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Sample records for enhanced antitumor effects

  1. Intratumoral Immunocytokine Treatment Results in Enhanced Antitumor Effects

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Erik E.; Lum, Hillary D.; Rakhmilevich, Alexander L.; Schmidt, Brian E.; Furlong, Meghan; Buhtoiarov, Ilia N.; Hank, Jacquelyn A.; Raubitschek, Andrew; Colcher, David; Reisfeld, Ralph A.; Gillies, Stephen D.; Sondel, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Immunocytokines (IC), consisting of tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies fused to the immunostimulatory cytokine interleukin 2 (IL2), exert significant antitumor effects in several murine tumor models. We investigated whether intratumoral (IT) administration of IC provided enhanced antitumor effects against subcutaneous tumors. Three unique ICs (huKS-IL2, hu14.18-IL2, and GcT84.66-IL2) were administered systemically or IT to evaluate their antitumor effects against tumors expressing the appropriate IC-targeted tumor antigens. The effect of IT injection of the primary tumor on a distant tumor was also evaluated. Here, we show that IT injection of IC resulted in enhanced antitumor effects against B16-KSA melanoma, NXS2 neuroblastoma, and human M21 melanoma xenografts when compared to intravenous (IV) IC injection. Resolution of both primary and distant subcutaneous tumors, and a tumor-specific memory response were demonstrated following IT treatment in immunocompetent mice bearing NXS2 tumors. The IT effect of huKS-IL2 IC was antigen-specific, enhanced compared to IL2 alone, and dose-dependent. Hu14.18-IL2 also showed greater IT effects than IL2 alone. The antitumor effect of IT IC did not always require T cells since IT IC induced antitumor effects against tumors in both SCID and nude mice. Localization studies using radiolabeled 111In-GcT84.66-IL2 IC confirmed that IT injection resulted in a higher concentration of IC at the tumor site than IV administration. In conclusion, we suggest that IT IC is more effective than IV administration against palpable tumors. Further testing is required to determine how to potentially incorporate IT administration of IC into an antitumor regimen that optimizes local and systemic anticancer therapy. PMID:18438664

  2. Pegfilgrastim Enhances the Antitumor Effect of Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Cornet, Sébastien; Mathé, Doriane; Chettab, Kamel; Evesque, Anne; Matera, Eva-Laure; Trédan, Olivier; Dumontet, Charles

    2016-06-01

    Therapeutic mAbs exert antitumor activity through various mechanisms, including apoptotic signalization, complement-dependent cytotoxicity, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) or phagocytosis (ADCP). G-CSF and GM-CSF have been reported to increase the activity of antibodies in preclinical models and in clinical trials. To determine the potential role of pegfilgrastim as an enhancer of anticancer antibodies, we performed a comparative study of filgrastim and pegfilgrastim. We found that pegfilgrastim was significantly more potent than filgrastim in murine xenograft models treated with mAbs. This was observed with rituximab in CD20(+) models and with trastuzumab in HER2(+) models. Stimulation with pegfilgrastim was associated with significant enhancement of leukocyte content in spleen as well as mobilization of activated monocytes/granulocytes from the spleen to the tumor bed. These results suggest that pegfilgrastim could constitute a potent adjuvant for immunotherapy with mAbs possessing ADCC/ADCP properties. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(6); 1238-47. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26988998

  3. Combined Treatment of Herbal Mixture Extract H9 with Trastuzumab Enhances Anti-tumor Growth Effect.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunyi; Han, Sora; Jeong, Ae Lee; Park, Jeong Su; Jung, Seung Hyun; Choi, Kang-Duk; Yang, Young

    2015-07-01

    Extracts from Asian medicinal herbs are known to be successful therapeutic agents against cancer. In this study, the effects of three types of herbal extracts on anti-tumor growth were examined. Among the three types of herbal extracts, H9 showed stronger anti-tumor growth effects than H5 and H11 in vivo. To find the molecular mechanism by which H9 inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines, the levels of apoptotic markers were examined. Proapoptotic markers, including cleaved PARP and cleaved caspases 3 and 9, were increased, whereas the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2 was decreased by H9 treatment. Next, the combined effect of H9 with the chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (AC) on tumor growth was examined using 4T1-tumor-bearing mice. The combined treatment of H9 with AC did not show additive or synergetic anti-tumor growth effects. However, when tumor-bearing mice were co-treated with H9 and the targeted anti-tumor drug trastuzumab, a delay in tumor growth was observed. The combined treatment of H9 and trastuzumab caused an increase of natural killer (NK) cells and a decrease of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Taken together, H9 induces the apoptotic death of tumor cells while increasing anti-tumor immune activity through the enhancement of NK activity and diminishment of MDSC. PMID:25791851

  4. Valproic Acid Enhances the Anti-tumor Effect of (-)-gossypol to Burkitt Lymphoma Namalwa Cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yi; Ni, Zhen Hong; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Xing Hua; Zou, Zhong Min

    2015-10-01

    Burkitt lymphoma is a highly aggressive B-cell neoplasm. New therapeutic methods are needed to overcome the adverse effect of intensive chemotherapy regimens. Valproic acid and (-)-gossypol are two kinds of chemical compounds used as new anti-tumor drugs in recent years. To investigate the anti-tumor effect of valproic acid and (-)-gossypol, Burkitt lymphoma Namalwa cells were cultured and treated with valproic acid and (-)-gossypol at different concentrations. The proliferation of Namalwa cells was dramatically suppressed after the combination treatment with 2 mmol/L valproic acid and 5 μmol/L (-)-gossypol. The combined treatment also enhanced intrinsic apoptosis by down-regulating anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1. Moreover, the autophagy flux significantly increased in Namalwa cells after combined treatment. However, the enhanced autophagy showed little effect on cell survival with present regimen. The results confirmed that combination of valproic acid and (-)-gossypol had synergistic anti-tumor effect to Burkitt lymphoma Namalwa cells. The related mechanisms might include the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 and avianized pro-survival role of autophagy. PMID:26582100

  5. Cord blood T cells mediate enhanced antitumor effects compared with adult peripheral blood T cells.

    PubMed

    Hiwarkar, Prashant; Qasim, Waseem; Ricciardelli, Ida; Gilmour, Kimberly; Quezada, Sergio; Saudemont, Aurore; Amrolia, Persis; Veys, Paul

    2015-12-24

    Unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT) without in vivo T-cell depletion is increasingly used to treat high-risk hematologic malignancies. Following T-replete CBT, naïve CB T cells undergo rapid peripheral expansion with memory-effector differentiation. Emerging data suggest that unrelated CBT, particularly in the context of HLA mismatch and a T-replete graft, may reduce leukemic relapse. To study the role of CB T cells in mediating graft-versus-tumor responses and dissect the underlying immune mechanisms for this, we compared the ability of HLA-mismatched CB and adult peripheral blood (PB) T cells to eliminate Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven human B-cell lymphoma in a xenogeneic NOD/SCID/IL2rg(null) mouse model. CB T cells mediated enhanced tumor rejection compared with equal numbers of PB T cells, leading to improved survival in the CB group (P < .0003). Comparison of CB T cells that were autologous vs allogeneic to the lymphoma demonstrated that this antitumor effect was mediated by alloreactive rather than EBV-specific T cells. Analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes demonstrated that CB T cells mediated this enhanced antitumor effect by rapid infiltration of the tumor with CCR7(+)CD8(+) T cells and prompt induction of cytotoxic CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-helper (Th1) T cells in the tumor microenvironment. In contrast, in the PB group, this antilymphoma effect is impaired because of delayed tumoral infiltration of PB T cells and a relative bias toward suppressive Th2 and T-regulatory cells. Our data suggest that, despite being naturally programmed toward tolerance, reconstituting T cells after unrelated T-replete CBT may provide superior Tc1-Th1 antitumor effects against high-risk hematologic malignancies. PMID:26450984

  6. Enhanced antitumor effect of curcumin liposomes with local hyperthermia in the LL/2 model.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jian-Cai; Shi, Hua-Shan; Wan, Li-Qiang; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin previously was proven to inhibit angiogenesis and display potent antitumor activity in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, we investigated whether a combination curcumin with hyperthermia would have a synergistic antitumor effect in the LL/2 model. The results indicated that combination therapy significantly inhibited cell proliferation of MS-1 and LL/2 in vitro. LL/2 experiment model also demonstrated that the combination therapy inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the life span in vivo. Furthermore, combination therapy reduced angiogenesis and increased tumor apoptosis. Our findings suggest that the combination therapy exerted synergistic antitumor effects, providing a new perspective fpr clinical tumor therapy. PMID:23725132

  7. Antitumor effects of immunotoxins are enhanced by lowering HCK or treatment with SRC kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiu-Fen; Xiang, Laiman; FitzGerald, David J; Pastan, Ira

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant immunotoxins (RIT) are agents being developed for cancer treatment. They are composed of an Fv that binds to a cancer cell, fused to a 38-kDa fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A. SS1P is a RIT that targets mesothelin, a protein expressed on mesothelioma as well as pancreatic, ovarian, lung, and other cancers. Because the protein tyrosine kinase family regulates a variety of cellular processes and pathways, we hypothesized that tyrosine kinases might regulate susceptibility to immunotoxin killing. To investigate their role, we used siRNAs to lower the level of expression of the 88 known tyrosine kinases. We identified five tyrosine kinases, INSR, HCK, SRC, PDGFRβ, and BMX that enhance the activity of SS1P when their level of expression is lowered by siRNAs. We further investigated the Src family member HCK in this study. Knocking down of SRC slightly increased SS1P killing in A431/H9 cells, but knocking down HCK substantially enhanced killing by SS1P. We investigated the mechanism of enhancement and found that HCK knockdown enhanced SS1P cleavage by furin and lowered levels of Mcl-1 and raised Bax. We then found that Src inhibitors mimic the stimulatory effect of HCK knockdown; both SU6656 and SKI-606 (bosutinib) enhanced immunotoxin killing of mesothelin-expressing cells by SS1P and CD22-expressing cells by HA22 (moxetumomab pasudotox). SU6656 also enhanced the antitumor effects of SS1P and HA22 in mouse xenograft tumor models. Our data suggest that the combination of immunotoxin with tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be an effective way to treat some cancers. PMID:24145282

  8. Cetuximab delivery and antitumor effects are enhanced by mild hyperthermia in a xenograft mouse model of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Ryoichi; Oda, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Shinji; Kurokawa, Tomohiro; Inagaki, Yuki; Shimomura, Osamu; Ohara, Yusuke; Yamada, Keiichi; Akashi, Yoshimasa; Enomoto, Tsuyoshi; Kishimoto, Mikio; Yanagihara, Hideto; Kita, Eiji; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2016-04-01

    Even with current promising antitumor antibodies, their antitumor effects on stroma-rich solid cancers have been insufficient. We used mild hyperthermia with the intent of improving drug delivery by breaking the stromal barrier. Here, we provide preclinical evidence of cetuximab + mild hyperthermia therapy. We used four in vivo pancreatic cancer xenograft mouse models with different stroma amounts (scarce, MIAPaCa-2; moderate, BxPC-3; and abundant, Capan-1 and Ope-xeno). Cetuximab (1 mg/kg) was given systemically, and the mouse leg tumors were concurrently heated using a water bath method for 30 min at three different temperatures, 25°C (control), 37°C (intra-abdominal organ level), or 41°C (mild hyperthermia) (n = 4, each group). The evaluated variables were the antitumor effects, represented by tumor volume, and in vivo cetuximab accumulation, indirectly quantified by the immunohistochemical fluorescence intensity value/cell using antibodies against human IgG Fc. At 25°C, the antitumor effects were sufficient, with a cetuximab accumulation value (florescence intensity/cell) of 1632, in the MIAPaCa-2 model, moderate (1063) in the BxPC-3 model, and negative in the Capan-1 and Ope-xeno models (760, 461). By applying 37°C or 41°C heat, antitumor effects were enhanced shown in decreased tumor volumes. These enhanced effects were accompanied by boosted cetuximab accumulation, which increased by 2.8-fold (2980, 3015) in the BxPC-3 model, 2.5- or 4.8-fold (1881, 3615) in the Capan-1 model, and 3.2- or 4.2-fold (1469, 1922) in the Ope-xeno model, respectively. Cetuximab was effective in treating even stroma-rich and k-ras mutant pancreatic cancer mouse models when the drug delivery was improved by combination with mild hyperthermia. PMID:26782353

  9. Tamoxifen nanostructured lipid carriers: enhanced in vivo antitumor efficacy with reduced adverse drug effects.

    PubMed

    Shete, Harshad K; Selkar, Nilakash; Vanage, Geeta R; Patravale, Vandana B

    2014-07-01

    A novel approach of enhancing the Tamoxifen uptake via Intestinal Lymphatic System is executed by developing long chain lipid and oil based nanostructured lipid carrier system (Tmx-NLC). The aim was to achieve improved systemic bioavailability of Tamoxifen, prevent systemic and hepatotoxicity and enhance antitumor efficacy. Following the proof of concept achieved in cell culture experiments and in vivo pharmacokinetic and biodistribution study, the current work focuses on investigation of antitumor efficacy and treatment associated toxicity in murine mammary tumor mice model. The efficacy study demonstrated greater tumor suppression and 100% survival with 1.5 and 3 mg/kg Tmx-NLC compared to 3 mg/kg Tamoxifen suspension and Mamofen(®) (Khandelwal Pharmaceuticals, Mumbai, India). Tmx-NLC treatment for a month demonstrated improved systemic toxicity profile and no evidences of hepatotoxicity. Thus, developed Tmx-NLC could prove to be a promising delivery strategy to confer superior therapeutic efficacy and ability to address the biopharmaceutical and toxicity associated issues of drug. PMID:24704438

  10. The HSP70 and autophagy inhibitor pifithrin-μ enhances the antitumor effects of TRAIL on human pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Monma, Hiroyuki; Harashima, Nanae; Inao, Touko; Okano, Shinji; Tajima, Yoshitsugu; Harada, Mamoru

    2013-04-01

    TRAIL and agonistic death receptor-specific antibodies can induce apoptosis in cancer cells with little cytotoxicity to normal cells. To improve TRAIL-induced antitumor effects, we tested its effectiveness in combination with pifithrin (PFT)-μ, which has the potential to inhibit HSP70 function and autophagy, both of which participate in TRAIL resistance in cancer cells. Among the four human pancreatic cancer cell lines tested, MiaPaca-2, Panc-1, and BxPC-3 cells showed varying sensitivities to TRAIL. In MiaPaca-2 and Panc-1 cells, knockdown of HSP70 or beclin-1, the latter an autophagy-related molecule, by RNA interference augmented TRAIL-induced antitumor effects, decreasing cell viability, and increasing apoptosis. On the basis of these findings, we next determined whether the TRAIL-induced antitumor effects could be augmented by its combination with PFT-μ. The combination of TRAIL plus PFT-μ significantly decreased the viability and colony-forming ability of MiaPaca-2 and Panc-1 cells compared with cells treated with either agent alone. When applied alone, PFT-μ increased Annexin V(+) cells in both caspase-dependent and -independent manners. It also promoted TRAIL-induced apoptosis and arrested cancer cell growth. Furthermore, PFT-μ antagonized TRAIL-associated NF-κB activation in cancer cells. In a xenograft mouse model, combination therapy significantly inhibited MiaPaca-2 tumor growth compared with treatment with either agent alone. The results of this study suggest protective roles for HSP70 and autophagy in TRAIL resistance in pancreatic cancer cells and suggest that PFT-μ is a promising agent for use in therapies intended to enhance the antitumor effects of TRAIL. PMID:23371857

  11. A COX-2 inhibitor enhances the antitumor effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yusup, Gulbostan; Akutsu, Yasunori; Mutallip, Muradil; Qin, Wei; Hu, Xin; Komatsu-Akimoto, Aki; Hoshino, Isamu; Hanari, Naoyuki; Mori, Mikito; Akanuma, Naoki; Isozaki, Yuka; Matsubara, Hisahiro

    2014-04-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a key enzyme of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis that has been demonstrated to be overexpressed in several types of cancers. The function of COX-2 in tumor progression has been recently elucidated. In tumors in which COX-2 is overexpressed, the antitumor effects are suppressed. We examined the effects of celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, in enhancing the antitumor effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) by reducing the COX-2 activity. We used the human esophageal squamous cell lines TE2 and T.Tn treated with celecoxib and 5-FU/radiation, after which cell viability assays were performed. Changes in the expressions of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT) mRNA and PGE2 were also measured. In addition, apoptotic changes, and the invasion and migration activity in both the celecoxib and 5-FU treated cells were evaluated. The experiments showed that T.Tn and TE2 proliferation was strongly inhibited by the combination of 5-FU/radiation and the COX-2 inhibitor. Inhibiting the COX-2 activity induced a reduction in PGE2 levels in TE2/T.Tn cells. Following treatment with the COX-2 inhibitor and 5-FU, the OPRT expression was upregulated and the DPD expression was downregulated in the resistant cells. In addition, the combination treatment with the COX-2 inhibitor and 5-FU markedly inhibited both the cell invasion and migration activity. Therefore, COX-2 inhibitors can be useful enhancers of antitumor drugs and radiotherapy for ESCC. PMID:24535229

  12. GSK-3 inhibition in vitro and in vivo enhances antitumor effect of sorafenib in renal cell carcinoma (RCC)

    SciTech Connect

    Kawazoe, Hisashi; Bilim, Vladimir N.; Ugolkov, Andrey V.; Yuuki, Kaori; Naito, Sei; Nagaoka, Akira; Kato, Tomoyuki; Tomita, Yoshihiko

    2012-07-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sorafenib treatment upregulated GSK-3{beta} levels in RCC cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pharmacologic inhibition of GSK-3 suppressed xenograft RCC tumor growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of GSK-3 enhanced antitumor effect of sorafenib in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor approved for the systemic treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, sorafenib treatment has a limited effect due to acquired chemoresistance of RCC. Previously, we identified glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) as a new therapeutic target in RCC. Here, we observed that sorafenib inhibits proliferation and survival of RCC cells. Significantly, we revealed that sorafenib enhances GSK-3 activity in RCC cells, which could be a potential mechanism of acquired chemoresistance. We found that pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3 potentiates sorafenib antitumor effect in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that combining GSK-3 inhibitor and sorafenib might be a potential new therapeutic approach for RCC treatment.

  13. Antitumor effect of 5-fluorouracil is enhanced by rosemary extract in both drug sensitive and resistant colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    González-Vallinas, Margarita; Molina, Susana; Vicente, Gonzalo; de la Cueva, Ana; Vargas, Teodoro; Santoyo, Susana; García-Risco, Mónica R; Fornari, Tiziana; Reglero, Guillermo; Ramírez de Molina, Ana

    2013-06-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the most used chemotherapeutic agent in colorectal cancer. However, resistance to this drug is relatively frequent, and new strategies to overcome it are urgently needed. The aim of this work was to determine the antitumor properties of a supercritical fluid rosemary extract (SFRE), alone and in combination with 5-FU, as a potential adjuvant therapy useful for colon cancer patients. This extract has been recognized as a healthy component by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The effects of SFRE both alone and in combination with 5-FU were evaluated in different human colon cancer cells in terms of cell viability, cytotoxicity, and cell transformation. Additionally, colon cancer cells resistant to 5-FU were used to assay the effects of SFRE on drug resistance. Finally, qRT-PCR was performed to ascertain the mechanism by which SFRE potentiates the effect of 5-FU. Our results show that SFRE displays dose-dependent antitumor activities and exerts a synergistic effect in combination with 5-FU on colon cancer cells. Furthermore, SFRE sensitizes 5-FU-resistant cells to the therapeutic activity of this drug, constituting a beneficial agent against both 5-FU sensitive and resistant tumor cells. Gene expression analysis indicates that the enhancement of the effect of 5-FU by SFRE might be explained by the downregulation of TYMS and TK1, enzymes related to 5-FU resistance. PMID:23557932

  14. Bisphosphonates Inhibit Stellate Cell Activity and Enhance Antitumor Effects of Nanoparticle Albumin Bound-Paclitaxel in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Villasana, Vianey; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Arumugam, Thiruvengadam; Cruz-Monserrate, Zobeida; Fuentes-Mattei, Enrique; Deng, Defeng; Hwang, Rosa F.; Wang, Huamin; Ivan, Cristina; Garza, Raul Joshua; Cohen, Evan; Gao, Hui; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N.; Monroig-Bosque, Paloma del C.; Philip, Bincy; Rashed, Mohammed H.; Aslan, Burcu; Erdogan, Mumin Alper; Gutierrez-Puente, Yolanda; Ozpolat, Bulent; Reuben, James M.; Sood, Anil K.; Logsdon, Craig; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) have been recognized as the principal cells responsible for the production of fibrosis in PDAC. Recently PSCs have been noted to share characteristics with cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage (MML cells). Thus, we tested whether PSCs could be targeted with the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (NBPs) [pamidronate (Pam) or zoledronic acid (ZA)], which are potent MML cell inhibitors. In addition, we tested NBPs treatment combination with nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) to enhance antitumor activity. In vitro we observed that PSCs possess α-naphthyl butyrate esterase (ANBE) enzyme activity, a specific marker of MML cells. Moreover NBPs inhibited PSCs proliferation, activation, release of macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and type I collagen expression. NBPs also induced PSC apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. In vivo, NBPs inactivated PSCs; reduced fibrosis; inhibited tumor volume, tumor weight, peritoneal dissemination, angiogenesis, and cell proliferation; and increased apoptosis in an orthotopic murine model of PDAC. These in vivo antitumor effects were enhanced when NBPs were combined with nab-paclitaxel but not gemcitabine (Gem). Our study suggests that targeting PSCs and tumor cells with NBPs in combination with nab-paclitaxel may be a novel therapeutic approach to PDAC. PMID:25193509

  15. Liposomal n-butylidenephthalide protects the drug from oxidation and enhances its antitumor effects in glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Ling; Chang, Kai-Fu; Huang, Xiao-Fan; Hung, Che-Lun; Chen, Shyh-Chang; Chao, Wan-Ru; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Tsai, Nu-Man

    2015-01-01

    Background The natural compound n-butylidenephthalide (BP) can pass through the blood–brain barrier to inhibit the growth of glioblastoma multiforme tumors. However, BP has an unstable structure that reduces its antitumor activity and half-life in vivo. Objective The aim of this study is to design a drug delivery system to encapsulate BP to enhance its efficacy by improving its protection and delivery. Methods To protect its structural stability against protein-rich and peroxide solutions, BP was encapsulated into a lipo-PEG-PEI complex (LPPC). Then, the cytotoxicity of BP/LPPC following preincubation in protein-rich, acid/alkaline, and peroxide solutions was analyzed by MTT. Cell uptake of BP/LPPC was also measured by confocal microscopy. The therapeutic effects of BP/LPPC were analyzed in xenograft mice following intratumoral and intravenous injections. Results When BP was encapsulated in LPPC, its cytotoxicity was maintained following preincubation in protein-rich, acid/alkaline, and peroxide solutions. The cytotoxic activity of encapsulated BP was higher than that of free BP (~4.5- to 8.5-fold). This increased cytotoxic activity of BP/LPPC is attributable to its rapid transport across the cell membrane. In an animal study, a subcutaneously xenografted glioblastoma multiforme mouse that was treated with BP by intratumoral and intravenous administration showed inhibited tumor growth. The same dose of BP/LPPC was significantly more effective in terms of tumor inhibition. Conclusion LPPC encapsulation technology is able to protect BP’s structural stability and enhance its antitumor effects, thus providing a better tool for use in cancer therapy. PMID:26451107

  16. Combination strategies to enhance antitumor ADCC

    PubMed Central

    Kohrt, Holbrook E; Houot, Roch; Marabelle, Aurélien; Cho, Hearn Jay; Osman, Keren; Goldstein, Matthew; Levy, Ronald; Brody, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of monoclonal antibodies as cancer therapeutics is largely dependent upon their ability to target the tumor and induce a functional antitumor immune response. This two-step process of ADCC utilizes the response of innate immune cells to provide antitumor cytotoxicity triggered by the interaction of the Fc portion of the antibody with the Fc receptor on the immune cell. Immunotherapeutics that target NK cells, γδ T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells can, by augmenting the function of the immune response, enhance the antitumor activity of the antibodies. Advantages of such combination strategies include: the application to multiple existing antibodies (even across multiple diseases), the feasibility (from a regulatory perspective) of combining with previously approved agents and the assurance (to physicians and trial participants) that one of the ingredients – the antitumor antibody – has proven efficacy on its own. Here we discuss current strategies, including biologic rationale and clinical results, which enhance ADCC in the following ways: strategies that increase total target–monoclonal antibody–effector binding, strategies that trigger effector cell ‘activating’ signals and strategies that block effector cell ‘inhibitory’ signals. PMID:22642334

  17. Melatonin Enhances the Anti-Tumor Effect of Fisetin by Inhibiting COX-2/iNOS and NF-κB/p300 Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhenlong; Xiao, Yao; Wang, Jingshu; Qiu, Huijuan; Yu, Wendan; Tang, Ranran; Yuan, Yuhui; Guo, Wei; Deng, Wuguo

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin is a hormone identified in plants and pineal glands of mammals and possesses diverse physiological functions. Fisetin is a bio-flavonoid widely found in plants and exerts antitumor activity in several types of human cancers. However, the combinational effect of melatonin and fisetin on antitumor activity, especially in melanoma treatment, remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that melatonin could enhance the antitumor activity of fisetin in melanoma cells and identified the underlying molecular mechanisms. The combinational treatment of melanoma cells with fisetin and melatonin significantly enhanced the inhibitions of cell viability, cell migration and clone formation, and the induction of apoptosis when compared with the treatment of fisetin alone. Moreover, such enhancement of antitumor effect by melatonin was found to be mediated through the modulation of the multiply signaling pathways in melanoma cells. The combinational treatment of fisetin with melatonin increased the cleavage of PARP proteins, triggered more release of cytochrome-c from the mitochondrial inter-membrane, enhanced the inhibition of COX-2 and iNOS expression, repressed the nuclear localization of p300 and NF-κB proteins, and abrogated the binding of NF-κB on COX-2 promoter. Thus, these results demonstrated that melatonin potentiated the anti-tumor effect of fisetin in melanoma cells by activating cytochrome-c-dependent apoptotic pathway and inhibiting COX-2/iNOS and NF-κB/p300 signaling pathways, and our study suggests the potential of such a combinational treatment of natural products in melanoma therapy. PMID:25000190

  18. Microbubbles Enhance the Antitumor Effects of Sinoporphyrin Sodium Mediated Sonodynamic Therapy both In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiping; Wang, Pan; Li, Li; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Xiaobing; Liu, Quanhong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the anti-cancer effect of sonodynamic therapy combined with microbubbles both in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Cell viability was measured by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and guava viacount assays. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining was adopted to analyze cell apoptosis rate. FD500 uptake assay was performed to assess cell membrane permeability changes. Tumor weight, mice weight and the visual image of tumor size were used to reflect the anti-tumor effect of this combined method. Histological change of tumor tissue after different treatments was measured through hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Results: Microbubbles can significantly enhance the cytotoxicity and necrocytosis rate induced by SDT treatment. Increased cell membrane permeability and more uptake of DVDMS were founded in SDT combined with microbubbles group. For in vivo experiments, SDT with microbubbles can significantly reduce tumor weight and size with pimping difference of mice weight compare with other treatment groups. In addition, microbubbles notably improved tumor tissue destruction caused by ultrasound and SDT treatment. Conclusion: The results suggest that microbubbles can markedly improve the anti-cancer effect of DVDMS mediate sonodynamic therapy both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26681919

  19. A Chinese herbal Formula, Chang-Wei-Qin, Synergistically Enhances Antitumor Effect of Oxaliplatin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Qiang; Fan, Zhongze; Sun, Jue; Liu, Xulin; Cheng, Lingling; Li, Ao; Xu, Jianhua

    2015-04-01

    Chang-Wei-Qing (CWQ), a Chinese herbal formula, has long been employed clinically to treat cancers. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effect of CWQ with oxaliplatin (OXA) on the tumor growth inhibition of orthotopic transplanted colon cancer and explored the underlying mechanism. By generating the orthotopic transplanted nude mouse model of human colon carcinoma, we found that (1) CWQ enhanced OXA-mediated tumor suppression by 4.25-fold. (2) The body weights of nude mice in CWQ group and combination group were increased. (3) The survival time of tumor-bearing nude mice was dramatically improved in CWQ and CWQ/OXA group. (4) CWQ could restore OXA-mediated deregulation of copper transporter genes, hCTR1, ATP7A and ATP7B. (5) OXA-induced drug resistance index for OXA, 5-FU, HCPT and THP were 7.59, 4.28, 5.78 and 4.50 respectively, while the reversal index by combined CWQ treatment were 6.57, 2.61, 4.97 and 3.10, respectively. Our study demonstrates that the repeated intraperitoneal injection of OXA can induce multi-drug resistance of orthotopic transplanted nude mouse model of human colon carcinoma. The CWQ treatment can alleviate OXA-triggered side effects and reverse platinum drug resistance via up-regulation of hCTR1 expression and down-regulation of ATP7A and ATP7B levels. PMID:25103530

  20. Enhanced antitumor effects of the BRBP1 compound peptide BRBP1-TAT-KLA on human brain metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Bo; Long, Wei; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Aifeng; Miao, Fengqin; Shen, Yuqing; Pan, Ning; Gan, Guangming; Nie, Fang; He, Youji; Zhang, Jianqiong; Teng, Gaojun

    2015-01-01

    Novel molecularly targeted agents that block the development and metastasis of human brain metastatic breast cancer hold great promise for their translational value. In this study, we constructed a novel targeting composite peptide BRBP1-TAT-KLA comprising of three elements: a brain metastatic breast carcinoma cell (231-BR)-binding peptide BRBP1, a cell penetrating peptide TAT, and a proapoptotic peptide KLA. This composite peptide efficiently internalized in 231-BR cells and consequently induced mitochondrial damage and cellular apoptosis. Exposure of 231-BR cells to BRBP1-TAT-KLA significantly decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis compared with the cells treated with the control peptides. In vivo relevance of these findings was further corroborated in the 231-BR tumor-bearing mice that demonstrated significantly delayed tumor development and metastasis following administration of BRBP1-TAT-KLA compared with those treated with TAT-KLA alone. Interestingly, BRBP1-TAT-KLA inhibited the formation of both large and micro-metastases, while TAT-KLA alone failed to significantly reduce micro-metastases in the breast cancer brain metastasis mice. BRBP1-TAT-KLA selectively homed to the tumors in vivo where it induced cellular apoptosis without significant toxicity on non-tumor tissues. Our findings therefore demonstrated the enhanced antitumor effects of the BRBP1 compound peptide BRBP1-TAT-KLA, providing insights toward development of a potential therapeutic strategy for brain metastatic breast cancer. PMID:25619721

  1. Curcumin enhances the antitumor effect of ABT-737 via activation of the ROS-ASK1-JNK pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, RUINIAN; YOU, ZHIJIAN; JIA, JUN; LIN, SHUNHUAN; HAN, SHUAI; LIU, AIXUE; LONG, HUIDONG; WANG, SENMING

    2016-01-01

    At present, the therapeutic treatment strategies for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unsatisfactory, and novel methods are urgently required to treat this disease. Members of the B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 family are anti-apoptotic proteins, which are commonly expressed at high levels in certain HCC tissues and positively correlate with the treatment resistance of patients with HCC. ABT-737, an inhibitor of Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic proteins, has been demonstrated to exhibit potent antitumor effects in several types of tumor, including HCC. However, treatment with ABT-737 alone also activates certain pro-survival signaling pathways, which attenuate the antitumor validity of ABT-737. Curcumin, which is obtained from Curcuma longa, is also an antitumor potentiator in multiple types of cancer. In the present study, the synergistic effect of curcumin and ABT-737 on HCC cells was investigated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. It was found that curcumin markedly enhanced the antitumor effects of ABT-737 on HepG2 cells, which was partially dependent on the induction of apoptosis, according to western blot analysis and flow cytometric apoptosis analysis. In addition, the sustained activation of the ROS-ASK1-c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway may be an important mediator of the synergistic effect of curcumin and ABT-737. Collectively, these results indicated that the combination of curcumin and ABT-737 can efficaciously induce the death of HCC cells, and may offer a potential treatment strategy for patients with HCC. PMID:26707143

  2. High Intra-abdominal Pressure Enhances the Penetration and Antitumor Effect of Intraperitoneal Cisplatin on Experimental Peritoneal Carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Esquis, Philippe; Consolo, David; Magnin, Guy; Pointaire, Philippe; Moretto, Philippe; Ynsa, Maria Dolores; Beltramo, Jean-Luc; Drogoul, Carole; Simonet, Michel; Benoit, Laurent; Rat, Patrick; Chauffert, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on the intratumoral accumulation and the antitumor effect of intraperitoneal cisplatin in rats with advanced peritoneal carcinomatosis. To evaluate the tolerance of IAP in pigs, as it is a large animal with a body size equivalent to humans. Summary Background Data: To investigate if an active convection, driven by a positive IAP, increases cisplatin penetration and antitumor effectiveness in a model of advanced peritoneal carcinomatosis in rats. Experimental Design: BDIX rats with macroscopic peritoneal tumors received cisplatin administered as intravenous injection (IV), conventional intraperitoneal injection (IP), or sustained intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin given in a large volume of solvent for maintaining IAP for 1 hour. Platinum tissue concentration was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and platinum distribution into the tumor nodules was assessed by the particular-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) method. The antitumor effect was assessed in a survival experiment. The hemodynamic, local, and systemic tolerance of IAP, with or without cisplatin, was evaluated in Large White pigs. Results: The maximum tolerated IAP was 22 mm Hg for 1 hour in nonventilated rats. IAP, in comparison with IV or conventional IP injections, resulted in the increased concentration and depth of diffusion of platinum into diaphragm and peritoneal tumor nodules. Consequently, IAP treatment induced an extended survival of rats treated at an advanced stage of carcinomatosis. In 7 50- to 70-kg ventilated pigs, a 40-mm Hg IAP was well tolerated when maintained stable for 2 hours. Renal failure occurred in pigs receiving a total dose of 200 and 400 mg of cisplatin with IAP, but a dose of 100 mg was well tolerated. Conclusions: Intraperitoneal chemotherapy with increased IAP, in comparison with conventional IP or IV chemotherapy, improved the tumor accumulation and the antitumor effect of

  3. Yiqi Formula Enhances the Antitumor Effects of Erlotinib for Treatment of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Ming-juan; Ye, Mei-na; Zhou, Rui-juan; Sheng, Jia-yu; Chen, Hong-feng

    2014-01-01

    Yiqi formula (YF), a traditional herbal prescription, has long been used to treat triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. The present study aims to investigate the effects and the related mechanism of YF for treatment of TNBC xenografts. MDA-MB-231 (human TNBC) cells were subcutaneously injected into the second mammary fat pad of 40 female nude mice, which were divided into four groups: control, erlotinib (an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor), YF, and combination (YF plus erlotinib). All treatments were administered orally for 30 days. Inhibition rate of tumor weight by erlotinib, YF, and the combination was 26.47%, 17.24%, and 39.15%, respectively. Western blotting showed that YF, erlotinib, and the combination downregulated p-EGFR (P < 0.01) and p-Akt1 (pT308) (P < 0.05) and upregulated PTEN compared with control, and the combination was more efficacious than erlotinib alone (P < 0.05). Similar results were detected by immunohistochemistry. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that YF, erlotinib, and the combination increased PTEN mRNA (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) compared with control, and the combination was more efficacious than erlotinib alone (P < 0.05). In conclusion, YF can regulate the main components of the PI3K/Akt pathway in TNBC xenografts. When YF was used in combination with erlotinib, it enhanced the antitumor effects of erlotinib on TNBC xenografts. These findings suggest that YF is suitable to use for the treatment of TNBC patients. PMID:25389442

  4. Enhanced Antitumor Effect of Tirapazamine Delivered Intraperitoneally to VX2 Liver Tumor-Bearing Rabbits Subjected to Transarterial Hepatic Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Sonoda, Akinaga Nitta, Norihisa Ohta, Shinich Nitta-Seko, Ayumi Nagatani, Yukihiro Takahashi, Masashi Murata, Kiyoshi

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: We evaluated the effects of the combination of Tirapazamine (TPZ), activated preferentially under hypoxic conditions, and gelatin microspheres (GMS) on the tumor growth ratio in rabbits. Methods: We assigned 20 liver tumor-bearing Japanese white rabbits to 4 equal groups. Group 1 received 1 ml of saline intra-arterially (i.a.) and 20 ml of saline intraperitoneally (i.p.; saline group). Group 2 was injected with GMS i.a. and 20 ml saline i.p. (GMS group). Group 3 received 1 ml of saline i.a. and 300 mg/m{sup 2} of TPZ i.p. (TPZ group), and group 4 was treated with GMS i.a. and 300 mg/m{sup 2} of TPZ i.p. (GMS + TPZ group). The infusion of GMS was stopped when the blood flow stagnated. Before and 7 days after treatment, the liver tumor volumes were measured as the total number of pixels on 0.3Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Results: The tumor growth ratio (mean {+-} standard deviation) of the saline, GMS, TPZ, and GMS + TPZ groups was 519.15 {+-} 93.78, 279.24 {+-} 91.83, 369.78 {+-} 95.73, and 119.87 {+-} 17.62, respectively. The difference between the GMS + TPZ group and the other groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results show that the combination of TPZ i.p. and GMS i.a. enhanced the antitumor effect of TPZ. This procedure may represent a new alternative treatment for patients with hepatic cell carcinoma.

  5. Examples of adjuvant treatment enhancing the antitumor effect of photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Cecic, Ivana; Sun, Jinghai; Chaplin, David J.

    1999-07-01

    Strategies for improving the clinical efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in treatment of solid cancers include applications of different types of adjuvant treatments in addition to this modality that may result in superior therapeutic outcome. Examples of such an approach investigated using mouse tumor models are presented in this report. It is shown that the cures of PDT treated subcutaneous tumors can be substantially improved by adjuvant therapy with: metoclopramide (enhancement of cancer cell apoptosis), combretastatin A-4 (selective destruction of tumor neovasculature), Roussin's Black Salt (light activated tumor localized release of nitric oxide), or dendritic cell-based adoptive immunotherapy (immune rejection of treated tumor).

  6. Blocking c-Met-mediated PARP1 phosphorylation enhances anti-tumor effects of PARP inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yi; Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Wei, Yongkun; Hsu, Jennifer L.; Wang, Hung-Ling; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Wan-Chi; Yu, Wen-Hsuan; Leonard, Paul G.; Lee, Gilbert R.; Chen, Mei-Kuang; Nakai, Katsuya; Hsu, Ming-Chuan; Chen, Chun-Te; Sun, Ye; Wu, Yun; Chang, Wei-Chao; Huang, Wen-Chien; Liu, Chien-Liang; Chang, Yuan-Ching; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Park, Morag; Jones, Philip; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2016-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have emerged as promising therapeutics for many diseases, including cancer, in clinical trials1. One PARP inhibitor, olaparib (Lynparza™, AstraZeneca), was recently approved by the FDA to treat ovarian cancer with BRCA mutations. BRCA1 and BRCA2 play essential roles in repairing DNA double strand breaks, and a deficiency of BRCA proteins sensitizes cancer cells to PARP inhibition2,3. Here we show that receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met associates with and phosphorylates PARP1 at Tyr907. Phosphorylation of PARP1 Tyr907 increases PARP1 enzymatic activity and reduces binding to a PARP inhibitor, thereby rendering cancer cells resistant to PARP inhibition. Combining c-Met and PARP1 inhibitors synergized to suppress growth of breast cancer cells in vitro and xenograft tumor models. Similar synergistic effects were observed in a lung cancer xenograft tumor model. These results suggest that PARP1 pTyr907 abundance may predict tumor resistance to PARP inhibitors, and that treatment with a combination of c-Met and PARP inhibitors may benefit patients bearing tumors with high c-Met expression who do not respond to PARP inhibition alone. PMID:26779812

  7. Blocking c-Met-mediated PARP1 phosphorylation enhances anti-tumor effects of PARP inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi; Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Wei, Yongkun; Hsu, Jennifer L; Wang, Hung-Ling; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Wan-Chi; Yu, Wen-Hsuan; Leonard, Paul G; Lee, Gilbert R; Chen, Mei-Kuang; Nakai, Katsuya; Hsu, Ming-Chuan; Chen, Chun-Te; Sun, Ye; Wu, Yun; Chang, Wei-Chao; Huang, Wen-Chien; Liu, Chien-Liang; Chang, Yuan-Ching; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Park, Morag; Jones, Philip; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2016-02-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have emerged as promising therapeutics for many diseases, including cancer, in clinical trials. One PARP inhibitor, olaparib (Lynparza, AstraZeneca), was recently approved by the FDA to treat ovarian cancer with mutations in BRCA genes. BRCA1 and BRCA2 have essential roles in repairing DNA double-strand breaks, and a deficiency of BRCA proteins sensitizes cancer cells to PARP inhibition. Here we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met associates with and phosphorylates PARP1 at Tyr907 (PARP1 pTyr907 or pY907). PARP1 pY907 increases PARP1 enzymatic activity and reduces binding to a PARP inhibitor, thereby rendering cancer cells resistant to PARP inhibition. The combination of c-Met and PARP1 inhibitors synergized to suppress the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro and xenograft tumor models, and we observed similar synergistic effects in a lung cancer xenograft tumor model. These results suggest that the abundance of PARP1 pY907 may predict tumor resistance to PARP inhibitors, and that treatment with a combination of c-Met and PARP inhibitors may benefit patients whose tumors show high c-Met expression and who do not respond to PARP inhibition alone. PMID:26779812

  8. Co-delivery of antigen and IL-12 by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles enhances antigen-specific immune responses and antitumor effects.

    PubMed

    Osada, Takuya; Berglund, Peter; Morse, Michael A; Hubby, Bolyn; Lewis, Whitney; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Yang, Xiao Yi; Hobeika, Amy; Burnett, Bruce; Devi, Gayathri R; Clay, Timothy M; Smith, Jonathan; Kim Lyerly, H

    2012-11-01

    We recently demonstrated that Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus-based replicon particle (VRPs) encoding tumor antigens could break tolerance in the immunomodulatory environment of advanced cancer. We hypothesized that local injection of VRP-expressing interleukin-12 (IL-12) at the site of injections of VRP-based cancer vaccines would enhance the tumor-antigen-specific T cell and antibody responses and antitumor efficacy. Mice were immunized with VRP encoding the human tumor-associated antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (VRP-CEA(6D)), and VRP-IL-12 was also administered at the same site or at a distant location. CEA-specific T cell and antibody responses were measured. To determine antitumor activity, mice were implanted with MC38-CEA-2 cells and immunized with VRP-CEA with and without VRP-IL-12, and tumor growth and mouse survival were measured. VRP-IL-12 greatly enhanced CEA-specific T cell and antibody responses when combined with VRP-CEA(6D) vaccination. VRP-IL-12 was superior to IL-12 protein at enhancing immune responses. Vaccination with VRP-CEA(6D) plus VRP-IL-12 was superior to VRP-CEA(6D) or VRP-IL-12 alone in inducing antitumor activity and prolonging survival in tumor-bearing mice. Importantly, local injection of VRP-IL-12 at the VRP-CEA(6D) injection site provided more potent activation of CEA-specific immune responses than that of VRP-IL-12 injected at a distant site from the VRP-CEA injections. Together, this study shows that VRP-IL-12 enhances vaccination with VRP-CEA(6D) and was more effective at activating CEA-specific T cell responses when locally expressed at the vaccine site. Clinical trials evaluating the adjuvant effect of VRP-IL-12 at enhancing the immunogenicity of cancer vaccines are warranted. PMID:22488274

  9. An oncolytic adenovirus enhances antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects of a replication-deficient adenovirus encoding endostatin by rescuing its selective replication in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ran-yi; Zhou, Ling; Zhang, Yan-ling; Huang, Bi-jun; Ke, Miao-la; Chen, Jie-min; Li, Li-xia; Fu, Xiang; Wu, Jiang-xue; Huang, Wenlin

    2013-12-13

    Highlights: •H101 promotes endostatin expression by Ad-Endo via rescuing Ad-Endo replication. •H101 rescued Ad-Endo replication by supplying E1A and E1B19k proteins. •Ad-Endo enhanced the cytotoxicity of H101 in NPC cells. •Ad-Endo and oncolytic Ad H101 have synergistic antitumor effects on NPC. -- Abstract: A replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) encoding secreted human endostatin (Ad-Endo) has been demonstrated to have promising antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects. The E1B55k-deleted Ad H101 can selectively lyse cancer cells. In this study, we explored the antitumor effects and cross-interactions of Ad-Endo and H101 on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The results showed that H101 dramatically promoted endostatin expression by Ad-Endo via rescuing Ad-Endo replication in NPC cells, and the expressed endostatin proteins significantly inhibited the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. E1A and E1B19k products are required for the rescuing of H101 to Ad-Endo replication in CNE-1 and CNE-2 cells, but not in C666-1 cells. On the other hand, Ad-Endo enhanced the cytotoxicity of H101 by enhancing Ad replication in NPC cells. The combination of H101 and Ad-Endo significantly inhibited CNE-2 xenografts growth through the increased endostatin expression and Ad replication. These findings indicate that the combination of Ad-Endo gene therapy and oncolytic Ad therapeutics could be promising in comprehensive treatment of NPC.

  10. Inhibition of TGF-β signaling with halofuginone can enhance the antitumor effect of irradiation in Lewis lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Runlong; Yi, Shuai; Gong, Linlin; Liu, Weishuai; Wang, Peng; Liu, Ningbo; Zhao, Lujun; Wang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Purpose It was reported that halofuginone has inhibitory effects on transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway. The study was aimed to: 1) evaluate the antitumor effects of halofuginone in combination with radiation therapy; and 2) preliminarily explore the possible mechanisms associated with these effects. Materials and methods Lewis lung cancer (LLC) cell lines and xenograft model mice randomly received ionizing radiation, halofuginone, or combination treatment. The changes associated with antitumor effect of halofuginone, including hepatic and pulmonary metastases and survival, were observed. The migratory and invasive capabilities of LLC cells were investigated by using scratch assay and transwell chamber assay. The expression level of TGF-β and its activation were assessed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. Chi-square test and survival analysis were performed for statistical analysis. P<0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Unless otherwise specified, data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (x¯±s). Results After irradiation, the migratory and invasive capabilities of LLC cells were strengthened, and the TGF-β pathway was activated. The addition of halofuginone can significantly inhibit the migratory and invasive trend induced by irradiation, and the TGF-β pathway was also inhibited. In animal xenograft model, the addition of halofuginone to irradiation inhibited the growth of subcutaneously implanted xenografts, reduced hepatic and pulmonary metastases, and improved survival of the mice. The effect was accompanied by a decrease in TGF-β levels. In addition, halofuginone inhibited type I collagen expression and angiopoiesis. Conclusion Halofuginone treatment not only produces significant radiation-sensitizing effects but also inhibits hepatic and pulmonary metastases. The underlying mechanisms of these phenomena warrant additional studies. PMID:26664138

  11. Immune Regulation and Antitumor Effect of TIM-1

    PubMed Central

    Du, Peng; Xiong, Ruihua; Li, Xiaodong; Jiang, Jingting

    2016-01-01

    T cells play an important role in antitumor immunity, and the T cell immunoglobulin domain and the mucin domain protein-1 (TIM-1) on its surface, as a costimulatory molecule, has a strong regulatory effect on T cells. TIM-1 can regulate and enhance type 1 immune response of tumor association. Therefore, TIM-1 costimulatory pathways may be a promising therapeutic target in future tumor immunotherapy. This review describes the immune regulation and antitumor effect of TIM-1. PMID:27413764

  12. Low-dose cyclophosphamide administered as daily or single dose enhances the antitumor effects of a therapeutic HPV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shiwen; Lyford-Pike, Sofia; Akpeng, Belinda; Wu, Annie; Hung, Chien-Fu; Hannaman, Drew; Saunders, John R; Wu, T-C; Pai, Sara I

    2013-01-01

    Although therapeutic HPV vaccines are able to elicit systemic HPV-specific immunity, clinical responses have not always correlated with levels of vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cells in human clinical trials. This observed discrepancy may be attributable to an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment in which the CD8(+) T cells are recruited. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are cells that can dampen cytotoxic CD8(+) T-cell function. Cyclophosphamide (CTX) is a systemic chemotherapeutic agent, which can eradicate immune cells, including inhibitory Tregs. The optimal dose and schedule of CTX administration in combination with immunotherapy to eliminate the Treg population without adversely affecting vaccine-induced T-cell responses is unknown. Therefore, we investigated various dosing and administration schedules of CTX in combination with a therapeutic HPV vaccine in a preclinical tumor model. HPV tumor-bearing mice received either a single preconditioning dose or a daily dose of CTX in combination with the pNGVL4a-CRT/E7(detox) DNA vaccine. Both single and daily dosing of CTX in combination with vaccine had a synergistic antitumor effect as compared to monotherapy alone. The potent antitumor responses were attributed to the reduction in Treg frequency and increased infiltration of HPV16 E7-specific CD8(+) T cells, which led to higher ratios of CD8(+)/Treg and CD8(+)/CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). There was an observed trend toward decreased vaccine-induced CD8(+) T-cell frequency with daily dosing of CTX. We recommend a single, preconditioning dose of CTX prior to vaccination due to its efficacy, ease of administration, and reduced cumulative adverse effect on vaccine-induced T cells. PMID:23011589

  13. Peripheral Opioid Antagonist Enhances the Effect of Anti-Tumor Drug by Blocking a Cell Growth-Suppressive Pathway In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Yumi; Ashikawa, Maho; Aoyagi, Kazuhiko; Fujita, Takeshi; Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi; Komatsu, Masayuki; Narita, Minoru; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Nagase, Hiroshi; Kushima, Ryoji; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Fukagawa, Takeo; Katai, Hitoshi; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Uezono, Yasuhito; Sasaki, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    The dormancy of tumor cells is a major problem in chemotherapy, since it limits the therapeutic efficacy of anti-tumor drugs that only target dividing cells. One potential way to overcome chemo-resistance is to “wake up” these dormant cells. Here we show that the opioid antagonist methylnaltrexone (MNTX) enhances the effect of docetaxel (Doc) by blocking a cell growth-suppressive pathway. We found that PENK, which encodes opioid growth factor (OGF) and suppresses cell growth, is predominantly expressed in diffuse-type gastric cancers (GCs). The blockade of OGF signaling by MNTX releases cells from their arrest and boosts the effect of Doc. In comparison with the use of Doc alone, the combined use of Doc and MNTX significantly prolongs survival, alleviates abdominal pain, and diminishes Doc-resistant spheroids on the peritoneal membrane in model mice. These results suggest that blockade of the pathways that suppress cell growth may enhance the effects of anti-tumor drugs. PMID:25853862

  14. Peripheral opioid antagonist enhances the effect of anti-tumor drug by blocking a cell growth-suppressive pathway in vivo.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masami; Chiwaki, Fumiko; Sawada, Yumi; Ashikawa, Maho; Aoyagi, Kazuhiko; Fujita, Takeshi; Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi; Komatsu, Masayuki; Narita, Minoru; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Nagase, Hiroshi; Kushima, Ryoji; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Fukagawa, Takeo; Katai, Hitoshi; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Uezono, Yasuhito; Sasaki, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    The dormancy of tumor cells is a major problem in chemotherapy, since it limits the therapeutic efficacy of anti-tumor drugs that only target dividing cells. One potential way to overcome chemo-resistance is to "wake up" these dormant cells. Here we show that the opioid antagonist methylnaltrexone (MNTX) enhances the effect of docetaxel (Doc) by blocking a cell growth-suppressive pathway. We found that PENK, which encodes opioid growth factor (OGF) and suppresses cell growth, is predominantly expressed in diffuse-type gastric cancers (GCs). The blockade of OGF signaling by MNTX releases cells from their arrest and boosts the effect of Doc. In comparison with the use of Doc alone, the combined use of Doc and MNTX significantly prolongs survival, alleviates abdominal pain, and diminishes Doc-resistant spheroids on the peritoneal membrane in model mice. These results suggest that blockade of the pathways that suppress cell growth may enhance the effects of anti-tumor drugs. PMID:25853862

  15. A novel combination of TRAIL and doxorubicin enhances antitumor effect based on passive tumor-targeting of liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Liangran; Fan, Li; Ren, Jinfeng; Pang, Zhiqing; Ren, Yulong; Li, Jingwei; Wen, Ziyi; Jiang, Xinguo

    2011-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a novel anticancer agent for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, approximately half of NSCLC cell lines are highly resistant to TRAIL. Doxorubicin (DOX) can sensitize NSCLC cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, indicating the possibility of combination therapy. Unfortunately, the therapeutic effect of a DOX and TRAIL combination is limited by multiple factors including the short serum half-life of TRAIL, poor compliance and application difficulty in the clinic, chronic DOX-induced cardiac toxicity, and the multidrug resistance (MDR) property of NSCLC cells. To solve such problems, we developed the combination of TRAIL liposomes (TRAIL-LP) and DOX liposomes (DOX-LP). An in vitro cytotoxicity study indicated that DOX-LP sensitized the NSCLC cell line A-549 to TRAIL-LP-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, this combination therapy of TRAIL-LP and DOX-LP displayed a stronger antitumor effect on NSCLC in xenografted mice when compared with free drugs or liposomal drugs alone. Therefore, the TRAIL-LP and DOX-LP combination therapy has excellent potential to become a new therapeutic approach for patients with advanced NSCLC.

