced effects. It is concluded that the pharmacological properties of odors can induce changes in cognition. However, these effects can be accentuated/attenuated by the shift in mood following odor exposure, expectancy of cognitive effects, and cues to behavior via the contextual association with the odor. It is proposed that greater consideration is required in the intentional utilization of odors within both industrial and private locations, since differential effects are observed for odors with positive hedonic qualities. PMID:22163909

  19. The Mouse Solitary Odorant Receptor Gene Promoters as Models for the Study of Odorant Receptor Gene Choice

    PubMed Central

    Degl'Innocenti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background In vertebrates, several anatomical regions located within the nasal cavity mediate olfaction. Among these, the main olfactory epithelium detects most conventional odorants. Olfactory sensory neurons, provided with cilia exposed to the air, detect volatile chemicals via an extremely large family of seven-transmembrane chemoreceptors named odorant receptors. Their genes are expressed in a monogenic and monoallelic fashion: a single allele of a single odorant receptor gene is transcribed in a given mature neuron, through a still uncharacterized molecular mechanism known as odorant receptor gene choice. Aim Odorant receptor genes are typically arranged in genomic clusters, but a few are isolated (we call them solitary) from the others within a region broader than 1 Mb upstream and downstream with respect to their transcript's coordinates. The study of clustered genes is problematic, because of redundancy and ambiguities in their regulatory elements: we propose to use the solitary genes as simplified models to understand odorant receptor gene choice. Procedures Here we define number and identity of the solitary genes in the mouse genome (C57BL/6J), and assess the conservation of the solitary status in some mammalian orthologs. Furthermore, we locate their putative promoters, predict their homeodomain binding sites (commonly present in the promoters of odorant receptor genes) and compare candidate promoter sequences with those of wild-caught mice. We also provide expression data from histological sections. Results In the mouse genome there are eight intact solitary genes: Olfr19 (M12), Olfr49, Olfr266, Olfr267, Olfr370, Olfr371, Olfr466, Olfr1402; five are conserved as solitary in rat. These genes are all expressed in the main olfactory epithelium of three-day-old mice. The C57BL/6J candidate promoter of Olfr370 has considerably varied compared to its wild-type counterpart. Within the putative promoter for Olfr266 a homeodomain binding site is predicted. As a

  20. Ultraviolet Resonant Raman Enhancements in the Detection of Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Short Jr., Billy Joe

    2009-06-01

    Raman-based spectroscopy is potentially militarily useful for standoff detection of high explosives. Normal (non-resonance) and resonance Raman spectroscopies are both light scattering techniques that use a laser to measure the vibrational spectrum of a sample. In resonance Raman, the laser is tuned to match the wavelength of a strong electronic absorbance in the molecule of interest, whereas, in normal Raman the laser is not tuned to any strong electronic absorbance bands. The selection of appropriate excitation wavelengths in resonance Raman can result in a dramatic increase in the Raman scattering efficiency of select band(s) associated with the electronic transition. Other than the excitation wavelength, however, resonance Raman is performed experimentally the same as normal Raman. In these studies, normal and resonance Raman spectral signatures of select solid high explosive (HE) samples and explosive precursors were collected at 785 nm, 244 nm and 229 nm. Solutions of PETN, TNT, and explosive precursors (DNT & PNT) in acetonitrile solvent as an internal Raman standard were quantitatively evaluated using ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) microscopy and normal Raman spectroscopy as a function of power and select excitation wavelengths. Use of an internal standard allowed resonance enhancements to be estimated at 229 nm and 244 nm. Investigations demonstrated that UVRR provided ~2000-fold enhancement at 244 nm and ~800-fold improvement at 229 nm while PETN showed a maximum of ~25-fold at 244 nm and ~190-fold enhancement at 229 nm solely from resonance effects when compared to normal Raman measurements. In addition to the observed resonance enhancements, additional Raman signal enhancements are obtained with ultraviolet excitation (i.e., Raman scattering scales as !4 for measurements based on scattered photons). A model, based partly on the resonance Raman enhancement results for HE solutions, is presented for estimating Raman enhancements for solid HE samples.

  1. Marijuana odor perception: studies modeled from probable cause cases.

    PubMed

    Doty, Richard L; Wudarski, Thomas; Marshall, David A; Hastings, Lloyd

    2004-04-01

    The 4th Amendment of the United States Constitution protects American citizens against unreasonable search and seizure without probable cause. Although law enforcement officials routinely rely solely on the sense of smell to justify probable cause when entering vehicles and dwellings to search for illicit drugs, the accuracy of their perception in this regard has rarely been questioned and, to our knowledge, never tested. In this paper, we present data from two empirical studies based upon actual legal cases in which the odor of marijuana was used as probable cause for search. In the first, we simulated a situation in which, during a routine traffic stop, the odor of packaged marijuana located in the trunk of an automobile was said to be detected through the driver's window. In the second, we investigated a report that marijuana odor was discernable from a considerable distance from the chimney effluence of diesel exhaust emanating from an illicit California grow room. Our findings suggest that the odor of marijuana was not reliably discernable by persons with an excellent sense of smell in either case. These studies are the first to examine the ability of humans to detect marijuana in simulated real-life situations encountered by law enforcement officials, and are particularly relevant to the issue of probable cause. PMID:15141780

  2. Acid Cleavable Surface enhanced Raman Tagging for Protein Detection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongmao; Vangala, Karthikeshwar; Li, Shaoyong; Yanney, Michael; Xia, Hao; Zou, Sige; Sygula, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Dye conjugation is a common strategy improving the surface enhanced Raman detection sensitivity of biomolecules. Reported is a proof-of-concept study of a novel surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic tagging strategy termed as acid-cleavable SERS tag (ACST) method. Using Rhodamine B as the starting material, we prepared the first ACST prototype that consisted of, from the distal end, a SERS tag moiety (STM), an acid-cleavable linker, and a protein reactive moiety. Complete acid cleavage of the ACST tags was achieved at a very mild condition that is 1.5% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) aqueous solution at room temperature. SERS detection of this ACST tagged protein was demonstrated using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the model protein. While the SERS spectrum of intact ACST-BSA was entirely dominated by the fluorescent signal of STM, quality SERS spectra can be readily obtained with the acid cleaved ACST-BSA conjugates. Separation of the acid cleaved STM from protein further enhances the SERS sensitivity. Current SERS detection sensitivity, achieved with the acid cleaved ACST-BSA conjugate is ~5 nM in terms of the BSA concentration and ~1.5 nM in ACST content. The linear dynamic range of the cleaved ACST-BSA conjugate spans four orders of magnitudes from ~10 nM to ~100 μM in protein concentrations. Further improvement in the SERS sensitivity can be achieved with resonance Raman acquisition. This cleavable tagging strategy may also be used for elimination of protein interference in fluorescence based biomolecule detection. PMID:21109888

  3. A “Misfit” Theory of Spontaneous Conscious Odor Perception (MITSCOP): reflections on the role and function of odor memory in everyday life

    PubMed Central

    Köster, Egon P.; Møller, Per; Mojet, Jozina

    2014-01-01

    Our senses have developed as an answer to the world we live in (Gibson, 1966) and so have the forms of memory that accompany them. All senses serve different purposes and do so in different ways. In vision, where orientation and object recognition are important, memory is strongly linked to identification. In olfaction, the guardian of vital functions such as breathing and food ingestion, perhaps the most important (and least noticed and researched) role of odor memory is to help us not to notice the well-known odors or flavors in our everyday surroundings, but to react immediately to the unexpected ones. At the same time it provides us with a feeling of safety when our expectancies are met. All this happens without any smelling intention or conscious knowledge of our expectations. Identification by odor naming is not involved in this and people are notoriously bad at it. Odors are usually best identified via the episodic memory of the situation in which they once occurred. Spontaneous conscious odor perception normally only occurs in situations where attention is demanded, either because the inhaled air or the food smell is particularly good or particularly bad and people search for its source or because people want to actively enjoy the healthiness and pleasantness of their surroundings or food. Odor memory is concerned with novelty detection rather than with recollection of odors. In this paper, these points are illustrated with experimental results and their consequences for doing ecologically valid odor memory research are drawn. Furthermore, suggestions for ecologically valid research on everyday odor memory and some illustrative examples are given. PMID:24575059

  4. An olfactory cocktail party: figure-ground segregation of odorants in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Rokni, Dan; Hemmelder, Vivian; Kapoor, Vikrant; Murthy, Venkatesh N.

    2014-01-01

    In odorant-rich environments, animals must be able to detect specific odorants of interest against variable backgrounds. However, several studies have suggested that both humans and rodents are very poor at analyzing the components of odorant mixtures, leading to the idea that olfaction is a synthetic sense in which mixtures are perceived holistically. We have developed a behavioral task to directly measure the ability of mice to perceive mixture components and found that mice can be easily trained to detect target odorants embedded in unpredictable and variable mixtures. We imaged the responses of olfactory bulb glomeruli to the individual odors used in the task in mice expressing the Ca++ indicator GCaMP3 in olfactory receptor neurons. By relating behavioral performance to the glomerular response patterns, we found that the difficulty of segregating the target from the background was strongly dependent on the extent of overlap between the representations of the target and the background odors by olfactory receptors. Our study indicates that the olfactory system has powerful analytic abilities that are constrained by the limits of combinatorial neural representation of odorants at the level of the olfactory receptors. PMID:25086608

  5. Olfactory Responses of Southern House Mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, to Human Odorants.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zi; Liu, Feng; Liu, Nannan

    2016-06-01

    Mosquito control is essential to protect humans from mosquito-borne diseases. The host recognition between mosquitoes and humans is achieved by the mosquito olfactory system. Antennal sensilla, which house olfactory receptor neurons, are responsible for detecting chemical cues from hosts. To deepen our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the host seeking behavior of mosquitoes, we conducted an electrophysiological study to investigate the response profile of each type of antennal sensilla to human odorants using single sensillum recording. In this study, more than 100 human odorants have been applied as stimuli to 5 morphological types of sensilla, long sharp trichoid (LST), short sharp trichoid (SST), short blunt trichoid I (SBTI), short blunt trichoid II (SBTII), and grooved peg (GP). Different types of sensilla present distinctive response profiles to the human odorants tested. In particular, SST, SBTI, and SBTII sensilla responded to more than 1 category of human odorants, while GP and LST were narrowly tuned to amines and methyl nonanoate, respectively. The dose-dependent patterns and odorant-specific/chemical structure-specific temporal dynamics of SBTI and SBTII antennal sensilla to human odorants had been further detected. Taken together, our study provides the new information on the olfactory physiology of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) to human odorants, leading to a better understanding of mosquito-host recognition and being important for future development of new reagents in the mosquito control. PMID:26969630

  6. Chemical evaluation of odor reduction by soil injection of animal manure.

    PubMed

    Feilberg Tavs Nyord, Anders; Hansen, Martin Nørregaard; Lindholst, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Field application of animal manure is a major cause of odor nuisance in the local environment. Therefore, there is a need for methods for measuring the effect of technologies for reducing odor after manure application. In this work, chemical methods were used to identify key odorants from field application of pig manure based on experiments with surface application by trailing hoses and soil injection. Results from three consecutive years of field trials with full-scale equipment are reported. Methods applied were: membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS), proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), gold-film hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) detection, all performed on site, and thermal desorption gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS) based on laboratory analyses of field samples. Samples were collected from a static flux chamber often used for obtaining samples for dynamic olfactometry. While all methods were capable of detecting relevant odorants, PTR-MS gave the most comprehensive results. Based on odor threshold values, 4-methylphenol, H₂S, and methanethiol are suggested as key odorants. Significant odorant reductions by soil injection were consistently observed in all trials. The flux chamber technique was demonstrated to be associated with critical errors due to compound instabilities in the chamber. This was most apparent for H₂S, on a time scale of a few minutes, and on a longer time scale for methanethiol. PMID:21869529

  7. Assessment of mass detection performance in contrast enhanced digital mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, Ann-Katherine; de Carvalho, Pablo M.; Li, Zhijin; Dromain, Clarisse; Muller, Serge

    2015-03-01

    We address the detectability of contrast-agent enhancing masses for contrast-agent enhanced spectral mammography (CESM), a dual-energy technique providing functional projection images of breast tissue perfusion and vascularity using simulated CESM images. First, the realism of simulated CESM images from anthropomorphic breast software phantoms generated with a software X-ray imaging platform was validated. Breast texture was characterized by power-law coefficients calculated in data sets of real clinical and simulated images. We also performed a 2-alternative forced choice (2-AFC) psychophysical experiment whereby simulated and real images were presented side-by-side to an experienced radiologist to test if real images could be distinguished from the simulated images. It was found that texture in our simulated CESM images has a fairly realistic appearance. Next, the relative performance of human readers and previously developed mathematical observers was assessed for the detection of iodine-enhancing mass lesions containing different contrast agent concentrations. A four alternative-forced-choice (4 AFC) task was designed; the task for the model and human observer was to detect which one of the four simulated DE recombined images contained an iodineenhancing mass. Our results showed that the NPW and NPWE models largely outperform human performance. After introduction of an internal noise component, both observers approached human performance. The CHO observer performs slightly worse than the average human observer. There is still work to be done in improving model observers as predictors of human-observer performance. Larger trials could also improve our test statistics. We hope that in the future, this framework of software breast phantoms, virtual image acquisition and processing, and mathematical observers can be beneficial to optimize CESM imaging techniques.

  8. Red junglefowl have individual body odors.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Anna-Carin; Jensen, Per; Elgland, Mathias; Laur, Katriann; Fyrner, Timmy; Konradsson, Peter; Laska, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Olfaction may play an important role in regulating bird behavior, and has been suggested to be involved in feather-pecking. We investigated possible differences in the body odors of red junglefowl females by using an automated olfactometer which assessed the ability of trained mice to discriminate between the odors of uropygial gland secretions (the main carrier of potential individual odors in chickens) of six feather-pecked and six non-pecked birds. All mice were clearly able to discriminate between all individual red junglefowl odors, showing that each bird has an individual body odor. We analyzed whether it was more difficult to discriminate between the odors of two feather-pecked, or two non-pecked birds, than it was to discriminate between the odors of two randomly selected birds. This was not the case, suggesting that feather-pecked birds did not share a common odor signature. Analyses using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry showed that the composition of aliphatic carboxylic acids in uropygial gland secretions differed consistently between individuals. However, chemical composition did not vary according to feather-pecking status. We conclude that red junglefowl have individual body odors which appear to be largely based on differences in the relative abundance of aliphatic carboxylic acids, but there is no evidence of systematic differences between the body odors of pecked and non-pecked birds. PMID:20435811

  9. Do ambient urban odors evoke basic emotions?

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Sandra T.; Lingg, Elisabeth; Heuberger, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Fragrances, such as plant odors, have been shown to evoke autonomic response patterns associated with Ekman's (Ekman et al., 1983) basic emotions happiness, surprise, anger, fear, sadness, and disgust. Inducing positive emotions by odors in highly frequented public spaces could serve to improve the quality of life in urban environments. Thus, the present study evaluated the potency of ambient odors connoted with an urban environment to evoke basic emotions on an autonomic and cognitive response level. Synthetic mixtures representing the odors of disinfectant, candles/bees wax, summer air, burnt smell, vomit and musty smell as well as odorless water as a control were presented five times in random order to 30 healthy, non-smoking human subjects with intact sense of smell. Skin temperature, skin conductance, breathing rate, forearm muscle activity, blink rate, and heart rate were recorded simultaneously. Subjects rated the odors in terms of pleasantness, intensity and familiarity and gave verbal labels to each odor as well as cognitive associations with the basic emotions. The results showed that the amplitude of the skin conductance response (SCR) varied as a function of odor presentation. Burnt smell and vomit elicited significantly higher electrodermal responses than summer air. Also, a negative correlation was revealed between the amplitude of the SCR and hedonic odor valence indicating that the magnitude of the electrodermal response increased with odor unpleasantness. The analysis of the cognitive associations between odors and basic emotions showed that candles/bees wax and summer air were specifically associated with happiness whereas burnt smell and vomit were uniquely associated with disgust. Our findings suggest that city odors may evoke specific cognitive associations of basic emotions and that autonomic activity elicited by such odors is related to odor hedonics. PMID:24860522

  10. Elaborated Odor Test for Extended Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, Vanessa D.; Henry, Emily J.; Mast, Dion J.; Harper, Susana A.; Beeson, Harold D.; Tapia, Alma S.

    2016-01-01

    Concerns were raised when incidental exposure to a proprietary bonding material revealed the material had an irritating odor. The NASA-STD-6001B document describes a supplemental test method option for programs to evaluate materials with odor concerns (Test 6, Odor Assessment). In addition to the supplemental standard odor assessment with less than 10 seconds of exposure, the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) Materials Flight Acceptance Testing section was requested to perform an odor test with an extended duration to evaluate effects of an extended exposure and to more closely simulate realistic exposure scenarios. With approval from the NASA Johnson Space Center Industrial Hygienist, WSTF developed a 15-minute odor test method. WSTF performed this extended-duration odor test to evaluate the odor and physical effects of the bonding material configured between two aluminum plates, after the safety of the gas was verified via toxicity analysis per NASA-STD-6001B Test 7, Determination of Offgassed Products. During extended-duration testing, odor panel members were arranged near the test material in a small room with the air handlers and doors closed to minimize dilution. The odor panel members wafted gas toward themselves and recorded their individual assessments of odor and physical effects at various intervals during the 15-minute exposure and posttest. A posttest interview was conducted to obtain further information. Testing was effective in providing data for comparison and selection of an optimal offgassing and odor containment configuration. The developed test method for extended exposure is proposed as a useful tool for further evaluating materials with identified odors of concern if continued use of the material is anticipated.

  11. Enhanced auditory temporal gap detection in listeners with musical training.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Panda, Manas R; Herbert, Carolyn

    2014-08-01

    Many features of auditory perception are positively altered in musicians. Traditionally auditory mechanisms in musicians are investigated using the Western-classical musician model. The objective of the present study was to adopt an alternative model-Indian-classical music-to further investigate auditory temporal processing in musicians. This study presents that musicians have significantly lower across-channel gap detection thresholds compared to nonmusicians. Use of the South Indian musician model provides an increased external validity for the prediction, from studies on Western-classical musicians, that auditory temporal coding is enhanced in musicians. PMID:25096143

  12. Optical detection of nanoparticle-enhanced human papillomavirus genotyping microarrays.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue Zhe; Kim, Sookyung; Cho, Wonhyung; Lee, Seung-Yop

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we propose a new detection method of nanoparticle-enhanced human papillomavirus genotyping microarrays using a DVD optical pick-up with a photodiode. The HPV genotyping DNA chip was labeled using Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles, prepared on a treatment glass substrate. Then, the bio information of the HPV genotyping target DNA was detected by measuring the difference of the optical signals between the DNA spots and the background parts for cervical cancer diagnosis. Moreover the approximate linear relationship between the concentration of the HPV genotyping target DNA and the optical signal depending on the density of Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles was obtained by performing a spot finding algorithm. It is shown that the nanoparticle-labeled HPV genotyping target DNA can be measured and quantified by collecting the low-cost photodiode signal on the treatment glass chip, replacing high-cost fluorescence microarray scanners using a photomultiplier tube. PMID:23413051

  13. Coherent stochastic oscillations enhance signal detection in spiking neurons

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Tatiana A.; Helbig, Brian; Russell, David F.; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz; Neiman, Alexander B.

    2016-01-01

    We study the effect of noisy oscillatory input on the signal discrimination by spontaneously firing neurons. Using analytically tractable model, we contrast signal detection in two situations (i) when the neuron is driven by coherent oscillations and (ii) when the coherence of oscillations is destroyed. Analytical calculations revealed a region in the parameter space of the model, where oscillations act to reduce the variability of neuronal firing and to enhance the discriminability of weak signals. These analytical results are employed to unveil a possible role of coherent oscillations in peripheral electrosensory system of paddlefish in improvement of detection of weak stimuli. The proposed mechanism may be relevant to a wide range of phenomena involving coherently driven oscillators. PMID:19792163

  14. Positive relationship between odor identification and affective responses of negatively valenced odors.

    PubMed

    Martinec Nováková, Lenka; Plotěná, Dagmar; Roberts, S Craig; Havlíček, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Hedonic ratings of odors and olfactory preferences are influenced by a number of modulating factors, such as prior experience and knowledge about an odor's identity. The present study addresses the relationship between knowledge about an odor's identity due to prior experience, assessed by means of a test of cued odor identification, and odor pleasantness ratings in children who exhibit ongoing olfactory learning. Ninety-one children aged 8-11 years rated the pleasantness of odors in the Sniffin' Sticks test and, subsequently, took the odor identification test. A positive association between odor identification and pleasantness was found for two unpleasant food odors (garlic and fish): higher pleasantness ratings were exhibited by those participants who correctly identified these odors compared to those who failed to correctly identify them. However, we did not find a similar effect for any of the more pleasant odors. The results of this study suggest that pleasantness ratings of some odors may be modulated by the knowledge of their identity due to prior experience and that this relationship might be more evident in unpleasant odors. PMID:26029143

  15. Enhanced detection performance in electrosense through capacitive sensing.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Neveln, Izaak D; Peshkin, Michael; MacIver, Malcolm A

    2016-01-01

    Weakly electric fish emit an AC electric field into the water and use thousands of sensors on the skin to detect field perturbations due to surrounding objects. The fish's active electrosensory system allows them to navigate and hunt, using separate neural pathways and receptors for resistive and capacitive perturbations. We have previously developed a sensing method inspired by the weakly electric fish to detect resistive perturbations and now report on an extension of this system to detect capacitive perturbations as well. In our method, an external object is probed by an AC field over multiple frequencies. We present a quantitative framework that relates the response of a capacitive object at multiple frequencies to the object's composition and internal structure, and we validate this framework with an electrosense robot that implements our capacitive sensing method. We define a metric for comparing the electrosensory range of different underwater electrosense systems. For detecting non-conductive objects, we show that capacitive sensing performs better than resistive sensing by almost an order of magnitude using this measure, while for conductive objects there is a four-fold increase in performance. Capacitive sensing could therefore provide electric fish with extended sensing range for capacitive objects such as prey, and gives artificial electrolocation systems enhanced range for targets that are capacitive. PMID:27501202

  16. Ghrelin Enhances Olfactory Sensitivity and Exploratory Sniffing in Rodents and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Jenny; Mannea, Erica; Aime, Pascaline; Pfluger, Paul T.; Yi, Chun-Xia; Castaneda, Tamara R.; Davis, Harold W.; Ren, Xueying; Pixley, Sarah; Benoit, Stephen; Julliard, Karyne; Woods, Stephen C; Horvath, Tamas L.; Sleeman, Mark M.; D’Alessio, David; Obici, Silvana; Frank, Robert; Tschöp, Matthias H.

    2011-01-01

    Olfaction is an integral part of feeding providing predictive cues that anticipate ingestion. Although olfactory function is modulated by factors such as prolonged fasting, the underlying neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. We recently identified ghrelin receptors in olfactory circuits in the brain. We therefore investigated the role of the appetite-stimulating hormone ghrelin in olfactory processing in rodents and humans, testing the hypothesis that ghrelin lowers olfactory detection thresholds and enhances exploratory sniffing, both being related to food-seeking. In rats, intracerebroventricular ghrelin decreased odor detection thresholds and increased sniffing frequency. In humans, systemic ghrelin infusions significantly enhanced sniff magnitudes in response to both food and non-food odorants and air in comparison to control saline infusions but did not affect the pleasantness ratings of odors. This is consistent with a specific effect on odor detection and not the hedonic value of odors. Collectively, our findings indicate that ghrelin stimulates exploratory sniffing and increases olfactory sensitivity, presumably enhancing the ability to locate, identify and select foods. This novel role is consistent with ghrelin’s overall function as a signal amplifier at the molecular interface between environmental and nutritional cues and neuroendocrine circuits controlling energy homeostasis. PMID:21490225

  17. The function of bilateral odor arrival time differences in olfactory orientation of sharks.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Jayne M; Atema, Jelle

    2010-07-13

    The direction of an odor signal source can be estimated from bilateral differences in signal intensity and/or arrival time. The best-known examples of the use of arrival time differences are in acoustic orientation. For chemoreception, animals are believed to orient by comparing bilateral odor concentration differences, turning toward higher concentrations. However, time differences should not be ignored, because odor plumes show chaotic intermittency, with the concentration variance several orders of magnitude greater than the concentration mean. We presented a small shark species, Mustelus canis, with carefully timed and measured odor pulses directly into their nares. They turned toward the side stimulated first, even with delayed pulses of higher concentration. This is the first conclusive evidence that under seminatural conditions and without training, bilateral time differences trump odor concentration differences. This response would steer the shark into an odor patch each time and thereby enhance its contact with the plume, i.e., a stream of patches. Animals with more widely spaced nares would be able to resolve smaller angles of attack at higher swimming speeds, a feature that may have contributed to the evolution of hammerhead sharks. This constitutes a novel steering algorithm for tracking odor plumes. PMID:20541411

  18. Odorant-binding proteins from a primitive termite.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yuko; Chiang, Vicky P; Haverty, Michael I; Leal, Walter S

    2002-09-01

    Hitherto, odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) have been identified from insects belonging to more highly evolved insect orders (Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Hemiptera), whereas only chemosensory proteins have been identified from more primitive species, such as orthopteran and phasmid species. Here, we report for the first time the isolation and cloning of odorant-binding proteins from a primitive termite species, the dampwood termite. Zootermopsis nevadensis nevadensis (Isoptera: Termopsidae). A major antennae-specific protein was detected by native PAGE along with four other minor proteins, which were also absent in the extract from control tissues (hindlegs). Multiple cDNA cloning led to the full characterization of the major antennae-specific protein (ZnevOBP1) and to the identification of two other antennae-specific cDNAs, encoding putative odorant-binding proteins (ZnevOBP2 and ZnevOBP3). N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the minor antennal bands and cDNA cloning showed that olfaction in Z. n. nevadensis may involve multiple odorant-binding proteins. Database searches suggest that the OBPs from this primitive termite are homologues of the pheromone-binding proteins from scarab beetles and antennal-binding proteins from moths. PMID:12449514

  19. Odorous VOC emission following land application of swine manure slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, David B.; Gilley, John; Woodbury, Bryan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Galvin, Geordie; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Li, Xu; Snow, Daniel D.

    2013-02-01

    Swine manure is often applied to crop land as a fertilizer source. Odor emissions from land-applied swine manure may pose a nuisance to downwind populations if manure is not applied with sufficient forethought. A research project was conducted to assess the time decay of odorous volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions following land application of swine manure. Three land application methods were compared: surface application, incorporation 24 h after surface application, and injection. Emission rates were measured in field plots using a small wind tunnel and sorbent tubes. VOCs including eight volatile fatty acids, five aromatics, and two sulfur-containing compounds were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In most cases, a first order exponential decay model adequately described the flux versus time relationship for the 24 h period following land application, but the model sometimes overestimated flux in the 6-24 h range. The same model but with the time term squared adequately predicted flux over the entire 24 h period. Three compounds (4-methylphenol, skatole, and 4-ethylphenol) accounted for 93 percent of the summed odor activity value. First order decay constants (k) for these three compounds ranged from 0.157 to 0.996 h-1. When compared to surface application, injection of swine manure resulted in 80-95 percent lower flux for the most odorous aromatic compounds. These results show that VOC flux decreases rapidly following land application of swine manure, declining below levels of detection and near background levels after 4 to 8 h.

  20. Investigation of breathing parameters during odor perception and olfactory imagery.

    PubMed

    Kleemann, A M; Kopietz, R; Albrecht, J; Schöpf, V; Pollatos, O; Schreder, T; May, J; Linn, J; Brückmann, H; Wiesmann, M

    2009-01-01

    Compared with visual and auditory imagery, little is known about olfactory imagery. There is evidence that respiration may be altered by both olfactory perception and olfactory imagery. In order to investigate this relationship, breathing parameters (respiratory minute volume, respiratory amplitude, and breathing rate) in human subjects during olfactory perception and olfactory imagery were investigated. Fifty-six subjects having normal olfactory function were tested. Nasal respiration was measured using a respiratory pressure sensor. Using an experimental block design, we alternately presented odors or asked the subjects to imagine a given smell. Four different pleasant odors were used: banana, rose, coffee, and lemon odor. We detected a significant increase in respiratory minute volume between olfactory perception and the baseline condition as well as between olfactory imagery and baseline condition. Additionally we found significant differences in the respiratory amplitude between imagery and baseline condition and between odor and imagery condition. Differences in the breathing rate between olfactory perception, olfactory imagery, and baseline were not statistically significant. We conclude from our results that olfactory perception and olfactory imagery both have effects on the human respiratory profile and that these effects are based on a common underlying mechanism. PMID:18701432

  1. Major Odorants Released as Urinary Volatiles by Urinary Incontinent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Si On; Sa, In Young; Oh, Soo Yeon

    2013-01-01

    In this study, volatile urinary components were collected using three different types of samples from patients suffering from urinary incontinence (UI): (1) urine (A); (2) urine + non-used pad (B); and (3) urine + used pad (C). In addition, urine + non-used pad (D) samples from non-patients were also collected as a reference. The collection of urinary volatiles was conducted with the aid of a glass impinger-based mini-chamber method. Each of the four sample types (A through D) was placed in a glass impinger and incubated for 4 hours at 37 °C. Ultra pure air was then passed through the chamber, and volatile urine gas components were collected into Tedlar bags at the other end. These bag samples were then analyzed for a wide range of VOCs and major offensive odorants (e.g., reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs), carbonyls, trimethylamine (TMA), ammonia, etc.). Among the various odorants, sulfur compounds (methanethiol and hydrogen sulfide) and aldehydes (acetaldehyde, butylaldehyde, and isovaleraldehyde) were detected above odor threshold and predicted to contribute most effectively to odor intensity of urine incontinence. PMID:23823973

  2. Odor Sampling: Techniques and Strategies for the Estimation of Odor Emission Rates from Different Source Types

    PubMed Central

    Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena; Rosso, Renato Del

    2013-01-01

    Sampling is one of the main issues pertaining to odor characterization and measurement. The aim of sampling is to obtain representative information on the typical characteristics of an odor source by means of the collection of a suitable volume fraction of the effluent. The most important information about an emission source for odor impact assessment is the so-called Odor Emission Rate (OER), which represents the quantity of odor emitted per unit of time, and is expressed in odor units per second (ou·s−1). This paper reviews the different odor sampling strategies adopted depending on source type. The review includes an overview of odor sampling regulations and a detailed discussion of the equipment to be used as well as the mathematical considerations to be applied to obtain the OER in relation to the sampled source typology. PMID:23322098

  3. Receptor arrays optimized for natural odor statistics.

    PubMed

    Zwicker, David; Murugan, Arvind; Brenner, Michael P

    2016-05-17

    Natural odors typically consist of many molecules at different concentrations. It is unclear how the numerous odorant molecules and their possible mixtures are discriminated by relatively few olfactory receptors. Using an information theoretic model, we show that a receptor array is optimal for this task if it achieves two possibly conflicting goals: (i) Each receptor should respond to half of all odors and (ii) the response of different receptors should be uncorrelated when averaged over odors presented with natural statistics. We use these design principles to predict statistics of the affinities between receptors and odorant molecules for a broad class of odor statistics. We also show that optimal receptor arrays can be tuned to either resolve concentrations well or distinguish mixtures reliably. Finally, we use our results to predict properties of experimentally measured receptor arrays. Our work can thus be used to better understand natural olfaction, and it also suggests ways to improve artificial sensor arrays. PMID:27102871

  4. Verbal memory elicited by ambient odor.

    PubMed

    Smith, D G; Standing, L; de Man, A

    1992-04-01

    This study examined whether an ambient odor can act as a contextual cue for retrieval of verbal stimuli. Subjects (N = 47) learned a list of 24 words while exposed to one of two odors (either jasmine incense or Lauren perfume) and subsequently relearned the list with either the same or the alternative odor present. Superior memory for the word list was found when the odor present during the relearning session was the same one that had been present at the time of initial learning, thereby demonstrating context-dependent memory. There were no differences in initial learning between the two odor conditions. No differences in pleasantness or intensity were found between the odors. PMID:1594391

  5. High Sensitivity Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Detection of Tryptophan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandakkathara, Archana

    Raman spectroscopy has the capability of providing detailed information about molecular structure, but the extremely small cross section of Raman scattering prevents this technique from applications requiring high sensitivity. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on the other hand provides strongly increased Raman signal from molecules attached to metallic nanostructures. SERS is thus a promising technique for high sensitivity analytical applications. One particular area of interest is the application of such techniques for the analysis of the composition of biological cells. However, there are issues which have to be addressed in order to make SERS a reliable technique such as the optimization of conditions for any given analyte, understanding the kinetic processes of binding of the target molecules to the nanostructures and understanding the evolution and coagulation of the nanostructures, in the case of colloidal solutions. The latter processes introduce a delay time for the observation of maximum enhancement factors which must be taken into account for any given implementation of SERS. In the present thesis the goal was to develop very sensitive SERS techniques for the measurement of biomolecules of interest for analysis of the contents of cells. The techniques explored could be eventually be applicable to microfluidic systems with the ultimate goal of analyzing the molecular constituents of single cells. SERS study of different amino acids and organic dyes were performed during the course of this thesis. A high sensitivity detection system based on SERS has been developed and spectrum from tryptophan (Trp) amino acid at very low concentration (10-8 M) has been detected. The concentration at which good quality SERS spectra could be detected from Trp is 4 orders of magnitude smaller than that previously reported in literature. It has shown that at such low concentrations the SERS spectra of Trp are qualitatively distinct from the spectra commonly reported in

  6. The North Polar Spur: Detection of Nitrogen Enhancement with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Eric D.; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Bautz, Mark W.