  16. Combine therapy of gefitinib and fulvestrant enhances antitumor effects on NSCLC cell lines with acquired resistance to gefitinib.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ruitong; Shen, Hua; Guo, Renhua; Sun, Jing; Gao, Wen; Shu, Yongqian

    2012-07-01

    Gefitinib, an EGFR receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is approved for clinical use in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but the emergence of mutations resistant to these inhibitors, such as T790M, has become a clinical problem. According to statistics, female patients, the presence of adenocarcinoma or non-smokers experienced a higher response rate. This may be involved in interaction between the estrogen receptor (ER) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). To test whether inhibition of the ER signaling pathway affects the antitumor effect of gefitinib, gefitinib and an ER antagonist, fulvestrant, were administered to NSCLC cell lines with acquired resistance to gefitinib. Compared with treatment of either fulvestrant or gefitinib alone, drug combination obviously decreased proliferation of H1976, H1650 and PC-9 cells coming from adenocarcinoma. Rapid activations of EGFR pathway by E2β were observed in H1975 cells with T790M mutation. Additionally, EGFR and ERs expression were down-regulated respectively in response to estrogen and EGF but up-regulated in response to fulvestrant and gefitinib in vitro. These results suggest that there is a functional cross-signaling between the EGFR/ER pathways in NSCLC with acquired resistance to gefitinib, possibly providing rationale for combining gefitinib with anti-estrogen therapy for advanced NSCLC treatment. PMID:22560634

  17. Combination of treatment with death receptor 5-specific antibody with therapeutic HPV DNA vaccination generates enhanced therapeutic anti-tumor effects.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chih Wen; Monie, Archana; Trimble, Cornelia; Alvarez, Ronald D; Huh, Warner K; Buchsbaum, Donald J; Straughn, J Michael; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Yagita, Hideo; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2008-08-12

    There is currently a vital need for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the control of advanced stage cancers. Antigen-specific immunotherapy and the employment of antibodies against the death receptor 5 (DR5) have emerged as two potentially promising strategies for cancer treatment. In the current study, we hypothesize that the combination of treatment with the anti-DR5 monoclonal antibody, MD5-1 with a DNA vaccine encoding calreticulin (CRT) linked to human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E7 antigen (CRT/E7(detox)) administered via gene gun would lead to further enhancement of E7-specific immune responses as well as anti-tumor effects. Our results indicated that mice bearing the E7-expressing tumor, TC-1 treated with MD5-1 monoclonal antibody followed by CRT/E7(detox) DNA vaccination generated the most potent therapeutic anti-tumor effects as well as highest levels of E7-specific CD8+ T cells among all the groups tested. In addition, treatment with MD5-1 monoclonal antibody was capable of rendering the TC-1 tumor cells more susceptible to lysis by E7-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Our findings serve as an important foundation for future clinical translation. PMID:18598733

  18. Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588 shows antitumor effects by enhancing the release of TRAIL from neutrophils through MMP-8.

    PubMed

    Shinnoh, Masahide; Horinaka, Mano; Yasuda, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Sae; Morita, Mie; Yamada, Takeshi; Miki, Tsuneharu; Sakai, Toshiyuki

    2013-03-01

    Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) intravesical therapy against superficial bladder cancer is one of the most successful immunotherapies in cancer, though the precise mechanism has not been clarified. Recent studies have demonstrated urinary tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) levels to be higher in BCG-responsive patients than non-responders and shown that polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) migrating to the bladder after BCG instillation release large amounts of TRAIL. To establish a safer and more effective intravesical therapy than BCG, we examined whether other bacteria induced similar effects. We stimulated PMNs or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with BCG or other bacteria, and then aliquots of the culture supernatants or cell lysates were assayed for TRAIL. We examined the signaling pathway regulating the release of TRAIL from PMNs and evaluated the antitumor effects of BCG or other bacteria in vitro and in vivo. We have found that Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588 (CBM588) induces the release of endogenous TRAIL from PMNs as well as BCG. In addition, we have shown that matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP-8) is one of the key factors responsible for the release. Interestingly, TLR2/4 signaling pathway has been suggested to be important for the release of TRAIL by MMP-8. CBM588 has been proven to be as effective as BCG against cancer cells by inducing apoptosis in vivo as well as in vitro. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that CBM588 is promising for a safer and more effective therapy against bladder cancer. PMID:23354042

  19. Combination of TRAIL and actinomycin D liposomes enhances antitumor effect in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liangran; Fan, Li; Ren, Jinfeng; Pang, Zhiqing; Ren, Yulong; Li, Jingwei; Wen, Ziyi; Qian, Yong; Zhang, Lin; Ma, Hang; Jiang, Xinguo

    2012-01-01

    The intractability of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to multimodality treatments plays a large part in its extremely poor prognosis. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising cytokine for selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells; however, many NSCLC cell lines are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The therapeutic effect can be restored by treatments combining TRAIL with chemotherapeutic agents. Actinomycin D (ActD) can sensitize NSCLC cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by upregulation of death receptor 4 (DR4) or 5 (DR5). However, the use of ActD has significant drawbacks due to the side effects that result from its nonspecific biodistribution in vivo. In addition, the short half-life of TRAIL in serum also limits the antitumor effect of treatments combining TRAIL and ActD. In this study, we designed a combination treatment of long-circulating TRAIL liposomes and ActD liposomes with the aim of resolving these problems. The combination of TRAIL liposomes and ActD liposomes had a synergistic cytotoxic effect against A-549 cells. The mechanism behind this combination treatment includes both increased expression of DR5 and caspase activation. Moreover, systemic administration of the combination of TRAIL liposomes and ActD liposomes suppressed both tumor formation and growth of established subcutaneous NSCLC xenografts in nude mice, inducing apoptosis without causing significant general toxicity. These results provide preclinical proof-of-principle for a novel therapeutic strategy in which TRAIL liposomes are safely combined with ActD liposomes. PMID:22619505

  20. Combination of gambogic acid with cisplatin enhances the antitumor effects on cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells by downregulating MRP2 and LRP expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wendian; Zhou, Hechao; Yu, Ying; Li, Jingjing; Li, Haiwen; Jiang, Danxian; Chen, Zihong; Yang, Donghong; Xu, Zumin; Yu, Zhonghua

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin resistance is a main clinical problem of lung cancer therapy. Gambogic acid (GA) could prohibit the proliferation of a variety of human cancer cells. However, the effects of GA on cisplatin-resistant lung cancer are still unclear. The objective of the present study was to find out the antitumor effects of GA on cisplatin-resistant human lung cancer A549/DDP cells and further explore its underlying mechanisms. Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was used to observe the impacts of GA and/or cisplatin on the proliferation of lung cancer cells; flow cytometry was used to detect the effects of GA on cell cycle and apoptosis; Western blot was used to examine the effects of GA on the expression of lung resistance protein (LRP) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) protein in A549/DDP cells. Our results showed that GA dose- and time-dependently prohibited the proliferation and induced significant cell apoptosis in A549 and A549/DDP cells. GA also induced G0/G1 arrest in both A549/DDP and A549 cells. Moreover, GA upregulated protein expression level of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax and downregulated protein expression level of pro-caspase-9 and Bcl-2 in time- and dose-dependent way in A549/DDP cells. GA combined with cisplatin enhanced the cells apoptotic rate and reduced the cisplatin resistance index in A549/DDP cells. In addition, GA reduced the MRP2 and LRP protein expression level in A549/DDP cells. GA inhibits the proliferation, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549/DDP cells. Combination of GA with cisplatin enhances the antitumor effects on cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells by downregulating MRP2 and LRP expression. PMID:27330316

  1. Antitumor effects of electrochemical treatment

    PubMed Central

    González, Maraelys Morales; Zamora, Lisset Ortíz; Cabrales, Luis Enrique Bergues; Sierra González, Gustavo Victoriano; de Oliveira, Luciana Oliveira; Zanella, Rodrigo; Buzaid, Antonio Carlos; Parise, Orlando; Brito, Luciana Macedo; Teixeira, Cesar Augusto Antunes; Gomes, Marina das Neves; Moreno, Gleyce; Feo da Veiga, Venicio; Telló, Marcos; Holandino, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical treatment is an alternative modality for tumor treatment based on the application of a low intensity direct electric current to the tumor tissue through two or more platinum electrodes placed within the tumor zone or in the surrounding areas. This treatment is noted for its great effectiveness, minimal invasiveness and local effect. Several studies have been conducted worldwide to evaluate the antitumoral effect of this therapy. In all these studies a variety of biochemical and physiological responses of tumors to the applied treatment have been obtained. By this reason, researchers have suggested various mechanisms to explain how direct electric current destroys tumor cells. Although, it is generally accepted this treatment induces electrolysis, electroosmosis and electroporation in tumoral tissues. However, action mechanism of this alternative modality on the tumor tissue is not well understood. Although the principle of Electrochemical treatment is simple, a standardized method is not yet available. The mechanism by which Electrochemical treatment affects tumor growth and survival may represent more complex process. The present work analyzes the latest and most important research done on the electrochemical treatment of tumors. We conclude with our point of view about the destruction mechanism features of this alternative therapy. Also, we suggest some mechanisms and strategies from the thermodynamic point of view for this therapy. In the area of Electrochemical treatment of cancer this tool has been exploited very little and much work remains to be done. Electrochemical treatment constitutes a good therapeutic option for patients that have failed the conventional oncology methods. PMID:23592904

  2. Intratumoral hu14.18-IL-2 (IC) induces local and systemic antitumor effects that involve both activated T and NK cells as well as enhanced IC retention.

    PubMed

    Yang, Richard K; Kalogriopoulos, Nicholas A; Rakhmilevich, Alexander L; Ranheim, Erik A; Seo, Songwon; Kim, Kyungmann; Alderson, Kory L; Gan, Jacek; Reisfeld, Ralph A; Gillies, Stephen D; Hank, Jacquelyn A; Sondel, Paul M

    2012-09-01

    hu14.18-IL-2 (IC) is an immunocytokine consisting of human IL-2 linked to hu14.18 mAb, which recognizes the GD2 disialoganglioside. Phase 2 clinical trials of i.v. hu14.18-IL-2 (i.v.-IC) in neuroblastoma and melanoma are underway and have already demonstrated activity in neuroblastoma. We showed previously that intratumoral hu14.18-IL-2 (IT-IC) results in enhanced antitumor activity in mouse models compared with i.v.-IC. The studies presented in this article were designed to determine the mechanisms involved in this enhanced activity and to support the future clinical testing of intratumoral administration of immunocytokines. Improved survival and inhibition of growth of both local and distant tumors were observed in A/J mice bearing s.c. NXS2 neuroblastomas treated with IT-IC compared with those treated with i.v.-IC or control mice. The local and systemic antitumor effects of IT-IC were inhibited by depletion of NK cells or T cells. IT-IC resulted in increased NKG2D receptors on intratumoral NKG2A/C/E⁺ NKp46⁺ NK cells and NKG2A/C/E⁺ CD8⁺ T cells compared with control mice or mice treated with i.v.-IC. NKG2D levels were augmented more in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes compared with splenocytes, supporting the localized nature of the intratumoral changes induced by IT-IC treatment. Prolonged retention of IC at the tumor site was seen with IT-IC compared with i.v.-IC. Overall, IT-IC resulted in increased numbers of activated T and NK cells within tumors, better IC retention in the tumor, enhanced inhibition of tumor growth, and improved survival compared with i.v.-IC. PMID:22844125

  3. Adenovirus-mediated FIR demonstrated TP53-independent cell-killing effect and enhanced antitumor activity of carbon-ion beams.

    PubMed

    Kano, M; Matsushita, K; Rahmutulla, B; Yamada, S; Shimada, H; Kubo, S; Hiwasa, T; Matsubara, H; Nomura, F

    2016-01-01

    Combination therapy of carbon-ion beam with the far upstream element-binding protein (FBP)-interacting repressor, FIR, which interferes with DNA damage repair proteins, was proposed as an approach for esophageal cancer treatment with low side effects regardless of TP53 status. In vivo therapeutic antitumor efficacy of replication-defective adenovirus (E1 and E3 deleted adenovirus serotype 5) encoding human FIR cDNA (Ad-FIR) was demonstrated in the tumor xenograft model of human esophageal squamous cancer cells, TE-2. Bleomycin (BLM) is an anticancer agent that introduces DNA breaks. The authors reported that Ad-FIR involved in the BLM-induced DNA damage repair response and thus applicable for other DNA damaging agents. To examine the effect of Ad-FIR on DNA damage repair, BLM, X-ray and carbon-ion irradiation were used as DNA damaging agents. The biological effects of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiotherapy used with carbon-ion irradiation are more expansive than low-LET conventional radiotherapy, such as X-rays or γ rays. High LET radiotherapy is suitable for the local control of tumors because of its high relative biological effectiveness. Ad-FIR enhanced BLM-induced DNA damage indicated by γH2AX in vitro. BLM treatment increased endogenous nuclear FIR expression in TE-2 cells, and P27Kip1 expression was suppressed by TP53 siRNA and BLM treatment. Further, Ad-FIRΔexon2, a dominant-negative form of FIR that lacks exon2 transcriptional repression domain, decreased Ku86 expression. The combination of Ad-FIR and BLM in TP53 siRNA increased DNA damage. Additionally, Ad-FIR showed synergistic cell toxicity with X-ray in vitro and significantly increased the antitumor efficacy of carbon-ion irradiation in the xenograft mouse model of TE-2 cells (P=0.03, Mann-Whitney's U-test) and was synergistic with the sensitization enhancement ratio (SER) value of 1.15. Therefore, Ad-FIR increased the cell-killing activity of the carbon-ion beam that avoids late

  4. The p38 MAPK inhibitor BIRB796 enhances the antitumor effects of VX680 in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xin; Mo, Qingqing; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Yue; Wu, Yuan; Li, Jing; Hao, Xing; Ma, Ding; Gao, Qinglei; Chen, Pingbo

    2016-05-01

    VX680 is a potent and selective inhibitor that targets the Aurora kinase family. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) regulates a large number of cellular pathways and plays an important role in the regulation of cell survival and apoptosis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of VX680 on cervical cancer cells and investigate whether the effects on apoptosis are enhanced by the ablation of p38 MAPK activation. The results suggested that VX680 inhibited the proliferation of cervical cancer cells by causing G2/M phase arrest and endoreduplication and that the apoptotic effect was attenuated by the activation of p38 MAPK. However, the addition of BIRB796, which is an important p38 MAPK inhibitor, effectively eliminated the expression of p-p38 and hence significantly enhanced the cell death induced by VX680 in vitro. Further study demonstrated that BIRB796 cooperated with VX680 to suppress cervical cancer cell growth in a mouse xenograft model. Taken together, our results demonstrated that VX680 induced cell cycle arrest and endoreduplication in human cervical cancer cells. Combined treatment with VX680 and BIRB796 synergistically inhibited tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. Dual blockade of Aurora kinases and p38 MAPK is therefore a promising strategy for cervical cancer treatment. PMID:27082306

  5. Verapamil Enhances the Antitumoral Efficacy of Oncolytic Adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Gros, Alena; Puig, Cristina; Guedan, Sonia; Rojas, Juan José; Alemany, Ramon; Cascallo, Manel

    2010-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of oncolytic adenoviruses is limited by the rate of adenovirus release. Based on the observation that several viruses induce cell death and progeny release by disrupting intracellular calcium homeostasis, we hypothesized that the alteration in intracellular calcium concentration induced by verapamil could improve the rate of virus release and spread, eventually enhancing the antitumoral activity of oncolytic adenoviruses. Our results indicate that verapamil substantially enhanced the release of adenovirus from a variety of cell types resulting in an improved cell-to-cell spread and cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the combination of the systemic administration of an oncolytic adenovirus (ICOVIR-5) with verapamil in vivo greatly improved its antitumoral activity in two different tumor xenograft models without affecting the selectivity of this virus. Overall, our findings indicate that verapamil provides a new, safe, and versatile way to improve the antitumoral potency of oncolytic adenoviruses in the clinical setting. PMID:20179683

  6. The enhanced inhibitory effect of different antitumor agents in self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems on human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Ujhelyi, Zoltán; Kalantari, Azin; Vecsernyés, Miklós; Róka, Eszter; Fenyvesi, Ferenc; Póka, Róbert; Kozma, Bence; Bácskay, Ildikó

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop topical self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) containing antitumor agents (bleomycin, cisplatin and ifosfamide) and to investigate their inhibitory potential in SMEDDS on human cervical cancer HeLa cells. The physicochemical properties of cytostatic drug loaded SMEDDS were characterized. The cytotoxicity of main components of SMEDDS was also investigated. Their IC50 values were determined. HeLa cells were treated by different concentrations of cisplatin, bleomycin and ifosfamide alone and in various SMEDDS. The inhibitory effect on cell growth was analyzed by MTT cell viability assay. Inflammation is a driving force that accelerates cancer development. The inhibitory effect of these antitumor agents has also been tested on HeLa cells in the presence of inflammatory mediators (IL-1-β, TNF-α) as an in vitro model of inflamed human cervix. Significant differences in the cytotoxicity of cytostatic drugs alone and in SMEDDS have been found in a concentration-dependent manner. The self-micro emulsifying system may potentiate the effectiveness of bleomycin, cisplatin and ifosfamide topically. The effect of SMEDDS containing antitumor agents was decreased significantly in the presence of inflammatory mediators. According to our experiments, the optimal SMEDDS formulation is 1:1:2:6:2 ratios of Isopropyl myristate, Capryol 90, Kolliphor RH 40, Cremophor RH40, Transcutol HP and Labrasol. It can be concluded that SMEDDS may increase the inhibitory effect of bleomycin, ifosfamide and cisplatin on human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Inflammation on HeLa cells hinders the effectiveness of SMEDDS containing antitumor agents. Our results might ensure useful data for development of optimal antitumor formulations. PMID:26197311

  7. Aerosol delivery of beclin1 enhanced the anti-tumor effect of radiation in the lungs of K-rasLA1 mice.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ji-Young; Lim, Hwang-Tae; Minai-Tehrani, Arash; Noh, Mi-Suk; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Ji-Hye; Jiang, Hu-Lin; Arote, Rohidas; Kim, Doo-Yeol; Chae, Chanhee; Lee, Kee-Ho; Kim, Mi-Sook; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2012-07-01

    Radiotherapy alone has several limitations for treating lung cancer. Inhalation, a non-invasive approach for direct delivery of therapeutic agents to the lung, may help to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of radiation. Up-regulating beclin1, known as a tumor suppressor gene that plays a major role in autophagy, may sensitize tumors and lead to tumor regression in lungs of K-ras(LA1) lung cancer model mice. To minimize the side-effects of radiotherapy, fractionated exposures (five times, 24-h interval) with low dose (2 Gy) of radiation to the restricted area (thorax, 2 cm) were conducted. After sensitizing the lungs with radiation, beclin1, complexed with a nano-sized biodegradable poly(ester amine), was prepared and delivered into the murine lung via aerosol three times/week for four weeks. In a histopathological analysis, animals treated with beclin1 and radiation showed highly significant tumor regression and low progression to adenocarcinoma. An increase in the number of autophagic vacuoles and secondary lysosomes was detected. Dissociation of beclin1-bcl2 stimulated autophagy activation and showed a synergistic anti-tumor effect by inhibiting the Akt-mTOR pathway, cell proliferation and angiogenesis. The combination of radiation with non-invasive aerosol delivery of beclin1 may provide a prospect for developing novel therapy regimens applicable in clinics. PMID:22843615

  8. Enhanced antitumor effect and reduced vector dissemination with fiber-modified adenovirus vectors expressing herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase.

    PubMed

    Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Takao

    2002-03-01

    There are at least two hurdles confronting the use of the adenovirus (Ad)-mediated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk)/ganciclovir (GCV) system for the treatment of cancer. One is inefficient Ad vector-mediated gene transfer into tumor cells lacking the primary receptor, i.e., the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). The other is hepatotoxicity due to unwanted vector spread into the liver, even when Ad vectors are injected intratumorally. Herein, we present an attractive strategy for overcoming such limitations based on use of a fiber-modified Ad vector containing an RGD peptide motif in the fiber knob. HSVtk-expressing Ad vectors containing mutant fiber (AdRGD-tk) or wild-type fiber (Ad-tk) were injected intratumorally into CAR-negative B16 melanoma cells inoculated into mice, after which GCV was injected intraperitoneally for 10 days. AdRGD-tk showed approximately 25 times more antitumor activity than Ad-tk. Histopathological studies suggested that liver damage in mice injected with AdRGD-tk was significantly lower than that in mice injected with Ad-tk. Intratumoral administration of luciferase-expressing Ad vectors containing the mutant fiber (AdRGD-L2) resulted in nearly 40 times more luciferase production in the tumor, but 8 times less production in the liver than the conventional Ad vectors (Ad-L2). These results indicate that combination of fiber-modified vectors and a HSVtk/GCV system is a potentially useful and safe approach for the treatment of tumors lacking CAR expression, and that fiber-modified vectors could be of great utility for gene therapy and gene transfer experiments. PMID:11896439

  9. TLR7/8 agonists promote NK-DC cross-talk to enhance NK cell anti-tumor effects in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhixia; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Jian; Tian, Zhigang; Zhang, Cai

    2015-12-28

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer death. Immunotherapy is considered a promising treatment with the aim to boost or arouse HCC-specific immune responses. TLR7 and TLR8 agonists are effective immunomodulators and have been applied topically for the treatment of certain skin tumors and viral infections. Here, we explored the role of TLR7 and TLR8 agonists on the activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and natural killer (NK) cells. We demonstrated that these agonists could directly activate NK cells, promoting the maturation of immature DCs. Meanwhile, DCs also assisted in the function of NK cells, resulting in enhanced anti-tumor immune responses to HCC. Importantly, the combination therapy with NK cells stimulated with DCs and TLR7/8 agonist Gardiquimod (GDQ) significantly suppresses the growth of human HepG2 liver carcinoma xenografts. This study provides a new immunotherapeutic approach for human HCC based on DC-NK cross-talk and also suggests that TLR7 and/or TLR8 agonists, particularly GDQ, may serve as potent innate and adaptive immune response immunomodulators in tumor therapy. PMID:26433159

  10. Dual-modality imaging demonstrates the enhanced antitumoral effect of herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir plus gemcitabine combination therapy on cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    WANG, JIANFENG; LI, ANG; JIN, MEI; ZHANG, FAN; LI, XIAOLING

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSV-TK/GCV) therapy is one of the most promising therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma, which is the second most common hepatobiliary cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the enhanced therapeutic effects of HSV-TK/GCV with gemcitabine on cholangiocarcinoma. QBC939 cholangiocarcinoma cells and mouse models of cholangiocarcinoma (established via tumor xenografts) received one of the following treatments: i) Gemcitabine therapy (3 µg/ml); ii) HSV-TK/GCV monotherapy; iii) HSV-TK/GCV + gemcitabine; and iv) control group, treated with phosphate-buffered saline. Cell proliferation was quantified using MTT assay and post-treatment tumor alterations were monitored using ultrasound imaging and optical imaging. For the in vitro experiments, the MTT assays demonstrated that the relative cell viabilities in the gene therapy, gemcitabine and gemcitabine + gene groups were 70.37±9.07, 52.64±8.28 and 34.21±6.63%, respectively. For the in vivo experiments, optical imaging indicated significantly decreased optical signals in the combination therapy group, as compared with the gemcitabine and gemcitabine + gene groups (1.68±0.74 vs. 2.27±0.58 and 2.87±0.82, respectively; Р<0.05). As demonstrated by ultrasound imaging, reduced tumor volumes were detected in the combination therapy group, as compared with the three control groups (114.32±17.17 vs. 159±23.74, 201.63±19.26 and 298.23±36.1 mm3, respectively; P<0.05). The results of the present study demonstrated that gemcitabine enhances the antitumoral effects of HSV-TK/GCV on cholangiocarcinoma, which may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the management and treatment of cholangiocarcinoma using gemcitabine and gene therapy. PMID:27347037

  11. PPARγ-Independent Antitumor Effects of Thiazolidinediones

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shuo; Yang, Jian; Lee, Su-Lin; Kulp, Samuel K.; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2009-01-01

    The thiazolidinedione (TZD) family of PPARγ agonists, especially troglitazone and ciglitazone, induce cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis in cancer cells. Mounting evidence indicates that TZDs interfere with multiple signaling mechanisms independently of PPARγactivation, which affect many aspects of cellular functions governing cell cycle progression and survival of cancer cells. Here, we review the “off-target” mechanisms that underlie the antitumor effects of TZDs with emphasis on three key pathways, namely, inhibition of Bcl-2/Bcl-xL function, proteasomal degradation of cell cycle- and apoptosis-regulatory proteins, and transcriptional repression of androgen receptor (AR) through Sp1 degradation. Relative to tumor cells, nonmalignant cells are resistant to these PPARγ-independent antitumor effects, which underscores the translational potential of these agents. Furthermore, dissociation of these antitumor effects from their PPARγ agonist activity provides a rationale for using TZDs as scaffolds for lead optimization to develop a novel class of antitumor agents with a unique mode of mechanism. PMID:18790559

  12. High intensity focused ultrasound enhances anti-tumor immunity by inhibiting the negative regulatory effect of miR-134 on CD86 in a murine melanoma model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Zha, He; Sun, Hui; Li, Xue-Ru; Li, Ai-Fang; Gu, Yue; Duan, Liang; Luo, Jin-Yong; Li, Chong-Yan; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhi-Biao; He, Tong-Chuan; Zhou, Lan

    2015-01-01

    HIFU has been demonstrated to enhance anti-tumor immunity, however, the mechanism of which has not been well elucidated. Emerging evidence indicates that miRNAs play important roles in immune response. In this study, we used the B16F10 melanoma allograft mouse model to investigate the role of miRNAs in HIFU-enhanced anti-tumor immunity. We found that HIFU treatment decreased circulating B16F10 cells and pulmonary metastasis nodules while increased IFN-γ and TNF-α in the peripheral blood and cumulative mouse survival, which was associated with inhibition of miR-134 expression and activation of CD86 expression in tumor tissues. Further, we determined that miR-134 directly binds to the 3′UTR of CD86 mRNA to suppress its expression in B16F10 cells. When B16F10 cells transfected with miR-134 were co-cultured with normal splenic lymphocytes, the secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α from lymphocytes was reduced and B16F10 cell survival was increased. HIFU exposure efficiently decreased miR-134 while increased CD86 expression in B16F10 cells in vitro. CD86 knockdown with siRNA markedly rescued the viability of HIFU-treated B16F10 cells that co-cultured with lymphocytes. Altogether, our results suggest that HIFU down-regulates miR-134 to release the inhibition of miR-134 on CD86 in melanoma cells, thereby enhancing anti-tumor immune response. PMID:26485753

  13. Improved in vivo anti-tumor effects of IgA-Her2 antibodies through half-life extension and serum exposure enhancement by FcRn targeting

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Saskia; Nederend, Maaike; Jansen, J.H. Marco; Reiding, Karli R.; Jacobino, Shamir R.; Meeldijk, Jan; Bovenschen, Niels; Wuhrer, Manfred; Valerius, Thomas; Ubink, Ruud; Boross, Peter; Rouwendal, Gerard; Leusen, Jeanette H.W.

    2016-01-01

    Antibody therapy is a validated treatment approach for several malignancies. All currently clinically applied therapeutic antibodies (Abs) are of the IgG isotype. However, not all patients respond to this therapy and relapses can occur. IgA represents an alternative isotype for antibody therapy that engages FcαRI expressing myeloid effector cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes. IgA Abs have been shown to effectively kill tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. However, due to the short half-life of IgA Abs in mice, daily injections are required to reach an effect comparable to IgG Abs. The relatively long half-life of IgG Abs and serum albumin arises from their capability of interacting with the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). As IgA Abs lack a binding site for FcRn, we generated IgA Abs with the variable regions of the Her2-specific Ab trastuzumab and attached an albumin-binding domain (ABD) to the heavy or light chain (HCABD/LCABD) to extend their serum half-life. These modified Abs were able to bind albumin from different species in vitro. Furthermore, tumor cell lysis of IgA-Her2-LCABD Abs in vitro was similar to unmodified IgA-Her2 Abs. Pharmacokinetic studies in mice revealed that the serum exposure and half-life of the modified IgA-Her2 Abs was extended. In a xenograft mouse model, the modified IgA1 Abs exhibited a slightly, but significantly, improved anti-tumor response compared to the unmodified Ab. In conclusion, empowering IgA Abs with albumin-binding capacity results in in vitro and in vivo functional Abs with an enhanced exposure and prolonged half-life. PMID:26466856

  14. LY2109761 enhances cisplatin antitumor activity in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuxiu; Shan, Ning; Zhao, Cheng; Wang, Yunhai; Xu, Fuliang; Li, Jiacun; Yu, Xiaoqian; Gao, Lifeng; Yi, Zhengjun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Ovarian cancer is among the most lethal of all malignancies in women. While chemotherapy is the preferred treatment modality, chemoresistance severely limits treatment success. Because transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) could increase survival of ovarian cancer cells in the presence of cisplatin, we conducted a preclinical study of the antitumor effects of the TGF-β type I (TβRI) and type II (TβRII) kinase inhibitor LY2109761 in combination with cisplatin. Methods: SKOV3, OV-90 and SKOV3DDP cells were treated with LY2109761, and/or cisplatin, and cell viability, apoptosis mRNA and protein expression levels were then evaluated. Furthermore, the efficacy of LY2109761 combined with cisplatin was further examined in established xenograft models. Results: LY2109761 was sufficient to induce spontaneous apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. Combination with LY2109761 significantly augmented the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in both parental and cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells. LY2109761 significantly increased apoptotic cell death in cisplatin-resistant cells. Combination treatment of LY2109761 and cisplatin showed antiproliferative effects and induced a greater rate of apoptosis than the sum of the single-treatment rates and promoted tumor regression in established parental and cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer xenograft models. Conclusions: Chemotherapeutic approaches using LY2109761 might enhance the treatment benefit of the cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer patients. PMID:26191185

  15. Antitumor effects of nano-bubble hydrogen-dissolved water are enhanced by coexistent platinum colloid and the combined hyperthermia with apoptosis-like cell death.

    PubMed

    Asada, Ryoko; Kageyama, Katsuhiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Matsui, Hisakazu; Kimura, Masatsugu; Saitoh, Yasukazu; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2010-12-01

    In order to erase reactive oxygen species (ROS) related with the proliferation of tumor cells by reducing activity of hydrogen, we developed functional water containing nano-bubbles (diameters: <900 nm for 71%/population) hydrogen of 1.1-1.5 ppm (the theoretical maximum: 1.6 ppm) with a reducing ability (an oxidation-reduction potential -650 mV, normal water: +100-200 mV) using a microporous-filter hydrogen-jetting device. We showed that hydrogen water erased ROS indispensable for tumor cell growth by ESR/spin trap, the redox indicator CDCFH-DA assay, and was cytotoxic to Ehrlich ascites tumor cells as assessed by WST-8 assay, crystal violet dye stain and scanning electron microscopy, after 24-h or 48-h incubation sequent to warming at 37°C or 42°C. Hydrogen water supplemented with platinum colloid (0.3 ppm Pt in 4% polyvinylpyrrolidone) had more antitumor activity than hydrogen water alone, mineral water alone (15.6%), hydrogen water plus mineral water, or platinum colloid alone as observed by decreased cell numbers, cell shrinkage and pycnosis (nuclear condensation)/karyorrhexis (nuclear fragmentation) indicative of apoptosis, together with cell deformation and disappearance of microvilli on the membrane surface. These antitumor effects were promoted by combination with hyperthermia at 42°C. Thus, the nano-bubble hydrogen water with platinum colloid is potent as an anti-tumor agent. PMID:21042740

  16. The Eltrombopag antitumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Tomohiro; Murata, Soichiro; Zheng, Yun-Wen; Iwasaki, Kenichi; Kohno, Keisuke; Fukunaga, Kiyoshi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2015-11-01

    Currently, sorafenib is the only available chemotherapeutic agent for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but it cannot be used in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) or thrombocytopenia. In these cases, sorafenib is likely effective if given in combination with treatments that increase the number of platelets, such as thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonists. Increasing the platelet count via TPO treatment resulted in reduction of LC. Eltrombopag (EP), a TPO receptor agonist, has been reported to have antitumor effects against certain cancers, despite their lack of TPO receptor expression. We hypothesized that EP may possess antitumor activity against HCC in addition to its ability to suppress hepatic fibrosis by increasing the platelet count. In the present study, the antitumor activity of EP was examined by assessing the inhibition of cell proliferation and then ascertaining the ability of iron supplementation to reverse these effects in HepG2, Hep3B and Huh7 cells. In addition, a cell cycle assay was performed using flow cytometry, and signal transduction was evaluated by analyzing cell cycle-related protein expression. The results of EP were compared with those of the most common iron chelator, deferoxamine (DFO). The combined effect of EP and sorafenib was also assessed. The results revealed that EP exerts antitumor activity in HCC that is mediated by the modulation of intracellular iron content. EP suppressed the expression of the cell cycle-related protein cyclin D1 and elicited cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. The activity of EP was comparable to that of DFO in HCC, and EP did not compete with sorafenib at low concentrations. In conclusion, our findings suggest that EP is a good candidate chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of HCC in patients with LC and thrombocytopenia. PMID:26397763

  17. The Eltrombopag antitumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    KUROKAWA, TOMOHIRO; MURATA, SOICHIRO; ZHENG, YUN-WEN; IWASAKI, KENICHI; KOHNO, KEISUKE; FUKUNAGA, KIYOSHI; OHKOHCHI, NOBUHIRO

    2015-01-01

    Currently, sorafenib is the only available chemotherapeutic agent for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but it cannot be used in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) or thrombocytopenia. In these cases, sorafenib is likely effective if given in combination with treatments that increase the number of platelets, such as thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonists. Increasing the platelet count via TPO treatment resulted in reduction of LC. Eltrombopag (EP), a TPO receptor agonist, has been reported to have antitumor effects against certain cancers, despite their lack of TPO receptor expression. We hypothesized that EP may possess antitumor activity against HCC in addition to its ability to suppress hepatic fibrosis by increasing the platelet count. In the present study, the antitumor activity of EP was examined by assessing the inhibition of cell proliferation and then ascertaining the ability of iron supplementation to reverse these effects in HepG2, Hep3B and Huh7 cells. In addition, a cell cycle assay was performed using flow cytometry, and signal transduction was evaluated by analyzing cell cycle-related protein expression. The results of EP were compared with those of the most common iron chelator, deferoxamine (DFO). The combined effect of EP and sorafenib was also assessed. The results revealed that EP exerts antitumor activity in HCC that is mediated by the modulation of intracellular iron content. EP suppressed the expression of the cell cycle-related protein cyclin D1 and elicited cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. The activity of EP was comparable to that of DFO in HCC, and EP did not compete with sorafenib at low concentrations. In conclusion, our findings suggest that EP is a good candidate chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of HCC in patients with LC and thrombocytopenia. PMID:26397763

  18. Differential Fc-receptor engagement drives an anti-tumor vaccinal effect

    PubMed Central

    DiLillo, David J.; Ravetch, Jeffrey V.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Passively-administered anti-tumor mAbs rapidly kill tumor targets via FcγR-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), a short-term process. However, anti-tumor mAb treatment can also induce a vaccinal effect, in which mAb-mediated tumor death induces a long-term anti-tumor cellular immune response. To determine how such responses are generated, we utilized a murine model of an anti-tumor vaccinal effect against a model neoantigen. We demonstrate that FcγR expression by CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells is required to generate anti-tumor T cell responses upon ADCC-mediated tumor clearance. Using FcγR-humanized mice, we demonstrate that anti-tumor huIgG1 must engage hFcγRIIIA on macrophages to mediate ADCC, but also engage hFcγRIIA, the sole hFcγR expressed by human DCs, to generate a potent vaccinal effect. Thus, while next-generation anti-tumor antibodies with enhanced binding to only hFcγRIIIA are now in clinical use, ideal anti-tumor antibodies must be optimized for both cytotoxic effects as well as hFcγRIIA engagement on DCs to stimulate long-term anti-tumor cellular immunity. PMID:25976835

  19. Targeting histone deacetylase 6 mediates a dual anti-melanoma effect: Enhanced antitumor immunity and impaired cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Villaroel, P.; Lee, C.; Cheng, F.; Knox, T.; Woods, D.M.; Barrios, K.; Powers, J.; Sahakian, E.; Wang, H.W.; Canales, J.; Marante, D.; Smalley, K.S.M.; Bergman, J.; Seto, E.; Kozikowski, A.; Pinilla-Ibarz, J.; Sarnaik, A.; Celis, E.; Weber, J.; Sotomayor, E.M.; Villagra, A.

    2015-01-01

    The median survival for metastatic melanoma is in the realm of 8–16 months and there are few therapies that offer significant improvement in overall survival. One of the recent advances in cancer treatment focuses on epigenetic modifiers to alter the survivability and immunogenicity of cancer cells. Our group and others have previously demonstrated that pan-HDAC inhibitors induce apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and changes in the immunogenicity of melanoma cells. Here we interrogated specific HDACs which may be responsible for this effect. We found that both genetic abrogation and pharmacologic inhibition of HDAC6 decreases in vitro proliferation and induces G1 arrest of melanoma cell lines without inducing apoptosis. Moreover, targeting this molecule led to an important upregulation in the expression of tumor associated antigens and MHC class I, suggesting a potential improvement in the immunogenicity of these cells. Of note, this anti-melanoma activity was operative regardless of mutational status of the cells. These effects translated into a pronounced delay of in vivo melanoma tumor growth which was, at least in part, dependent on intact immunity as evidenced by the restoration of tumor growth after CD4+ and CD8+ depletion. Given our findings, we provide the initial rationale for the further development of selective HDAC6 inhibitors as potential therapeutic anti-melanoma agents. PMID:25957812

  20. Targeting the tumor microenvironment to enhance antitumor immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Van der Jeught, Kevin; Bialkowski, Lukasz; Daszkiewicz, Lidia; Broos, Katrijn; Goyvaerts, Cleo; Renmans, Dries; Van Lint, Sandra; Heirman, Carlo; Thielemans, Kris; Breckpot, Karine

    2015-01-01

    The identification of tumor-specific antigens and the immune responses directed against them has instigated the development of therapies to enhance antitumor immune responses. Most of these cancer immunotherapies are administered systemically rather than directly to tumors. Nonetheless, numerous studies have demonstrated that intratumoral therapy is an attractive approach, both for immunization and immunomodulation purposes. Injection, recruitment and/or activation of antigen-presenting cells in the tumor nest have been extensively studied as strategies to cross-prime immune responses. Moreover, delivery of stimulatory cytokines, blockade of inhibitory cytokines and immune checkpoint blockade have been explored to restore immunological fitness at the tumor site. These tumor-targeted therapies have the potential to induce systemic immunity without the toxicity that is often associated with systemic treatments. We review the most promising intratumoral immunotherapies, how these affect systemic antitumor immunity such that disseminated tumor cells are eliminated, and which approaches have been proven successful in animal models and patients. PMID:25682197

  1. Enhanced antitumor effect of combining TRAIL and MnSOD mediated by CEA-controlled oncolytic adenovirus in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Zhang, X; Ma, B; Xiao, B; Huang, F; Huang, P; Ying, C; Liu, T; Wang, Y

    2016-06-01

    Lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma, is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a superb non-small-cell lung cancer marker candidate, showed a beneficial effect in cancer therapy with oncolytic adenovirus in recent studies. Cancer-targeting dual gene-virotherapy delivers two therapeutic genes, linked by a connexon, in the replication-deficient vector instead of one gene so that they can work in common. In this study, we constructed a tumor-specific oncolytic adenovirus, CD55-TRAIL-IETD-MnSOD. The virus has the fusion protein complementary DNAs for tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and for manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) complementary DNA linked through a 4-amino acid caspase-8 cleavage site (IETD), and uses a CEA promoter to control virus E1A express. This is the first work to use a CEA promoter-regulated oncolytic adenovirus carrying two therapeutic genes for cancer research. Its targeting and anticancer capacity was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo experiments. The results indicated that CD55-TRAIL-IETD-MnSOD caused more cell apoptosis than CD55-TRAIL or CD55-MnSOD alone, or their combination in vitro, with low cytotoxicity of normal cells. In the A549 tumor xenograft model in nude mice, data showed that CD55-TRAIL-IETD-MnSOD could effectively suppress tumor growth than single gene groups, with no histological damage in liver, spleen or kidney tissues. Thus, the CEA-regulated dual-gene oncolytic virus CD55-TRAIL-IETD-MnSOD may be a novel potential therapy for lung cancer. PMID:27080225

  2. Enhanced antitumor effects by docetaxel/LL37-loaded thermosensitive hydrogel nanoparticles in peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rangrang; Tong, Aiping; Li, Xiaoling; Gao, Xiang; Mei, Lan; Zhou, Liangxue; Zhang, Xiaoning; You, Chao; Guo, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Intraperitoneal chemotherapy was explored in clinical trials as a promising strategy to improve the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy. In this work, we developed a biodegradable and injectable drug-delivery system by coencapsulation of docetaxel (Doc) and LL37 peptide polymeric nanoparticles (Doc+LL37 NPs) in a thermosensitive hydrogel system for colorectal peritoneal carcinoma therapy. Firstly, polylactic acid (PLA)-Pluronic L35-PLA (PLA-L35-PLA) was explored to prepare the biodegradable Doc+LL37 NPs using a water-in-oil-in-water double-emulsion solvent-evaporation method. Then, biodegradable and injectable thermosensitive PLA-L64-PLA hydrogel with lower sol–gel transition temperature at around body temperature was also prepared. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the Doc+LL37 NPs formed with the PLA-L35-PLA copolymer were spherical. Fourier-transform infrared spectra certified that Doc and LL37 were encapsulated successfully. X-ray diffraction diagrams indicated that Doc was encapsulated amorphously. Intraperitoneal administration of Doc+LL37 NPs–hydrogel significantly suppressed the growth of HCT116 peritoneal carcinomatosis in vivo and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Our results suggested that Doc+LL37 NPs–hydrogel may have potential clinical applications. PMID:26664119

  3. Herceptin-geldanamycin immunoconjugates: pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and enhanced antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Mandler, Raya; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Hinson, Ella R; Brechbiel, Martin W; Waldmann, Thomas A

    2004-02-15

    The efficacy of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as single agents in targeted cancer therapy has proven to be limited. Arming mAbs with a potent toxic drug could enhance their activity. Here we report that conjugating geldanamycin (GA) to the anti-HER2 mAb Herceptin improved the activity of Herceptin. The IC(50)s of the immunoconjugate H-GA were 10-200-fold lower than that of Herceptin in antiproliferative assays, depending on the cell line. The H-GA mode of action involved HER2 degradation, which was partially lactacystin sensitive and thus proteasome dependent. The linkage between GA and Herceptin remained stable in the circulation, as suggested by the pharmacokinetics of Herceptin and conjugated GA, which were almost identical and significantly different from that of free GA. Tumor uptake of Herceptin and H-GA were similar (52 +/- 7 and 43 +/- 7% of the initial injected dose per gram tissue, respectively; P = 0.077), indicating no apparent damage attributable to conjugation. Therapy experiments in xenograft-bearing mice consisted of weekly i.p. doses, 4 mg/kg for 4 months. H-GA showed a greater antitumor effect than Herceptin because it induced tumor regression in 69% of the recipients compared with 7% by Herceptin alone. Median survival time was 145 days as opposed to 78 days, and 31% of the recipients remained tumor free 2 months after therapy was terminated versus 0% in the Herceptin group. Enhancement of Herceptin activity could be of significant clinical value. In addition, the chemical linkage and the considerations in therapeutic regimen described here could be applied to other immunoconjugates for targeted therapy of a broad spectrum of cancers. PMID:14973048

  4. A novel curcuminoid exhibits enhanced antitumor activity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yunbao; Liu, Guohong; Xiao, Jian; Su, Bojin; Zhou, Fuling; Wei, Yongchang

    2016-05-01

    Curcumin shows growth-inhibition against tumor cells through multi-target mechanisms. Nevertheless, the poor stability and pharmacokinetics considerably limit its clinical functions. Increased effort has been put into the chemical alteration of curcumin to find potential analogues with improved bioavailability and antitumor activities. In this study, the antitumor activity of a novel curcuminoid (B63) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) was examined. The MTT and colony formation assays were used to detect NPC cell viability and proliferation. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell cycle distribution. The Annexin V/PI staining assay and cleavage PARP and cleavage caspase-3 expression were used to examine apoptosis. Western blotting was used to examine the protein expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway markers, XBP-1, ATF-4 and CHOP. The suppressive effect of B63 on tumor growth was examined in vivo by subcutaneously inoculated NPC in a tumor model using nude mice. Treatment with B63 potentially caused growth inhibition and apoptosis in NPC cells in a dose- and time-responsive manner. Its antitumor effect was associated with the ER stress activation. Nevertheless, the same dose of curcumin did not activate ER stress. In addition, knockdown of Chop attenuated B63-induced cell viability inhibition, suggesting that the apoptotic pathway is ER stress-dependent. The tumor volume and weight were significantly reduced by pretreating the NPC cells with B63 before implantation in the in vivo mouse model. B63 exhibited a more potent antitumor action than curcumin in NPC. These observations on the novel compound B63 indicate a novel candidate for NPC therapy. PMID:26983360

  5. Sequential use of vinorelbine followed by gefitinib enhances the antitumor effect in NSCLC cell lines poorly responsive to reversible EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dal Bello, M G; Alama, A; Barletta, G; Coco, S; Truini, A; Vanni, I; Boccardo, S; Genova, C; Rijavec, E; Biello, F; Bottoni, G; Sambuceti, G; Grossi, F

    2015-12-15

    Preclinical studies have suggested that combining cytotoxic agents with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) to treat EGFR-mutated tumors may increase their inhibitory effect depending on the order of drug administration. The antitumor efficacy of different treatment sequences using vinorelbine (VNB) and gefitinib (GEF) was investigated both in vitro and in vivo in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines with the rationale of potentially translating these findings into the clinical setting. The EGFR-wild-type A549 and the EGFR-mutated (exon 21 L858R/exon 20 T790M) H1975 cell lines were treated as follows: GEF followed by VNB, VNB followed by GEF and the two drugs applied individually or concurrently. Results in vitro demonstrated that the sequence of VNB followed by GEF was significantly more active than single-agent treatments. The expression of activated EGFR and its downstream pathway genes indicated that the increased cytotoxic effect of the VNB and GEF treatment sequence was accompanied by inhibition of EGFR, AKT and ERK1/2. Moreover, the increased inhibition of tumor growth after treatment with VNB followed by GEF was also confirmed in CD1-nude mice that were xenotransplanted with H1975 cells (p < 0.0001). This effect was paralleled by a corresponding decrease in cancer glucose consumption, as assessed by micro-positron emission tomography scans (p < 0.05). These preclinical findings in NSCLC cell lines, which are poorly responsive to EGFR-TKIs, demonstrated that the sequential treatment of VNB followed by GEF induced a significant antitumor effect, which supports the translation of this treatment schedule into a clinical setting. PMID:26089022

  6. Enhanced antitumor activity of doxorubicin in breast cancer through the use of poly(butylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Cabeza, Laura; Ortiz, Raúl; Arias, José L; Prados, Jose; Ruiz Martínez, Maria Adolfina; Entrena, José M; Luque, Raquel; Melguizo, Consolación

    2015-01-01

    The use of doxorubicin (DOX), one of the most effective antitumor molecules in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer, is limited by its low tumor selectivity and its severe side effects. Colloidal carriers based on biodegradable poly(butylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles (PBCA NPs) may enhance DOX antitumor activity against breast cancer cells, thus allowing a reduction of the effective dose required for antitumor activity and consequently the level of associated toxicity. DOX loading onto PBCA NPs was investigated in this work via both drug entrapment and surface adsorption. Cytotoxicity assays with DOX-loaded NPs were performed in vitro using breast tumor cell lines (MCF-7 human and E0771 mouse cancer cells), and in vivo evaluating antitumor activity in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice. The entrapment method yielded greater drug loading values and a controlled drug release profile. Neither in vitro nor in vivo cytotoxicity was observed for blank NPs. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of DOX-loaded PBCA NPs was significantly lower for MCF-7 and E0771 cancer cells (4 and 15 times, respectively) compared with free DOX. Furthermore, DOX-loaded PBCA NPs produced a tumor growth inhibition that was 40% greater than that observed with free DOX, thus reducing DOX toxicity during treatment. These results suggest that DOX-loaded PBCA NPs have great potential for improving the efficacy of DOX therapy against advanced breast cancers. PMID:25709449

  7. Antitumor effect of Bothrops jararaca venom.

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Reinaldo J; da Silva, Márcia G; Vilela, Lízia C; Fecchio, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Many experimental studies have been carried out using snake venoms for the treatment of animal tumors, with controversial results. While some authors have reported an antitumor effect of treatment with specific snake venom fractions, others have reported no effects after this treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV) on Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells in vivo and in vitro. In the in vivo study, Swiss mice were inoculated with EAT cells by the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route and treated with BjV venom (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.), on the 1st, 4th, 7th, 10th, and 13th days. Mice were evaluated for total and differential cells number on the 2nd, 5th, 8th, 11th and 14th days. The survival time was also evaluated after 60 days of tumor growth. In the in vitro study, EAT and normal peritoneal cells were cultivated in the presence of different BjV concentrations (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0, 40.0, and 80 microg) and viability was verified after 3, 6, 12 and 24 h of cultivation. Results were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey tests at the 5% level of significance. It was observed that in vivo treatment with BjV induced tumor growth inhibition, increased animal survival time, decreased mortality, increased the influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes on the early stages of tumor growth, and did not affect the mononuclear cells number. In vitro treatment with BjV produced a dose-dependent toxic effect on EAT and peritoneal cells, with higher effects against peritoneal cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that BjV has an important antitumor effect. This is the first report showing this in vivo effect for this venom. PMID:12061431

  8. Signaling through OX40 Enhances Anti-tumor Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Shawn M.; Maston, Levi D.; Gough, Michael J.; Ruby, Carl E.; Redmond, William L.; Crittenden, Marka; Li, Yuhuan; Puri, Sachin; Poehlein, Christian H.; Morris, Nick; Kovacsovics-Bankowski, Magdalena; Moudgil, Tarsem; Twitty, Chris; Walker, Edwin B.; Hu, Hong-Ming; Urba, Walter J.; Weinberg, Andrew D.; Curti, Brendan D; Fox, Bernard A.

    2010-01-01

    The existence of tumor-specific T cells, as well as their ability to be primed in cancer patients confirms that the immune response can be deployed to combat cancer. However, there are obstacles that must be overcome to convert the ineffective immune response commonly found in the tumor environment to one that leads to sustained destruction of tumor. Members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily direct diverse immune functions. OX40 and its ligand, OX40L, are key TNF members that augment T-cell expansion, cytokine production, and survival. OX40 signaling also controls regulatory T cell differentiation and suppressive function. Studies over the past decade have demonstrated that OX40 agonists enhance anti-tumor immunity in preclinical models using immunogenic tumors; however, treatment of poorly immunogenic tumors has been less successful. Combining strategies that prime tumor-specific T cells together with OX40 signaling could generate and maintain a therapeutic anti-tumor immune response. PMID:21074068

  9. Antitumor effect of sonodynamically activated pyrrolidine tris-acid fullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Yumiko; Nishi, Koji; Fujimori, Junya; Fukai, Toshio; Yumita, Nagahiko; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Chen, Fu-shin; Momose, Yasunori; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the sonodynamically induced antitumor effect of pyrrolidine tris-acid fullerene (PTF) was investigated. Sonodynamically induced antitumor effects of PTF by focused ultrasound were investigated using isolated sarcoma-180 cells and mice bearing ectopically-implanted colon 26 carcinoma. Cell damage induced by ultrasonic exposure was enhanced by 5-fold in the presence of 80 µM PTF. The combined treatment of ultrasound and PTF suppressed the growth of the implanted colon 26 carcinoma. Ultrasonically induced 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone-1-oxyl (4oxoTEMPO) production in the presence and absence of PTF was assessed, and it was shown that 80 µM PTF enhanced 4oxoTEMPO production as measured by ESR spectroscopy. Histidine, a reactive oxygen scavenger, significantly reduced cell damage and 4oxoTEMPO generation caused by ultrasonic exposure in the presence of PTF. These results suggest that singlet oxygen is likely to be involved in the ultrasonically induced cell damage enhanced by PTF.

  10. Enhanced antitumor reactivity of tumor-sensitized T cells by interferon alfa

    SciTech Connect

    Vander Woude, D.L.; Wagner, P.D.; Shu, S.; Chang, A.E. )

    1991-03-01

    Tumor-draining lymph node cells from mice bearing the methylcholanthrene-induced MCA 106 tumors can be sensitized in vitro to acquire antitumor reactivity. We examined the effect of interferon alfa on the function of cells that underwent in vitro sensitization in adoptive immunotherapy. Interferon alfa increased the antitumor reactivity of in vitro sensitized cells in the treatment of MCA 106 pulmonary metastases. This effect was evident in irradiated mice, indicating that a host response to the interferon alfa was not required. Interferon alfa treatment increased class I major histocompatibility complex antigen expression on tumor cells and increased their susceptibility to lysis by in vitro sensitized cells. These results suggest that interferon alfa enhancement of adoptive immunotherapy was mediated by its effect on tumor cells. Interferon alfa may be a useful adjunct to the adoptive immunotherapy of human cancer.