    2009-08-01

    We present Suzaku observations of the North Polar Spur (NPS), a region of enhanced soft X-ray and radio emission projected above the plane of the Galaxy, likely produced by combined supernovae and stellar winds from the nearby Sco-Cen OB association. The exceptional sensitivity and spectral resolution of the Suzaku/XIS below 1 keV allow unprecedented probing of low-energy spectral lines, and we have detected highly-ionized nitrogen toward the NPS for the first time. The best-fit emission model implies a hot (kT~0.3 keV), CIE plasma with an enhanced nitrogen abundance ratio of N/O = 4.0-0.5+0.4 solar. This N abundance is best explained by enrichment from stellar material that has been processed by AGB stars undergoing the CNO cycle. Due to the time required to develop AGB stars, we conclude that this enhancement cannot be caused by the Sco-Cen OB association, but may result from a previous enrichment episode in the solar neighborhood.

  7. Enhanced visualization of oral cavity for early inflamed tissue detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiang-Chen; Chen, Yung-Tsan; Lin, Jui-Teng; Chiang, Chun-Ping; Cheng, Fang-Hsuan

    2010-05-24

    We describe a color image reconstruction method that enables both direct visualization and direct digital image acquisition from one oral tissue by using various light sources and color compensating filters. In this method, the image of the oral tissue with white light emitting diodes (LEDs) with blue color compensating filter has a larger color difference between the normal and inflamed tissues. The enhanced visualization comes from the white light color mixing between the red normal tissue and bluish white light from the LEDs. With our method, we evaluate the perceived tissue reflectance in each pixel of the image and color reproduction with different illuminated spectra. Our approach to enhancement of visually perceived color difference between normal and inflamed oral tissue involves optimization of illumination and observation conditions by allowing a significant optical contrast of illuminated spectrum to reach the observer's eyes. In comparison with a conventional daylight LED flashlight, a LED with blue filter as the illuminant for oral cavity detection enhances the color difference between normal and inflamed tissues by 32%. PMID:20589041

  8. Odor-active constituents in fresh pineapple (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr.) by quantitative and sensory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tokitomo, Yukiko; Steinhaus, Martin; Büttner, Andrea; Schieberle, Peter

    2005-07-01

    By application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to an aroma distillate prepared from fresh pineapple using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), 29 odor-active compounds were detected in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 2 to 4,096. Quantitative measurements performed by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA) and a calculation of odor activity values (OAVs) of 12 selected odorants revealed the following compounds as key odorants in fresh pineapple flavor: 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDF; sweet, pineapple-like, caramel-like), ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity), ethyl 2-methylbutanoate (fruity) followed by methyl 2-methylbutanoate (fruity, apple-like) and 1-(E,Z)-3,5-undecatriene (fresh, pineapple-like). A mixture of these 12 odorants in concentrations equal to those in the fresh pineapple resulted in an odor profile similar to that of the fresh juice. Furthermore, the results of omission tests using the model mixture showed that HDF and ethyl 2-methylbutanoate are character impact odorants in fresh pineapple. PMID:16041138

  9. Developing hexanal as an odor reference standard for sensory analysis of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Omür-Ozbek, Pinar; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2008-05-01

    There are many analytical and sensory methods to analyze drinking water for flavor and off-flavors before it reaches consumers. Flavor profile analysis (FPA) is one of the most comprehensive methods. A well-trained panel is essential for FPA and although taste standards are well established, FPA training lacks an odor reference standard. In search of an odor reference standard, four different panel groups were trained and tested for n-hexanal at various concentrations (1-1000 microg/L) over 14 months. The Weber-Fechner plots for n-hexanal showed a linear and overlapping relationship for all panels. Analytical measurements demonstrated that the headspace concentration of n-hexanal was constant after 5 sniffs at 45 degrees C and it remained constant during FPA sessions for up to 4 h. The panelists liked the grassy odor of n-hexanal, which did not result in fatigue, and testing demonstrated that approximately 95% of the population can detect n-hexanal's odor. n-Hexanal is proposed as an odor reference standard for FPA training to define odor intensities because it is chemically stable, follows Weber-Fechner law, mimics grassy odors found in drinking water, and was acceptable to the human panelists. PMID:18280533

  10. Kraft Board Odor Evaluation by Gas Chromatography and Odor Judging Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontenot, J. L.

    This is an experimental study which was undertaken to determine if a gas chromatographic technique could be used to measure paperboard odor levels. Because there are many variations to odor testing using a panel of judges - which is the generally accepted method - the author states that, obviously, an objective method for ascertaining odor levels…

  11. Children's Facial Responsiveness to Odors: Influences of Hedonic Valence of Odor, Gender, Age, and Social Presence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soussignan, Robert; Schall, Benoist

    1996-01-01

    Facial responsiveness to pleasant and unpleasant odors was examined in 5- to 12-year-old children. Children failed to display reflex-like patterns, but exhibited facial configurations that varied according to odor and social condition. Results suggest that facial responsiveness to odors is flexible and able to reorganize and supports emotional and…

  12. Odor preferences shape discrimination learning in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joshua; Linster, Christiane; Devore, Sasha

    2014-01-01

    Forced-choice discrimination is a standard behavioral paradigm used to test animals’ abilities in learning and memory. In this type of task, a reward association is made between a sensory stimulus and a food or water reward and the frequency of correct choice for the stimulus associated with the reward is measured. We here show that when olfactory sensory stimuli are used, spontaneous preferences for odors can influence speed of acquisition in a forced-choice discrimination task. We first show that among a battery of 53 odorants, some odorants elicit longer bouts of spontaneous investigation than others. We confirm that these odor preferences are robust and reliable by measuring relative spontaneous investigation times for pairs of simultaneously presented odorants. Finally, we show that performance on a forced-choice olfactory discrimination depends on relative spontaneous preferences between the rewarded and unrewarded odorants. Namely, rats acquire novel forced-choice odor discrimination problems significantly faster if the preferred odorant, as assessed by relative spontaneous investigation time, is associated with the reward. These results indicate that even subtle differences in the tendency for an animal to approach and investigate one odorant over another can lead to substantial biases in basic learning and memory tasks. PMID:23895061

  13. Cross-Cultural Color-Odor Associations

    PubMed Central

    Levitan, Carmel A.; Ren, Jiana; Woods, Andy T.; Boesveldt, Sanne; Chan, Jason S.; McKenzie, Kirsten J.; Dodson, Michael; Levin, Jai A.; Leong, Christine X. R.; van den Bosch, Jasper J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor), statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience), and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language). The present study probed this question by testing color-odor correspondences in 6 different cultural groups (Dutch, Netherlands-residing-Chinese, German, Malay, Malaysian-Chinese, and US residents), using the same set of 14 odors and asking participants to make congruent and incongruent color choices for each odor. We found consistent patterns in color choices for each odor within each culture, showing that participants were making non-random color-odor matches. We used representational dissimilarity analysis to probe for variations in the patterns of color-odor associations across cultures; we found that US and German participants had the most similar patterns of associations, followed by German and Malay participants. The largest group differences were between Malay and Netherlands-resident Chinese participants and between Dutch and Malaysian-Chinese participants. We conclude that culture plays a role in color-odor crossmodal associations, which likely arise, at least in part, through experience. PMID:25007343

  14. Unpleasant odors increase aversion to monetary losses.

    PubMed

    Stancak, Andrej; Xie, Yuxin; Fallon, Nicholas; Bulsing, Patricia; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Pantelous, Athanasios A

    2015-04-01

    Loss aversion is the tendency to prefer avoiding losses over acquiring gains of equal nominal values. Unpleasant odors not only influence affective state but have also been shown to activate brain regions similar to those mediating loss aversion. Therefore, we hypothesized a stronger loss aversion in a monetary gamble task if gambles were associated with an unpleasant as opposed to pleasant odor. In thirty human subjects, unpleasant (methylmercaptan), pleasant (jasmine), and neutral (clean air) odors were presented for 4 s. At the same time, uncertain gambles offering an equal chance of gain or loss of a variable amount of money, or a prospect of an assured win were displayed. One hundred different gambles were presented three times, each time paired with a different odor. Loss aversion, risk aversion, and logit sensitivity were evaluated using non-linear fitting of individual gamble decisions. Loss aversion was larger when prospects were displayed in the presence of methylmercaptan compared to jasmine or clean air. Moreover, individual differences in changes in loss aversion to the unpleasant as compared to pleasant odor correlated with odor pleasantness but not with odor intensity. Skin conductance responses to losses during the outcome period were larger when gambles were associated with methylmercaptan compared to jasmine. Increased loss aversion while perceiving an unpleasant odor suggests a dynamic adjustment of loss aversion toward greater sensitivity to losses. Given that odors are biological signals of hazards, such adjustment of loss aversion may have adaptive value in situations entailing threat or danger. PMID:25711689

  15. Cross-cultural color-odor associations.

    PubMed

    Levitan, Carmel A; Ren, Jiana; Woods, Andy T; Boesveldt, Sanne; Chan, Jason S; McKenzie, Kirsten J; Dodson, Michael; Levin, Jai A; Leong, Christine X R; van den Bosch, Jasper J F

    2014-01-01

    Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor), statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience), and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language). The present study probed this question by testing color-odor correspondences in 6 different cultural groups (Dutch, Netherlands-residing-Chinese, German, Malay, Malaysian-Chinese, and US residents), using the same set of 14 odors and asking participants to make congruent and incongruent color choices for each odor. We found consistent patterns in color choices for each odor within each culture, showing that participants were making non-random color-odor matches. We used representational dissimilarity analysis to probe for variations in the patterns of color-odor associations across cultures; we found that US and German participants had the most similar patterns of associations, followed by German and Malay participants. The largest group differences were between Malay and Netherlands-resident Chinese participants and between Dutch and Malaysian-Chinese participants. We conclude that culture plays a role in color-odor crossmodal associations, which likely arise, at least in part, through experience. PMID:25007343

  16. Human olfactory receptor responses to odorants

    PubMed Central

    Mainland, Joel D; Li, Yun R; Zhou, Ting; Liu, Wen Ling L; Matsunami, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Although the human olfactory system is capable of discriminating a vast number of odors, we do not currently understand what chemical features are encoded by olfactory receptors. In large part this is due to a paucity of data in a search space covering the interactions of hundreds of receptors with billions of odorous molecules. Of the approximately 400 intact human odorant receptors, only 10% have a published ligand. Here we used a heterologous luciferase assay to screen 73 odorants against a clone library of 511 human olfactory receptors. This dataset will allow other researchers to interrogate the combinatorial nature of olfactory coding. PMID:25977809

  17. Locating a compact odor source using a four-channel insect electroantennogram sensor.

    PubMed

    Myrick, A J; Baker, T C

    2011-03-01

    Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using an array of live insects to detect concentrated packets of odor and infer the location of an odor source (∼15 m away) using a backward Lagrangian dispersion model based on the Langevin equation. Bayesian inference allows uncertainty to be quantified, which is useful for robotic planning. The electroantennogram (EAG) is the biopotential developed between the tissue at the tip of an insect antenna and its base, which is due to the massed response of the olfactory receptor neurons to an odor stimulus. The EAG signal can carry tens of bits per second of information with a rise time as short as 12 ms (K A Justice 2005 J. Neurophiol. 93 2233-9). Here, instrumentation including a GPS with a digital compass and an ultrasonic 2D anemometer has been integrated with an EAG odor detection scheme, allowing the location of an odor source to be estimated by collecting data at several downwind locations. Bayesian inference in conjunction with a Lagrangian dispersion model, taking into account detection errors, has been implemented resulting in an estimate of the odor source location within 0.2 m of the actual location. PMID:21160116

  18. Evidence for a bacterial mechanism for group-specific social odors among hyenas.

    PubMed

    Theis, Kevin R; Schmidt, Thomas M; Holekamp, Kay E

    2012-01-01

    Symbiotic microbes can benefit their animal hosts by enhancing the diversity of communication signals available to them. The fermentation hypothesis for chemical recognition posits that 1) fermentative bacteria in specialized mammalian scent glands generate odorants that mammals co-opt to communicate with one another, and 2) that variation in scent gland odors is due to underlying variation in the structure of bacterial communities within scent glands. For example, group-specific social odors are suggested to be due to members of the same social group harboring more similar bacterial communities in their scent glands than do members of different social groups. We used 16S rRNA gene surveys to show that 1) the scent secretions of spotted hyenas are densely populated by fermentative bacteria whose closest relatives are well-documented odor producers, and that 2) these bacterial communities are more similar among hyenas from the same social group than among those from different groups. PMID:22937224

  19. Enhanced environmental detection of uranyl compounds based on luminescence characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Jean Dennis

    Uranium (U) contamination can be introduced to the environment as a result of mining and manufacturing activities related to nuclear power, detonation of U-containing munitions (DoD), or nuclear weapons production/processing (DOE facilities). In oxidizing environments such as surface soils, U predominantly exists as U(VI), which is highly water soluble and very mobile in soils. U(VI) compounds typically contain the UO22+ group (uranyl compounds). The uniquely structured and long-lived green luminescence (fluorescence) of the uranyl ion (under UV radiation) has been studied and remained a strong topic of interest for two centuries. The presented research is distinct in its objective of improving capabilities for remotely sensing U contamination by understanding what environmental conditions are ideal for detection and need to be taken into consideration. Specific focuses include: (1) the accumulation and fluorescence enhancement of uranyl compounds at soil surfaces using distributed silica gel, and (2) environmental factors capable of influencing the luminescence response, directly or indirectly. In a complex environmental system, matrix effects co-exist from key soil parameters including moisture content (affected by evaporation, temperature and humidity), soil texture, pH, CEC, organic matter and iron content. Chapter 1 is a review of pertinent background information and provides justification for the selected key environmental parameters. Chapter 2 presents empirical investigations related to the fluorescence detection and characterization of uranyl compounds in soil and aqueous samples. An integrative experimental design was employed, testing different soils, generating steady-state fluorescence spectra, and building a comprehensive dataset which was then utilized to simultaneously test three hypotheses: The fluorescence detection of uranyl compounds is dependent upon (1) the key soil parameters, (2) the concentration of U contamination, and (3) time of analysis

  20. Carbon Nanotube-based microelectrodes for enhanced detection of neurotransmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher B.

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is one of the common techniques used for rapid measurement of neurotransmitters in vivo. Carbon-fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) are typically used for neurotransmitter detection because of sub-second measurement capabilities, ability to measure changes in neurotransmitter concentration during neurotransmission, and the small size electrode diameter, which limits the amount of damage caused to tissue. Cylinder CFMEs, typically 50 -- 100 microm long, are commonly used for in vivo experiments because the electrode sensitivity is directly related to the electrode surface area. However the length of the electrode can limit the spatial resolution of neurotransmitter detection, which can restrict experiments in Drosophila and other small model systems. In addition, the electrode sensitivity toward dopamine and serotonin detection drops significantly for measurements at rates faster than 10 Hz, limiting the temporal resolution of CFMEs. While the use of FSCV at carbon-fiber microelectrodes has led to substantial strides in our understanding of neurotransmission, techniques that expand the capabilities of CFMEs are crucial to fully maximize the potential uses of FSCV. This dissertation introduces new methods to integrate carbon nanotubes (CNT) into microelectrodes and discusses the electrochemical enhancements of these CNT-microelectrodes. The electrodes are specifically designed with simple fabrication procedures so that highly specialized equipment is not necessary, and they utilize commercially available materials so that the electrodes could be easily integrated into existing systems. The electrochemical properties of CNT modified CFMEs are characterized using FSCV and the effect of CNT functionalization on these properties is explored in Chapter 2. For example, CFME modification using carboxylic acid functionalized CNTs yield about a 6-fold increase in dopamine oxidation current, but modification with octadecylamine CNTs results in a

  1. Method and apparatus for enhanced detection of toxic agents

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Wu, Jie Jayne; Qi, Hairong

    2013-10-01

    A biosensor based detection of toxins includes enhancing a fluorescence signal by concentrating a plurality of photosynthetic organisms in a fluid into a concentrated region using biased AC electro-osmosis. A measured photosynthetic activity of the photosynthetic organisms is obtained in the concentrated region, where chemical, biological or radiological agents reduce a nominal photosynthetic activity of the photosynthetic organisms. A presence of the chemical, biological and/or radiological agents or precursors thereof, is determined in the fluid based on the measured photosynthetic activity of the concentrated plurality of photosynthetic organisms. A lab-on-a-chip system is used for the concentrating step. The presence of agents is determined from feature vectors, obtained from processing a time dependent signal using amplitude statistics and/or time-frequency analysis, relative to a control signal. A linear discriminant method including support vector machine classification (SVM) is used to identify the agents.

  2. Image animation for theme enhancement and change detection. [LANDSAT 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Animated displays are useful in enhancing subtle temporally related changes in scenes viewed by satellites capable of providing repetitive coverage. The detectability of fixed features is also improved through the help of the powerful visual integration process. To expedite the process of assembling and displaying well-registered, time-lapse sequences and to provide means for making quantitative measurements of radiances, displacements, and areas, an electronic satellite image analysis console was constructed. During the LANDSAT-1 program, this equipment was applied to the needs of a number of earth resource investigators with interests principally related to dynamic hydrology. The measurement of the areal extent of snow cover within defined drainage basins is discussed as a representative applications example.

  3. Rats assess degree of relatedness from human odors.

    PubMed

    Ables, Erin M; Kay, Leslie M; Mateo, Jill M

    2007-04-23

    Despite widespread interest in the evolutionary implications of human olfactory communication, the mechanisms underlying human odor production are still poorly understood. Previous studies have demonstrated that human odor cues are related to variations in the major histocompatibility complex, but it is unclear whether odors are associated with overall genotypic variation. In this study, we investigated whether more closely related humans produce more similar odor cues. To assess objective odor qualities we tested odor similarity using rats in a habituation-discrimination paradigm. Rats were first habituated to a referent human odor and were then presented with two test odors obtained from individuals related in different degrees to the referent. Investigation times for each odor were compared. Because rats investigate novel odors longer than familiar odors, we were able to determine which test odor the rats perceived as more similar to the referent human odor. For six of ten odor donor families, rats investigated the odor of the less closely related individual significantly longer than that of the more closely related individual, and investigation durations were in the expected direction for all families. These results indicate that similarity of human odor cues is associated with degree of genetic relatedness, with more closely related humans producing more similar odor cues. This study supports the hypothesis that odor cues provide information regarding degree of relatedness and may thus affect a wide variety of human behaviors, including kin preferences, nepotism, and mate choice. PMID:17261318

  4. An antennal carboxylesterase from Drosophila melanogaster, esterase 6, is a candidate odorant-degrading enzyme toward food odorants

    PubMed Central

    Chertemps, Thomas; Younus, Faisal; Steiner, Claudia; Durand, Nicolas; Coppin, Chris W.; Pandey, Gunjan; Oakeshott, John G.; Maïbèche, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Reception of odorant molecules within insect olfactory organs involves several sequential steps, including their transport through the sensillar lymph, interaction with the respective sensory receptors, and subsequent inactivation. Odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs) putatively play a role in signal dynamics by rapid degradation of odorants in the vicinity of the receptors, but this hypothesis is mainly supported by in vitro results. We have recently shown that an extracellular carboxylesterase, esterase-6 (EST-6), is involved in the physiological and behavioral dynamics of the response of Drosophila melanogaster to its volatile pheromone ester, cis-vaccenyl acetate. However, as the expression pattern of the Est-6 gene in the antennae is not restricted to the pheromone responding sensilla, we tested here if EST-6 could play a broader function in the antennae. We found that recombinant EST-6 is able to efficiently hydrolyse several volatile esters that would be emitted by its natural food in vitro. Electrophysiological comparisons of mutant Est-6 null flies and a control strain (on the same genetic background) showed that the dynamics of the antennal response to these compounds is influenced by EST-6, with the antennae of the null mutants showing prolonged activity in response to them. Antennal responses to the strongest odorant, pentyl acetate, were then studied in more detail, showing that the repolarization dynamics were modified even at low doses but without modification of the detection threshold. Behavioral choice experiments with pentyl acetate also showed differences between genotypes; attraction to this compound was observed at a lower dose among the null than control flies. As EST-6 is able to degrade various bioactive odorants emitted by food and plays a role in the response to these compounds, we hypothesize a role as an ODE for this enzyme toward food volatiles. PMID:26594178

  5. Detection Of Biochips By Raman And Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantarovich, Keren; Tsarfati, Inbal; Gheber, Levi A.; Haupt, Karsten; Bar, Ilana

    2010-08-01

    Biochips constitute a rapidly increasing research field driven by the versatility of sensing devices and the importance of their applications in the bioanalytical field, drug development, environmental monitoring, food analysis, etc. Common strategies used for creating biochips and for reading them have extensive limitations, motivating development of miniature biochips and label-free formats. To achieve these goals we combined the nano fountain pen method, for printing microscale features with Raman spectroscopy or surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for reading droplets of synthetic receptors. These receptors include molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), which are obtained by polymerization of suitable functional and cross-linking monomers around molecular templates. MIPs are characterized by higher physical and chemical stability than biomacromolecules, and therefore are potentially very suitable as recognition elements for biosensors, or biochips. The monitored bands in the Raman and SERS spectra could be related to the taken up compound, allowing direct detection of the template, i.e., the β-blocking drug propranolol in the imprinted droplets, as well as imaging of individual and multiple dots in an array. This study shows that the combination of nanolithography techniques with SERS might open the possibility of miniaturized arrayed MIP sensors with label-free, specific and quantitative detection.

  6. Enhanced electrochemical detection of quercetin by Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Federico José Vicente; Espino, Magdalena; de Los Angeles Fernandez, María; Raba, Julio; Silva, María Fernanda

    2016-09-14

    New trends in analytical chemistry encourage the development of smart techniques and methods aligned with Green Chemistry. In this sense, Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents represents an excellent opportunity as a new generation of green solvents. In this work a new application for them has been proposed and demonstrated. These solvents were synthesized by combinations of inexpensive and natural components like, Glucose, Fructose, Citric acid and Lactic acid. The different natural solvents were easily prepared and added to buffer solution in different concentrations, allowing the enhancement of electrochemical detection of an important representative antioxidant like quercetin (QR) with improved signal up to 380%. QR is a ubiquitous flavonoid widespread in plants and food of plant origin. The proposed method using phosphate buffer with a eutectic mixture of Citric acid, Glucose and water in combination with carbon screen printed electrodes exhibited a good analytical performance. Detection and quantification limits were of 7.97 and 26.3 nM respectively; and repeatability with %RSDs of 1.41 and 7.49 for peak potential and intensity respectively. In addition, it has proved to be faster, greener and cheaper than other sensors and chromatographic methods available with the additional advantage of being completely portable. Furthermore, the obtained results demonstrated that the proposed method is able for the determination of QR in complex food samples. PMID:27566343

  7. Improving Animal Disease Detection Through an Enhanced Passive Surveillance Platform.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chelsea Wright; Holmstrom, Lindsey; Biggers, Keith; Wall, James; Beckham, Tammy; Coats, Matthew; Korslund, John; Colby, Michelle M

    2016-01-01

    The ability to rapidly detect and report infectious diseases of domestic animals and wildlife is paramount to reducing the size and duration of an outbreak. There is currently a need in the United States livestock industry for a centralized animal disease surveillance platform, capable of collecting, integrating, and analyzing multiple data streams with dissemination to end-users. Such a system would be disease agnostic and establish baseline information on animal health and disease prevalence; it would alert health officials to anomalies potentially indicative of emerging and/or transboundary disease outbreaks, changes in the status of endemic disease, or detection of other causative agents (eg, toxins). As a part of its mission to accelerate and develop countermeasures against the introduction of emerging and/or transboundary animal diseases into the United States, the Department of Homeland Security is leading and investing in the development of an enhanced passive surveillance platform capable of establishing animal health baselines over time and alerting health officials to potential infectious disease outbreaks or other health anomalies earlier, allowing for more rapid response, improved animal health, and increased economic security. PMID:27419928

  8. The Importance of Odorant Conformation to the Binding and Activation of a Representative Olfactory Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Peterlin, Zita; Li, Yadi; Sun, Guangxing; Shah, Rohan; Firestein, Stuart; Ryan, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Olfactory receptors (ORs) form a large family of G-protein coupled receptor proteins (GPCRs) responsible for sensing the ambient chemical environment. The molecular recognition strategies used by ORs to detect and distinguish odorant molecules are unclear. Here, we investigated the variable of odorant carbon chain conformation for an established odorant-OR pair: n-octanal and rat OR-I7. A series of conformationally restricted octanal mimics were tested on live olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Our results support a model in which unactivated OR-I7 binds aliphatic aldehydes indiscriminately, and then applies conformational and length filters to distinguish agonists from antagonists. Specific conformers are proposed to activate OR-I7 by steric buttressing of an OR activation pocket. Probing endogenously expressed rat OSNs with octanal and constrained mimics furnished evidence that odorant conformation contributes to an odorant’s unique olfactory code signature. PMID:19101476

  9. Positive relationship between odor identification and affective responses of negatively valenced odors

    PubMed Central

    Martinec Nováková, Lenka; Plotěná, Dagmar; Roberts, S. Craig; Havlíček, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Hedonic ratings of odors and olfactory preferences are influenced by a number of modulating factors, such as prior experience and knowledge about an odor’s identity. The present study addresses the relationship between knowledge about an odor’s identity due to prior experience, assessed by means of a test of cued odor identification, and odor pleasantness ratings in children who exhibit ongoing olfactory learning. Ninety-one children aged 8–11 years rated the pleasantness of odors in the Sniffin’ Sticks test and, subsequently, took the odor identification test. A positive association between odor identification and pleasantness was found for two unpleasant food odors (garlic and fish): higher pleasantness ratings were exhibited by those participants who correctly identified these odors compared to those who failed to correctly identify them. However, we did not find a similar effect for any of the more pleasant odors. The results of this study suggest that pleasantness ratings of some odors may be modulated by the knowledge of their identity due to prior experience and that this relationship might be more evident in unpleasant odors. PMID:26029143

  10. Perceptual blending in odor mixtures depends on the nature of odorants and human olfactory expertise.

    PubMed

    Barkat, S; Le Berre, E; Coureaud, G; Sicard, G; Thomas-Danguin, T

    2012-02-01

    Our olfactory system is confronted with complex mixtures of odorants, often recognized as single entities due to odor blending (e.g., coffee). In contrast, we are also able to discriminate odors from complex mixtures (e.g., off-odors). Therefore, the olfactory system is able to engage either configural or elemental processes when confronted with mixtures. However, the rules that govern the involvement of these processes during odor perception remain poorly understood. In our first experiment, we examined whether simple odorant mixtures (binary/ternary) could elicit configural perception. Twenty untrained subjects were asked to evaluate the odor typicality of mixtures and their constituents. The results revealed a significant increase in odor typicality in some but not all mixtures as compared with the single components, which suggest that perceptual odor blending can occur only in specific mixtures (configural processing). In our second experiment, we tested the hypothesis that general olfactory expertise can improve elemental perception of mixtures. Thirty-two trained subjects evaluated the odor typicality of the stimuli presented during the first experiment, and their responses were compared with those obtained from the untrained panelists. The results support the idea that general training with odors increases the elemental perception of binary and ternary blending mixtures. PMID:21873604

  11. Quantitative analysis of earthy and musty odors in drinking water sources impacted by wastewater and algal derived contaminants.

    PubMed

    Wu, Danyang; Duirk, Stephen E

    2013-06-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a robust method capable of quantifying taste and odor compounds (i.e., geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol) at very low aqueous concentrations in the presence of wastewater and algal derived contaminants. A polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber was used to perform headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) to extract and analyze taste and odor compounds from model, source water, and finished drinking water samples. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometery (GC/MS) in full scan mode was used to analyze the compounds desorbed from the fiber in the GC inlet. The following parameters were optimized in order to enhance analyte recovery: extraction temperature, extraction time, desorption time, sonication temperature, sonication time and GC/MS configuration/temperature program. After optimization, the method provided a linear response from 1 to 300 ng L(-1) and yielded limit of detections (LODs) of 1 ng L(-1) for both 2-MIB and geosmin. In MS full scan mode, wastewater contaminants and other algal derived volatile organic compounds (ADVOCs) relevant to cyanobacterial bloom dynamics were detected and monitored in real source water samples. In the presence of known interferents with similar mass/charge fragments and elution times, the optimized method yielded low detection limits as well as exact molecular confirmation for taste and odor compounds in impacted source water samples. This method could be used as a tool to aid in the development of source water protection plans by identifying potential sources of anthropogenic and algal derived contamination in drinking water sources. PMID:23336928

  12. Water Treatment Technology - Taste, Odor & Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on taste, odor, and color provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: taste and odor determination, control of…

  13. Design considerations: Upgrading Boston Gas odorant stations

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, E.

    1995-05-01

    Boston Gas Company (BGC) has progressed beyond the half-way point on a four-year program to upgrade its odorant injection systems. An experienced odorization team from BGC`s Gas Supply and Production Department set out to redesign odorant storage, piping and injection system operation and to research the availability of improved odorization equipment. Research included investigating odorization practices of other gas companies and new technologies offered by odorization equipment manufacturers. The NJEX system and other innovations used in BGC`s odorization operation have proven effective since their inception. The system has provided reliable metering, consistent injection rates and accurate data storage. The controller has greatly simplified programming, troubleshooting and system monitoring. Innovations such as back welded fittings, Viton O-ring seal fittings, diaphragm valves, and complete combustion flares have provided reliable odor-free operation, filling and maintenance. The system`s simple mechanical layout, the user`s manual, and closed loop purging and priming have lowered the learning curve for operating personnel, and reduce man hours for maintenance and troubleshooting.

  14. 46 CFR 58.16-25 - Odorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Odorization. 58.16-25 Section 58.16-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-25 Odorization. (a)...

  15. 46 CFR 58.16-25 - Odorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Odorization. 58.16-25 Section 58.16-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-25 Odorization. (a)...

  16. 46 CFR 58.16-25 - Odorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Odorization. 58.16-25 Section 58.16-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-25 Odorization. (a)...

  17. 46 CFR 58.16-25 - Odorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Odorization. 58.16-25 Section 58.16-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-25 Odorization. (a)...

  18. 46 CFR 58.16-25 - Odorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Odorization. 58.16-25 Section 58.16-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-25 Odorization. (a)...

  19. Age-Related Changes in Odor Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Mahmut, Mehmet; Sundqvist, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Odor naming and recognition memory are poorer in children than in adults. This study explored whether such differences might result from poorer discriminative ability. Experiment 1 used an oddity test of discrimination with familiar odors on 6-year-olds, 11-year-olds, and adults. Six-year-olds were significantly poorer at discrimination relative…

  20. Fresh squeezed orange juice odor: a review.

    PubMed

    Perez-Cacho, Pilar Ruiz; Rouseff, Russell L

    2008-08-01

    Fresh orange juice is a highly desirable but unstable product. This review examines analytical findings, odor activity, and variations due to cultivar, sampling methods, manner of juicing, plus possible enzymatic and microbial artifacts. Initial attempts to characterize orange juice odor were based on volatile quantitation and overemphasized the importance of high concentration volatiles. Although over 300 volatiles have been reported from GC-MS analytical studies, this review presents 36 consensus aroma active components from GC-olfactometry studies consisting of 14 aldehydes, 7 esters, 5 terpenes, 6 alcohols, and 4 ketones. Most are trace (microg/L) components. (+)-Limonene is an essential component in orange juice odor although its exact function is still uncertain. Total amounts of volatiles in mechanically squeezed juices are three to 10 times greater than hand-squeezed juices because of elevated peel oil levels. Elevated peel oil changes the relative proportion of several key odorants. Odor active components from solvent extraction studies differ from those collected using headspace techniques as they include volatiles with low vapor pressure such as vanillin. Some reported odorants such as 2,3-butanedione are microbial contamination artifacts. Orange juice odor models confirm that fresh orange aroma is complex as the most successful models contain 23 odorants. PMID:18663618

  1. 46 CFR 169.571 - Odorizing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Odorizing units. 169.571 Section 169.571 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.571 Odorizing units. Each carbon...

  2. 46 CFR 169.571 - Odorizing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Odorizing units. 169.571 Section 169.571 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.571 Odorizing units. Each carbon...

  3. 46 CFR 169.571 - Odorizing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Odorizing units. 169.571 Section 169.571 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.571 Odorizing units. Each carbon...

  4. A Neural Mechanism of Taste Perception Modulated by Odor Information.

    PubMed

    Shimemura, Takahiro; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Kashimori, Yoshiki

    2016-09-01

    Taste perception is significantly affected by other sensory modalities such as vision, smell, and somatosensation. Such taste sensation elicited by integrating gustatory and other sensory information is referred to as flavor. Although experimental studies have demonstrated the characteristics of flavor perception influenced by other sensory modalities and the involved brain areas, it remains unknown how flavor emerges from the brain circuits. Of the involved brain areas, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), as well as gustatory cortex (GC), plays a dominant role in flavor perception. We develop here a neural model of gustatory system which consists of GC and OFC networks and examine the neural mechanism of odor-induced taste perception. Using the model, we show that flavor perception is shaped by experience-dependent learning of foods with congruent taste-odor pairs, providing a unique representation of flavor through the interaction between OFC and GC neurons. Our model also shows that feedback signals from OFC to GC modulate the dynamic stability of taste attractors in GC, leading to the enhancement or suppression of taste responses by smells. Furthermore, modeling shows that spatial variability in GC activity evoked by tastants determines to what extent odor enhances congruent taste responses. The results suggest that flavor perception is deeply associated with dynamic stability of GC attractors through the interaction between GC and OFC. PMID:27178285

  5. From the Cover: Odor maps in the olfactory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Zhihua; Li, Fusheng; Buck, Linda B.

    2005-05-01

    In the olfactory system, environmental chemicals are deconstructed into neural signals and then reconstructed to form odor perceptions. Much has been learned about odor coding in the olfactory epithelium and bulb, but little is known about how odors are subsequently encoded in the cortex to yield diverse perceptions. Here, we report that the representation of odors by fixed glomeruli in the olfactory bulb is transformed in the cortex into highly distributed and multiplexed odor maps. In the mouse olfactory cortex, individual odorants are represented by subsets of sparsely distributed neurons. Different odorants elicit distinct, but partially overlapping, patterns that are strikingly similar among individuals. With increases in odorant concentration, the representations expand spatially and include additional cortical neurons. Structurally related odorants have highly related representations, suggesting an underlying logic to the mapping of odor identities in the cortex. odorant receptor | smell

  6. Functional identification of a goldfish odorant receptor.

    PubMed

    Speca, D J; Lin, D M; Sorensen, P W; Isacoff, E Y; Ngai, J; Dittman, A H

    1999-07-01

    The vertebrate olfactory system utilizes odorant receptors to receive and discriminate thousands of different chemical stimuli. An understanding of how these receptors encode information about an odorant's molecular structure requires a characterization of their ligand specificities. We employed an expression cloning strategy to identify a goldfish odorant receptor that is activated by amino acids-potent odorants for fish. Structure-activity analysis indicates that the receptor is preferentially tuned to recognize basic amino acids. The receptor is a member of a multigene family of G protein-coupled receptors, sharing sequence similarities with the calcium sensing, metabotropic glutamate, and V2R class of vomeronasal receptors. The ligand tuning properties of the goldfish amino acid odorant receptor provide information for unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying olfactory coding. PMID:10433261

  7. Occurrence of earthy and musty odor compounds (geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole) in biologically treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Urase, T; Sasaki, Y

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of earthy and musty odor compounds (2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB), geosmin and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA)) in treated wastewater were measured. Concentrations of 2,4,6-TCA (4.3-37.7 ng/L) and geosmin (3.7-42.2 ng/L) higher than their odor thresholds were detected for effluents from large-scale treatment plants. The effluent from a small-scale wastewater plant treating toilet and kitchen wastewater contained the target earthy and musty odor compounds below the odor thresholds. The ozonation applied as an advanced wastewater treatment process was considerably more effective for the removal of 2,4,6-TCA than for the removal of 2-MIB and geosmin. The measured concentrations of 2,4,6-TCA in river environments without the influence of large-scale wastewater effluents were less than the odor threshold. PMID:24225096

  8. An Egg Apparatus-Specific Enhancer of Arabidopsis, Identified by Enhancer Detection1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Jefferson, Richard A.; Huttner, Eric; Moore, James M.; Gagliano, Wendy B.; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2005-01-01

    Despite a central role in angiosperm reproduction, few gametophyte-specific genes and promoters have been isolated, particularly for the inaccessible female gametophyte (embryo sac). Using the Ds-based enhancer-detector line ET253, we have cloned an egg apparatus-specific enhancer (EASE) from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The genomic region flanking the Ds insertion site was further analyzed by examining its capability to control gusA and GFP reporter gene expression in the embryo sac in a transgenic context. Through analysis of a 5′ and 3′ deletion series in transgenic Arabidopsis, the sequence responsible for egg apparatus-specific expression was delineated to 77 bp. Our data showed that this enhancer is unique in the Arabidopsis genome, is conserved among different accessions, and shows an unusual pattern of sequence variation. This EASE works independently of position and orientation in Arabidopsis but is probably not associated with any nearby gene, suggesting either that it acts over a large distance or that a cryptic element was detected. Embryo-specific ablation in Arabidopsis was achieved by transactivation of a diphtheria toxin gene under the control of the EASE. The potential application of the EASE element and similar control elements as part of an open-source biotechnology toolkit for apomixis is discussed. PMID:16258010

  9. Mosquito odorant receptor for DEET and methyl jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pingxi; Choo, Young-Moo; De La Rosa, Alyssa; Leal, Walter S.

    2014-01-01

    Insect repellents are important prophylactic tools for travelers and populations living in endemic areas of malaria, dengue, encephalitis, and other vector-borne diseases. DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) is a 6-decade-old synthetic repellent, which is still considered the gold standard of mosquito repellents. Mosquitoes use their sense of smell to detect DEET, but there are currently two hypotheses regarding its mode of action: activation of ionotropic receptor IR40a vs. odorant receptor(s). Here, we demonstrate that DEET, picaridin, insect repellent 3535, and p-menthan-3,8-diol activate the odorant receptor CquiOR136 of the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. Electrophysiological and behavioral assays showed that CquiIR40a knockdown had no significant effect on DEET detection and repellency. By contrast, reduction of CquiOR136 transcript levels led to a significant decrease in electroantennographic responses to DEET and a complete lack of repellency. Thus, direct activation of an odorant receptor, not an ionotropic receptor, is necessary for DEET reception and repellency in Culex mosquitoes. Interestingly, methyl jasmonate, a repellent derived from the nonvolatile jasmonic acid in the signaling pathway of plant defenses, elicited robust responses in CquiOR136•CquiOrco-expressing Xenopus oocytes, thus suggesting a possible link between natural products with long insect–plant evolutionary history and synthetic repellents. PMID:25349401

  10. Characteristic odor components of essential oils from Eurya japonica.

    PubMed

    Motooka, Ryota; Usami, Atsushi; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Koutari, Satoshi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Shimizu, Ryoyu; Tsuji, Kaoru; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    The chemical compositions of essential oils from the flower and aerial parts (i.e., leaf and branch) of Eurya japonica were determined and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 87 and 50 compounds were detected in the oils from the flower and aerial parts, respectively. The main compounds of the flower oil were linalool (14.0%), (9Z)-tricosene (12.0%), and nonanal (7.4%). In the oil from the aerial parts, linalool (37.7%), α-terpineol (13.5%), and geraniol (9.6%) were detected. In the oils from the flower and aerial parts, 13 and 8 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC-olfactometry (GC-O) analysis, respectively. The key aroma-active compounds of the flower oil were heptanal [fatty, green, flavor dilution (FD) = 128, odor activity value (OAV) = 346], nonanal (sweet, citrus, FD = 128, OAV = 491), and eugenol (sweet, spicy, FD = 64, OAV = 62): in the oil from the aerial parts, the key aroma-active compounds were linalool (sweet, citrus, FD = 64, OAV = 95), (E)-β-damascenone (sweet, FD = 256, OAV = 4000), and (E)-β-ionone (floral, violet, FD = 128, OAV = 120). This study revealed that nonanal and eugenol impart the sweet, citrus, and spicy odor of the flower oil, while (E)-β-damascenone and (E)-β-ionone contribute the floral and sweet odor of the oil from the aerial parts. PMID:25843279

  11. Mosquito odorant receptor for DEET and methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pingxi; Choo, Young-Moo; De La Rosa, Alyssa; Leal, Walter S

    2014-11-18

    Insect repellents are important prophylactic tools for travelers and populations living in endemic areas of malaria, dengue, encephalitis, and other vector-borne diseases. DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) is a 6-decade-old synthetic repellent, which is still considered the gold standard of mosquito repellents. Mosquitoes use their sense of smell to detect DEET, but there are currently two hypotheses regarding its mode of action: activation of ionotropic receptor IR40a vs. odorant receptor(s). Here, we demonstrate that DEET, picaridin, insect repellent 3535, and p-menthan-3,8-diol activate the odorant receptor CquiOR136 of the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. Electrophysiological and behavioral assays showed that CquiIR40a knockdown had no significant effect on DEET detection and repellency. By contrast, reduction of CquiOR136 transcript levels led to a significant decrease in electroantennographic responses to DEET and a complete lack of repellency. Thus, direct activation of an odorant receptor, not an ionotropic receptor, is necessary for DEET reception and repellency in Culex mosquitoes. Interestingly, methyl jasmonate, a repellent derived from the nonvolatile jasmonic acid in the signaling pathway of plant defenses, elicited robust responses in CquiOR136•CquiOrco-expressing Xenopus oocytes, thus suggesting a possible link between natural products with long insect-plant evolutionary history and synthetic repellents. PMID:25349401

  12. SEX DIFFERENCES AND REPRODUCTIVE HORMONE INFLUENCES ON HUMAN ODOR PERCEPTION

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Richard L.; Cameron, E. Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether men and women differ in their ability to smell has been the topic of scientific investigation for over a hundred years. Although conflicting findings abound, most studies suggest that, for at least some odorants, women outperform men on tests of odor detection, identification, discrimination, and memory. Most functional imaging and electrophysiological studies similarly imply that, when sex differences are present, they favor women. In this review we examine what is known about sex-related alterations in human smell function, including influences of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, gonadectomy, and hormone replacement therapy on a range of olfactory measures. We conclude that the relationship between reproductive hormones and human olfactory function is complex and that simple associations between circulating levels of gonadal hormones and measures of olfactory function are rarely present. PMID:19272398

  13. Hormonal Modulation of Pheromone Detection Enhances Male Courtship Success.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Hao; Cao, De-Shou; Sethi, Sachin; Zeng, Zheng; Chin, Jacqueline S R; Chakraborty, Tuhin Subhra; Shepherd, Andrew K; Nguyen, Christine A; Yew, Joanne Y; Su, Chih-Ying; Wang, Jing W

    2016-06-15

    During the lifespans of most animals, reproductive maturity and mating activity are highly coordinated. In Drosophila melanogaster, for instance, male fertility increases with age, and older males are known to have a copulation advantage over young ones. The molecular and neural basis of this age-related disparity in mating behavior is unknown. Here, we show that the Or47b odorant receptor is required for the copulation advantage of older males. Notably, the sensitivity of Or47b neurons to a stimulatory pheromone, palmitoleic acid, is low in young males but high in older ones, which accounts for older males' higher courtship intensity. Mechanistically, this age-related sensitization of Or47b neurons requires a reproductive hormone, juvenile hormone, as well as its binding protein Methoprene-tolerant in Or47b neurons. Together, our study identifies a direct neural substrate for juvenile hormone that permits coordination of courtship activity with reproductive maturity to maximize male reproductive fitness. PMID:27263969

  14. Towards Enhanced Underwater Lidar Detection via Source Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illig, David W.

    separation: The first investigations of statistical separation approaches for underwater lidar are presented. By demonstrating that target and backscatter returns have different statistical properties, a new separation axis is opened. This work investigates and quantifies performance of three statistical separation approaches. 4. Application of detection theory to underwater lidar: While many similar applications use detection theory to assess performance, less development has occurred in the underwater lidar field. This work applies these concepts to statistical separation approaches, providing another perspective in which to assess performance. In addition, by using detection theory approaches, statistical metrics can be used to associate a level of confidence in each ranging measurement. 5. Preliminary investigation of forward scatter suppression: If backscatter is sufficiently suppressed, forward scattering becomes a performance-limiting factor. This work presents a proof-of-concept demonstration of the potential for statistical separation approaches to suppress both forward and backward scatter. These results provide a demonstration of the capability that signal processing has to improve separation between target and backscatter. Separation capability improves in the transition from temporal to frequency to statistical separation approaches, with the statistical separation approaches improving target detection sensitivity by as much as 30 dB. Ranging and detection results demonstrate the enhanced performance this would allow in ranging applications. This increased performance is an important step in moving underwater lidar capability towards the requirements of the next generation of sensors.

  15. A quantum radar detection protocol for fringe visibility enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltenbah, Benjamin; Parazzoli, Claudio; Capron, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    We present analysis of a radar detection technique using a Photon Addition Homodyne Receiver (PAHR) that improves SNR of the interferometer fringes and reduces uncertainty of the phase measurement. This system uses the concept of Photon Addition (PA) in which the coherent photon distribution is altered. We discuss this process first as a purely mathematical concept to introduce PA and illustrate its effect on coherent photon distribution. We then present a notional proof-of-concept experiment involving a parametric down converter (PDC) and probabilistic post-selection of the results. We end with presentation of a more deterministic PAHR concept that is more suitable for development into a working system. Coherent light illuminates a target and the return signal interferes with the local oscillator reference photons to create the desired fringes. The PAHR alters the photon probability distribution of the returned light via interaction between the return photons and atoms. We refer to this technique as "Atom Interaction" or AI. The returning photons are focused at the properly prepared atomic system. The injected atoms into this region are prepared in the desired quantum state. During the interaction time, the initial quantum state evolves in such a way that the photon distribution function changes resulting in higher photon count, lower phase noise and an increase in fringe SNR. The result is a 3-5X increase of fringe SNR. This method is best suited for low light intensity (low photon count, 0.1-5) applications. The detection protocol could extend the range of existing systems without loss of accuracy, or conversely enhance a system's accuracy for given range. We present quantum mathematical analysis of the method to illustrate how both range and angular resolution improve in comparison with standard measurement techniques. We also suggest an experimental path to validate the method which also will lead toward deployment in the field.

  16. Daytime Land Cloud Detection Enhancements For The VIIRS Cloud Mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, R. A.; Heidinger, A. K.; Hutchinson, K. D.; Iisager, B.

    2005-12-01

    The first in a new series of polar-orbiting satellites, National Polar-Orbiting Operational Satellite System (NPOESS), is scheduled to be launched in 2008. The Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a major component of the series and will replace the AVHRR instrument on operational polar orbiters. A crucial piece of the VIIRS data processing chain is the VIIRS Cloud Mask (VCM). A high quality cloud detection system is necessary as a first step for most if not all of the algorithms which produce the 18 EDRs (Environmental Data Records) from VIIRS. A cloud detection scheme similar to the one developed for MODIS data (MOD35) will be implemented for VIIRS, but several enhancements have been investigated for daytime land scenes. During daylight hours over vegetated surfaces and in the absence of snow cover, use of the high contrast between clouds and surface in visible wavelengths offers the most sensitive clear/cloud discrimination. However, visible surface reflectances vary from about 10% over tropical rain forests to as high as 50% in arid regions, making the use of a single cloud test threshold very difficult. A set of reflectance thresholds based on NDVI and scattering angle has been developed from historical AVHRR data. Clear-sky NDVIs were accumulated as a function of scattering angle over a multi-year period and from morning and afternoon satellites, from which cloud test thresholds were developed. The thresholds were then tested on several AVHRR scenes. For extremely arid scenes, where visible reflectances from clouds and surface are similar, a cloud test using 0.4 μm data has been devised. This poster describes the development of both new cloud tests and associated thresholds, from initial tests using MODIS data to the calculation and implementation of the thresholds.

  17. LUSH odorant-binding protein mediates chemosensory responses to alcohols in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, M S; Repp, A; Smith, D P

    1998-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms mediating chemosensory discrimination in insects are unknown. Using the enhancer trapping approach, we identified a new Drosophila mutant, lush, with odorant-specific defects in olfactory behavior. lush mutant flies are abnormally attracted to high concentrations of ethanol, propanol, and butanol but have normal chemosensory responses to other odorants. We show that wild-type flies have an active olfactory avoidance mechanism to prevent attraction to concentrated alcohol, and this response is defective in lush mutants. This suggests that the defective olfactory behavior associated with the lush mutation may result from a specific defect in chemoavoidance. lush mutants have a 3-kb deletion that produces a null allele of a new member of the invertebrate odorant-binding protein family, LUSH. LUSH is normally expressed exclusively in a subset of trichoid chemosensory sensilla located on the ventral-lateral surface of the third antennal segment. LUSH is secreted from nonneuronal support cells into the sensillum lymph that bathes the olfactory neurons within these sensilla. Reintroduction of a cloned wild-type copy of lush into the mutant background completely restores wild-type olfactory behavior, demonstrating that this odorant-binding protein is required in a subset of sensilla for normal chemosensory behavior to a subset of odorants. These findings provide direct evidence that odorant-binding proteins are required for normal chemosensory behavior in Drosophila and may partially determine the chemical specificity of olfactory neurons in vivo. PMID:9755202

  18. Field sampling method for quantifying odorants in humid environments.

    PubMed

    Trabue, Steven L; Scoggin, Kenwood D; Li, Hong; Burns, Robert; Xin, Hongwei

    2008-05-15

    Most air quality studies in agricultural environments use thermal desorption analysis for quantifying semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) associated with odor. The objective of this study was to develop a robust sampling technique for measuring SVOCs in humid environments. Test atmospheres were generated at ambient temperatures (23 +/- 1.5 degrees C) and 25, 50, and 80% relative humidity (RH). Sorbent material used included Tenax, graphitized carbon, and carbon molecular sieve (CMS). Sorbent tubes were challenged with 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 L of air at various RHs. Sorbent tubes with CMS material performed poorly at both 50 and 80% RH dueto excessive sorption of water. Heating of CMS tubes during sampling or dry-purging of CMS tubes post sampling effectively reduced water sorption with heating of tubes being preferred due to the higher recovery and reproducibility. Tenaxtubes had breakthrough of the more volatile compounds and tended to form artifacts with increasing volumes of air sampled. Graphitized carbon sorbent tubes containing Carbopack X and Carbopack C performed best with quantitative recovery of all compounds at all RHs and sampling volumes tested. The graphitized carbon tubes were taken to the field for further testing. Field samples taken from inside swine feeding operations showed that butanoic acid, 4-methylphenol, 4-ethylphenol, indole, and 3-methylindole were the compounds detected most often above their odor threshold values. Field samples taken from a poultry facility demonstrated that butanoic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, and 4-methylphenol were the compounds above their odor threshold values detected most often, relative humidity, CAFO, VOC, SVOC, thermal desorption, swine, poultry, air quality, odor. PMID:18546717

  19. A statistical property of fly odor responses is conserved across odors.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Charles F

    2016-06-14

    I have reanalyzed the data presented by Hallem and Carlson [Hallem EA, Carlson JR (2006) Cell 125(1):143-160] and shown that the combinatorial odor code supplied by the fruit fly antenna is a very simple one in which nearly all odors produce, statistically, the same neuronal response; i.e., the probability distribution of sensory neuron firing rates across the population of odorant sensory neurons is an exponential for nearly all odors and odor mixtures, with the mean rate dependent on the odor concentration. Between odors, then, the response differs according to which sensory neurons are firing at what individual rates and with what mean population rate, but not in the probability distribution of firing rates. This conclusion is independent of adjustable parameters, and holds both for monomolecular odors and complex mixtures. Because the circuitry in the antennal lobe constrains the mean firing rate to be the same for all odors and concentrations, the odor code is what is known as maximum entropy. PMID:27247407

  20. An Odor Interaction Model of Binary Odorant Mixtures by a Partial Differential Equation Method

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Luchun; Liu, Jiemin; Wang, Guihua; Wu, Chuandong

    2014-01-01

    A novel odor interaction model was proposed for binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes by a partial differential equation (PDE) method. Based on the measurement method (tangent-intercept method) of partial molar volume, original parameters of corresponding formulas were reasonably displaced by perceptual measures. By these substitutions, it was possible to relate a mixture's odor intensity to the individual odorant's relative odor activity value (OAV). Several binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes were respectively tested to establish the PDE models. The obtained results showed that the PDE model provided an easily interpretable method relating individual components to their joint odor intensity. Besides, both predictive performance and feasibility of the PDE model were proved well through a series of odor intensity matching tests. If combining the PDE model with portable gas detectors or on-line monitoring systems, olfactory evaluation of odor intensity will be achieved by instruments instead of odor assessors. Many disadvantages (e.g., expense on a fixed number of odor assessors) also will be successfully avoided. Thus, the PDE model is predicted to be helpful to the monitoring and management of odor pollutions. PMID:25010698

  1. Identification of odor impact compounds of Tagetes minuta L. essential oil: comparison of two GC-olfactometry methods.

    PubMed

    Breme, Katharina; Tournayre, Pascal; Fernandez, Xavier; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Brevard, Hugues; Joulain, Daniel; Berdagué, Jean Louis

    2009-09-23

    Odor impact compounds of Tagetes minuta L. essential oil were studied by gas chromatography (GC)-olfactometry using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and vocabulary-intensity-duration of elementary odors by sniffing (VIDEO-Sniff). AEDA was conducted by direct injection and revealed the presence of 43 odorant zones. Highest flavor dilution (FD) values were obtained for ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, (E)-ocimenone, two tentatively identified thiols, and two yet unknown compounds. VIDEO-Sniff was realized by dynamic headspace sampling (D-HS) combined with 8W-GC-olfactometry where eight sniffers simultaneously detect volatile compounds obtained from a single chromatographic separation and revealed the presence of 42 odorant zones. Odorant trace compounds detected by GC-O that were present in quantities inferior to the GC-qMS system's detection limit and those subject to coelutions were identified by GC x GC-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). A total amount of 37 odorant components could be identified by VIDEO-Sniff, and the strong influence of the fruity notes of numerous esters stood out. Highest olfactory signals were obtained for ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl 2- and 3-methylbutanoate, and oct-1-en-3-one. Both methods hence come to the conclusion that ethyl 2-methylpropanoate and ethyl 2- and 3-methylbutanoate are among the main odorants in Tagetes minuta L. essential oil. Differences, advantages, and drawbacks of both GC-O methods are discussed. PMID:19694437

  2. Enhanced PET resolution by combining pinhole collimation and coincidence detection.

    PubMed

    DiFilippo, Frank P

    2015-10-21

    Spatial resolution of clinical PET scanners is limited by detector design and photon non-colinearity. Although dedicated small animal PET scanners using specialized high-resolution detectors have been developed, enhancing the spatial resolution of clinical PET scanners is of interest as a more available alternative. Multi-pinhole 511 keV SPECT is capable of high spatial resolution but requires heavily shielded collimators to avoid significant background counts. A practical approach with clinical PET detectors is to combine multi-pinhole collimation with coincidence detection. In this new hybrid modality, there are three locations associated with each event, namely those of the two detected photons and the pinhole aperture. These three locations over-determine the line of response and provide redundant information that is superior to coincidence detection or pinhole collimation alone. Multi-pinhole collimation provides high resolution and avoids non-colinearity error but is subject to collimator penetration and artifacts from overlapping projections. However the coincidence information, though at lower resolution, is valuable for determining whether the photon passed near a pinhole within the cone acceptance angle and for identifying through which pinhole the photon passed. This information allows most photons penetrating through the collimator to be rejected and avoids overlapping projections. With much improved event rejection, a collimator with minimal shielding may be used, and a lightweight add-on collimator for high resolution imaging is feasible for use with a clinical PET scanner. Monte Carlo simulations were performed of a (18)F hot rods phantom and a 54-pinhole unfocused whole-body mouse collimator with a clinical PET scanner. Based on coincidence information and pinhole geometry, events were accepted or rejected, and pinhole-specific crystal-map projections were generated. Tomographic images then were reconstructed using a conventional pinhole SPECT

  3. Enhanced PET resolution by combining pinhole collimation and coincidence detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiFilippo, Frank P.

    2015-10-01

    Spatial resolution of clinical PET scanners is limited by detector design and photon non-colinearity. Although dedicated small animal PET scanners using specialized high-resolution detectors have been developed, enhancing the spatial resolution of clinical PET scanners is of interest as a more available alternative. Multi-pinhole 511 keV SPECT is capable of high spatial resolution but requires heavily shielded collimators to avoid significant background counts. A practical approach with clinical PET detectors is to combine multi-pinhole collimation with coincidence detection. In this new hybrid modality, there are three locations associated with each event, namely those of the two detected photons and the pinhole aperture. These three locations over-determine the line of response and provide redundant information that is superior to coincidence detection or pinhole collimation alone. Multi-pinhole collimation provides high resolution and avoids non-colinearity error but is subject to collimator penetration and artifacts from overlapping projections. However the coincidence information, though at lower resolution, is valuable for determining whether the photon passed near a pinhole within the cone acceptance angle and for identifying through which pinhole the photon passed. This information allows most photons penetrating through the collimator to be rejected and avoids overlapping projections. With much improved event rejection, a collimator with minimal shielding may be used, and a lightweight add-on collimator for high resolution imaging is feasible for use with a clinical PET scanner. Monte Carlo simulations were performed of a 18F hot rods phantom and a 54-pinhole unfocused whole-body mouse collimator with a clinical PET scanner. Based on coincidence information and pinhole geometry, events were accepted or rejected, and pinhole-specific crystal-map projections were generated. Tomographic images then were reconstructed using a conventional pinhole SPECT

  4. Detection of Protein Glycosylation Using Tip-Enhanced Raman Scattering.

    PubMed

    Cowcher, David P; Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Brewster, Victoria L; Ashton, Lorna; Deckert, Volker; Goodacre, Royston

    2016-02-16

    The correct glycosylation of biopharmaceutical glycoproteins and their formulations is essential for them to have the desired therapeutic effect on the patient. It has recently been shown that Raman spectroscopy can be used to quantify the proportion of glycosylated protein from mixtures of native and glycosylated forms of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase). Here we show the first steps toward not only the detection of glycosylation status but the characterization of glycans themselves from just a few protein molecules at a time using tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS). While this technique generates complex data that are very dependent on the protein orientation, with the careful development of combined data preprocessing, univariate and multivariate analysis techniques, we have shown that we can distinguish between the native and glycosylated forms of RNase. Many glycoproteins contain populations of subtly different glycoforms; therefore, with stricter orientation control, we believe this has the potential to lead to further glycan characterization using TERS, which would have use in biopharmaceutical synthesis and formulation research. PMID:26813024

  5. Organization network enhanced detection and transmission of phase-locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zonghua

    2012-12-01

    Based on the recent observation that a neuron in the local network of the mouse primary visual cortex receives convergent input from nearby neurons (Nature, 471 (2011) 177), we present a hierarchical organization network model to stress the aspect of directional coupling in neurons and study how an external signal can be transmitted in this network model. By taking numerical simulations on the paradigmatic Rössler oscillator and Hindmarsh-Rose neuron, we show that the oscillators in the network will lock in phase and frequency over a range that is much larger than one driven oscillator would, indicating the enhanced signal detectability of the hierarchical organization network. To guarantee the successful transmission of phase-lockings, a self-tuning mechanism is introduced where the weights of those links along the signal transmission path will be adaptively increased, with the total weight of network keeping constant. Moreover, we find that the organization network is in favor of the phase-locking transmission than the star-like network.

  6. Rapid surface enhanced Raman scattering detection method for chloramphenicol residues.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wei; Yao, Weirong

    2015-06-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a widely used amide alcohol antibiotics, which has been banned from using in food producing animals in many countries. In this study, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) coupled with gold colloidal nanoparticles was used for the rapid analysis of CAP. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were conducted with Gaussian 03 at the B3LYP level using the 3-21G(d) and 6-31G(d) basis sets to analyze the assignment of vibrations. Affirmatively, the theoretical Raman spectrum of CAP was in complete agreement with the experimental spectrum. They both exhibited three strong peaks characteristic of CAP at 1104 cm(-1), 1344 cm(-1), 1596 cm(-1), which were used for rapid qualitative analysis of CAP residues in food samples. The use of SERS as a method for the measurements of CAP was explored by comparing use of different solvents, gold colloidal nanoparticles concentration and absorption time. The method of the detection limit was determined as 0.1 μg/mL using optimum conditions. The Raman peak at 1344 cm(-1) was used as the index for quantitative analysis of CAP in food samples, with a linear correlation of R(2)=0.9802. Quantitative analysis of CAP residues in foods revealed that the SERS technique with gold colloidal nanoparticles was sensitive and of a good stability and linear correlation, and suited for rapid analysis of CAP residue in a variety of food samples. PMID:25754387

  7. Rapid surface enhanced Raman scattering detection method for chloramphenicol residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wei; Yao, Weirong

    2015-06-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a widely used amide alcohol antibiotics, which has been banned from using in food producing animals in many countries. In this study, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) coupled with gold colloidal nanoparticles was used for the rapid analysis of CAP. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were conducted with Gaussian 03 at the B3LYP level using the 3-21G(d) and 6-31G(d) basis sets to analyze the assignment of vibrations. Affirmatively, the theoretical Raman spectrum of CAP was in complete agreement with the experimental spectrum. They both exhibited three strong peaks characteristic of CAP at 1104 cm-1, 1344 cm-1, 1596 cm-1, which were used for rapid qualitative analysis of CAP residues in food samples. The use of SERS as a method for the measurements of CAP was explored by comparing use of different solvents, gold colloidal nanoparticles concentration and absorption time. The method of the detection limit was determined as 0.1 μg/mL using optimum conditions. The Raman peak at 1344 cm-1 was used as the index for quantitative analysis of CAP in food samples, with a linear correlation of R2 = 0.9802. Quantitative analysis of CAP residues in foods revealed that the SERS technique with gold colloidal nanoparticles was sensitive and of a good stability and linear correlation, and suited for rapid analysis of CAP residue in a variety of food samples.

  8. Enhanced climate change and its detection over the Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Fyfe, J.C.; Flato, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Results from an ensemble of climate change experiments with increasing greenhouse gas and aerosols using the Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis Coupled Climate Model are presented with a focus on surface quantities over the Rocky Mountains. There is a marked elevation dependency of the simulated surface screen temperature increase over the Rocky Mountains in the winter and spring seasons, with more pronounced changes at higher elevations. The elevation signal is linked to a rise in the snow line in the winter and spring seasons, which amplifies the surface warming via the snow-albedo feedback. Analysis of the winter surface energy budget shows that large changes in the solar component of the radiative input are the direct consequence of surface albedo changes caused by decreasing snow cover. Although the warming signal is enhanced at higher elevations, a two-way analysis of variance reveals that the elevation effect has no potential for early climate change detection. In the early stages of surface warming the elevation effect is masked by relatively large noise, so that the signal-to-noise ratio over the Rocky Mountains is no larger than elsewhere. Only after significant continental-scale warming does the local Rocky Mountain signal begin to dominate the pattern of climate change over western North America (and presumably also the surrounding ecosystems and hydrological networks).

  9. Detection of Cortical Laminar Architecture Using Manganese-Enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Afonso C.; Lee, Junghee; Wu, Carolyn W.-H.; Tucciarone, Jason; Pelled, Galit; Aoki, Ichio; Koretsky, Alan P.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in Manganese-Enhanced MRI (MEMRI) contrast across the rodent somatosensory cortex were compared to the cortical laminae as identified by tissue histology and administration of an anatomical tracer to cortex and thalamus. Across the cortical thickness, MEMRI signal intensity was low in layer I, increased in layer II, decreased in layer III until mid-layer IV, and increased again, peaking in layer V, before decreasing through layer VI. The reeler mouse mutant was used to confirm that the cortical alternation in MEMRI contrast was related to laminar architecture. Unlike in wild-type mice, the reeler cortex showed no appreciable changes in MEMRI signal, consistent[ACS1] with absence of cortical laminae in histological slides. The tract-tracing ability of MEMRI was used to further confirm assignments and demonstrate laminar specificity. Twelve to sixteen hours after stereotaxic injections of MnCl2 to the ventroposterior thalamic nuclei, an overall increase in signal intensity was detected in primary somatosensory cortex compared to other brain regions. Maximum intensity projection images revealed a distinctly bright stripe located 600 − 700 μm below the pial surface, in layer IV. The data show that both systemic and tract-tracing forms of MEMRI are useful for studying laminar architecture in the brain. PMID:17936913

  10. Identifying and tracking key odorants from cattle feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odors from cattle feedlots negatively affect air quality in local communities. The purpose of this study was to identifying key odorants using both analytical (odor activity values, OAV) and gas chromatrography GC-O (olfactometry) techniques, compare odor threshold databases, and track the movement ...