  11. Statin-AE: a novel angiostatin-endostatin fusion protein with enhanced antiangiogenic and antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Scappaticci, F A; Contreras, A; Smith, R; Bonhoure, L; Lum, B; Cao, Y; Engleman, E G; Nolan, G P

    2001-01-01

    The combination of angiostatin and endostatin has been shown to have synergistic antiangiogenic and antitumor effects when the genes for these proteins are delivered to tumor cells by retroviral gene transfer. Here we report the construction of a murine angiostatin-endostatin fusion gene (Statin-AE) which shows enhanced antiangiogenic activity on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) tube formation in vitro compared with angiostatin or endostatin alone. Similarly, the fusion gene demonstrates antiangiogenic effects in vivo and antitumor activity in a B16F10 melanoma model when co-delivered by retroviral packaging cell inoculation in mice. The fusion gene demonstrates significantly greater inhibition of tumor growth compared with angiostatin, endostatin or the combination of genes. PMID:12197471

  12. Combination of E2F-1 promoter-regulated oncolytic adenovirus and cytokine-induced killer cells enhances the antitumor effects in an orthotopic rectal cancer model.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yang; Xu, Yingxin; Zhao, Yunshan; Li, Li; Sun, Peiming; Liu, Hailiang; Fan, Qinghao; Liang, Kai; Liang, Wentao; Sun, Huiwei; Du, Xiaohui; Li, Rong

    2014-02-01

    Due to the anatomical structure of the rectum, the treatment of rectal cancer remains challenging. Ad-E2F, an oncolytic adenovirus containing the E2F-1 promoter, can selectively replicate within and kill cancer cells derived from solid tumors. Thus, this virus provides a novel approach for the treatment of rectal cancer. Given the poor efficacy and possible adverse reactions that arise from the use of oncolytic virus alone and the results of our analysis of the efficacy of Ad-E2F in the treatment of rectal cancer, we investigated the use of oncolytic adenovirus in combination with adoptive immunotherapy using cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells as a therapeutic treatment for rectal cancer. Our results illustrated that E2F-1 gene expression is higher in rectal cancer tissue than in normal tissue. Furthermore, the designed oncolytic adenovirus Ad-E2F is capable of selectively killing colorectal cell lines but has no significant effect on CIK cells. The results of in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that combined therapy with Ad-E2F and CIK cells produce stronger antitumor effects than the administration of Ad-E2F or CIK cells alone. For low rectal cancers that are suitable for intratumoral injection, local injections of oncolytic viruses in combination with CIK cell-based adoptive immunotherapy may be suitable as a novel comprehensive therapeutic approach. PMID:24037896

  13. Folate-conjugated beta-cyclodextrin-based polymeric micelles with enhanced doxorubicin antitumor efficacy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Lu, Jiafei; Jin, Yangmin; Qiu, Liyan

    2014-10-01

    In order to enhance the antitumor effects of doxorubicin (DOX), a novel micellar vector with high DOX loading and tumor targeting function based on folate-conjugated amphiphilic copolymer folate-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(d,l-lactide)-β-cyclodextrin (FA-PEL-CD) was constructed. Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake experiments were performed in HeLa, KB, and A549 cell lines expressing different amounts of folate receptors in order to evaluate the targeting effect of the folate modification. The antitumor experiments performed in a KB cell-xenografted nude mouse model showed that the treatment with 10mg/kg DOX loaded FA-PEL-CD micelles achieved approximately 86% of tumor growth inhibition compared to the control. Ex vivo fluorescence imaging experiments and histological examination confirmed that folate modification can enhance the antitumorigenesis efficacy and reduce the cardiotoxicity of DOX. These results suggest that FA-PEL-CD copolymer-based micelles are promising nanocarriers for targeted doxorubicin delivery, with improved antitumor efficacy and reduced toxicity in normal tissues. PMID:25058857

  14. Antioxidant and antitumor effects of ferula sinkiangensis K. M. Shen

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiying; Lu, Jun; Zhou, Longlong; Jiang, Lin; Zhou, Mingxin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study is to investigate the antioxidant and antitumor effects of the extract fractions of the Ferula sinkiangensis K. M. Shen. Methods: Four different fractions of the Ferula sinkiangensis K. M. Shen were obtained by the extraction with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and methanol, respectively, which were used to treat the HCT116, Caco-2, HepG2, and MFC cells. Free radical scavenging effects of the ferula fractions were deteced with the DPPH assay. Effects of the ferula fractions on the peroliferatoin of the tumor cells were assessed with the SRB assay. Apoptosis was detected with flow cytometry. Results: The DPPH assay showed that the petroleum ether fraction hardly showed any antioxidant activity, while the ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and methanol fractions exhibited free radical-scavenging capacities, in a dose dependent manner. The SRB assay showed that, the proliferation of the tumor cells could be inhibited by the ferula fractions, in a dose dependent manner. However, differential effects were observed for the different fractions in different model cells. Particularly, the ethyl acetate fraction exerted the most efficient inhibiting effects on the tumor cell proliferation. In addition, the flow cytometry showed that, all the ferula fractions significantly enhanced the apoptotic process in the tumor cells, with differential enhancing capacities in different model cells. Conclusion: Extract fractions of the Ferula sinkiangensis K. M. Shen could exert antioxidant, proliferation-inhibiting, and apoptosis-enhancing effects in tumor cells. Particularly, the ethyl acetate fraction exhibits the most potent antioxidant and antitumor effects. PMID:26885009

  15. Turmeric enhancing anti-tumor effect of Rhizoma paridis saponins by influencing their metabolic profiling in tumors of H22 hepatocarcinoma mice.

    PubMed

    Man, Shuli; Chai, Hongyan; Qiu, Peiyu; Liu, Zhen; Fan, Wei; Wang, Jiaming; Gao, Wenyuan

    2015-12-01

    Rhizoma Paridis saponins combined with turmeric (RT) showed well anti-hepatocarcinoma activities in our previous research. The aim of this study was to investigate the progression of the biochemical response to RT and capture metabolic variations during intragastric administration of their compatibility. In the experiment, histopathological examination and (1)H NMR method were developed and validated for the metabolic profiling of RT intervention in H22 tumor growth. Data were analyzed with principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA). As a result, Rhizoma paridis saponins (RPS) or RT induced inflammatory cell infiltration in tumors. RT also mediated the tumor microenvironment to promote anti-tumor immunity of mice. RT significantly inhibited tumor growth rate through suppressing levels of amino acids containing alanine, asparagine, glutamine, putrescine, and sarcosine, lipid compounds, and carbohydrates like myo-inositol and arabinose in the tumor tissues. In conclusion, these results uncovered unexpectedly poor nutritional conditions in the RT-treated tumor tissues whose effect was stronger than RPS's. Therefore, RT could be a novel anticancer agent that targets on cancer metabolism through starving tumors reducing viability of cancer cells. PMID:26471217

  16. Fusion to an albumin-binding domain with a high affinity for albumin extends the circulatory half-life and enhances the in vivo antitumor effects of human TRAIL.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Yang, Hao; Jia, Dianlong; Nie, Qianxue; Cai, Huawei; Fan, Qing; Wan, Lin; Li, Lin; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2016-04-28

    Clinical applications of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (hTRAIL) have been limited by their poor pharmacokinetics. Using endogenous albumin as a carrier is an attractive approach for circulatory half-life extension. Here, we produced ABD-hTRAIL and hTRAIL-ABD by fusing the albumin-binding domain (ABD) from protein G to the N- or C-terminus of hTRAIL. We found that ABD-hTRAIL bound human serum albumin (HSA) with a high affinity (0.4±0.18nM) and formed nanoparticles with an average diameter (~12nm) above the threshold (~7nm) of renal filtration. ABD-hTRAIL also bound mouse serum albumin (MSA); thus, its half-life was 40-50-fold greater than that of hTRAIL (14.1±0.87h vs 0.32±0.14h). Tumor uptake of ABD-hTRAIL 8-48h post-injection was 6-16-fold that of hTRAIL. Consequently, the tumor suppression of ABD-hTRAIL in mice bearing subcutaneous xenografts was 3-4 times greater than that of hTRAIL. Additionally, the time period during which ABD-hTRAIL could kill circulating tumor cells was approximately 8 times longer than that of hTRAIL. These results demonstrate that ABD fused to the N-terminus endows hTRAIL with albumin binding ability; once it enters the vasculature, ABD mediates binding with endogenous albumin, thus prolonging the half-life and enhancing the antitumor effect of hTRAIL. However, hTRAIL-ABD did not show a high affinity for albumin and therefore did not display the prolonged circulatory half-life and enhanced antitumor effects. These results demonstrate that N-terminal, but not C-terminal, ABD-fusion is an efficient technique for enhancing the antitumor effects of hTRAIL by using endogenous albumin as a carrier. PMID:26951928

  17. Biodegradable nanoassemblies of piperlongumine display enhanced anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Chang, Ying; Yang, Chao; Sang, Zitai; Yang, Tao; Ang, Wei; Ye, Weiwei; Wei, Yuquan; Gong, Changyang; Luo, Youfu

    2014-04-21

    Piperlongumine (PL) shows an inhibitory effect on tumor growth; however, lipophilicity has restricted its further applications. Nanotechnology provides an effective method to overcome the poor water solubility of lipophilic drugs. Polymeric micelles with small particle size can passively target tumors by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, thus improving their anti-tumor effects. In this study, to improve the water solubility and anti-tumor activity of PL, PL encapsulated polymeric micelles (PL micelles) were prepared by a solid dispersion method. The prepared PL micelles showed a small particle size and high encapsulation efficiency, which could be lyophilized into powder, and the re-dissolved PL micelles are homogenous and stable in water. In addition, a sustained release behavior of PL micelles was observed in vitro. Encapsulation of PL into polymeric micelles could increase the cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and reduce glutathione (GSH) levels in vitro. Encapsulation of PL into polymeric micelles enhanced its inhibitory effect on neovascularization both in vitro and in vivo. Compared with free PL, PL micelles showed a stronger inhibitory effect on the proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Additionally, in a transgenic zebrafish model, embryonic angiogenesis was inhibited by PL micelles. Furthermore, PL micelles were more effective in inhibiting tumor growth and prolonging survival in a subcutaneous CT-26 murine tumor model in vivo. Therefore, our data revealed that the encapsulation of PL into biodegradable polymeric micelles enhanced its anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor activities both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24622772

  18. Biodegradable nanoassemblies of piperlongumine display enhanced anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Chang, Ying; Yang, Chao; Sang, Zitai; Yang, Tao; Ang, Wei; Ye, Weiwei; Wei, Yuquan; Gong, Changyang; Luo, Youfu

    2014-03-01

    Piperlongumine (PL) shows an inhibitory effect on tumor growth; however, lipophilicity has restricted its further applications. Nanotechnology provides an effective method to overcome the poor water solubility of lipophilic drugs. Polymeric micelles with small particle size can passively target tumors by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, thus improving their anti-tumor effects. In this study, to improve the water solubility and anti-tumor activity of PL, PL encapsulated polymeric micelles (PL micelles) were prepared by a solid dispersion method. The prepared PL micelles showed a small particle size and high encapsulation efficiency, which could be lyophilized into powder, and the re-dissolved PL micelles are homogenous and stable in water. In addition, a sustained release behavior of PL micelles was observed in vitro. Encapsulation of PL into polymeric micelles could increase the cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and reduce glutathione (GSH) levels in vitro. Encapsulation of PL into polymeric micelles enhanced its inhibitory effect on neovascularization both in vitro and in vivo. Compared with free PL, PL micelles showed a stronger inhibitory effect on the proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Additionally, in a transgenic zebrafish model, embryonic angiogenesis was inhibited by PL micelles. Furthermore, PL micelles were more effective in inhibiting tumor growth and prolonging survival in a subcutaneous CT-26 murine tumor model in vivo. Therefore, our data revealed that the encapsulation of PL into biodegradable polymeric micelles enhanced its anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor activities both in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Photodynamic effect on specific antitumor immune activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonarx-Coinsmann, Veronique; Foultier, Marie-Therese; Morlet, Laurent; de Brito, Leonor X.; Patrice, Thierry

    1995-03-01

    In this study the effect of PDT on the antitumoral specific immunologic response was evaluated. We compared the specific cytolytic activity (CLA) by a chromium release assay of primed mouse spleen T lymphocytes sensitized against syngeneic mastocytoma P511 cells. P511 cells, or lymphocytes, or both cells were treated or not with photofrin and/or light (514 nm). Photofrin II alone (1 (mu) g/ml, 2 hours) reduced CLA 59% when P511 were treated. Photofrin II (1 (mu) g/ml) followed by light (25 Joules/sq cm) also reduced CLA 35%. Photofrin II alone (0.5 (mu) g/ml, 2 hours) reduced CLA 8% when only lymphocytes were treated. And Photofrin II (0.5 (mu) g/ml) followed by light (25 Joules/sq cm) also reduced CLA 45%. When both cells were treated with Photofrin II alone or followed by light (25 Joules/sq cm) the CLA was also reduced respectively 19, 41%.

  20. IL-12 enhances the antitumor actions of trastuzumab via NK cell IFN-γ production.

    PubMed

    Jaime-Ramirez, Alena Cristina; Mundy-Bosse, Bethany L; Kondadasula, SriVidya; Jones, Natalie B; Roda, Julie M; Mani, Aruna; Parihar, Robin; Karpa, Volodymyr; Papenfuss, Tracey L; LaPerle, Krista M; Biller, Elizabeth; Lehman, Amy; Chaudhury, Abhik Ray; Jarjoura, David; Burry, Richard W; Carson, William E

    2011-03-15

    The antitumor effects of therapeutic mAbs may depend on immune effector cells that express FcRs for IgG. IL-12 is a cytokine that stimulates IFN-γ production from NK cells and T cells. We hypothesized that coadministration of IL-12 with a murine anti-HER2/neu mAb (4D5) would enhance the FcR-dependent immune mechanisms that contribute to its antitumor activity. Thrice-weekly therapy with IL-12 (1 μg) and 4D5 (1 mg/kg) significantly suppressed the growth of a murine colon adenocarcinoma that was engineered to express human HER2 (CT-26(HER2/neu)) in BALB/c mice compared with the result of therapy with IL-12, 4D5, or PBS alone. Combination therapy was associated with increased circulating levels of IFN-γ, monokine induced by IFN-γ, and RANTES. Experiments with IFN-γ-deficient mice demonstrated that this cytokine was necessary for the observed antitumor effects of therapy with IL-12 plus 4D5. Immune cell depletion experiments showed that NK cells (but not CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells) mediated the antitumor effects of this treatment combination. Therapy of HER2/neu-positive tumors with trastuzumab plus IL-12 induced tumor necrosis but did not affect tumor proliferation, apoptosis, vascularity, or lymphocyte infiltration. In vitro experiments with CT-26(HER2/neu) tumor cells revealed that IFN-γ induced an intracellular signal but did not inhibit cellular proliferation or induce apoptosis. Taken together, these data suggest that tumor regression in response to trastuzumab plus IL-12 is mediated through NK cell IFN-γ production and provide a rationale for the coadministration of NK cell-activating cytokines with therapeutic mAbs. PMID:21321106

  1. pH-sensitive polymeric cisplatin-ion complex with styrene-maleic acid copolymer exhibits tumor-selective drug delivery and antitumor activity as a result of the enhanced permeability and retention effect.

    PubMed

    Saisyo, Atsuyuki; Nakamura, Hideaki; Fang, Jun; Tsukigawa, Kenji; Greish, Khaled; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) is widely used to treat various cancers. However, its distribution to normal tissues causes serious adverse effects. For this study, we synthesized a complex of styrene-maleic acid copolymer (SMA) and CDDP (SMA-CDDP), which formed polymeric micelles, to achieve tumor-selective drug delivery based on the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. SMA-CDDP is obtained by regulating the pH of the reaction solution of SMA and CDDP. The mean SMA-CDDP particle size was 102.5 nm in PBS according to electrophoretic light scattering, and the CDDP content was 20.1% (w/w). The release rate of free CDDP derivatives from the SMA-CDDP complex at physiological pH was quite slow (0.75%/day), whereas it was much faster at pH 5.5 (4.4%/day). SMA-CDDP thus had weaker in vitro toxicity at pH 7.4 but higher cytotoxicity at pH 5.5. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies showed a 5-fold higher tumor concentration of SMA-CDDP than of free CDDP. SMA-CDDP had more effective antitumor potential but lower toxicity than did free CDDP in mice after i.v. administration. Administration of parental free CDDP at 4 mg/kg×3 caused a weight loss of more than 5%; SMA-CDDP at 60 mg/kg (CDDP equivalent)×3 caused no significant weight change but markedly suppressed S-180 tumor growth. These findings together suggested using micelles of the SMA-CDDP complex as a cancer chemotherapeutic agent because of beneficial properties-tumor-selective accumulation and relatively rapid drug release at the acidic pH of the tumor-which resulted in superior antitumor effects and fewer side effects compared with free CDDP. PMID:26674841

  2. CXCL11-Armed oncolytic poxvirus elicits potent antitumor immunity and shows enhanced therapeutic efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zuqiang; Ravindranathan, Roshni; Li, Jun; Kalinski, Pawel; Guo, Z. Sheng; Bartlett, David L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have armed a tumor-selective oncolytic vaccinia virus (vvDD) with the chemokine (CK) CXCL11, in order to enhance its ability to attract CXCR3+ antitumor CTLs and possibly NK cells to the tumor microenvironment (TME) and improve its therapeutic efficacy. As expected, vvDD-CXCL11 attracted high numbers of tumor-specific T cells to the TME in a murine AB12 mesothelioma model. Intratumoral virus-directed CXCL11 expression enhanced local numbers of CD8+ CTLs and levels of granzyme B, while reducing expression of several suppressive molecules, TGF-β, COX2, and CCL22 in the TME. Unexpectedly, we observed that vvDD-CXCL11, but not parental vvDD, induced a systemic increase in tumor-specific IFNγ-producing CD8+ T cells in the spleen and other lymph organs, indicating the induction of systemic antitumor immunity. This effect was associated with enhanced therapeutic efficacy and a survival benefit in tumor-bearing mice treated with vvDD-CXCL11, mediated by CD8+ T cells and IFNγ, but not CD4+ T cells. These results demonstrate that intratumoral expression of CXCL11, in addition to promoting local trafficking of T cells and to a lesser extent NK cells, has a novel function as a factor eliciting systemic immunity to cancer-associated antigens. Our data provide a rationale for expressing CXCL11 to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of oncolytic viruses (OVs) and cancer vaccines. PMID:27141352

  3. Detection and aggregation of the antitumoral drug parietin in ethanol/water mixture and on plasmonic metal nanoparticles studied by surface-enhanced optical spectroscopy: Effect of pH and ethanol concentration.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Tobar, Eduardo; Verebova, Valeria; Blascakova, Ludmila; Jancura, Daniel; Fabriciova, Gabriela; Sanchez-Cortes, Santiago

    2016-04-15

    In the present paper, we have investigated the effect of ethanol in aqueous media, the pH and the presence of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on the aggregation processes of the antitumoral anthraquinone parietin in aqueous media and on the metal surface. UV-visible absorption, fluorescence and Raman spectra of parietin were used for such purpose. The present study provides information about the deprotonation and molecular aggregation processes occurring in parietin under different environments: ethanol/water mixture and when adsorbed onto Ag nanoparticles. The effect of ethanol on the optical properties of parietin in alcohol-water mixtures was also investigated at different ethanol concentrations with the time. For the case of the adsorption and organization of parietin molecules on the surface of Ag NPs, special attention was paid to the use of surface-enhanced optical techniques, SEF (surface-enhanced fluorescence) and SERS (surface-enhanced Raman scattering), for the characterization of the parietin aggregates and the ionization of the molecule on the surface. In particular, we have studied the variation of the SEF signal with the pH, which depends on the molecular organization of the molecule on the surface. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the SERS spectra at different pH was accomplished and the main Raman bands of the protonated, mono-deprotonated and di-deprotonated parietin were identified. Finally, the second ionization pK of parietin on metal NPs was deduced from the SERS spectra. PMID:26836455

  4. Detection and aggregation of the antitumoral drug parietin in ethanol/water mixture and on plasmonic metal nanoparticles studied by surface-enhanced optical spectroscopy: Effect of pH and ethanol concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Tobar, Eduardo; Verebova, Valeria; Blascakova, Ludmila; Jancura, Daniel; Fabriciova, Gabriela; Sanchez-Cortes, Santiago

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper, we have investigated the effect of ethanol in aqueous media, the pH and the presence of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on the aggregation processes of the antitumoral anthraquinone parietin in aqueous media and on the metal surface. UV-visible absorption, fluorescence and Raman spectra of parietin were used for such purpose. The present study provides information about the deprotonation and molecular aggregation processes occurring in parietin under different environments: ethanol/water mixture and when adsorbed onto Ag nanoparticles. The effect of ethanol on the optical properties of parietin in alcohol-water mixtures was also investigated at different ethanol concentrations with the time. For the case of the adsorption and organization of parietin molecules on the surface of Ag NPs, special attention was paid to the use of surface-enhanced optical techniques, SEF (surface-enhanced fluorescence) and SERS (surface-enhanced Raman scattering), for the characterization of the parietin aggregates and the ionization of the molecule on the surface. In particular, we have studied the variation of the SEF signal with the pH, which depends on the molecular organization of the molecule on the surface. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the SERS spectra at different pH was accomplished and the main Raman bands of the protonated, mono-deprotonated and di-deprotonated parietin were identified. Finally, the second ionization pK of parietin on metal NPs was deduced from the SERS spectra.

  5. A novel liposomal recombinant lipoimmunogen enhances anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kuan-Yin; Liu, Hsin-Yu; Li, Hui-Ju; Wu, Chiao-Chieh; Liou, Gunn-Guang; Chang, Yuan-Chih; Leng, Chih-Hsiang; Liu, Shih-Jen

    2016-07-10

    Synthetic liposomes provide a biocompatible and biodegradable approach for delivering drugs and antigens. In addition, self-adjuvanting recombinant lipoproteins (rlipoproteins) can enhance Th1 anti-tumor immune responses via the TLR2 signaling pathway. To generate a liposomal rlipoprotein for a cancer immunotherapeutic vaccine, we assessed 3 types of synthetic liposomes for use with the rlipoproteins rlipoE7m and rlipoOVA. We determined that the cationic liposome DOTAP could stabilize anionic rlipoproteins and delay rlipoprotein release. Surprisingly, rlipoproteins and DOTAP could synergistically up-regulate CD83 expression in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Compared with other liposome formulations, the rlipoprotein/DOTAP formulation elicited higher cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses. To explore the mechanism of BMDC activation by rlipoprotein/DOTAP, we assessed the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the TNF-α secretion of BMDCs. We observed that rlipoprotein/DOTAP induced ROS to the same extent as DOTAP did. In addition, TLR2 signaling was also required for the TNF-α secretion of rlipoprotein/DOTAP-treated BMDCs. Moreover, compared with rlipoOVA-treated BMDCs, rlipoOVA/DOTAP-treated BMDCs increased the levels of IFN-γ produced by OVA-specific T cells. We also observed that rlipoE7m/DOTAP treatment but not rlipoE7m treatment delayed tumor growth. These results indicate that the rlipoprotein/DOTAP formulation can synergistically activate BMDCs via ROS and the TLR2 signaling pathway. In summary, rlipoprotein/DOTAP is a novel and stable formulation for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27164542

  6. Delivery of vincristine sulfate-conjugated gold nanoparticles using liposomes: a light-responsive nanocarrier with enhanced antitumor efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; He, Man; Niu, Mengmeng; Zhao, Yiqing; Zhu, Yuanzhang; Li, Zhenhua; Feng, Nianping

    2015-01-01

    Rapid drug release at the specific site of action is still a challenge for antitumor therapy. Development of stimuli-responsive hybrid nanocarriers provides a promising strategy to enhance therapeutic effects by combining the unique features of each component. The present study explored the use of drug–gold nanoparticle conjugates incorporated into liposomes to enhance antitumor efficiency. A model drug, vincristine sulfate, was physically conjugated with gold nanoparticles and verified by UV-visible and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The conjugates were incorporated into liposomes by film dispersion to yield nanoparticles (113.4 nm) with light-responsive release properties, as shown by in vitro release studies. Intracellular uptake and distribution was studied in HeLa cells using transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. This demonstrated liposome internalization and localization in endosomal–lysosomal vesicles. Fluorescence intensity increased in cells exposed to UV light, indicating that this stimulated intracellular drug release; this finding was confirmed by quantitative analyses using flow cytometry. Antitumor efficacy was evaluated in HeLa cells, both in culture and in implants in vivo in nude mice. HeLa cell viability assays showed that light exposure enhanced liposome cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment with the prepared liposomes coupled with UV light exposure produced greater antitumor effects in nude mice and reduced side effects, as compared with free vincristine sulfate. PMID:25960649

  7. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid synergistically enhances the antitumor activity of etoposide in Ewing sarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Unland, Rebekka; Clemens, Dagmar; Heinicke, Ulrike; Potratz, Jenny C; Hotfilder, Marc; Fulda, Simone; Wardelmann, Eva; Frühwald, Michael C; Dirksen, Uta

    2015-09-01

    Ewing sarcomas (ES) are highly malignant tumors arising in bone and soft tissues. Given the poor outcome of affected patients with primary disseminated disease or at relapse, there is a clear need for new targeted therapies. The HDAC inhibitor (HDACi) suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, Vorinostat) inhibits ES tumor growth and induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Thus, SAHA may be considered a novel treatment. However, it is most likely that not a single agent but a combination of agents with synergistic mechanisms will help improve the prognosis in high-risk ES patients. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess a putative synergistic effect of SAHA in combination with conventional chemotherapeutic agents. The antitumor activity of SAHA in combination with conventional chemotherapeutics (doxorubicin, etoposide, rapamycin, topotecan) was assessed using an MTT cell proliferation assay on five well-characterized ES cell lines (CADO-ES-1, RD-ES, TC-71, SK-ES-1, SK-N-MC) and a newly established ES cell line (DC-ES-15). SAHA antagonistically affected the antiproliferative effect of doxorubicin and topotecan in the majority of the ES cell lines, but synergistically enhanced the antiproliferative activity of etoposide. In functional analyses, pretreatment with SAHA significantly increased the effects of etoposide on apoptosis and clonogenicity. The in-vitro analyses presented in this work show that SAHA synergistically enhances the antitumor activity of etoposide in ES cells. Sequential treatment with etoposide combined with SAHA may represent a new therapeutic approach in ES. PMID:26053276

  8. Antitumor effect of the novel sphingosine kinase 2 inhibitor ABC294640 is enhanced by inhibition of autophagy and by sorafenib in human cholangiocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiwei; Chaiteerakij, Roongruedee; Moser, Catherine D.; Shaleh, Hassan; Boakye, Jeffrey; Chen, Gang; Ndzengue, Albert; Li, Ying; Zhou, Yanling; Huang, Shengbing; Sinicrope, Frank A.; Zou, Xiaoping; Thomas, Melanie B.; Smith, Charles D.; Roberts, Lewis R.

    2016-01-01

    Sphingosine kinase 2 (Sphk2) has an oncogenic role in cancer. A recently developed first-in-class Sphk2 specific inhibitor ABC294640 displays antitumor activity in many cancer models. However, the role of Sphk2 and the antitumor activity of its inhibitor ABC294640 are not known in cholangiocarcinoma. We investigated the potential of targeting Sphk2 for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma. We found that Sphk2 is overexpressed in five established human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines (WITT, HuCCT1, EGI-1, OZ and HuH28) and a new patient-derived cholangiocarcinoma cell line (LIV27) compared to H69 normal cholangiocytes. Inhibition of Sphk2 by ABC294640 inhibited proliferation and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that ABC294640 inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation, one of the key signaling pathways regulating cholangiocarcinoma cell proliferation and survival. ABC294640 also induced autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy by bafilomycin A1 or chloroquine potentiated ABC294640-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. In addition, ABC294640 in combination with sorafenib synergistically inhibited cell proliferation of cholangiocarcinoma cells. Strong decreases in STAT3 phosphorylation were observed in WITT and HuCCT1 cells exposed to the ABC294640 and sorafenib combination. These findings provide novel evidence that Sphk2 may be a rational therapeutic target in cholangiocarcinoma. Combinations of ABC294640 with sorafenib and/or autophagy inhibitors may provide novel strategies for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:26956050

  9. Oncolytic Adenovirus Loaded with L-carnosine as Novel Strategy to Enhance the Antitumor Activity.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Mariangela; Iovine, Barbara; Kuryk, Lukasz; Capasso, Cristian; Hirvinen, Mari; Vitale, Andrea; Yliperttula, Marjo; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta; Cerullo, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Oncolytic viruses are able to specifically replicate, infect, and kill only cancer cells. Their combination with chemotherapeutic drugs has shown promising results due to the synergistic action of virus and drugs; the combinatorial therapy is considered a potential clinically relevant approach for cancer. In this study, we optimized a strategy to absorb peptides on the viral capsid, based on electrostatic interaction, and used this strategy to deliver an active antitumor drug. We used L-carnosine, a naturally occurring histidine dipeptide with a significant antiproliferative activity. An ad hoc modified, positively charged L-carnosine was combined with the capsid of an oncolytic adenovirus to generate an electrostatic virus-carnosine complex. This complex showed enhanced antitumor efficacy in vitro and in vivo in different tumor models. In HCT-116 colorectal and A549 lung cancer cell lines, the complex showed higher transduction ratio and infectious titer compared with an uncoated oncolytic adenovirus. The in vivo efficacy of the complex was tested in lung and colon cancer xenograft models, showing a significant reduction in tumor growth. Importantly, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of complex on tumor growth reduction. We found that complex induces apoptosis in both cell lines, by using two different mechanisms, enhancing viral replication and affecting the expression of Hsp27. Our system could be used in future studies also for delivery of other bioactive drugs. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(4); 651-60. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26861248

  10. Antitumor effect of arabinogalactan and platinum complex.

    PubMed

    Starkov, A K; Zamay, T N; Savchenko, A A; Ingevatkin, E V; Titova, N M; Kolovskaya, O S; Luzan, N A; Silkin, P P; Kuznetsova, S A

    2016-03-01

    The article presents the results of investigation of antitumor properties of platinum-arabinogalactan complex. We showed the ability of the complex to inhibit the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. It is found that the distribution of the platinum-arabinogalactan complex is not specific only for tumor cells in mice. The complex was found in all tissues and organs examined (ascites cells, embryonic cells, kidney, and liver). The mechanism of action of the arabinogalactan-platinum complex may be similar to cisplatin as the complex is able to accumulate in tumor cells. PMID:27193706

  11. [Progress of study on antitumor effects of antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity--review].

    PubMed

    Qu, Yu-Hua; Li, Yang

    2010-10-01

    In recent years, as increasing of monoclonal antibody application in clinic, the antitumor effect of antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) get increasing attention. The natural killer (NK) cells are the most important effector cells mediating specific antitumor of ADCC; the phagocytes, T-cells and granulocytes have the definite effect on antitumor of ADCC. ADCC is confirmed as the important mechanism and means for clinically treating the cancers with monoclonal antibodies. The IgG antibody firstly combines with target cells (tumor cells) through antigen-binding sites, and then FcγR on effector cells identifies its Fc fragment and mediates ADCC. Today many kinds of monoclonal antibodies have been put into clinical application such as rituximab and other new anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies including trastuzumab, erbitux, cetuximab, edrecolomab, nimotuzumab, gemtuzumab ozogamicin and so on, which all can mediate ADCC. The antitumor effects of ADCC mediated by monoclonal antibody can be influenced by IgG Fc receptor gene polymorphism, tumor cell antigen, serum antibody levels, cytokines and drugs etc. As to peripheral blood mononuclear cells, ADCC efficacies of FcγRIIIa-158V/V and FcγRIIa-131H/H are higher than that of other genotypes, while increasing the level of tumor antigen and decreasing the level of serum antibody or adding some cytokines (IL-2, IL-21, IL-15, etc) may elevate the ADCC effect mediated by monoclonal antibodies. Avoiding use of certain drugs (dexamethasone, TNF antagonist) or appropriately using of ondansetron and clemastine also can enhance the anti-tumor effect of ADCC mediated by monoclonal antibodies. In short, ADCC is very important in clinical application for anti-tumor treatment, but its efficacy may be impacted by multiple factors.In this article, the killing mechanisms of ADCC, the clinical use of monoclonal antibodies with antitumor effect of ADCC, the factors influencing anti-tumor efficacy of ADCC, and the antitumor

  12. Doxycycline potentiates antitumor effect of cyclophosphamide in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Chhipa, Rishi Raj; Singh, Sandeep; Surve, Sachin V.; Vijayakumar, Maleppillil Vavachan; Bhat, Manoj Kumar . E-mail: manojkbhat@nccs.res.in

    2005-02-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CPA) is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug in neoplasias. It is a DNA and protein alkylating agent that has a broad spectrum of activity against variety of neoplasms including breast cancer. The therapeutic effectiveness of CPA is limited by the high-dose hematopoietic, renal, and cardiac toxicity that accompanies the systemic distribution of liver-derived activated drug metabolites. The present study examines the potential of combining well-tolerated antibiotic doxycycline (DOX) with CPA and understanding the mechanism of cell killing. Interestingly, we found that DOX significantly enhances the tumor regression activity of CPA on xenograft mice model bearing MCF-7 cells. DOX also potentiates MCF-7 cell killing by CPA in vitro. In presence of DOX (3 {mu}g/ml), the IC{sub 50} value of CPA decreased significantly from 10 to 2.5 mM. Additional analyses indicate that the tumor suppressor p53 and p53-regulated proapoptotic Bax were upregulated in vivo and in vitro following CPA treatment in combination with DOX, suggesting that upregulation of p53 may contribute to the enhancement of antitumor effect of CPA by DOX. Furthermore, downregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 was observed in animals treated with CPA and CPA plus DOX when compared to untreated or DOX-treated groups. Our results raise the possibility that this combination chemotherapeutic regimen may lead to additional improvements in treatment of breast cancer.

  13. Inhibition of heat-shock protein 90 sensitizes liver cancer stem-like cells to magnetic hyperthermia and enhances anti-tumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma-burdened nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rui; Tang, Qiusha; Miao, Fengqin; An, Yanli; Li, Mengfei; Han, Yong; Wang, Xihui; Wang, Juan; Liu, Peidang; Chen, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To explore the thermoresistance and expression of heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) in magnetic hyperthermia-treated human liver cancer stem-like cells (LCSCs) and the effects of a heat-shock protein HSP90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxgeldanamycin (17-AAG) on hepatocellular carcinoma-burdened nude mice. Methods CD90+ LCSCs were isolated by magnetic-activated cell sorting from BEL-7404. Spheroid formation, proliferation, differentiation, drug resistance, and tumor formation assays were performed to identify stem cell characteristics. CD90-targeted thermosensitive magnetoliposomes (TMs)-encapsulated 17-AAG (CD90@17-AAG/TMs) was prepared by reverse-phase evaporation and its characteristics were studied. Heat tolerance in CD90+ LCSCs and the effect of CD90@17-AAG/TMs-mediated heat sensitivity were examined in vitro and in vivo. Results CD90+ LCSCs showed significant stem cell-like properties. The 17-AAG/TMs were successfully prepared and were spherical in shape with an average size of 128.9±7.7 nm. When exposed to magnetic hyperthermia, HSP90 was up-regulated in CD90+ LCSCs. CD90@17-AAG/TMs inhibited the activity of HSP90 and increased the sensitivity of CD90+ LCSCs to magnetic hyperthermia. Conclusion The inhibition of HSP90 could sensitize CD90+ LCSCs to magnetic hyperthermia and enhance its anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26677324

  14. Co-expression of interleukin 12 enhances antitumor effects of a novel chimeric promoter-mediated suicide gene therapy in an immunocompetent mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yu; Liu, Zhengchun; Kong, Haiyan; Sun, Wenjie; Liao, Zhengkai; Zhou, Fuxiang; Xie, Conghua; and others

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} A novel chimeric promoter consisting of CArG element and hTERT promoter was developed. {yields} The promoter was characterized with radiation-inducibility and tumor-specificity. {yields} Suicide gene system driven by the promoter showed remarkable cytotoxicity in vitro. {yields} Co-expression of IL12 enhanced the promoter mediated suicide gene therapy in vivo. -- Abstract: The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter has been widely used in target gene therapy of cancer. However, low transcriptional activity limited its clinical application. Here, we designed a novel dual radiation-inducible and tumor-specific promoter system consisting of CArG elements and the hTERT promoter, resulting in increased expression of reporter genes after gamma-irradiation. Therapeutic and side effects of adenovirus-mediated horseradish peroxidase (HRP)/indole-3-acetic (IAA) system downstream of the chimeric promoter were evaluated in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma, combining with or without adenovirus-mediated interleukin 12 (IL12) gene driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter. The combination treatment showed more effective suppression of tumor growth than those with single agent alone, being associated with pronounced intratumoral T-lymphocyte infiltration and minor side effects. Our results suggest that the combination treatment with HRP/IAA system driven by the novel chimeric promoter and the co-expression of IL12 might be an effective and safe target gene therapy strategy of cancer.

  15. Chimeric peptide containing both B and T cells epitope of tumor-associated antigen L6 enhances anti-tumor effects in HLA-A2 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Su-I; Huang, Ming-Hsi; Chang, Yu-Wen; Chen, I-Hua; Roffler, Steve; Chen, Bing-Mae; Sher, Yuh-Pyng; Liu, Shih-Jen

    2016-07-28

    Synthetic peptides are attractive for cancer immunotherapy because of their safety and flexibility. In this report, we identified a new B cell epitope of tumor-associated antigen L6 (TAL6) that could induce antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vivo. We incorporated the B cell epitope with a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and a helper T (Th) epitope to form a chimeric long peptide. We formulated the chimeric peptide with different adjuvants to immunize HLA-A2 transgenic mice and evaluate their immunogenicity. The chimeric peptide formulated with an emulsion type nanoparticle (PELC) adjuvant and a toll-like receptor 9 agonist (CpG ODN) (PELC/CpG) induced the greatest ADCC and CTL responses. The induced anti-tumor immunity inhibited the growth of TAL6-positive cancer cells. Moreover, we observed that immunization with the chimeric peptide inhibited cancer cell migration in vitro and metastasis in vivo. These data suggest that a chimeric peptide containing both B and T cell epitopes of TAL6 formulated with PELC/CpG adjuvant is feasible for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27130449

  16. Role of chitosan co-formulation in enhancing interleukin-12 delivery and antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lirong; Zaharoff, David A

    2013-05-01

    Local delivery systems that provide sustained, high concentrations of antitumor cytokines in the tumor microenvironment while minimizing systemic dissemination are needed to realize the potential of cytokine-based immunotherapies. Recently, co-formulations of cytokines with chitosan solutions have been shown to increase local cytokine retention and bioactivity. In particular, intratumoral (i.t.) injections of chitosan/IL-12 can eliminate established tumors and generate tumor-specific immune responses. In the present study, we explored the mechanisms by which chitosan potentiated IL-12's antitumor activity. The location of chitosan/IL-12 injection was found to be critical for optimal cytokine delivery. I.t. injections eliminated 9 of 10 MC38 adenocarcinomas while contralateral and peritumoral injections delayed tumor growth but could not eliminate tumors. Microdosing studies demonstrated that IL-12 depots, simulated through daily i.t. injections with IL-12 alone, were not as effective as weekly i.t. chitosan/IL-12. 50-75% of mice receiving daily IL-12 microdoses and 87.5% of mice receiving weekly chitosan/IL-12 were cured of MC38 tumors. Chitosan was found to increase IL-12-mediated leukocytic expansion in tumors and tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs) by 40 and 100%, respectively. Immunophenotyping studies demonstrated that chitosan co-formulation amplified IL-12-induced increases in important effector populations, such as CD8(+)IFN-γ(+) and NKT cells, in tumors and dendritic cell populations in TDLNs. Remarkable increases in Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) tumor infiltrates were also observed in mice receiving chitosan or chitosan/IL-12. This population does not appear be suppressive and may facilitate the local antitumor response. Presented data suggest that chitosan-mediated depot formation and enhanced local cytokine retention is significantly, but not entirely, responsible for increased cytokine bioactivity. PMID:23453060

  17. Disruption of CD8+ Treg activity results in expansion of T follicular helper cells and enhanced antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Arias, Diana A; Kim, Hye-Jung; Zhou, Penghui; Holderried, Tobias A W; Wang, Xuan; Dranoff, Glenn; Cantor, Harvey

    2014-03-01

    Tumor growth is associated with the inhibition of host antitumor immune responses that can impose serious obstacles to cancer immunotherapy. To define the potential contribution of Qa-1-restricted CD8 regulatory T cells (Treg) to the development of tumor immunity, we studied B6.Qa-1 D227K mice that harbor a point mutation in the MHC class Ib molecule Qa-1 that impairs CD8 Treg suppressive activity. Here, we report that the growth of B16 melanoma is substantially delayed in these Qa-1-mutant mice after therapeutic immunization with B16 melanoma cells engineered to express granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor compared with Qa-1 B6-WT controls. Reduced tumor growth is associated with enhanced expansion of follicular T helper cells, germinal center B cells, and high titers of antitumor autoantibodies, which provoke robust antitumor immune responses in concert with tumor-specific cytolytic T cells. Analysis of tumor-infiltrating T cells revealed that the Qa-1 DK mutation was associated with an increase in the ratio of CD8(+) T effectors compared with CD8 Tregs. These data suggest that the CD8(+) T effector-Treg ratio may provide a useful prognostic index for cancer development and raise the possibility that depletion or inactivation of CD8 Tregs represents a potentially effective strategy to enhance antitumor immunity. PMID:24778317

  18. Antitumor effect of synergistic contribution of nitrite and hydrogen peroxide in the plasma activated medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurake, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Kenji; Nakamura, Kae; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kikkawa, Fumiaki; Kondo, Takashi; Mizuno, Masaaki; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2015-09-01

    Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasmas (NEAPP) have been attracted attention in the noble application of cancer therapy. Although good effects of the Plasma-Activated-Medium (PAM) such as the selective antitumor effect and killing effect for the anticancer agent resistant cells were reported, a mechanism of this effect has not been still clarified yet. In this study, we have investigated a contribution of the reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS) generated in PAM such as hydrogen peroxide and nitrite. Those species generated in the PAM quantitatively measured by light absorbance of commercial regent. Moreover, viable cell count after cell culture with those RNOS intentionally added medium or PAM were also measured by MTS assay. Our NEAPP source generated hydrogen peroxide and nitrite with the generation ratio of 0.35 μM/s and 9.8 μM/s. In those RNOS, hydrogen peroxide has respective antitumor effect. On the other hands, nitrite has no antitumor effect singly. But, synergistically enhance the antitumor effect of hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, this effect of those RNOS also contribute for the selectively cancer killing effect of PAM.

  19. Effect of linalool as a component of Humulus lupulus on doxorubicin-induced antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Michiko; Sadzuka, Yasuyuki

    2013-03-01

    As malignant neoplasm is a major public health problem, there is a need for the development of a novel modulator that enhances antitumor activity and reduces adverse reactions to antitumor agents. In this study, the effects of some volatile oil components in Humulus lupulus on doxorubicin (DOX) permeability in tumor cells and DOX-induced antitumor activity were examined. In vitro, DOX levels in tumor cells by combined linalool as its component significantly increased in the DOX influx system, and the increased effect by linalool on DOX cytotoxicity was shown. In vivo, the combination of DOX with linalool significantly decreased tumor weight compared with that of DOX alone treated group. The promotion of DOX influx level by combined linalool did not depend on energy, whereas it was suppressed by the absence of Na(+). This promoting effect was suppressed by the presence of S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine and inhibited dependently on phlorizin concentration. It is considered that linalool promoted DOX influx in tumor cells because of its action on DOX transport through concentrative Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transporter 3, which increased DOX concentration in tumor cells and thus enhanced the antitumor activity of DOX. Therefore, linalool as a food component is anticipated to be an effective DOX modulator. PMID:23220514

  20. The effect of taurine, a novel biochemical modulator, on the antitumor activity of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Sadzuka, Yasuyuki; Matsuura, Makoto; Sonobe, Takashi

    2009-09-01

    Taurine is contained in seafood and has been studied extensively on life-style related diseases. Theanine increased the effects of the doxorubicin (DOX) as an antitumor agent in some tumors and enhanced the DOX level in tumor cells. It is expected that the advanced effect of food uptake in cancer chemotherapy may be effective from the viewpoint of quality of life (QOL) improvement, although this approach has not been investigated in detail. In this study, the effect of taurine as a functional amino acid was examined. Taurine did not change the DOX influx into M5076 cells, whereas it significantly inhibited DOX efflux, which maintained the DOX level in tumor cells. Furthermore, experiments with taurine decreased tumor weight by 40%, compared to the DOX-alone group and significantly increased its antitumor effect. Moreover, as taurine did not increase DOX concentration in normal tissue, it is suggested that it increased the antitumor effect without enhancing DOX-induced adverse effects. DOX efflux is inhibited by beta-alanine as a taurine transporter inhibitor, therefore, enhancement of the DOX level by taurine was suggested to act via taurine transport. Namely, it was clarified that taurine was useful as a modulator to enhance the therapeutic index of cancer patients and improve QOL. PMID:19721236

  1. Antitumor effect of a polysaccharide isolated from Phellinus pullus as an immunostimulant

    PubMed Central

    YANG, WEIHUA; ZHANG, HENGLAN; JI, MINGYU; PEI, FENGYAN; WANG, YUNSHAN

    2016-01-01

    The antitumor function of fungal polysaccharides is a popular area of interest in the research field due to their high efficiency and low side effects. The main mechanism of fungal polysaccharides is immune enhancement. The polysaccharose (APS-3) was extracted from the fruit body of Phellinus pullus. The proliferation inhibition to mouse sarcoma 180 (S180) tumor cells was studied by the MTT method. Mice models of transplanted S180 tumor were established and treated with APS-3 to verify the antitumor activity in vivo. Natural killer (NK) and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cytotoxicities of the mice were evaluated by the lactate dehydrogenase method. APS-3 can significantly inhibit the proliferation of the S180 cells. Cells could be completely inhibited by 1.6 mg/ml APS-3 after 24 h treatment. After 18 days of treatment, the antitumor rate of the high-dose group was 85.47%. Histopathology detection showed that for the APS-3-treated mice, the tumor cells dissolved, and exhibited a large range of structureless necrotic areas. NK and LAK cytotoxicities of the APS-3 treated mice increased by 61.85 and 56.16%, respectively, compared with the normal control mice. APS-3 can be used as an antitumor agent by way of immune enhancement. PMID:26998276

  2. Immunological mechanisms of the antitumor effects of supplemental oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Hatfield, Stephen M.; Kjaergaard, Jorgen; Lukashev, Dmitriy; Schreiber, Taylor H.; Belikoff, Bryan; Abbott, Robert; Sethumadhavan, Shalini; Philbrook, Phaethon; Ko, Kami; Cannici, Ryan; Thayer, Molly; Rodig, Scott; Kutok, Jeffrey L.; Jackson, Edwin K.; Karger, Barry; Podack, Eckhard R.; Ohta, Akio; Sitkovsky, Michail V.

    2015-01-01

    Antitumor T cells either avoid or are inhibited in hypoxic and extracellular adenosine-rich tumor microenvironments (TMEs) by A2A adenosine receptors. This may limit further advances in cancer immunotherapy. There is a need for readily available and safe treatments that weaken the hypoxia–A2-adenosinergic immunosuppression in the TME. Recently, we reported that respiratory hyperoxia decreases intratumoral hypoxia and concentrations of extracellular adenosine. We show that it also reverses the hypoxia-adenosinergic immunosuppression in the TME. This, in turn, stimulates (i) enhanced intratumoral infiltration and reduced inhibition of endogenously developed or adoptively transfered tumor-reactive CD8 T cells, (ii) increased proinflammatory cytokines and decreased immunosuppressive molecules, such as transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β), (iii) weakened immunosuppression by regulatory T cells, and (iv) improved lung tumor regression and long-term survival in mice. Respiratory hyperoxia also promoted the regression of spontaneous metastasis from orthotopically grown breast tumors. These effects are entirely T cell– and natural killer cell–dependent, thereby justifying the testing of supplemental oxygen as an immunological coadjuvant to combine with existing immunotherapies for cancer. PMID:25739764

  3. [Research progress on anti-tumor effect of Huaier].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ai-lin; Hu, Zhong-dong; Tu, Peng-fei

    2015-12-01

    Huaier (Trametes robiniophila) has been widely used as an adjuvant drug for cancer treatment in China. The anti-cancer effect of Huaier extract has been confirmed in liver cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, gastric cancer, and so on. The main mechanisms by which Huaier exerts an anti-neoplastic effect include inhibition of the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, induction of apoptosis of cancer cells, suppression of angiogenesis, inhibition of the invasion and migration of cancer cells, regulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes expression, improving immunity, and reversal of drug resistance in cancer cells. In order to provide references for further study and clinical application on anti-tumor effect of Huaier, the latest research progress on anti-tumor effect of Huaier in recent years is summarized in this paper. PMID:27245026

  4. Aliphatic acid-conjugated antimicrobial peptides--potential agents with anti-tumor, multidrug resistance-reversing activity and enhanced stability.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xin; Qiu, Qianqian; Ma, Ke; Wang, Xuekun; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2015-07-28

    Compared with traditional therapeutics, antimicrobial peptides as novel anti-tumor agents have prominent advantages of higher specificity and circumvention of multi-drug resistance. In a previous study, we found that B1, an antimicrobial peptide derived from Cathelicidin-BF15, presented specific anti-tumor activity against several tumor cells. Since aliphatic chain-conjugated peptides have shown ameliorative activity and stability, we conjugated aliphatic acids with different lengths to the amino terminal of B1. All the conjugated peptides exhibited improved anti-tumor activity over B1. Further investigations revealed that the peptides were capable of disrupting the cell membrane, stimulating cytochrome c release into the cytosol, which results in apoptosis. The peptides also acted against multidrug resistant cells and had multidrug resistance-reversing effects. Additionally, conjugation of aliphatic acid enhanced the peptide stability in plasma. In summary, aliphatic acid-modified peptides might be promising anti-tumor agents in the future. PMID:26083110

  5. Enhanced antitumor efficacy of cisplatin in combination with HemoHIM in tumor-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Although cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents, cisplatin alone does not achieve a satisfactory therapeutic outcome. Also cisplatin accumulation shows toxicity to normal tissues. In this study, we examined the possibility of HemoHIM both to enhance anticancer effect with cisplatin and to reduce the side effects of cisplatin in melanoma-bearing mice. Methods HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of 3 edible herbs, Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. Anticancer effects of HemoHIM with cisplatin were evaluated in melanoma-bearing mice. We used a Cr51-release assay to measure the activity of NK/Tc cell and ELISA to evaluate the production of cytokines. Results In melanoma-bearing mice, cisplatin (4 mg/kg B.W.) reduced the size and weight of the solid tumors, and HemoHIM supplementation with cisplatin enhanced the decrease of both the tumor size (p < 0.1) and weight (p < 0.1). HemoHIM itself did not inhibit melanoma cell growth in vitro, and did not disturb the effects of cisplatin in vitro. However HemoHIM administration enhanced both NK cell and Tc cell activity in mice. Interestingly, HemoHIM increased the proportion of NK cells in the spleen. In melanoma-bearing mice treated with cisplatin, HemoHIM administration also increased the activity of NK cells and Tc cells and the IL-2 and IFN-γ secretion from splenocytes, which seemed to contribute to the enhanced efficacy of cisplatin by HemoHIM. Also, HemoHIM reduced nephrotoxicity as seen by tubular cell of kidney destruction. Conclusion HemoHIM may be a beneficial supplement during cisplatin chemotherapy for enhancing the anti-tumor efficacy and reducing the toxicity of cisplatin. PMID:19292900

  6. Polysaccharides from Dioscorea (山藥 Shān Yào) and Other Phytochemicals Enhance Antitumor Effects Induced by DNA Vaccine Against Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wen-Chi; Wang, Jeng-Hwan; Aravindaram, Kandan; Wang, Shu-Jane; Hsu, Chih-Chien; Li, Chin-Jin; Wen, Chih-Chun; Sheu, Jyh-Horng; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Adjuvants can be used to enhance the immunogenicity of antigens and improve the efficacy of vaccines. Potent adjuvant action is known to often correlate with the activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Specific plant polysaccharides and a variety of phytochemicals from foods and traditional medicinal herbs have been shown to modulate NF-κB activation. In the present study, selected plant polysaccharides and phytochemicals were evaluated for use as a DNA vaccine adjuvant in a murine melanoma model. We observed that a specific ethanol extract fraction (DsCE-I) from the tuber of a key Traditional Chinese Medicine plant, Dioscorea (山藥 Shān Yào), enhanced the protection against melanoma after immunization with a gene-based vaccine. A number of anti-inflammatory phytochemicals tested were able to partially diminish the inflammation-associated tumorigenesis elicited by LPS. Among the several phytochemical combinations investigated, the use of an adjuvant containing LPS in combination with emodin resulted in smaller tumors and higher survival rate in test mice than the use of other adjuvant treatments and the control sets in this DNA cancer vaccine model. A Dioscorea polysaccharide fraction (DsCE-I) and several specific phytochemicals warrant further exploration as useful adjuvants for anticancer vaccines. PMID:24872932

  7. Enhanced antitumor activity of low-dose continuous administration schedules of topotecan in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Mock, Jason N; Costyn, Leah J; Nguyen, Ha; Nagy, Tamas; Cummings, Brian S

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to determine the antitumor effects of alternate dosing schedules of topotecan in prostate cancer. Results A concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity was observed in PC-3 and LNCaP cells after topotecan treatment using conventional and metronomic protocols. A significant increase in potency (2.4–18 fold, after 72 h) was observed following metronomic dosing compared with conventional dosing administration in both cell lines. Metronomic dosing also increased the percentage of PC-3 cells in the G2/M, compared with control, but did not alter LNCaP cell cycle distribution. Metronomic dosing increased p21 protein expression in LNCaP and PC-3 cells compared with conventional dosing. The observed in vitro activity was confirmed using an in vivo model of human prostate cancer. Metronomic dosing and continuous infusion decreased tumor volume significantly (p ≤ 0.05) compared with control and conventional topotecan treatment, but had no effect on tumor vascular staining. Methods The cytotoxicity of topotecan after conventional or metronomic dosing was determined by examining cellular morphology, mitochondrial enzymatic activity (MTT), total cellular protein (SRB), annexin V and propidium iodine (PI) staining, cell cycle and protein gel blot analysis in human prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3 and LNCaP) and the effects metronomic or continuous infusion on tumor growth in an in vivo tumor xenograft model. Conclusions These data support the hypothesis that low-dose continuous administration of topotecan increases potency compared with conventional dosing in prostate cancer. These data also suggest the novel finding that the enhanced antitumor activity of topotecan following low-dose exposure correlates to alterations in cell cycle and increased p21 expression. PMID:21709443

  8. Support of a free radical mechanism for enhanced antitumor efficacy of the microtubule disruptor OXi4503.

    PubMed

    Rice, Lori; Pampo, Christine; Lepler, Sharon; Rojiani, Amyn M; Siemann, Dietmar W