  11. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  12. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  13. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  14. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  15. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  16. Evaluating cell-surface expression and measuring activation of mammalian odorant receptors in heterologous cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Hanyi; Matsunami, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental question in olfaction is which odorant receptors (ORs) are activated by a given odorant. A major roadblock to investigate odorant-OR relationship in mammals has been an inability to express ORs in heterologous cells suitable for screening active ligands for ORs. The discovery of the receptor-transporting protein (RTP) family has facilitated the effective cell-surface expression of ORs in heterologous cells. The establishment of a robust heterologous expression system for mammalian ORs facilitates the high-throughput “deorphanization” of these receptors by matching them to their cognate ligands. This protocol details the method used for evaluating the cell-surface expression and measuring the functional activation of ORs of transiently-expressed mammalian odorant receptors in HEK293T cells. The stages of odorant receptor cell-surface expression include cell culture preparation, transfer of cells, transfection, and immunocytochemistry/flow cytometry, odorant stimulation, and luciferase assay. This protocol can be completed in a period of 3 days from transfer of cells to cell-surface expression detection and/or measurement of functional activation. PMID:18772867

  17. Responsiveness of G protein-coupled odorant receptors is partially attributed to the activation mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yiqun; de March, Claire A.; Ni, Mengjue J.; Adipietro, Kaylin A.; Golebiowski, Jérôme; Matsunami, Hiroaki; Ma, Minghong

    2015-01-01

    Mammals detect and discriminate numerous odors via a large family of G protein-coupled odorant receptors (ORs). However, little is known about the molecular and structural basis underlying OR response properties. Using site-directed mutagenesis and computational modeling, we studied ORs sharing high sequence homology but with different response properties. When tested in heterologous cells by diverse odorants, MOR256-3 responded broadly to many odorants, whereas MOR256-8 responded weakly to a few odorants. Out of 36 mutant MOR256-3 ORs, the majority altered the responses to different odorants in a similar manner and the overall response of an OR was positively correlated with its basal activity, an indication of ligand-independent receptor activation. Strikingly, a single mutation in MOR256-8 was sufficient to confer both high basal activity and broad responsiveness to this receptor. These results suggest that broad responsiveness of an OR is at least partially attributed to its activation likelihood. PMID:26627247

  18. Circuit mechanisms encoding odors and driving aging-associated behavioral declines in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Leinwand, Sarah G; Yang, Claire J; Bazopoulou, Daphne; Chronis, Nikos; Srinivasan, Jagan; Chalasani, Sreekanth H

    2015-01-01

    Chemosensory neurons extract information about chemical cues from the environment. How is the activity in these sensory neurons transformed into behavior? Using Caenorhabditis elegans, we map a novel sensory neuron circuit motif that encodes odor concentration. Primary neurons, AWCON and AWA, directly detect the food odor benzaldehyde (BZ) and release insulin-like peptides and acetylcholine, respectively, which are required for odor-evoked responses in secondary neurons, ASEL and AWB. Consistently, both primary and secondary neurons are required for BZ attraction. Unexpectedly, this combinatorial code is altered in aged animals: odor-evoked activity in secondary, but not primary, olfactory neurons is reduced. Moreover, experimental manipulations increasing neurotransmission from primary neurons rescues aging-associated neuronal deficits. Finally, we correlate the odor responsiveness of aged animals with their lifespan. Together, these results show how odors are encoded by primary and secondary neurons and suggest reduced neurotransmission as a novel mechanism driving aging-associated sensory neural activity and behavioral declines. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10181.001 PMID:26394000

  19. A Study on Environmental Recognitions by Odor Sensors Considered on the Concept of Human Senses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Tadanobu; Takei, Yoshinori; Nanto, Hidehito; Abe, Koji; Kimura, Haruhiko

    Many kinds of chemical sensors have been developed to detect various air-pollutants. Generally sensor systems are composed of plural chemical sensors and a computer, and the systems can derive kinds of pollutants, densities of the pollutants, and various risks for environments and humans. Regarding the research of sensor systems, there are literatures about a sensor agent, which regards a sensor as an agent, and a utility mobile robot which attaches odor sensors. In these systems, it is necessary that observed results output by the sensors are exactly analyzed with information processing; especially, it is important to recognize the occurrence of events such as outbreaks of odor, however, this kind of recognitions are still not enough and it does not mean that the systems can recognize all the environmental events. In this research, odor sensors are treated and generally odor sensors are designed modeling functions of human nose. Hence, as well as odor sensors, we aim improving the accuracy of environmental recognitions using an odor sensor system attaching an information processing function according to human senses. In addition, we show the usefulness of the proposed system comparing with a conventional technique.

  20. Bleaching process preferred to decontaminate odorants

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The problem of decontaminating and disposing of out-of-service gas odorizers has long faced both gas transmission and distribution companies since the early 1980s. Finding a methodology to safely and effectively decontaminate odorant-contaminated equipment has caused many companies to simply cap the equipment and put it in storage. The recommended process of decontamination by odorant manufacturers is currently a bleaching-type process. A sodium hypochlorite solution is added to water and either circulated or left standing in the contaminated equipment. The sodium hypochlorite effectively neutralizes the smell of the odorant and slightly corrodes the inside of the equipment to neutralize any odorant which has permeated the metal. The waste sodium hypochlorite and water is then shipped as hazardous waste (pH of 12.5) or non-hazardous waste after the pH has been adjusted. The bleaching process has proven cost-effective and less time-consuming than most other methods including bioremediation. To effectively use it, there are several problems to overcome--most importantly the removal of residual product and the release of vapors into the atmosphere. River Valley Technologies, a contractor located in Cincinnati, OH, specializing in odorant-equipment decontamination, has developed several methods and engineering controls to eliminate most of the problems associated with decontaminating odorant equipment. The paper describes these methods.

  1. The implicit association between odors and illness.

    PubMed

    Bulsing, Patricia J; Smeets, Monique A M; Van den Hout, Marcel A

    2009-02-01

    Some individuals ascribe health symptoms to odor exposures, even when none would be expected based on toxicological dose-effect relationships. In these situations, symptoms are believed to have been mediated by beliefs regarding the potential health effects from odorants, which implies a controlled type of information processing. From an evolutionary perspective, such a form of processing may hardly be the only route. The aim of the present study was to explore the viability of a fast and implicit route, by investigating automatic odor-related associations in the context of health. An Implicit Association Test assessing association strengths between the concept odor and the concepts healthy and sick was conducted. Three experiments (N=66, N=64, and N=64) showed a significantly stronger association between the concepts odor and sick than between odor and healthy. These results did not match explicit associations and provide evidence for a fast and automatic route of processing that may complement consciously controlled processes. A dual-processing theory of olfactory information is proposed leading to new hypotheses regarding the development and maintenance of odor-induced health symptoms. PMID:18936154

  2. Contribution of Streptomyces in sediment to earthy odor in the overlying water in Xionghe Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yanxia; Li, Lin; Zhang, Ting; Zheng, Lingling; Dai, Gongyuan; Liu, Liming; Song, Lirong

    2010-12-01

    Musty and earthy odors frequently characterize the source water and fish of the Xionghe Reservoir in China. Although odorous compounds and odor-producing cyanobacteria have been analyzed in surface water, potential odorants in sediments and their contribution to the water body have remained uninvestigated. In this study, we examined the odorous compounds and possible odor-producers in the sediments and overlying water of Xionghe Reservoir from November 2007 to October 2008. High concentrations of geosmin (up to 5280.1 ng kg(-1) dw(-1)) were detected in sediments, and eight strains of Streptomyces isolated from sediments were verified as producers of geosmin and/or 2-MIB in M liquid medium by HSPME-GC-MS. Geosmin concentrations in the overlying water were correlated with those in the sediments (r = 0.838, p < 0.05). In vitro studies showed that geosmin in the overlying water was released from the sediment, and that within 12 days the amount released from the sediment was 21.4-51.4%. Concentrations of geosmin in sediments were positively correlated with organic matter (r = 0.642, p < 0.01), total nitrogen (r = 0.606, p < 0.01) and Chl a (r = 0.674, p < 0.01), and were negatively associated with temperature (r = -0.425, p < 0.05). This study indicates that odorous compounds that are released from sediments should be taken into account when assessing the sources of these odorants in waters. PMID:20800260

  3. Odor Recognition vs. Classification in Artificial Olfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Baranidharan; Hertz, Joshua; Benkstein, Kurt; Semancik, Steve

    2011-09-01

    Most studies in chemical sensing have focused on the problem of precise identification of chemical species that were exposed during the training phase (the recognition problem). However, generalization of training to predict the chemical composition of untrained gases based on their similarity with analytes in the training set (the classification problem) has received very limited attention. These two analytical tasks pose conflicting constraints on the system. While correct recognition requires detection of molecular features that are unique to an analyte, generalization to untrained chemicals requires detection of features that are common across a desired class of analytes. A simple solution that addresses both issues simultaneously can be obtained from biological olfaction, where the odor class and identity information are decoupled and extracted individually over time. Mimicking this approach, we proposed a hierarchical scheme that allowed initial discrimination between broad chemical classes (e.g. contains oxygen) followed by finer refinements using additional data into sub-classes (e.g. ketones vs. alcohols) and, eventually, specific compositions (e.g. ethanol vs. methanol) [1]. We validated this approach using an array of temperature-controlled chemiresistors. We demonstrated that a small set of training analytes is sufficient to allow generalization to novel chemicals and that the scheme provides robust categorization despite aging. Here, we provide further characterization of this approach.

  4. Pain tolerance selectively increased by a sweet-smelling odor.

    PubMed

    Prescott, John; Wilkie, Jenell

    2007-04-01

    The mechanism underlying reported analgesic effects of odors in humans is unclear, although odor hedonics has been implicated. We tested whether odors that are sweet smelling through prior association with tasted sweetness might influence pain by activating the same analgesic mechanisms as sweet tastes. Inhalation of a sweet-smelling odor during a cold-pressor test increased tolerance for pain compared with inhalation of pleasant and unpleasant low-sweetness odors and no odor. There were no significant differences in pain ratings among the odor conditions. These results suggest that smelled sweetness can produce a naturally occurring conditioned increase in pain tolerance. PMID:17470253

  5. Paradoxical Neurobehavioral Rescue by Memories of Early-Life Abuse: The Safety Signal Value of Odors Learned during Abusive Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

    2015-01-01

    Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood—in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70–90 Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation. PMID:25284320

  6. Paradoxical neurobehavioral rescue by memories of early-life abuse: the safety signal value of odors learned during abusive attachment.

    PubMed

    Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

    2015-03-01

    Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood-in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70-90 Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation. PMID:25284320

  7. Predicting the response of olfactory sensory neurons to odor mixtures from single odor response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marasco, Addolorata; de Paris, Alessandro; Migliore, Michele

    2016-04-01

    The response of olfactory receptor neurons to odor mixtures is not well understood. Here, using experimental constraints, we investigate the mathematical structure of the odor response space and its consequences. The analysis suggests that the odor response space is 3-dimensional, and predicts that the dose-response curve of an odor receptor can be obtained, in most cases, from three primary components with specific properties. This opens the way to an objective procedure to obtain specific olfactory receptor responses by manipulating mixtures in a mathematically predictable manner. This result is general and applies, independently of the number of odor components, to any olfactory sensory neuron type with a response curve that can be represented as a sigmoidal function of the odor concentration.

  8. Predicting the response of olfactory sensory neurons to odor mixtures from single odor response

    PubMed Central

    Marasco, Addolorata; De Paris, Alessandro; Migliore, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The response of olfactory receptor neurons to odor mixtures is not well understood. Here, using experimental constraints, we investigate the mathematical structure of the odor response space and its consequences. The analysis suggests that the odor response space is 3-dimensional, and predicts that the dose-response curve of an odor receptor can be obtained, in most cases, from three primary components with specific properties. This opens the way to an objective procedure to obtain specific olfactory receptor responses by manipulating mixtures in a mathematically predictable manner. This result is general and applies, independently of the number of odor components, to any olfactory sensory neuron type with a response curve that can be represented as a sigmoidal function of the odor concentration. PMID:27053070

  9. Odor mental imagery in non-experts in odors: a paradox?

    PubMed

    Royet, Jean-Pierre; Delon-Martin, Chantal; Plailly, Jane

    2013-01-01

    In agreement with the theoretical framework stipulating that mental images arise from neural activity in early sensory cortices, the primary olfactory cortex [i.e., the piriform cortex (PC)] is activated when non-olfactory-experts try to generate odor mental images. This finding strongly contrasts with the allegation that it is typically impossible to mentally imagine odors. However, other neurophysiological or cognitive processes engaged in the endeavor of odor mental imagery such as sniffing, attention, expectation, and cross-modal interactions involve the PC and could explain this paradox. To unambiguously study the odor mental imagery, we first argued the need to investigate odor experts who have learned to specifically reactivate olfactory percepts. We then assert the necessity to explore the network dedicated to this function by considering variations in both the activity level and the connection strength of the areas belonging to this network as a function of the level of expertise of the odor experts. PMID:23519325

  10. Fabrication of Odor Sensor Using Peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotokebuchi, Yuta; Hayashi, Kenshi; Toko, Kiyoshi; Chen, Ronggang; Ikezaki, Hidekazu

    We report fabrication of an odor sensor using peptides. Peptides were designed to acquire the specific reception for a target odor molecule. Au surface of the sensor electrode was coated by the designed peptide using the method of self assembled monolayers (SAMs). Functionalized Au surfaces by the peptides were confirmed by ellipsometry and cyclic voltammetry. The odorants of vanillin, phenethyl alcohol and hexanol were discriminated by QCM sensor with the peptide surface. Moreover, we verified specific interaction between amino acid (Trp) and vanillin by fluorescence assay.

  11. Host Habitat Volatiles Enhance the Olfactory Response of the Larval Parasitoid Holepyris sylvanidis to Specifically Host-Associated Cues.

    PubMed

    Fürstenau, Benjamin; Adler, Cornel; Schulz, Hartwig; Hilker, Monika

    2016-09-01

    Host foraging of parasitic wasps attacking insects living in stored food may be guided by volatile cues emanating from these postharvest products. However, little knowledge is available as to how habitat odor released from noninfested stored food affects the parasitoid's response to host-specific chemicals. In this study, we investigated the impact of wheat grist odor on the olfactory host search by the ectoparasitoid Holepyris sylvanidis This parasitoid attacks larvae of the confused flour beetle Tribolium confusum, a common pest of grain products. Olfactometer bioassays showed that female H. sylvanidis were attracted by volatiles released from host larval feces, whereas odor of noninfested wheat grist was neither attractive nor did it mask the host-indicating cues. We analyzed the odor of host larval feces and wheat grist by coupled gaschromatography-mass spectrometry and recorded the parasitoid's electroantennographic (EAG) responses to the detected volatiles. Two specifically host-associated components of the fecal odor, (E)-2-nonenal and 1-pentadecene, elicited strong EAG responses. Both components were attractive when tested individually, but less than larval feces. Attraction of parasitoids to these host-specific key compounds was enhanced by addition of (i) noninfested habitat substrate odor or (ii) a blend of 3 EAG-active (but not behaviorally active) volatiles that had been identified in odor of noninfested grist (benzaldehyde, 1-tetradecene, 1-hexadecene), but were also detected in the host fecal odor. The impact of these volatiles ubiquitously released in a food store by noninfested habitat substrate on the parasitoid's orientation to host-specific volatile cues is discussed. PMID:27261526

  12. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: part 1 - project overview, collection methods, and quality control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock facilities have historically generated public concerns due to their emissions of odorous air and various chemical pollutants. Odor emission factors and identification of principal odorous chemicals are needed to better understand the problem. Applications of odor emission factors include i...

  13. Odor-fading prevention from organosulfur-odorized liquefied petroleum gas

    SciTech Connect

    Nevers, A.D.

    1987-10-20

    A process is described for the prevention of odor-fading from organosulfur-odorized LPG stored in containers having active interior steel surfaces. It consists of treating the surfaces with a deactivating amount of benzotriazole, tolyl triazole, mercaptobenzothiazole, benzothiazyl disulfide, or mixtures thereof, and loading the container with liquefied petroleum gas odorized with at least one reduced organosulfur compounds containing one to five carbon atoms.

  14. Applying medicinal chemistry strategies to understand odorant discrimination.

    PubMed

    Poivet, Erwan; Peterlin, Zita; Tahirova, Narmin; Xu, Lu; Altomare, Clara; Paria, Anne; Zou, Dong-Jing; Firestein, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Associating an odorant's chemical structure with its percept is a long-standing challenge. One hindrance may come from the adoption of the organic chemistry scheme of molecular description and classification. Chemists classify molecules according to characteristics that are useful in synthesis or isolation, but which may be of little importance to a biological sensory system. Accordingly, we look to medicinal chemistry, which emphasizes biological function over chemical form, in an attempt to discern which among the many molecular features are most important for odour discrimination. Here we use medicinal chemistry concepts to assemble a panel of molecules to test how heteroaromatic ring substitution of the benzene ring will change the odour percept of acetophenone. This work allows us to describe an extensive rule in odorant detection by mammalian olfactory receptors. Whereas organic chemistry would have predicted the ring size and composition to be key features, our work reveals that the topological polar surface area is the key feature for the discrimination of these odorants. PMID:27040654

  15. Applying medicinal chemistry strategies to understand odorant discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Poivet, Erwan; Peterlin, Zita; Tahirova, Narmin; Xu, Lu; Altomare, Clara; Paria, Anne; Zou, Dong-Jing; Firestein, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Associating an odorant's chemical structure with its percept is a long-standing challenge. One hindrance may come from the adoption of the organic chemistry scheme of molecular description and classification. Chemists classify molecules according to characteristics that are useful in synthesis or isolation, but which may be of little importance to a biological sensory system. Accordingly, we look to medicinal chemistry, which emphasizes biological function over chemical form, in an attempt to discern which among the many molecular features are most important for odour discrimination. Here we use medicinal chemistry concepts to assemble a panel of molecules to test how heteroaromatic ring substitution of the benzene ring will change the odour percept of acetophenone. This work allows us to describe an extensive rule in odorant detection by mammalian olfactory receptors. Whereas organic chemistry would have predicted the ring size and composition to be key features, our work reveals that the topological polar surface area is the key feature for the discrimination of these odorants. PMID:27040654

  16. Olfaction Presentation System Using Odor Scanner and Odor-Emitting Apparatus Coupled with Chemical Capsules of Alginic Acid Polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakairi, Minoru; Nishimura, Ayako; Suzuki, Daisuke

    For the purpose of the application of odor to information technology, we have developed an odor-emitting apparatus coupled with chemical capsules made of alginic acid polymer. This apparatus consists of a chemical capsule cartridge including chemical capsules of odor ingredients, valves to control odor emission, and a temperature control unit. Different odors can be easily emitted by using the apparatus. We have developed an integrated system of vision, audio and olfactory information in which odor strength can be controlled coinciding with on-screen moving images based on analytical results from the odor scanner.

  17. Identification and quantification of impact odorants of aged red wines from Rioja. GC-olfactometry, quantitative GC-MS, and odor evaluation of HPLC fractions.

    PubMed

    Aznar, M; López, R; Cacho, J F; Ferreira, V

    2001-06-01

    An XAD-4 extract from a 5-year-old wine from Rioja (Spain) was analyzed by aroma extract dilution analysis. Most of the odorants were quantified by GC-MS. A second extract was fractionated in an HPLC system with a C-18 semipreparative column. Fifty fractions were recovered, their alcoholic degree and pH were further adjusted to those of the wine, and those fractions that showed strong odor characteristics were further re-extracted and analyzed by GC-O and GC-MS. Reconstitution experiments were carried out to confirm the role of the odorants detected in the fractions. Fifty-eight odorants were found in the Rioja wine, 52 of which could be identified. Methyl benzoate was found to be a wine aroma constituent for the first time. The most important odorants are 4-ethylguaiacol, (E)-whiskey lactone, 4-ethylphenol, beta-damascenone, fusel alcohols, isovaleric and hexanoic acids, eugenol, fatty acid ethyl esters, and ethyl esters of isoacids, Furaneol, phenylacetic acid, and (E)-2-hexenal. Comparison among the three techniques shows good agreement and demonstrates that they are complementary. PMID:11409988

  18. Calmodulin Affects Sensitization of Drosophila melanogaster Odorant Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mukunda, Latha; Miazzi, Fabio; Sargsyan, Vardanush; Hansson, Bill S.; Wicher, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Flying insects have developed a remarkably sensitive olfactory system to detect faint and turbulent odor traces. This ability is linked to the olfactory receptors class of odorant receptors (ORs), occurring exclusively in winged insects. ORs form heteromeric complexes of an odorant specific receptor protein (OrX) and a highly conserved co-receptor protein (Orco). The ORs form ligand gated ion channels that are tuned by intracellular signaling systems. Repetitive subthreshold odor stimulation of olfactory sensory neurons sensitizes insect ORs. This OR sensitization process requires Orco activity. In the present study we first asked whether OR sensitization can be monitored with heterologously expressed OR proteins. Using electrophysiological and calcium imaging methods we demonstrate that D. melanogaster OR proteins expressed in CHO cells show sensitization upon repeated weak stimulation. This was found for OR channels formed by Orco as well as by Or22a or Or56a and Orco. Moreover, we show that inhibition of calmodulin (CaM) action on OR proteins, expressed in CHO cells, abolishes any sensitization. Finally, we investigated the sensitization phenomenon using an ex vivo preparation of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) expressing Or22a inside the fly's antenna. Using calcium imaging, we observed sensitization in the dendrites as well as in the soma. Inhibition of calmodulin with W7 disrupted the sensitization within the outer dendritic shaft, whereas the sensitization remained in the other OSN compartments. Taken together, our results suggest that CaM action is involved in sensitizing the OR complex and that this mechanisms accounts for the sensitization in the outer dendrites, whereas further mechanisms contribute to the sensitization observed in the other OSN compartments. The use of heterologously expressed OR proteins appears to be suitable for further investigations on the mechanistic basis of OR sensitization, while investigations on native neurons are required

  19. Time course of androgenic modulation of odor preferences and odor cues in male meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus.

    PubMed

    Ferkin, M H

    1992-12-01

    During the breeding season, male meadow voles prefer female over male odors and females prefer male over female odors. Testosterone control of males' odor preferences and production of odors attractive to females differ. A male meadow vole's preference for female versus male odor was still evident 1 week after castration, but not 1 week later. This preference was reinstated in testosterone-treated male voles 2 weeks after the onset of hormone replacement. The attractiveness of male odors to females did not disappear until 3 weeks after castration. The attractiveness of male odors was reinstated 1 week after castrated males were treated with testosterone. The time course for the androgenic modulation of production of odors attractive to females may facilitate breeding. For example, at the end of the breeding season males may emit an odor that is still attractive to females. Similarly, at the beginning of the breeding season males may emit an odor that is attractive to females. PMID:1478635

  20. Odorant receptors of Drosophila are sensitive to the molecular volume of odorants.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Majid; Seyed-Allaei, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Which properties of a molecule define its odor? This is a basic yet unanswered question regarding the olfactory system. The olfactory system of Drosophila has a repertoire of approximately 60 odorant receptors. Molecules bind to odorant receptors with different affinities and activate them with different efficacies, thus providing a combinatorial code that identifies odorants. We hypothesized that the binding affinity of an odorant-receptor pair is affected by their relative sizes. The maximum affinity can be attained when the molecular volume of an odorant matches the volume of the binding pocket. The affinity drops to zero when the sizes are too different, thus obscuring the effects of other molecular properties. We developed a mathematical formulation of this hypothesis and verified it using Drosophila data. We also predicted the volume and structural flexibility of the binding site of each odorant receptor; these features significantly differ between odorant receptors. The differences in the volumes and structural flexibilities of different odorant receptor binding sites may explain the difference in the scents of similar molecules with different sizes. PMID:27112241

  1. Odorant receptors of Drosophila are sensitive to the molecular volume of odorants

    PubMed Central

    Saberi, Majid; Seyed-allaei, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Which properties of a molecule define its odor? This is a basic yet unanswered question regarding the olfactory system. The olfactory system of Drosophila has a repertoire of approximately 60 odorant receptors. Molecules bind to odorant receptors with different affinities and activate them with different efficacies, thus providing a combinatorial code that identifies odorants. We hypothesized that the binding affinity of an odorant-receptor pair is affected by their relative sizes. The maximum affinity can be attained when the molecular volume of an odorant matches the volume of the binding pocket. The affinity drops to zero when the sizes are too different, thus obscuring the effects of other molecular properties. We developed a mathematical formulation of this hypothesis and verified it using Drosophila data. We also predicted the volume and structural flexibility of the binding site of each odorant receptor; these features significantly differ between odorant receptors. The differences in the volumes and structural flexibilities of different odorant receptor binding sites may explain the difference in the scents of similar molecules with different sizes. PMID:27112241

  2. Findings and Recommendations From the Joint NIST—AGA Workshop on Odor Masking

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Nancy; Quraishi, Ali; Bruno, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Since the days of the alchemist, the observation that some substances have a smell while other substances do not has been a source of fascination. The sense of smell, or olfaction, is our least understood sense, however it is important for many human functions, including digestion, food selection and hazard avoidance. The detailed explanation of why individual chemicals (called odorants) might have a particular smell is still elusive. The situation with mixtures of odorants is even more complex and interesting. A number of distinct odorant mixture phenomena have been documented. Odorant suppression (sometimes called masking), conjugation (as described first by Zwaadermaker) and cross-adaptation are among a collection of such phenomena. They are related to the differential effects that one odorant species will have when mixed with another. Masking is a term that describes situations in which one odorant can overpower the sensation of another. There may be profound technological implications in a number of industrial sectors, most prominently in the fuel gas sector. Here, masking is suspected when the odorant that is added to natural gas can be detected by analytical instrumentation, but cannot be properly detected by an observer with a normal sense of smell. Note that this phenomenon is distinct from odor fade, which more properly describes a decrease in the concentration of an odorant rather than a decrease, disappearance or qualitative change in the perception of the odor in the absence of a change in absolute concentration. Anecdotal descriptions of masking events in the natural gas industry have persisted for over a decade, with the frequency of such events on the rise. Pursuant to the philosophy that the technological problem cannot be addressed until the basic science is understood, NIST, in collaboration with the American Gas Association (AGA), sponsored a workshop that brought together olfactory scientists and natural gas operations personnel in an effort to

  3. Evaluation of volatiles from two subtropical strawberry cultivars using GC-olfactometry, GC-MS odor activity values, and sensory analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavor profiles of two Florida strawberry cultivars were determined using GC-olfactometry,GC-MS, odor activity values (OAVs) and sensory analysis. Thirty-six aroma active compounds were detected using GC-O. Thirty-four were identified. The major odor-active compounds in decreasing intensity were: me...

  4. Odor aversion learning by the rat fetus.

    PubMed

    Smotherman, W P

    1982-11-01

    Rat fetuses were exposed to an odor stimulus on day 20 of gestation via amniotic injection and then injected with LiCl. In a CER paradigm, 10 day old pups were trained to approach an anesthetized dam in a runway for suckling reinforcement. When running speeds had stabilized the odor stimulus experienced in-utero was introduced into the test chamber. This odor took on aversive properties as a function of its pairing with LiCl, as evidenced by a decrease in running speed on CER trials and increases in the number of trials that were terminated because pups failed to traverse the runway. These data indicate that the fetal rat is capable of odor aversion learning. PMID:6296892

  5. Odor Generation in the Kraft Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnofski, Michael A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the chemical compounds responsible for the odor generated in the Kraft process of pulping wood chips; this subject can be used as a relevant topic in introductory chemistry, especially environmental chemistry. (MLH)

  6. Ontogeny of Odor-LiCl vs. Odor-Shock Learning: Similar Behaviors but Divergent Ages of Functional Amygdala Emergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raineki, Charlis; Shionoya, Kiseko; Sander, Kristin; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2009-01-01

    Both odor-preference and odor-aversion learning occur in perinatal pups before the maturation of brain structures that support this learning in adults. To characterize the development of odor learning, we compared three learning paradigms: (1) odor-LiCl (0.3M; 1% body weight, ip) and (2) odor-1.2-mA shock (hindlimb, 1sec)--both of which…

  7. Parental age effects on odor sensitivity in healthy subjects and schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Malaspina, Dolores; Walsh-Messinger, Julie; Antonius, Daniel; Dracxler, Roberta; Rothman, Karen; Puthota, Jennifer; Gilman, Caitlin; Feuerstein, Jessica L; Keefe, David; Goetz, Deborah; Goetz, Raymond R; Buckley, Peter; Lehrer, Douglas S; Pato, Michele; Pato, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    A schizophrenia phenotype for paternal and maternal age effects on illness risk could benefit etiological research. As odor sensitivity is associated with variability in symptoms and cognition in schizophrenia, we examined if it was related to parental ages in patients and healthy controls. We tested Leukocyte Telomere Length (LTL) as an explanatory factor, as LTL is associated with paternal age and schizophrenia risk. Seventy-five DSM-IV patients and 46 controls were assessed for detection of PEA, WAIS-III for cognition, and LTL, assessed by qPCR. In healthy controls, but not schizophrenia patients, decreasing sensitivity was monotonically related to advancing parental ages, particularly in sons. The relationships between parental aging and odor sensitivity differed significantly for patients and controls (Fisher's R to Z: χ(2)  = 6.95, P = 0.009). The groups also differed in the association of odor sensitivity with cognition; lesser sensitivity robustly predicted cognitive impairments in patients (<0.001), but these were unassociated in controls. LTL was unrelated to odor sensitivity and did not explain the association of lesser sensitivity with cognitive deficits.Parental aging predicted less sensitive detection in healthy subjects but not in schizophrenia patients. In patients, decreased odor sensitivity strongly predicted cognitive deficits, whereas more sensitive acuity was associated with older parents. These data support separate risk pathways for schizophrenia. A parental age-related pathway may produce psychosis without impairing cognition and odor sensitivity. Diminished odor sensitivity may furthermore be useful as a biomarker for research and treatment studies in schizophrenia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26224136

  8. Characterization of geosmin as source of earthy odor in different aroma type Chinese liquors.

    PubMed

    Du, Hai; Fan, Wenlai; Xu, Yan

    2011-08-10

    Earthy odor is one of the most frequent and serious causes for the aroma deterioration in Chinese liquor, which causes a dirty and dusty impression. The odor in Chinese liquor is similar to that of rice husk, one kind of auxiliary material widely used as a filler in the distillation process. So it is experientially hypothesized that such odor may derive from rice husk. In this paper, the gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) technique and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to discover and identify the characteristic odoriferous zone of Chinese liquor marked by earthy odor. Geosmin was found to be responsible for this odor. The levels of the compound in ten bottled liquors and thirty liquors aging for different years belonging to four different aroma types were determined by the optimized headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method. Quantitative analysis of bottled liquor revealed the presence of geosmin in all aroma type liquors with concentrations ranging from 1.10 μg/L to 9.90 μg/L, except for strong-aroma type liquor. Meanwhile in the aged liquors belonging to the same aroma type, geosmin was detected with significant concentrations and high odor activity values (OAVs) during different years of aging. However, geosmin was not detected in steamed rice husk nor in nonsteamed rice husk, which suggests that rice husk is not the origin of earthy odor in Chinese liquor, and there may be another origin of it during the brewing process. PMID:21662241

  9. Composting public health aspects: Odors and bioaerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.O.; Epstein, E.

    1995-09-01

    The two dominating public health issues associated with composting are odors and bioaerosols, regardless of the feedstock or method of composting. Odors, per se, are an irritant and a nuisance rather than a direct health problem. However, when odors emanate form a facility, the surrounding public often associates odors with compounds which may result in health problems. For example, hydrogen sulfide is not found in high concentrations during composting or found to be of a health significance in the air surrounding composting facilities, yet health issues related to this compound have emerged as a result of odors. Another health concern associated with odors is bioaerosols. Bioaerosols are biological organisms or substances from biological organisms which have been implicated in human health. Bioaerosols may contain fungal spores, actinomycetes, microbial products, and other organisms. Mitigating odors and bioaerosols is a function of facility design and operations. There is a greater opportunity in municipal solid waste (MSW) and biosolids facilities for effective design than with year waste facilities. MSW and biosolids facilities as a result of the nature of the feedstock generally require more sophisticated materials handling equipment which require enclosures. With enclosures there is a greater opportunity to scrub the air for removal of odors and dust. There are also more regulatory requirements for MSW and sewage sludge composting for both process and product by states and the Federal government. The objective of this paper is to provide information on the concerns, state-of-the-art, and potential mitigating aspects which need to be considered in the design and operation of MSW facilities.