    2011-01-01

    Unlike normal blood vessels, the unique characteristics of an expanding, disorganized and leaky tumor vascular network can be targeted for therapeutic gain by vascular disrupting agents (VDAs), which promote rapid and selective collapse of tumor vessels, causing extensive secondary cancer cell death. A hallmark observation following VDA treatment is the survival of neoplastic cells at the tumor periphery. However, comparative studies with the second generation tubulin-binding VDA OXi4503 indicate that the viable rim of tumor tissue remaining following treatment with this agent is significantly smaller than that seen for the lead VDA, combretastatin. OXi4503 is the cis-isomer of CA1P and it has been speculated that this agent's increased antitumor efficacy may be due to its reported metabolism to orthoquinone intermediates leading to the formation of cytotoxic free radicals. To examine this possibility in situ, KHT sarcoma-bearing mice were treated with either the cis- or trans-isomer of CA1P. Since both isomers can form quinone intermediates but only the cis-isomer binds tubulin, such a comparison allows the effects of vascular collapse to be evaluated independently from those caused by the reactive hydroxyl groups. The results showed that the cis-isomer (OXi4503) significantly impaired tumor blood flow leading to secondary tumor cell death and >95% tumor necrosis 24h post drug exposure. Treatment with the trans-isomer had no effect on these parameters. However, the combination of the trans-isomer with combretastatin increased the antitumor efficacy of the latter agent to near that of OXi4503. These findings indicate that while the predominant in vivo effect of OXi4503 is clearly due to microtubule collapse and vascular shut-down, the formation of toxic free radicals likely contributes to its enhanced potency. PMID:20974154

  9. The antitumor effect of magnetic nanodisks and DNA aptamer conjugates.

    PubMed

    Kim, P D; Zamay, S S; Zamay, T N; Prokopenko, V S; Kolovskaya, O S; Zamay, G S; Princ, V Ya; Seleznev, V A; Komonov, A I; Spivak, E A; Rudenko, R Yu; Dubinina, A V; Komarov, A V; Denisenko, V V; Komarova, M A; Sokolov, A E; Narodov, A A; Zjivaev, V P; Zamay, A S

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe a method of forming large arrays (up to 10(9) pieces) of free magnetic Ni-nanodisks 50 nm thick coated on both sides with layers of 5 nm thick Au. The antitumor effect of the magnetic nickel gold-coated nanodisks and DNA aptamer conjugates was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Under the influence of rotating magnetic field, the studied nanodisks can cause the death of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. PMID:27025491

  10. Anti-tumor effects and cellular mechanisms of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Han, Guohua; Xia, Jufeng; Gao, Jianjun; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Tang, Wei; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2015-02-01

    Resveratrol (3, 5, 4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a phytoalexin contained in a variety of plants, such as grapes, berries and especially in the dried roots of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. It has been shown to exhibit anti-oxidative and anti-inflammation activity, and to reverse the effects of aging. Its ability to suppress cell proliferation, induce apoptosis and suppress the metastasis and invasion in a number of cell lines has prompted a large interest from people for its use as an anti-tumor component. In this review, evidence of resveratrol's anti-tumor effects and molecular mechanisms are recapitulated. First, we present the anti-apoptosis, anti-invasion/metastasis and anti-inflammation effect of resveratrol; second, the main signaling pathways involved in these activities are described and summarized with the studies of different tumors involved. Resveratrol not only induces apoptosis of tumor cells through intrinsic/extrinsic pathways and cell cycle arrest, but also inhibits the invasion and metastasis abilities of tumors via modulating collagen degradation-related molecular targets. Altogether, the present findings suggest the anti-tumor potential of resveratrol against various types of cancers. PMID:25788047

  11. Antitumor effects of the benzophenanthridine alkaloid sanguinarine: Evidence and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Gaziano, Roberta; Moroni, Gabriella; Buè, Cristina; Miele, Martino Tony; Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Paola; Pica, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Historically, natural products have represented a significant source of anticancer agents, with plant-derived drugs becoming increasingly explored. In particular, sanguinarine is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid obtained from the root of Sanguinaria canadensis, and from other poppy Fumaria species, with recognized anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, increasing evidence that sanguinarine exibits anticancer potential through its capability of inducing apoptosis and/or antiproliferative effects on tumor cells, has been proved. Moreover, its antitumor seems to be due not only to its pro-apoptotic and inhibitory effects on tumor growth, but also to its antiangiogenic and anti-invasive properties. Although the precise mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of this compound remain not fully understood, in this review we will focus on the most recent findings about the cellular and molecular pathways affected by sanguinarine, together with the rationale of its potential application in clinic. The complex of data currently available suggest the potential application of sanguinarine as an adjuvant in the therapy of cancer, but further pre-clinical studies are needed before such an antitumor strategy can be effectively translated in the clinical practice. PMID:26798435

  12. Antitumor effects of the benzophenanthridine alkaloid sanguinarine: Evidence and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Gaziano, Roberta; Moroni, Gabriella; Buè, Cristina; Miele, Martino Tony; Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Paola; Pica, Francesca

    2016-01-15

    Historically, natural products have represented a significant source of anticancer agents, with plant-derived drugs becoming increasingly explored. In particular, sanguinarine is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid obtained from the root of Sanguinaria canadensis, and from other poppy Fumaria species, with recognized anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, increasing evidence that sanguinarine exibits anticancer potential through its capability of inducing apoptosis and/or antiproliferative effects on tumor cells, has been proved. Moreover, its antitumor seems to be due not only to its pro-apoptotic and inhibitory effects on tumor growth, but also to its antiangiogenic and anti-invasive properties. Although the precise mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of this compound remain not fully understood, in this review we will focus on the most recent findings about the cellular and molecular pathways affected by sanguinarine, together with the rationale of its potential application in clinic. The complex of data currently available suggest the potential application of sanguinarine as an adjuvant in the therapy of cancer, but further pre-clinical studies are needed before such an antitumor strategy can be effectively translated in the clinical practice. PMID:26798435

  13. TP53 modulating agent, CP-31398 enhances antitumor effects of ODC inhibitor in mouse model of urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Madka, Venkateshwar; Mohammed, Altaf; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yuting; Kumar, Gaurav; Lightfoot, Stan; Wu, Xueru; Steele, Vernon; Kopelovich, Levy; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of the tumor suppressor p53 and elevated levels of polyamines are known to play key roles in urothelial tumorigenesis. We investigated the inhibition of polyamines biosynthesis and the restoration of p53 signaling as a possible means of preventing muscle invasive urothelial tumors using DFMO, an ODC-inhibiting agent, and CP-31398 (CP), a p53 stabilizing agent. Transgenic UPII-SV40T male mice at 6weeks age (n=15/group) were fed control diet (AIN-76A) or experimental diets containing DFMO (1000 and 2000 ppm) or 150 ppm CP or both. At 40 weeks of age, all mice were euthanized and urinary bladders were evaluated to determine tumor weight and histopathology. Low-dose DFMO had a moderate significant inhibitory effect on tumor growth (38%, P<0.02) and tumor invasion (23%). High-dose DFMO had a 47% tumor inhibition (P<0.0001) and 40% inhibition tumor invasion. There was no significant difference between 1000 and 2000 ppm doses of DFMO (P>0.05). CP at 150 ppm alone had a strong inhibitory effect on tumor growth by 80% (P<0.0001); however, no effect on tumor invasion was observed. Interestingly, the combination of DFMO (1000 ppm) and CP (150 ppm) led to significant decrease in tumor weight (70%, P<0.0001) and tumor invasion (62.5%; P<0.005). Molecular analysis of the urothelial tumors suggested a modulation of polyamine biosynthesis, proliferation, cell cycle regulators resulting from the use of these agents. These results suggest that targeting two or more pathways could be an effective approach for chemoprevention. A combination of CP and DFMO appears to be a promising strategy for urothelial TCC prevention. PMID:26693057

  14. Rationally designed oxaliplatin-nanoparticle for enhanced antitumor efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraskar, Abhimanyu; Soni, Shivani; Roy, Bhaskar; Papa, Anne-Laure; Sengupta, Shiladitya

    2012-02-01

    Nanoscale drug delivery vehicles have been extensively studied as carriers for cancer chemotherapeutics. However, the formulation of platinum chemotherapeutics in nanoparticles has been a challenge arising from their physicochemical properties. There are only a few reports describing oxaliplatin nanoparticles. In this study, we derivatized the monomeric units of a polyisobutylene maleic acid copolymer with glucosamine, which chelates trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane (DACH) platinum (II) through a novel monocarboxylato and O → Pt coordination linkage. At a specific polymer to platinum ratio, the complex self-assembled into a nanoparticle, where the polymeric units act as the leaving group, releasing DACH-platinum in a sustained pH-dependent manner. Sizing was done using dynamic light scatter and electron microscopy. The nanoparticles were evaluated for efficacy in vitro and in vivo. Biodistribution was quantified using inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectroscopy (ICP-AAS). The PIMA-GA-DACH-platinum nanoparticle was found to be more active than free oxaliplatin in vitro. In vivo, the nanoparticles resulted in greater tumor inhibition than oxaliplatin (equivalent to 5 mg kg-1 platinum dose) with minimal nephrotoxicity or body weight loss. ICP-AAS revealed significant preferential tumor accumulation of platinum with reduced biodistribution to the kidney or liver following PIMA-GA-DACH-platinum nanoparticle administration as compared with free oxaliplatin. These results indicate that the rational engineering of a novel polymeric nanoparticle inspired by the bioactivation of oxaliplatin results in increased antitumor potency with reduced systemic toxicity compared with the parent cytotoxic. Rational design can emerge as an exciting strategy in the synthesis of nanomedicines for cancer chemotherapy.

  15. Lenalidomide enhances antitumor functions of chimeric antigen receptor modified T cells

    PubMed Central

    Otáhal, Pavel; Průková, Dana; Král, Vlastimil; Fabry, Milan; Vočková, Petra; Latečková, Lucie; Trněný, Marek; Klener, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tumor immunotherapy based on the use of chimeric antigen receptor modified T cells (CAR T cells) is a promising approach for the treatment of refractory hematological malignancies. However, a robust response mediated by CAR T cells is observed only in a minority of patients and the expansion and persistence of CAR T cells in vivo is mostly unpredictable.Lenalidomide (LEN) is an immunomodulatory drug currently approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) and mantle cell lymphoma, while it is clinically tested in the therapy of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of activated B cell immunophenotype. LEN was shown to increase antitumor immune responses at least partially by modulating the activity of E3 ubiquitin ligase Cereblon, which leads to increased ubiquitinylation of Ikaros and Aiolos transcription factors, which in turn results in changed expression of various receptors on the surface of tumor cells. In order to enhance the effectiveness of CAR-based immunotherapy, we assessed the anti-lymphoma efficacy of LEN in combination with CAR19 T cells or CAR20 T cells in vitro and in vivo using various murine models of aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHL).Immunodeficient NSG mice were transplanted with various human B-NHL cells followed by treatment with CAR19 or CAR20 T cells with or without LEN. Next, CAR19 T cells were subjected to series of tests in vitro to evaluate their response and signaling capacity following recognition of B cell in the presence or absence of LEN.Our data shows that LEN significantly enhances antitumor functions of CAR19 and CAR20 T cells in vivo. Additionally, it enhances production of interferon gamma by CAR19 T cells and augments cell signaling via CAR19 protein in T cells in vitro. Our data further suggests that LEN works through direct effects on T cells but not on B-NHL cells. The biochemical events underlying this costimulatory effect of LEN are currently being investigated. In summary, our data supports the use

  16. Irradiation enhances susceptibility of tumor cells to the antitumor effects of TNF-α activated adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells in breast cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadpour, Hemn; Pourfathollah, Ali Akbar; Nikougoftar Zarif, Mahin; Shahbazfar, Amir Ali

    2016-01-01

    Gene modified or cytokine activated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used as a treatment in various types of cancer. Moreover, irradiation is usually applied as either a standard primary or adjuvant therapy. Here, we showed that the expression of TNF related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and Dickouf-3 (Dkk-3), the promising anticancer proteins, increased in murine adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AD-MSCs) following activation with TNF-α, resulting in the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. Also, anticancer effects of TNF-α activated AD-MSCs were intensified with irradiation. In vivo results showed that TNF-α preactivated AD-MSCs combined with irradiation decreased tumor size and increased survival rate in tumor bearing mice. On the other hands, both TNF-α preactivated AD-MSCs with or without irradiation prevented metastasis in ling and liver, and increased apoptosis in tumor mass. Finally, flowcytometry assay demonstrated that naïve AD-MSCs combined with irradiation but not TNF-α activated MSCs with irradiation increased Treg population in lymph node and spleen. Altogether, obtained results suggest that TNF-α activated MSCs combined with irradiation therapy can serve as new strategy in breast cancer therapy. PMID:27329316

  17. Irradiation enhances susceptibility of tumor cells to the antitumor effects of TNF-α activated adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells in breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Mohammadpour, Hemn; Pourfathollah, Ali Akbar; Nikougoftar Zarif, Mahin; Shahbazfar, Amir Ali

    2016-01-01

    Gene modified or cytokine activated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used as a treatment in various types of cancer. Moreover, irradiation is usually applied as either a standard primary or adjuvant therapy. Here, we showed that the expression of TNF related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and Dickouf-3 (Dkk-3), the promising anticancer proteins, increased in murine adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AD-MSCs) following activation with TNF-α, resulting in the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. Also, anticancer effects of TNF-α activated AD-MSCs were intensified with irradiation. In vivo results showed that TNF-α preactivated AD-MSCs combined with irradiation decreased tumor size and increased survival rate in tumor bearing mice. On the other hands, both TNF-α preactivated AD-MSCs with or without irradiation prevented metastasis in ling and liver, and increased apoptosis in tumor mass. Finally, flowcytometry assay demonstrated that naïve AD-MSCs combined with irradiation but not TNF-α activated MSCs with irradiation increased Treg population in lymph node and spleen. Altogether, obtained results suggest that TNF-α activated MSCs combined with irradiation therapy can serve as new strategy in breast cancer therapy. PMID:27329316

  18. CYP24A1 Inhibition Enhances the Antitumor Activity of Calcitriol

    PubMed Central

    Muindi, Josephia R.; Yu, Wei-Dong; Ma, Yingyu; Engler, Kristie L.; Kong, Rui-Xian; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2010-01-01

    High systemic exposures to calcitriol are necessary for optimal antitumor effects. Human prostate cancer PC3 cells are insensitive to calcitriol treatment. Therefore, we investigated whether the inhibition of 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1), the major calcitriol inactivating enzyme, by ketoconazole (KTZ) or RC2204 modulates calcitriol serum pharmacokinetics and biologic effects. Dexamethasone (Dex) was added to minimize calcitriol-induced hypercalcemia and as a steroid replacement for the KTZ inhibition of steroid biosynthesis cytochrome P450 enzymes. KTZ effectively inhibited time-dependent calcitriol-inducible CYP24A1 protein expression and enzyme activity in PC3 cells and C3H/HeJ mouse kidney tissues. Systemic calcitriol exposure area under the curve was higher in mice treated with a combination of calcitriol and KTZ than with calcitriol alone. KTZ and Dex synergistically potentiated calcitriol-mediated antiproliferative effects in PC3 cells in vitro; this effect was associated with enhanced apoptosis. After treatment with calcitriol and KTZ/Dex, although caspase-9 and caspase-3 were not activated and cytochrome c was not released by mitochondria, caspase-8 was activated and the truncated Bid protein level was increased. Translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor to the nucleus was observed, indicating a role of the apoptosis-inducing factor-mediated and caspase-independent apoptotic pathways. Calcitriol and KTZ/Dex combination suppressed the clonogenic survival and enhanced the growth inhibition observed with calcitriol alone in PC3 human prostate cancer xenograft mouse model. Our results show that the administration of calcitriol in combination with CYP24A1 inhibitor enhances antiproliferative effects, increases systemic calcitriol exposure, and promotes the activation of caspase-independent apoptosis pathway. PMID:20591973

  19. Characterization of a novel maitake (Grifola frondosa) protein that activates natural killer and dendritic cells and enhances antitumor immunity in mice.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Yao-Wei; Kuan, Yen-Chou; Wang, Jia-Lin; Sheu, Fuu

    2013-10-16

    Grifola frondosa, also known as maitake, is a culinary mushroom with immune-enhancing and antitumor effects. Numerous studies have investigated the activity of maitake polysaccharide extracts, but studies of maitake proteins are scarce. In this study, we purified and characterized a new G. frondosa protein, GFP, from maitake fruiting bodies. GFP is a nonglucan heterodimeric 83 kDa protein that consists of two 41 kDa subunits. GFP induced interferon-γ secretion by murine splenocytes and natural killer cells and activated the maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) via a TLR4-dependent mechanism. GFP-treated BMDCs promoted a Th1 response and exhibited significant antitumor activity when transferred into tumor-bearing mice. In conclusion, we are the first to reveal the critical role of GFP in modulating the immune response and to link the immune-enhancing effects of maitake to its antitumor activities. PMID:24020458

  20. Reduction of Splenic Immunosuppressive Cells and Enhancement of Anti-Tumor Immunity by Synergy of Fish Oil and Selenium Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tsung-Lin; Bauer, Brent A.; Hsia, Simon; Wang, Cheng-Hsu; Huang, Jen-Seng; Wang, Hung-Ming; Yeh, Kun-Yun; Huang, Tse-Hung; Wu, Gwo-Jang; Wu, Chang-Jer

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence has shown that regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) abnormally increase in cancer cachectic patients. Suppressions of Tregs and MDSCs may enhance anti-tumor immunity for cancer patients. Fish oil and selenium have been known to have many biological activities such as anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation. Whether fish oil and/or selenium have an additional effect on population of immunosuppressive cells in tumor-bearing hosts remained elusive and controversial. To gain insights into their roles on anti-tumor immunity, we studied the fish oil- and/or selenium-mediated tumor suppression and immunity on lung carcinoma, whereof cachexia develops. Advancement of cachexia in a murine lung cancer model manifested with such indicative symptoms as weight loss, chronic inflammation and disturbed immune functionality. The elevation of Tregs and MDSCs in spleens of tumor-bearing mice was positively correlated with tumor burdens. Consumption of either fish oil or selenium had little or no effect on the levels of Tregs and MDSCs. However, consumption of both fish oil and selenium together presented a synergistic effect-The population of Tregs and MDSCs decreased as opposed to increase of anti-tumor immunity when both fish oil and selenium were supplemented simultaneously, whereby losses of body weight and muscle/fat mass were alleviated significantly. PMID:23349693

  1. Quercetin enhances the antitumor activity of trichostatin A through upregulation of p53 protein expression in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chan, Shu-Ting; Yang, Nae-Cherng; Huang, Chin-Shiu; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Yeh, Shu-Lan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of quercetin on the anti-tumor effect of trichostatin A (TSA), a novel anticancer drug, in vitro and in vivo and the possible mechanisms of these effects in human lung cancer cells. We first showed that quercetin (5 µM) significantly increased the growth arrest and apoptosis in A549 cells (expressing wild-type p53) induced by 25 ng/mL of (82.5 nM) TSA at 48 h by about 25% and 101%, respectively. However, such enhancing effects of quercetin (5 µM) were not significant in TSA-exposed H1299 cells (a p53 null mutant) or were much lower than in A549 cells. In addition, quercetin significantly increased TSA-induced p53 expression in A549 cells. Transfection of p53 siRNA into A549 cells significantly but not completely diminished the enhancing effects of quercetin on TSA-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that quercetin enhanced TSA-induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. Transfection of p53 siRNA abolished such enhancing effects of quercetin. However, quercetin increased the acetylation of histones H3 and H4 induced by TSA in A549 cells, even with p53 siRNA transfection as well as in H1299 cells. In a xenograft mouse model of lung cancer, quercetin enhanced the antitumor effect of TSA. Tumors from mice treated with TSA in combination with quercetin had higher p53 and apoptosis levels than did those from control and TSA-treated mice. These data indicate that regulation of the expression of p53 by quercetin plays an important role in enhancing TSA-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. However, p53-independent mechanisms may also contribute to the enhancing effect of quercetin. PMID:23342112

  2. Synergistic anti-tumor effects of zoledronic acid and radiotherapy against metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Morii, Kazuhiko; Aoyama, Yuhki; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Okushin, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    A 72-year-old man with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and decompensated hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis suffered from a metastatic femoral fracture. After undergoing radiotherapy, he was only treated with supportive care, except for the administration of zoledronic acid (ZA). Thereafter, the initially elevated serum α-fetoprotein and des-gamma carboxyprothrombin levels declined to within the normal ranges. Hepatic and metastatic adrenal tumors, distant from the radiation field, exhibited a surprising regression. ZA is known to inhibit the activity of osteoclasts, bone-residential macrophages, and has been reported to have a direct anti-tumor effect. ZA may adjust the immunological milieu in tumor microenvironments by inhibiting the tumor-associated macrophages. Because radiotherapy can enhance the presentation of tumor-associated antigens, ZA and radiotherapy may exert synergistic anti-tumor effects. PMID:26466697

  3. Dual actions of albumin packaging and tumor targeting enhance the antitumor efficacy and reduce the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ke; Li, Rui; Zhou, Xiaolei; Hu, Ping; Zhang, Yaxin; Huang, Yunmei; Chen, Zhuo; Huang, Mingdong

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective chemotherapy drug used to treat different types of cancers. However, DOX has severe side effects, especially life-threatening cardiotoxicity. We herein report a new approach to reduce the toxicity of DOX by embedding DOX inside human serum albumin (HSA). HSA is further fused by a molecular biology technique with a tumor-targeting agent, amino-terminal fragment of urokinase (ATF). ATF binds with a high affinity to urokinase receptor, which is a cell-surface receptor overexpressed in many types of tumors. The as-prepared macromolecule complex (ATF–HSA:DOX) was not as cytotoxic as free DOX to cells in vitro, and was mainly localized in cell cytosol in contrast to DOX that was localized in cell nuclei. However, in tumor-bearing mice, ATF–HSA:DOX was demonstrated to have an enhanced tumor-targeting and antitumor efficacy compared with free DOX. More importantly, histopathological examinations of the hearts from the mice treated with ATF–HSA:DOX showed a significantly reduced cardiotoxicity compared with hearts from mice treated with free DOX. These results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach in reducing the cardiotoxicity of DOX while strengthening its antitumor efficacy. Such a tumor-targeted albumin packaging strategy can also be applied to other antitumor drugs. PMID:26346331

  4. Enhanced tumor targeting and antitumor efficacy via hydroxycamptothecin-encapsulated folate-modified N-succinyl-N'-octyl chitosan micelles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongyan; Cao, Jie; Cui, Sisi; Qian, Zhiyu; Gu, Yueqing

    2013-04-01

    10-Hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) is an effective anticancer drug against various types of solid tumors. But the antitumor efficacy of HCPT is far from satisfactory because of its poor physicochemical properties, short circulating half-life, low stability, and nonspecific toxicity to normal tissues. Therefore, a targeted delivery strategy for HCPT to pathological sites is eagerly needed to overcome these limitations. The folate-modified N-succinyl-N'-octyl chitosan (folate-SOC) micelle was chosen in this study and served as the targeted delivery system for HCPT to improve the antitumor efficacy. The water-insoluble anticancer drug HCPT was encapsulated into the folate-SOC micelles by the dialysis method. The near-spherical HCPT-loaded folate-SOC (HCPT/folate-SOC) micelles were formed in aqueous media with diameter of about 100-200 nm. The HCPT/folate-SOC micelles displayed a good stability, reasonable drug-loading content (about 10%), and sustained release behavior for the water-insoluble HCPT. Compared with free HCPT, HCPT/folate-SOC micelles exhibited a significant enhancement of cellular uptake, higher cytotoxicity against folate receptor positive tumor cell (Bel-7402), excellent tumor-targeting capability and substantially better antitumor efficacy on the nude mice bearing Bel-7402 xenografts. These results demonstrate the potential of folate-SOC micelles as long-term stable and effective drug delivery systems in cancer therapy. PMID:23400693

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa injection enhanced antitumor cytotoxicity of cytokine-induced killer cells derived from cord blood.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Li-Ping; Zhao, Xian-Lan; Wang, Fei; Huang, Lan; Wang, Meng; Chen, Xin-Feng; Li, Hong; Zhang, Yi

    2014-10-01

    Cord blood (CB) is becoming an extensive source of cytokine-induced killer cells. It had been used in several clinical settings and proven to be efficacious and safe. Therefore, we investigated the possibility of combining CIK cells derived from cord blood (CB-CIK) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa injection (PA-MSHA) in order to enhance the cytotoxicity of CB-CIK cells against tumors. Compared with the CB-CIK cells, the PA-MSHA-treated CB-CIK cells demonstrated with increased proliferation rates, higher expression of activated cell surface marker CD28 and lower expression of inhibited cell surface markers PD-1 and CTLA-4. Furthermore, PA-MSHA-treated CB-CIK cells exhibited more effectively for secreting pro-inflammatory cytokine such as IFN-γ and expressing high levels of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6. The expression of CD107a was higher in the CD3(+)CD56(+) subset of PA-MSHA-treated CB-CIK cells. Our results indicate that the PA-MSHA-treated CB-CIK cells exhibited a more potent in cytotoxic activity against tumor cells. Thus, PA-MSHA enhanced the antitumor ability of CB-CIK cells. PMID:25465152

  6. Enhanced antitumoral activity of doxorubicin against lung cancer cells using biodegradable poly(butylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Melguizo, Consolación; Cabeza, Laura; Prados, Jose; Ortiz, Raúl; Caba, Octavio; Rama, Ana R; Delgado, Ángel V; Arias, José L

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is widely used for the combined chemotherapy of solid tumors. However, the use of these drug associations in lung cancer has low antitumor efficacy. To improve its efficacious delivery and activity in lung adenocarcinoma cells, we developed a biodegradable and noncytotoxic nanoplatform based on biodegradable poly(butylcyanoacrylate) (PBCA). The reproducible formulation method was based on an anionic polymerization process of the PBCA monomer, with the antitumor drug being entrapped within the nanoparticle (NP) matrix during its formation. Improved drug-entrapment efficiencies and sustained (biphasic) drug-release properties were made possible by taking advantage of the synthesis conditions (drug, monomer, and surfactant-agent concentrations). Dox-loaded NPs significantly enhanced cellular uptake of the drug in the A549 and LL/2 lung cancer cell lines, leading to a significant improvement of the drug’s antitumoral activity. In vivo studies demonstrated that Dox-loaded NPs clearly reduced tumor volumes and increased mouse-survival rates compared to the free drug. These results demonstrated that PBCA NPs may be used to optimize the antitumor activity of Dox, thus exhibiting a potential application in chemotherapy against lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:26715840

  7. Anti-tumor effects of an engineered 'killer' transfer RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Dong-hui; Lee, Jiyoung; Frankenberger, Casey; Geslain, Renaud; Rosner, Marsha; Pan, Tao

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA with anti-cancer effects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA induced protein misfolding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA as anti-tumor agent. -- Abstract: A hallmark of cancer cells is their ability to continuously divide; and rapid proliferation requires increased protein translation. Elevating levels of misfolded proteins can elicit growth arrest due to ER stress and decreased global translation. Failure to correct prolonged ER stress eventually results in cell death via apoptosis. tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) is an engineered human tRNA{sup Ser} with an anticodon coding for isoleucine. Here we test the possibility that tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) can be an effective killing agent of breast cancer cells and can effectively inhibit tumor-formation in mice. We found that tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) exert strong effects on breast cancer translation activity, cell viability, and tumor formation. Translation is strongly inhibited by tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) in both tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells. tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) significantly decreased the number of viable cells over time. A short time treatment with tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) was sufficient to eliminate breast tumor formation in a xenograft mouse model. Our results indicate that tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) can inhibit breast cancer metabolism, growth and tumor formation. This RNA has strong anti-cancer effects and presents an opportunity for its development into an anti-tumor agent. Because tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) corrupts the protein synthesis mechanism that is an integral component of the cell, it would be extremely difficult for tumor cells to evolve and develop resistance against this anti-tumor agent.

  8. An oncolytic adenovirus enhanced for toll-like receptor 9 stimulation increases antitumor immune responses and tumor clearance.

    PubMed

    Cerullo, Vincenzo; Diaconu, Iulia; Romano, Valentina; Hirvinen, Mari; Ugolini, Matteo; Escutenaire, Sophie; Holm, Sirkka-Liisa; Kipar, Anja; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli

    2012-11-01

    Oncolytic viruses represent a multifaceted tool for cancer treatment. In addition to specific killing of cancer cells (oncolysis), these agents also provide danger signals prompting the immune system to stimulate an antitumor immune response. To increase adenovirus adjuvancy, we engineered the genome of Ad5D24 by inserting 18 immunostimulatory islands (Ad5D24-CpG). The toxicity and immunogenicity profile of Ad5D24-CpG showed that the safety of the maternal virus was retained. The efficacy of the CpG-enriched virus was assessed in a xenograft model of lung cancer where a significant increase in antitumor effect was seen in comparison with controls. When the experiment was repeated in animal depleted of natural killer (NK) cells, Ad5D24-CpG lost its advantage. The same was seen when Toll-like receptor (TLR)9 was blocked systemically. In a syngeneic model of melanoma (B16-OVA), we observed a significant increase of OVA-specific T cells and a decrease of activation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in Ad5D24-CpG-treated mice. In conclusion, we have generated the first genetically modified oncolytic adenovirus backbone able to enhance TLR9-stimulation for increased antitumor activity. PMID:22828500

  9. An Oncolytic Adenovirus Enhanced for Toll-like Receptor 9 Stimulation Increases Antitumor Immune Responses and Tumor Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Cerullo, Vincenzo; Diaconu, Iulia; Romano, Valentina; Hirvinen, Mari; Ugolini, Matteo; Escutenaire, Sophie; Holm, Sirkka-Liisa; Kipar, Anja; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli

    2012-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses represent a multifaceted tool for cancer treatment. In addition to specific killing of cancer cells (oncolysis), these agents also provide danger signals prompting the immune system to stimulate an antitumor immune response. To increase adenovirus adjuvancy, we engineered the genome of Ad5D24 by inserting 18 immunostimulatory islands (Ad5D24-CpG). The toxicity and immunogenicity profile of Ad5D24-CpG showed that the safety of the maternal virus was retained. The efficacy of the CpG-enriched virus was assessed in a xenograft model of lung cancer where a significant increase in antitumor effect was seen in comparison with controls. When the experiment was repeated in animal depleted of natural killer (NK) cells, Ad5D24-CpG lost its advantage. The same was seen when Toll-like receptor (TLR)9 was blocked systemically. In a syngeneic model of melanoma (B16-OVA), we observed a significant increase of OVA-specific T cells and a decrease of activation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in Ad5D24-CpG–treated mice. In conclusion, we have generated the first genetically modified oncolytic adenovirus backbone able to enhance TLR9-stimulation for increased antitumor activity. PMID:22828500

  10. Antitumor effect of seaweeds. II. Fractionation and partial characterization of the polysaccharide with antitumor activity from Sargassum fulvellum.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, I; Nagumo, T; Fujihara, M; Takahashi, M; Ando, Y

    1977-06-01

    An almost purified antitumor polysaccharide fraction (SFPP) was obtained by fractional precipitation with ethanol from hot-water extract of Sargassum fulvellum. The fraction showed remarkable tumor-inhibiting effect against sarcoma-180 implanted subcutaneously in mice. The results of chemical and physical analyses suggested that the active substance may be either a sulphated peptidoglycuronoglycan or a sulphated glycuronoglycan. PMID:916293

  11. Antitumor Effect of Zhihuang Fuzheng Soft Capsules on Tumor-Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yanyan; Pan, Xin; Jin, Yahong; Gao, Yingjie; Cui, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese medicines (CMs) have been shown to have some advantages in preventing and controlling tumors. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of ZFSC by establishing a mouse model of HT-1080, A-549, and HCT-8 tumors. The result showed that tumor volumes of HT-1080 tumor-bearing nude mice in ZFSC low, medium, and high dose groups were lower significantly compared to the model group, and the high dose ZFSC showed the best antitumor effect. Tumor volumes of A-549 tumor-bearing nude mice in ZFSC low, medium, and high dose groups were lower significantly compared to the model group and showed a good dose-response relationship. There was no significant effect on human colon cancer, although inhibition trends disappeared in the bar chart. In order to verify the immunomodulatory effect of ZFSC, ELISA was used to analyze serums IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN in spleens. The results showed that ZFSC could enhance the immune function of tumor-bearing mice. ZFSC reduced IFN-γ and TNF-α content in the serum of HT-1080 tumor-bearing mice and inhibit PD1 and PDL1 and suggested that the antitumor mechanism of ZFSC on human fibrosarcoma could be attributed to inhibition of the PDL1/PD1 pathway. PMID:27493673

  12. CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide1826 combined with radioresistant cancer cell vaccine confers significant antitumor effects.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, X B; Xing, N; Zhang, Q; Yuan, S J; Chen, W; Qiao, T K

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy is a hot issue in cancer research over the years and tumor cell vaccine is one of the increasing number of studies. Although the whole tumor cell vaccine can provide the best source of immunizing antigens, there is still a limitation that most tumors are not naturally immunogenic. CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs), synthetic oligonucleotides containing a cytosine-phosphate-guanine(CpG) motif, was shown to enhance immune responses to a wide variety of antigens. In this study, we generated the radioresistant Lewis lung cancer cell by repeated X-ray radiation and inactivated it as a whole tumor cell vaccine to enhance the immunogenicity of tumor cell vaccine. Mice were subcutaneously immunized with this inactivated vaccine combined with CpG ODN1826 and then inoculated with autologous Lewis lung cancer (LLC) to estimate the antitumor efficacy. The results showed that the radioresistant tumor cell vaccine combined with CpG ODN1826 could significantly inhibit tumor growth, increased survival of the mice and with 20% of the mice surviving tumor free in vivo compared with the unimmunized mice bearing LLC tumor. A significant increase of apoptosis was also observed in the tumor prophylactically immunized with vaccine of inactivated radioresistant tumor cell plus CpG ODN1826. The potent antitumor effect correlated with higher secretion levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α) and lower levels of interleukin-10(IL-10) concentration in serum. Furthermore, the results suggested that the antitumor mechanism was probably depended on the decreased level of programmed death ligand-1(PD-L1) which plays an important role in the negative regulation of immune response by the inhibition of tumor antigen-specific T cell activation. These findings clearly demonstrated that the radioresistant tumor cell vaccine combined with CpG ODN1826 as an appropriate adjuvant could induce effective antitumor immunity in vivo. PMID:26458317

  13. Antitumor effect of traditional Chinese herbal medicines against lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuezhou; Zhu, Jianping; Zhang, Wenpeng

    2014-10-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM) is used widely alone or in combination with chemotherapy to treat lung cancer in China. Meta-analysis of clinical trials of TCHM against lung cancer suggested the potential, but not confirmed therapeutic effect. To gain detailed insight into the antilung cancer effects of TCHM, we searched for preclinical studies of TCHM against lung cancer published from 1995 to 2012 and systematically analyzed published articles focusing on the antitumor effect of individual TCHM in lung cancer cell lines or animal models. Among 93 herbal components isolated from 73 Chinese herbs, we found 10 herbal compounds that showed the strongest cytotoxicity in lung cancer cell lines through apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, and agents isolated from seven Chinese herbs that inhibited the primary tumor growth more than 35% in A549 xenografted mice models. In addition, three herbal components suppressed lung cancer cell migration in vitro at the concentration without cytotoxicity. Polyphyllin I, tanshinone IIA, isochaihulactone, 25-OCH3-PPD, and andrographolide were the five TCHM compounds that showed strong antilung cancer effects both in cells and in animal models, and studies of their analogs showed their structure-activity relationships. This review summarizes and analyzes contemporary studies on the antitumor effect of individual TCHM against lung cancer and animal models, providing perspectives to better understand the TCHM effect in lung cancer treatment and develop new antilung cancer drugs from TCHM. PMID:24892722

  14. Anti-tumor effects of an engineered "killer" transfer RNA.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dong-hui; Lee, Jiyoung; Frankenberger, Casey; Geslain, Renaud; Rosner, Marsha; Pan, Tao

    2012-10-12

    A hallmark of cancer cells is their ability to continuously divide; and rapid proliferation requires increased protein translation. Elevating levels of misfolded proteins can elicit growth arrest due to ER stress and decreased global translation. Failure to correct prolonged ER stress eventually results in cell death via apoptosis. tRNA(Ser)(AAU) is an engineered human tRNA(Ser) with an anticodon coding for isoleucine. Here we test the possibility that tRNA(Ser)(AAU) can be an effective killing agent of breast cancer cells and can effectively inhibit tumor-formation in mice. We found that tRNA(Ser)(AAU) exert strong effects on breast cancer translation activity, cell viability, and tumor formation. Translation is strongly inhibited by tRNA(Ser)(AAU) in both tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells. tRNA(Ser)(AAU) significantly decreased the number of viable cells over time. A short time treatment with tRNA(Ser)(AAU) was sufficient to eliminate breast tumor formation in a xenograft mouse model. Our results indicate that tRNA(Ser)(AAU) can inhibit breast cancer metabolism, growth and tumor formation. This RNA has strong anti-cancer effects and presents an opportunity for its development into an anti-tumor agent. Because tRNA(Ser)(AAU) corrupts the protein synthesis mechanism that is an integral component of the cell, it would be extremely difficult for tumor cells to evolve and develop resistance against this anti-tumor agent. PMID:22989754

  15. The vitamin-like dietary supplement para-aminobenzoic acid enhances the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, Sandhya; MacDonald, Shannon; Roth, Jennifer; Caunt, Maresa; Akalu, Abebe; Morais, Danielle; Buckley, Michael T.; Liebes, Leonard; Formenti, Silvia C.; Brooks, Peter C. . E-mail: peter.brooks@med.nyu.edu

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) alters the sensitivity of tumor cells to ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: Cellular proliferation was assessed by WST-1 assays. The effects of PABA and radiation on tumor growth were examined with chick embryo and murine models. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to quantify p21{sup CIP1} and CDC25A levels. Results: Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (by 50%) the growth inhibitory activity of radiation on B16F10 cells, whereas it had no effect on melanocytes. Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (50-80%) the antitumor activity of radiation on B16F10 and 4T1 tumors in vivo. The combination of PABA and radiation therapy increased tumor apoptosis. Treatment of tumor cells with PABA increased expression of CDC25A and decreased levels of p21{sup CIP1}. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that PABA might represent a compound capable of enhancing the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation by a mechanism involving altered expression of proteins known to regulate cell cycle arrest.

  16. The in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor effects of MTX-Fe3O 4-PLLA-PEG-PLLA microspheres prepared by suspension-enhanced dispersion by supercritical CO2.

    PubMed

    Chen, AiZheng; Dang, TingTing; Wang, ShiBin; Tang, Na; Liu, YuanGang; Wu, WenGuo

    2014-07-01

    The in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor efficacy of methotrexate-loaded Fe3O4-poly-L-lactide-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly-L-lactide magnetic composite microspheres (MTX-Fe3O4-PLLA-PEG-PLLA MCMs, MMCMs), which were produced by co-precipitation (C) and microencapsulation (M) in a supercritical process, was evaluated at various levels: cellular, molecular, and integrated. The results at the cellular level indicate that MMCMs (M) show a better anti-proliferation activity than raw MTX and could induce morphological changes of cells undergoing apoptosis. At the molecular level, MMCMs (M) lead to a significantly higher relative mRNA expression of bax/bcl-2 and caspase-3 than MMCMs (C) at 10 μg mL(-1) (P<0.01); and the pro-caspase-3 protein expression measured by Western blot analysis also demonstrates that MMCMs (M) can effectively activate pro-caspase-3. At the integrated level, mice bearing a sarcoma-180 tumor are used; in vivo anti-tumor activity tests reveal that MMCMs (M) with magnetic induction display a much higher tumor suppression rate and lower toxicity than raw MTX. Pharmacokinetic studies show that MMCMs (M) with magnetic induction significantly increase the accumulation of MTX in the tumor tissue compared with the other treatments. These results suggest that the MMCMs (M) prepared by the SpEDS process have great potential to play a positive role in the magnetic targeted therapy field. PMID:24935781

  17. Coating Solid Lipid Nanoparticles with Hyaluronic Acid Enhances Antitumor Activity against Melanoma Stem-like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hongxin; Shi, Sanjun; Zhang, Zhirong; Gong, Tao; Sun, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Successful anticancer chemotherapy requires targeting tumors efficiently and further potential to eliminate cancer stem cell (CSC) subpopulations. Since CD44 is present on many types of CSCs, and it binds specially to hyaluronic acid (HA), we tested whether coating solid lipid nanoparticles with hyaluronan (HA-SLNs)would allow targeted delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) to CD44-overexpressing B16F10 melanoma cells. First, we developed a model system based on melanoma stem-like cells for experiments in vitro and in mouse xenografts, and we showed that cells expressing high levels of CD44 (CD44+) displayed a strong CSC phenotype while cells expressing low levels of CD44 (CD44-) did not. This phenotype included sphere and colony formation, higher proportion of side population cells, expression of CSC-related markers (ALDH, CD133, Oct-4) and tumorigenicity in vivo. Next we showed that administering PTX-loaded HA-SLNs led to efficient intracellular delivery of PTX and induced substantial apoptosis in CD44+ cells in vitro. In the B16F10-CD44+ lung metastasis model, PTX-loaded HA-SLNs targeted the tumor-bearing lung tissues well and subsequently exhibited significant antitumor effects with a relative low dose of PTX, which provided significant survival benefit without evidence of adverse events. These findings suggest that the HA-SLNs targeting system shows promise for enhancing cancer therapy. PMID:25897340

  18. Anti-tumor effect of bevacizumab on a xenograft model of feline mammary carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    MICHISHITA, Masaki; OHTSUKA, Aya; NAKAHIRA, Rei; TAJIMA, Tsuyoshi; NAKAGAWA, Takayuki; SASAKI, Nobuo; ARAI, Toshiro; TAKAHASHI, Kimimasa

    2015-01-01

    Feline mammary carcinomas are characterized by rapid progression and metastases. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of tumor angiogenesis, proliferation and metastasis. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a single drug therapy of bevacizumab on a xenograft model of feline mammary carcinoma expressing VEGF protein. Bevacizumab treatment suppressed tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis and enhancing apoptosis; however, it did not affect the tumor proliferation index. Thus, bevacizumab had anti-tumor effects on a xenograft model, and this may be useful for the treatment of feline mammary carcinoma. PMID:26616000

  19. Cancer-associated fibroblast-targeted strategy enhances antitumor immune responses in dendritic cell-based vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Ohshio, Yasuhiko; Teramoto, Koji; Hanaoka, Jun; Tezuka, Noriaki; Itoh, Yasushi; Asai, Tohru; Daigo, Yataro; Ogasawara, Kazumasa

    2015-01-01

    Given the close interaction between tumor cells and stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME), TME-targeted strategies would be promising for developing integrated cancer immunotherapy. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the dominant stromal component, playing critical roles in generation of the pro-tumorigenic TME. We focused on the immunosuppressive trait of CAFs, and systematically explored the alteration of tumor-associated immune responses by CAF-targeted therapy. C57BL/6 mice s.c. bearing syngeneic E.G7 lymphoma, LLC1 Lewis lung cancer, or B16F1 melanoma were treated with an anti-fibrotic agent, tranilast, to inhibit CAF function. The infiltration of immune suppressor cell types, including regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, in the TME was effectively decreased through reduction of stromal cell-derived factor-1, prostaglandin E2, and transforming growth factor-β. In tumor-draining lymph nodes, these immune suppressor cell types were significantly decreased, leading to activation of tumor-associated antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. In addition, CAF-targeted therapy synergistically enhanced multiple types of systemic antitumor immune responses such as the cytotoxic CD8+ T cell response, natural killer activity, and antitumor humoral immunity in combination with dendritic cell-based vaccines; however, the suppressive effect on tumor growth was not observed in tumor-bearing SCID mice. These data indicate that systemic antitumor immune responses by various immunologic cell types are required to bring out the efficacy of CAF-targeted therapy, and these effects are enhanced when combined with effector-stimulatory immunotherapy such as dendritic cell-based vaccines. Our mouse model provides a novel rationale with TME-targeted strategy for the development of cell-based cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25483888

  20. Features of the Antitumor Effect of Vaccinia Virus Lister Strain

    PubMed Central

    Zonov, Evgeniy; Kochneva, Galina; Yunusova, Anastasiya; Grazhdantseva, Antonina; Richter, Vladimir; Ryabchikova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic abilities of vaccinia virus (VACV) served as a basis for the development of various recombinants for treating cancer; however, “natural” oncolytic properties of the virus are not examined in detail. Our study was conducted to know how the genetically unmodified L-IVP strain of VACV produces its antitumor effect. Human A431 carcinoma xenografts in nude mice and murine Ehrlich carcinoma in C57Bl mice were used as targets for VACV, which was injected intratumorally. A set of virological methods, immunohistochemistry, light and electron microscopy was used in the study. We found that in mice bearing A431 carcinoma, the L-IVP strain was observed in visceral organs within two weeks, but rapidly disappeared from the blood. The L-IVP strain caused decrease of sizes in both tumors, however, in different ways. Direct cell destruction by replicating virus plays a main role in regression of A431 carcinoma xenografts, while in Ehrlich carcinoma, which poorly supported VACV replication, the virus induced decrease of mitoses by pushing tumor cells into S-phase of cell cycle. Our study showed that genetically unmodified VACV possesses at least two mechanisms of antitumor effect: direct destruction of tumor cells and suppression of mitoses in tumor cells. PMID:26771631

  1. Features of the Antitumor Effect of Vaccinia Virus Lister Strain.

    PubMed

    Zonov, Evgeniy; Kochneva, Galina; Yunusova, Anastasiya; Grazhdantseva, Antonina; Richter, Vladimir; Ryabchikova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic abilities of vaccinia virus (VACV) served as a basis for the development of various recombinants for treating cancer; however, "natural" oncolytic properties of the virus are not examined in detail. Our study was conducted to know how the genetically unmodified L-IVP strain of VACV produces its antitumor effect. Human A431 carcinoma xenografts in nude mice and murine Ehrlich carcinoma in C57Bl mice were used as targets for VACV, which was injected intratumorally. A set of virological methods, immunohistochemistry, light and electron microscopy was used in the study. We found that in mice bearing A431 carcinoma, the L-IVP strain was observed in visceral organs within two weeks, but rapidly disappeared from the blood. The L-IVP strain caused decrease of sizes in both tumors, however, in different ways. Direct cell destruction by replicating virus plays a main role in regression of A431 carcinoma xenografts, while in Ehrlich carcinoma, which poorly supported VACV replication, the virus induced decrease of mitoses by pushing tumor cells into S-phase of cell cycle. Our study showed that genetically unmodified VACV possesses at least two mechanisms of antitumor effect: direct destruction of tumor cells and suppression of mitoses in tumor cells. PMID:26771631

  2. Instability of Helios-deficient Tregs is associated with conversion to a T-effector phenotype and enhanced antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Hidetoshi; Sido, Jessica M; Reyes, Edwin E; Kiers, Valerie; Cantor, Harvey; Kim, Hye-Jung

    2016-05-31

    Expression of the transcription factor Helios by Tregs ensures stable expression of a suppressive and anergic phenotype in the face of intense inflammatory responses, whereas Helios-deficient Tregs display diminished lineage stability, reduced FoxP3 expression, and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Here we report that selective Helios deficiency within CD4 Tregs leads to enhanced antitumor immunity through induction of an unstable phenotype and conversion of intratumoral Tregs into T effector cells within the tumor microenvironment. Induction of an unstable Treg phenotype is associated with enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokines by tumor-infiltrating but not systemic Tregs and significantly delayed tumor growth. Ab-dependent engagement of Treg surface receptors that result in Helios down-regulation also promotes conversion of intratumoral but not systemic Tregs into T effector cells and leads to enhanced antitumor immunity. These findings suggest that selective instability and conversion of intratumoral CD4 Tregs through genetic or Ab-based targeting of Helios may represent an effective approach to immunotherapy. PMID:27185917

  3. Enhanced antitumor activity of 3-bromopyruvate in combination with rapamycin in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Pan, Jing; Lubet, Ronald A; Komas, Steven M; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Wang, Yian; You, Ming

    2015-04-01

    3-Bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) is an alkylating agent and a well-known inhibitor of energy metabolism. Rapamycin is an inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase mTOR. Both 3-BrPA and rapamycin show chemopreventive efficacy in mouse models of lung cancer. Aerosol delivery of therapeutic drugs for lung cancer has been reported to be an effective route of delivery with little systemic distribution in humans. In this study, 3-BrPA and rapamycin were evaluated in combination for their preventive effects against lung cancer in mice by aerosol treatment, revealing a synergistic ability as measured by tumor multiplicity and tumor load compared treatment with either single-agent alone. No evidence of liver toxicity was detected by monitoring serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzymes. To understand the mechanism in vitro experiments were performed using human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. 3-BrPA and rapamycin also synergistically inhibited cell proliferation. Rapamycin alone blocked the mTOR signaling pathway, whereas 3-BrPA did not potentiate this effect. Given the known role of 3-BrPA as an inhibitor of glycolysis, we investigated mitochondrial bioenergetics changes in vitro in 3-BrPA-treated NSCLC cells. 3-BrPA significantly decreased glycolytic activity, which may be due to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion and decreased expression of GAPDH. Our results demonstrate that rapamycin enhanced the antitumor efficacy of 3-BrPA, and that dual inhibition of mTOR signaling and glycolysis may be an effective therapeutic strategy for lung cancer chemoprevention. PMID:25644152

  4. Enhanced antitumor efficacy by cyclic RGDyK-conjugated and paclitaxel-loaded pH-responsive polymeric micelles.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yajie; Zhou, Yanxia; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Chao; Li, Yushu; Li, Jinwen; Li, Xinru; Liu, Yan

    2015-09-01

    Cyclic RGDyK (cRGDyK)-conjugated pH-sensitive polymeric micelles were fabricated for targeted delivery of paclitaxel to prostate cancer cells based on pH-sensitive copolymer poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-poly(D,L-lactide) (PEOz-PLA) and cRGDyK-PEOz-PLA to enhance antitumor efficacy. The prepared micelles with an average diameter of about 28nm exhibited rapid release behavior at endo/lysosome pH, effectively enhanced the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel to PC-3 cells by increasing the cellular uptake, which was correlated with integrin αvβ3 expression in tumor cells. The active targeting activity of the micelles was further confirmed by in vivo real time near-infrared fluorescence imaging in PC-3 tumor-bearing nude mice. Moreover, the active targeting and pH-sensitivity endowed cRGDyK-conjugated micelles with a higher antitumor effect in PC-3 xenograft-bearing nude mice compared with unmodified micelles and Taxol with negligible systemic toxicity. Therefore, these results suggested that cRGDyK-conjugated pH-sensitive polymeric micelles may be a promising delivery system for efficient delivery of anticancer drugs to treat integrin αvβ3-rich prostate cancers. PMID:26013038

  5. Antiangiogenic and Antitumor Effects of Trypanosoma cruzi Calreticulin

    PubMed Central

    López, Nandy C.; Valck, Carolina; Ramírez, Galia; Rodríguez, Margarita; Ribeiro, Carolina; Orellana, Juana; Maldonado, Ismael; Albini, Adriana; Anacona, Daniel; Lemus, David; Aguilar, Lorena; Schwaeble, Wilhelm; Ferreira, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    Background In Latin America, 18 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease, with the greatest economic burden. Vertebrate calreticulins (CRT) are multifunctional, intra- and extracellular proteins. In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) they bind calcium and act as chaperones. Since human CRT (HuCRT) is antiangiogenic and suppresses tumor growth, the presence of these functions in the parasite orthologue may have consequences in the host/parasite interaction. Previously, we have cloned and expressed T. cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT) and shown that TcCRT, translocated from the ER to the area of trypomastigote flagellum emergence, promotes infectivity, inactivates the complement system and inhibits angiogenesis in the chorioallantoid chicken egg membrane. Most likely, derived from these properties, TcCRT displays in vivo inhibitory effects against an experimental mammary tumor. Methodology and Principal Findings TcCRT (or its N-terminal vasostatin-like domain, N-TcCRT) a) Abrogates capillary growth in the ex vivo rat aortic ring assay, b) Inhibits capillary morphogenesis in a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) assay, c) Inhibits migration and proliferation of HUVECs and the human endothelial cell line Eahy926. In these assays TcCRT was more effective, in molar terms, than HuCRT: d) In confocal microscopy, live HUVECs and EAhy926 cells, are recognized by FITC-TcCRT, followed by its internalization and accumulation around the host cell nuclei, a phenomenon that is abrogated by Fucoidin, a specific scavenger receptor ligand and, e) Inhibits in vivo the growth of the murine mammary TA3 MTXR tumor cell line. Conclusions/Significance We describe herein antiangiogenic and antitumor properties of a parasite chaperone molecule, specifically TcCRT. Perhaps, by virtue of its capacity to inhibit angiogenesis (and the complement system), TcCRT is anti-inflammatory, thus impairing the antiparasite immune response. The TcCRT antiangiogenic

  6. MMP-2/9-oriented combinations enhance antitumor efficacy of EGFR/HER2-targeting fusion proteins and gemcitabine.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ye; Liu, Xiu-Jun; Li, Liang; Liu, Xu-Jie; Li, Yi; Gao, Rui-Juan; Shao, Rong-Guang; Zhen, Yong-Su

    2014-07-01

    To increase the antitumor efficacy, in the present study, we proposed several settings of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9-oriented combinations that comprise the MMP-2/9-targeting fusion protein dFv-LDP and the MMP inhibitor doxycycline (DOX) in association with EGFR/HER2-bispecific fusion protein Ec-LDP-Hr, its enediyne-energized analogue Ec-LDP-Hr-AE, and gemcitabine (GEM). The expressions of various fusion proteins were detected by western blot analysis. Proliferation and migration inhibition of cells were determined by MTT and Transwell assay, respectively. The binding capability of dFv-LDP and Ec-LDP-Hr to cancer cells was examined by ELISA, cell immunofluorescence coimmunoprecipitation and confocal assays. Animal experiments were set to investigate the antitumor efficacy of various combinations against colorectal carcinoma HCT-15 xenograft in athymic mice. These two targeting proteins dFv-LDP and Ec-LDP-Hr had strong binding capabilities and antiproliferation effects on various cancer cell lines. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy in vivo was observed in the MMP-2/9-targeting fusion protein dFv-LDP integrated combinations including: i) dFv-LDP and Ec-LDP-Hr, ii) dFv-LDP and enediyne-energized fusion protein Ec-LDP-Hr-AE, iii) dFv-LDP and Ec-LDP-Hr-AE plus DOX, and iv) dFv-LDP and GEM plus DOX against colorectal cancer HCT-15 xenograft in athymic mice. In setting iii, DOX (20 mg/kg), dFv-LDP (20 mg/kg) and Ec-LDP-Hr-AE (0.3 mg/kg) alone suppressed tumor growth by 35, 49.7 and 67.5%, respectively. The combination of dFv-LDP and Ec-LDP-Hr-AE was 75.1%. Furthermore, this combination plus DOX showed stronger efficacy with an inhibitory rate of 82.7%. In setting iv, the combination of dFv-LDP and GEM suppressed tumor growth by 66.3%. Notably, the tumor inhibitory rate of the dFv-LDP/GEM/DOX combination reached 85.5%, producing initial shrinkage after the first administration. The MMP-2/9-oriented combination strategy that employs the MMP-2/9-targeting antibody

  7. Antitumor effect of metformin in esophageal cancer: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi; Kato, Kiyohito; Iwama, Hisakazu; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Mimura, Shima; Toyota, Yuka; Nomura, Takako; Nomura, Kei; Tani, Joji; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Kobara, Hideki; Mori, Hirohito; Murao, Koji; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2013-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that metformin, which is a member of the biguanide family and commonly used as an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent, may reduce cancer risk and improve prognosis of numerous types of cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the antitumor effect of metformin on esophageal cancer remain unknown. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effects of metformin on the proliferation of human ESCC in vitro, and to study changes in the expression profile of microRNAs (miRNAs), since miRNAs have previously been associated with the antitumor effects of metformin in other human cancers. The human ESCC cell lines T.T, KYSE30 and KYSE70 were used to study the effects of metformin on human ESCC in vitro. In addition, we used miRNA array tips to explore the differences between miRNAs in KYSE30 cells with and without metformin treatment. Metformin inhibited the proliferation of T.T, KYSE30 and KYSE70 cells in vitro. Metformin blocked the cell cycle in G0/G1 in vitro. This blockade was accompanied by a strong decrease of G1 cyclins, especially cyclin D1, as well as decreases in cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)4, Cdk6 and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (Rb). In addition, the expression of miRNAs was markedly altered with the treatment of metformin in vitro. Metformin inhibited the growth of three ESCC cell lines, and this inhibition may have involved reductions in cyclin D1, Cdk4 and Cdk6. PMID:23229592

  8. Formulation optimization of Docetaxel loaded self-emulsifying drug delivery system to enhance bioavailability and anti-tumor activity.