  10. Odors and the perception of hygiene.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Kara-Lynne; Rosero, Stephanie Joyce; Doty, Richard L

    2005-02-01

    Although certain odors, such as lemon, are commonly associated with cleanliness and positive hygiene, empirical assessment of such associations for other odors and attributes is generally lacking. Moreover, differences between men and women in such associations have not been established. In this study of lemon, onion, pine, and smoke odors, ratings were obtained from 142 men and 336 women (M age= 30.1 yr., SD = 12.3) for odor intensity, gender association (masculine/feminine), and the success, sociability, intelligence, cleanliness, and attractiveness of a hypothetical person whose clothes smell like the odor in question. Ratings of the pleasantness or unpleasantness one would attribute to each odor in various rooms of the home were obtained, as well as a specification of whether such ratings are influenced by laundry habits, e.g., whether laundry is smelled before or after washing. Numerous associations were found. For example, a hypothetical person whose clothes smell of pine was rated as relatively more successful, intelligent, sociable, sanitary, and attractive than one whose clothes smelled of lemon, onion, or smoke. Sex differences, as well as differences between people who reported smelling their own laundry, were also found. PMID:15773704

  11. Interaction between cAMP and intracellular Ca(2+)-signaling pathways during odor-perception and adaptation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Murmu, Meena Sriti; Martin, Jean-René

    2016-09-01

    Binding of an odorant to olfactory receptors triggers cascades of second messenger systems in olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). Biochemical studies indicate that the transduction mechanism at ORNs is mediated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and/or inositol,1,4,5-triphosphate (InsP3)-signaling pathways in an odorant-dependent manner. However, the interaction between these two second messenger systems during olfactory perception or adaptation processes is much less understood. Here, we used interfering-RNAi to disrupt the level of cAMP alone or in combination with the InsP3-signaling pathway cellular targets, InsP3 receptor (InsP3R) or ryanodine receptor (RyR) in ORNs, and quantify at ORN axon terminals in the antennal lobe, the odor-induced Ca(2+)-response. In-vivo functional bioluminescence Ca(2+)-imaging indicates that a single 5s application of an odor increased Ca(2+)-transients at ORN axon terminals. However, compared to wild-type controls, the magnitude and duration of ORN Ca(2+)-response was significantly diminished in cAMP-defective flies. In a behavioral assay, perception of odorants was defective in flies with a disrupted cAMP level suggesting that the ability of flies to correctly detect an odor depends on cAMP. Simultaneous disruption of cAMP level and InsP3R or RyR further diminished the magnitude and duration of ORN response to odorants and affected the flies' ability to detect an odor. In conclusion, this study provides functional evidence that cAMP and InsP3-signaling pathways act in synergy to mediate odor processing within the ORN axon terminals, which is encoded in the magnitude and duration of ORN response. PMID:27212269

  12. Synergism and Combinatorial Coding for Binary Odor Mixture Perception in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Tuhin Subhra; Siddiqi, Obaid

    2016-01-01

    Most odors in the natural environment are mixtures of several compounds. Olfactory receptors housed in the olfactory sensory neurons detect these odors and transmit the information to the brain, leading to decision-making. But whether the olfactory system detects the ingredients of a mixture separately or treats mixtures as different entities is not well understood. Using Drosophila melanogaster as a model system, we have demonstrated that fruit flies perceive binary odor mixtures in a manner that is heavily dependent on both the proportion and the degree of dilution of the components, suggesting a combinatorial coding at the peripheral level. This coding strategy appears to be receptor specific and is independent of interneuronal interactions. PMID:27588303

  13. Synergism and Combinatorial Coding for Binary Odor Mixture Perception in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Srikanya; Ganguly, Anindya; Chakraborty, Tuhin Subhra; Kumar, Arun; Siddiqi, Obaid

    2016-01-01

    Most odors in the natural environment are mixtures of several compounds. Olfactory receptors housed in the olfactory sensory neurons detect these odors and transmit the information to the brain, leading to decision-making. But whether the olfactory system detects the ingredients of a mixture separately or treats mixtures as different entities is not well understood. Using Drosophila melanogaster as a model system, we have demonstrated that fruit flies perceive binary odor mixtures in a manner that is heavily dependent on both the proportion and the degree of dilution of the components, suggesting a combinatorial coding at the peripheral level. This coding strategy appears to be receptor specific and is independent of interneuronal interactions. PMID:27588303

  14. Deodorant Characteristics of Breath Odor Occurred from Favorite Foods Using Metal Oxide Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, Shuichi; Oyabu, Takashi; Cai, Kuiqian; Katsube, Teruaki

    Three types of metal oxide gas sensors were adopted to detect the degree of breath odor. Various sorts of information are included in the odor. Each sensor has different sensitivities to gaseous chemical substances and the sensitivities also differ according to human behaviors, for example taking a meal, teeth-brushing and drinking something. There is also a possibility that the sensor can detect degrees of daily fatigue. Sensor sensitivities were low for the expiration of the elderly when the subject drank green tea. In this study, it is thought that the odor system can be incorporated into a healing robot. The robot can communicate with the elderly using several words and also connect to Internet. As for the results, the robot can identify basic human behaviors and recognize the living conditions of the resident. Moreover, it can also execute a kind of information retrieval through the Internet. Therefore, it has healing capability for the aged, and can also receive and transmit information.

  15. A catalyst tackles odors in a single-stage scrubber

    SciTech Connect

    Shelley, S.

    1995-05-01

    Chemical-oxidation systems are widely used to absorb and oxidize odorous organic compounds in industrial and municipal exhaust streams. By combining conventional chemical scrubbers with a proprietary catalytic treatment unit, ICI Katalco (Billingham, England) has produced a single-stage scrubber system that enhances removal efficiency during liquid-phase adsorption, and overcomes many of the process and cost disadvantages of a conventional scrubber. Organic vapors are absorbed by the sodium hypochlorite solution inside the single-column scrubber. The liquid leaving the tower is then passed through the fixed-bed Odorgard reactor, where absorbed organics are catalytically oxidized.

  16. A fruity note: crossmodal associations between odors and musical notes.

    PubMed

    Crisinel, Anne-Sylvie; Spence, Charles

    2012-02-01

    Odors are notoriously difficult to describe, but they seem prone to a variety of crossmodal associations. In the present study, we generalize the previously-shown association between odors (from perfumery) and pitch (Belkin et al. 1997) to odors related to food and drink (in this case those associated with wine). We also demonstrate that, to a lesser extent (25% of the odor tested), participants preferentially match specific odors to certain types of instruments. The ratings of the odors along a number of dimensions are used in principal components analysis (PCA) to explore the psychological dimensions underlying the odor-pitch associations. The results demonstrate that both pleasantness and complexity, but not intensity, appear to play a role when choosing a pitch to match an odor. Our results suggest that these features of odor stimuli constitute psychological dimensions that can be consistently matched to auditory features. PMID:21852708

  17. Robust and Rapid Air-Borne Odor Tracking without Casting.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Urvashi; Bhalla, Upinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Casting behavior (zigzagging across an odor stream) is common in air/liquid-borne odor tracking in open fields; however, terrestrial odor localization often involves path selection in a familiar environment. To study this, we trained rats to run toward an odor source in a multi-choice olfactory arena with near-laminar airflow. We find that rather than casting, rats run directly toward an odor port, and if this is incorrect, they serially sample other sources. This behavior is consistent and accurate in the presence of perturbations, such as novel odors, background odor, unilateral nostril stitching, and turbulence. We developed a model that predicts that this run-and-scan tracking of air-borne odors is faster than casting, provided there are a small number of targets at known locations. Thus, the combination of best-guess target selection with fallback serial sampling provides a rapid and robust strategy for finding odor sources in familiar surroundings. PMID:26665165

  18. Enhanced charge detection: Amplification factor, phase reversal and measurement time dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Thorgrimson, J.; Sachrajda, A. S.; Studenikin, S. A.; Bogan, A.; Aers, G. C.; Kam, A.; Zawadzki, P.; Wasilewski, Z. R.

    2013-12-04

    Studenikin et al. recently demonstrated a significant enhancement of the fringe contrast of coherent Landau-Zener-Stückelberg (LZS) oscillations between singlet S and triplet T+ two-spin states using a modified charge detection technique called enhanced charge detection (ECD). In this paper we explain the amplitude phase reversal and confirm the magnitude of the effect is consistent with our calibrations. We also show that the enhancement cannot be explained by a T{sub 1} effect.

  19. Toxicity bioassays for water from black-odor rivers in Wenzhou, China.

    PubMed

    DeFu, He; RuiRui, Chen; EnHui, Zhu; Na, Chen; Bo, Yang; HuaHong, Shi; MinSheng, Huang

    2015-02-01

    Following urbanization, a large number of urban rivers were contaminated and turned to black-odor rivers. The traditional approach for detecting water quality is based on chemical or physical analysis. However, biological toxicity of black-odor water has been less addressed. As two typical black-odor rivers, Jiushanwai River (JS) and Shanxia River (SX) are tributaries of Wen-Rui Tang River in Wenzhou (south of China). The eco-safety of the urban rivers was evaluated by bioassay for water toxicity in this study. Ten and 5 sampling sites were respectively set along JS and SX. Water samples were collected monthly from October 2010 to October 2011. The general physical and chemical parameters of river water were monitored. In order to investigate the ecotoxicological effects of black-odor water, the following bioassays were used: (1) Fish acute toxicity test (Danio rerio, comprehensive toxicity), (2) luminescent bacteria bioassay (Qinghaiensis vibrio, toxicity to bacteria), and (3) tropical claw embryo assay (Xenopus tropicalis, embryo toxicity). Biotoxicity of black-odor rivers water was demonstrated by D. rerio, Q. vibrio, and X. tropicalis embryos. Toxicological effects of black-odor water were respectively shown by mortality of zebrafish, and by the relative inhibitory light rate of luminescent bacteria. However, luminescent bacteria were more sensitive to inspect biotoxicity than zebrafish. In X. tropicalis embryos test, toxicological effects of black-odor water were mostly shown by embryos' survival rate and teratogenic rate. Bioassay results showed that toxicity of SX water was higher than that of JS water, especially in summer. Statistical analysis of luminescent bacteria toxicity test showed that biotoxicity of SX and JS was high in summer, but low in winter and spring. The seasonal changes of water toxicity of the black-odor river were positively correlative with changes of water temperature (p < 0.05), and related to pH and ammonium nitrogen of water

  20. Chemosensory Communication of Gender Information: Masculinity Bias in Body Odor Perception and Femininity Bias Introduced by Chemosignals During Social Perception

    PubMed Central

    Mutic, Smiljana; Moellers, Eileen M.; Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Human body odor is a source of important social information. In this study, we explore whether the sex of an individual can be established based on smelling axillary odor and whether exposure to male and female odors biases chemosensory and social perception. In a double-blind, pseudo-randomized application, 31 healthy normosmic heterosexual male and female raters were exposed to male and female chemosignals (odor samples of 27 heterosexual donors collected during a cardio workout) and a no odor sample. Recipients rated chemosensory samples on a masculinity-femininity scale and provided intensity, familiarity and pleasantness ratings. Additionally, the modulation of social perception (gender-neutral faces and personality attributes) and affective introspection (mood) by male and female chemosignals was assessed. Male and female axillary odors were rated as rather masculine, regardless of the sex of the donor. As opposed to the masculinity bias in the odor perception, a femininity bias modulating social perception appeared. A facilitated femininity detection in gender-neutral faces and personality attributes in male and female chemosignals appeared. No chemosensory effect on mood of the rater was observed. The results are discussed with regards to the use of male and female chemosignals in affective and social communication. PMID:26834656

  1. Chemosensory Communication of Gender Information: Masculinity Bias in Body Odor Perception and Femininity Bias Introduced by Chemosignals During Social Perception.

    PubMed

    Mutic, Smiljana; Moellers, Eileen M; Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Human body odor is a source of important social information. In this study, we explore whether the sex of an individual can be established based on smelling axillary odor and whether exposure to male and female odors biases chemosensory and social perception. In a double-blind, pseudo-randomized application, 31 healthy normosmic heterosexual male and female raters were exposed to male and female chemosignals (odor samples of 27 heterosexual donors collected during a cardio workout) and a no odor sample. Recipients rated chemosensory samples on a masculinity-femininity scale and provided intensity, familiarity and pleasantness ratings. Additionally, the modulation of social perception (gender-neutral faces and personality attributes) and affective introspection (mood) by male and female chemosignals was assessed. Male and female axillary odors were rated as rather masculine, regardless of the sex of the donor. As opposed to the masculinity bias in the odor perception, a femininity bias modulating social perception appeared. A facilitated femininity detection in gender-neutral faces and personality attributes in male and female chemosignals appeared. No chemosensory effect on mood of the rater was observed. The results are discussed with regards to the use of male and female chemosignals in affective and social communication. PMID:26834656

  2. Neonatal Odor-Shock Conditioning Alters the Neural Network Involved in Odor Fear Learning at Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevelinges, Yannick; Sullivan, Regina M.; Messaoudi, Belkacem; Mouly, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Adult learning and memory functions are strongly dependent on neonatal experiences. We recently showed that neonatal odor-shock learning attenuates later life odor fear conditioning and amygdala activity. In the present work we investigated whether changes observed in adults can also be observed in other structures normally involved, namely…

  3. Recovery of agricultural odors and odorous compounds from polyvinyl fluoride film bags

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate sampling methods are necessary when quantifying odor and volatile organic compound emissions at agricultural facilities. The commonly accepted methodology in the U.S. has been to collect odor samples in polyvinyl fluoride bags (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) and, subsequently, analyze with human ...

  4. International comparison of odor threshold values of several odorants in Japan and in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Hoshika, Y; Imamura, T; Muto, G; Van Gemert, L J; Don, J A; Walpot, J I

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the published odor threshold values of six odorants. In Japan, all of the odor threshold values used in the Offensive Odor Control Law (enacted in 1972) were determined in an odor-free room (4 m3) by a trained panel (20 men, ages 30-45 years who were perfumers) who sniffed the odors directly and made absolute judgments of odor quality and intensity. In The Netherlands, sensorial odor concentration measurements were made with an olfactometer in a mobile sniffing car with eight panelists, four men and four women, ages 18-40 years. Such presentations are repeated with different dilution ratios. Comparison of the threshold data for the six different compounds given as the barely perceptible concentration level revealed striking similarities for hydrogen sulfide (in Japan 0.0005 ppm/in The Netherlands 0.0003 ppm), phenol (0.012/0.010), styrene (0.033/0.016), toluene (0.92/0.99), and tetrachloroethylene (1.8/1.2) but not for m-xylene (0.012/0.12). Such a similarity was not found with any other literature sources. PMID:8472679

  5. Direct nuclear magnetic resonance observation of odorant binding to mouse odorant receptor MOR244-3.

    PubMed

    Burger, Jessica L; Jeerage, Kavita M; Bruno, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    Mammals are able to perceive and differentiate a great number of structurally diverse odorants through the odorant's interaction with odorant receptors (ORs), proteins found within the cell membrane of olfactory sensory neurons. The natural gas industry has used human olfactory sensitivity to sulfur compounds (thiols, sulfides, etc.) to increase the safety of fuel gas transport, storage, and use through the odorization of this product. In the United States, mixtures of sulfur compounds are used, but the major constituent of odorant packages is 2-methylpropane-2-thiol, also known as tert-butyl mercaptan. It has been fundamentally challenging to understand olfaction and odorization due to the low affinity of odorous ligands to the ORs and the difficulty in expressing a sufficient number of OR proteins. Here, we directly observed the binding of tert-butyl mercaptan and another odiferous compound, cis-cyclooctene, to mouse OR MOR244-3 on living cells by saturation transfer difference (STD) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. This effort lays the groundwork for resolving molecular mechanisms responsible for ligand binding and resulting signaling, which in turn will lead to a clearer understanding of odorant recognition and competition. PMID:27019154

  6. Hands-on resonance-enhanced photoacoustic detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euler, Manfred

    2001-10-01

    The design of an improved photoacoustic converter cell using kitchen equipment is described. It operates by changing manually the Helmholtz resonance frequency of bottles by adjusting the distance between the bottleneck and the outer ear. The experiment helps to gain insights in ear performance, in photoacoustic detection methods, in resonance phenomena and their role for detecting small periodic signals in the presence of noise.

  7. Method of enhancing radiation response of radiation detection materials

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a method of increasing radiation response of a radiation detection material for a given radiation signal by first pressurizing the radiation detection material. Pressurization may be accomplished by any means including mechanical and/or hydraulic. In this application, the term "pressure" includes fluid pressure and/or mechanical stress.

  8. Enhancing community detection by using local structural information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Ju; Hu, Ke; Zhang, Yan; Bao, Mei-Hua; Tang, Liang; Tang, Yan-Ni; Gao, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Jian-Ming; Chen, Benyan; Hu, Jing-Bo

    2016-03-01

    Many real-world networks, such as gene networks, protein-protein interaction networks and metabolic networks, exhibit community structures, meaning the existence of groups of densely connected vertices in the networks. Many local similarity measures in the networks are closely related to the concept of the community structures, and may have a positive effect on community detection in the networks. Here, various local similarity measures are used to extract local structural information, which is then applied to community detection in the networks by using the edge-reweighting strategy. The effect of the local similarity measures on community detection is carefully investigated and compared in various networks. The experimental results show that the local similarity measures are crucial for the improvement of community detection methods, while the positive effect of the local similarity measures is closely related to the networks under study and applied community detection methods.

  9. Assessment of odor activity value coefficient and odor contribution based on binary interaction effects in waste disposal plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chuandong; Liu, Jiemin; Yan, Luchun; Chen, Haiying; Shao, Huiqi; Meng, Tian

    2015-02-01

    Odor activity value (OAV) has been widely used for the assessment of odor pollution from various sources. However, little attention has been paid to the extreme OAV variation and potential inaccuracies of odor contribution assessment caused by odor interaction effects. The objective of this study is to assess the odor interaction effect for precise assessment of odor contribution. In this paper, samples were collected from a food waste disposal plant, and analyzed by instrumental and olfactory method to conclude odorants' occurrence and OAV. Then odor activity value coefficient (γ) was first proposed to evaluate the type and the level of binary interaction effects based on determination of OAV variation. By multiplying OAV and γ, odor activity factor (OAF) was used to reflect the real OAV. Correlation between the sum of OAF and odor concentration reached 80.0 ± 5.7%, which was 10 times higher than the sum of OAV used before. Results showed that hydrogen sulfide contributed most (annual average 66.4 ± 15.8%) to odor pollution in the waste disposal plant. However, as odor intensity of samples in summer rising, odor contribution of trimethylamine increased to 48.3 ± 3.7% by the strong synergistic interaction effect, while odor contribution of phenol decreased to 0.1 ± 0.02% for the increasing antagonistic interaction effect.

  10. Attractiveness of MM-X Traps Baited with Human or Synthetic Odor to Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in The Gambia

    PubMed Central

    QIU, YU TONG; SMALLEGANGE, RENATE C.; TER BRAAK, CAJO J. F.; SPITZEN, JEROEN; VAN LOON, JOOP J. A.; JAWARA, MUSA; MILLIGAN, PAUL; GALIMARD, AGNES M.; VAN BEEK, TERIS A.; KNOLS, BART G. J.; TAKKEN, WILLEM

    2013-01-01

    Chemical cues play an important role in the host-seeking behavior of blood-feeding mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). A field study was carried out in The Gambia to investigate the effects of human odor or synthetic odor blends on the attraction of mosquitoes. MM-X traps baited with 16 odor blends to which carbon dioxide (CO2) was added were tested in four sets of experiments. In a second series of experiments, MM-X traps with 14 odor blends without CO2 were tested. A blend of ammonia and l-lactic acid with or without CO2 was used as control odor in series 1 and 2, respectively. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps were placed in a traditional house and an experimental house to monitor mosquito densities during the experiments. The MM-X traps caught a total number of 196,756 mosquitoes, with the most abundant species belonging to the genera Mansonia (70.6%), Anopheles (17.5%), and Culex (11.5%). The most abundant mosquito species caught by the CDC traps (56,290 in total) belonged to the genera Mansonia (59.4%), Anopheles (16.0% An. gambiae s.l. Giles, and 11.3% An. ziemanni Grünberg), and Culex (11.6%). MM-X traps baited with synthetic blends were in many cases more attractive than MM-X traps baited with human odors. Addition of CO2 to synthetic odors substantially increased the catch of all mosquito species in the MM-X traps. A blend of ammonia + L-lactic acid + CO2 + 3-methylbutanoic acid was the most attractive odor for most mosquito species. The candidate odor blend shows the potential to enhance trap collections so that traps will provide better surveillance and possible control. PMID:18047195

  11. Odors and volatile organics emissions from a commercial composting operation

    SciTech Connect

    Krzymien, M.E.; Day, M.

    1997-12-31

    Working in cooperation with a commercial operator of a composting facility, both compost gas and the solid composting material were sampled at regular time intervals during composting operations. The composting material was transferred to laboratory composters where the composting process continued under laboratory controlled conditions. The gases collected at the composting facility as well as the gases exiting the laboratory composters were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Odor of these gases, based upon detection thresholds, was also evaluated by a panel of volunteers.

  12. Trace Isotope Detection Enhanced by Coherent Elimination of Power Broadening

    SciTech Connect

    Conde, Alvaro Peralta; Brandt, Lukas; Halfmann, Thomas

    2006-12-15

    The selectivity and spectral resolution of traditional laser-based trace isotope analysis, i.e., resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS), is limited by power broadening of the radiative transition. We use the fact that power broadening does not occur in coherently driven quantum systems when the probing and excitation processes are temporally separated to demonstrate significant improvement of trace element detection, even under conditions of strong signals. Specifically, we apply a coherent variant of RIMS to the detection of traces of molecular nitric oxide (NO) isobars. For large laser intensities, the detected isotope signal can be increased by almost 1 order of magnitude without any loss in spectral resolution.

  13. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1999-08-03

    A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

  14. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Novick, Vincent J.; Johnson, Stanley A.

    1999-01-01

    A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

  15. Enhancing Community Detection By Affinity-based Edge Weighting Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Andy; Sanders, Geoffrey; Henson, Van; Vassilevski, Panayot

    2015-10-05

    Community detection refers to an important graph analytics problem of finding a set of densely-connected subgraphs in a graph and has gained a great deal of interest recently. The performance of current community detection algorithms is limited by an inherent constraint of unweighted graphs that offer very little information on their internal community structures. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to address this issue that weights the edges in a given graph based on recently proposed vertex affinity. The vertex affinity quantifies the proximity between two vertices in terms of their clustering strength, and therefore, it is ideal for graph analytics applications such as community detection. We also demonstrate that the affinity-based edge weighting scheme can improve the performance of community detection algorithms significantly.

  16. DNA Diagnostics: Nanotechnology-enhanced Electrochemical Detection of Nucleic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fang; Lillehoj, Peter B.; Ho, Chih-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The detection of mismatched base pairs in DNA plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of genetic-related diseases and conditions, especially for early stage treatment. Among the various biosensors that have been employed for DNA detection, electrochemical sensors show great promise since they are capable of precise DNA recognition and efficient signal transduction. Advancements in micro- and nanotechnologies, specifically fabrication techniques and new nanomaterials, have enabled for the development of highly sensitive, highly specific sensors making them attractive for the detection of small sequence variations. Furthermore, the integration of sensors with sample preparation and fluidic processes enables for rapid, multiplexed DNA detection for point-of-care (POC) clinical diagnostics. PMID:20075759

  17. Enhanced detection of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes by AGILE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marisaldi, M.; Argan, A.; Ursi, A.; Gjesteland, T.; Fuschino, F.; Labanti, C.; Galli, M.; Tavani, M.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; D'Amico, F.; Østgaard, N.; Mereghetti, S.; Campana, R.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Bulgarelli, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Dietrich, S.; Longo, F.; Gianotti, F.; Giommi, P.; Rappoldi, A.; Trifoglio, M.; Trois, A.

    2015-11-01

    At the end of March 2015 the onboard software configuration of the Astrorivelatore Gamma a Immagini Leggero (AGILE) satellite was modified in order to disable the veto signal of the anticoincidence shield for the minicalorimeter instrument. The motivation for such a change was the understanding that the dead time induced by the anticoincidence prevented the detection of a large fraction of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs). The configuration change was highly successful resulting in an increase of one order of magnitude in TGF detection rate. As expected, the largest fraction of the new events has short duration (<100 μs), and part of them has simultaneous association with lightning sferics detected by the World Wide Lightning Location Network. The new configuration provides the largest TGF detection rate surface density (TGFs/km2/yr) to date, opening prospects for improved correlation studies with lightning and atmospheric parameters on short spatial and temporal scales along the equatorial region.

  18. Multi-Sensor Fusion and Enhancement for Object Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Zia-Ur

    2005-01-01

    This was a quick &week effort to investigate the ability to detect changes along the flight path of an unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) over time. Video was acquired by the UAV during several passes over the same terrain. Concurrently, GPS data and UAV attitude data were also acquired. The purpose of the research was to use information from all of these sources to detect if any change had occurred in the terrain encompassed by the flight path.

  19. Sensitive detection of Campylobacter jejuni using nanoparticles enhanced QCM sensor.

    PubMed

    Masdor, Noor Azlina; Altintas, Zeynep; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2016-04-15

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor platform was used to develop an immunosensor for the detection of food pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies and commercially available mouse monoclonal antibodies against C. jejuni were investigated to construct direct, sandwich and gold-nanoparticles (AuNPs) amplified sandwich assays. The performance of the QCM immunosensor developed using sandwich assay by utilising the rabbit polyclonal antibody as the capture antibody and conjugated to AuNPs as the detection antibody gave the highest sensitivity. This sensor achieved a limit of detection (LOD) of 150 colony forming unit (CFU)mL(-1) of C. jejuni in solution. The QCM sensor showed excellent sensitivity and specificity for Campylobacter detection with low cross reactivity for other foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella Typhimurium, (7%) Listeria monocytogenes (3%) and Escherichia coli (0%). The development of this biosensor would help in the sensitive detection of Campylobacter which can result in reducing pre-enrichment steps; hence, reducing assay time. This work demonstrates the potential of this technology for the development of a rapid and sensitive detection method for C. jejuni. PMID:26649490

  20. Enhanced detection of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes by AGILE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marisaldi, M.; Argan, A.; Ursi, A.; Gjesteland, T.; Fuschino, F.; Labanti, C.; Galli, M.; Tavani, M.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; D'Amico, F.; Ostgaard, N.; Mereghetti, S.; Campana, R.; Cattaneo, P.; Bulgarelli, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Dietrich, S.; Longo, F.; Gianotti, F.; Giommi, P.; Rappoldi, A.; Trifoglio, M.; Trois, A.

    2015-12-01

    At the end of March 2015 the onboard configuration of the AGILE satellite was modified in order to disable the veto signal of the anticoincidence shield for the minicalorimeter instrument. The motivation for such a change was the understanding that the dead time induced by the anticoincidence prevented the detection of a large fraction of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs), especially the short duration ones. We present here the characteristics of the new TGF sample after several months of stable operations with the new configuration. The configuration change was highly successful resulting in the detection of about 100 TGFs/month, an increase of a factor about 11 in TGFs detection rate with respect to previous configuration. As expected, the largest fraction of the new events has short duration, with a median duration of 80 microseconds. We also obtain a sample of events with simultaneous association, within 100 microseconds, with lightning sferics detected by the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), confirming previous results reported by the Fermi mission. Given the high detection rate and the AGILE very low (+/-2.5°) orbital inclination, the new configuration provides the largest TGF detection rate surface density (TGFs / km2 / year) to date, opening space for correlation studies with lightning and atmospheric parameters on short spatial and temporal scales along the equatorial region. Eventually, the events with associated simultaneous WWLLN sferics provide a highly reliable sample to probe the long-standing issue of the TGF maximal energy.

  1. Effects of altering flow and odor information on plume tracking behavior in walking cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.).

    PubMed

    Willis, Mark A; Avondet, Jennifer L; Finnell, Andrew S

    2008-07-01

    Animals using odor plumes to locate resources are activated to track these plumes by the presence of an attractive odor, and typically steer toward the source using directional cues from the flowing air or water bearing the odor. We challenged freely walking virgin male cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, to track plumes of airborne female pheromone and then video-recorded and analyzed their responses as the odor plume and wind were independently manipulated. Plume tracking males that experienced the total loss of directional air flow halfway to the odor source showed little change in their performance, and 100% were able to quickly locate the pheromone source. By contrast, males experiencing a sudden loss of odor while tracking a plume rapidly changed their behavior; often turning downwind and retracing their steps to the release point, or walking in loops, but rarely moving upwind to the previous location of the source. In a subsequent experiment, in order to determine whether a memory of the previously experienced wind direction could provide the directional information necessary to locate an odor source, we challenged males to track plumes in zero wind after pre-exposing them to: (1) wind and pheromone, (2) wind only, and (3) neither wind nor pheromone. These were compared to males tracking a wind-borne pheromone plume, in which case, all males were able to locate the pheromone source. Our results show that males require the detection of wind and pheromone simultaneously during plume tracking in order to quickly and efficiently locate the odor source. These results are consistent with those reported from flying moths tracking wind-borne pheromone plumes, and suggest that the control system underlying this behavior requires ongoing simultaneous experience with wind and odor information during the performance of the behavior to operate efficiently. PMID:18587126

  2. Release of drinking water contaminants and odor impacts caused by green building cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plumbing systems.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Keven M; Stenson, Alexandra C; Dey, Rajarashi; Whelton, Andrew J

    2014-12-15

    Green buildings are increasingly being plumbed with crosslinked polyethylene (PEX) potable water pipe. Tap water quality was investigated at a six month old plumbing system and chemical and odor quality impacts of six PEX pipe brands were examined. Eleven PEX related contaminants were found in the plumbing system; one regulated (toluene) and several unregulated: Antioxidant degradation products, resin solvents, initiator degradation products, or manufacturing aides. Water chemical and odor quality was monitored for new PEX-a, -b and -c pipes with (2 mg/L free chlorine) and without disinfectant over 30 days. Odor and total organic carbon (TOC) levels decreased for all pipes, but odor remained greater than the USA's Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) secondary maximum contaminant level. Odors were not attributed to known odorants ethyl-tert-butyl ether (ETBE) or methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Free chlorine caused odor levels for PEX-a1 pipe to increase from 26 to 75 threshold odor number (TON) on day 3 and affected the rate at which TOC changed for each brand over 30 days. As TOC decreased, the ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm increased. Pipes consumed as much as 0.5 mg/L as Cl2 during each 3 day stagnation period. Sixteen organic chemicals were identified, including toluene, pyridine, methylene trichloroacetate and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. Some were also detected during the plumbing system field investigation. Six brands of PEX pipes sold in the USA and a PEX-a green building plumbing system impacted chemical and drinking water odor quality. PMID:25259680

  3. Antenna-coupled microcavities for enhanced infrared photo-detection

    SciTech Connect

    Nga Chen, Yuk; Todorov, Yanko Askenazi, Benjamin; Vasanelli, Angela; Sirtori, Carlo; Biasiol, Giorgio; Colombelli, Raffaele

    2014-01-20

    We demonstrate mid-infrared detectors embedded into an array of double-metal nano-antennas. The antennas act as microcavities that squeeze the electric field into thin semiconductor layers, thus enhancing the detector responsivity. Furthermore, thanks to the ability of the antennas to gather photons from an area larger than the device's physical dimensions, the dark current is reduced without hindering the photo-generation rate. In these devices, the background-limited performance is improved with a consequent increase of the operating temperature. Our results illustrate how the antenna-coupled microcavity concept can be applied to enhance the performances of infrared opto-electronic devices.

  4. Detection limits in whispering gallery biosensors with plasmonic enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaim, Jon D.; Knittel, Joachim; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2011-12-01

    We perform numerical modeling of a gold nanorod bound to the surface of a microtoroid-based biosensor. Localized surface plasmon resonances in the nanorod give rise to strong enhancements in the electric field when excited near resonance, increasing the frequency shift for a single bovine serum albumin molecule by a factor of 870, with even larger enhancements predicted for smaller proteins. On resonance, the frequency shift is predicted to be on the order of MHz, more than an order of magnitude larger than measurement noise arising from time-averaged frequency and thermal fluctuations.

  5. Ligands for pheromone-sensing neurons are not conformationally activated odorant binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Diaz, Carolina; Reina, Jaime H; Cambillau, Christian; Benton, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Pheromones form an essential chemical language of intraspecific communication in many animals. How olfactory systems recognize pheromonal signals with both sensitivity and specificity is not well understood. An important in vivo paradigm for this process is the detection mechanism of the sex pheromone (Z)-11-octadecenyl acetate (cis-vaccenyl acetate [cVA]) in Drosophila melanogaster. cVA-evoked neuronal activation requires a secreted odorant binding protein, LUSH, the CD36-related transmembrane protein SNMP, and the odorant receptor OR67d. Crystallographic analysis has revealed that cVA-bound LUSH is conformationally distinct from apo (unliganded) LUSH. Recombinantly expressed mutant versions of LUSH predicted to enhance or diminish these structural changes produce corresponding alterations in spontaneous and/or cVA-evoked activity when infused into olfactory sensilla, leading to a model in which the ligand for pheromone receptors is not free cVA, but LUSH that is "conformationally activated" upon cVA binding. Here we present evidence that contradicts this model. First, we demonstrate that the same LUSH mutants expressed transgenically affect neither basal nor pheromone-evoked activity. Second, we compare the structures of apo LUSH, cVA/LUSH, and complexes of LUSH with non-pheromonal ligands and find no conformational property of cVA/LUSH that can explain its proposed unique activated state. Finally, we show that high concentrations of cVA can induce neuronal activity in the absence of LUSH, but not SNMP or OR67d. Our findings are not consistent with the model that the cVA/LUSH complex acts as the pheromone ligand, and suggest that pheromone molecules alone directly activate neuronal receptors. PMID:23637570

  6. Rapid assay for detecting enhanced atrazine degradation in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atrazine is widely used to control broadleaf weeds and grasses in corn, sorghum and sugarcane. Atrazine is reported to have an average half-life of 6 days and farmers expect to achieve full season weed control with a single application. However, reports of enhanced atrazine degradation in soil fro...

  7. The Influence of Odors on Time Perception

    PubMed Central

    Millot, Jean-Louis; Laurent, Lucie; Casini, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The effect of an olfactory stimulation on the perception of time was investigated through two different experiments based on temporal bisection tasks. In experiment 1, the durations to be classified as either short or long were centered on 400 ms while in Experiment 2 there were centered on 2000 ms. The participants were different in the two experiments (36 subjects in each one). In each experiment, half of the subjects learnt the anchor durations when smelling an unpleasant odor (decanoic acid) and the other half when smelling no odor. After the learning phase, both groups were tested with and without odor. The results showed opposite effects depending on the duration range. The subjects underestimated the time in the presence of the unpleasant odor in the short duration range while they overestimated it in the long duration range. The results have been discussed in the framework of the pacemaker-counter clock model and a potential emotional effect induced by the odor on the subjective time perception has also been considered. PMID:26925008

  8. How do mice follow odor trails?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwicker, David; Trastour, Sophie; Mishra, Shruti; Mathis, Alexander; Murthy, Venkatesh; Brenner, Michael P.

    2015-11-01

    Mice are excellent at following odor trails e.g. to locate food or to find mates. However, it is not yet understood what navigation strategies they use. In principle, they could either evaluate temporal differences between sniffs or they could use concurrent input from the two nostrils. It is unknown to what extend these two strategies contribute to mice's performance. When mice follow trails, odors evaporate from the ground, are transported by flow in the air, and are then inhaled with the two nostrils. In order to differentiate between the two navigation strategies, we determine what information the mouse receives: first, we calculate the airflow by numerically solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. We then determine the spatiotemporal odor concentration from the resulting advection-diffusion equations. Lastly, we determine the odor amount in each nostril by calculating the inhalation volumes using potential flow theory. Taken together, we determine the odor amount in each nostril during each sniff, allowing a detailed study of navigation strategies.

  9. [Odor sensing system and olfactory display].

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2014-01-01

    In this review, an odor sensing system and an olfactory display are introduced into people in pharmacy. An odor sensing system consists of an array of sensors with partially overlapping specificities and pattern recognition technique. One of examples of odor sensing systems is a halitosis sensor which quantifies the mixture composition of three volatile sulfide compounds. A halitosis sensor was realized using a preconcentrator to raise sensitivity and an electrochemical sensor array to suppress the influence of humidity. Partial least squares (PLS) method was used to quantify the mixture composition. The experiment reveals that the sufficient accuracy was obtained. Moreover, the olfactory display, which present scents to human noses, is explained. A multi-component olfactory display enables the presentation of a variety of smells. The two types of multi-component olfactory display are described. The first one uses many solenoid valves with high speed switching. The valve ON frequency determines the concentration of the corresponding odor component. The latter one consists of miniaturized liquid pumps and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomizer. It enables the wearable olfactory display without smell persistence. Finally, the application of the olfactory display is demonstrated. Virtual ice cream shop with scents was made as a content of interactive art. People can enjoy harmony among vision, audition and olfaction. In conclusion, both odor sensing system and olfactory display can contribute to the field of human health care. PMID:24584010

  10. Sensing odorants and pheromones with chemosensory receptors.

    PubMed

    Touhara, Kazushige; Vosshall, Leslie B

    2009-01-01

    Olfaction is a critical sensory modality that allows living things to acquire chemical information from the external world. The olfactory system processes two major classes of stimuli: (a) general odorants, small molecules derived from food or the environment that signal the presence of food, fire, or predators, and (b) pheromones, molecules released from individuals of the same species that convey social or sexual cues. Chemosensory receptors are broadly classified, by the ligands that activate them, into odorant or pheromone receptors. Peripheral sensory neurons expressing either odorant or pheromone receptors send signals to separate odor- and pheromone-processing centers in the brain to elicit distinct behavioral and neuroendocrinological outputs. General odorants activate receptors in a combinatorial fashion, whereas pheromones activate narrowly tuned receptors that activate sexually dimorphic neural circuits in the brain. We review recent progress on chemosensory receptor structure, function, and circuitry in vertebrates and invertebrates from the point of view of the molecular biology and physiology of these sensory systems. PMID:19575682

  11. Predator odor exposure increases food-carrying behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Wernecke, Kerstin E A; Brüggemann, Judith; Fendt, Markus

    2016-02-01

    To cover their energy demands, prey animals are forced to search for food. However, during foraging they also expose themselves to the risk of becoming the prey of predators. Consequently, in order to increase their fitness foraging animals have to trade-off efficiency of foraging against the avoidance of predation risk. For example, the decision on whether a found food piece should be eaten at the food source or whether it should be carried to a protective site such as the nest (food-carrying behavior), is strongly dependent on different incentive factors (e.g., hunger level, food size, distance to the nest). It has been shown that food-carrying behavior increases the more risky the foraging situation becomes. Since predator odors are clearly fear-inducing in rats, we ask here whether the detection of predator odors in close proximity to the food source modulates food-carrying behavior. In the present study, the food-carrying behavior of rats for six different food pellet sizes was measured in a "low risk" and a "high risk" testing condition by presenting water or a fox urine sample, respectively, next to the food source. For both testing conditions, food-carrying behavior of rats increased with increasing food pellet weight. Importantly, the proportion of food-carrying rats was significantly higher during exposure to fox urine ("high risk") than when rats were tested with the water control ("low risk"). Taken together, these results demonstrate that food-carrying behavior of rats is increased by the detection of a predator odor. Our data also support the idea that such food-carrying behavior can be considered as a pre-encounter defensive response. PMID:26556540

  12. Pilot Study of Enhanced Minor Planet Detection Using NEOWISE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cukrov, Greta; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J. R.; Cutri, R. M.; Wright, E. L.; Nugent, C.; Stevenson, R.; Clyne, E.; Masci, F. J.

    2014-01-01

    The solar system science component of NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), known as NEOWISE, extracted detections of more than 158,000 asteroids and comets, including 34,000 new discoveries. These objects were detected through a search algorithm that actively rejected inertially fixed sources such as stars and galaxies and selected candidate moving objects through the construction of position-time pairs known as tracklets. A minimum of five detections were required in order to construct a tracklet; this system enabled the discovery of new minor planets as well as detection of previously known objects. However, many more asteroids are potentially recoverable in the NEOWISE data, such as objects that failed to appear in five or more images. Stacking of objects with well-known ephemerides at the observational epoch has allowed for the recovery of many objects that fell below the single-frame detection threshold. Additional objects were recovered by searching the NEOWISE source lists for objects that appeared fewer than five times in single frames. We present the results of a pilot study that has allowed for the recovery of minor planets from the NEOWISE data using both techniques, resulting in the derivation of diameters and albedos for the sample. This pilot study will be extended to the entire catalog of known minor planets by the NEOWISE project in the near future.

  13. Contrast-enhanced microwave detection and treatment of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fuqiang

    Contrast agents and heating agents have been proposed for microwave breast tumor imaging and treatment, respectively. The dielectric properties of the tumor are altered with contrast agents or heating agents that locally accumulate in the tumor. The resulting change in dielectric properties of the tumor has the potential to enhance the sensitivity of microwave imaging of breast tumors and increase the efficiency and selectivity of microwave thermal therapy of breast tumors. This dissertation addresses several key challenges in contrast-enhanced microwave imaging and treatment of breast tumors. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been shown to enhance both the relative permittivity and effective conductivity of the host medium, and are promising as theranostic (integrated therapeutic and diagnostic) agents. Thus, our properties characterization work focuses on CNT dispersions. We performed in vitro microwave dielectric properties and heating response characterization of dispersions of CNTs treated by different functionalization methods and identified a CNT formulation that is very promising as a microwave theranostic agent. Stable dispersions of CNTs with concentrations up to 20 mg/ml are obtained with this formulation, and the enhanced microwave properties of these dispersions are extraordinary compared to the control. We also conducted in vivo dielectric properties characterization of mouse tumors with intra-tumoral injections of CNT dispersions and confirmed that the presence of CNTs increases the dielectric properties of the tumor. In parallel, we developed a contrast-enhanced microwave breast tumor imaging algorithm using sparse reconstruction methods. We demonstrated that this algorithm accurately localizes small tumors in 3D numerical breast phantoms. We also demonstrated the experimental feasibility of this method using physical breast phantoms. Lastly, we studied the sensitivity of the distorted Born iterative method (DBIM) to initial guesses and developed a

  14. Coding of odors by temporal binding within a model network of the locust antennal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mainak J.; Rangan, Aaditya V.; Cai, David

    2013-01-01

    The locust olfactory system interfaces with the external world through antennal receptor neurons (ORNs), which represent odors in a distributed, combinatorial manner. ORN axons bundle together to form the antennal nerve, which relays sensory information centrally to the antennal lobe (AL). Within the AL, an odor generates a dynamically evolving ensemble of active cells, leading to a stimulus-specific temporal progression of neuronal spiking. This experimental observation has led to the hypothesis that an odor is encoded within the AL by a dynamically evolving trajectory of projection neuron (PN) activity that can be decoded piecewise to ascertain odor identity. In order to study information coding within the locust AL, we developed a scaled-down model of the locust AL using Hodgkin–Huxley-type neurons and biologically realistic connectivity parameters and current components. Using our model, we examined correlations in the precise timing of spikes across multiple neurons, and our results suggest an alternative to the dynamic trajectory hypothesis. We propose that the dynamical interplay of fast and slow inhibition within the locust AL induces temporally stable correlations in the spiking activity of an odor-dependent neural subset, giving rise to a temporal binding code that allows rapid stimulus detection by downstream elements. PMID:23630495

  15. [Selective feeding in fish: Effect of feeding and defensive motivations evoked by natural odors].

    PubMed

    Kasumyan, A O; Marusov, E A

    2015-01-01

    The effect of feeding and defensive motivations evoked by natural olfactory signals (the food odor, the alarm pheromone) on choice and consumption of food items different in color and taste, and the manifestation of foraging behavior were examined in fish (koi Cyprinus carpio, roach Rutilus rutilus). The agar-agar pellets of red and green color having one of the amino acids (glycine, L-proline, L-alanine; all in concentration of 0.1 M) were simultaneously offered to single fishes in pure water, and in water extract of Chironomidae larvae or in water extract of fish skin. It was found out that odors used have different effects on fish foraging activity and on pellet selection for both pellet choice and consumption. On background of food odor, fish grasped pellets more often than in pure water. The equal choice of red and green pellets in pure water shifted to the preference of red ones in the presence of food odor. Despite the increase in the absolute number of pellets grasped, the relative consumption reduced and was replaced by selective consumption of pellets with glycine regardless of their color. Increasing demand for the food quality, due to the increased feeding motivation in response to food odor, is an important adaptation enhancing selection and consumption of food with more appropriate sensory qualities for fish. Defensive motivation caused by alarm pheromone suppressed predisposition. of fish to feed. Fish grasped pellets several times less often than in pure water and refused most of them. Any changes in the color or taste preferences were absent. Feeding behavior of fish of both species was characterized by repeated intraoral pellet testing, but in koi handling was less typical than in roach. In both species, handling activity was higher in those cases when the pellet was finally rejected. This activity was enhanced also on the background of food odor. PMID:26201217

  16. Improving temporal coherence to enhance gain and improve detection performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagstaff, Ronald A.; Rice, Heath E.

    2008-04-01

    Temporal coherence is an important property of many acoustic signals. This paper discusses two fluctuation-based signal processors that improve the temporal coherence of phase and amplitude. Then they exploit the improved coherences to achieve substantial gains, such as, elimination of all noise to achieve exceptionally large "noise-free" automatic detections of temporally coherent signals. Both processors are discussed. One exploits phase fluctuations and the other one exploits amplitude fluctuations. The exploited parameters and signal processors are defined. Results are presented for automatic signal detection of a heavy treaded / tracked vehicle, a helicopter, a fast-boat in shallow coastal water, and a submerged source in the ocean.

  17. A 3D Analysis of Flight Behavior of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto Malaria Mosquitoes in Response to Human Odor and Heat

    PubMed Central

    Spitzen, Jeroen; Spoor, Cornelis W.; Grieco, Fabrizio; ter Braak, Cajo; Beeuwkes, Jacob; van Brugge, Sjaak P.; Kranenbarg, Sander; Noldus, Lucas P. J. J.; van Leeuwen, Johan L.; Takken, Willem

    2013-01-01

    Female mosquitoes use odor and heat as cues to navigate to a suitable landing site on their blood host. The way these cues affect flight behavior and modulate anemotactic responses, however, is poorly understood. We studied in-flight behavioral responses of females of the nocturnal malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto to human odor and heat. Flight-path characteristics in a wind tunnel (flow 20 cm/s) were quantified in three dimensions. With wind as the only stimulus (control), short and close to straight upwind flights were recorded. With heat alone, flights were similarly short and direct. The presence of human odor, in contrast, caused prolonged and highly convoluted flight patterns. The combination of odor+heat resulted in longer flights with more landings on the source than to either cue alone. Flight speed was greatest (mean groundspeed 27.2 cm/s) for odor+heat. Odor alone resulted in decreased flight speed when mosquitoes arrived within 30 cm of the source whereas mosquitoes exposed to odor+heat maintained a high flight speed while flying in the odor plume, until they arrived within 15 cm of the source. Human odor evoked an increase in crosswind flights with an additive effect of heat at close range (<15 cm) to the source. This was found for both horizontal and vertical flight components. However, mosquitoes nevertheless made upwind progress when flying in the odor+heat generated plume, suggesting that mosquitoes scan their environment intensively while they progress upwind towards their host. These observations may help to improve the efficacy of trapping systems for malaria mosquitoes by (1) optimizing the site of odor release relative to trap entry and (2) adding a heat source which enhances a landing response. PMID:23658792

  18. 46 CFR 34.15-60 - Odorizing units-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-60 Odorizing units—T/ALL. Each carbon dioxide extinguishing system... wintergreen, the detection of which will serve as an indication that carbon dioxide gas is present in...

  19. 46 CFR 34.15-60 - Odorizing units-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-60 Odorizing units—T/ALL. Each carbon dioxide extinguishing system... wintergreen, the detection of which will serve as an indication that carbon dioxide gas is present in...

  20. 46 CFR 34.15-60 - Odorizing units-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-60 Odorizing units—T/ALL. Each carbon dioxide extinguishing system... wintergreen, the detection of which will serve as an indication that carbon dioxide gas is present in...

  1. Assessment of an abbreviated odorant identification task for children: a rapid screening device for schools and clinics.

    PubMed

    Richman, R A; Wallace, K; Sheehe, P R

    1995-04-01

    To validate the level of olfactory performance of children, we tested 825 volunteers, aged 4-17 years, with an abbreviated form of our pediatric odorant identification task. The test consisted of sniffing and identifying five odorants (baby powder, bubble gum, candy cane, licorice and peach). Mean olfactory scores increased as a function of age, reaching a plateau of about 94-95% correct at 8 years of age. In general, girls out-performed boys. Physicians require a test instrument such as the one we have devised to allow them to diagnose olfactory dysfunction in children. The present task is particularly applicable in screening large numbers of children in clinics or schools because it can be administered easily and rapidly. Adult subjects with olfactory dysfunction also performed poorly on this odorant identification task designed for children. Therefore, we expect that our odorant identification task will also detect children with severe olfactory dysfunction. PMID:7795355

  2. Transcriptome Pyrosequencing of the Parasitoid Wasp Cotesia vestalis: Genes Involved in the Antennal Odorant-Sensory System

    PubMed Central

    Yazawa, Shigenobu; Maffei, Massimo E.; Arimura, Gen-ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Cotesia vestalis is an endoparasitic wasp that attacks larvae of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), a herbivore of cruciferous plants. Females of C. vestalis use herbivore-induced plant odorants released from plants infested by P. xylostella as a host-searching cue. Transcriptome pyrosequencing was used to identify genes in the antennae of C. vestalis adult females coding for odorant receptors (ORs) and odorant binding proteins (OBPs) involved in insect olfactory perception. Quantitative gene expression analyses showed that a few OR and OBP genes were expressed exclusively in the antenna of C. vestalis adult females whereas most other classes of genes were expressed in the antennae of both males and females, indicating their diversity in importance for the olfactory sensory system. Together, transcriptome profiling of C. vestalis genes involved in the antennal odorant-sensory system helps in detecting genes involved in host- and food-search behaviors through infochemically-mediated interactions. PMID:23226348

  3. Odor-identity dependent motor programs underlie behavioral responses to odors

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seung-Hye; Hueston, Catherine; Bhandawat, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    All animals use olfactory information to perform tasks essential to their survival. Odors typically activate multiple olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) classes and are therefore represented by the patterns of active ORNs. How the patterns of active ORN classes are decoded to drive behavior is under intense investigation. In this study, using Drosophila as a model system, we investigate the logic by which odors modulate locomotion. We designed a novel behavioral arena in which we could examine a fly’s locomotion under precisely controlled stimulus condition. In this arena, in response to similarly attractive odors, flies modulate their locomotion differently implying that odors have a more diverse effect on locomotion than was anticipated. Three features underlie odor-guided locomotion: First, in response to odors, flies modulate a surprisingly large number of motor parameters. Second, similarly attractive odors elicit changes in different motor programs. Third, different ORN classes modulate different subset of motor parameters. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11092.001 PMID:26439011

  4. Polyethylenimine carbon nanotube fiber electrodes for enhanced detection of neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Zestos, Alexander G; Jacobs, Christopher B; Trikantzopoulos, Elefterios; Ross, Ashley E; Venton, B Jill

    2014-09-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)-based microelectrodes have been investigated as alternatives to carbon-fiber microelectrodes for the detection of neurotransmitters because they are sensitive, exhibit fast electron transfer kinetics, and are more resistant to surface fouling. Wet spinning CNTs into fibers using a coagulating polymer produces a thin, uniform fiber that can be fabricated into an electrode. CNT fibers formed in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) have been used as microelectrodes to detect dopamine, serotonin, and hydrogen peroxide. In this study, we characterize microelectrodes with CNT fibers made in polyethylenimine (PEI), which have much higher conductivity than PVA-CNT fibers. PEI-CNT fibers have lower overpotentials and higher sensitivities than PVA-CNT fiber microelectrodes, with a limit of detection of 5 nM for dopamine. The currents for dopamine were adsorption controlled at PEI-CNT fiber microelectrodes, independent of scan repetition frequency, and stable for over 10 h. PEI-CNT fiber microelectrodes were resistant to surface fouling by serotonin and the metabolite interferant 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). No change in sensitivity was observed for detection of serotonin after 30 flow injection experiments or after 2 h in 5-HIAA for PEI-CNT electrodes. The antifouling properties were maintained in brain slices when serotonin was exogenously applied multiple times or after bathing the slice in 5-HIAA. Thus, PEI-CNT fiber electrodes could be useful for the in vivo monitoring of neurochemicals. PMID:25117550

  5. Human-guided visualization enhances automated target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, John M.

    2010-04-01

    Automated target cueing (ATC) can assist analysts with searching large volumes of imagery. Performance of most automated systems is less than perfect, requiring an analyst to review the results to dismiss false alarms or confirm correct detections. This paper explores methods for improving the presentation and visualization of the ATC output, enabling more efficient and effective review of the detections flagged by the ATC. The techniques presented in this paper are applicable to a wide range of search problems using data from different sensors modalities. The information available to the computer increases as ATC detections are either accepted or rejected by the analyst. It is often easy to confirm obviously correct detections and dismiss obvious false alarms, which provides the starting point for the automated updating of the visualization. In machine learning algorithms, this information can be used to retrain or refine the classifier. However, this retraining process is appropriate only when future sensor data is expected to closely resemble the current set. For many applications, the sensor data characteristics (viewing geometry, resolution, clutter complexity, prevalence and types of confusers) are likely to change from one data collection to the next. For this reason, updating the visualization for the current data set, rather than updating the classifier for future processing, may prove more effective. This paper presents an adaptive visualization technique and illustrates the technique with applications.

  6. Future enhancements to ground-based microburst detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Steven D.; Matthews, Michael P.; Dasey, Timothy J.

    1994-01-01

    This set of viewgraphs presents the results of the Cockpit Weather Information (CWI) program at M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory. The CWI program has been funded through NaSA Langley Research Center by the joint NASA/FAA Integrated Airborne Wind Shear Program for the past four years. During this time, over 120 microburst penetrations by research aircraft have been conducted under Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) testbed radar surveillance at Orlando, FL. The results of these in-situ measurements have been compared with ground-based detection methods. Several valuable insights were gained from this research activity. First, it was found that the current TDWR microburst shapes do not permit accurate characterization of microburst hazard in terms of the F factor hazard index, because they are based on loss value rather than shear. Second, it was found that the horizontal component of the F factor can be accurately estimated from shear, provided compensation is made for the dependence of outflow strength on altitude. Third, it was found that a simple continuity assumption for estimating the vertical component of the F factor yielded poor results. However, further research has shown that downdraft strength is correlated with features aloft detected by the TDWR radar scan strategy. The outcome of the CWI program is to move from the loss-based wind shear detection algorithm used in the TDWR to a shear-based detection scheme as proposed in the Integrated Terminal Weather System (ITWS).

  7. Polyethylenimine Carbon Nanotube Fiber Electrodes for Enhanced Detection of Neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)-based microelectrodes have been investigated as alternatives to carbon-fiber microelectrodes for the detection of neurotransmitters because they are sensitive, exhibit fast electron transfer kinetics, and are more resistant to surface fouling. Wet spinning CNTs into fibers using a coagulating polymer produces a thin, uniform fiber that can be fabricated into an electrode. CNT fibers formed in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) have been used as microelectrodes to detect dopamine, serotonin, and hydrogen peroxide. In this study, we characterize microelectrodes with CNT fibers made in polyethylenimine (PEI), which have much higher conductivity than PVA-CNT fibers. PEI-CNT fibers have lower overpotentials and higher sensitivities than PVA-CNT fiber microelectrodes, with a limit of detection of 5 nM for dopamine. The currents for dopamine were adsorption controlled at PEI-CNT fiber microelectrodes, independent of scan repetition frequency, and stable for over 10 h. PEI-CNT fiber microelectrodes were resistant to surface fouling by serotonin and the metabolite interferant 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). No change in sensitivity was observed for detection of serotonin after 30 flow injection experiments or after 2 h in 5-HIAA for PEI-CNT electrodes. The antifouling properties were maintained in brain slices when serotonin was exogenously applied multiple times or after bathing the slice in 5-HIAA. Thus, PEI-CNT fiber electrodes could be useful for the in vivo monitoring of neurochemicals. PMID:25117550

  8. Pseudo-enhancement correction for computer-aided detection in fecal-tagging CT colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Näppi, Janne; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Zalis, Michael; Cai, Wenli; Lefere, Philippe

    2007-03-01

    Fecal-tagging CT colonography (CTC) presents an opportunity to minimize colon cleansing while maintaining high diagnostic accuracy for the detection of colorectal lesions. However, the pseudo-enhancement introduced by tagging agents presents several problems for the application of computer-aided detection (CAD). We developed a correction method that minimizes pseudo-enhancement in CTC data by modeling of the pseudo-enhancement as a cumulative Gaussian energy distribution. The method was optimized by use of an anthropomorphic colon phantom, and its effect on our fully automated CAD scheme was tested by use of leave-one-patient-out evaluation on 23 clinical CTC cases with reduced colon cleansing based upon dietary fecal tagging. There were 28 colonoscopy-confirmed polyps >=6 mm. Visual evaluation indicated that the method reduced CT attenuation of pseudo-enhanced polyps to standard soft-tissue Hounsfield unit (HU) range without affecting untagged regions. At a 90% detection sensitivity for polyps >=6 mm, CAD yielded 8.5 false-positive (FP) detections and 3.9 FP detections per volumetric scan without and with the application of the pseudo-enhancement correction method. These results indicate that the pseudo-enhancement correction method is a potentially useful pre-processing step for automated detection of polyps in fecal-tagging CTC, and that CAD can yield a high detection sensitivity with a relatively low FP rate in CTC with patient-friendly reduced colon preparation.

  9. A Review of Trimethylaminuria: (Fish Odor Syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Messenger, Jeffrey; Clark, Shane; Massick, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Trimethylaminuria, better known as fish odor syndrome, is a psychologically disabling condition in which a patient emits a foul odor, which resembles that of rotting fish. The disorder is most commonly caused by an inherited deficiency in flavin monooxygenase 3, the vital enzyme for the metabolism of trimethylamine, which is the compound responsible for the unpleasant odor. The condition is uncommon, but there has been recent research to suggest that the diagnosis may often be overlooked. Moreover, it is important to be cognizant of this condition because there are reliable diagnostic tests and the disorder can be devastating from a psychosocial perspective. While there is no cure, many simple treatment options exist that may drastically improve the quality of life of these patients. This article will review the literature with an emphasis on the psychosocial impact and treatment options. PMID:24307925

  10. Guidance by odors in honeybee navigation.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Randolf; Greggers, Uwe

    2013-10-01

    Animal navigation is guided by multiple sensory cues. Here, we ask whether and how olfactory stimuli emanating from places other than the trained feeding site redirect the flight paths of honeybees. The flight trajectories of individual bees were registered using harmonic radar tracking. Sensory cues (compass direction, distance, visual cues en route and close to the feeding site) associated with the trained flight route dominated wayfinding, but a learned odorant carried by air flow induced excursions into the wind. These redirections were largely restricted to rather small deviations from the trained route (<60°, <200 m) and occurred only if the animal did not receive the trained odorant stimulus at the trained feeding site. Under certain conditions, larger excursions were observed. These findings are discussed in the context of odor guidance of honeybees over longer distances (>300 m from the hive). PMID:23974855

  11. The spatial distributions of odorant sensitivity and odorant-induced currents in salamander olfactory receptor cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, G; Gold, G H

    1991-01-01

    1. Suction electrode and whole-cell recording were used to record membrane currents from defined regions of solitary olfactory receptor cells from Ambystoma tigrinum. 2. Under whole-cell current clamp, stimulation of cells with odorants activated an inward current in the cilia, an outward current in the soma, and induced a membrane depolarization. Clamping the membrane potential at its resting value of -70 mV increased the inward ciliary current 5- to 10-fold and abolished the outward somatic current. 3. Local odorant stimulation was accomplished by ejecting an odorant solution into a steady flow of Ringer solution. A suction electrode was used to immobilize a cell in the flow and to record the odorant-induced somatic current. The amplitude of the odorant response increased approximately linearly with the length of cilia exposed to the stimulus, but was independent of the length of dendrite exposed to the stimulus, indicating that odorant sensitivity is predominantly localized to the cilia. 4. The latencies of responses recorded under flow did not vary with the region of the cilia which was exposed to the stimulus. Also, the magnitude of the inward ciliary current activated by odorants was equal to that of the whole-cell current recorded under voltage clamp. These observations indicate that the odorant-induced inward current is predominantly localized to the ciliary membrane. 5. Under whole-cell current clamp, local application of a high-K+ solution generated an outward somatic current when applied to the dendrite, but had no effect when applied to the cilia. This indicates that the density of the resting K+ conductance is lower in the ciliary membrane than in the dendritic membrane. 6. The results above are consistent with the hypothesis that all components of the transduction mechanism are uniformly distributed within the cilia, and that the cilia are electrotonically compact, even during an odorant-induced conductance increase. Images Fig. 2 PMID:1798028

  12. Ventilation requirements for control of occupancy odor and tobacco smoke odor: laboratory studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.S.; Isseroff, R.; Leaderer, B.P.; Lipsitt, E.D.; Huey, R.J.; Perlman, D.; Bergland, L.G.; Dunn, J.D.

    1981-04-01

    Experiments on occupancy odor addressed the question of why required ventilation rate per occupant increased progressively with increases in the number of persons in a space. In order to investigate ventilation requirements under approximately ideal conditions, we constructed an aluminum-lined environmental chamber with excellent control over environmental conditions and a ventilation system that provided rapid and uniform mixing of air. Psychophysical experiments on occupancy odor explored 47 different combinations of occupancy density, temperature and humidity, and ventilation rate. The experiments collected judgements both from visitors, who smelled air from the chamber only once every few minutes, and from occupants, who remained in the chamber for an hour at a time. The judgements of visitors revealed that occupancy odor increased only gradually over time and rarely reached very high or objectionable levels. Judgements of occupants also revealed rather minor dissatisfaction. Only during combinations of high temperature and humidity did objectionability become more than a minor issue to either group. Experiments on cigarette smoking explored rates of 4, 8, and 16 cigarettes per hour under various environmental conditions and with ventilation rates as high as 68 cfm (34 L.s/sup -1/) per occupant. As soon as occupants lit cigarettes in the chamber, the odor level increased dramatically. At ventilation rates far greater than necessary to control occupancy odor, the odor from cigarette smoking remained quite intense. In general, the odor proved impossible to control adequately even with a ventilation rate of 68 cfm (34 L.s/sup -1/) per occupant (4 occupants) and even when only one occupant smoked at a time. As in the case of occupancy odor, a combination of high temperature and humidity exacerbated the odor problem.

  13. Sampling Odor Substances by Mist-Cyclone System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Osamu; Jiang, Zhiheng; Toyama, Shigeki

    2009-05-01

    Many techniques have been developed to measure odor substances. However most of those methods are based on using aquatic solutions(1),(2). Many odor substances specifically at low density situation, are difficult to dissolve into water. To absorb odor substances and obtain highest concentration solutions are key problems for olfactory systems. By blowing odor substances contained air mixture through mist of water and then separating the liquid from two-phases fluid with a cyclone unit a high concentration solution was obtained.

  14. Identification of impact odorants in Bordeaux red grape juice, in the commercial yeast used for its fermentation, and in the produced wine.

    PubMed

    Kotseridis, Y; Baumes, R

    2000-02-01

    The aroma extract dilution analysis method was used to detect the impact odorants of Bordeaux Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines extracts, as well as those of the extracts of the corresponding Cabernet Sauvignon juice and dry yeasts used for its fermentation. The wines and the yeasts were extracted using dichloromethane, and the juice was extracted using Amberlite XAD-2. Structural identification of the impact odorants using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and atomic emission detection (sulfur acquisition) was achieved after enrichment of these extracts by silica gel and Affi-Gel 501 chromatography. The same odorants (with the exception of dimethyl sulfide among 48) were detected in both wine extracts, with about the same flavor dilution (FD) factors. The 18 impact odorants detected in the Cabernet Sauvignon juice and dry yeast extracts were also found in the wine extracts. The odorants with the highest FD factors were 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal, (E,Z)-nona-2, 6-dienal, and decanal in the juice extract, 2-methyl-3-sulfanylfuran, 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal, 2-/3-methylbutanoic acids, and phenylethanal in the dry yeast extract, and 2-/3-methylbutanols, 2-phenylethanol, 2-methyl-3-sulfanylfuran, acetic acid, 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal, 2-/3-methylbutanoic acids, beta-damascenone, 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol, Furaneol, and homofuraneol in the wine extracts. Determination of the odor thresholds of some of these impact odorants was carried out. PMID:10691647

  15. Surface plasmon resonance enhanced upconversion luminescence in aqueous media for TNT selective detection.

    PubMed

    Tu, Nina; Wang, Leyu

    2013-07-18

    We present a novel report on a surface plasmon resonance enhanced upconversion luminescence strategy in aqueous media for highly sensitive and selective detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). PMID:23739225

  16. Surface-enhanced nonlinear optical effects and detection of adsorbed molecular monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Y.R.; Chen, C.K.; Heinz, T.F.; Ricard, D.

    1981-01-01

    The observation of a number of surface-enhanced nonlinear optical effects is discussed. The feasibility of using second-harmonic generation to detect the adsorption of molecular monolayers on a metal surface in an electrolytic solution is shown.

  17. Performance evaluation of image enhancement methods for objects detection and recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Tiefeng; Zhu, Feng; Hao, Yingming; Fan, Xiaopeng

    2015-10-01

    Human eyes cannot notice low contrast objects in the image. Image contrast enhancement methods can make the unnoticed objects noticed, and human can detect and recognize the objects. In order to guide the design of enhancement methods, performance of enhancement methods for objects detection and recognition(ODR) should be valued. The existing performance evaluation methods evaluate image enhancement methods by calculating the increment of contrast or image information entropy. However, it is essentially an image information transmission process that human detect and recognize objects in the image, and image contrast enhancement can be viewed as a form of image coding. According to human visual properties, the transmission process of ODR information are modeled in this paper, and a performance evaluation method was proposed from the information theory of Shannon.