    PubMed

    Valicherla, Guru R; Dave, Kandarp M; Syed, Anees A; Riyazuddin, Mohammed; Gupta, Anand P; Singh, Akhilesh; Wahajuddin; Mitra, Kalyan; Datta, Dipak; Gayen, Jiaur R

    2016-01-01

    Poor bioavailability of Docetaxel (DCT) arising due to its low aqueous solubility and permeability limits its clinical utility. The aim of the present study was to develop DCT loaded self-emulsified drug delivery systems (D-SEDDS) and evaluate its potential ability to improve the oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of DCT. D-SEDDS were characterized for their in vitro antitumor activity, in situ single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP), bioavailability, chylomicron flow blocking study and bio-distribution profile. The D-SEDDS were prepared using Capryol 90, Vitamin E TPGS, Gelucire 44/14 and Transcutol HP with a ratio of 32.7/29.4/8.3/29.6 using D-Optimal Mixture Design. The solubility of DCT was improved upto 50 mg/mL. The oral bioavailability of the D-SEDDS in rats (21.84 ± 3.12%) was increased by 3.19 fold than orally administered Taxotere (6.85 ± 1.82%). The enhanced bioavailability was probably due to increase in solubility and permeability. In SPIP, effective permeability of D-SEDDS was significantly higher than Taxotere. D-SEDDS showed 25 fold more in vitro cytotoxic activity compared to free DCT. Chylomicron flow blocking study and tissue distribution demonstrated the intestinal lymphatic transport of D-SEDDS and higher retention in tumor than Taxotere. The data suggests that D-SEDDS showed desired stability, enhanced oral bioavailability and in vitro antitumor efficacy. PMID:27241877

  9. Formulation optimization of Docetaxel loaded self-emulsifying drug delivery system to enhance bioavailability and anti-tumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Valicherla, Guru R.; Dave, Kandarp M.; Syed, Anees A.; Riyazuddin, Mohammed; Gupta, Anand P.; Singh, Akhilesh; Wahajuddin; Mitra, Kalyan; Datta, Dipak; Gayen, Jiaur R.

    2016-01-01

    Poor bioavailability of Docetaxel (DCT) arising due to its low aqueous solubility and permeability limits its clinical utility. The aim of the present study was to develop DCT loaded self-emulsified drug delivery systems (D-SEDDS) and evaluate its potential ability to improve the oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of DCT. D-SEDDS were characterized for their in vitro antitumor activity, in situ single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP), bioavailability, chylomicron flow blocking study and bio-distribution profile. The D-SEDDS were prepared using Capryol 90, Vitamin E TPGS, Gelucire 44/14 and Transcutol HP with a ratio of 32.7/29.4/8.3/29.6 using D-Optimal Mixture Design. The solubility of DCT was improved upto 50 mg/mL. The oral bioavailability of the D-SEDDS in rats (21.84 ± 3.12%) was increased by 3.19 fold than orally administered Taxotere (6.85 ± 1.82%). The enhanced bioavailability was probably due to increase in solubility and permeability. In SPIP, effective permeability of D-SEDDS was significantly higher than Taxotere. D-SEDDS showed 25 fold more in vitro cytotoxic activity compared to free DCT. Chylomicron flow blocking study and tissue distribution demonstrated the intestinal lymphatic transport of D-SEDDS and higher retention in tumor than Taxotere. The data suggests that D-SEDDS showed desired stability, enhanced oral bioavailability and in vitro antitumor efficacy. PMID:27241877

  10. Enhanced antitumor response mediated by the codelivery of paclitaxel and adenoviral vector expressing IL-12.

    PubMed

    Cao, Linjie; Zeng, Qin; Xu, Chaoqun; Shi, Sanjun; Zhang, Zhirong; Sun, Xun

    2013-05-01

    It has been well-established that chemo-immunotherapy using cytotoxic drugs and appropriate cytokines offers a promising approach for the treatment of neoplastic diseases. In view of this, to improve melanoma treatment effect, our study developed a new codelivery system (AL/Ad5/PTX) that paclitaxel (PTX) and adenovirus encoding for murine interleukin-12 (Ad5-mIL-12) were incorporated into anionic liposomes (AL). First, AL/Ad5/PTX complexes were prepared by incorporating Ad5 into anionic PTX liposomes using calcium-induced phase change. Second, the size distribution and zeta potential of AL/Ad5/PTX were investigated. Third, the results of in vitro transduction assays showed that PTX introduced into AL/Ad-luc or AL/Ad5-mIL-12 highly enhanced gene transduction efficiency in B16 cells than naked Ad5 or AL/Ad complexes while it had no comparability in A549 cells. Finally, a melanoma-bearing mouse model was established to assess the antitumor effect. Tumor growth inhibition and prolonged survival time, accompanied by increased mIL-12 or interferon-γ (IFN-γ) expression levels in serum or tumor sites, were observed in mice treated with AL/Ad5-mIL-12/PTX, as compared with those treated with either AL/Ad5-mIL-12 or AL/PTX. In conclusion, these results suggested that codelivery of Ad5-mIL-12 and PTX incorporated into AL could be a relatively efficient strategy for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:23534449

  11. Preparation, characterization, and evaluation of antitumor effect of Brucea javanica oil cationic nanoemulsions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting-ting; Mu, Li-Qiu; Dai, Wei; Wang, Chuan-bang; Liu, Xin-Yi; Xiang, Da-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare Brucea javanica oil cationic nanoemulsions (BJO-CN) with BJO as drug as well as oil phase and chitosan as cationic inducer, to explore the practical suitability of using cationic nanoemulsions for oral delivery of mixed oil, and to test its bioavailability and antitumor effect. BJO-CN was prepared by chitosan solution stirring method and then characterized physicochemically. The obtained BJO-CN had a spherical morphology with a positive zeta potential of 18.9 mV and an average particle size of 42.36 nm, showing high colloidal stability. The drug loading of BJO-CN was 91.83 mg·mL−1, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with precolumn derivatization. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed that, compared with BJO emulsion (BJO-E) (the dosage of BJO-CN and BJO-E was equal to 505 mg·kg−1, calculated by oleic acid), BJO-CN exhibited a significant increase in the area under the plasma drug concentration–time curve over the period of 24 hours and relative bioavailability was 1.6-fold. Furthermore, the antitumor effect of BJO-CN in the orthotopic mouse model of lung cancer was evaluated by recording the median survival time and the weight of lung tissue with tumor, hematoxylin and eosin staining, and immunohistochemical technique. Results of anticancer experiments illustrated that, even though the administrated dosage in the BJO-CN group was half of that in the BJO-E group, BJO-CN exhibited similar antitumor effect to BJO-E. Moreover, BJO-CN had good synergistic effect in combination therapy with vinorelbine. These results suggested that cationic nanoemulsions are an effective and promising delivery system to enhance the oral bioavailability and anticancer effect of BJO. PMID:27330293

  12. Preparation, characterization, and evaluation of antitumor effect of Brucea javanica oil cationic nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting-Ting; Mu, Li-Qiu; Dai, Wei; Wang, Chuan-Bang; Liu, Xin-Yi; Xiang, Da-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare Brucea javanica oil cationic nanoemulsions (BJO-CN) with BJO as drug as well as oil phase and chitosan as cationic inducer, to explore the practical suitability of using cationic nanoemulsions for oral delivery of mixed oil, and to test its bioavailability and antitumor effect. BJO-CN was prepared by chitosan solution stirring method and then characterized physicochemically. The obtained BJO-CN had a spherical morphology with a positive zeta potential of 18.9 mV and an average particle size of 42.36 nm, showing high colloidal stability. The drug loading of BJO-CN was 91.83 mg·mL(-1), determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with precolumn derivatization. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed that, compared with BJO emulsion (BJO-E) (the dosage of BJO-CN and BJO-E was equal to 505 mg·kg(-1), calculated by oleic acid), BJO-CN exhibited a significant increase in the area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve over the period of 24 hours and relative bioavailability was 1.6-fold. Furthermore, the antitumor effect of BJO-CN in the orthotopic mouse model of lung cancer was evaluated by recording the median survival time and the weight of lung tissue with tumor, hematoxylin and eosin staining, and immunohistochemical technique. Results of anticancer experiments illustrated that, even though the administrated dosage in the BJO-CN group was half of that in the BJO-E group, BJO-CN exhibited similar antitumor effect to BJO-E. Moreover, BJO-CN had good synergistic effect in combination therapy with vinorelbine. These results suggested that cationic nanoemulsions are an effective and promising delivery system to enhance the oral bioavailability and anticancer effect of BJO. PMID:27330293

  13. 1,25D3 enhances antitumor activity of gemcitabine and cisplatin in human bladder cancer models

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingyu; Yu, Wei-Dong; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2010-01-01

    Background 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) potentiates the cytotoxic effects of several common chemotherapeutic agents. The combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) is a current standard chemotherapy regimen for bladder cancer. We investigated whether 1,25D3 could enhance the antitumor activity of GC in bladder cancer model systems. Methods Human bladder cancer T24 and UMUC3 cells were pretreated with 1,25D3 followed by GC. Apoptosis were assessed by annexin V staining. Caspase activation was examined by immunoblot analysis and substrate-based caspase activity assay. The cytotoxic effects were examined using MTT and in vitro clonogenic assay. p73 protein levels were assessed by immunoblot analysis. Knockdown of p73 was achieved by siRNA. The in vivo antitumor activity was assessed by in vivo excision clonogenic assay and tumor regrowth delay in the T24 xenograft model. Results 1,25D3 pretreatment enhanced GC-induced apoptosis and the activities of caspases- 8, 9 and 3 in T24 and UMUC3 cells. 1,25D3 synergistically reduced GC-suppressed surviving fraction in T24 cells. 1,25D3, gemcitabine, or cisplatin induced p73 accumulation, which was enhanced by GC or 1,25D3 and GC. p73 expression was lower in human primary bladder tumor tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue. Knockdown of p73 increased clonogenic capacity of T24 cells treated with 1,25D3, GC or 1,25D3 and GC. 1,25D3 and GC combination enhanced tumor regression compared with 1,25D3 or GC alone. Conclusions 1,25D3 potentiates GC-mediated growth inhibition in human bladder cancer models in vitro and in vivo, which involves p73 induction and apoptosis. PMID:20564622

  14. Late administration of murine CTLA-4 blockade prolongs CD8-mediated anti-tumor effects following stimulatory cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sckisel, Gail D.; Mirsoian, Annie; Bouchlaka, Myriam N.; Tietze, Julia K.; Chen, Mingyi; Blazar, Bruce R.

    2016-01-01

    We have demonstrated that immunostimulatory therapies such as interleukin-2 (IL-2) and anti-CD40 (αCD40) can be combined to deliver synergistic anti-tumor effects. While this strategy has shown success, efficacy varies depending on a number of factors including tumor type and severe toxicities can be seen. We sought to determine whether blockade of negative regulators such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) could simultaneously prolong CD8+ T cell responses and augment T cell anti-tumor effects. We devised a regimen in which anti-CTLA-4 was administered late so as to delay contraction and minimize toxicities. This late administration both enhanced and prolonged CD8 T cell activation without the need for additional IL-2. The quality of the T cell response was improved with increased frequency of effector/effector memory phenotype cells along with improved lytic ability and bystander expansion. This enhanced CD8 response translated to improved anti-tumor responses both at the primary and metastatic sites. Importantly, toxicities were not exacerbated with combination. This study provides a platform for rational design of immunotherapy combinations to maximize anti-tumor immunity while minimizing toxicities. PMID:26423422

  15. Versatile antitumor potential of isoxanthohumol: Enhancement of paclitaxel activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Krajnović, Tamara; Kaluđerović, Goran N; Wessjohann, Ludger A; Mijatović, Sanja; Maksimović-Ivanić, Danijela

    2016-03-01

    Isoxanthohumol (IXN), a prenylated flavonoid from hops, exhibits diverse biological activities, e.g. antitumor, antiinflammatory, antioxidant and antiangiogenic. In this study, the effect of IXN is evaluated on two melanoma cell lines with dissimilar molecular background, B16 and A375. The treatment of both cell lines with IXN resulted in dose-dependent decrease of cell viability. Abolished viability was in correlation with changed morphology and loss of dividing potential indicating phenotypical alteration of both tested cell lines. While modified B16 cells underwent the process of non-classic differentiation followed by tyrosinase activity without enhancement of melanin content, inhibition of Notch 1, β-catenin and Oct-3/4 was observed in A375 cells indicating loss of their pluripotent characteristics. In parallel with this, distinct subpopulations in both cell cultures entered the process of programmed cell death-apoptosis in a caspase independent manner. The described changes in cultures upon exposure to IXN could be connected with the suppression of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) induced by the drug. Despite the differences in which IXN promoted modifications in the upper part of the PI3K/Akt and MEK-ERK signaling pathways between B16 and A375 cells, p70S6K and its target S6 protein in both types of melanoma cells, after transient activation, became inhibited. In addition to direct input of IXN on cell viability, this study for the first time shows that IXN strongly sensitizes melanoma cells to the treatment with paclitaxel in vivo, in concordance with data obtained in vitro on B16 cells as well as their highly invasive F10 subclone. PMID:26784390

  16. CCL21/IL21-armed oncolytic adenovirus enhances antitumor activity against TERT-positive tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Li, Yi-Fei; Si, Chong-Zhan; Zhu, Yu-Hui; Jin, Yan; Zhu, Tong-Tong; Liu, Ming-Yuan; Liu, Guang-Yao

    2016-07-15

    Multigene-armed oncolytic adenoviruses are capable of efficiently generating a productive antitumor immune response. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21) binds to CCR7 on naïve T cells and dendritic cells (DCs) to promote their chemoattraction to the tumor and resultant antitumor activity. Interleukin 21 (IL21) promotes survival of naïve T cells while maintaining their CCR7 surface expression, which increases their capacity to transmigrate in response to CCL21 chemoattraction. IL21 is also involved in NK cell differentiation and B cell activation and proliferation. The generation of effective antitumor immune responses is a complex process dependent upon coordinated interactions of various subsets of effector cells. Using the AdEasy system, we aimed to construct an oncolytic adenovirus co-expressing CCL21 and IL21 that could selectively replicate in TERTp-positive tumor cells (Ad-CCL21-IL21 virus). The E1A promoter of these oncolytic adenoviruses was replaced by telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter (TERTp). Ad-CCL21-IL21 was constructed from three plasmids, pGTE-IL21, pShuttle-CMV-CCL21 and AdEasy-1 and was homologously recombined and propagated in the Escherichia coli strain BJ5183 and the packaging cell line HEK-293, respectively. Our results showed that our targeted and armed oncolytic adenoviruses Ad-CCL21-IL21 can induce apoptosis in TERTp-positive tumor cells to give rise to viral propagation, in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, we confirm that these modified oncolytic adenoviruses do not replicate efficiently in normal cells even under high viral loads. Additionally, we investigate the role of Ad-CCL21-IL21 in inducing antitumor activity and tumor specific cytotoxicity of CTLs in vitro. This study suggests that Ad-CCL21-IL21 is a promising targeted tumor-specific oncolytic adenovirus. PMID:27157859

  17. Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin enhances the antitumor efficacy of enediyne lidamycin in association with reduced DNA damage repair.

    PubMed

    Han, Fei-Fei; Li, Liang; Shang, Bo-Yang; Shao, Rong-Guang; Zhen, Yong-Su

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) leads to inappropriate processing of proteins involved in DNA damage repair pathways after DNA damage and may enhance tumor cell radio- and chemo-therapy sensitivity. To investigate the potentiation of antitumor efficacy of lidamycin (LDM), an enediyne agent by the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GDM), and possible mechanisms, we have determined effects on ovarian cancer SKOV- 3, hepatoma Bel-7402 and HepG2 cells by MTT assay, apoptosis assay, and cell cycle analysis. DNA damage was investigated with H2AX C-terminal phosphorylation (γH2AX) assays. We found that GDM synergistically sensitized SKOV-3 and Bel-7402 cells to the enediyne LDM, and this was accompanied by increased apoptosis. GDM pretreatment resulted in a greater LDM-induced DNA damage and reduced DNA repair as compared with LDM alone. However, in HepG2 cells GDM did not show significant sensitizing effects both in MTT assay and in DNA damage repair. Abrogation of LDM-induced G2/M arrest by GDM was found in SKOV-3 but not in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the expression of ATM, related to DNA damage repair responses, was also decreased by GDM in SKOV-3 and Bel-7402 cells but not in HepG2 cells. These results demonstrate that Hsp90 inhibitors may potentiate the antitumor efficacy of LDM, possibly by reducing the repair of LDM-induced DNA damage. PMID:25227788

  18. Targeting notch pathway enhances rapamycin antitumor activity in pancreas cancers through PTEN phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pancreas cancer is one of most aggressive human cancers with the survival rate for patients with metastatic pancreas cancer at 5-6 months. The poor survival demonstrates a clear need for better target identification, drug development and new therapeutic strategies. Recent discoveries have shown that the role for Notch pathway is important in both development and cancer. Its contribution to oncogenesis also involves crosstalks with other growth factor pathways, such as Akt and its modulator, PTEN. The mounting evidence supporting a role for Notch in cancer promotion and survival suggests that targeting this pathway alone or in combination with other therapeutics represents a promising therapeutic strategy. Results Using a pancreas cancer tissue microarray, we noted that Jagged1, Notch3 and Notch4 are overexpressed in pancreas tumors (26%, 84% and 31% respectively), whereas Notch1 is expressed in blood vessels. While there was no correlation between Notch receptor expression and survival, stage or tumor grade, Notch3 was associated with Jagged1 and EGFR expression, suggesting a unique relationship between Notch3 and Jagged1. Inhibition of the Notch pathway genetically and with gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI) resulted in tumor suppression and enhanced cell death. The observed anti-tumor activity appeared to be through Akt and modulation of PTEN phosphorylation. We discovered that transcriptional regulation of RhoA by Notch is important for PTEN phosphorylation. Finally, the mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin enhanced the effect of GSI on RhoA expression, resulting in down regulation of phospho-Akt and increased in vitro tumor cytotoxity. Conclusions Notch pathway plays an important role in maintaining pancreas tumor phenotype. Targeting this pathway represents a reasonable strategy for the treatment of pancreas cancers. Notch modulates the Akt pathway through regulation of PTEN phosphorylation, an observation that has not been made previously. Furthermore, we

  19. Label-free surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging to monitor the metabolism of antitumor drug 6-mercaptopurine in living cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Guangmei; Liu, Renyong; Han, Ming-Yong; Jiang, Changlong; Wang, Jianping; Du, Shuhu; Liu, Bianhua; Zhang, Zhongping

    2014-12-01

    The molecular processes of drugs from cellular uptake to intracellular distribution as well as the intracellular interaction with the target molecule are critically important for the development of new antitumor drugs. In this work, we have successfully developed a label-free surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique to monitor and visualize the metabolism of antitumor drug 6-mercaptopurine in living cells. It has been clearly demonstrated that Au@Ag NPs exhibit an excellent Raman enhancement effect to both 6-mercaptopurine and its metabolic product 6-mercaptopurine-ribose. Their different ways to absorb at the surface of Au@Ag NPs lead to the obvious spectral difference for distinguishing the antitumor drug and its metabolite by SERS spectra. The Au@Ag NPs can easily pass through cell membranes in a large amount and sensitively respond to the biological conversion of 6-mercaptopurine in tumor cells. The Raman imaging can visualize the real-time distribution of 6-mercaptopurine and its biotransformation with the concentrations in tumor cells. The SERS-based method reported here is simple and efficient for the assessments of drug efficacy and the understanding of the molecular therapeutic mechanism of antitumor drugs at the cellular level. PMID:25372629

  20. Dual subcellular compartment delivery of doxorubicin to overcome drug resistant and enhance antitumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yan-feng; Liu, Dao-zhou; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Miao; Ye, Wei-liang; Zhang, Bang-le; Liu, Xin-you; Zhou, Si-yuan

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome drug resistant and enhance antitumor activity of DOX, a new pH-sensitive micelle (DOX/DQA-DOX@DSPE-hyd-PEG-AA) was prepared to simultaneously deliver DOX to nucleus and mitochondria. Drug released from DOX/DQA-DOX@DSPE-hyd-PEG-AA showed a pH-dependent manner. DOX/DQA-DOX@DSPE-hyd-PEG-AA induced the depolarization of mitochondria and apoptosis in MDA-MB-231/ADR cells and A549 cells, which resulted in the high cytotoxicity of DOX/DQA-DOX@DSPE-hyd-PEG-AA against MDA-MB-231/ADR cells and A549 cells. Confocal microscopy confirmed that DOX/DQA-DOX@DSPE-hyd-PEG-AA simultaneously delivered DQA-DOX and DOX to the mitochondria and nucleus of tumor cell. After DOX/DQA-DOX@DSPE-hyd-PEG-AA was injected to the tumor-bearing nude mice by the tail vein, DOX was mainly found in tumor tissue. But DOX was widely distributed in the whole body after the administration of free DOX. Compared with free DOX, the same dose of DOX/DQA-DOX@DSPE-hyd-PEG-AA significantly inhibited the growth of DOX-resistant tumor in tumor-bearing mice without obvious systemic toxicity. Therefore, dual subcellular compartment delivery of DOX greatly enhanced the antitumor activity of DOX on DOX-resistant tumor. DOX/DQA-DOX@DSPE-hyd-PEG-AA has the potential in target therapy for DOX-resistant tumor. PMID:26530454

  1. Expression of DAI by an oncolytic vaccinia virus boosts the immunogenicity of the virus and enhances antitumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Hirvinen, Mari; Capasso, Cristian; Guse, Kilian; Garofalo, Mariangela; Vitale, Andrea; Ahonen, Marko; Kuryk, Lukasz; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Hemminki, Akseli; Fortino, Vittorio; Greco, Dario; Cerullo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    In oncolytic virotherapy, the ability of the virus to activate the immune system is a key attribute with regard to long-term antitumor effects. Vaccinia viruses bear one of the strongest oncolytic activities among all oncolytic viruses. However, its capacity for stimulation of antitumor immunity is not optimal, mainly due to its immunosuppressive nature. To overcome this problem, we developed an oncolytic VV that expresses intracellular pattern recognition receptor DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI) to boost the innate immune system and to activate adaptive immune cells in the tumor. We showed that infection with DAI-expressing VV increases expression of several genes related to important immunological pathways. Treatment with DAI-armed VV resulted in significant reduction in the size of syngeneic melanoma tumors in mice. When the mice were rechallenged with the same tumor, DAI-VV-treated mice completely rejected growth of the new tumor, which indicates immunity established against the tumor. We also showed enhanced control of growth of human melanoma tumors and elevated levels of human T-cells in DAI-VV-treated mice humanized with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We conclude that expression of DAI by an oncolytic VV is a promising way to amplify the vaccine potency of an oncolytic vaccinia virus to trigger the innate—and eventually the long-lasting adaptive immunity against cancer. PMID:27626058

  2. Expression of DAI by an oncolytic vaccinia virus boosts the immunogenicity of the virus and enhances antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Hirvinen, Mari; Capasso, Cristian; Guse, Kilian; Garofalo, Mariangela; Vitale, Andrea; Ahonen, Marko; Kuryk, Lukasz; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Hemminki, Akseli; Fortino, Vittorio; Greco, Dario; Cerullo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    In oncolytic virotherapy, the ability of the virus to activate the immune system is a key attribute with regard to long-term antitumor effects. Vaccinia viruses bear one of the strongest oncolytic activities among all oncolytic viruses. However, its capacity for stimulation of antitumor immunity is not optimal, mainly due to its immunosuppressive nature. To overcome this problem, we developed an oncolytic VV that expresses intracellular pattern recognition receptor DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI) to boost the innate immune system and to activate adaptive immune cells in the tumor. We showed that infection with DAI-expressing VV increases expression of several genes related to important immunological pathways. Treatment with DAI-armed VV resulted in significant reduction in the size of syngeneic melanoma tumors in mice. When the mice were rechallenged with the same tumor, DAI-VV-treated mice completely rejected growth of the new tumor, which indicates immunity established against the tumor. We also showed enhanced control of growth of human melanoma tumors and elevated levels of human T-cells in DAI-VV-treated mice humanized with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We conclude that expression of DAI by an oncolytic VV is a promising way to amplify the vaccine potency of an oncolytic vaccinia virus to trigger the innate-and eventually the long-lasting adaptive immunity against cancer. PMID:27626058

  3. Dendritic cell vaccination with a toll-like receptor agonist derived from mycobacteria enhances anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Vo, Manh-Cuong; Lee, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Jong-Seok; Hoang, My-Dung; Choi, Nu-Ri; Rhee, Joon Haeng; Lakshmanan, Vinoth-Kumar; Shin, Sung-Jae; Lee, Je-Jung

    2015-10-20

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines are considered useful in cancer immunotherapy, and the interaction of DC and adjuvants is important in the design of the next generation vaccines. In this study, whether DC combined with Rv2299c derived from mycobacteria could improve anti-tumor immune responses in a colon cancer mouse model was evaluated. MC38 cell lines were injected subcutaneously to establish colon-cancer-bearing mice and the following four groups were evaluated: PBS control, tumor antigen (TA) loaded-DC, Rv2299c, and a combination of TA-loaded-DC and Rv2299c. The combination treatment with TA-loaded-DC and Rv2299c exhibited greater inhibition of tumor growth compared to other groups. These effects were associated with the reduction of suppressor cells, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells, and the induction of effector cells, such as CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells, in spleen, and with the activation of cytotoxic T Lymphocytes and NK cells. These results suggest that TA-loaded-DC vaccination with Rv2299c derived from mycobacteria enhanced anti-tumor immunity in a mouse colon cancer model by inhibiting the generation of immune-suppressive cells and recovering numbers of effector cells, and demonstrated superior polarization of the Th1/Th2 balance in favor of the Th1 immune response. PMID:26418952

  4. Dendritic cell vaccination with a toll-like receptor agonist derived from mycobacteria enhances anti-tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Manh-Cuong; Lee, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Jong-Seok; Hoang, My-Dung; Choi, Nu-Ri; Rhee, Joon Haeng; Lakshmanan, Vinoth-Kumar; Shin, Sung-Jae; Lee, Je-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines are considered useful in cancer immunotherapy, and the interaction of DC and adjuvants is important in the design of the next generation vaccines. In this study, whether DC combined with Rv2299c derived from mycobacteria could improve anti-tumor immune responses in a colon cancer mouse model was evaluated. MC38 cell lines were injected subcutaneously to establish colon-cancer-bearing mice and the following four groups were evaluated: PBS control, tumor antigen (TA) loaded-DC, Rv2299c, and a combination of TA-loaded-DC and Rv2299c. The combination treatment with TA-loaded-DC and Rv2299c exhibited greater inhibition of tumor growth compared to other groups. These effects were associated with the reduction of suppressor cells, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells, and the induction of effector cells, such as CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells, in spleen, and with the activation of cytotoxic T Lymphocytes and NK cells. These results suggest that TA-loaded-DC vaccination with Rv2299c derived from mycobacteria enhanced anti-tumor immunity in a mouse colon cancer model by inhibiting the generation of immune-suppressive cells and recovering numbers of effector cells, and demonstrated superior polarization of the Th1/Th2 balance in favor of the Th1 immune response. PMID:26418952

  5. Low-dose curcumin leads to the inhibition of tumor growth via enhancing CTL-mediated antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Luo, Feifei; Song, Xiao; Zhang, Yi; Chu, Yiwei

    2011-09-01

    Curcumin, a yellow pigment extracted from turmeric, is widely used to inhibit tumor progression. Since it can either promote or suppress the immune system, how curcumin affects the immune system in tumor-bearing bodies is not yet clear. Our study found that tumor-bearing mice treated consecutively once a day with low-dose curcumin for ten days led to a retarded tumor growth and a longer survival, which might be contributed to T cell-mediated adaptive immune response. The in vitro study also showed that a high-dose curcumin decreases T cells whereas a low-dose increases T cells derived from 3LL tumor-bearing mice, especially CD8+ T cells. Accordingly, these increased CD8+ T cells exhibited the enhancement of IFN-γ secretion, proliferation and cytotoxicity specifically against 3LL tumor cells, which may result in the success of antitumor immunity. Our research demonstrated a beneficial effect of curcumin on CD8+ T cells derived from tumor-bearing mice, which can provide a potential application in anti-tumor therapy. PMID:21497674

  6. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) exerts antitumor effects by inducing apoptosis and autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jiao; Miao, Qing; Miao, Shan; Bi, Linlin; Zhang, Song; Yang, Qian; Zhou, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Meng; Xie, Yanhua; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Siwang

    2015-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common types of liver cancers with high recurrence rate and mortality rate. Recent studies have indicated that tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), a purified chemical extracted from Ligusticum wallichii Franchat (ChuanXiong), possessed antitumor effects on HCC, but detailed mechanism remains unclear. Our study aims at investigating the antitumor effect of TMP on HCC and its underlying mechanism. We found that TMP inhibited cell proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent way, and xenograft tumor models also indicated that high concentrations of TMP administration inhibited tumor growth. Next, flow cytometric analysis and transmission electron microscope images showed that TMP enhanced cell apoptosis in HepG2 cells, and western blot results showed that TMP promoted cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP in vitro and in vivo. We also found that TMP caused autophagy in HCC in vitro and in vivo. In order to examine the role of autophagy in TMP-induced apoptosis, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was used to block the action of autophagy. Our data showed TMP-induced autophagy might be a pro-apoptosis process in HCC. Furthermore, the results of anti-oxidative enzymes and oxidation-sensitive fluorescent probe 2, 7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) indicated that TMP induced ROS generation and inhibition of ROS diminished the anticancer function of TMP. In conclusion, our studies provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the antitumor effect of TMP and suggest that TMP can be a novel therapeutic regimen for HCC. PMID:25841319

  7. Synergistic antitumor effects of liposomal honokiol combined with cisplatin in colon cancer models.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Niang; Xia, Tian; Han, Ying; He, Qing Jun; Zhao, Rong; Ma, Jun Rong

    2011-09-01

    Honokiol, a novel antitumor agent, may induce apoptosis and inhibit the growth of vascular endothelium in a number of tumor cell lines and xenograft models. It has been proposed that the antitumor effects of chemotherapy may be increased in combination with an antiangiogenesis agent as an anticancer strategy. In the present study, we examined the potential of honokiol to increase the antitumor effect of cisplatin (DDP) when the agent and drug were combined in murine CT26 colon cancer models, and investigated the underlying mechanism. Liposomal honokiol (LH) was prepared, and female BALB/c mice were administered LH at various doses to determine the optimum doses for honokial. Evaluation of cell apoptosis was analyzed using flow cytometry. Honokiol was encapsulated with liposome to improve its water insolubility. In vitro, LH inhibited the proliferation of CT26 cells via apoptosis and significantly enhanced the DPP-induced apoptosis of CT26 cells. In vivo, the systemic administration of LH plus DDP resulted in the inhibition of subcutaneous tumor growth beyond the effects observed with either LH or DDP alone. This growth reduction was associated with elevated levels of apoptosis (TUNEL staining) and reduced endothelial cell density (CD31 staining) compared with either treatment alone. Collectively, these findings indicate that LH may augment the induction of apoptosis in CT26 cells in vitro and in vivo, and this combined treatment has exhibited synergistic suppression in tumor progression according to the synergistic analysis. The present study may be significant to future exploration of the potential application of the combined approach in the treatment of colon cancer. PMID:22866157

  8. Ten tandem repeats of {beta}-hCG 109-118 enhance immunogenicity and anti-tumor effects of {beta}-hCG C-terminal peptide carried by mycobacterial heat-shock protein HSP65

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yankai; Yan Rong; He Yi; Liu Wentao; Cao Rongyue; Yan Ming; Li Taiming; Liu Jingjing; Wu Jie . E-mail: wu_jie97@yahoo.com.cn

    2006-07-14

    The {beta}-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin ({beta}-hCG) is secreted by many kinds of tumors and it has been used as an ideal target antigen to develop vaccines against tumors. In view of the low immunogenicity of this self-peptide,we designed a method based on isocaudamer technique to repeat tandemly the 10-residue sequence X of {beta}-hCG (109-118), then 10 tandemly repeated copies of the 10-residue sequence combined with {beta}-hCG C-terminal 37 peptides were fused to mycobacterial heat-shock protein 65 to construct a fusion protein HSP65-X10-{beta}hCGCTP37 as an immunogen. In this study, we examined the effect of the tandem repeats of this 10-residue sequence in eliciting an immune by comparing the immunogenicity and anti-tumor effects of the two immunogens, HSP65-X10-{beta}hCGCTP37 and HSP65-{beta}hCGCTP37 (without the 10 tandem repeats). Immunization of mice with the fusion protein HSP65-X10-{beta}hCGCTP37 elicited much higher levels of specific anti-{beta}-hCG antibodies and more effectively inhibited the growth of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in vivo than with HSP65-{beta}hCGCTP37, which should suggest that HSP65-X10-{beta}hCGCTP37 may be an effective protein vaccine for the treatment of {beta}-hCG-dependent tumors and multiple tandem repeats of a certain epitope are an efficient method to overcome the low immunogenicity of self-peptide antigens.

  9. Dual targeted polymeric nanoparticles based on tumor endothelium and tumor cells for enhanced antitumor drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Madhu; Chashoo, Gousia; Sharma, Parduman Raj; Saxena, Ajit Kumar; Gupta, Prem Narayan; Agrawal, Govind Prasad; Vyas, Suresh Prasad

    2014-03-01

    Some specific types of tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells represented CD13 proteins and act as receptors for Asn-Gly-Arg (NGR) motifs containing peptide. These CD13 receptors can be specifically recognized and bind through the specific sequence of cyclic NGR (cNGR) peptide and presented more affinity and specificity toward them. The cNGR peptide was conjugated to the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) terminal end in the poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid PLGA-PEG block copolymer. Then, the ligand conjugated nanoparticles (cNGR-DNB-NPs) encapsulating docetaxel (DTX) were synthesized from preformed block copolymer by the emulsion/solvent evaporation method and characterized for different parameters. The various studies such as in vitro cytotoxicity, cell apoptosis, and cell cycle analysis presented the enhanced therapeutic potential of cNGR-DNB-NPs. The higher cellular uptake was also found in cNGR peptide anchored NPs into HUVEC and HT-1080 cells. However, free cNGR could inhibit receptor mediated intracellular uptake of NPs into both types of cells at 37 and 4 °C temperatures, revealing the involvement of receptor-mediated endocytosis. The in vivo biodistribution and antitumor efficacy studies indicated that targeted NPs have a higher therapeutic efficacy through targeting the tumor-specific site. Therefore, the study exhibited that cNGR-functionalized PEG-PLGA-NPs could be a promising approach for therapeutic applications to efficient antitumor drug delivery. PMID:24512060

  10. Enhanced circulation time and antitumor activity of doxorubicin by comblike polymer-incorporated liposomes.

    PubMed

    Han, Hee Dong; Lee, Aeri; Hwang, Taewon; Song, Chung Kil; Seong, Hasoo; Hyun, Jinho; Shin, Byung Cheol

    2007-07-31

    Polymer incorporation on liposomal membranes has been extensively studied as a method of enhancing the circulation time of liposomes in the bloodstream. In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo characteristics of liposomes whose surface was modified using a comblike polymer comprised of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) backbone and short poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) side chains. Doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded liposomes incorporating with the comblike polymer were prepared and their circulation time, biodistribution and antitumor activity were evaluated in B16F10 melanoma tumor-bearing mice. The circulation half-life time in the bloodstream of the comblike polymer-incorporated liposomes (CPILs) was approximately 14- or 2-fold higher than those of the conventional or polyethyleneglycol-fixed liposomes (PEG-liposomes), respectively. Additionally, in the biodistribution assay, the accumulation of the CPILs in the tumor was higher than those of the other liposomes. Based on this result, the antitumor activities of the CPILs were higher than those of conventional liposome formulation of DOX or free DOX due to the higher passive targeting efficiency of the long-circulating CPILs to tumor. This study suggests that the incorporation of the comblike polymer on the liposomal membrane is a promising tool to further improve circulation time of liposomes in tumor-bearing mice. PMID:17524514

  11. Enhanced Anti-tumor Reactivity of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Expressing PD-1 Decoy.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae Hun; Park, Hyung Bae; Choi, Kyungho

    2016-04-01

    Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a strong negative regulator of T lymphocytes in tumor-microenvironment. By engaging PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) on tumor cells, PD-1 on T cell surface inhibits anti-tumor reactivity of tumor-infiltrating T cells. Systemic blockade of PD-1 function using blocking antibodies has shown significant therapeutic efficacy in clinical trials. However, approximately 10 to 15% of treated patients exhibited serious autoimmune responses due to the activation of self-reactive lymphocytes. To achieve selective activation of tumor-specific T cells, we generated T cells expressing a dominant-negative deletion mutant of PD-1 (PD-1 decoy) via retroviral transduction. PD-1 decoy increased IFN-γ secretion of antigen-specific T cells in response to tumor cells expressing the cognate antigen. Adoptive transfer of PD-1 decoy-expressing T cells into tumor-bearing mice potentiated T cell-mediated tumor regression. Thus, T cell-specific blockade of PD-1 could be a useful strategy for enhancing both efficacy and safety of anti-tumor T cell therapy. PMID:27162530

  12. Enhanced Anti-tumor Reactivity of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Expressing PD-1 Decoy

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jae Hun; Park, Hyung Bae

    2016-01-01

    Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a strong negative regulator of T lymphocytes in tumor-microenvironment. By engaging PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) on tumor cells, PD-1 on T cell surface inhibits anti-tumor reactivity of tumor-infiltrating T cells. Systemic blockade of PD-1 function using blocking antibodies has shown significant therapeutic efficacy in clinical trials. However, approximately 10 to 15% of treated patients exhibited serious autoimmune responses due to the activation of self-reactive lymphocytes. To achieve selective activation of tumor-specific T cells, we generated T cells expressing a dominant-negative deletion mutant of PD-1 (PD-1 decoy) via retroviral transduction. PD-1 decoy increased IFN-γ secretion of antigen-specific T cells in response to tumor cells expressing the cognate antigen. Adoptive transfer of PD-1 decoy-expressing T cells into tumor-bearing mice potentiated T cell-mediated tumor regression. Thus, T cell-specific blockade of PD-1 could be a useful strategy for enhancing both efficacy and safety of anti-tumor T cell therapy. PMID:27162530

  13. Dasatinib enhances antitumor activity of paclitaxel in ovarian cancer through Src signaling

    PubMed Central

    XIAO, JUAN; XU, MANMAN; HOU, TENG; HUANG, YONGWEN; YANG, CHENLU; LI, JUNDONG

    2015-01-01

    Src family tyrosine kinase (SFK) activation is associated with ovarian cancer progression. Therefore, SFKs are targets for the development of potential treatments of ovarian cancer. Dasatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets SFK activity, and is used for the treatment of B cell and Abelson lymphomas. At the present time, the potential effect of dasatinib on ovarian cancer is not clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitumor activity of dasatinib, alone and in combination with paclitaxel, in ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, the expression of Src and phospho-Src-Y416 (p-Src) was measured in six ovarian cancer cell lines using western blotting and immunohistochemistry. In addition, cell viability and apoptosis were measured using an MTT assay and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining. An ovarian cancer murine xenograft model was established, in order to evaluate the antitumor effect of dasatinib alone and in combination with paclitaxel in ovarian cancer. High levels of p-Src protein expression were observed in all cell lines, as compared with healthy cells, which indicated activation of the Src signaling pathway. p-Src expression increased in ovarian cancer cells following paclitaxel treatment. Dasatinib treatment demonstrated anti-ovarian cancer properties, by downregulating p-Src expression and by inducing cancer cell apoptosis. Combined treatment with dasatinib and paclitaxel markedly inhibited proliferation and promoted apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells, compared with control cells. Combined dasatinib and paclitaxel treatment exhibited antitumor activities in vivo and in vitro (combination indices, 0.25–0.93 and 0.31–0.75; and tumor growth inhibitory rates, 76.7% and 58.5%, in A2780 and HO8910 cell lines, respectively), compared with paclitaxel treatment alone. Dasatinib monotherapy demonstrated anti-ovarian cancer activities. The effects of dasatinib and paclitaxel treatments on ovarian

  14. Tumor-Specific Peptide, Selected from a Phage Peptide Library, Enhances Antitumor Activity of Lactaptin

    PubMed Central

    Makartsova, Anna A.; Fomin, Alexandr S.; Nushtaeva, Anna A.; Koval, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    A recombinant analogue of lactaptin (RL2), a new potential anticancer molecule, induces apoptosis in cultured tumor cells. The tumor suppression efficacy of RL2 was shown against mouse hepatoma-1 cells and MDA-MB-231 human breast adenocarcinoma cells. The RL2-based therapeutic drug lactaptin is distributed evenly throughout the organism, which reduces its antitumor efficacy. In the current study, we obtained a genetic construct that allows production of the recombinant fusion protein T3-RL2, consisting of RL2 and T3 peptide (YTYDPWLIFPAN), in E. coli cells. T3 peptide was selected from a phage peptide library as a result of two screenings: in vitro using MDA-MB-231 cell culture and in vivo using a mouse xenograft model of breast cancer MDA-MB-231. It was shown that the displayed peptide T3 provides binding and internalization of phage particles by MDA-MB-231 cells and their specific accumulation in MDA-MB-231 tumor tissue. In addition, based on the nucleotide sequences coding RL2 and the known tumor-targeting peptide iRGD, we obtained genetic constructs that provide synthesis of fusion proteins RL2-iRGD and RL-iRGD-His. We studied the cytotoxic activity of fusion proteins T3-RL2, RL2-iRGD and RL-iRGD-His in vitro using MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human adenocarcinoma cells. The in vitro results showed that the fusion proteins inhibit proliferation of both cell cultures, and their cytotoxic activity is higher than that of RL2. In vivo experiments on the study of the antitumor efficacy of the obtained fusion proteins demonstrated that T3-RL2 protein significantly inhibits MDA-MB-231 tumor growth in a xenograft model compared with RL2, while the antitumor effect of RL2-iRGD and RL-iRGD-His proteins is comparable to the effect of RL2. PMID:27513518

  15. [Synergistic inhibitory effect of static magnetic field and antitumor drugs on Hepa1-6 cells].

    PubMed

    Xu, Lingling; Guo, Wei; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Xueqing; Yu, Juntao; Wu, Wencai; Zhao, Tiejun

    2015-09-01

    Chemotherapy as a routine method for clinical treatment of cancer has disadvantages such as significant toxicity and strong resistance. In order to improve the efficacy of the drugs and reduce the by-effects, we tried to combine static magnetic field (SMF) with cisplatin or adriamycin. The growth of Hepa1-6 cells treated with the static magnetic field (SMF) combined with cisplatin or adriamycin was significantly inhibited, as detected with MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide) test. Combined treatment group cells underwent significant morphological changes as observed by HE (Hematoxylin and eosin) staining under optical microscope. Cell cycle analysis indicated that SMF increased the ratio of cells arrested in G2/M phase caused by cisplatin, and when treated with SMF combined with adriamycin, cells were almost arrested in G1 and G2/M phase. SCGE test showed that SMF can enhance the ability of cisplatin or adriamycin to promote cell DNA damage. Atomic force microscope observation found that the combination of antitumor drugs and magnetic field treatment induced larger and deeper holes on the cell membrane, and surface structure damage is serious. The combination of antitumor drugs and magnetic field technology effectively inhibits the growth of tumor cells, and reduces drug doses. The results implicate this method as potential cancer therapy. PMID:26955714

  16. Antitumor and immunostimulating effects of Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata.

    PubMed

    Tseng, C-C; Shang, H-F; Wang, L-F; Su, B; Hsu, C-C; Kao, H-Y; Cheng, K-T

    2006-05-01

    The water extract of Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata showed a potent tumor inhibitory activity in BALB/c mice after subcutaneous transplantation of CT-26 murine colon cancer cells. The tumor-inhibition ratios of mice pre-administered with A. formosanus for 2 days before tumor transplantation, and treated further for 12 consecutive days, were 55.4% and 58.9% at the oral dose of 50 and 10 mg/mouse per day, respectively. Even for the tumor-bearing mice, after oral administration of the water extract of A. formosanus for 12 consecutive days, the tumor inhibition ratios were still 23.8% and 40.5% at doses of 50 and 10 mg/mouse, respectively. Because the low-concentration water extract of A. formosanus does not show direct cytotoxicity in CT-26 tumor cells, we observed further that oral administration of the water extract of A. formosanus may activate murine immune responses, such as stimulating the proliferation of lymphoid tissues and activating the phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages against Staphylococcus aureus. This study suggests that the antitumor activity of A. formosanus may be associated with its potent immunostimulating effect. It is worth further analyzing the immunomodulating component purified from A. formosanus, and evaluating its potential value for the treatment of human cancers. PMID:16635745

  17. The in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor effect of layered double hydroxides nanoparticles as delivery for podophyllotoxin.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lili; Xue, Meng; Wang, Wenrui; Zhu, Rongrong; Wang, Shilong; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Rui; Sun, Xiaoyu

    2010-03-30

    In this research, we intercalated anti-tumor drug podophyllotoxin (PPT) into layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity to tumor cells, the cellular uptake and in vivo anti-tumor inhibition of PPT-LDH. The nanohybrids were prepared by a two-step method with the size of 80-90nm and the zeta potential of 20.3mV. The in vitro cytotoxicity experiment indicated that PPT-LDH nanoparticles show better anti-tumor efficacy than PPT and are more readily taken up by Hela cells. PPT-LDH shows a long-term suppression effect on the tumor growth, and enhances the apoptotic process of tumor cells. The in vivo tests reveal that delivery of PPT via LDH nanoparticles is more efficient, but the mice toxicity of PPT in PPT-LDH hybrids is reduced in comparison with PPT alone. Pharmacokinetics study displays a prolonged circulation time and an increased bioavailability of PPT-LDH than PPT. These observations imply that LDH nanoparticles are the potential carrier of anti-tumor drugs in a range of new therapeutic applications. PMID:20045452

  18. Enhancing Antitumor Efficacy of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Through Constitutive CD40L Expression

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Kevin J; Seinstra, Beatrijs A; Nikhamin, Yan; Yeh, Raymond; Usachenko, Yelena; van Leeuwen, Dayenne G; Purdon, Terence; Pegram, Hollie J; Brentjens, Renier J

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy with genetically modified T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is a promising therapy for patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, CAR-modified T cells (CAR T cells) have mostly failed in patients with solid tumors or low-grade B-cell malignancies including chronic lymphocytic leukemia with bulky lymph node involvement. Herein, we enhance the antitumor efficacy of CAR T cells through the constitutive expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154). T cells genetically modified to constitutively express CD40L (CD40L-modified T cells) demonstrated increased proliferation and secretion of proinflammatory TH1 cytokines. Further, CD40L-modified T cells augmented the immunogenicity of CD40+ tumor cells by the upregulated surface expression of costimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86), adhesion molecules (CD54, CD58, and CD70), human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules (Class I and HLA-DR), and the Fas-death receptor (CD95). Additionally, CD40L-modified T cells induced maturation and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 by monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Finally, tumor-targeted CD19-specific CAR/CD40L T cells exhibited increased cytotoxicity against CD40+ tumors and extended the survival of tumor-bearing mice in a xenotransplant model of CD19+ systemic lymphoma. This preclinical data supports the clinical application of CAR T cells additionally modified to constitutively express CD40L with anticipated enhanced antitumor efficacy. PMID:25582824

  19. Trichosanthin enhances anti-tumor immune response in a murine Lewis lung cancer model by boosting the interaction between TSLC1 and CRTAM.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yuchan; Xiong, Shudao; Zheng, Yijie; Luo, Feifei; Jiang, Pei; Chu, Yiwei

    2011-07-01

    Trichosanthin (TCS), extracted from the Chinese medicinal herb Trichosanthes kirilowi, has shown promise for the inhibition of tumor growth. However, its immunomodulatory effect on tumor-host interaction remains unknown. In this study, we focused on the effect of TCS on murine anti-tumor immune response in the 3LL Lewis lung carcinoma tumor model and explored the possible molecular pathways involved. In addition to inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in the 3LL tumor, TCS retarded tumor growth and prolonged mouse survival more significantly in C57BL/6 immunocompetent mice than in nude mice. This reflected the fact that the host immune system was involved in tumor eradication. Using FACS analysis, we found that TCS increased the percentage of effector T cells, particularly Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from tumor-bearing mice. TCS also promoted the vigorous proliferation of antigen-specific effector T cells, markedly increased Th1 cytokine secretion and elicited more memory T cells in tumor-bearing mice, consequently enhancing the anti-tumor response and inducing immune protection. Furthermore, we found that TCS upregulated the expression of tumor suppressor in lung cancer 1 (TSLC1) in 3LL tumor cells and the expression of its ligand, class I-restricted T cell-associated molecule (CRTAM), in effector T cells. Blocking TSLC1 expression with small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly eliminated the effects of TCS on the proliferation and cytokine secretion of effector T cells, suggesting that TCS enhances anti-tumor immune response at least partially by boosting the interaction between TSLC1 and CRTAM. Collectively, our data demonstrate that TCS not only affects tumor cells directly, but also enhances anti-tumor immunity via the interaction between TSLC1 and CRTAM. These findings may lead to the development of a novel approach for tumor regression. PMID:21572449

  20. Enhanced antitumor efficacy, biodistribution and penetration of docetaxel-loaded biodegradable nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin; Li, Rutian; Zhu, Zhenshu; Qian, Xiaoping; Guan, Wenxian; Yu, Lixia; Yang, Mi; Jiang, Xiqun; Liu, Baorui

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the antitumor effect, biodistribution and penetration in tumors of docetaxel (DOC)-loaded polyethylene glycol-poly(caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) nanoparticles on hepatic cancer model, DOC-loaded nanoparticles (DOC-NPs) were prepared with synthesized mPEG-PCL by nano-precipitated method with satisfactory encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity and size distribution. The fabricated nano-drugs were effectively transported into tumoral cells through endocytosis and localized around the nuclei in the cytoplasm. In vitro cytotoxicity test showed that DOC-NPs inhibited the murine hepatic carcinoma cell line H22 in a dose-dependent manner, which was similar to Taxotere, the commercialized formulation of docetaxel. The in vivo biodistribution performed on tumor-bearing mice by NIRF real-time imaging demonstrated that the nanoparticles achieved higher concentration and longer retention in tumors than in non-targeted organs after intravenous injection. The immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the nanoparticles located not only near the tumoral vasculatures, but also inside the tumoral interior. Therefore, DOC-NPs could penetrate into tumor parenchyma, leading to high intratumoral concentration of DOC. More importantly, the in vivo anti-tumor evaluation showed that DOC-NPs significantly inhibited tumor growth by tumor volume measurement and positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging observation. Taken together, the reported drug delivery system here could shed light on the future targeted therapy against hepatic carcinoma. PMID:22525076

  1. l-arginine and docetaxel synergistically enhance anti-tumor immunity by modifying the immune status of tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Wang, Qinghui; Du, Yunting; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Yanjun; Feng, Yonghui; Jin, Feng

    2016-06-01

    l-arginine (l-Arg) supplementation has been reported to enhance the function of immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs) and T lymphocytes, in cancer models thereby countering the suppressive effects of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). The balance of the active immune cells is one factor that determines the progression of cancers in vivo. Docetaxel (DTX), an immunomodulatory chemotherapeutic agent, is now widely used in several types of malignancies including breast cancer. We hypothesized that the combination of DTX and l-Arg would elicit a more robust antitumor response than either molecule alone. To test this hypothesis we utilized BALB/c mice inoculated with 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells. DTX and l-Arg synergistically limited tumor growth in vivo and moderately increased the life span of tumor bearing mice. The anti-tumor effects were associated with the proliferation of splenic CD8(+) CTL and CD4(+) Th1 effector cells, as well as increased serum levels of interferon gamma. More importantly, DTX+l-Arg effectively increased anti-tumor immunity within the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, the combined therapy increased the number of myeloid (mDCs) and plasmacytoid (pDCs) dendritic cells, potent activators of the T cell response, and enhanced expression of the maturation markers CD86 and MHC II (required for antigen presentation). The combination therapy also reduced the proliferation of MDSCs. These data suggest that DTX+l-Arg may be a novel therapeutic strategy for breast cancer patients. PMID:27003114

  2. Anti-tumor effect of inhibition of IL-6 signaling in mucoepidermoid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki, Daiki; Adams, April; Warner, Kristy A.; Zhang, Zhaocheng; Pearson, Alexander T.; Misawa, Kiyoshi; McLean, Scott A.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Nör, Jacques E.

    2015-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most frequent malignant salivary gland cancer. Response to chemoradiotherapy is modest, and therefore radical surgery remains the standard-of-care. Emerging evidence suggests that Interleukin (IL)-6 signaling correlates with the survival of cancer stem cells and resistance to therapy. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) signaling with tocilizumab (humanized anti-human IL-6R antibody) sensitizes MEC to chemotherapy using human mucoepidermoid carcinoma cell lines (UM-HMC) and correspondent xenograft models. In vitro, we observed that tocilizumab inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation but had no measurable effect in MEC cell viability (UM-HMC-1,-3A,-3B). In contrast, the anti-tumor effect of single agent tocilizumab on MEC xenografts was comparable to paclitaxel or cisplatin. Combination of tocilizumab with cisplatin or paclitaxel enhanced the inhibitory effect of chemotherapy on xenograft growth (P < 0.05), time to failure (P < 0.01), decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and tumor microvessel density (P < 0.05) without added systemic toxicities. Notably, tocilizumab decreased the fraction of MEC cancer stem cells (ALDHhighCD44high) in vitro, and prevented paclitaxel-induced increase in the fraction of cancer stem cells in vivo (P < 0.05). Collectively, these findings demonstrate that tocilizumab enhances the anti-tumor effect of conventional chemotherapy in preclinical models of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and suggest that patients might benefit from combination therapy with an inhibitor of IL-6R signaling and chemotherapeutic agent such as paclitaxel. PMID:26287605

  3. Anti-tumor effect of inhibition of IL-6 signaling in mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Daiki; Adams, April; Warner, Kristy A; Zhang, Zhaocheng; Pearson, Alexander T; Misawa, Kiyoshi; McLean, Scott A; Wolf, Gregory T; Nör, Jacques E

    2015-09-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most frequent malignant salivary gland cancer. Response to chemoradiotherapy is modest, and therefore radical surgery remains the standard-of-care. Emerging evidence suggests that Interleukin (IL)-6 signaling correlates with the survival of cancer stem cells and resistance to therapy. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) signaling with tocilizumab (humanized anti-human IL-6R antibody) sensitizes MEC to chemotherapy using human mucoepidermoid carcinoma cell lines (UM-HMC) and correspondent xenograft models. In vitro, we observed that tocilizumab inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation but had no measurable effect in MEC cell viability (UM-HMC-1,-3A,-3B). In contrast, the anti-tumor effect of single agent tocilizumab on MEC xenografts was comparable to paclitaxel or cisplatin. Combination of tocilizumab with cisplatin or paclitaxel enhanced the inhibitory effect of chemotherapy on xenograft growth (P < 0.05), time to failure (P < 0.01), decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and tumor microvessel density (P < 0.05) without added systemic toxicities. Notably, tocilizumab decreased the fraction of MEC cancer stem cells (ALDH(high)CD44(high)) in vitro, and prevented paclitaxel-induced increase in the fraction of cancer stem cells in vivo (P < 0.05). Collectively, these findings demonstrate that tocilizumab enhances the anti-tumor effect of conventional chemotherapy in preclinical models of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and suggest that patients might benefit from combination therapy with an inhibitor of IL-6R signaling and chemotherapeutic agent such as paclitaxel. PMID:26287605

  4. β-glucan restores tumor-educated dendritic cell maturation to enhance antitumor immune responses.

    PubMed

    Ning, Yongling; Xu, Dongqin; Zhang, Xiaohang; Bai, Yu; Ding, Jun; Feng, Tongbao; Wang, Shizhong; Xu, Ning; Qian, Keqing; Wang, Yong; Qi, Chunjian

    2016-06-01

    Tumors can induce the generation and accumulation of immunosuppressive cells such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in a tumor microenvironment, contributing to tumor escape from immunological attack. Although dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines can initiate antitumor immune responses, tumor-educated dendritic cells (TEDCs) involved in the tolerance induction have attracted much attention recently. In this study, we investigated the effect of β-glucan on TEDCs and found that β-glucan treatment could promote the maturation and migration of TEDCs and that the suppressive function of TEDCs was significantly decreased. Treatment with β-glucan drastically decreased the levels of regulatory T (Treg) cells but increased the infiltration of macrophages, granulocytes and DCs in tumor masses, thus elicited Th1 differentiation and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses and led to a delay in tumor progression. These findings reveal that β-glucan can inhibit the regulatory function of TEDCs, therefore revealing a novel function for β-glucan in immunotherapy and suggesting its potential clinical benefit. β-Glucan directly abrogated tumor-educated dendritic cells-associated immune suppression, promoted Th1 differentiation and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte priming and improved antitumor responses. PMID:26773960

  5. Amplexicaule A exerts anti-tumor effects by inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Guangwen; Wan, Dingrong; He, Feng; Loaec, Morgann; Ding, Yali; Li, Jun; Dovat, Sinisa; Yang, Gaungzhong; Song, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with breast cancer metastases, but natural alternatives have been receiving attention for their potential as novel anti-tumor reagents. Amplexicaule A (APA) is a flavonoid glucoside isolated from rhizomes of Polygonum amplexicaule D. Don var. sinense Forb (PADF). We found that APA has anti-tumor effects in a breast cancer xenograft mouse model and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. APA increased levels of cleaved caspase-3,-8,-9 and PARP, which resulted from suppression of MCL-1 and BCL-2 expression in the cells. APA also inactivated the Akt/mTOR pathway in breast cancer cells. Thus, APA exerts a strong anti-tumor effect on breast cancer cells, most likely through induction of apoptosis. Our study is the first to identify this novel anti-tumor compound and provides a new strategy for isolation and separation of single compounds from herbs. PMID:26943775

  6. Amplexicaule A exerts anti-tumor effects by inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Meixian; Su, Hanwen; Shu, Guangwen; Wan, Dingrong; He, Feng; Loaec, Morgann; Ding, Yali; Li, Jun; Dovat, Sinisa; Yang, Gaungzhong; Song, Chunhua

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with breast cancer metastases, but natural alternatives have been receiving attention for their potential as novel anti-tumor reagents. Amplexicaule A (APA) is a flavonoid glucoside isolated from rhizomes of Polygonum amplexicaule D. Don var. sinense Forb (PADF). We found that APA has anti-tumor effects in a breast cancer xenograft mouse model and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. APA increased levels of cleaved caspase-3,-8,-9 and PARP, which resulted from suppression of MCL-1 and BCL-2 expression in the cells. APA also inactivated the Akt/mTOR pathway in breast cancer cells. Thus, APA exerts a strong anti-tumor effect on breast cancer cells, most likely through induction of apoptosis. Our study is the first to identify this novel anti-tumor compound and provides a new strategy for isolation and separation of single compounds from herbs. PMID:26943775

  7. The antitumor effect of locoregional magnetic cobalt ferrite in dog mammary adenocarcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şincai, Mariana; Gângǎ, Diana; Bica, Doina; Vékás, Ladislau

    2001-01-01

    The endocytosis of nanosized magnetic particles by tumor cells led to numerous tests to establish the use of this phenomenon in antitumor therapy. The direct antitumor effect of a biocompatible cobalt-ferrite-based magnetic fluid directly inoculated in bitch mammary tumors was studied. A direct correlation between tumor cell lysis and cobalt ferrite was established in tumors. Massive endocytosis of magnetic particles was observed 1 h after the contact of magnetic fluid with tumor cells.

  8. Inhibition of rhotekin exhibits antitumor effects in lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, WEIZHEN; LIANG, ZHENYU; LI, JING

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause for cancer-related death, however, the pathogenesis mechanism is poorly understood. Although the rhotekin (RTKN) gene has been reported to encode an effector for the Rho protein that has critical roles in regulating cell growth, the role of RTKN in lung cancer has not been investigated. In clinical lung cancer patient tumor samples, we identified that the RTKN gene expression level was significantly higher in tumor tissues compared to that of the adjacent normal tissues. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of RTKN in lung cancer, we established RTKN stable knock-down A549 and SPC-A-1 lung adenocarcinoma cell lines using lentiviral transfection of RTKN shRNA and evaluated the antitumor effects. The results showed that RTKN knock-down inhibited lung adenocarcinoma cell viability, induced S phase arrest and increased cell apoptosis. In addition, RTKN knock-down inhibited lung cancer cell invasion and adhesion. Further analysis showed that the S phase promoting factors cyclindependent kinase (CDK)1 and CDK2 levels were decreased in RTKN knock-down cells, and that the DNA replication initiation complex proteins Minichromosome maintenance protein complex (MCM)2 and MCM6 were decreased as well in RTKN knock-down cells. These results indicated that the RTKN protein was associated with lung cancer in clinic samples and exerted anticancer activity in lung adenocarcinoma cells through inhibiting cell cycle progression and the DNA replication machinery. These findings suggest that RTKN inhibition may be a novel therapeutic strategy for lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:26935528

  9. Nanoparticles inhibit cancer cell invasion and enhance antitumor efficiency by targeted drug delivery via cell surface-related GRP78

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liang; Li, Hongdan; Shi, Yijie; Wang, Guan; Liu, Liwei; Su, Chang; Su, Rongjian

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) which target specific agents could effectively recognize the target cells and increase the stability of chemical agents by encapsulation. As such, NPs have been widely used in cancer treatment research. Recently, over 90% of treatment failure cases in patients with metastatic cancer were attributed to resistance to chemotherapy. Surface-exposed glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa (GRP78) is expressed highly on many tumor cell surfaces in many human cancers and is related to the regulation of invasion and metastasis. Herein, we report that NPs conjugated with antibody against GRP78 (mAb GRP78-NPs) inhibit the adhesion, invasion, and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and promote drug delivery of 5-fluorouracil into GRP78 high-expressed human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Our new findings suggest that mAb GRP78-NPs could enhance drug accumulation by effectively transporting NPs into cell surface GRP78-overexpressed human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and then inhibit cell proliferation and viability and induce cell apoptosis by regulating caspase-3. In brief, mAb GRP78-NPs effectively inhibit cancer cell invasion and enhance antitumor efficiency by targeted drug delivery. PMID:25565817

  10. Nanoparticles inhibit cancer cell invasion and enhance antitumor efficiency by targeted drug delivery via cell surface-related GRP78.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Li, Hongdan; Shi, Yijie; Wang, Guan; Liu, Liwei; Su, Chang; Su, Rongjian

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) which target specific agents could effectively recognize the target cells and increase the stability of chemical agents by encapsulation. As such, NPs have been widely used in cancer treatment research. Recently, over 90% of treatment failure cases in patients with metastatic cancer were attributed to resistance to chemotherapy. Surface-exposed glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa (GRP78) is expressed highly on many tumor cell surfaces in many human cancers and is related to the regulation of invasion and metastasis. Herein, we report that NPs conjugated with antibody against GRP78 (mAb GRP78-NPs) inhibit the adhesion, invasion, and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and promote drug delivery of 5-fluorouracil into GRP78 high-expressed human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Our new findings suggest that mAb GRP78-NPs could enhance drug accumulation by effectively transporting NPs into cell surface GRP78-overexpressed human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and then inhibit cell proliferation and viability and induce cell apoptosis by regulating caspase-3. In brief, mAb GRP78-NPs effectively inhibit cancer cell invasion and enhance antitumor efficiency by targeted drug delivery. PMID:25565817

  11. S-Nitrosated human serum albumin dimer as novel nano-EPR enhancer applied to macromolecular anti-tumor drugs such as micelles and liposomes.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Ryo; Ishima, Yu; Ikeda, Mayumi; Kragh-Hansen, Ulrich; Fang, Jun; Nakamura, Hideaki; Chuang, Victor T G; Tanaka, Ryota; Maeda, Hitoshi; Kodama, Azusa; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Maeda, Hiroshi; Otagiri, Masaki; Maruyama, Toru

    2015-11-10

    The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect is a unique phenomenon of solid tumors, and it can serve as a basis for the development of macromolecular anticancer therapy. We have previously found that recombinant human serum albumin dimer, and especially its S-nitrosated form (SNO-HSA-Dimer), is an enhancer of the EPR effect. In this study, we investigated the influence of SNO-HSA-Dimer on the anti-tumor effect of two types of macromolecular anti-tumor drugs, namely N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide polymer conjugated with zinc protoporphyrin, which forms micelles and can be used for fluorescence studies. The other was PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil), a typical example of a stealth liposome approved for medical usage. In mice having C26 tumors with highly permeable vasculature, SNO-HSA-Dimer increases tumor accumulation of the drugs by a factor 3-4 and thereby their anti-tumor effects. Experiments with Evans blue revealed increased EPR effect in all parts of the tumor. Furthermore, SNO-HSA-Dimer improves the anti-metastatic effects of Doxil and reduces its minor uptake in non-tumorous organs such as liver and kidney. Tumor accumulation of Doxil in B16 tumors, which are characterized by a low permeable vasculature, increased even more (6-fold) in the presence of SNO-HSA-Dimer, and the improved accumulation lead to decreased tumor volume and increased survival of the animals. The administration of SNO-HSA-Dimer itself is safe, because it has no effect on blood pressure, heart rate or on several biochemical parameters. The present findings indicate that SNO-HSA-Dimer is promising for enhancing the EPR effect and consequently the specific, therapeutic effects of macromolecular anticancer drugs. PMID:26302904

  12. Effect of anti-asthma Chinese medicine Chuankezhi on the anti-tumor activity of cytokine-induced killer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing-Jing; Pan, Ke; Wang, Qi-Jing; Xu, Zheng-Di; Weng, De-Sheng; Li, Jian-Jun; Li, Yong-Qiang; Xia, Jian-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Chuankezhi (CKZ), a new Chinese medicine, plays an important role in immunoregulation. Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells have been commonly used for immunotherapy in recent years. In this study, we aimed to investigate the immunoregulatory effect of CKZ on CIK cells. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from healthy donors, and CIK cells were generated by culturing monocytes with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 2. Different concentrations of CKZ were added on day 2. After incubation for 14 days in culture, the antitumor effects of CIK cells were measured by cytotoxicity assay. Flow cytometry was used to explore the effect of CKZ on CIK cell immunophenotype, intracellular cytokine production, and apoptosis. The effect of CKZ on the antitumor activity of CIK cells in nude mice was also investigated. CKZ increased the percentage of CD3+CD56+ CIK cells but did not significantly change the percentage of CD4+, CD8+, or CD4+CD25+ CIK cells. CKZ-conditioned CIK cells showed a greater ability to kill tumor cells, as well as a higher frequency of IFN-γ and TNF-α production, compared with the CIK cells in the control group. CKZ also suppressed the apoptosis of CIK cells in vitro. Furthermore, CKZ combined with CIK cells had a stronger suppressive effect on tumor growth in vivo than the CIK, CKZ, or normal saline control groups. Our results indicate that CKZ enhances the antitumor activity of CIK cells and is a potential medicine for tumor immunotherapy. PMID:23470144

  13. Potentiation of platinum antitumor effects in human lung tumor xenografts by the angiogenesis inhibitor squalamine: effects on tumor neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Schiller, J H; Bittner, G

    1999-12-01

    Squalamine is a novel anti-angiogenic aminosterol that is postulated to inhibit neovascularization by selectively inhibiting the sodium-hydrogen antiporter exchanger. To determine how to most effectively use this agent in patients with cancer, we examined the antitumor effects of squalamine with or without cytotoxic agents in human lung cancer xenografts and correlated these observations with the degree of tumor neovascularization. No direct cytotoxic effects of squalamine against tumor cells were observed in vitro with or without cisplatin. Squalamine was effective in inhibiting the establishment of H460 human tumors in BALBc nude mice but was ineffective in inhibiting the growth of H460, CALU-6, or NL20T-A human tumor xenografts when administered i.p. to mice bearing established tumors. However, when combined with cisplatin or carboplatin, squalamine increased tumor growth delay by > or =1.5-fold in the three human lung carcinoma cell lines compared with cisplatin or carboplatin alone. No enhancement of antitumor activity was observed when squalamine was combined with paclitaxel, vinorelbine, gemcitabine, or docetaxel. Repeated cycles of squalamine plus cisplatin administration delayed H460 tumor growth >8.6-fold. Squalamine plus cisplatin reduced CD31 vessel formation by 25% compared with controls, squalamine alone, or cisplatin alone; however, no inhibition in CD31 vessel formation was observed when squalamine was combined with vinorelbine. These data demonstrate that the combination of squalamine and a platinum analog has significant preclinical antitumor activity against human lung cancer that is related to the anti-angiogenic effects of squalamine. PMID:10632372

  14. Triterpene-loaded microemulsion using Coix lacryma-jobi seed extract as oil phase for enhanced antitumor efficacy: preparation and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Qu, Ding; He, Junjie; Liu, Congyan; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum triterpene-loaded microemulsions (TMEs) using Coix lacryma-jobi (adlay) seed oil as oil phase were prepared, characterized, and evaluated for enhanced antitumor activity. Ternary phase diagrams for the TMEs were constructed and the optimal preparation was developed. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering showed that this formulation had a well defined spherical shape, a homogeneous distribution, a small size, and a narrow polydispersity index. The drug-loading rate was determined to be 9.87% by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and acceptable stability under various stimulations in vitro was confirmed. Importantly, the TME formulation showed a significantly greater antiproliferative effect towards human lung carcinoma (A549) cells and murine lung tumor (Lewis) cells in comparison with suspension formulations containing triterpene and adlay seed oil as a positive control. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the TMEs was about 0.62 mg crude drug per mL, being 2.5-fold improved relative to that of the corresponding suspension formulation, but no significant cytotoxicity was observed for the bare microemulsion in A549 cells and Lewis cells. In vivo, the TME formulation showed markedly enhanced antitumor efficacy in a xenograft model of Lewis lung cancer after intragastric administration. Compared with cyclophosphamide, the TME formulation showed similar antitumor activity but less general toxicity. These results indicate the feasibility of using a microemulsion to increase the solubility of triterpene and adlay. TMEs hold promise as an efficient drug delivery system for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:24379669

  15. Triterpene-loaded microemulsion using Coix lacryma-jobi seed extract as oil phase for enhanced antitumor efficacy: preparation and in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Ding; He, Junjie; Liu, Congyan; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum triterpene-loaded microemulsions (TMEs) using Coix lacryma-jobi (adlay) seed oil as oil phase were prepared, characterized, and evaluated for enhanced antitumor activity. Ternary phase diagrams for the TMEs were constructed and the optimal preparation was developed. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering showed that this formulation had a well defined spherical shape, a homogeneous distribution, a small size, and a narrow polydispersity index. The drug-loading rate was determined to be 9.87% by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and acceptable stability under various stimulations in vitro was confirmed. Importantly, the TME formulation showed a significantly greater antiproliferative effect towards human lung carcinoma (A549) cells and murine lung tumor (Lewis) cells in comparison with suspension formulations containing triterpene and adlay seed oil as a positive control. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the TMEs was about 0.62 mg crude drug per mL, being 2.5-fold improved relative to that of the corresponding suspension formulation, but no significant cytotoxicity was observed for the bare microemulsion in A549 cells and Lewis cells. In vivo, the TME formulation showed markedly enhanced antitumor efficacy in a xenograft model of Lewis lung cancer after intragastric administration. Compared with cyclophosphamide, the TME formulation showed similar antitumor activity but less general toxicity. These results indicate the feasibility of using a microemulsion to increase the solubility of triterpene and adlay. TMEs hold promise as an efficient drug delivery system for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:24379669

  16. Efficient antitumor effect of co-drug-loaded nanoparticles with gelatin hydrogel by local implantation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Tian, Yong; Zhu, Zhenshu; Xu, Huae; Li, Xiaolin; Zheng, Donghui; Sun, Weihao

    2016-01-01

    Tetrandrine (Tet) could enhance the antitumor effect of Paclitaxel (Ptx) by increasing intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) levels, which leads to the possibility of co-delivery of both drugs for synergistic antitumor effect. In the current study, we reported an efficient, local therapeutic strategy employing effective Tet and Ptx delivery with a nanoparticle-loaded gelatin system. Tet- and Ptx co-loaded mPEG-PCL nanoparticles (P/T-NPs) were encapsulated into the physically cross-linked gelatin hydrogel and then implanted on the tumor site for continuous drug release. The drug-loaded gelatin hydrogel underwent a phase change when the temperature slowly increased. In vitro study showed that Tet/Ptx-loaded PEG-b-PCL nanoparticles encapsulated within a gelatin hydrogel (P/T-NPs-Gelatin) inhibited the growth and invasive ability of BGC-823 cells more effectively than the combination of free drugs or P/T-NPs. In vivo study validated the therapeutic potential of P/T-NPs-Gelatin. P/T-NPs-Gelatin significantly inhibited the activation of p-Akt and the downstream anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein and also inducing the activation of pro-apoptotic Bax protein. Moreover, the molecular-modulating effect of P/T-NPs-Gelatin on related proteins varied slightly under the influence of NAC, which was supported by the observations of the tumor volumes and weights. Based on these findings, local implantation of P/T-NPs-Gelatin may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:27226240

  17. Efficient antitumor effect of co-drug-loaded nanoparticles with gelatin hydrogel by local implantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Tian, Yong; Zhu, Zhenshu; Xu, Huae; Li, Xiaolin; Zheng, Donghui; Sun, Weihao

    2016-01-01

    Tetrandrine (Tet) could enhance the antitumor effect of Paclitaxel (Ptx) by increasing intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) levels, which leads to the possibility of co-delivery of both drugs for synergistic antitumor effect. In the current study, we reported an efficient, local therapeutic strategy employing effective Tet and Ptx delivery with a nanoparticle-loaded gelatin system. Tet- and Ptx co-loaded mPEG-PCL nanoparticles (P/T-NPs) were encapsulated into the physically cross-linked gelatin hydrogel and then implanted on the tumor site for continuous drug release. The drug-loaded gelatin hydrogel underwent a phase change when the temperature slowly increased. In vitro study showed that Tet/Ptx-loaded PEG-b-PCL nanoparticles encapsulated within a gelatin hydrogel (P/T-NPs-Gelatin) inhibited the growth and invasive ability of BGC-823 cells more effectively than the combination of free drugs or P/T-NPs. In vivo study validated the therapeutic potential of P/T-NPs-Gelatin. P/T-NPs-Gelatin significantly inhibited the activation of p-Akt and the downstream anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein and also inducing the activation of pro-apoptotic Bax protein. Moreover, the molecular-modulating effect of P/T-NPs-Gelatin on related proteins varied slightly under the influence of NAC, which was supported by the observations of the tumor volumes and weights. Based on these findings, local implantation of P/T-NPs-Gelatin may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:27226240

  18. Vascular-targeted TNFα improves tumor blood vessel function and enhances antitumor immunity and chemotherapy in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lan; Li, Zhi Jie; Li, Long Fei; Wu, William Ka Kei; Shen, Jing; Zhang, Lin; Chan, Ruby Lok Yi; Yu, Le; Liu, Ya Wei; Ren, Shun Xiang; Chan, Kam Ming; Cho, Chi Hin

    2015-07-28

    Delivery and penetration of chemotherapeutic drugs into neoplasm through the tumor vasculature are essential mechanisms to enhance the efficiency of chemotherapy. "Vascular targeting" strategy focuses on promoting the infiltration of chemotherapeutic drugs into neoplastic tissues. In this study, we achieved a targeted therapy by coupling tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) with TCP-1, a novel vascular-targeting peptide, in an orthotopic colorectal cancer model in mice. High dose of TCP-1-conjugated TNFα (TCP-1/TNFα: 5μg/mouse) displayed potent antitumor activity by inducing apoptosis and reducing microvessel number in tumors than unconjugated TNFα, with no evidence of increased toxicity. In the combined therapy, the antitumor action of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was potentiated when the mice were pretreated with a low dose of TNFα (1ng/mouse) and to a greater extent by the same concentration of TCP-1/TNFα. In this regard, TCP-1/TNFα combined with 5-FU synergistically inhibited the tumor growth, induced apoptosis and reduced cell proliferation. More importantly, TCP-1/TNFα normalized the tumor vasculature and facilitated the infiltration of immune cells to neoplasm as well as attenuated the immunosuppressing effects of TNFα in bone marrow and spleen. At the same time, TCP-1/TNFα significantly improved 5-FU absorption into the tumor mass. Taken together, these findings underscore the therapeutic potential of TCP-1 as a drug carrier in cancer therapy. TCP-1 is a novel vascular-targeting peptide and appears to be a promising agent for drug delivery. TCP-1 fused with TNFα holds great promise for colorectal cancer therapy. PMID:26003042

  19. Interluekin-12 enhances the function and anti-tumor activity in murine and human CD8+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Mark P.; Su, Ee Wern; Suriano, Samantha; Cloud, Colleen A.; Andrijauskaite, Kristina; Kesarwani, Pravin; Schwartz, Kristina M.; Williams, Katelyn; Johnson, C. Bryce; Li, Mingli; Scurti, Gina M.; Salem, Mohamed L.; Paulos, Chrystal M.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Mehrotra, Shikhar; Cole, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Mouse CD8+ T cells conditioned with Interleukin (IL)-12 ex vivo mediate the potent regression of established melanoma when transferred into lymphodepleted mice. However, the quantitative and qualitative changes induced by IL-12 in the responding mouse CD8+ T cells have not been well defined. Moreover, the mechanisms by which IL-12-conditioning impacts human CD8+ T cells, and how such cells might be expanded prior to infusion into patients is not known. We found that ex vivo IL-12-conditioning of mouse CD8+ T cells led to a 10- to 100-fold increase in persistence and anti-tumor efficacy upon adoptive transfer into lymphodepleted mice. The enhancing effect of IL-12 was associated with maintenance of functional avidity. Importantly, in the context of ongoing ACT clinical trials, human CD8+ T cells genetically modified with a tyrosinase-specific T-cell receptor exhibited significantly enhanced functional activity when conditioned with IL-12 as indicated by heightened granzyme B expression and elevated peptide-specific CD107a degranulation. This effect was sustainable despite the 20 days of in vitro cellular expansion required to expand cells over 1,000-fold allowing adequate cell numbers for administration to cancer patients. Overall, these findings support the efficacy and feasibility of ex vivo IL-12-conditioning of TCR-modified human CD8+ T cells for adoptive transfer and cancer therapy. PMID:25676709

  20. Gimeracil, a component of S-1, may enhance the antitumor activity of X-ray irradiation in human cancer xenograft models in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Masakazu; Sakamoto, Kazuki; Sakata, Minoru; Nakagawa, Fumio; Saito, Hitoshi; Sakata, Yu

    2010-11-01

    Chemoradiotherapy is a useful treatment strategy in patients with locally advanced cancers. In particular, combination of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with X-ray irradiation is effective for the treatment of some types of gastrointestinal cancers. We investigated the antitumor effects of combination treatment with X-ray and S-1, a unique formulation of 5-FU, on human cancer xenografts in nude mice and compared the efficacy of this treatment to that of radiotherapy combined with cisplatin, UFT, another oral 5-FU prodrug, and intravenous 5-FU. Tumors implanted into the left hind legs of mice were treated with a dose of 2 or 5 Gy X-ray irradiation on days 1 and 8, and S-1, UFT and 5-FU were administered for 14 days. The efficacy of combined treatment with 8.3 mg/kg S-1 and 2 Gy X-ray irradiation in treating non-small cell lung cancer xenografts (Lu-99 and LC-11) was significantly higher than that of treatment with S-1 alone or 2 Gy X-ray irradiation alone, and the antitumor activity of combined treatment was similar to that of 5 Gy X-ray irradiation alone. Although 8.3 mg/kg S-1 and 17.5 mg/kg UFT had equivalent antitumor activity; the antitumor efficacy of combination treatment with S-1 and 2 Gy X-ray irradiation on LC-11 tumors was significantly higher than that of combination treatment with UFT and 2 Gy X-ray irradiation. Combination treatment with S-1 and X-ray irradiation was also more effective against pancreatic tumors than combination treatment with intravenous 5-FU and X-ray irradiation. To elucidate the reason for the increased antitumor efficacy of combination treatment with S-1 and X-ray irradiation, the antitumor effect of gimeracil, one of the components of S-1, was tested in combination with 2 Gy X-ray irradiation. These experiments demonstrated that gimeracil enhanced the efficacy of X-ray irradiation against lung as well as head and neck cancer xenografts in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we observed decreased expression of γ-H2AX protein, a marker

  1. Evaluation of antitumor effects following tumor necrosis factor-α gene delivery using nanobubbles and ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Horie, Sachiko; Watanabe, Yukiko; Ono, Masao; Mori, Shiro; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2011-11-01

    The antitumor effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) were evaluated following transfection of TNF-α plasmid DNA into solid mouse tumors using the nanobubbles (NBs) and ultrasound (US) gene delivery system. Murine breast carcinoma (EMT6) cells expressing luciferase (1 × 10(6) cells) were injected intradermally into the flanks of 6-7-week-old male SCID mice on day 0. Ten microliters of TNF-α (5 μg/μL) or TNF-α mock plasmid DNA (5 μg/μL) with/without NBs (15 μL) and saline was injected intratumorally in a total volume of 30 μL, and tumors were exposed to US (frequency, 1 MHz; intensity, 3.0 W/cm(2); duty cycle, 20%; number of pulses, 200; and exposure time, 60 s) on days 2, 4, 7, and 9. Changes in tumor size were measured with an in vivo bioluminescent imaging system and a mechanical caliper. Changes in tumor vessel area were quantified using contrast-enhanced US imaging with Sonazoid and a high frequency US imaging system (40 MHz) and immunohistochemistry (CD31). At the mRNA level, expression of TNF-α, caspase-3, and p53 were quantified using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. At the protein level, expression of caspase-3 and p53 were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. We show that repeated TNF-α gene delivery using NBs and US can lead to the local production of TNF-α. This results in antitumor effects, including activation of p53-dependent apoptosis, decrease in tumor vessel density, and suppression of tumor size. In this study, we showed the effectiveness of using NBs and US for TNF-α gene delivery into tumor cells. PMID:21824220

  2. Preconditioning chemotherapy with paclitaxel and cisplatin enhances the antitumor activity of cytokine induced-killer cells in a murine lung carcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiang; Huang, Guichun; Song, Haizhu; Chen, Longbang

    2011-08-01

    Adoptive cell therapy involving the use of ex vivo generated cytokine-induced killer cells (CIKs) provides a promising approach to immunotherapy. However, the therapeutic activity of CIKs is limited by the immunosuppressive factors active in the host. It has become increasingly apparent that manipulation of the recipient immune system with the preconditioning regimen is essential to guarantee the antitumor effect of subsequent adoptive cell therapy. In our study, paclitaxel (PTX) and cisplatin (DDP) were used as preconditioning drugs combined with CIKs to illustrate the potential mechanisms underlying the synergic antitumor effect against Lewis lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We found that 3LL cells displayed an increased sensitization to CIKs-induced lysis after treatment with PTX or DDP in vitro. Significant inhibition of tumor growth was observed in mice treated with combinatorial chemo-immunotherapy with respect to untreated or single regimen treated ones. Prior chemotherapy markedly enhanced the intratumoral accumulation of CD3(+) T lymphocytes and the homing of CIKs to the spleen and tumor. Moreover, the frequencies of intratumoral and splenic regulatory T cells (Tregs) were significantly decreased after chemotherapy pretreatment. Our findings provide a new rationale for combining immunotherapy and chemotherapy to induce a synergistic antitumor response in patients with lung cancer. PMID:20878978

  3. Etoposide enhances antitumor efficacy of MDR1-driven oncolytic adenovirus through autoupregulation of the MDR1 promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Su, Bing-Hua; Shieh, Gia-Shing; Tseng, Yau-Lin; Shiau, Ai-Li; Wu, Chao-Liang

    2015-11-10

    Conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds), or oncolytic adenoviruses, such as E1B55K-deleted adenovirus, are attractive anticancer agents. However, the therapeutic efficacy of E1B55K-deleted adenovirus for refractory solid tumors has been limited. Environmental stress conditions may induce nuclear accumulation of YB-1, which occurs in multidrug-resistant and adenovirus-infected cancer cells. Overexpression and nuclear localization of YB-1 are associated with poor prognosis and tumor recurrence in various cancers. Nuclear YB-1 transactivates the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) genes through the Y-box. Here, we developed a novel E1B55K-deleted adenovirus driven by the MDR1 promoter, designed Ad5GS3. We tested the feasibility of using YB-1 to transcriptionally regulate Ad5GS3 replication in cancer cells and thereby to enhance antitumor efficacy. We evaluated synergistic antitumor effects of oncolytic virotherapy in combination with chemotherapy. Our results show that adenovirus E1A induced E2F-1 activity to augment YB-1 expression, which shut down host protein synthesis in cancer cells during adenovirus replication. In cancer cells infected with Ad5WS1, an E1B55K-deleted adenovirus driven by the E1 promoter, E1A enhanced YB-1 expression, and then further phosphorylated Akt, which, in turn, triggered nuclear translocation of YB-1. Ad5GS3 in combination with chemotherapeutic agents facilitated nuclear localization of YB-1 and, in turn, upregulated the MDR1 promoter activity and enhanced Ad5GS3 replication in cancer cells. Thus, E1A, YB-1, and the MDR1 promoter form a positive feedback loop to promote Ad5GS3 replication in cancer cells, and this regulation can be further augmented when chemotherapeutic agents are added. In the in vivo study, Ad5GS3 in combination with etoposide synergistically suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival in NOD/SCID mice bearing human lung tumor xenografts. More importantly, Ad5GS3 exerted potent oncolytic activity against clinical

  4. Spirulina platensis Lacks Antitumor Effect against Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Waleed; Elshazly, Shimaa M.; Mahmoud, Amr A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement. It has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties. This study was designed to evaluate the antitumor effect of spirulina (200 and 800 mg/kg) against a murine model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma compared to a standard chemotherapeutic drug, 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg). Untreated mice developed a palpable solid tumor after 13 days. Unlike fluorouracil, spirulina at the investigated two dose levels failed to exert any protective effect. In addition, spirulina did not potentiate the antitumor effect of fluorouracil when they were administered concurrently. Interestingly, their combined administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in mortality. The present study demonstrates that spirulina lacks antitumor effect against this model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma and increased mortality when combined with fluorouracil. However, the implicated mechanism is still elusive. PMID:26366170

  5. Spirulina platensis Lacks Antitumor Effect against Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Waleed; Elshazly, Shimaa M; Mahmoud, Amr A A

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement. It has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties. This study was designed to evaluate the antitumor effect of spirulina (200 and 800 mg/kg) against a murine model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma compared to a standard chemotherapeutic drug, 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg). Untreated mice developed a palpable solid tumor after 13 days. Unlike fluorouracil, spirulina at the investigated two dose levels failed to exert any protective effect. In addition, spirulina did not potentiate the antitumor effect of fluorouracil when they were administered concurrently. Interestingly, their combined administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in mortality. The present study demonstrates that spirulina lacks antitumor effect against this model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma and increased mortality when combined with fluorouracil. However, the implicated mechanism is still elusive. PMID:26366170

  6. Inhibiting glycolytic metabolism enhances CD8+ T cell memory and antitumor function

    PubMed Central

    Sukumar, Madhusudhanan; Liu, Jie; Ji, Yun; Subramanian, Murugan; Crompton, Joseph G.; Yu, Zhiya; Roychoudhuri, Rahul; Palmer, Douglas C.; Muranski, Pawel; Karoly, Edward D.; Mohney, Robert P.; Klebanoff, Christopher A.; Lal, Ashish; Finkel, Toren; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Gattinoni, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Naive CD8+ T cells rely upon oxidation of fatty acids as a primary source of energy. After antigen encounter, T cells shift to a glycolytic metabolism to sustain effector function. It is unclear, however, whether changes in glucose metabolism ultimately influence the ability of activated T cells to become long-lived memory cells. We used a fluorescent glucose analog, 2-NBDG, to quantify glucose uptake in activated CD8+ T cells. We found that cells exhibiting limited glucose incorporation had a molecular profile characteristic of memory precursor cells and an increased capacity to enter the memory pool compared with cells taking up high amounts of glucose. Accordingly, enforcing glycolytic metabolism by overexpressing the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase-1 severely impaired the ability of CD8+ T cells to form long-term memory. Conversely, activation of CD8+ T cells in the presence of an inhibitor of glycolysis, 2-deoxyglucose, enhanced the generation of memory cells and antitumor functionality. Our data indicate that augmenting glycolytic flux drives CD8+ T cells toward a terminally differentiated state, while its inhibition preserves the formation of long-lived memory CD8+ T cells. These results have important implications for improving the efficacy of T cell–based therapies against chronic infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:24091329

  7. Oligoesculin fraction induces anti-tumor effects and promotes immune responses on B16-F10 mice melanoma.

    PubMed

    Mokdad Bzeouich, Imen; Mustapha, Nadia; Sassi, Aicha; Ghedira, Kamel; Ghoul, Mohamed; Chebil, Latifa; Luis, José; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2016-08-01

    Laccase was used to enzymatically polymerize esculin. Oligoesculin fraction was obtained after ultrafiltration through a 5-kDa membrane. Several studies have been carried out to prove the effectiveness of natural substances such as immunomodulators to promote the anti-cancer activity in situ. The purpose of our report was to explore whether the anti-tumor potential of the oligoesculin fraction in vitro and in vivo is linked to its immunological mechanisms in melanoma-bearing mice. We revealed that oligoesculin fraction reduced B16-F10 proliferation and migration in vitro in a dose-related manner. Moreover, melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity were inhibited in these melanoma cells in a concentration-dependent way. The anti-tumor potential of oligoesculin fraction was also assessed in vivo. Our results showed that intraperitoneal administration of oligoesculin fraction, at 50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) for 21 days, reduced tumor size and weight with percentages of inhibition of 94 and 87 %, respectively. Oligoesculin fraction was effective in promoting lysosomal activity and nitric oxide (NO) production by peritoneal macrophages in tumor-implanted mice. In addition, the activities of natural killer (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and macrophages were significantly enhanced by oligoesculin fraction. These findings suggested that this polymer with its anti-tumor and immunomodulatory properties could be used for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:26960691

  8. Cyclophosphamide-Mediated Tumor Priming for Enhanced Delivery and Antitumor Activity of HER2-Targeted Liposomal Doxorubicin (MM-302).

    PubMed

    Geretti, Elena; Leonard, Shannon Curtis; Dumont, Nancy; Lee, Helen; Zheng, Jinzi; De Souza, Raquel; Gaddy, Daniel F; Espelin, Christopher W; Jaffray, David A; Moyo, Victor; Nielsen, Ulrik B; Wickham, Thomas J; Hendriks, Bart S

    2015-09-01

    Given the bulky nature of nanotherapeutics relative to small molecules, it is hypothesized that effective tumor delivery and penetration are critical barriers to their clinical activity. HER2-targeted PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (MM-302, HER2-tPLD) is an antibody-liposomal drug conjugate designed to deliver doxorubicin to HER2-overexpressing cancer cells while limiting uptake into nontarget cells. In this work, we demonstrate that the administration and appropriate dose sequencing of cyclophosphamide can improve subsequent MM-302 delivery and enhance antitumor activity in preclinical models without negatively affecting nontarget tissues, such as the heart and skin. We demonstrate that this effect is critically dependent on the timing of cyclophosphamide administration. Furthermore, the effect was found to be unique to cyclophosphamide and related analogues, and not shared by other agents, such as taxanes or eribulin, under the conditions examined. Analysis of the cyclophosphamide-treated tumors suggests that the mechanism for improved MM-302 delivery involves the induction of tumor cell apoptosis, reduction of overall tumor cell density, substantial lowering of interstitial fluid pressure, and increasing vascular perfusion. The novel dosing strategy for cyclophosphamide described herein is readily translatable to standard clinical regimens, represents a potentially significant advance in addressing the drug delivery challenge, and may have broad applicability for nanomedicines. This work formed the basis for clinical evaluation of cyclophosphamide for improving liposome deposition as part of an ongoing phase I clinical trial of MM-302 in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26162690

  9. Subtherapeutic doses of interleukin-15 augment the antitumor effect of interleukin-12 in a B16F10 melanoma model in mice.

    PubMed

    Lasek, W; Golab, J; Maśliński, W; Switaj, T; Bałkowiec, E Z; Stokłosa, T; Giermasz, A; Malejczyk, M; Jakóbisiak, M

    1999-09-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potent immunoregulatory cytokine that exhibits antitumor activity in many experimental tumor models. In the present study, we investigated the ability of IL-15, a cytokine sharing many functions of IL-2, to modulate antitumor effectiveness of IL-12 against B16F10 melanoma in mice. In a model of locally growing tumor, intratumoral (i.t.) administration of IL-12, in three cycles of five consecutive daily injections (0.1 mug) followed by 2 days of rest, led to considerable delay of tumor development but no curative response was achieved. When combined with IL-12, subtherapeutic doses of IL-15 (0.4 mug) pontentiated the antitumor effects of IL-12 and induced complete tumor regressions in 50% of mice. Similar results were obtained in a model in which tumor-bearing mice were intravenously co-injected with melanoma cells to induce metastases. Combined administration of IL-12 and IL-15 yielded greater antitumor activity than injections of either cytokine alone and resulted in prolonged survival of mice bearing locally growing tumor and metastases. Studies of immunological parameters in mice treated with both IL-12 and IL-15 have shown enhanced NK activity (against YAC-1 cells) in the spleen and stimulation of both NK activity and specific anti-B16F10 cytotoxic effector cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes (LN). The strong antitumor effect of the IL-12 + IL-15 combination correlated with a high serum level of IFN-gamma in the treated mice. Moreover, increased expression of IL-15Ralpha was demonstrated in LN lymphocytes isolated from mice injected with IL-12. This result together with findings of other authors showing enhanced expression of IL-12 receptor by IL-15 [1] suggests that the augmentation of the antitumor effect during the course of IL-12/IL-15-based therapy could result from reciprocal upregulation of receptors by both cytokines and synergistic effects on IFN-gamma induction. PMID:10477391

  10. Antitumor effects of traditional Chinese medicine targeting the cellular apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huanli; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiaohui; Xu, Pingxiang; Zhang, Keming; Lin, Xiukun

    2015-01-01

    Defects in apoptosis are common phenomena in many types of cancer and are also a critical step in tumorigenesis. Targeting the apoptotic pathway has been considered an intriguing strategy for cancer therapy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in the People’s Republic of China for thousands of years, and many of the medicines have been confirmed to be effective in the treatment of a number of tumors. With increasing cancer rates worldwide, the antitumor effects of TCMs have attracted more and more attention globally. Many of the TCMs have been shown to have antitumor activity through multiple targets, and apoptosis pathway-related targets have been extensively studied and defined to be promising. This review focuses on several antitumor TCMs, especially those with clinical efficacy, based on their effects on the apoptotic signaling pathway. The problems with and prospects of development of TCMs as anticancer agents are also presented. PMID:26056434

  11. K562-Derived Whole-Cell Vaccine Enhances Antitumor Responses of CAR-Redirected Virus-Specific Cytotoxic-T Lymphocytes in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Caruana, Ignazio; Weber, Gerrit; Ballard, Brandon Corde’; Wood, Michael Scott; Savoldo, Barbara; Dotti, Gianpietro

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Adoptive transfer of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV)- and Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) genetically modified to express a Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) induces objective tumor responses in clinical trials. In vivo expansion and persistence of these cells is crucial to achieve sustained clinical responses. We aimed to develop an off-the-shelf whole-cell vaccine to boost CAR-redirected virus-specific CTLs in vivo after adoptive transfer. As proof of principle, we validated our vaccine approach by boosting CMV-specific CTLs (CMV-CTLs) engineered with a CAR that targets the GD2 antigen. Experimental Design We generated the whole-cell vaccine by engineering the K562 cell line to express the CMV-pp65 protein and the immune stimulatory molecules CD40L and OX40L. Single-cell-derived clones were used to stimulate CMV-CTLs in vitro and in vivo in a xenograft model. We also assessed whether the in vivo boosting of CAR-redirected CMV-CTLs with the whole-cell vaccine enhances the antitumor responses. Finally, we addressed potential safety concerns by including the inducible safety switch caspase9 (iC9) gene in the whole-cell vaccine. Results We found that K562 expressing CMV-pp65, CD40L and OX40L effectively stimulates CMV-specific responses in vitro by promoting antigen cross-presentation to professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Vaccination also enhances antitumor effects of CAR-redirected CMV-CTLs in xenograft tumor models. Activation of the iC9 gene successfully induces growth arrest of engineered K562 implanted in mice. Conclusions Vaccination with a whole-cell vaccine obtained from K562 engineered to express CMV-pp65, CD40L, OX40L and iC9 can safely enhance the antitumor effects of CAR-redirected CMV-CTLs. PMID:25691731

  12. Perhexiline maleate enhances antitumor efficacy of cisplatin in neuroblastoma by inducing over-expression of NDM29 ncRNA

    PubMed Central

    Vella, Serena; Penna, Ilaria; Longo, Luca; Pioggia, Giulia; Garbati, Patrizia; Florio, Tullio; Rossi, Fabio; Pagano, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    High Risk Neuroblastoma (HR-NB) is a pediatric cancer characterized by high malignancy and remarkable cell heterogeneity within the tumour nodules. In a recent study, we demonstrated that in vitro and in vivo over-expression of the non-coding RNA NDM29 (neuroblastoma differentiation marker 29) induces NB cell differentiation, dramatically reducing their malignancy. Among gene expression changes, differentiated phenotype induced by NDM29 is characterized by decrease of the expression of ABC transporters responsible for anticancer drug resistance. Thus, the pharmacological induction of NDM29, in principle, might represent a possible novel strategy to increase cytotoxic drug responses. In this work, we identify a small molecule able to induce the expression of NDM29 in NB cells, conferring to malignant cells increased susceptibility to cisplatin cytotoxic effects. We demonstrate that the pharmacological induction of NDM29 expression in vivo enhances the antitumoral effects of chemotherapy specifically on tumour initiating/cancer stem cells sub-population, usually refractory to therapies and responsible for tumour relapse. In summary, we suggest a novel therapeutical approach possibly useful to treat very aggressive NB cases with poor prognosis. This novel pharmacological strategy aims to promote differentiation of “stem-like” cells to render them more susceptible to the killing action of cytotoxic anticancer drugs. PMID:26674674

  13. Encapsulated paclitaxel nanoparticles exhibit enhanced anti-tumor efficacy in A549 non-small lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guojin; Zang, Bao; Wang, Xiaowei; Liu, Gang; Zhao, Jianqiang

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, paclitaxel (PTX) were encapsulated with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-polylactide (PLA)/D-α tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) (PEG-PLA/TPGS) and the enhanced anti-tumor activity of this PTX mixed micelles (PTX-MM) was evaluated in lung cancer cells. The PTX-MM prepared by a solvent evaporation method was demonstrated to have high drug-loading efficiency (23.2%), high encapsulation efficiency (76.4%), and small size (59 nm). In vitro release assay showed the slow release behavior of PTX-MM, suggesting the good stability of the PTX-MM essential for long circulation time. In vitro kinetics assay demonstrated that PTX-MM could promote absorption and increase relative bioavailability. The anti-cancer efficiency of PTX-MM was also examined by both in vitro and in vivo studies. PTX-MM exhibits obvious cytotoxicity against lung cancer cells with much lower IC50 value when compared with commercial formulated PTX or PTX + TPGS. The xenograft tumor model studies on nude mice indicated that PTX-MM inhibits tumor growth more effectively than other formulations. It was also found that most of mixed micelles were integral in tumor site to exhibit anti-cancer activity. Our results suggested that the use of PTX-MM as an anti-cancer drug may be an effective approach to treat lung cancer. PMID:26525950

  14. Calcitriol enhances gemcitabine antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo by promoting apoptosis in a human pancreatic carcinoma model system

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei-Dong; Ma, Yingyu; Flynn, Geraldine; Muindi, Josephia R; Kong, Rui-Xian; Trump, Donald L

    2010-01-01

    Gemcitabine is the standard care chemotherapeutic agent to treat pancreatic cancer. Previously we demonstrated that calcitriol (1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) has significant anti-proliferative effects in vitro and in vivo in multiple tumor models and enhances the activity of a variety of chemotherapeutic agents. We therefore investigated whether calcitriol could potentiate the cytotoxic activity of gemcitabine in the human pancreatic cancer Capan-1 model system. Isobologram analysis revealed that calcitriol and gemcitabine had synergistic antiproliferative effect over a wide range of drug concentrations. Calcitriol did not reduce the cytidine deaminase activity in Capan-1 tumors nor in the livers of Capan-1 tumor bearing mice. Calcitriol and gemcitabine combination promoted apoptosis in Capan-1 cells compared with either agent alone. The combination treatment also increased the activation of caspases-8, -9, -6 and -3 in Capan-1 cells. This result was confirmed by substrate-based caspase activity assay. Akt phosphorylation was reduced by calcitriol and gemcitabine combination treatment compared to single agent treatment. However, ERK1/2 phosphorylation was not modulated by either agent alone or by the combination. Tumor regrowth delay studies showed that calcitriol in combination with gemcitabine resulted in a significant reduction of Capan-1 tumor volume compared to single agent treatment. Our study suggests that calcitriol and gemcitabine in combination promotes caspase-dependent apoptosis, which may contribute to increased anti-tumor activity compared to either agent alone. PMID:20699664

  15. Combination Treatment with Sublethal Ionizing Radiation and the Proteasome Inhibitor, Bortezomib, Enhances Death-Receptor Mediated Apoptosis and Anti-Tumor Immune Attack

    PubMed Central

    Cacan, Ercan; Spring, Alexander M.; Kumari, Anita; Greer, Susanna F.; Garnett-Benson, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Sub-lethal doses of radiation can modulate gene expression, making tumor cells more susceptible to T-cell-mediated immune attack. Proteasome inhibitors demonstrate broad anti-tumor activity in clinical and pre-clinical cancer models. Here, we use a combination treatment of proteasome inhibition and irradiation to further induce immunomodulation of tumor cells that could enhance tumor-specific immune responses. We investigate the effects of the 26S proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, alone or in combination with radiotherapy, on the expression of immunogenic genes in normal colon and colorectal cancer cell lines. We examined cells for changes in the expression of several death receptors (DR4, DR5 and Fas) commonly used by T cells for killing of target cells. Our results indicate that the combination treatment resulted in increased cell surface expression of death receptors by increasing their transcript levels. The combination treatment further increases the sensitivity of carcinoma cells to apoptosis through FAS and TRAIL receptors but does not change the sensitivity of normal non-malignant epithelial cells. Furthermore, the combination treatment significantly enhances tumor cell killing by tumor specific CD8+ T cells. This study suggests that combining radiotherapy and proteasome inhibition may simultaneously enhance tumor immunogenicity and the induction of antitumor immunity by enhancing tumor-specific T-cell activity. PMID:26703577

  16. Inecalcitol, an analog of 1,25D₃, displays enhanced antitumor activity through the induction of apoptosis in a squamous cell carcinoma model system

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingyu; Yu, Wei-Dong; Hidalgo, Alejandro A.; Luo, Wei; Delansorne, Remi; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data suggest an important role of vitamin D signaling in cancer development and progression, and experimental studies demonstrate that the active vitamin D metabolite 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ (1,25D₃) has broad spectrum antitumor activity. Hypercalcemia has often been suggested to limit the clinical application of these data. The 14-epi-analog of 1,25D₃, inecalcitol [19-nor-14-epi-23-yne-1,25-(OH)₂D₃; TX522], was developed to have superagonistic antitumor activities but low hypercalcemia potential. We examined the antitumor activity of inecalcitol and the underlying mechanisms in a murine squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) model system. In vitro, compared with 1,25D₃, inecalcitol showed enhanced vitamin D receptor (VDR)-mediated transcriptional activity. Inecalcitol suppressed SCC cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner with an IC₅₀ value 30 times lower than that of 1,25D₃. Both inecalcitol and 1,25D₃ induced a comparable level of G₀/G₁ cell cycle arrest in SCC cells. The level of apoptosis induced by inecalcitol was markedly higher than that of 1,25D₃. Apoptosis was mediated through the activation of the caspase 8/10- caspase 3 pathway. Further, inecalcitol markedly inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of c-IAP1 and XIAP compared with 1,25D₃. In vivo, inecalcitol inhibits SCC tumor growth in a dose-dependent fashion. Notably, inecalcitol induced a significantly higher level of apoptosis in the SCC xenograft model. While in vitro inecalcitol demonstrates apparent enhanced VDR binding and antiproliferative effects compared to 1,25D₃, in vivo these advantages disappear; at doses of inecalcitol that have equivalent antitumor effects, similar hypercalcemia is seen. This may be explained by the pharmacokinetics of 1,25D₃ vs. inecalcitol and attributed to the much shorter serum half-life of inecalcitol.We show that inecalcitol has potent antitumor activity in the SCC model system, and this is associated with a

  17. Heterozygous deletion of ATG5 in Apc(Min/+) mice promotes intestinal adenoma growth and enhances the antitumor efficacy of interferon-gamma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Wang, Yan; Lu, Yuyin; Zhang, Qianyun; Qu, Xianjun

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy related gene 5 (ATG5) was lost in 23% of the patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and the role of loss of ATG5 in the pathogenesis of CRC remains unclear. Knockdown of ATG5 in cancer cells enhances the antitumor efficacy of lots of chemotherapeutic agents. However, there is still no animal model to validate these in vitro observations in vivo. In this study, we found that heterozygous deletion of ATG5 in Apc(Min/+) mice increased the number and size of adenomas as compared with those in Apc(Min/+)ATG5(+/+) mice. To investigate whether ATG5 deficiency could sensitize tumors to chemotherapies, we compared the antitumor effects of Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) between Apc(Min/+)ATG5(+/+) and Apc(Min/+)ATG5(+/-) mice, as IFN-γ is a potential tumor suppressor for CRC and has been used clinically as an efficient adjuvant to chemotherapy of cancer. We revealed that heterozygous deletion of ATG5 significantly enhanced the antitumor efficacy of IFN-γ. Early treatment of Apc(Min/+)ATG5(+/-) mice with IFN-γ decreased tumor incidence rate to 16.7% and reduced the number of adenomas by 95.5% and late treatment led to regression of tumor. Moreover, IFN-γ treatment did not cause any evident toxic reaction. Mechanistic analysis revealed that heterozygous deletion of ATG5 activated EGFR/ERK1/2 and Wnt/β-catenin pathways in adenomas of Apc(Min/+) mice and enhanced the effects of IFN-γ-dependent inhibition of these 2 pathways. Our results demonstrate that ATG5 plays important roles in intestinal tumor growth and combination of IFN-γ and ATG5 deficiency or ATG5-targeted inhibition is a promising strategy for prevention and treatment of CRC. PMID:25695667

  18. Cyclophosphamide and IL-12-transduced DCs enhance the antitumor activity of tumor antigen-stimulated DCs and reduce Tregs and MDSCs number.