  18. Changes in the Hydrocarbon Proportions of Colony Odor and Their Consequences on Nestmate Recognition in Social Wasps

    PubMed Central

    Costanzi, Elena; Bagnères, Anne-Geneviève; Lorenzi, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In social insects, colonies have exclusive memberships and residents promptly detect and reject non-nestmates. Blends of epicuticular hydrocarbons communicate colony affiliation, but the question remains how social insects use the complex information in the blends to discriminate between nestmates and non-nestmates. To test this we altered colony odor by simulating interspecific nest usurpation. We split Polistes dominulus paper-wasp nests into two halves and assigned a half to the original foundress and the other half to a P. nimphus usurper for 4 days. We then removed foundresses and usurpers from nests and investigated whether emerging P. dominulus workers recognized their never-before-encountered mothers, usurpers and non-nestmates of the two species. Behavioral and chemical analyses of wasps and nests indicated that 1) foundresses marked their nests with their cuticular hydrocarbons; 2) usurpers overmarked foundress marks and 3) emerging workers learned colony odor from nests as the odor of the female that was last on nest. However, notwithstanding colony odor was usurper-biased in usurped nests, workers from these nests recognized their mothers, suggesting that there were pre-imaginal and/or genetically encoded components in colony-odor learning. Surprisingly, workers from usurped nests also erroneously tolerated P. nimphus non-nestmates, suggesting they could not tell odor differences between their P. nimphus usurpers and P. nimphus non-nestmates. Usurpers changed the odors of their nests quantitatively, because the two species had cuticular hydrocarbon profiles that differed only quantitatively. Possibly, P. dominulus workers were unable to detect differences between nestmate and non-nestmate P. nimphus because the concentration of some peaks in these wasps was beyond the range of workers' discriminatory abilities (as stated by Weber's law). Indeed, workers displayed the least discrimination abilities in the usurped nests where the relative odor changes due

  19. Anomaly detection in clutter using spectrally enhanced LADAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhabra, Puneet S.; Wallace, Andrew M.; Hopgood, James R.

    2015-05-01

    Discrete return (DR) Laser Detection and Ranging (Ladar) systems provide a series of echoes that reflect from objects in a scene. These can be first, last or multi-echo returns. In contrast, Full-Waveform (FW)-Ladar systems measure the intensity of light reflected from objects continuously over a period of time. In a camflouaged scenario, e.g., objects hidden behind dense foliage, a FW-Ladar penetrates such foliage and returns a sequence of echoes including buried faint echoes. The aim of this paper is to learn local-patterns of co-occurring echoes characterised by their measured spectra. A deviation from such patterns defines an abnormal event in a forest/tree depth profile. As far as the authors know, neither DR or FW-Ladar, along with several spectral measurements, has not been applied to anomaly detection. This work presents an algorithm that allows detection of spectral and temporal anomalies in FW-Multi Spectral Ladar (FW-MSL) data samples. An anomaly is defined as a full waveform temporal and spectral signature that does not conform to a prior expectation, represented using a learnt subspace (dictionary) and set of coefficients that capture co-occurring local-patterns using an overlapping temporal window. A modified optimization scheme is proposed for subspace learning based on stochastic approximations. The objective function is augmented with a discriminative term that represents the subspace's separability properties and supports anomaly characterisation. The algorithm detects several man-made objects and anomalous spectra hidden in a dense clutter of vegetation and also allows tree species classification.

  20. Enhancing international radiation/nuclear detection training opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Thomas L.; Bersell, Bridget M.; Booker, Paul M.; Anderson, Gerald E.; Leitch, Rosalyn M.; Meagher, John B.; Siefken, Rob R.; Spracklen, James L.

    2015-09-23

    The United States has worked domestically to develop and provide radiological and nuclear detection training and education initiatives aimed at interior law enforcement, but the international community has predominantly focused efforts at border and customs officials. The interior law enforcement officials of a State play a critical role in maintaining an effective national-level nuclear detection architecture. To meet this vital need, DNDO was funded by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to create and deliver a 1-week course at the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) in Budapest, Hungary to inform interior law enforcement personnel of the overall mission, and to provide an understanding of how the participants can combat the threats of radiological and nuclear terrorism through detection efforts. Two courses, with approximately 20 students in each course, were delivered in fiscal year (FY) 2013, two were delivered in FY 2014 and FY 2015, and as of this report’s writing more are planned in FY 2016. However, while the ILEA courses produced measurable success, DNDO requested Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) research potential avenues to further increase the course impact.In a multi-phased approach, PNNL researched and analyzed several possible global training locations and venues, and other possible ways to increase the impact of the course using an agreed-to data-gathering format.

  1. Enhanced Detectability of Pre-reionization 21 cm Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Marcelo A.; Pen, Ue-Li; Chang, Tzu-Ching

    2010-11-01

    Before the universe was reionized, it was likely that the spin temperature of intergalactic hydrogen was decoupled from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) by UV radiation from the first stars through the Wouthuysen-Field effect. If the intergalactic medium (IGM) had not yet been heated above the CMB temperature by that time, then the gas would appear in absorption relative to the CMB. Large, rare sources of X-rays could inject sufficient heat into the neutral IGM, so that δTb >0 at comoving distances of tens to hundreds of Mpc, resulting in large 21 cm fluctuations with δTb ~= 250 mK on arcminute to degree angular scales, an order of magnitude larger in amplitude than that caused by ionized bubbles during reionization, δTb ~= 25 mK. This signal could therefore be easier to detect and probe higher redshifts than that due to patchy reionization. For the case in which the first objects to heat the IGM are QSOs hosting 107 M sun black holes with an abundance exceeding ~1 Gpc-3 at z ~ 15, observations with either the Arecibo Observatory or the Five Hundred Meter Aperture Spherical Telescope could detect and image their fluctuations at greater than 5σ significance in about a month of dedicated survey time. Additionally, existing facilities such as MWA and LOFAR could detect the statistical fluctuations arising from a population of 105 M sun black holes with an abundance of ~104 Gpc-3 at z ~= 10-12.

  2. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  3. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  4. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  5. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  6. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  7. Identifying Key Odors Offsite From Animal Feeding Operation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odors from animal feeding operations are some of the most significant emissions at the local level. Current methods used to measure agricultural odor are bias and inadequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of 2 different techniques to identify key odorants. The first techni...

  8. Animal Emissions Analyzed by both Chemical and Odor Panel Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Research Council identified odors as the most significant animal emission at the local level and highlighted the need for the development of standardized protocols for sampling and analysis of odors. In this study, odorous air from a swine facility was analyzed by both human panels an...

  9. Multimodal integration: Visual cues helps odor-seeking fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have shown that integration of sensory modalities is critical to the process of odor-source location. Attractive food odors initiate flies’ response to visual cues to maintain narrow angle turns with respect to the wind line; loss of odor contact due to idiothetic motion or experimen...

  10. Behavioral Responses to Mammalian Blood Odor and a Blood Odor Component in Four Species of Large Carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Sara; Sjöberg, Johanna; Amundin, Mats; Hartmann, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea; Laska, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Only little is known about whether single volatile compounds are as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in animals as the whole complex mixture of a behaviorally relevant odor. Recent studies analysing the composition of volatiles in mammalian blood, an important prey-associated odor stimulus for predators, found the odorant trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal to evoke a typical “metallic, blood-like” odor quality in humans. We therefore assessed the behavior of captive Asian wild dogs (Cuon alpinus), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), and Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) when presented with wooden logs that were impregnated either with mammalian blood or with the blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and compared it to their behavior towards a fruity odor (iso-pentyl acetate) and a near-odorless solvent (diethyl phthalate) as control. We found that all four species displayed significantly more interactions with the odorized wooden logs such as sniffing, licking, biting, pawing, and toying, when they were impregnated with the two prey-associated odors compared to the two non-prey-associated odors. Most importantly, no significant differences were found in the number of interactions with the wooden logs impregnated with mammalian blood and the blood odor component in any of the four species. Only one of the four species, the South American bush dogs, displayed a significant decrease in the number of interactions with the odorized logs across the five sessions performed per odor stimulus. Taken together, the results demonstrate that a single blood odor component can be as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in large carnivores as the odor of real blood, suggesting that trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal may be perceived by predators as a “character impact compound” of mammalian blood odor. Further, the results suggest that odorized wooden logs are a suitable manner of environmental

  11. Behavioral responses to mammalian blood odor and a blood odor component in four species of large carnivores.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Sara; Sjöberg, Johanna; Amundin, Mats; Hartmann, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea; Laska, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Only little is known about whether single volatile compounds are as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in animals as the whole complex mixture of a behaviorally relevant odor. Recent studies analysing the composition of volatiles in mammalian blood, an important prey-associated odor stimulus for predators, found the odorant trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal to evoke a typical "metallic, blood-like" odor quality in humans. We therefore assessed the behavior of captive Asian wild dogs (Cuon alpinus), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), and Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) when presented with wooden logs that were impregnated either with mammalian blood or with the blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and compared it to their behavior towards a fruity odor (iso-pentyl acetate) and a near-odorless solvent (diethyl phthalate) as control. We found that all four species displayed significantly more interactions with the odorized wooden logs such as sniffing, licking, biting, pawing, and toying, when they were impregnated with the two prey-associated odors compared to the two non-prey-associated odors. Most importantly, no significant differences were found in the number of interactions with the wooden logs impregnated with mammalian blood and the blood odor component in any of the four species. Only one of the four species, the South American bush dogs, displayed a significant decrease in the number of interactions with the odorized logs across the five sessions performed per odor stimulus. Taken together, the results demonstrate that a single blood odor component can be as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in large carnivores as the odor of real blood, suggesting that trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal may be perceived by predators as a "character impact compound" of mammalian blood odor. Further, the results suggest that odorized wooden logs are a suitable manner of environmental enrichment

  12. Competitive SWIFT cluster templates enhance detection of aging changes

    PubMed Central

    Rebhahn, Jonathan A.; Roumanes, David R.; Qi, Yilin; Khan, Atif; Thakar, Juilee; Rosenberg, Alex; Lee, F. Eun‐Hyung; Quataert, Sally A.; Sharma, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Clustering‐based algorithms for automated analysis of flow cytometry datasets have achieved more efficient and objective analysis than manual processing. Clustering organizes flow cytometry data into subpopulations with substantially homogenous characteristics but does not directly address the important problem of identifying the salient differences in subpopulations between subjects and groups. Here, we address this problem by augmenting SWIFT—a mixture model based clustering algorithm reported previously. First, we show that SWIFT clustering using a “template” mixture model, in which all subpopulations are represented, identifies small differences in cell numbers per subpopulation between samples. Second, we demonstrate that resolution of inter‐sample differences is increased by “competition” wherein a joint model is formed by combining the mixture model templates obtained from different groups. In the joint model, clusters from individual groups compete for the assignment of cells, sharpening differences between samples, particularly differences representing subpopulation shifts that are masked under clustering with a single template model. The benefit of competition was demonstrated first with a semisynthetic dataset obtained by deliberately shifting a known subpopulation within an actual flow cytometry sample. Single templates correctly identified changes in the number of cells in the subpopulation, but only the competition method detected small changes in median fluorescence. In further validation studies, competition identified a larger number of significantly altered subpopulations between young and elderly subjects. This enrichment was specific, because competition between templates from consensus male and female samples did not improve the detection of age‐related differences. Several changes between the young and elderly identified by SWIFT template competition were consistent with known alterations in the elderly, and additional

  13. Fate of key odorants in Sauternes wines through aging.

    PubMed

    Bailly, Sabine; Jerkovic, Vesna; Meurée, Ariane; Timmermans, Aurore; Collin, Sonia

    2009-09-23

    Recent work has revealed the importance of polyfunctional thiols in young Sauternes wines, but very little is yet known about the fate of such compounds during aging in the bottle. In this study, two Sauternes wines were investigated by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD) after XAD 2 and thiol-specific extractions. Most polyfunctional thiols (3-sulfanylpropyl acetate, 2-sulfanylethyl acetate, 3-methyl-3-sulfanylbutanal, etc.) proved to be completely degraded after 2 years of bottle aging in a cellar. Only 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol was still found in aged samples at concentrations above its threshold value. Most other key odorants found in the young noble rot wine were still detected 5-6 years after harvest: varietal aroma (alpha-terpineol), sotolon, fermentation alcohols (3-methylbutan-1-ol and 2-phenylethanol) and esters (ethyl butyrate, isobutyrate, hexanoate, and isovalerate), and oak maturation-related compounds (guaiacol, vanillin, eugenol, beta-damascenone, trans-non-2-enal, beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, gamma-nonalactone, and furaneol), as well as three newly identified aromas exhibiting interesting cake, honey-like, and dried apricot odors: homofuraneol, theaspirane, and gamma-decalactone. Interestingly, abhexon, never mentioned in sweet wines before, was found to be synthesized during bottle aging. An optimized extraction method allowed us to quantify this honey/spicy compound at levels close to its threshold value (up to 7 microg/L after 5-6 years), thus suggesting a key role of this strong odorant in old Sauternes wines. PMID:19754174

  14. Method and apparatus for enhanced detection of toxic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, Elias; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Wu, Jie Jayne; Qi, Hairong

    2012-06-12

    A water quality analyzer for real-time detection according to the invention comprises a biased AC electro-osmosis (ACEO) cell for receiving a fluid to be analyzed having a plurality photosynthetic organisms therein, and concentrating the plurality photosynthetic organisms into at least one concentrated region. A photodetector is provided for obtaining a measured photosynthetic activity of the plurality of photosynthetic organisms in the concentrated region, wherein chemical, biological or radiological agents reduce a nominal photosynthetic activity of the photosynthetic organisms. An electronics package analyzes the measured photosynthetic activity to indicate a presence of the chemical, biological or radiological agents in the fluid.

  15. Identification of odorants in frankincense (Boswellia sacra Flueck.) by aroma extract dilution analysis and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Niebler, Johannes; Buettner, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Frankincense has been known, traded and used throughout the ages for its exceptional aroma properties, and is still commonly used in both secular and religious settings to convey a pleasant odor. Surprisingly, the odoriferous principle(s) underlying its unique odor profile have never been published. In this study, resin samples of Boswellia sacra Flueck. from both Somalia and Oman were investigated by aroma extract dilution analysis. In a comprehensive, odor-activity guided approach both chemo-analytical and human-sensory parameters were used to identify odor active constituents of the volatile fraction of B. sacra. Among the key odorants found were α-pinene, β-myrcene, linalool, p-cresol and two unidentified sesquiterpenoids. Overall, a total of 23 odorants were detected and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry and heart-cut two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry. The majority of the identified odorant compounds were oxygenated monoterpenes, along with some relevant mono- and sesquiterpenes and only one diterpenoid substance. Several of these compounds were reported here for the first time as odorous constituents in B. sacra. Identifying bioactive compounds might support a better understanding with regard to the potential benefits of frankincense, for example in aromatherapy or ecclesial settings. PMID:25468535

  16. Enhanced Line Integral Convolution with Flow Feature Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, David; Okada, Arthur

    1996-01-01

    The Line Integral Convolution (LIC) method, which blurs white noise textures along a vector field, is an effective way to visualize overall flow patterns in a 2D domain. The method produces a flow texture image based on the input velocity field defined in the domain. Because of the nature of the algorithm, the texture image tends to be blurry. This sometimes makes it difficult to identify boundaries where flow separation and reattachments occur. We present techniques to enhance LIC texture images and use colored texture images to highlight flow separation and reattachment boundaries. Our techniques have been applied to several flow fields defined in 3D curvilinear multi-block grids and scientists have found the results to be very useful.

  17. Polymer waveguide sensor arrays for enhanced multichemical detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, Steven R.; Low, Aaron; Ruiz, David; Lieberman, Robert A.

    2007-09-01

    We report the development of absorption-based waveguide sensors for the toxic industrial chemicals hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, and chlorine. Polymeric materials formulated as colorimetric sensors have been engineered into miniature waveguide channels. The channels have dimensions 30x0.6x0.05 mm (LxWxH) and are patterned on glass substrates using a photolithography process. Subsequent light coupling was achieved using optical fibers. Enhanced sensitivity is observed owing to the increased path length as described by the Beer-Lambert law. When the individual sensors are challenged with the IDLH concentrations of their target gases they react instantaneously with response times (T90) less than 20 seconds. When tested simultaneously as an array, a predictable level of cross interference was observed. The cross interference indicates that the inclusion of a signal processing algorithm is required to selectively resolve the analytes and reduce or eliminate false alarms.

  18. Enhanced chemosensory detection of negative emotions in congenital blindness.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Katrine D; Ptito, Maurice; Møller, Per; Kupers, Ron

    2015-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that congenitally blind individuals develop superior sensory abilities in order to compensate for their lack of vision. Substantial research has been done on somatosensory and auditory sensory information processing of the blind. However, relatively little information is available about compensatory plasticity in the olfactory domain. Although previous studies indicate that blind individuals have superior olfactory abilities, no studies so far have investigated their sense of smell in relation to social and affective communication. The current study compares congenitally blind and normal sighted individuals in their ability to discriminate and identify emotions from body odours. A group of 14 congenitally blind and 14 age- and sex-matched sighted control subjects participated in the study. We compared participants' abilities to detect and identify by smelling sweat from donors who had been watching excerpts from emotional movies showing amusement, fear, disgust, or sexual arousal. Our results show that congenitally blind subjects outperformed sighted controls in identifying fear from male donors. In addition, there was a strong tendency that blind individuals were also better in detecting disgust. Our findings reveal that congenitally blind individuals are better at identifying ecologically important emotions and provide new insights into the mechanisms of social and affective communication in blindness. PMID:25878902

  19. Enhanced oil spill detection sensors in low-light environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allik, Toomas H.; Ramboyong, Len; Roberts, Mark; Walters, Mark; Soyka, Thomas J.; Dixon, Roberta; Cho, Jay

    2016-05-01

    Although advances have been made in oil spill remote detection, many electro-optic sensors do not provide real-time images, do not work well under degraded visual environments, nor provide a measure of extreme oil thickness in marine environments. A joint program now exists between BSEE and NVESD that addresses these capability gaps in remote sensing of oil spills. Laboratory experiments, calibration techniques, and field tests were performed at Fort Belvoir, Virginia; Santa Barbara, California; and the Ohmsett Test Facility in Leonardo, New Jersey. Weathered crude oils were studied spectroscopically and characterized with LWIR, and low-light-level visible/NIR, and SWIR cameras. We designed and fabricated an oil emulsion thickness calibration cell for spectroscopic analysis and ground truth, field measurements. Digital night vision cameras provided real-time, wide-dynamic-range imagery, and were able to detect and recognize oil from full sun to partial moon light. The LWIR camera provided quantitative oil analysis (identification) for >1 mm thick crude oils both day and night. Two filtered, co-registered, SWIR cameras were used to determine whether oil thickness could be measured in real time. Spectroscopic results revealed that oil emulsions vary with location and weathered state and some oils (e.g., ANS and Santa Barbara seeps) do not show the spectral rich features from archived Deep Water Horizon hyperspectral data. Multi-sensor imagery collected during the 2015 USCG Airborne Oil Spill Remote Sensing and Reporting Exercise and the design of a compact, multiband imager are discussed.

  20. The water method combined with chromoendoscopy enhances adenoma detection.

    PubMed

    Leung, Joseph W; Ransibrahmanakul, Kanat; Toomsen, Lee; Mann, Surinder K; Siao-Salera, Rodelei; Leung, Felix W

    2011-04-01

    BACKGROUND: The water method is easy-to-learn and improves colonoscopy outcomes. Dye-spray chromoendoscopy enhances ADR but has not been widely accepted for routine application in screening or surveillance colonoscopy. HYPOTHESIS: With dye added to the water used in the water method, ADR can be enhanced compared with the water or air method alone. OBJECTIVE: To compare ADR determined by the air method, water method alone, and water method with indigo carmine (0.008%) added. DESIGN: Review of prospectively collected data in a performance improvement program. SETTING: VA endoscopy unit. PATIENT: Screening or surveillance colonoscopy. METHODS: Patients (n=50/group) underwent colonoscopy with each of the three methods. Water method involved warm water infusion in lieu of air insufflation coupled with removal of residual air by suction and residual feces by water exchange. ADR and procedural data were collected prospectively to monitor performance. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: ADR. RESULTS: ADR in the air method, water method alone and water method with indigo carmine were 36%, 40% and 62%, respectively. Water method with indigo carmine produced significantly higher ADR than the air or water method alone (p<0.05). LIMITATIONS: Non-randomized data, single VA site, retrospective comparison. Absence of significant difference between air and water methods could be a type II error due to small number of patients CONCLUSIONS: The approach with indigo carmine added to the water used in the water method yielded significantly higher ADR than the water or the air method alone. The data suggest that a prospective RCT to compare the different methods is warranted. PMID:21776426

  1. Identification of complex septic odorants in Huangpu River source water by combining the data from gas chromatography-olfactometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography using retention indices.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qingyuan; Yu, Jianwei; Yang, Kai; Wen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Haifeng; Yu, Zhiyong; Li, Hongyan; Zhang, Dong; Yang, Min

    2016-06-15

    Identification of the trace odorants causing the septic odors in source waters with complex matrixes has long been a big challenge. The Huangpu (HP) River, an important source water for Shanghai, has long been suffering from septic and musty odors, although major odorants have not been identified. In this study, combining the data from gas chromatography-olfactometry with mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) using retention indices (RIs) was used for the identification of odorants in HP source water. Olfactometry peaks detected in water extracts by GC-O/MS were combined with the chromatography peaks detected by GC×GC-TOFMS based on the RIs determined using the retention times (RTs) of alkanes C7-C30. A total of thirteen olfactometry peaks were obtained though GC-O/MS analysis, and potential odorants corresponding to each of the olfactometry peaks were screened based on the odor characteristics and match similarity using GC×GC-TOFMS. Finally, fourteen odorants (one odorant was detected in GC×GC-TOFMS without an olfactometry peak), including three septic odorants (bis(2-chloroisopropyl) ether, diethyl disulfide and dimethyl disulfide) and two musty ones (geosmin and 2-MIB), were confirmed by using authentic standards. The septic and musty odorants in six source water samples taken over a period of six months were quantified. Bis(2-chloroisopropyl) ether, with an odor activity value (OAV) of 1.84-3.2, was found to be a major septic odorant in HP source water, followed by diethyl disulfide (OAV 1.56-1.96) and dimethyl disulfide (OAV 0.37-2.42), while geosmin (OAV 4.37-11.44) was the major musty odorant, followed by 2-MIB (OAV 1.13-1.89). This is the first comprehensive study focusing on the identification of odorants in a complex source water. The integrated approach used in this study could be applied for the identification of odorants in other complex source waters

  2. One antenna, two antennae, big antennae, small: total antennae length, not bilateral symmetry, predicts odor-tracking performance in the American cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Lockey, Jacob K; Willis, Mark A

    2015-07-01

    Determining the location of a particular stimulus is often crucial to an animal's survival. One way to determine the local distribution of an odor is to make simultaneous comparisons across multiple sensors. If the sensors detect differences in the distribution of an odor in space, the animal can then steer toward the source. American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, have 4 cm long antennae and are thought to track odor plumes using a spatial sampling strategy, comparing the amount of odor detected between these bilateral sensors. However, it is not uncommon for cockroaches to lose parts of their antennae and still track a wind-borne odor to its source. We examined whether bilateral odor input is necessary to locate an odor source in a wind-driven environment and how the loss of increasing lengths of the antennae affects odor tracking. The tracking performances of individuals with two bilaterally symmetrical antennae of decreasing length were compared with antennal length-matched individuals with one antenna. Cockroaches with one antenna were generally able to track an odor plume to its source. In fact, the performances of unilaterally antennectomized individuals were statistically identical to those of their bilaterally symmetrical counterparts when the combined length of both antennae equaled the length of the single antenna of the antennectomized individuals. This suggests that the total length of available antennae influences odor tracking performance more than any specific piece of antenna, and that they may be doing something more complex than a simple bilateral comparison between their antennae. The possibility of an antenna-topic map is discussed. PMID:25987729

  3. Eye-Catching Odors: Olfaction Elicits Sustained Gazing to Faces and Eyes in 4-Month-Old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Lewkowicz, David J.; Goubet, Nathalie; Schaal, Benoist

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether an odor can affect infants' attention to visually presented objects and whether it can selectively direct visual gaze at visual targets as a function of their meaning. Four-month-old infants (n = 48) were exposed to their mother's body odors while their visual exploration was recorded with an eye-movement tracking system. Two groups of infants, who were assigned to either an odor condition or a control condition, looked at a scene composed of still pictures of faces and cars. As expected, infants looked longer at the faces than at the cars but this spontaneous preference for faces was significantly enhanced in presence of the odor. As expected also, when looking at the face, the infants looked longer at the eyes than at any other facial regions, but, again, they looked at the eyes significantly longer in the presence of the odor. Thus, 4-month-old infants are sensitive to the contextual effects of odors while looking at faces. This suggests that early social attention to faces is mediated by visual as well as non-visual cues. PMID:24015175

  4. Odorant Metabolism Catalyzed by Olfactory Mucosal Enzymes Influences Peripheral Olfactory Responses in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thiebaud, Nicolas; Veloso Da Silva, Stéphanie; Jakob, Ingrid; Sicard, Gilles; Chevalier, Joëlle; Ménétrier, Franck; Berdeaux, Olivier; Artur, Yves; Heydel, Jean-Marie; Le Bon, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    A large set of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs), such as the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs), esterases and transferases, are highly expressed in mammalian olfactory mucosa (OM). These enzymes are known to catalyze the biotransformation of exogenous compounds to facilitate elimination. However, the functions of these enzymes in the olfactory epithelium are not clearly understood. In addition to protecting against inhaled toxic compounds, these enzymes could also metabolize odorant molecules, and thus modify their stimulating properties or inactivate them. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro biotransformation of odorant molecules in the rat OM and assessed the impact of this metabolism on peripheral olfactory responses. Rat OM was found to efficiently metabolize quinoline, coumarin and isoamyl acetate. Quinoline and coumarin are metabolized by CYPs whereas isoamyl acetate is hydrolyzed by carboxylesterases. Electro-olfactogram (EOG) recordings revealed that the hydroxylated metabolites derived from these odorants elicited lower olfactory response amplitudes than the parent molecules. We also observed that glucurono-conjugated derivatives induced no olfactory signal. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the local application of a CYP inhibitor on rat olfactory epithelium increased EOG responses elicited by quinoline and coumarin. Similarly, the application of a carboxylesterase inhibitor increased the EOG response elicited by isoamyl acetate. This increase in EOG amplitude provoked by XME inhibitors is likely due to enhanced olfactory sensory neuron activation in response to odorant accumulation. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that biotransformation of odorant molecules by enzymes localized to the olfactory mucosa may change the odorant’s stimulating properties and may facilitate the clearance of odorants to avoid receptor saturation. PMID:23555703

  5. New designs for mines and the toxic wastes to greatly enhance detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Donald E.; Peters, Leon, Jr.

    1995-06-01

    By imbedding or placing antennas in or on the surface of plastic mines, or the containers of UXO or hazardous wastes, such objects can be detected relatively easy by GPR. The detection of metal mines is greatly enhanced by antennas presented. Experimental results are presented.

  6. Increasing Explicit Sequence Knowledge by Odor Cueing during Sleep in Men but not Women.

    PubMed

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Rasch, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Sleep consolidates newly acquired memories. Beyond stabilizing memories, sleep is thought to reorganize memory representations such that invariant structures, statistical regularities and even new explicit knowledge are extracted. Whereas increasing evidence suggests that the stabilization of memories during sleep can be facilitated by cueing with learning-associated stimuli, the effect of cueing on memory reorganization is less well understood. Here we asked whether olfactory cueing during sleep enhances the generation of explicit knowledge about an implicitly learned procedural memory task. Subjects were trained on a serial reaction time task (SRTT) containing a hidden 12-element sequence in the presence of an odor. During subsequent sleep, half of the subjects were re-exposed to the odor during periods of slow wave sleep (SWS), while the other half received odorless vehicle. In the next morning, subjects were tested on their explicit knowledge about the underlying sequence in a free recall test and a generation task. Although odor cueing did not significantly affect overall explicit knowledge, differential effects were evident when analyzing male and female subjects separately. Explicit sequence knowledge, both in free recall and the generation task, was enhanced by odor cueing in men, whereas women showed no cueing effect. Procedural skill in the SRTT was not affected by cueing, neither in men nor in women. These findings suggest that olfactory memory reactivation can increase explicit knowledge about implicitly learned information, but only in men. Hormonal differences due to menstrual cycle phase and/or hormonal contraceptives might explain the lacking effect in women. PMID:27147995

  7. Increasing Explicit Sequence Knowledge by Odor Cueing during Sleep in Men but not Women

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Rasch, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Sleep consolidates newly acquired memories. Beyond stabilizing memories, sleep is thought to reorganize memory representations such that invariant structures, statistical regularities and even new explicit knowledge are extracted. Whereas increasing evidence suggests that the stabilization of memories during sleep can be facilitated by cueing with learning-associated stimuli, the effect of cueing on memory reorganization is less well understood. Here we asked whether olfactory cueing during sleep enhances the generation of explicit knowledge about an implicitly learned procedural memory task. Subjects were trained on a serial reaction time task (SRTT) containing a hidden 12-element sequence in the presence of an odor. During subsequent sleep, half of the subjects were re-exposed to the odor during periods of slow wave sleep (SWS), while the other half received odorless vehicle. In the next morning, subjects were tested on their explicit knowledge about the underlying sequence in a free recall test and a generation task. Although odor cueing did not significantly affect overall explicit knowledge, differential effects were evident when analyzing male and female subjects separately. Explicit sequence knowledge, both in free recall and the generation task, was enhanced by odor cueing in men, whereas women showed no cueing effect. Procedural skill in the SRTT was not affected by cueing, neither in men nor in women. These findings suggest that olfactory memory reactivation can increase explicit knowledge about implicitly learned information, but only in men. Hormonal differences due to menstrual cycle phase and/or hormonal contraceptives might explain the lacking effect in women. PMID:27147995

  8. Enhanced detection of LED runway/approach lights for EVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, J. Richard

    2008-04-01

    The acquisition of approach and runway lights by an imager is critical to landing-credit operations with EVS. Using a GPS clock, LED sources are pulsed at one-half the EVS video rate of 60 Hz or more. The camera then uses synchronous (lock-in) detection to store the imaged lights in alternate frames, with digital subtraction of the background for each respective frame-pair. Range and weather penetration, limited only by detector background shot-noise (or camera system noise at night), substantially exceed that of the human eye. An alternative is the use of short-wave infrared cameras with eyesafe laser diode emitters. Also, runway identification may be encoded on the pulses. With standardized cameras and emitters, an "instrument qualified visual range" may be established. The concept extends to portable beacons at austere airfields, and to see-and-avoid sensing of other aircraft including UAVs.

  9. Motion Estimation Utilizing Range Detection-Enhanced Visual Odometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, Paul Russell (Inventor); Chen, Qi (Inventor); Chang, Hong (Inventor); Morris, Daniel Dale (Inventor); Graf, Jodi Seaborn (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A motion determination system is disclosed. The system may receive a first and a second camera image from a camera, the first camera image received earlier than the second camera image. The system may identify corresponding features in the first and second camera images. The system may receive range data comprising at least one of a first and a second range data from a range detection unit, corresponding to the first and second camera images, respectively. The system may determine first positions and the second positions of the corresponding features using the first camera image and the second camera image. The first positions or the second positions may be determined by also using the range data. The system may determine a change in position of the machine based on differences between the first and second positions, and a VO-based velocity of the machine based on the determined change in position.

  10. Isotopically modified nanoparticles for enhanced detection in bioaccumulation studies.

    PubMed

    Misra, Superb K; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Berhanu, Deborah; Croteau, Marie Noële; Luoma, Samuel N; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2012-01-17

    This work presents results on synthesis of isotopically enriched (99% (65)Cu) copper oxide nanoparticles and its application in ecotoxicological studies. (65)CuO nanoparticles were synthesized as spheres (7 nm) and rods (7 × 40 nm). Significant differences were observed between the reactivity and dissolution of spherical and rod shaped nanoparticles. The extreme sensitivity of the stable isotope tracing technique developed in this study allowed determining Cu uptake at exposure concentrations equivalent to background Cu concentrations in freshwater systems (0.2-30 μg/L). Without a tracer, detection of newly accumulated Cu was impossible, even at exposure concentrations surpassing some of the most contaminated water systems (>1 mg/L). PMID:22148182

  11. Context and quality estimation in video for enhanced event detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, John M.; Wood, Richard J.

    2015-05-01

    Numerous practical applications for automated event recognition in video rely on analysis of the objects and their associated motion, i.e., the kinematics of the scene. The ability to recognize events in practice depends on accurate tracking objects of interest in the video data and accurate recognition of changes relative to the background. Numerous factors can degrade the performance of automated algorithms. Our object detection and tracking algorithms estimate the object position and attributes within the context of a dynamic assessment of video quality, to provide more reliable event recognition under challenging conditions. We present an approach to robustly modeling the image quality which informs tuning parameters to use for a given video stream. The video quality model rests on a suite of image metrics computed in real-time from the video. We will describe the formulation of the image quality model. Results from a recent experiment will quantify the empirical performance for recognition of events of interest.