    PubMed

    Rossowska, Joanna; Pajtasz-Piasecka, Elżbieta; Anger, Natalia; Wojas-Turek, Justyna; Kicielińska, Jagoda; Piasecki, Egbert; Duś, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    A hostile tumor microenvironment, characterized by an abundance of T regulatory cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), considerably limits the efficacy of dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines. The intention of this study was to enhance the antitumor activity of vaccines consisting of bone marrow-derived DCs stimulated with TAg (BMDC/TAg) via single administration of cyclophosphamide and multiple injections of interleukin (IL)-12-transduced DCs (BMDC/IL-12). The combined chemoimmunotherapy was applied in the treatment of mice with subcutaneously (SC) growing, advanced MC38 colon carcinoma. The highest level of tumor growth inhibition, accompanied by high cytotoxic activity of effector cells, and their increased influx into tumor tissue, was observed after application of cyclophosphamide in combination with BMDC/TAg and BMDC/IL-12. The effect was probably associated with the elimination of T regulatory cells from spleens and tumors, but most of all with changes in the number and differentiation stage of MDSCs. After the therapy, the percentage of granulocytic and monocytic MDSCs in spleens was significantly lower than in the control group. Moreover, MDSCs derived from spleens and tumors showed increased expression of MHC class II, which may indicate the higher maturation stage of the myeloid cells as well as their enhanced capacity toward antigen presentation. The obtained data indicate that the optimal composition of antitumor vaccines able to limit the suppressor activity of MDSCs is essential to enhance the elimination of tumor cells and to achieve an optimal therapeutic effect. PMID:25304726

  19. Gamma delta T cells are activated by polysaccharide K (PSK) and contribute to the anti-tumor effect of PSK

    PubMed Central

    Inatsuka, Carol; Yang, Yi; Gad, Ekram; Rastetter, Lauren; Disis, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    Polysaccharide K (PSK) is a widely used mushroom extract that has shown anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects in both preclinical and clinical studies. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanism of actions of PSK. We recently reported that PSK can activate toll-like receptor 2 and enhances the function of NK cells. The current study was undertaken to study the effect of PSK on gamma delta (γδ) T cells, another important arm of the innate immunity. In vitro experiments using mouse splenocytes showed that γδ T cells produce IFN-γ after treatment with PSK and have up-regulated expression of CD25, CD69, and CD107a. To investigate whether the effect of PSK on γδ T cells is direct or indirect, purified γδ T cells were cultured either alone or together with bone marrow-derived DC in a co-culture or trans-well system and then stimulated with PSK. Results showed that direct cell-to-cell contact between γδ T cells and DC is required for optimal activation of γδ T cells. There was also reciprocal activation of DC by PSK-activated γδ T cells, as demonstrated by higher expression of costimulatory molecules and enhanced production of IL-12 by DC in the presence of γδ T cells. PSK can also co-stimulate γδ T cells with anti-TCR and anti-CD3 stimulation, in the absence of DC. Finally, in vivo treatment with PSK activates γδ T cells among the tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, and depleting γδ T cells during PSK treatment attenuated the anti-tumor effect of PSK. All together, these results demonstrated that γδ T cells are activated by PSK and contribute to the anti-tumor effect of PSK. PMID:23685781

  20. Pharmacokinetics and antitumor efficacy of DSPE-PEG2000 polymeric liposomes loaded with quercetin and temozolomide: Analysis of their effectiveness in enhancing the chemosensitization of drug-resistant glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    HU, JUN; WANG, JUNJIE; WANG, GANG; YAO, ZHONGJUN; DANG, XIAOQIAN

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a new type of DSPE-PEG2000 polymeric liposome for the brain-targeted delivery of poorly water-soluble anticancer drugs was successfully prepared and characterized. The nanoparticles were formed by the self-assembly of an amphiphilic polymer consisting of hydrophilic 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000] (DSPE-PEG2000). These nanoliposomes served as a safe delivery platform for the simultaneous delivery of quercetin (QUE) and temozolomide (TMZ) to rat brains. The 2-in-1 PEG2000-DSPE nanoliposomes containing QUE and TMZ (QUE/TMZ-NLs) were rapidly taken up by the U87 glioma cells in vitro, whereas at the same concentrations, the amounts of the free drugs taken up were minimal. The QUE/TMZ-NLs showed an enhanced potency in the U87 cells and the TMZ-resistant U87 cells (U87/TR cells), possibly due to the high intracellular drug concentration and the subsequent drug release. In vivo biodistribution experiments revealed a significant accumulation of QUE/TMZ-NLs in the brain, with significantly increased plasma concentrations of QUE and TMZ, as well as delayed clearance in our rat model of glioma. The results were not so significant for the QUE-loaded nanoliposomes (QUE-NLs) and free TMZ. The findings of our study establish the DSPE-PEG2000 polymeric liposome as a novel and effective nanocarrier for enhancing drug delivery to brain tumors. PMID:26782731

  1. Construction of selenium nanoparticles/β-glucan composites for enhancement of the antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xuewei; Liu, Qingye; Zou, Siwei; Xu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Lina

    2015-03-01

    We report on a green procedure for the stabilization of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) by a naturally occurring β-glucan with triple helical conformation known as Lentinan (t-LNT) in water after denaturing into single chains (s-LNT) at 140 °C. The results demonstrated that the s-LNT can interact with SeNPs through Se-O-H interaction. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra, UV/vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that s-LNT coated SeNPs to form a stable nano-composite Se/s-LNT, leading to good dispersion of SeNPs. Especially, the as-prepared Se/s-LNT composite in the solution could remain homogeneous and translucent for 30 days without any precipitates. Different size distribution of SeNPs was prepared by simply controlling the concentrations of selenite sodium and the corresponding reducing agent ascorbic acid. The size effect of SeNPs on anti-tumor activity was revealed that the SeNPs with more evenly particle size distribution show the higher anticancer activity. PMID:25498656

  2. Enhanced Antitumor Efficacy of Vasculostatin (Vstat120) Expressing Oncolytic HSV-1

    PubMed Central

    Hardcastle, Jayson; Kurozumi, Kazuhiko; Dmitrieva, Nina; Sayers, Martin P; Ahmad, Sarwat; Waterman, Peter; Weissleder, Ralph; Chiocca, E Antonio; Kaur, Balveen

    2009-01-01

    Oncolytic viral (OV) therapy is a promising therapeutic modality for brain tumors. Vasculostatin (Vstat120) is the cleaved and secreted extracellular fragment of brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1), a brain-specific receptor. To date, the therapeutic efficacy of Vstat120 delivery into established tumors has not been investigated. Here we tested the therapeutic efficacy of combining Vstat120 gene delivery in conjunction with OV therapy. We constructed RAMBO (Rapid Antiangiogenesis Mediated By Oncolytic virus), which expresses Vstat120 under the control of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) IE4/5 promoter. Secreted Vstat120 was detected as soon as 4 hours postinfection in vitro and was retained for up to 13 days after OV therapy in subcutaneous tumors. RAMBO-produced Vstat120 efficiently inhibited endothelial cell migration and tube formation in vitro (P = 0.0005 and P = 0.0184, respectively) and inhibited angiogenesis (P = 0.007) in vivo. There was a significant suppression of intracranial and subcutaneous glioma growth in mice treated with RAMBO compared to the control virus, HSVQ (P = 0.0021 and P < 0.05, respectively). Statistically significant reduction in tumor vascular volume fraction (VVF) and microvessel density (MVD) was observed in tumors treated with RAMBO. This is the first study to report the antitumor effects of Vstat120 delivery into established tumors and supports the further development of RAMBO as a possible cancer therapy. PMID:19844198

  3. Dendritic cell vaccine modified by Ag85A gene enhances anti-tumor immunity against bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pei; Wang, Jinyan; Wang, Danan; Wang, Huan; Shan, Fengping; Chen, Liudan; Hou, Ying; Wang, Enhua; Lu, Chang-Long

    2012-11-01

    The ability of dendritic cells to provide all the signals required for T-cell activation makes them an ideal cancer vaccine platform. With the use of established DC2.4 cell line, originated from C57BL/6 mice and developed by superinfecting GM-CSF transduced bone marrow cells with myc and raf oncogenes, we investigated whether the DC 2.4 cell line transfected with Ag85A gene could enhance immunity against bladder cancer. Both phenotypic and functional analyses of Ag85A-DCs were done with use of FCM and T cell proliferation test. The cytotoxicity of Ag85A-DCs loaded with tumor cell lysate was verified by LDH. Finally, the production of interferon gamma was assayed by both ELISA and FCM. The immunotherapeutic effect of DC vaccine on murine bladder cancer was assessed pharmacologically and pathologically. Our results showed that Ag85A gene transfected DCs expressed high levels of key surface markers such as CD80, CD86 and MHC-II. The CTL primed with MB49 lysate-pulsed Ag85A-DCs elicits higher activity against MB49 tumor cells and upregulated level of IFN-γ production. Furthermore, the significant inhibitive effect on tumor growth in mice was found in the group of Ag85A-DC vaccine. The infiltration of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cell within established tumor treated by Ag85A-DC vaccine significantly increased as compared with control groups. It is therefore concluded that DCs engineered by Ag85A gene exerts enhanced anti-tumor immunity against bladder cancer and this study might provide a meaningful mode of action with the use of Ag85A engineered DC vaccination in anti-cancer immunotherapy. PMID:22884511

  4. Metronomic docetaxel in PRINT® nanoparticles and EZH2 silencing have synergistic antitumor effect in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gharpure, Kshipra M.; Chu, Kevin S.; Bowerman, Charles; Miyake, Takahito; Pradeep, Sunila; Mangala, Selanere L.; Han, Hee-Dong; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N.; Rahhal, Tojan B.; Wu, Sherry Y.; Luft, J. Christopher; Napier, Mary E; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; DeSimone, Joseph M; Sood, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antitumor effects of a combination of metronomic doses of a novel delivery vehicle, PLGA-PRINT nanoparticles containing docetaxel, and anti-angiogenic mEZH2 siRNA incorporated into chitosan nanoparticles. In vivo dose-finding studies and therapeutic experiments were conducted in well-established orthotopic mouse models of epithelial ovarian cancer. Antitumor effects were determined on the basis of reduction in mean tumor weight and number of metastatic tumor nodules in the animals. The tumor tissues from these in vivo studies were stained to evaluate the proliferation index (Ki67), apoptosis index (cleaved caspase 3), and microvessel density (CD31). The lowest dose of metronomic regimen (0.5 mg/kg) resulted in significant reduction in tumor growth. The combination of PLGA-PRINT-docetaxel and CH-mEZH2 siRNA showed significant antitumor effects in the HeyA8 and SKOV3ip1 tumor models (p<0.05). Individual as well as combination therapies showed significant anti-angiogenic, anti-proliferative, and pro-apoptotic effects, and combination therapy had additive effects. Metronomic delivery of PLGA-PRINT-docetaxel combined with CH-mEZH2 siRNA has significant antitumor activity in preclinical models of ovarian cancer. PMID:24755199

  5. [NEW MECHANISM OF HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTION OF EMBRYONIC ANTITUMOR MODULATOR MKRTCHYAN BY ACTIVATION OF IT'S MEMBRANOPROTECTIVE EFFECT].

    PubMed

    Aghajanova, E

    2015-12-01

    As a new means of prevention and treatment of diabetes can be considered Embryonic antitumor modulator Mkrtchyan (EATM). According to our data on the STZ model of diabetes in rats EATM revealed hypoglycemic effect. Moreover, EATM prevented the development of oxidative stress. It is shown that EATM having immunomodulatory action, realizes its effect by regulating the Nox (NAPH oxidase) system. Inactivation of Nox, including the pancreas, is one of the factors determining the safety of the organ responsible for the development of diabetes. The release of the Nox is increased ex vivo and in the patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes. Mechanism for enhancing of the Nox isoforms release from erythrocyte membranes and blood serum exosomes in the presence of ferriHb in diabetes may be due to destabilizing of the cell membranes. It is established that the glucose at low concentrations bound to isoforms of Nox at the membrane surface due to increasing their stability, and at high concentrations, on the contrary, it lowers their stability. Thus, we have demonstrated a new mechanism of destabilization of cell membranes in diabetes mellitus. Suppression of the release of the pancreas Nox membrane cells in this pathology by means of EATM is perhaps a new mechanism of stabilization of these membranes, which explains the antidiabetic effect of the preparation. PMID:26719557

  6. Butyrate activates the monocarboxylate transporter MCT4 expression in breast cancer cells and enhances the antitumor activity of 3-bromopyruvate.

    PubMed

    Queirós, Odília; Preto, Ana; Pacheco, António; Pinheiro, Céline; Azevedo-Silva, João; Moreira, Roxana; Pedro, Madalena; Ko, Young H; Pedersen, Peter L; Baltazar, Fátima; Casal, Margarida

    2012-02-01

    Most malignant tumors exhibit the Warburg effect, which consists in increased glycolysis rates with production of lactate, even in the presence of oxygen. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), maintain these glycolytic rates, by mediating the influx and/or efflux of lactate and are overexpressed in several cancer cell types. The lactate and pyruvate analogue 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is an inhibitor of the energy metabolism, which has been proposed as a specific antitumor agent. In the present study, we aimed at determining the effect of 3-BP in breast cancer cells and evaluated the putative role of MCTs on this effect. Our results showed that the three breast cancer cell lines used presented different sensitivities to 3-BP: ZR-75-1 ER (+)>MCF-7 ER (+)>SK-BR-3 ER (-). We also demonstrated that 3-BP reduced lactate production, induced cell morphological alterations and increased apoptosis. The effect of 3-BP appears to be cytotoxic rather than cytostatic, as a continued decrease in cell viability was observed after removal of 3-BP. We showed that pre-incubation with butyrate enhanced significantly 3-BP cytotoxicity, especially in the most resistant breast cancer cell line, SK-BR-3. We observed that butyrate treatment induced localization of MCT1 in the plasma membrane as well as overexpression of MCT4 and its chaperone CD147. Our results thus indicate that butyrate pre-treatment potentiates the effect of 3-BP, most probably by increasing the rates of 3-BP transport through MCT1/4. This study supports the potential use of butyrate as adjuvant of 3-BP in the treatment of breast cancer resistant cells, namely ER (-). PMID:22350013

  7. Comparison of two self-assembled macromolecular prodrug micelles with different conjugate positions of SN38 for enhancing antitumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Piao, Hongyu; Gao, Ying; Xu, Caihong; Tian, Ye; Wang, Lihong; Liu, Jinwen; Tang, Bo; Zou, Meijuan; Cheng, Gang

    2015-01-01

    7-Ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN38), an active metabolite of irinotecan (CPT-11), is a remarkably potent antitumor agent. The clinical application of SN38 has been extremely restricted by its insolubility in water. In this study, we successfully synthesized two macromolecular prodrugs of SN38 with different conjugate positions (chitosan-(C10-OH)SN38 and chitosan-(C20-OH)SN38) to improve the water solubility and antitumor activity of SN38. These prodrugs can self-assemble into micelles in aqueous medium. The particle size, morphology, zeta potential, and in vitro drug release of SN38 and its derivatives, as well as their cytotoxicity, pharmacokinetics, and in vivo antitumor activity in a xenograft BALB/c mouse model were studied. In vitro, chitosan-(C10-OH)SN38 (CS-(10s)SN38) and chitosan-(C20-OH) SN38 (CS-(20s)SN38) were 13.3- and 25.9-fold more potent than CPT-11 in the murine colon adenocarcinoma cell line CT26, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC)0–24 of SN38 after intravenously administering CS-(10s)SN38 and CS-(20s)SN38 to Sprague Dawley rats was greatly improved when compared with CPT-11 (both P<0.01). A larger AUC0–24 of CS-(20s)SN38 was observed when compared to CS-(10s)SN38 (P<0.05). Both of the novel self-assembled chitosan-SN38 prodrugs demonstrated superior anticancer activity to CPT-11 in the CT26 xenograft BALB/c mouse model. We have also investigated the differences between these macromolecular prodrug micelles with regards to enhancing the antitumor activity of SN38. CS-(20s)SN38 exhibited better in vivo antitumor activity than CS-(10s)SN38 at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg (P<0.05). In conclusion, both macromolecular prodrug micelles improved the in vivo conversion rate and antitumor activity of SN38, but the prodrug in which C20-OH was conjugated to macromolecular materials could be a more promising platform for SN38 delivery. PMID:25848251

  8. Proteomic analysis of anti-tumor effects by tetrandrine treatment in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhixiang; Wang, Keming; Wei, Jia; Lu, Xiang; Liu, Baorui

    2010-11-01

    Tetrandrine (TET), a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the root of Hang-Fang-Chi (Stephenia tetrandra S Moore), exhibits broad pharmacological effects, including anti-tumor activity. Recently, the beneficial effects of TET on cytotoxicity towards tumor cells, radiosensitization, circumventing multidrug resistance, normal tissue radioprotection, and antiangiogenesis have been examined extensively. To explore the potential molecular mechanism of the anti-tumor effect of TET, we applied proteomic tools to profile the proteins in HepG2 cells subjected to TET treatment. The levels of 39 proteins in cells exposed to TET (IC₅₀=5±0.6 μg/ml) for 48 h were observed to undergo significant alterations. Six proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) using peptide fingerprinting from 10 protein spots (density difference >1.5-fold between the control and TET-treated group). Among them, 5 proteins were downregulated (proteasome activator complex subunit 3, 40S ribosomal protein S12, phosphoglycerate mutase 1, destrin, transaldolase) and 1 protein was upregulated (guanylate kinase 1) by TET treatment in HepG2 cells as determined by spot volume (P<0.05). Most of the identified proteins were associated with tumor growth, migration, and anti-tumor drug resistance. These data will be helpful in elucidating the molecular mechanism of TET's anti-tumor effect in HepG2 cells. PMID:20554191

  9. CCR4 is critically involved in effective antitumor immunity in mice bearing intradermal B16 melanoma.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kazuhiko; Itoh, Tatsuki; Koyama, Atsushi; Imamura, Reira; Kawai, Shiori; Nishiwaki, Keiji; Oiso, Naoki; Kawada, Akira; Yoshie, Osamu; Nakayama, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    CCR4 is a major chemokine receptor expressed by Treg cells and Th17 cells. While Treg cells are known to suppress antitumor immunity, Th17 cells have recently been shown to enhance the induction of antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Here, CCR4-deficient mice displayed enhanced tumor growth upon intradermal inoculation of B16-F10 melanoma cells. In CCR4-deficient mice, while IFN-γ+CD8+ effector T cells were decreased in tumor sites, IFN-γ+CD8+ T cells and Th17 cells were decreased in regional lymph nodes. In wild-type mice, CD4+IL-17A+ cells, which were identified as CCR4+CD44+ memory Th17, were found to be clustered around dendritic cells expressing MDC/CCL22, a ligand for CCR4, in regional lymph nodes. Compound 22, a CCR4 antagonist, also enhanced tumor growth and decreased Th17 cells in regional lymph nodes in tumor-bearing mice treated with Dacarbazine. In contrast, CCR6 deficiency did not affect the tumor growth and the numbers of Th17 cells in regional lymph nodes. These findings indicate that CCR4 is critically involved in regional lymph node DC-Th17 cell interactions that are necessary for Th17 cell-mediated induction of antitumor CD8+ effector T cells in mice bearing B16 melanoma. PMID:27132989

  10. Effect of Paclitaxel on Antitumor Activity of Cyclophosphamide: Study on Two Transplanted Tumors in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kaledin, V I; Nikolin, V P; Popova, N A; Pyshnaya, I A; Bogdanova, L A; Morozkova, T S

    2015-11-01

    Antitumor effect of paclitaxel used as the monotherapy or in combination with cyclophosphamide was studied on CBA/LacSto mice with transplanted LS and RLS tumors characterized by high (LS) and low (RLS) sensitivity to cyclophosphamide. The therapeutic effects of cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel were summed in animals with drug-resistant RLS tumor, while combined use of these drugs in LS tumor highly sensitive to the apoptogenic effect of cyclophosphamide was no more effective than cyclophosphamide alone. PMID:26597686

  11. The combination of Pleurotus ferulae water extract and CpG-ODN enhances the immune responses and antitumor efficacy of HPV peptides pulsed dendritic cell-based vaccine.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinyu; Li, Jinyao; Aipire, Adila; Luo, JiaoJiao; Yuan, Pengfei; Zhang, Fuchun

    2016-06-30

    Our previous study reported that the combination of Pleurotus ferulae water extract (PFWE) and CpG (PFWE+CpG) enhanced the maturation and function of dendritic cells (DCs). Here, we investigated the effects of PFWE+CpG on the immune responses and antitumor efficacy of DC-based vaccine. We observed that all of HPV E6 and E7 peptides pulsed DCs (HPV-immature DCs, HPV+PFWE-, +CpG- or +PFWE+CpG-DCs) induced antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell responses and HPV+PFWE+CpG-DCs induced highest level of CD8(+) T cell responses. The antitumor efficacy of HPV-DCs vaccines was evaluated in TC-1 tumor mouse model. The early therapeutic study showed that HPV+PFWE-, +CpG- and +PFWE+CpG-DCs greatly inhibited tumor growth. Moreover, HPV+PFWE+CpG-DCs controlled tumor growth at a faster rate compared to other groups. These three groups induced HPV-specific CD8(+) T cell responses and significantly decreased the frequencies of induced regulatory T cells (iTregs: CD4(+)CD25(-)Fopx3(+)). However, only HPV+PFWE+CpG-DCs significantly decreased the frequency of natural Tregs (nTregs: CD4(+)CD25(+)Fopx3(+)). Furthermore, HPV+PFWE+CpG-DCs also significantly inhibited tumor growth in the late therapeutic study. The results showed that PFWE+CpG enhanced the immune responses and antitumor efficacy of DC-based vaccine, suggesting that PFWE+CpG might be the potential candidate for the generation of clinical-grade mature DCs. PMID:27211038

  12. Combination treatment with hypoxia-activated prodrug evofosfamide (TH-302) and mTOR inhibitors results in enhanced antitumor efficacy in preclinical renal cell carcinoma models

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jessica D; Ahluwalia, Dharmendra; Liu, Qian; Li, Wenwu; Wang, Yan; Meng, Fanying; Bhupathi, Deepthi; Matteucci, Mark D; Hart, Charles P

    2015-01-01

    Tumors often consist of hypoxic regions which are resistant to chemo- and radiotherapy. Evofosfamide (also known as TH-302), a 2-nitroimidazole triggered hypoxia-activated prodrug, preferentially releases the DNA cross-linker bromo-isophosphoramide mustard in hypoxic cells. The intracellular kinase mTOR plays a key role in multiple pathways which are important in cancer progression. Here we investigated the enhanced efficacy profile and possible mechanisms of evofosfamide in combination with mTOR inhibitor (mTORi) everolimus or temsirolimus in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) xenograft models. The antitumor activities of the mTORi everolimus or temsirolimus alone, evofosfamide alone, or the combination were investigated in the 786-O and Caki-1 RCC cells in vitro and in vivo xenograft models. Two schedules were tested in which evofosfamide was started on the same day as the mTORi or 1 week after. Combination mechanisms were investigated by measuring a panel of pharmacodynamic biomarkers by immunohistochemistry. Antitumor efficacy in both RCC xenograft models was enhanced by the combination of evofosfamide and mTORi. Evofosfamide reduced the increased hypoxia induced by mTORi. Combination treatment induced increased DNA damage, decreased cell proliferation, and decreased survivin. Addition of mTORi did not change evofosfamide-mediated cytotoxicity in 786-O or Caki-1 cells in vitro which might suggest cell non-autonomous effects, specifically increased tumor hypoxia, are important for the in vivo combination activity. Taken together, evofosfamide potentiates the antitumor efficacy of mTOR inhibitors and inhibits the increased tumor hypoxia caused by mTOR inhibition. These studies provide a translational rationale for combining evofosfamide with mTOR inhibitors in clinical studies. PMID:26328245

  13. Delivery of baicalein and paclitaxel using self-assembled nanoparticles: synergistic antitumor effect in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Xi, Mei; Duan, Xuezhong; Wang, Yong; Kong, Fansheng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Combination anticancer therapy is promising to generate synergistic anticancer effects to maximize the treatment effect and overcome multidrug resistance. The aim of the study reported here was to develop multifunctional, dual-ligand, modified, self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) for the combination delivery of baicalein (BCL) and paclitaxel (PTX) prodrugs. Methods Prodrug of PTX and prodrug of BCL, containing dual-targeted ligands of folate (FA) and hyaluronic acid (HA), were synthesized. Multifunctional self-assembled NPs for combination delivery of PTX prodrug and BCL prodrug (PTX-BCL) were prepared and the synergistic antitumor effect was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro transfection efficiency of the novel modified vectors was evaluated in human lung cancer A549 cells and drug-resistant lung cancer A549/PTX cells. The in vivo antitumor efficiency and systemic toxicity of different formulations were further investigated in mice bearing A549/PTX drug-resistant human lung cancer xenografts. Results The size of the PTX-BCL NPs was approximately 90 nm, with a positive zeta potential of +3.3. The PTX-BCL NPs displayed remarkably better antitumor activity over a wide range of drug concentrations, and showed an obvious synergism effect with CI50 values of 0.707 and 0.513, indicating that double-ligand modification and the co-delivery of PTX and BCL prodrugs with self-assembled NPs had remarkable superiority over other formulations. Conclusion The prepared PTX-BCL NP drug-delivery system was proven efficient by its targeting of drug-resistant human lung cancer cells and delivering of BCL and PTX prodrugs. Enhanced synergistic anticancer effects were achieved by PTX-BCL NPs, and multidrug resistance of PTX was overcome by this promising targeted nanomedicine. PMID:26045664

  14. Membrane associated antitumor effects of crocine-, ginsenoside- and cannabinoid derivates.

    PubMed

    Molnár, J; Szabó, D; Pusztai, R; Mucsi, I; Berek, L; Ocsovszki, I; Kawata, E; Shoyama, Y

    2000-01-01

    In the present work a systematic study was initiated with crocine, ginsenoside and cannabinoid derivatives on multidrug resistant mouse lymphoma cells, viral tumor antigen expression and some human leukocyte functions. Among saffron derivatives, crocin and picrocrocin, triglucosyl and diglucosyl crocetin were ineffective on the reversal of multidrug resistance of lymphoma cells. Ginsenoside increased drug accumulation and tumor antigen expression at 2.0-20.0 micrograms/mL. Some cannabinoid derivatives such as cannabinol, cannabispirol and cannabidiol increased drug accumulation, while cannabidiolic acid, delta-9-THC and tetrahydro-cannabidiolic acid reduced drug accumulation of the human mdr1-gene transfected mouse lymphoma cells. The reversal of multidrug resistance is the result of the inhibition of the efflux pump function in the tumor cells. Crocetin esters were less potent than crocin itself in the inhibition of EBV early antigen expression. However crocin and diglucosylcrocetin inhibited early tumor antigen expression of adenovirus infected cells, but triglucosylcrocetin was less effective at 0.01-1.0 microgram/mL. The crocin had no antiviral effect [on HSV-2 infected vero cells] up to 25 micrograms/mL concentration. Ginsenosides had a moderate inhibitory effect except ginsenoside Rb1 (was the less effective) on the drug efflux pump. Among the cannabinoid derivatives the cannabinol and cannabispirol increased drug accumulation, while cannabidiolic acid and delta-8-THC, delta-9-THC and tetrahydro-cannabinol reduced drug accumulation in multidrug resistant mouse lymphoma cells. It is interesting that ginsenosides had a chemical structure-dependent immunomodulating effect by enhancing the activity of NK-cells and ADCC activities. PMID:10810367

  15. Histone deacetylase inhibitory effect of Brazilian propolis and its association with the antitumor effect in Neuro2a cells

    PubMed Central

    Ishiai, Shinobu; Tahara, Wataru; Yamamoto, Etsuko; Yamamoto, Rindai; Nagai, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    Propolis is a resinous product produced by honey bees and is known to have antitumor functions. On the other hand, histone deacetylase (Hdac) inhibitors have recently attracted attention for their antitumor effects. In this study, we examined whether Brazilian green propolis has an Hdac inhibitory activity and its contribution on antitumor effects. By in vitro Hdac activity assay, Brazilian propolis extract (BPE) significantly inhibited the enzyme activity. Actually, BPE treatment increased the intracellular histone acetylation in Neuro2a cells. Regarding antitumor effect in Neuro2a cells, BPE treatment significantly decreased cell viability. An Hdac activator theophylline significantly attenuated the effect. Then, we analyzed whether the decreasing effect on cell number was caused by cell death or growth retardation. By live/dead cell staining, BPE treatment significantly increased the dead cell number. By cell cycle analysis, BPE treatment retarded cell cycle at the M-phase. Both of these cellular effects were suppressed by addition of theophylline. These data indicate that BPE induced both cell death and growth retardation via Hdac inhibitory activity. We demonstrated that Brazilian propolis bears regulatory functions on histone acetylation via Hdac inhibition, and the effect contributes antitumor functions. Our data suggest that intake of Brazilian propolis shows preventing effects against cancer. PMID:25473514

  16. Anti-Tumor Effect of Steamed Codonopsis lanceolata in H22 Tumor-Bearing Mice and Its Possible Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Xu, Qi; He, Yu-Fang; Liu, Ying; Yang, Shu-Bao; Wang, Zi; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Li-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies confirmed that steaming and the fermentation process could significantly improve the cognitive-enhancement and neuroprotective effects of Codonopsis lanceolata, the anti-tumor efficacy of steamed C. lanceolata (SCL) and what mechanisms are involved remain largely unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-tumor effect in vivo of SCL in H22 tumor-bearing mice. The results clearly indicated that SCL could not only inhibit the tumor growth, but also prolong the survival time of H22 tumor-bearing mice. Besides, the serum levels of cytokines, such as interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), were enhanced by SCL administration. The observations of Hoechst 33258 staining demonstrated that SCL was able to induce tumor cell apoptosis. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that SCL treatment significantly increased Bax expression and decreased Bcl-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression of H22 tumor tissues in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, LC/MS analysis of SCL indicated that it mainly contained lobetyolin and six saponins. Taken all together, the findings in the present study clearly demonstrated that SCL inhibited the H22 tumor growth in vivo at least partly via improving the immune functions, inducing apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis. PMID:26426041

  17. Cell-specific expression of artificial microRNAs targeting essential genes exhibit potent antitumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Chenyu; Liu, Hao; Chen, Ping; Ye, Jingjia; Teng, Lisong; Jia, Zhenyu; Cao, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    To achieve specific and potent antitumor effect of hepatocyte carcinoma cells, replication defective adenoviral vectors, namely rAd/AFP-amiRG, rAd/AFP-amiRE and rAd/AFP-amiRP, were constructed which were armed with artificial microRNAs (amiRs) targeting essential functional genes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E and DNA polymerase α respectively under the control of a recombinant promoter comprised of human α-fetoprotein enhancer and basal promoter. The AFP enhancer/promoter showed specific high transcription activity in AFP-positive HCC cells Hep3B, HepG2 and SMMC7721, while low in AFP-negative cell Bcap37. All artificial microRNAs exhibited efficient knockdown of target genes. Decreased ATP production and protein synthesis was observed in rAd/AFP-amiRG and rAd/AFP-amiRE treated HCC cells. All three recombinant adenoviruses showed efficient blockage of cell cycle progression and significant suppression of HCC cells in vitro. In nude mice model bearing Hep3B xenograft, administration of rAd/AFP-amiRG showed potent antitumor effect. The strategy of tumor-specific knockdown of genes essential for cell survival and proliferation may suggest a novel promising approach for HCC gene therapy. PMID:25691059

  18. Promotion of initial anti-tumor effect via polydopamine modified doxorubicin-loaded electrospun fibrous membranes

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ziming; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Xiaohu; Qiu, Wangwang; Chen, Xinliang; Zheng, Qi; Cui, Wenguo

    2014-01-01

    Drug-loaded electrospun PLLA membranes are not conducive to adhesion between materials and tissues due to the strong hydrophobicity of PLLA, which possibly attenuate the drugs’ effect loaded on the materials. In the present work, we developed a facile method to improve the hydrophilicity of doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded electrospun PLLA fibrous membranes, which could enhance the anti-tumor effect at the early stage after implantation. A mussel protein, polydopamine (PDA), could be easily grafted on the surface of hydrophobic DOX-loaded electrospun PLLA membranes (PLLA-DOX/pDA) in water solution. The morphology analysis of PLLA-DOX/pDA fibers displayed that though the fiber diameter was slightly swollen, they still maintained a 3D fibrous structure, and the XPS analysis certified that pDA had successfully been grafted onto the surface of the fibers. The results of surface wettability analysis showed that the contact angle decreased from 136.7° to 0° after grafting. In vitro MTT assay showed that the cytotoxicity of PLLA-DOX/pDA fibers was the strongest, and the stereologic cell counting assay demonstrated that the adhesiveness of PLLA/pDA fiber was significantly better than PLLA fiber. In vivo tumor-bearing mice displayed that, after one week of implantation, the tumor apoptosis and necrosis of PLLA-DOX/pDA fibers were the most obvious from histopathology and TUNEL assay. The caspase-3 activity of PLLA-DOX/pDA group was the highest using biochemical techniques, and the Bax: Bcl-2 ratio increased significantly in PLLA-DOX/pDA group through qRT-PCR analysis. All the results demonstrated that pDA can improve the affinity of the electrospun PLLA membranes and enhance the drug effect on tumors. PMID:25337186

  19. Carthamus tinctorius Enhances the Antitumor Activity of Dendritic Cell Vaccines via Polarization toward Th1 Cytokines and Increase of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jia-Ming; Hung, Le-Mei; Chyan, Yau-Jan; Cheng, Chun-Ming; Wu, Rey-Yuh

    2011-01-01

    Carthamus tinctorius (CT), also named safflower, is a traditional Chinese medicine widely used to improve blood circulation. CT also has been studied for its antitumor activity in certain cancers. To investigate the effects of CT on the dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine in cancer treatment, cytokine secretion of mouse splenic T lymphocytes and the maturation of DCs in response to CT were analyzed. To assess the antitumor activity of CT extract on mouse CD117+ (c-kit)-derived DCs pulsed with JC mammal tumor antigens, the JC tumor was challenged by the CT-treated DC vaccine in vivo. CT stimulated IFN-γ and IL-10 secretion of splenic T lymphocytes and enhanced the maturation of DCs by enhancing immunological molecule expression. When DC vaccine was pulsed with tumor antigens along with CT extract, the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were dramatically increased with a dose-dependent response and more immunologic and co-stimulatory molecules were expressed on the DC surface. In addition, CT-treated tumor lysate-pulsed DC vaccine reduced the tumor weight in tumor-bearing mice by 15.3% more than tumor lysate-pulsed DC vaccine without CT treatment. CT polarized cytokine secretion toward the Th1 pathway and also increased the population of cytotoxic T lymphocytes ex vivo. In conclusion, CT activates DCs might promote the recognition of antigens and facilitate antigen presentation to Th1 immune responses. PMID:19001481

  20. Antitumor Effects of Fucoidan on Human Colon Cancer Cells via Activation of Akt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yong-seok; Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-01-01

    We identified a novel Akt signaling mechanism that mediates fucoidan-induced suppression of human colon cancer cell (HT29) proliferation and anticancer effects. Fucoidan treatment significantly inhibited growth, induced G1-phase-associated upregulation of p21WAF1 expression, and suppressed cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase expression in HT29 colon cancer cells. Additionally, fucoidan treatment activated the Akt signaling pathway, which was inhibited by treatment with an Akt inhibitor. The inhibition of Akt activation reversed the fucoidan-induced decrease in cell proliferation, the induction of G1-phase-associated p21WAF1 expression, and the reduction in cell cycle regulatory protein expression. Intraperitoneal injection of fucoidan reduced tumor volume; this enhanced antitumor efficacy was associated with induction of apoptosis and decreased angiogenesis. These data suggest that the activation of Akt signaling is involved in the growth inhibition of colon cancer cells treated with fucoidan. Thus, fucoidan may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for colon cancer. PMID:25995820

  1. The in vitro sustained release profile and antitumor effect of etoposide-layered double hydroxide nanohybrids.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lili; Wang, Mei; Zhu, Rongrong; You, Songhui; Zhou, Ping; Wang, Shilong

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxides intercalated with antitumor drug etoposide (VP16) were prepared for the first time using a two-step procedure. The X-ray powder diffraction data suggested the intercalation of VP16 into layers with the increased basal spacing from 0.84-1.18 nm was successful. Then, it was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The prepared nanoparticles, VP16-LDH, showed an average diameter of 62.5 nm with a zeta potential of 20.5 mV. Evaluation of the buffering effect of VP16-LDH indicated that the nanohybrids were ideal for administration of the drugs that treat human stomach irritation. The loading amount of intercalated VP16 was 21.94% and possessed a profile of sustained release. The mechanism of VP16-LDH release in the phosphate buffered saline solution at pH 7.4 is likely controlled by the diffusion of VP16 anions from inside to the surface of LDH particles. The in vitro cytotoxicity and antitumor assays indicated that VP16-LDH hybrids were less toxic to GES-1 cells while exhibiting better antitumor efficacy on MKN45 and SGC-7901 cells. These results imply that VP16-LDH is a potential antitumor drug for a broad range of gastric cancer therapeutic applications. PMID:23737669

  2. The in vitro sustained release profile and antitumor effect of etoposide-layered double hydroxide nanohybrids

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Lili; Wang, Mei; Zhu, Rongrong; You, Songhui; Zhou, Ping; Wang, Shilong

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxides intercalated with antitumor drug etoposide (VP16) were prepared for the first time using a two-step procedure. The X-ray powder diffraction data suggested the intercalation of VP16 into layers with the increased basal spacing from 0.84–1.18 nm was successful. Then, it was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The prepared nanoparticles, VP16-LDH, showed an average diameter of 62.5 nm with a zeta potential of 20.5 mV. Evaluation of the buffering effect of VP16-LDH indicated that the nanohybrids were ideal for administration of the drugs that treat human stomach irritation. The loading amount of intercalated VP16 was 21.94% and possessed a profile of sustained release. The mechanism of VP16-LDH release in the phosphate buffered saline solution at pH 7.4 is likely controlled by the diffusion of VP16 anions from inside to the surface of LDH particles. The in vitro cytotoxicity and antitumor assays indicated that VP16-LDH hybrids were less toxic to GES-1 cells while exhibiting better antitumor efficacy on MKN45 and SGC-7901 cells. These results imply that VP16-LDH is a potential antitumor drug for a broad range of gastric cancer therapeutic applications. PMID:23737669

  3. Study on fluorouracil-chitosan nanoparticle preparation and its antitumor effect.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gaimin; Gong, Rudong

    2016-05-01

    To successfully prepare fluorouracil-chitosan nanoparticles, and further analyze its anti-tumor activity mechanism, this paper makes a comprehensive study of existing preparation prescription and makes a detailed analysis of fluorouracil-chitosan in vitro release and pharmacodynamic behavior of animals. Two-step synthesis method is adopted to prepare 5-FU-CS-mPEG prodrugs, and infrared, (1)H NMR and differential thermal analysis are adopted to analyze characterization synthetic products of prepared drugs. To ensure clinical efficacy of prepared drugs, UV spectrophotometry is adopted for determination of drug loading capacity of prepared drugs, transmission electron microscopy is adopted to observe the appearance, dynamic dialysis method is used to observe in vitro drug release of prepared drugs and fitting of various release models is done. Anti-tumor effect is studied via level of animal pharmacodynamics. After the end of the experiment, tumor inhibition rate, spleen index and thymus index of drugs are calculated. Experimental results show that the prepared drugs are qualified in terms of regular shape, dispersion, drug content, etc. Animal pharmacodynamics experiments have shown that concentration level of drug loading capacity of prepared drugs has a direct impact on anti-tumor rate. The higher the concentration, the higher the anti-tumor rate. Results of pathological tissue sections of mice show that the prepared drugs cause varying degrees of damage to receptor cells, resulting in cell necrosis or apoptosis problem. It can thus be concluded that ion gel method is an effective method to prepare drug-loading nanoparticles, with prepared nanoparticles evenly distributed in regular shape which demonstrate good slow-release characteristics in receptor vitro and vivo. At the same time, after completion of drug preparation, relatively strong anti-tumor activity can be generated for the receptor, so this mode of preparation enjoys broad prospects for development. PMID

  4. Water-soluble extract of Saxifraga stolonifera has anti-tumor effects on Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2016-10-01

    Saxifraga stolonifera is an evergreen and herbaceous plant well known in Korea, Japan and western China, which has great potential applications in gardening and pharmacology. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of S. stolonifera extraction on lung tumors of Lewis mice. By the measurement of MS/MS, we found that there were four main bioactive components in methanol extract of S. stolonifera, including gallic acid, norbergenin, protocatechuic acid and bergenin, and the results of quantitative analysis showed that the contents of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and bergenin in methanol extract of S. stolonifera were 5.150, 1.492, 24.559mg/g, respectively. Animal experiment showed that the mean tumor weight of Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice treated with water-soluble extract of S. stolonifera was obviously smaller than model group (cis-DDP), and its inhibition rate was 49.2%. In addition, histopathological evaluation and immunohistochemical assay confirmed the anti-tumor effects of S. stolonifera. Investigation of four haematological parameters revealed that the Lewis mice fed with S. stolonifera showed good resilience in the level of leukocyte, haemoglobin, blood platelets and red blood cell compared with the model group. In addition, RT-PCR suggested that the relative expression of pro-apoptosis gene p53, Sox and Bax was enhanced, while the relative expression of anti-apoptosis gene Bcl2 was diminished in comparison with model group. These results suggested that water-soluble extract of S. stolonifera has anti-tumor effects on Lewis lung tumors. PMID:27575479

  5. The hTERT Promoter Enhances the Antitumor Activity of an Oncolytic Adenovirus under a Hypoxic Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Yuuri; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Teraishi, Fuminori; Kojima, Toru; Watanabe, Yuichi; Uno, Futoshi; Yano, Shuya; Urata, Yasuo; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia is a microenvironmental factor that contributes to the invasion, progression and metastasis of tumor cells. Hypoxic tumor cells often show more resistance to conventional chemoradiotherapy than normoxic tumor cells, suggesting the requirement of novel antitumor therapies to efficiently eliminate the hypoxic tumor cells. We previously generated a tumor-specific replication-competent oncolytic adenovirus (OBP-301: Telomelysin), in which the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter drives viral E1 expression. Since the promoter activity of the hTERT gene has been shown to be upregulated by hypoxia, we hypothesized that, under hypoxic conditions, the antitumor effect of OBP-301 with the hTERT promoter would be more efficient than that of the wild-type adenovirus 5 (Ad5). In this study, we investigated the antitumor effects of OBP-301 and Ad5 against human cancer cells under a normoxic (20% oxygen) or a hypoxic (1% oxygen) condition. Hypoxic condition induced nuclear accumulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and upregulation of hTERT promoter activity in human cancer cells. The cytopathic activity of OBP-301 was significantly higher than that of Ad5 under hypoxic condition. Consistent with their cytopathic activity, the replication of OBP-301 was significantly higher than that of Ad5 under the hypoxic condition. OBP-301-mediated E1A was expressed within hypoxic areas of human xenograft tumors in mice. These results suggest that the cytopathic activity of OBP-301 against hypoxic tumor cells is mediated through hypoxia-mediated activation of the hTERT promoter. Regulation of oncolytic adenoviruses by the hTERT promoter is a promising antitumor strategy, not only for induction of tumor-specific oncolysis, but also for efficient elimination of hypoxic tumor cells. PMID:22720091

  6. Mannosylated protamine as a novel DNA vaccine carrier for effective induction of anti-tumor immune responses.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhaoyan; Dai, Shuang; Jiao, Yan; Jiang, Lei; Zhao, Yuekui; Wang, Bo; Zong, Li

    2016-06-15

    Gene immunotherapy has been developed as a promising strategy for inhibition of tumor growth. In the study, mannosylated protamine sulphate (MPS) was used as a novel DNA vaccine carrier to enhance transfection efficiency and anti-tumor immune responses. Anti-GRP DNA vaccine (pGRP) was selected as a model gene and condensed by MPS to form MPS/pGRP nanoparticles. The cellular uptake and transfection efficiency of MPS/pGRP nanoparticles in macrophages were evaluated. The effect of the nanoparticles in enhancing GRP-specific humoral immune response was then evaluated by nasal vaccination of nanoparticles in mice. The results demonstrated that both the cellular uptake and transfection efficiency of MPS nanoparticles in macrophages were higher than those of protamine nanoparticles. MPS/pGRP nanoparticles stimulated the production of higher titers (3.9×10(3)) of specific antibodies against GRP than those of protamine/pGRP nanoparticles (6.4×10(2), p<0.01) and intramuscular injection pGRP solution (2.5×10(3), p<0.05). Furthermore, the inhibitory rate in MPS/pGRP nanoparticles group (65.80%) was significantly higher than that in protamine/pGRP nanoparticles group (35.13%) and pGRP solution group (43.39%). Hence, it is evident that MPS is an efficient targeting gene delivery carrier which could improve in vitro transfection efficiency as well as anti-tumor immunotherapy in mice. PMID:27106528

  7. Mcam Silencing With RNA Interference Using Magnetofection has Antitumor Effect in Murine Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Prosen, Lara; Markelc, Bostjan; Dolinsek, Tanja; Music, Branka; Cemazar, Maja; Sersa, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    The melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) is involved in melanoma development and its progression, including invasiveness, metastatic potential and angiogenesis. Therefore, MCAM represents a potential target for gene therapy of melanoma, whose expression could be hindered with posttranscriptional specific gene silencing with RNA interference technology. In this study, we constructed a plasmid DNA encoding short hairpin RNA against MCAM (pMCAM) to explore the antitumor and antiangiogenic effects. The experiments were performed in vitro on murine melanoma and endothelial cells, as well as in vivo on melanoma tumors in mice. The antiproliferative, antimigratory, antiangiogenic and antitumor effects were examined after gene therapy with pMCAM. Gene delivery was performed by magnetofection, and its efficacy compared to gene electrotransfer. Gene therapy with pMCAM has proved to be an effective approach in reducing the proliferation and migration of melanoma cells, as well as having antiangiogenic effect in endothelial cells and antitumor effect on melanoma tumors. Magnetofection as a developing nonviral gene delivery system was effective in the transfection of melanoma cells and tumors with pMCAM, but less efficient than gene electrotransfer in in vivo tumor gene therapy due to the lack of antiangiogenic effect after silencing Mcam by magnetofection. PMID:25350580

  8. Antitumor activity of the protein and small molecule component fractions from Agrocybe aegerita through enhancement of cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yi; Liu, Hong-Hong; Chen, Yi-Jie; Sun, Hui

    2014-04-01

    A water soluble extract from the medicinal mushroom Agrocybe aegerita has been shown to stimulate splenocyte proliferation, cytotoxic activity, and tumor rejection effect in tumor-bearing mouse models. In the present study, the crude extract was separated into a protein component fraction (Yp), mainly containing lectins and serine proteinase, and a small molecule component fraction (Ys), mainly containing triethylene glycol, α-bisabolol, n-hexadecanoic acid, and so on. The antitumor activity of the fractions was investigated in a tumor-bearing BALB/c mouse model. Repeat administration of Yp and Ys significantly inhibited tumor growth (P<.001), but little toxicity was observed. Moreover, the protein fraction Yp performed better than Ys in both antitumor and lifespan-prolonging activity. The cytokine expression levels in serum and splenocytes from extract-treated mice were selectively screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the results showed that Yp upregulated the mRNA level of Th2 cytokine interleukin-10 (P<.01), and Ys increased the mRNA level of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (P<.01) and anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor-β (P<.01). All these data suggest that Yp and Ys can inhibit tumor growth via different mechanisms, which promotes the understanding of antitumor properties of medicinal fungi. PMID:24593676

  9. TLR agonist–Stat3 siRNA conjugates: cell-specific gene silencing and enhanced antitumor immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Kortylewski, Marcin; Swiderski, Piotr; Herrmann, Andreas; Wang, Lin; Kowolik, Claudia; Kujawski, Maciej; Lee, Heehyoung; Scuto, Anna; Liu, Yong; Yang, Chunmei; Deng, Jiehui; Soifer, Harris S.; Raubitschek, Andrew; Forman, Stephen; Rossi, John J.; Pardoll, Drew M.; Jove, Richard; Yu, Hua

    2010-01-01

    Efficient delivery of siRNA to specific cell populations in vivo remains a formidable challenge to its successful therapeutic application. We describe a novel siRNA-based approach – synthetically linking siRNA to an oligonucleotide TLR9 agonist – that targets and silences genes in TLR9+ myeloid cells and B cells, both of which are key components of the tumor microenvironment. Because Stat3 in tumor-associated immune cells suppresses antitumor immune responses and hinders TLR9-induced immune stimulation, we tested CpG-Stat3siRNA conjugates for anti-tumor effects. When injected locally at the tumor site or systemically through an intravenous route, the CpG-Stat3siRNA conjugates access tumor-associated dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells, inhibit Stat3 expression, leading to activation of tumor-associated immune cells, and ultimately potent anti-tumor immune responses. Our findings demonstrate the potential of TLR agonist-siRNA conjugates for targeted gene silencing coupled with TLR stimulation and immune activation in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:19749770

  10. Human breast cancer cells enhance self tolerance by promoting evasion from NK cell antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Mamessier, Emilie; Sylvain, Aude; Thibult, Marie-Laure; Houvenaeghel, Gilles; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Castellano, Rémy; Gonçalves, Anthony; André, Pascale; Romagné, François; Thibault, Gilles; Viens, Patrice; Birnbaum, Daniel; Bertucci, François; Moretta, Alessandro; Olive, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    NK cells are a major component of the antitumor immune response and are involved in controlling tumor progression and metastases in animal models. Here, we show that dysfunction of these cells accompanies human breast tumor progression. We characterized human peripheral blood NK (p-NK) cells and malignant mammary tumor-infiltrating NK (Ti-NK) cells from patients with noninvasive and invasive breast cancers. NK cells isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy donors and normal breast tissue were used as controls. With disease progression, we found that expression of activating NK cell receptors (such as NKp30, NKG2D, DNAM-1, and CD16) decreased while expression of inhibitory receptors (such as NKG2A) increased and that this correlated with decreased NK cell function, most notably cytotoxicity. Importantly, Ti-NK cells had more pronounced impairment of their cytotoxic potential than p-NK cells. We also identified several stroma-derived factors, including TGF-β1, involved in tumor-induced reduction of normal NK cell function. Our data therefore show that breast tumor progression involves NK cell dysfunction and that breast tumors model their environment to evade NK cell antitumor immunity. This highlights the importance of developing future therapies able to restore NK cell cytotoxicity to limit/prevent tumor escape from antitumor immunity. PMID:21841316

  11. The vascular disrupting agent ZD6126 shows increased antitumor efficacy and enhanced radiation response in large, advanced tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, Dietmar W. . E-mail: siemadw@ufl.edu; Rojiani, Amyn M.