  12. Isotopically modified nanoparticles for enhanced detection in bioaccumulation studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Misra, S.K.; Dybowska, A.; Berhanu, D.; Croteau, M.-N.; Luoma, S.N.; Boccaccini, A.R.; Valsami-Jones, E.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents results on synthesis of isotopically enriched (99% 65Cu) copper oxide nanoparticles and its application in ecotoxicological studies. 65CuO nanoparticles were synthesized as spheres (7 nm) and rods (7 ?? 40 nm). Significant differences were observed between the reactivity and dissolution of spherical and rod shaped nanoparticles. The extreme sensitivity of the stable isotope tracing technique developed in this study allowed determining Cu uptake at exposure concentrations equivalent to background Cu concentrations in freshwater systems (0.2-30 ??g/L). Without a tracer, detection of newly accumulated Cu was impossible, even at exposure concentrations surpassing some of the most contaminated water systems (>1 mg/L). ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. The perception of odor objects in everyday life: a review on the processing of odor mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Sinding, Charlotte; Romagny, Sébastien; El Mountassir, Fouzia; Atanasova, Boriana; Le Berre, Elodie; Le Bon, Anne-Marie; Coureaud, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Smelling monomolecular odors hardly ever occurs in everyday life, and the daily functioning of the sense of smell relies primarily on the processing of complex mixtures of volatiles that are present in the environment (e.g., emanating from food or conspecifics). Such processing allows for the instantaneous recognition and categorization of smells and also for the discrimination of odors among others to extract relevant information and to adapt efficiently in different contexts. The neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning this highly efficient analysis of complex mixtures of odorants is beginning to be unraveled and support the idea that olfaction, as vision and audition, relies on odor-objects encoding. This configural processing of odor mixtures, which is empirically subject to important applications in our societies (e.g., the art of perfumers, flavorists, and wine makers), has been scientifically studied only during the last decades. This processing depends on many individual factors, among which are the developmental stage, lifestyle, physiological and mood state, and cognitive skills; this processing also presents striking similarities between species. The present review gathers the recent findings, as observed in animals, healthy subjects, and/or individuals with affective disorders, supporting the perception of complex odor stimuli as odor objects. It also discusses peripheral to central processing, and cognitive and behavioral significance. Finally, this review highlights that the study of odor mixtures is an original window allowing for the investigation of daily olfaction and emphasizes the need for knowledge about the underlying biological processes, which appear to be crucial for our representation and adaptation to the chemical environment. PMID:24917831

  14. Recovery of Agricultural Odors and Odorous Compounds from Polyvinyl Fluoride Film Bags

    PubMed Central

    Parker, David B.; Perschbacher-Buser, Zena L.; Cole, N. Andy; Koziel, Jacek A.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate sampling methods are necessary when quantifying odor and volatile organic compound emissions at agricultural facilities. The commonly accepted methodology in the U.S. has been to collect odor samples in polyvinyl fluoride bags (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) and, subsequently, analyze with human panelists using dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry. The purpose of this research was to simultaneously quantify and compare recoveries of odor and odorous compounds from both commercial and homemade PVF sampling bags. A standard gas mixture consisting of p-cresol (40 μg m−3) and seven volatile fatty acids: acetic (2,311 μg m−3), propionic (15,800 μg m−3), isobutyric (1,686 μg m−3), butyric (1,049 μg m−3), isovaleric (1,236 μg m−3), valeric (643 μg m−3), and hexanoic (2,158 μg m−3) was placed in the PVF bags at times of 1 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, and 7 d prior to compound and odor concentration analyses. Compound concentrations were quantified using sorbent tubes and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Odor concentration, intensity, and hedonic tone were measured using a panel of trained human subjects. Compound recoveries ranged from 2 to 40% after 1 h and 0 to 14% after 7 d. Between 1 h and 7 d, odor concentrations increased by 45% in commercial bags, and decreased by 39% in homemade bags. Minimal changes were observed in intensity and hedonic tone over the same time period. These results suggest that PVF bags can bias individual compound concentrations and odor as measured by dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry. PMID:22163671

  15. The perception of odor objects in everyday life: a review on the processing of odor mixtures.

    PubMed

    Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Sinding, Charlotte; Romagny, Sébastien; El Mountassir, Fouzia; Atanasova, Boriana; Le Berre, Elodie; Le Bon, Anne-Marie; Coureaud, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Smelling monomolecular odors hardly ever occurs in everyday life, and the daily functioning of the sense of smell relies primarily on the processing of complex mixtures of volatiles that are present in the environment (e.g., emanating from food or conspecifics). Such processing allows for the instantaneous recognition and categorization of smells and also for the discrimination of odors among others to extract relevant information and to adapt efficiently in different contexts. The neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning this highly efficient analysis of complex mixtures of odorants is beginning to be unraveled and support the idea that olfaction, as vision and audition, relies on odor-objects encoding. This configural processing of odor mixtures, which is empirically subject to important applications in our societies (e.g., the art of perfumers, flavorists, and wine makers), has been scientifically studied only during the last decades. This processing depends on many individual factors, among which are the developmental stage, lifestyle, physiological and mood state, and cognitive skills; this processing also presents striking similarities between species. The present review gathers the recent findings, as observed in animals, healthy subjects, and/or individuals with affective disorders, supporting the perception of complex odor stimuli as odor objects. It also discusses peripheral to central processing, and cognitive and behavioral significance. Finally, this review highlights that the study of odor mixtures is an original window allowing for the investigation of daily olfaction and emphasizes the need for knowledge about the underlying biological processes, which appear to be crucial for our representation and adaptation to the chemical environment. PMID:24917831

  16. Statistical feature selection for enhanced detection of brain tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaddad, Ahmad; Colen, Rivka R.

    2014-09-01

    Feature-based methods are widely used in the brain tumor recognition system. Robust of early cancer detection is one of the most powerful image processing tools. Specifically, statistical features, such as geometric mean, harmonic mean, mean excluding outliers, median, percentiles, skewness and kurtosis, have been extracted from brain tumor glioma to aid in discriminating two levels namely, Level I and Level II using fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence in the diagnosis of brain tumor. Statistical feature describes the major characteristics of each level from glioma which is an important step to evaluate heterogeneity of cancer area pixels. In this paper, we address the task of feature selection to identify the relevant subset of features in the statistical domain, while discarding those that are either redundant or confusing, thereby improving the performance of feature-based scheme to distinguish between Level I and Level II. We apply a Decision Structure algorithm to find the optimal combination of nonhomogeneity based statistical features for the problem at hand. We employ a Naïve Bayes classifier to evaluate the performance of the optimal statistical feature based scheme in terms of its glioma Level I and Level II discrimination capability and use real-data collected from 17 patients have a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Dataset provided from 3 Tesla MR imaging system by MD Anderson Cancer Center. For the specific data analyzed, it is shown that the identified dominant features yield higher classification accuracy, with lower number of false alarms and missed detections, compared to the full statistical based feature set. This work has been proposed and analyzed specific GBM types which Level I and Level II and the dominant features were considered as feature aid to prognostic indicators. These features were selected automatically to be better able to determine prognosis from classical imaging studies.

  17. Odor-modulated orientation in walking male cockroaches Periplaneta americana, and the effects of odor plumes of different structure.

    PubMed

    Willis, M A; Avondet, J L

    2005-02-01

    The location of distant resources using odor information usually also requires information on the flow of air (or water) through the environment together with the expression of internally programmed steering responses. The orientation responses of virgin male Periplaneta americana L. to wind and the female sex-pheromone component (-)-periplanone-B were video-recorded in a laboratory wind tunnel and quantified. P. americana males showed no preferred walking orientation when released in zero wind in the absence of pheromone. When introduced into 25 cm s(-1) wind in the absence of pheromone, 79% of males walked downwind. Upon introduction to a plume of (-)-periplanone-B in wind, 100% of males walked upwind in the pheromone plume to the source. Males were then challenged with wind-borne plumes of (-)-periplanone-B of four different temporal/spatial structures. In nearly all cases, the only statistically significant changes in behavioral parameters measured from their walking tracks were observed from males tracking the treatment consisting of the most turbulent plume. The plume-tracking performances of males challenged with the other three less turbulent plumes were visually and quantitatively similar, regardless of the width. Males tracking all four plumes showed evidence of turns resulting from multiple mechanisms. Some of the observed maneuvers were temporally regular counterturns, suggesting steering according to an ongoing internal program, while others could have been triggered by encountering the change in odor concentration between pheromone and clean air at the lateral boundary of the plume or chemotactically upon the detection of changes in odor concentration. PMID:15695764

  18. Controlling Swine Odor with Natural Windbreaks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emissions of malodor from swine facilities are an increasing environmental concern for swine producers and nearby local communities. Use of natural windbreaks for odor abatement is recent and the science in support of using windbreaks for this purpose is limited. To provide sound science to the stu...

  19. Odor Impression Prediction from Mass Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2016-01-01

    The sense of smell arises from the perception of odors from chemicals. However, the relationship between the impression of odor and the numerous physicochemical parameters has yet to be understood owing to its complexity. As such, there is no established general method for predicting the impression of odor of a chemical only from its physicochemical properties. In this study, we designed a novel predictive model based on an artificial neural network with a deep structure for predicting odor impression utilizing the mass spectra of chemicals, and we conducted a series of computational analyses to evaluate its performance. Feature vectors extracted from the original high-dimensional space using two autoencoders equipped with both input and output layers in the model are used to build a mapping function from the feature space of mass spectra to the feature space of sensory data. The results of predictions obtained by the proposed new method have notable accuracy (R≅0.76) in comparison with a conventional method (R≅0.61). PMID:27326765

  20. Source chemical characterization of swine odor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odors from swine production have been linked to a host of issues affecting quality of life, property values and potentially human health. Typical compounds and classes of compounds include: sulfides, thiols, acids, phenols, indoles, ammonia and amines. The wide range of compounds assoicated with swi...

  1. Odor Impression Prediction from Mass Spectra.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Yuji; Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2016-01-01

    The sense of smell arises from the perception of odors from chemicals. However, the relationship between the impression of odor and the numerous physicochemical parameters has yet to be understood owing to its complexity. As such, there is no established general method for predicting the impression of odor of a chemical only from its physicochemical properties. In this study, we designed a novel predictive model based on an artificial neural network with a deep structure for predicting odor impression utilizing the mass spectra of chemicals, and we conducted a series of computational analyses to evaluate its performance. Feature vectors extracted from the original high-dimensional space using two autoencoders equipped with both input and output layers in the model are used to build a mapping function from the feature space of mass spectra to the feature space of sensory data. The results of predictions obtained by the proposed new method have notable accuracy (R≅0.76) in comparison with a conventional method (R≅0.61). PMID:27326765

  2. EMISSIONS OF ODOROUS ALDEHYDES FROM ALKYD PAINT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aldehyde emissions are widely held responsible for the acrid after-odor of drying alkyd-based paint films. The aldehyde emissions from three different alkyd paints were measured in small environmental chambers. It was found that, for each alkyd paint applied, more than 2 mg of ...

  3. On the dimensionality of odor space

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Markus

    2015-01-01

    There is great interest in understanding human olfactory experience from a principled and quantitative standpoint. The comparison is often made to color vision, where a solid framework with a three-dimensional perceptual space enabled a rigorous search for the underlying neural pathways, and the technological development of lifelike color display devices. A recent, highly publicized report claims that humans can discriminate at least 1 trillion odors, which exceeds by many orders of magnitude the known capabilities of color discrimination. This claim is wrong. I show that the failure lies in the mathematical method used to infer the size of odor space from a limited experimental sample. Further analysis focuses on establishing how many dimensions the perceptual odor space has. I explore the dimensionality of physical, neural, and perceptual spaces, drawing on results from bacteria to humans, and propose some experimental approaches to better estimate the number of discriminable odors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07865.001 PMID:26151672

  4. Static corrections for enhanced signal detection at IMS seismic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Neil; Wookey, James; Selby, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Seismic monitoring forms an important part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for verifying the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Analysis of seismic data can be used to discriminate between nuclear explosions and the tens of thousands of natural earthquakes of similar magnitude that occur every year. This is known as "forensic seismology", and techniques include measuring the P-to-S wave amplitude ratio, the body-to-surface wave magnitude ratio (mb/Ms), and source depth. Measurement of these seismic discriminants requires very high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data, and this has led to the development and deployment of seismic arrays as part of the IMS. Array processing methodologies such as stacking can be used, but optimum SNR improvement needs an accurate estimate of the arrival time of the particular seismic phase. To enhance the imaging capability of IMS arrays, we aim to develop site-specific static corrections to the arrival time as a function of frequency, slowness and backazimuth. Here, we present initial results for the IMS TORD array in Niger. Vespagrams are calculated for various events using the F-statistic to clearly identify seismic phases and measure their arrival times. Observed arrival times are compared with those predicted by 1D and 3D velocity models, and residuals are calculated for a range of backazimuths and slownesses. Finally, we demonstrate the improvement in signal fidelity provided by these corrections.

  5. Chemical agent detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Gift, Alan; Maksymiuk, Paul; Inscore, Frank E.; Smith, Wayne W.; Morrisey, Kevin; Christesen, Steven D.

    2004-03-01

    In the past decade, the Unites States and its allies have been challenged by a different kind of warfare, exemplified by the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Although suicide bombings are the most often used form of terror, military personnel must consider a wide range of attack scenarios. Among these is the intentional poisoning of water supplies to obstruct military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. To counter such attacks, the military is developing portable analyzers that can identify and quantify potential chemical agents in water supplies at microgram per liter concentrations within 10 minutes. To aid this effort we have been investigating the value of a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based portable analyzer. In particular we have been developing silver-doped sol-gels to generate SER spectra of chemical agents and their hydrolysis products. Here we present SER spectra of several chemical agents measured in a generic tap water. Repeat measurements were performed to establish statistical error associated with SERS obtained using the sol-gel coated vials.

  6. The Odorant Receptor-Dependent Role of Olfactory Marker Protein in Olfactory Receptor Neurons.

    PubMed

    Dibattista, Michele; Reisert, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the nasal cavity detect and transduce odorants into action potentials to be conveyed to the olfactory bulb. Odorants are delivered to ORNs via the inhaled air at breathing frequencies that can vary from 2 to 10 Hz in the mouse. Thus olfactory transduction should occur at sufficient speed such that it can accommodate repetitive and frequent stimulation. Activation of odorant receptors (ORs) leads to adenylyl cyclase III activation, cAMP increase, and opening of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. This makes the kinetic regulation of cAMP one of the important determinants for the response time course. We addressed the dynamic regulation of cAMP during the odorant response and examined how basal levels of cAMP are controlled. The latter is particularly relevant as basal cAMP depends on the basal activity of the expressed OR and thus varies across ORNs. We found that olfactory marker protein (OMP), a protein expressed in mature ORNs, controls both basal and odorant-induced cAMP levels in an OR-dependent manner. Lack of OMP increases basal cAMP, thus abolishing differences in basal cAMP levels between ORNs expressing different ORs. Moreover, OMP speeds up signal transduction for ORNs to better synchronize their output with high-frequency stimulation and to perceive brief stimuli. Last, OMP also steepens the dose-response relation to improve concentration coding although at the cost of losing responses to weak stimuli. We conclude that OMP plays a key regulatory role in ORN physiology by controlling multiple facets of the odorant response. PMID:26961953

  7. Volatile organic compounds of six French Dryopteris species: natural odorous and bioactive resources.

    PubMed

    Froissard, Didier; Rapior, Sylvie; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Fruchier, Alain; Buatois, Bruno; Fons, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Aerial parts of six Dryopteris species collected in France were investigated for volatile organic compounds (VOC) for the first time. Fifty-three biosynthesized VOC from the shikimic, lipidic and terpenic pathways were identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Many bioactive polyketide compounds as filicinic derivatives (from 8.5 to 23.5%) and phloroglucinol derivatives (from 8.2 to 53.8%) with various pharmacological activities were detected in high amount from five analysed Dryopteris species, in particular D. oreades and D. borreri, i.e., propionylfilicinic acid (> 10% in D. affinis and D. ardechensis) and 2,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-3-methylbutyrophenone (aspidinol) (19.1% and 14.6% in D. oreades and D. borreri, respectively). Several terpenic derivatives with a low odor threshold were identified, i.e., carota-5,8-diene (from 2.5 to 18.4%: floral, woody or fresh bark note), (E)-nerolidol (> 10% for D. borreri and D. cambrensis; floral or woody odor), alpha-selinene (> 7% for D. ardechensis; woody-spicy odor), and aristolene (12.8% in D. affinis; flower, sweet odor). The main isoprenoid derivatives were 4-hydroxy-5,6-epoxyionol, 3-oxo-alpha-ionol and 4-oxo-7,8-dihydro-beta-ionone (essentially in D. remota), whereas the main aromatic compound was 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyacetophenone (20.6% and 12.6% in D. cambrensis and D. borreri, respectively) and the main lipid derivative was 1-octen-3-ol with a mushroom-like odor (from 0.4 to 8.3%). Dryopteris species resources are of great interest as a reservoir of odorous and bioactive compounds. PMID:24660483

  8. Central oxytocin regulates social familiarity and scent marking behavior that involves amicable odor signals between male mice.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Hiroyuki; Blanchard, D Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    The effect of oxytocin on social behavior and odor communication was investigated in male C57BL/6J mice. In three-male colonies, in visible burrow systems, icv oxytocin (OT) infusion before colony formation substantially increased huddling together over the initial 8 h of grouping, accompanied by decreased expression of a number of social approaches associated with conspecific aggression and defense. OT antagonist infusion had little impact on expression of social approaches but decreased time engaging in social components including huddle over the initial 8 h. These results demonstrate a linkage of social familiarity to OT availability in the brain. In a scent marking paradigm central infusion of OT reduced territorial marking towards male conspecifics, and this in turn reduced the scent marking of untreated stimulus males to OT-infused subjects. Infusion of an OT antagonist into stimulus mice who were confronted with OT-infused subjects prevented the reduction/suppression of scent marking that was normally seen following exposure of social odors released from OT-injected mice. Odor of pair-housed mice also induced a suppression of territorial scent marking in odor recipients, but OT antagonist administration into pair-housed mice blocked this suppressive effect of odor cue. These results indicate that central OT modulates release as well as detection of amicable signals facilitating/maintaining familiar relationships and suppressing territorial behavior between male mice. Overall, these findings suggest that OT plays a significant role in regulating social familiarity via changing qualities of conspecific odor cues. PMID:26066721

  9. Exchanging ligand-binding specificity between a pair of mouse olfactory receptor paralogs reveals odorant recognition principles.

    PubMed

    Baud, Olivia; Yuan, Shuguang; Veya, Luc; Filipek, Slawomir; Vogel, Horst; Pick, Horst

    2015-01-01

    A multi-gene family of ~1000 G protein-coupled olfactory receptors (ORs) constitutes the molecular basis of mammalian olfaction. Due to the lack of structural data its remarkable capacity to detect and discriminate thousands of odorants remains poorly understood on the structural level of the receptor. Using site-directed mutagenesis we transferred ligand specificity between two functionally related ORs and thereby revealed amino acid residues of central importance for odorant recognition and discrimination of the two receptors. By exchanging two of three residues, differing at equivalent positions of the putative odorant binding site between the mouse OR paralogs Olfr73 (mOR-EG) and Olfr74 (mOR-EV), we selectively changed ligand preference but remarkably also signaling activation strength in both ORs. Computer modeling proposed structural details at atomic resolution how the very same odorant molecule might interact with different contact residues to induce different functional responses in two related receptors. Our findings provide a mechanistic explanation of how the olfactory system distinguishes different molecular aspects of a given odorant molecule, and unravel important molecular details of the combinatorial encoding of odorant identity at the OR level. PMID:26449412

  10. Exchanging ligand-binding specificity between a pair of mouse olfactory receptor paralogs reveals odorant recognition principles

    PubMed Central

    Baud, Olivia; Yuan, Shuguang; Veya, Luc; Filipek, Slawomir; Vogel, Horst; Pick, Horst

    2015-01-01

    A multi-gene family of ~1000 G protein-coupled olfactory receptors (ORs) constitutes the molecular basis of mammalian olfaction. Due to the lack of structural data its remarkable capacity to detect and discriminate thousands of odorants remains poorly understood on the structural level of the receptor. Using site-directed mutagenesis we transferred ligand specificity between two functionally related ORs and thereby revealed amino acid residues of central importance for odorant recognition and discrimination of the two receptors. By exchanging two of three residues, differing at equivalent positions of the putative odorant binding site between the mouse OR paralogs Olfr73 (mOR-EG) and Olfr74 (mOR-EV), we selectively changed ligand preference but remarkably also signaling activation strength in both ORs. Computer modeling proposed structural details at atomic resolution how the very same odorant molecule might interact with different contact residues to induce different functional responses in two related receptors. Our findings provide a mechanistic explanation of how the olfactory system distinguishes different molecular aspects of a given odorant molecule, and unravel important molecular details of the combinatorial encoding of odorant identity at the OR level. PMID:26449412

  11. The effect of meat consumption on body odor attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Havlicek, Jan; Lenochova, Pavlina

    2006-10-01

    Axillary body odor is individually specific and potentially a rich source of information about its producer. Odor individuality partly results from genetic individuality, but the influence of ecological factors such as eating habits are another main source of odor variability. However, we know very little about how particular dietary components shape our body odor. Here we tested the effect of red meat consumption on body odor attractiveness. We used a balanced within-subject experimental design. Seventeen male odor donors were on "meat" or "nonmeat" diet for 2 weeks wearing axillary pads to collect body odor during the final 24 h of the diet. Fresh odor samples were assessed for their pleasantness, attractiveness, masculinity, and intensity by 30 women not using hormonal contraceptives. We repeated the same procedure a month later with the same odor donors, each on the opposite diet than before. Results of repeated measures analysis of variance showed that the odor of donors when on the nonmeat diet was judged as significantly more attractive, more pleasant, and less intense. This suggests that red meat consumption has a negative impact on perceived body odor hedonicity. PMID:16891352

  12. Retronasal odor representations in the dorsal olfactory bulb of rats

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Shree Hari; Verhagen, Justus V.

    2012-01-01

    Animals perceive their olfactory environment not only from odors originating in the external world (orthonasal route) but also from odors released in the oral cavity while eating food (retronasal route). Retronasal olfaction is crucial for the perception of food flavor in humans. However, little is known about the retronasal stimulus coding in the brain. The most basic question is if and how route affects the odor representations at the level of the olfactory bulb (OB), where odor quality codes originate. We used optical calcium imaging of presynaptic dorsal OB responses to odorants in anesthetized rats to ask whether the rat OB could be activated retronasally, and how these responses compare to orthonasal responses under similar conditions. We further investigated the effects of specific odorant properties on orthoversus retronasal response patterns. We found that at a physiologically relevant flow rate retronasal odorants can effectively reach the olfactory receptor neurons, eliciting glomerular response patterns that grossly overlap with those of orthonasal responses, but differ from the orthonasal patterns in the response amplitude and temporal dynamics. Interestingly, such differences correlated well with specific odorant properties. Less volatile odorants yielded relatively smaller responses retronasally, but volatility did not affect relative temporal profiles. More polar odorants responded with relatively longer onset latency and time to peak retronasally, but polarity did not affect relative response magnitudes. These data provide insight into the early stages of retronasal stimulus coding and establish relationships between ortho- and retronasal odor representations in the rat OB. PMID:22674270

  13. The influence of odorants on respiratory patterns in sleep.

    PubMed

    Arzi, Anat; Sela, Lee; Green, Amit; Givaty, Gili; Dagan, Yaron; Sobel, Noam

    2010-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of using odors as a potential mechanism for treating sleep apnea, we set out to test the hypothesis that odorants delivered during sleep would modify respiratory patterns without inducing arousal or wake in healthy sleepers. We used 2 mildly trigeminal odorants: the pleasant lavender and unpleasant vetiver oil and 2 pure olfactory odorants: the pleasant vanillin and unpleasant ammonium sulfide. During sleep, an olfactometer delivered a transient odorant every 9, 12, or 15 min (randomized), providing 21-37 odorant presentations per night. Each of 36 participants was studied for 1 night and with 1 of the 4 different odorants tested. In addition to standard overnight polysomnography, we employed highly accurate measurements of nasal and oral respiration. Odorants did not increase the frequency of arousals or wake but did influence respiration. Specifically, all 4 odorants transiently decreased inhalation and increased exhalation for up to 6 breaths following odor onset. This effect persisted regardless of odorant valence or stage of sleep. These results suggest that the olfactory system may provide a path to manipulate respiration in sleep. PMID:19917590

  14. Does odor and taste identification change during hyperemesis gravidarum?

    PubMed

    Yasar, Mehmet; Sagit, Mustafa; Zeki Uludag, Semih; Ozcan, Ibrahim

    2016-02-01

    Aim To investigate a difference in odor and taste identification among pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum, those with healthy pregnancy and non-pregnant women. Methods This prospective, controlled study included 33 pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum, 33 healthy pregnant and 26 non-pregnant women. For all participants, rhinological examinations were performed. Odor and taste identification were performed by holding Sniffin Sticks test battery (Burghart, Wedel, Germany) in all participants. Results There was a statistically significant difference in results of odor identification tests among the groups (p=0.031). Rose odor was selected as the most pleasant odor by the hyperemesis gravidarum group, 32 (96.9%). Orange odor was selected as the most pleasant odor by the healthy pregnant women, 33 (100%) whereas the banana odor was selected as the most pleasant odor by the healthy non-pregnant women, 10 (38.4%). In taste identification tests, there was a significant difference in total taste scores among the groups (p=0.003). Conclusion It is obvious that there is a need to evaluate odor thresholds and other parameters by detailed studies on odor perception in the context of hyperemesis gravidarum. PMID:26827707

  15. Detection of dimethyl methylphosphonate by thin water film confined surface-enhanced Raman scattering method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Duan, Guotao; Liu, Guangqiang; Li, Yue; Chen, Zhengxing; Xu, Lei; Cai, Weiping

    2016-02-13

    It is important and necessary to effectively detect the chemical warfare agents, such as highly toxic never agent sarin. However, based on the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect, detection of nerve agent simulant dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) which is weakly interacted with SERS-active substrate has been the most challenge for the routine SERS detection method. To overcome this challenge, we put forward a thin water film confined SERS strategy. Under the space-confinement of water film, Raman measurements are carried out in the water evaporation process. The subsequent water evaporation induces concentrating of the DMMP molecules, which are thus successfully restricted within the strong electromagnetic field enhanced area above the SERS substrates, leading to the enhancement of their Raman signals. This study provides a new way to achieve the efficient SERS-based detection of the target molecules weakly interacted with the metal substrates. PMID:26513568

  16. A Central Neural Pathway Controlling Odor Tracking in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Gemma; Levy, Peter; Chan, K.L. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Chemotaxis is important for the survival of most animals. How the brain translates sensory input into motor output beyond higher olfactory processing centers is largely unknown. We describe a group of excitatory neurons, termed Odd neurons, which are important for Drosophila larval chemotaxis. Odd neurons receive synaptic input from projection neurons in the calyx of the mushroom body and project axons to the central brain. Functional imaging shows that some of the Odd neurons respond to odor. Larvae in which Odd neurons are silenced are less efficient at odor tracking than controls and sample the odor space more frequently. Larvae in which the excitability of Odd neurons is increased are better at odor intensity discrimination and odor tracking. Thus, the Odd neurons represent a distinct pathway that regulates the sensitivity of the olfactory system to odor concentrations, demonstrating that efficient chemotaxis depends on processing of odor strength downstream of higher olfactory centers. PMID:25653345

  17. Semantic Knowledge Influences Prewired Hedonic Responses to Odors

    PubMed Central

    Poncelet, Johan; Rinck, Fanny; Ziessel, Anne; Joussain, Pauline; Thévenet, Marc; Rouby, Catherine; Bensafi, Moustafa

    2010-01-01

    Background Odor hedonic perception relies on decoding the physicochemical properties of odorant molecules and can be influenced in humans by semantic knowledge. The effect of semantic knowledge on such prewired hedonic processing over the life span has remained unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study measured hedonic response to odors in different age groups (children, teenagers, young adults, and seniors) and found that children and seniors, two age groups characterized by either low level of (children) or weak access to (seniors) odor semantic knowledge, processed odor hedonics more on the basis of their physicochemical properties. In contrast, in teenagers and young adults, who show better levels of semantic odor representation, the role of physicochemical properties was less marked. Conclusions/Significance These findings demonstrate for the first time that the biological determinants that make an odor pleasant or unpleasant are more powerful at either end of the life span. PMID:21079734

  18. Temporal coding of odor mixtures in an olfactory receptor neuron

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chih-Ying; Martelli, Carlotta; Emonet, Thierry; Carlson, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Most natural odors are mixtures and often elicit percepts distinct from those elicited by their constituents. This emergence of a unique odor quality has long been attributed to central processing. Here we show that sophisticated integration of olfactory information begins in olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in Drosophila. Odor mixtures are encoded in the temporal dynamics as well as in the magnitudes of ORN responses. ORNs can respond to an inhibitory odorant with different durations depending on the level of background excitation. ORNs respond to mixtures with distinctive temporal dynamics that reflect the physicochemical properties of the constituent odorants. The insect repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide), which attenuates odor responses of multiple ORNs, differs from an ORN-specific inhibitor in its effects on temporal dynamics. Our analysis reveals a means by which integration of information from odor mixtures begins in ORNs and provides insight into the contribution of inhibitory stimuli to sensory coding. PMID:21383179

  19. Enhanced Detection of Ubiquitin Isopeptides Using Reductive Methylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicooree, Navin; Connolly, Yvonne; Tan, Chong-Teik; Malliri, Angeliki; Li, Yaoyong; Smith, Duncan L.; Griffiths, John R.

    2013-03-01

    Identification of ubiquitination (Ub) sites is of great interest due to the critical roles that the modification plays in cellular regulation. Current methods using mass spectrometry rely upon tryptic isopeptide diglycine tag generation followed by database searching. We present a novel approach to ubiquitin detection based upon the dimethyl labeling of isopeptide N-termini glycines. Ubiquitinated proteins were digested with trypsin and the resulting peptide mixture was derivatized using formaldehyde-D2 solution and sodium cyanoborohydride. The dimethylated peptide mixtures were next separated by liquid chromatography and analyzed on a quadrupole-TOF based mass spectrometer. Diagnostic b2' and a1' ions released from the isopeptide N-terminus upon collision-induced dissociation (CID) were used to spectrally improve the identification of ubiquitinated isopeptides. Proof of principle was established by application to a ubiquitinated protein tryptic digest spiked into a six-protein mix digest background. Extracted ion chromatograms of the a1' and b2' diagnostic product ions from the diglycine tag resulted in a significant reduction in signal complexity and demonstrated a selectivity towards the identification of diglycine branched isopeptides. The method was further shown to be capable of identifying diglycine isopeptides resulting from in-gel tryptic digests of ubiquitin enriched material from a His-Ub transfected cell line. We envisage that these ions may be utilized in global ubiquitination studies with post-acquisition MS/MS (or MSe) data interrogation on high resolution hybrid mass spectrometers.

  20. Enhanced detection of ubiquitin isopeptides using reductive methylation.

    PubMed

    Chicooree, Navin; Connolly, Yvonne; Tan, Chong-Teik; Malliri, Angeliki; Li, Yaoyong; Smith, Duncan L; Griffiths, John R

    2013-03-01

    Identification of ubiquitination (Ub) sites is of great interest due to the critical roles that the modification plays in cellular regulation. Current methods using mass spectrometry rely upon tryptic isopeptide diglycine tag generation followed by database searching. We present a novel approach to ubiquitin detection based upon the dimethyl labeling of isopeptide N-termini glycines. Ubiquitinated proteins were digested with trypsin and the resulting peptide mixture was derivatized using formaldehyde-D2 solution and sodium cyanoborohydride. The dimethylated peptide mixtures were next separated by liquid chromatography and analyzed on a quadrupole-TOF based mass spectrometer. Diagnostic b2' and a1' ions released from the isopeptide N-terminus upon collision-induced dissociation (CID) were used to spectrally improve the identification of ubiquitinated isopeptides. Proof of principle was established by application to a ubiquitinated protein tryptic digest spiked into a six-protein mix digest background. Extracted ion chromatograms of the a1' and b2' diagnostic product ions from the diglycine tag resulted in a significant reduction in signal complexity and demonstrated a selectivity towards the identification of diglycine branched isopeptides. The method was further shown to be capable of identifying diglycine isopeptides resulting from in-gel tryptic digests of ubiquitin enriched material from a His-Ub transfected cell line. We envisage that these ions may be utilized in global ubiquitination studies with post-acquisition MS/MS (or MSe) data interrogation on high resolution hybrid mass spectrometers. ᅟ PMID:23361369