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: ZD6126 is a vascular-targeting agent that induces selective effects on the morphology of proliferating and immature endothelial cells by disrupting the tubulin cytoskeleton. The efficacy of ZD6126 was investigated in large vs. small tumors in a variety of animal models. Methods and Materials: Three rodent tumor models (KHT, SCCVII, RIF-1) and three human tumor xenografts (Caki-1, KSY-1, SKBR3) were used. Mice bearing leg tumors ranging in size from 0.1-2.0 g were injected intraperitoneally with a single 150 mg/kg dose of ZD6126. The response was assessed by morphologic and morphometric means as well as an in vivo to in vitro clonogenic cell survival assay. To examine the impact of tumor size on the extent of enhancement of radiation efficacy by ZD6126, KHT sarcomas of three different sizes were irradiated locally with a range of radiation doses, and cell survival was determined. Results: All rodent tumors and human tumor xenografts evaluated showed a strong correlation between increasing tumor size and treatment effect as determined by clonogenic cell survival. Detailed evaluation of KHT sarcomas treated with ZD6126 showed a reduction in patent tumor blood vessels that was {approx}20% in small (<0.3 g) vs. >90% in large (>1.0 g) tumors. Histologic assessment revealed that the extent of tumor necrosis after ZD6126 treatment, although minimal in small KHT sarcomas, became more extensive with increasing tumor size. Clonogenic cell survival after ZD6126 exposure showed a decrease in tumor surviving fraction from approximately 3 x 10{sup -1} to 1 x 10{sup -4} with increasing tumor size. When combined with radiotherapy, ZD6126 treatment resulted in little enhancement of the antitumor effect of radiation in small (<0.3 g) tumors but marked increases in cell kill in tumors larger than 1.0 g. Conclusions: Because bulky neoplastic disease is typically the most difficult to manage, the present findings provide further support for the continued development of vascular

  12. IL-15 Trans-Signaling with the Superagonist RLI Promotes Effector/Memory CD8+ T Cell Responses and Enhances Antitumor Activity of PD-1 Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Desbois, Mélanie; Le Vu, Pauline; Coutzac, Clélia; Marcheteau, Elie; Béal, Coralie; Terme, Magali; Gey, Alain; Morisseau, Sébastien; Teppaz, Géraldine; Boselli, Lisa; Jacques, Yannick; Béchard, David; Tartour, Eric; Cassard, Lydie; Chaput, Nathalie

    2016-07-01

    Tumors with the help of the surrounding environment facilitate the immune suppression in patients, and immunotherapy can counteract this inhibition. Among immunotherapeutic strategies, the immunostimulatory cytokine IL-15 could represent a serious candidate for the reactivation of antitumor immunity. However, exogenous IL-15 may have a limited impact on patients with cancer due to its dependency on IL-15Rα frequently downregulated in cancer patients. In this work, we studied the antitumor activity of the IL-15 superagonist receptor-linker-IL-15 (RLI), designed to bypass the need of endogenous IL-15Rα. RLI consists of human IL-15 covalently linked to the human IL-15Rα sushi(+) domain. In a mouse model of colorectal carcinoma, RLI as a stand-alone treatment could limit tumor outgrowth only when initiated at an early time of tumor development. At a later time, RLI was not effective, coinciding with the strong accumulation of terminally exhausted programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)(high) T cell Ig mucin-3(+) CD8(+) T cells, suggesting that RLI was not able to reactivate terminally exhausted CD8(+) T cells. Combination with PD-1 blocking Ab showed synergistic activity with RLI, but not with IL-15. RLI could induce a greater accumulation of memory CD8(+) T cells and a stronger effector function in comparison with IL-15. Ex vivo stimulation of tumor-infiltrated lymphocytes from 16 patients with renal cell carcinoma demonstrated 56% of a strong tumor-infiltrated lymphocyte reactivation with the combination anti-PD-1/RLI compared with 43 and 6% with RLI or anti-PD-1, respectively. Altogether, this work provides evidence that the sushi-IL-15Rα/IL-15 fusion protein RLI enhances antitumor activity of anti-PD-1 treatment and is a promising approach to stimulate host immunity. PMID:27217584

  13. Lectin of Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) promotes selective antitumor effects in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Monte, Leonardo G; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Reis, Larissa B; Braganhol, Elizandra; Prietsch, Rafael F; Dellagostin, Odir A; E Lacerda, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Gadelha, Carlos A A; Conceição, Fabricio R; Pinto, Luciano S

    2014-03-01

    The anti-tumor effects of a newly-discovered lectin, isolated from okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (AEL), were investigated in human breast cancer (MCF7) and skin fibroblast (CCD-1059 sk) cells. AEL induced significant cell growth inhibition (63 %) in MCF7 cells. The expression of pro-apoptotic caspase-3, caspase-9, and p21 genes was increased in MCF7 cells treated with AEL, compared to those treated with controls. In addition, AEL treatment increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in MCF7 cells. Flow cytometry also indicated that cell death (72 %) predominantly occurred through apoptosis. Thus, AEL in its native form promotes selective antitumor effects in human breast cancer cells and may represent a potential therapeutic to combat human breast cancer. PMID:24129958

  14. MDM2 antagonists boost antitumor effect of androgen withdrawal: implications for therapy of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hormone therapy is the standard of care for newly diagnosed or recurrent prostate cancers. It uses anti-androgen agents, castration, or both to eliminate cancer promoting effect of testicular androgen. The p53 tumor suppressor controls a major pathway that can block cell proliferation or induce apoptosis in response to diverse forms of oncogenic stress. Activation of the p53 pathway in cancer cells expressing wild-type p53 has been proposed as a novel therapeutic strategy and recently developed MDM2 antagonists, the nutlins, have validated this in preclinical models of cancer. The crosstalk between p53 and androgen receptor (AR) signaling suggest that p53 activation could augment antitumor outcome of androgen ablation in prostate cancer. Here, we test this hypothesis in vitro and in vivo using the MDM2 antagonist, nutlin-3 and the p53 wild-type prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP. Results Using charcoal-stripped serum as a cellular model of androgen deprivation, we show an increased apoptotic effect of p53 activation by nutlin-3a in the androgen-dependent LNCaP cells and to a lesser extent in androgen-independent but responsive 22Rv1 cell line. This effect is due, at least in part, to an enhanced downregulation of AR expression by activated p53. In vivo, androgen deprivation followed by two weeks of nutlin administration in LNCaP-bearing nude mice led to a greater tumor regression and dramatically increased survival. Conclusions Since majority of prostate tumors express wild-type p53, its activation by MDM2 antagonists in combination with androgen depletion may offer an efficacious new approach to prostate cancer therapy. PMID:21539745

  15. Adenovirus with p16 gene exerts antitumor effect on laryngeal carcinoma Hep2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengang; Hu, Jingxia; Li, Dajun; Pan, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    Laryngeal cancer is an uncommon form of cancer. The tumor suppressor P16, known to be mutated or deleted in various types of human tumor, including laryngeal carcinoma, is involved in the formation and development of laryngeal carcinoma. It has been previously reported that the inactivation or loss of P16 is associated with the acquisition of malignant characteristics. The current study hypothesized that restoring wild‑type P16 activity into P16‑null malignant Hep2 cells may exert an antitumor effect. A recombinant adenovirus carrying the P16 gene (Ad‑P16) was used to infect and express high levels of P16 protein in P16‑null Hep2 cells. Cell proliferation and invasion assays and polymerase chain reaction were performed to evaluate the effects of the P16 gene on cell proliferation and the antitumor effect on Hep2 cells. The results demonstrated that the Hep2 cells infected with Ad‑P16 exhibited significantly reduced cell proliferation, invasion and tumor volume compared with untreated or control adenovirus cells. Furthermore, the expression of laryngeal carcinoma‑associated genes, EGFR, survivin and cyclin D1, were measured in Ad‑P16‑infected cells and were significantly reduced compared with control groups. The results of the current study demonstrate that restoring wild‑type P16 activity into P16-null Hep2 cells exerts an antitumor effect. PMID:27277704

  16. Relationship of molecular weight to antiviral and antitumor activities and toxic effects of maleic anhydride-divinyl ether (MVE) polyanions.

    PubMed

    Morahan, P S; Barnes, D W; Munson, A E

    1978-11-01

    The molecular weight (MW) and dose dependency of several of the toxic effects and antitumor and antiviral activities of a new series of five maleic anhydride-divinyl ether copolymers (MVE) were established. Each polyanion preparation was relatively homogeneous and exhibited a narrow MW range, from 12,500 (MVE-1) to greater than 52,000 (MVE-5). All of the polyanions were effective as adjuvants to surgery against the metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma, and also exhibited marked antitumor activity against the P815 mastocytoma. MVE-1 retained antitumor activity while losing considerable antiviral activity. This polyanion also exhibited the least toxicity with regard to criteria such as sensitization to the lethal effects of endotoxin, inhibition of reticuloendothelial function, and depression of the microsomal mixed functional oxidase system. The MVE-4 (MW, 32,000) and MVE-5 (MW, 52,600) polyanions exhibited potent antitumor and antiviral activity, but also demonstrated dose-dependent toxic effects. PMID:103618

  17. Preparation and Sonodynamic Antitumor Effect of Protohemin-Conjugated Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized with Carboxylic Group.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan-Jin; Li, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Preclinical Research Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is a cutting edge approach to treating cancer that involves necrosis and/or apoptosis. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes functionalized with carboxylic groups (MWCNTs-COOH) due their physicochemical structure represent a novel drug delivery system in the field of nanomedicine. The purpose of the research reported in this paper was to increase the antitumor potency and reduce the potential side effects of protohemin (Ph), a sonosensitizer for SDT, which was noncovalently encapsulated into MWCNTs-COOH (MWCNTs-Ph). The Ph loading efficiency in MWCNTs-COOH carrier was determined as approximately 68.8% (w/w). The growth inhibition rate of MWCNTs-Ph (Ph: 180 μg/mL) was approximately 95 ± 8.5%, whereas Ph-F (Ph: 180 μg/mL) inhibited 58 ± 4.5% of tumor cell. Ph (Ph: 180 μg/mL) alone had no antitumor effect in HepG-2 cells using ultrasound treatment at 1.0 MHz and 0.5 W/cm(2) for 100 s. Assessment of the antitumor effects of MWCNTs-Ph and Ph-F at day 11 after SDT showed that he tumor inhibition ratio for MWCNTs-Ph (6.18 × 10(-2) g·kg(-1) ·d(-1) ) was 82.8%, twice that of Ph-F (6.18 × 10(-2) g·kg(-1) ·d(-1) ) ay 41.8%. In conclusion, MWCNTs-Ph had increased antitumor efficiency and also decreased potential side effects. Drug Dev Res 77 : 152-158, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27029561

  18. Ergosterol-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles with enhanced in vitro antitumor activity and oral bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui-yun; Firempong, Caleb Kesse; Wang, Yuan-wen; Xu, Wen-qian; Wang, Miao-miao; Cao, Xia; Zhu, Yuan; Tong, Shan-shan; Yu, Jiang-nan; Xu, Xi-ming

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Ergosterol is a plant sterol with anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic activities, but is poorly soluble. In this study, we attempted to enhance its anti-tumor action and oral bioavailability via poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticle encapsulation. Methods: Ergosterol-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (NPs/Erg) were prepared using the emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. Their physicochemical properties were characterized, and their cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines was evaluated with MTT assay. The pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of NPs/Erg were investigated in rats and mice, respectively. Results: NPs/Erg were spherical in shape with a particle size of 156.9±4.8 nm and a Zeta potential of -19.27±1.13 mV, and had acceptable encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity. NPs/Erg exerted much stronger cytotoxicity against human cancer cells than the free ergosterol, and showed significantly reduced IC50 values (14.69±0.48 μg/mL in glioma U251 cells; 9.43±0.52 μg/mL in breast cancer MCF-7 cells; 4.70±0.41 μg/mL in hepatoma HepG2 cells). After oral administration of a single dose in rats, NPs/Erg displayed a prolonged plasma circulation with a 4.9-fold increase of oral bioavailability compared with the free ergosterol. After mice received NPs/Erg, the ergosterol in NPs/Erg was rapidly distributed in stomach, kidneys, liver, brain, spleen, and virtually non-existent in heart and lungs. The presence of NPs/Erg in brain was particularly improved compared with the free ergosterol. Conclusion: The PLGA nanoparticles serve as a promising carrier for the poorly soluble ergosterol and significantly improve its bioavailability, biodistribution and in vitro anti-tumor activities. PMID:27133301

  19. miR-155 augments CD8+ T-cell antitumor activity in lymphoreplete hosts by enhancing responsiveness to homeostatic γc cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yun; Wrzesinski, Claudia; Yu, Zhiya; Hu, Jinhui; Gautam, Sanjivan; Hawk, Nga V.; Telford, William G.; Palmer, Douglas C.; Franco, Zulmarie; Sukumar, Madhusudhanan; Roychoudhuri, Rahul; Clever, David; Klebanoff, Christopher A.; Surh, Charles D.; Waldmann, Thomas A.; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Gattinoni, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Lymphodepleting regimens are used before adoptive immunotherapy to augment the antitumor efficacy of transferred T cells by removing endogenous homeostatic “cytokine sinks.” These conditioning modalities, however, are often associated with severe toxicities. We found that microRNA-155 (miR-155) enabled tumor-specific CD8+ T cells to mediate profound antitumor responses in lymphoreplete hosts that were not potentiated by immune-ablation. miR-155 enhanced T-cell responsiveness to limited amounts of homeostatic γc cytokines, resulting in delayed cellular contraction and sustained cytokine production. miR-155 restrained the expression of the inositol 5-phosphatase Ship1, an inhibitor of the serine-threonine protein kinase Akt, and multiple negative regulators of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (Stat5), including suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (Socs1) and the protein tyrosine phosphatase Ptpn2. Expression of constitutively active Stat5a recapitulated the survival advantages conferred by miR-155, whereas constitutive Akt activation promoted sustained effector functions. Our results indicate that overexpression of miR-155 in tumor-specific T cells can be used to increase the effectiveness of adoptive immunotherapies in a cell-intrinsic manner without the need for life-threatening, lymphodepleting maneuvers. PMID:25548153

  20. Doxorubicin loaded silica nanorattles actively seek tumors with improved anti-tumor effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fuping; Li, Linlin; Liu, Tianlong; Hao, Nanjing; Liu, Huiyu; Tan, Longfei; Li, Hongbo; Huang, Xinglu; Peng, Bo; Yan, Chuanmiao; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiaoli; Chen, Dong; Tang, Fangqiong

    2012-05-01

    Silica nanorattles (SNs) have proven to be promising vehicles for drug delivery. In order to further enhance efficacy and minimize adverse effects, active targeted delivery to tumors is necessary. In this work, SNs modified with a tumor specific targeting ligand, folic acid (FA), was used as carrier of doxorubicin (DOX) (DOX-FA-SNs). Drug loading, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of DOX-FA-SNs in vitro in human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells) were evaluated. DOX-FA-SNs showed a higher cytotoxicity in human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells) than DOX loaded carboxyl (-COOH) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) modified SNs (DOX-COOH-SNs and DOX-PEG-SNs, respectively). However, DOX-FA-SNs showed lower cytotoxicity in folate receptor negative normal mouse fibroblast cells (L929 cells) compared with free DOX. In vivo tumor-targeted fluorescence imaging indicated specific tumor targeting and uptake of FA-SNs in nude mice bearing subcutaneous HeLa cell-derived xenograft tumors. In vivo anti-tumor experiments demonstrated that DOX-FA-SNs (10 mg kg-1 of DOX) significantly regressed the tumor growth and reduced toxicity compared with free DOX. These results have great significance in developing and optimizing SNs as effective intracellular delivery and specific tumor targeting vehicles.Silica nanorattles (SNs) have proven to be promising vehicles for drug delivery. In order to further enhance efficacy and minimize adverse effects, active targeted delivery to tumors is necessary. In this work, SNs modified with a tumor specific targeting ligand, folic acid (FA), was used as carrier of doxorubicin (DOX) (DOX-FA-SNs). Drug loading, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of DOX-FA-SNs in vitro in human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells) were evaluated. DOX-FA-SNs showed a higher cytotoxicity in human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells) than DOX loaded carboxyl (-COOH) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) modified SNs (DOX-COOH-SNs and DOX-PEG-SNs, respectively). However, DOX

  1. In vivo immunological antitumor effect of OK-432-stimulated dendritic cell transfer after radiofrequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Hidetoshi; Mizukoshi, Eishiro; Iida, Noriho; Terashima, Takeshi; Kitahara, Masaaki; Marukawa, Yohei; Kitamura, Kazuya; Nakamoto, Yasunari; Hiroishi, Kazumasa; Imawari, Michio; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2014-04-01

    Radiofrequency ablation therapy (RFA) is a radical treatment for liver cancers and induces tumor antigen-specific immune responses. In the present study, we examined the antitumor effects of focal OK-432-stimulated dendritic cell (DC) transfer combined with RFA and analyzed the functional mechanisms involved using a murine model. C57BL/6 mice were injected subcutaneously with colon cancer cells (MC38) in their bilateral flanks. After the establishment of tumors, the subcutaneous tumor on one flank was treated using RFA, and then OK-432-stimulated DCs were injected locally. The antitumor effect of the treatment was evaluated by measuring the size of the tumor on the opposite flank, and the immunological responses were assessed using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, splenocytes and draining lymph nodes. Tumor growth was strongly inhibited in mice that exhibited efficient DC migration after RFA and OK-432-stimulated DC transfer, as compared to mice treated with RFA alone or treatment involving immature DC transfer. We also demonstrated that the antitumor effect of this treatment depended on both CD8-positive and CD4-positive cells. On the basis of our findings, we believe that combination therapy for metastatic liver cancer consisting of OK-432-stimulated DCs in combination with RFA can proceed to clinical trials, and it is anticipated to be markedly superior to RFA single therapy. PMID:24384836

  2. Antitumor effects of the partially purified polysaccharides from Antrodia camphorata and the mechanism of its action

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.-J.; Huang, T.-S.; Hsu, M.-L.; Chen, C.-C.; Lin, W.-S.; Lu, F.-J. . E-mail: fjlu@csmu.edu.tw; Chang, W.-H. . E-mail: whchang@csmu.edu.tw

    2004-12-01

    Antrodia camphorata is a popular folk medicine that has attracted great attention due to its fame for antitumor activity against cancer. However, there is little information available about its action. In the present study, we purified a unique polysaccharide component from A. camphorata mycelia (AC-PS) and found that it has pronounced anti-tumor effects on both in vitro and in vivo model. Our results showed that AC-PS alone did not show any direct cytotoxic effect to human leukemic U937 cells, even at high concentration (200 {mu}g/ml). However, it could inhibit the proliferation of U937 cells via activation of mononuclear cells (MNCs). Treatment of U937 cells with AC-PS-stimulated-MNC-CM could significantly inhibit its proliferation with 55.3% growth inhibition rate. The in vitro antitumor activity was substantiated by the in vivo therapeutical study of AC-PS in sarcoma 180-bearing mice. Intraperitoneal and oral administration of AC-PS, 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly suppressed the tumor growth with the inhibition rate of 69.1% and 58.8%, respectively. In vivo studies also showed that several immunoparameters, such as the spontaneous proliferation of spleen cells, after AC-PS administration, were two-fold higher than in control mice. Furthermore, the cytolytic activity of spleen cells also increased from 9.8 {+-} 1.1% in control mice to 34.2 {+-} 5.5% and 48.2 {+-} 2.5%, after oral and intraperitoneal treatment, respectively. Besides, the mice serum interleukin-12 levels increased significantly by AC-PS treatment. Considering all these results, it is suggested that AC-PS elicit its anti-tumor effect by promoting a Th1-dominant state and killer activities.

  3. Effective antibody therapy induces host protective antitumor immunity that is augmented by TLR4 agonist treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shangzi; Astsaturov, Igor A.; Bingham, Catherine A.; McCarthy, Kenneth M.; von Mehren, Margaret; Xu, Wei; Alpaugh, R. Katherine; Tang, Yong; Littlefield, Bruce A.; Hawkins, Lynn D.; Ishizaka, Sally T.; Weiner, Louis M.

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptors are potent activators of the innate immune system and generate signals leading to the initiation of the adaptive immune response that can be utilized for therapeutic purposes. We tested the hypothesis that combined treatment with a toll-like receptor agonist and an anti-tumor monoclonal antibody is effective and induces host-protective anti-tumor immunity. C57BL/6 human mutated HER2 (hmHER2) transgenic mice that constitutively express kinase-deficient human HER2 under control of the CMV promoter were established. These mice demonstrate immunological tolerance to D5-HER2, a syngeneic human HER2-expressing melanoma cell line. This human HER2 tolerant model offers the potential to serve as a preclinical model to test both antibody therapy and the immunization potential of human HER2 targeted therapeutics. Here we show that E6020, a toll like receptor-4 (TLR4) agonist effectively boosted the antitumor efficacy of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab in immunodeficient C57BL/6 SCID mice as well as in C57BL/6 hmHER2 transgenic mice. E6020 and trastuzumab co-treatment resulted in significantly greater inhibition of tumor growth than was observed with either agent individually. Furthermore, mice treated with the combination of trastuzumab and the TLR4 agonist were protected against re-challenge with human HER2 transfected tumor cells in hmHER2 transgenic mouse strains. These findings suggest that combined treatment with trastuzumab and a TLR4 agonist not only promotes direct anti-tumor effects but also induces a host-protective human HER2-directed adaptive immune response indicative of a memory response. These data provide an immunological rationale for testing TLR4 agonists in combination with antibody therapy in patients with cancer. PMID:21842208

  4. CARs: Driving T-cell specificity to enhance anti-tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Kebriaei, Partow; Kelly, Susan S.; Manuri, Pallavi; Jena, Bipulendu; Jackson, Rineka; Shpall, Elizabeth; Champlin, Richard; Cooper, Laurence J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T cells is a compelling tool to treat cancer. To overcome issues of immune tolerance which limits the endogenous adaptive immune response to tumor-associated antigens, robust systems for the genetic modification and characterization of T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to redirect specificity have been produced. Refinements with regards to persistence and trafficking of the genetically modified T cells are underway to help improve the potency of genetically modified T cells. Clinical trials utilizing this technology demonstrate feasibility, and increasingly, antitumor activity, paving the way for multi-center trials to establish the efficacy of this novel T-cell therapy. PMID:22202074

  5. Intravaginal HPV DNA vaccination with electroporation induces local CD8+ T-cell immune responses and antitumor effects against cervicovaginal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Y; Peng, S; Qiu, J; Miao, J; Yang, B; Jeang, J; Hung, C-F; Wu, T-C

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have the potential to inhibit the progression of an established HPV infection to precancer and cancer lesions by targeting HPV oncoproteins. We have previously developed a therapeutic DNA vaccine encoding calreticulin (CRT) linked to E7, CRT/E7 DNA vaccine, for use in the treatment of HPV-associated lesions. Since the transfection efficiency of DNA vaccines administered in vivo is typically low, we examined the use of electroporation as well as different routes of administration to enhance antigen-specific tumor control. We tested the effects of the CRT/E7 DNA vaccine administered intramuscularly or intravaginally, with or without electroporation, on the generation of CD8+ T-cell immunity and therapeutic antitumor effects in HPV16 E7-expressing cervicovaginal tumor-bearing mice. We found that intravaginal vaccination of CRT/E7 DNA followed by electroporation-induced potent E7-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in the cervicovaginal tract, compared with intramuscular injection followed by electroporation. Furthermore, tumor-bearing mice vaccinated intravaginally followed by electroporation had an enhanced survival, antitumor effects and local production of IFN-γ+CD8+ T cells compared with those vaccinated intramuscularly with electroporation. Thus, we show that intravaginal CRT/E7 DNA vaccination followed by electroporation generates the most potent therapeutic antitumor effects against an orthotopic E7-expressing tumor model. The current study will have significant clinical implications once a clinically applicable electroporation device for intravaginal use becomes available. PMID:25786869

  6. Anti-Tumor Effects From Dendritic Cell-Based Cancer Immunotherapy Using Liposomal Bubbles and Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Yusuke; Suzuki, Ryo; Hirata, Keiichi; Nomura, Tetsuya; Utoguchi, Naoki; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2011-09-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer immunotherapy has the potential to be a minimally invasive therapy that could prevent cancer metastasis and recurrence. Recently, in order to induce effective anti-tumor immunity, we developed a novel antigen delivery system for DCs by the combination of ultrasound (US) and liposomal bubbles (Bubble Liposomes: BLs) with entrapped perfluoropropane gas. In this study, we investigated the induction of antigen specific immune responses in vivo and the anti-tumor effect caused by immunization of DCs treated with BLs and US. For the immunization of DCs which had delivered antigen, using BLs and US, the mice induced antigen specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were found to be the main effector cells in DC-based cancer immunotherapy. In addition, immunization with DCs that had been pulsed with antigen using BLs and US completely suppressed tumor growth Therefore, immunization of DCs with this antigen delivery system has promise for the efficient induction of anti-tumor immune responses.

  7. Verification of antitumor effect in vivo using nanosecond pulsed streamer discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonetamari, Kenta; Shirakawa, Yuki; Akiyama, Taketoshi; Mizuno, Kazue; Ono, Ryo

    2015-09-01

    Cancer treatment using plasma has intensively studied these days. In this work, antitumor effect by nanosecond pulsed streamer discharge was investigated. Nanosecond pulsed streamer plasma was used as a plasma source, which can generate stable streamer discharge by using a nanosecond pulsed power supply. The rod electrode of 3 mm diameter is made of copper. Its end is formed into a semispherical shape of 1.5 mm curvature. The electrode is inserted into a quartz tube (inner diameter: 4 mm, thickness: 1 mm) concentrically, so any gas can be introduced. B16F10 cells were selected to perform in vivo antitumor study. These cells were injected under the skin of leg of mice to make cancer tumor. One week later from injections, plasma was applied to the cancer tumor. Mice were randomly assigned into three groups which were one control group and two plasma treatment groups. In the control group, mice were not treated. In the plasma treatment groups, plasma with dry N2 and wet O2 as a working gas were irradiated for 5 consecutive days. Processing time was 10 min and the gap distance between the electrode and tumor was 4 mm. After 5 days plasma treatment, antitumor effect was observed. The result indicates that the streamer discharge has a potential for cancer treatment.

  8. Celecoxib exerts antitumor effects in canine mammary tumor cells via COX‑2‑independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Dai; Saito, Teruyoshi; Murata, Kanae; Kawashima, Masafumi; Asano, Ryuji

    2015-03-01

    Celecoxib plays antitumor roles via multiple mechanisms in a variety of human cancers. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism of action of celecoxib in canine mammary tumors. We examined the antitumor effects of celecoxib in AZACB canine mammary tumor cells expressing low levels of cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2) to minimize the effect of COX‑2 on its activity. Our data revealed that celecoxib inhibited cell proliferation mainly via COX‑2‑independent mechanisms. Specifically, celecoxib decreased the proportion of cells in S phase and increased G2/M arrest, which was associated with increased expression of the cyclin‑dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) p21 and p27. In addition, treatment with celecoxib downregulated COX‑2 expression, and induced apoptosis via both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. These findings suggest that celecoxib might be a useful agent for the treatment of canine mammary tumors, regardless of COX‑2 expression. In the future, it might be possible to use a combination of celecoxib and other antitumor agents to treat canine mammary tumors. PMID:25571853

  9. Anti-tumor effects of peptide analogs targeting neuropeptide hormone receptors on mouse pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, C G; Ullrich, M; Schally, A V; Bergmann, R; Pietzsch, J; Gebauer, L; Gondek, K; Qin, N; Pacak, K; Ehrhart-Bornstein, M; Eisenhofer, G; Bornstein, S R

    2013-05-22

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare but potentially lethal chromaffin cell tumor with currently no effective treatment. Peptide hormone receptors are frequently overexpressed on endocrine tumor cells and can be specifically targeted by various anti-tumor peptide analogs. The present study carried out on mouse pheochromocytoma cells (MPCs) and a more aggressive mouse tumor tissue-derived (MTT) cell line revealed that these cells are characterized by pronounced expression of the somatostatin receptor 2 (sst2), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor and the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor. We further demonstrated significant anti-tumor effects mediated by cytotoxic somatostatin analogs, AN-162 and AN-238, by LHRH antagonist, Cetrorelix, by the cytotoxic LHRH analog, AN-152, and by recently developed GHRH antagonist, MIA-602, on MPC and for AN-152 and MIA-602 on MTT cells. Studies of novel anti-tumor compounds on these mouse cell lines serve as an important basis for mouse models of metastatic pheochromocytoma, which we are currently establishing. PMID:23267837

  10. Pyrvinium Targets the Unfolded Protein Response to Hypoglycemia and Its Anti-Tumor Activity Is Enhanced by Combination Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, De-Hua; Macdonald, James; Liu, Guohong; Lee, Amy S.; Ly, Mimi; Davis, Timothy; Ke, Ning; Zhou, Demin; Wong-Staal, Flossie; Li, Qi-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    We identified pyrvinium pamoate, an old anthelminthic medicine, which preferentially inhibits anchorage-independent growth of cancer cells over anchorage-dependent growth (∼10 fold). It was also reported by others to have anti-tumor activity in vivo and selective toxicity against cancer cells under glucose starvation in vitro, but with unknown mechanism. Here, we provide evidence that pyrvinium suppresses the transcriptional activation of GRP78 and GRP94 induced by glucose deprivation or 2-deoxyglucose (2DG, a glycolysis inhibitor), but not by tunicamycin or A23187. Other UPR pathways induced by glucose starvation, e.g. XBP-1, ATF4, were also found suppressed by pyrvinium. Constitutive expression of GRP78 via transgene partially protected cells from pyrvinium induced cell death under glucose starvation, suggesting that suppression of the UPR is involved in pyrvinium mediated cytotoxicity under glucose starvation. Xenograft experiments showed rather marginal overall anti-tumor activity for pyrvinium as a monotherapy. However, the combination of pyrvinium and Doxorubicin demonstrated significantly enhanced efficacy in vivo, supporting a mechanistic treatment concept based on tumor hypoglycemia and UPR. PMID:19079611

  11. T-cell Engager-armed Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus Significantly Enhances Antitumor Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Feng; Wang, Xingbing; Guo, Z Sheng; Bartlett, David L; Gottschalk, Stephen M; Song, Xiao-Tong

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic vaccinia virus (VV) therapy has shown promise in preclinical models and in clinical studies. However, complete responses have rarely been observed. This lack of efficacy is most likely due to suboptimal virus spread through the tumor resulting in limited tumor cell destruction. We reasoned that redirecting T cells to the tumor has the potential to improve the antitumor activity of oncolytic VVs. We, therefore, constructed a VV encoding a secretory bispecific T-cell engager consisting of two single- chain variable fragments specific for CD3 and the tumor cell surface antigen EphA2 (EphA2-T-cell engager-armed VV (EphA2-TEA-VV)). In vitro, EphA2-TEA-VV's ability to replicate and induce oncolysis was similar to that of unmodified virus. However, only tumor cells infected with EphA2-TEA-VV induced T-cell activation as judged by the secretion of interferon-γ and interleukin-2. In coculture assays, EphA2-TEA-VV not only killed infected tumor cells, but in the presence of T cells, it also induced bystander killing of noninfected tumor cells. In vivo, EphA2-TEA-VV plus T cells had potent antitumor activity in comparison with control VV plus T cells in a lung cancer xenograft model. Thus, arming oncolytic VVs with T-cell engagers may represent a promising approach to improve oncolytic virus therapy. PMID:24135899

  12. Anti-tumor effect and influence of Gekko gecko Linnaeus on the immune system of sarcoma 180-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    You, Qi; Han, Shiyu; Zhang, Yuanlong; Zheng, Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    Gekko gecko Linnaeus (GgL) is an extract used in traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study, we examined the anti-tumor activity of GgL and its effect on the immune system of mice. Sarcoma 180-bearing mice were used as the animal model, and cisplatin was applied as the positive control drug. The mice were randomly divided into six groups, and each group was treated with a different drug or drug concentration. The effects of GgL were evaluated based on its anti-tumor activity and prolongation of the lifespan, the lymphocyte transformation rate and pathological changes observed in the tumors. The results suggest that GgL has anti-tumor activities and up-regulates the immune system in a dose-dependent manner. This study provides original data related to the anti-tumor and immune up-regulating function of GgL. PMID:21475868

  13. Antitumor effects evaluation of a novel porphyrin derivative in photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Wei; Wu, Zhong-Ming; Magetic, Davor; Zhang, Li-Jun; Chen, Zhi-Long

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the antitumor activity of a novel porphyrin-based photosensitizer 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[(5-diethylamino)pentyl] porphyrin (TDPP) was reported in vitro and in vivo. The photophysical and cellular properties of TDPP were investigated. The singlet oxygen generation quantum yield of TDPP was detected; it showed a high singlet oxygen quantum yield of 0.52. The intracellular distribution of photosensitizer was detected with laser scanning confocal microscopy. The efficiency of TDPP-photodynamic therapy (PDT) in vitro was analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and in situ trypan blue exclusion test. Treated with a 630-nm laser, TDPP can kill cultured human esophageal cancer cell line (Eca-109) cells and reduce the growth of Eca-109 xenograft tumors significantly in BABL/c nude mice. And histopathological study was also used to confirm the antitumor effect. It has the perspective to be developed as a new antitumor drug in photodynamic therapy and deserves further investigation. PMID:26152290

  14. Telomere damage induced by the G-quadruplex ligand RHPS4 has an antitumor effect

    PubMed Central

    Salvati, Erica; Leonetti, Carlo; Rizzo, Angela; Scarsella, Marco; Mottolese, Marcella; Galati, Rossella; Sperduti, Isabella; Stevens, Malcolm F.G.; D’Incalci, Maurizio; Blasco, Maria; Chiorino, Giovanna; Bauwens, Serge; Horard, Béatrice; Gilson, Eric; Stoppacciaro, Antonella; Zupi, Gabriella; Biroccio, Annamaria

    2007-01-01

    Functional telomeres are required for the replicability of cancer cells. The G-rich strand of telomeric DNA can fold into a 4-stranded structure known as the G-quadruplex (G4), whose stabilization alters telomere function limiting cancer cell growth. Therefore, the G4 ligand RHPS4 may possess antitumor activity. Here, we show that RHPS4 triggers a rapid and potent DNA damage response at telomeres in human transformed fibroblasts and melanoma cells, characterized by the formation of several telomeric foci containing phosphorylated DNA damage response factors γ-H2AX, RAD17, and 53BP1. This was dependent on DNA repair enzyme ATR, correlated with delocalization of the protective telomeric DNA–binding protein POT1, and was antagonized by overexpression of POT1 or TRF2. In mice, RHPS4 exerted its antitumor effect on xenografts of human tumor cells of different histotype by telomere injury and tumor cell apoptosis. Tumor inhibition was accompanied by a strong DNA damage response, and tumors overexpressing POT1 or TRF2 were resistant to RHPS4 treatment. These data provide evidence that RHPS4 is a telomere damage inducer and that telomere disruption selectively triggered in malignant cells results in a high therapeutic index in mice. They also define a functional link between telomere damage and antitumor activity and reveal the key role of telomere-protective factors TRF2 and POT1 in response to this anti-telomere strategy. PMID:17932567

  15. Antitumor effects of dammarane-type saponins from steamed Notoginseng

    PubMed Central

    He, Fan; Ding, Yan; Liang, Chun; Song, Seok Bean; Dou, De-Qiang; Song, Gyu Yong; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-01-01

    Six dammarane-type saponins were extracted from steamed Panax notoginseng. Their chemical structures were identified spectroscopically as ginsenosides Rh1 (1), Rg1 (2), 20 (S)-Rg3 (3), 20 (R)-Rg3 (4), Rb3 (5), and Rb1 (6). Compounds (0.1-10 μM) were tested for inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF)-induced nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) luciferase reporter activity using a human kidney 293T cell-based assay. Ginsenoside Rb3 (5) showed the most significant activity with an IC50 of 8.2 μM. This compound also inhibited the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) messenger Ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in a dose-dependent manner after HepG2 cells had been treated with TNF-α (10 ng/mL). PMID:25210319

  16. Effects of Antitumor Drug Sorafenib on Chick Embryo Development.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yi-Sen; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Guang; Li, Yan; Chen, Yue-Lei; Chuai, Man-Li; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Ding, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Xue-Song

    2015-07-01

    Sorafenib has been used as an oral anti-cancer drug because of its ability to inhibit tumor growth. However, the pharmacological effect of sorafenib is still the lack of in vivo experimental evidence. Tumor and embryonic cells share some similar features, so we investigated the effects of sorafenib on the development of gastrulating chick embryos. We found that sorafenib exposure was markedly attributed to the number of embryonic cell in proliferation and apoptosis. We also detected sorafenib significantly interfered with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Furthermore, sorafenib treatment impaired the production and migration of neural crest cells. PMID:25810088

  17. Glutamine deprivation enhances antitumor activity of 3-bromopyruvate through the stabilization of monocarboxylate transporter-1.

    PubMed

    Cardaci, Simone; Rizza, Salvatore; Filomeni, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Roberta; Bertocchi, Fabio; Mattei, Maurizio; Paci, Maurizio; Rotilio, Giuseppe; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

    2012-09-01

    Anticancer drug efficacy might be leveraged by strategies to target certain biochemical adaptations of tumors. Here we show how depriving cancer cells of glutamine can enhance the anticancer properties of 3-bromopyruvate, a halogenated analog of pyruvic acid. Glutamine deprival potentiated 3-bromopyruvate chemotherapy by increasing the stability of the monocarboxylate transporter-1, an effect that sensitized cells to metabolic oxidative stress and autophagic cell death. We further elucidated mechanisms through which resistance to chemopotentiation by glutamine deprival could be circumvented. Overall, our findings offer a preclinical proof-of-concept for how to employ 3-bromopyruvate or other monocarboxylic-based drugs to sensitize tumors to chemotherapy. PMID:22773663

  18. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy study of the interaction of antitumoral drug Paclitaxel with human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Tianxiu; Gu, Huaimin; Yuan, Xiaojuan; Wu, Jiwei; Wei, Huajiang

    2008-12-01

    SERS spectroscopy was employed to study the interaction of the antitumoral drug paclitaxel with human serum albumin. The normal Raman spectrum of the paclitaxel was shown in this study for the first time. There were some differences existing in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum of paclitaxel and its human serum albumin (HSA), which demonstrated that there was high bioaffinity of paclitaxel to human serum albumin. And it was also found that there existed some differences in the SERS of the paclitaxel/HSA complexes at different pH values, which may indicated some significant information on the binding site, by which paclitaxel binds to human serum albumin. It can provide significant instruction in the synthesis of the drug and in improving the therapeutic efficacy of this drug.

  19. Targeting KIT on innate immune cells to enhance the antitumor activity of checkpoint inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Maximilian; Gedrich, Richard; Peck, Ronald; LaVallee, Theresa; Eder, Joseph Paul

    2016-06-01

    Innate immune cells such as mast cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells are key components of the tumor microenvironment. Recent evidence indicates that levels of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in melanoma patients are associated with poor survival to checkpoint inhibitors. This suggests that targeting both the innate and adaptive suppressive components of the immune system will maximize clinical benefit and elicit more durable responses in cancer patients. Preclinical data suggest that targeting signaling by the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT, particularly on mast cells, may modulate innate immune cell numbers and activity in tumors. Here, we review data highlighting the importance of the KIT signaling in regulating antitumor immune responses and the potential benefit of combining selective KIT inhibitors with immune checkpoint inhibitors. PMID:27349976

  20. Aromatase inhibitors and their antitumor effects in model systems.

    PubMed

    Brodie, A; Lu, Q; Liu, Y; Long, B

    1999-06-01

    The potential of aromatase (estrogen synthetase) within the breast to provide a significant source of estrogen mediating tumor proliferation is suggested by studies reporting 4- to 6-fold higher estrogen levels in tumors than in plasma of postmenopausal patients with breast cancer. Recent studies in our laboratory have identified aromatase and its mRNA in tumor epithelial cells using immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization. In addition, significant aromatase activity, which was stimulated 7-fold by dexamethasone, was measured in metastatic cells isolated from a breast cancer patient. Increase in proliferation, as measured by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunostaining in tumor sections and by thymidine incorporation into DNA in response to testosterone, was observed in histocultures of breast cancer samples. This latter effect could be inhibited by 4-hydroxyandrostenedione. These results imply that intratumoral aromatase has functional significance and may be an important target for successful inhibitor treatment of breast cancer patients. To investigate treatment strategies with aromatase inhibitors and antiestrogens, we developed an intratumoral aromatase model to simulate the hormone responsive postmenopausal breast cancer patient. Tumors of estrogen receptor positive human breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7) transfected with the human aromatase gene are grown in ovariectomized nude mice. These cells synthesize sufficient estrogen to stimulate tumor formation. We have utilized this model to investigate the effects on tumor growth of the antiestrogens, tamoxifen and ICI 182780, and the aromatase inhibitors, letrozole and anastrozole (arimidex), alone and in combination. Both the aromatase inhibitors and the antiestrogens were effective in suppressing tumor growth. However, letrozole was significantly more effective than the antiestrogens. When the aromatase inhibitors were combined with the antiestrogen, tamoxifen, tumor growth was suppressed to about the

  1. Antitumoral effect of Ocoxin on acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Elena; Hernández-García, Susana; Sanz, Eduardo; Pandiella, Atanasio

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous hematological malignancy whose incidence is growing in developed countries. In the relapse setting, very limited therapeutic options are available and in most cases only palliative care can be offered to patients. The effect of a composite formulation that contains several antioxidants, Ocoxin Oral solution (OOS), was tested in this condition. When analyzed in vitro, OOS exhibited anti-AML action that was both time and dose dependent. In vivo OOS induced a ralentization of tumor growth that was due to a decrease in cell proliferation. Such effect could, at least partially, be due to an increase in the cell cycle inhibitor p27, although other cell cycle proteins seemed to be altered. Besides, OOS induced an immunomodulatory effect through the induction of IL6. When tested in combination with other therapeutic agents normally used in the treatment of AML patients, OOS demonstrated a higher antiproliferative action, suggesting that it may be used in combination with those standard of care treatments to potentiate their antiproliferative action in the AML clinic. PMID:26756220

  2. Esterification of Ginsenoside Rh2 Enhanced Its Cellular Uptake and Antitumor Activity in Human HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Deng, Ze-Yuan; Zhang, Bing; Xiong, Zeng-Xing; Zheng, Shi-Lian; Tan, Chao-Li; Hu, Jiang-Ning

    2016-01-13

    Our previous research had indicated that the octyl ester derivative of ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2-O) might have a higher bioavailability than Rh2 in the Caco-2 cell line. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular uptake and antitumor effects of Rh2-O in human HepG2 cells as well as its underlying mechanism compared with Rh2. Results showed that Rh2-O exhibited a higher cellular uptake (63.24%) than Rh2 (36.76%) when incubated with HepG2 cells for 24 h. Rh2-O possessed a dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect against the proliferation of HepG2 cells. The IC50 value of Rh2-O for inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation was 20.15 μM, which was roughly half the value of Rh2. Rh2-O induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells through a mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic pathway. In addition, the accumulation of ROS was detected in Rh2-O-treated HepG2 cells, which participated in the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Conclusively, the findings above all suggested that Rh2-O as well as Rh2 inducing HepG2 cells apoptosis might involve similar mechanisms; however, Rh2-O had better antitumor activities than Rh2, probably due to its higher cellular uptake. PMID:26672619

  3. Folate receptor-targeted liposomes loaded with a diacid metabolite of norcantharidin enhance antitumor potency for H22 hepatocellular carcinoma both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min-Chen; Liu, Lin; Wang, Xia-Rong; Shuai, Wu-Ping; Hu, Ying; Han, Min; Gao, Jian-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The diacid metabolite of norcantharidin (DM-NCTD) is clinically effective against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but is limited by its short half-life and high incidence of adverse effects at high doses. We developed a DM-NCTD-loaded, folic acid (FA)-modified, polyethylene glycolated (DM-NCTD/FA-PEG) liposome system to enhance the targeting effect and antitumor potency for HCC at a moderate dose based on our previous study. The DM-NCTD/FA-PEG liposome system produced liposomes with regular spherical morphology, with mean particle size approximately 200 nm, and an encapsulation efficiency >80%. MTT cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that the DM-NCTD/FA-PEG liposomes showed significantly stronger cytotoxicity effects on the H22 hepatoma cell line than did PEG liposomes without the FA modification (P<0.01). We used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for determination of DM-NCTD in tissues and tumors, and found it to be sensitive, rapid, and reliable. In addition, the biodistribution study showed that DM-NCTD liposomes improved tumor-targeting efficiency, and DM-NCTD/FA-PEG liposomes exhibited the highest efficiency of the treatments (P<0.01). Meanwhile, the results indicated that although the active liposome group had an apparently increased tumor-targeting efficiency of DM-NCTD, the risk to the kidney was higher than in the normal liposome group. With regard to in vivo antitumor activity, DM-NCTD/FA-PEG liposomes inhibited tumors in H22 tumor-bearing mice better than either free DM-NCTD or DM-NCTD/PEG liposomes (P<0.01), and induced considerably more significant cellular apoptosis in the tumors, with no obvious toxicity to the tissues of model mice or the liver tissue of normal mice, as shown by histopathological examination. All these results demonstrate that DM-NCTD-loaded FA-modified liposomes might have potential application for HCC-targeting therapy. PMID:27110110

  4. Folate receptor-targeted liposomes loaded with a diacid metabolite of norcantharidin enhance antitumor potency for H22 hepatocellular carcinoma both in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Min-Chen; Liu, Lin; Wang, Xia-Rong; Shuai, Wu-Ping; Hu, Ying; Han, Min; Gao, Jian-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The diacid metabolite of norcantharidin (DM-NCTD) is clinically effective against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but is limited by its short half-life and high incidence of adverse effects at high doses. We developed a DM-NCTD-loaded, folic acid (FA)-modified, polyethylene glycolated (DM-NCTD/FA-PEG) liposome system to enhance the targeting effect and antitumor potency for HCC at a moderate dose based on our previous study. The DM-NCTD/FA-PEG liposome system produced liposomes with regular spherical morphology, with mean particle size approximately 200 nm, and an encapsulation efficiency >80%. MTT cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that the DM-NCTD/FA-PEG liposomes showed significantly stronger cytotoxicity effects on the H22 hepatoma cell line than did PEG liposomes without the FA modification (P<0.01). We used liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry for determination of DM-NCTD in tissues and tumors, and found it to be sensitive, rapid, and reliable. In addition, the biodistribution study showed that DM-NCTD liposomes improved tumor-targeting efficiency, and DM-NCTD/FA-PEG liposomes exhibited the highest efficiency of the treatments (P<0.01). Meanwhile, the results indicated that although the active liposome group had an apparently increased tumor-targeting efficiency of DM-NCTD, the risk to the kidney was higher than in the normal liposome group. With regard to in vivo antitumor activity, DM-NCTD/FA-PEG liposomes inhibited tumors in H22 tumor-bearing mice better than either free DM-NCTD or DM-NCTD/PEG liposomes (P<0.01), and induced considerably more significant cellular apoptosis in the tumors, with no obvious toxicity to the tissues of model mice or the liver tissue of normal mice, as shown by histopathological examination. All these results demonstrate that DM-NCTD-loaded FA-modified liposomes might have potential application for HCC-targeting therapy. PMID:27110110

  5. Antitumor effects of energy restriction-mimetic agents: thiazolidinediones.

    PubMed

    Omar, Hany A; Salama, Samir A; Arafa, El-Shaimaa A; Weng, Jing-Ru

    2013-07-01

    Distinct metabolic strategies used by cancer cells to gain growth advantages, such as shifting from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis, constitute a basis for their selective targeting as a novel approach for cancer therapy. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are ligands for the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and they are clinically used as oral hypoglycemic agents. Accumulating evidence suggests that the ability of TZDs to suppress cancer cell proliferation through the interplay between apoptosis and autophagy was, at least in part, mediated through PPARγ-independent mechanisms. This review highlights recent advances in the pharmacological exploitation of the PPARγ-independent anticancer effects of TZDs to develop novel agents targeting tumor metabolism, including glucose transporter inhibitors and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, which have translational potential as cancer therapeutic agents. PMID:23612598

  6. Antitumor effect of hepatocyte growth factor on hepatoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Y; Shibusawa, M; Tsunoda, A; Gomi, A; Yatsuzuka, M; Okamatsu, T

    1998-01-01

    A six month-old girl presented with an abdominal mass, and high serum level of alpha-fetoprotein. She was diagnosed as having a well-differentiated hepatoblastoma by open biopsy. The biopsy specimen was transplanted on a nude mouse, and a xenograft was successfully established. Because the xenograft maintained the characteristics of the original tumor, the effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on hepatoblastoma xenograft was investigated. Recently HGF was reported to be involved in growth, invasion, and metastasis of tumor cells. Contrary to our expectations, the treatment of hepatoblastoma xenograft with recombinant 20 ng/ml HGF produced a marked inhibition of cell growth and a suppression of producing alpha-fetoprotein. PMID:9891489

  7. PLGA nanofibers improves the antitumoral effect of daunorubicin.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Pedro P G; Oliveira, Michele F; Gomes, Alinne D M; Gontijo, Sávio M L; Cortés, Maria E; Campos, Paula P; Viana, Celso T R; Andrade, Silvia P; Sinisterra, Rubén D

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo anti-inflammatory angiogenesis activity and in vitro cytotoxicity on normal and cancer cell models of a drug delivery system consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanofibers loaded with daunorubicin (PLGA-DNR) that were fabricated using an electrospinning process. The PLGA-DNR nanofibers were also characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal fluorescence microscopy. In vitro release of DNR from the nanofibers and its corresponding mechanism were also evaluated. Sixty-five percent of the DNR was released in an initial burst over 8h, and by 1224 h, eighty-five percent of the DNR had been released. The Higuchi model yielded the best fit to the DNR release profile over the first 8h, and the corresponding data from 24 to 1224 h could be modeled using zero-order kinetics. The PLGA-DNR nanofibers exhibited a higher cytotoxicity to A431 cells than free DNR but a cytotoxicity similar to free DNR against fibroblast cells. A higher antiangiogenic effect of PLGA nanofibers was observed in the in vivo data when compared to free DNR, and no inflammatory potential was observed for the nanofibers. PMID:26402423

  8. Antitumor Effect of the Mannich Base(1,3-bis-((3-Hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)phenylmethyl)urea) on Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vedarethinam, Vadanasundari; Dhanaraj, Karthik; Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Choi, Ki Choon; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Srisesharam, Srigopalram; Lee, Kyung Dong; Kim, Da Hye; Dhanapal, Tamilvenvendan; Sivanesan, Ravikumar; Choi, Han Sung; Kim, Young Ock

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antitumor effects of the synthetic Mannich base 1,3-bis-((3-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)phenylmethyl)urea (1,3-BPMU) against HEP-G2 hepatoma cells and diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinoma (HCC) in albino rats. In vitro analysis results revealed that 1,3-BPMU showed significant cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition in HEP-G2 hepatoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, flow cytometry results indicated that 1,3-BPMU enhanced early and late apoptosis. The maximum apoptosis was exhibited at a concentration of 100 μg/mL of 1,3-BPMU. In in vivo analysis, DEN treatment increased the content of nucleic acids, LPO and the activities of AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, γGT and 5'NT with decreased antioxidant activity as compared to control rats. However, 1,3-BPMU treatment to DEN-induced rats decreased the content of nucleic acids, LPO and the activities of AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, γGT and 5'NT and increased the activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, GST and GR (p < 0.05). Furthermore, 1,3-BPMU enhanced the apoptosis via upregulation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 and the downregulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL mRNA expression as compared to DEN-induced rats. Histological and ultrastructural investigation showed that 1,3-BPMU treatment renovated the internal architecture of the liver in DEN-induced rats. In this study, the molecular and pre-clinical results obtained by treatment of DEN-induced rats with 1,3-BPMU suggested that 1,3-BPMU might be considered as an antitumor compound in the future. PMID:27187346

  9. Surface enhanced fluorescence of anti-tumoral drug emodin adsorbed on silver nanoparticles and loaded on porous silicon

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence spectra of anti-tumoral drug emodin loaded on nanostructured porous silicon have been recorded. The use of colloidal nanoparticles allowed embedding of the drug without previous porous silicon functionalization and leads to the observation of an enhancement of fluorescence of the drug. Mean pore size of porous silicon matrices was 60 nm, while silver nanoparticles mean diameter was 50 nm. Atmospheric and vacuum conditions at room temperature were used to infiltrate emodin-silver nanoparticles complexes into porous silicon matrices. The drug was loaded after adsorption on metal surface, alone, and bound to bovine serum albumin. Methanol and water were used as solvents. Spectra with 1 μm spatial resolution of cross-section of porous silicon layers were recorded to observe the penetration of the drug. A maximum fluorescence enhancement factor of 24 was obtained when protein was loaded bound to albumin, and atmospheric conditions of inclusion were used. A better penetration was obtained using methanol as solvent when comparing with water. Complexes of emodin remain loaded for 30 days after preparation without an apparent degradation of the drug, although a decrease in the enhancement factor is observed. The study reported here constitutes the basis for designing a new drug delivery system with future applications in medicine and pharmacy. PMID:22748115

  10. The Antitumor Effect of Gekko Sulfated Glycopeptide by Inhibiting bFGF-Induced Lymphangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiu-Li; Man, Ya-Nan; Hao, Jian; Zhu, Cui-Hong; Liu, Chang; Yang, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To study the antilymphangiogenesis effect of Gekko Sulfated Glycopeptide (GSPP) on human lymphatic endothelial cells (hLECs). Methods. MTS was conducted to confirm the antiproliferation effect of GSPP on hLECs; flow cytometry was employed to detect hLECs cycle distribution; the antimigration effect of GSPP on hLECs was investigated by wound healing experiment and transwell experiment; tube formation assay was used to examine its inhibitory effect on the lymphangiogenesis; western blotting was conducted to detect the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (Erk1/2) and p-Erk1/2 after GSPP and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) treatment. Nude mice models were established to investigate the antitumor effect of GSPP in vivo. Decreased lymphangiogenesis caused by GSPP in vivo was verified by immunohistochemical staining. Results. In vitro, GSPP (10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL) significantly inhibited bFGF-induced hLECs proliferation, migration, and tube-like structure formation (P < 0.05) and antagonized the phosphorylation activation of Erk1/2 induced by bFGF. In vivo, GSPP treatment (200 mg/kg/d) not only inhibited the growth of colon carcinoma, but also inhibited the tumor lymphangiogenesis. Conclusion. GSPP possesses the antitumor ability by inhibiting bFGF-inducing lymphangiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, which may further inhibit tumor lymphatic metastasis. PMID:27190997

  11. The Antitumor Effect of Gekko Sulfated Glycopeptide by Inhibiting bFGF-Induced Lymphangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiu-Li; Man, Ya-Nan; Hao, Jian; Zhu, Cui-Hong; Liu, Chang; Yang, Xue; Wu, Xiong-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To study the antilymphangiogenesis effect of Gekko Sulfated Glycopeptide (GSPP) on human lymphatic endothelial cells (hLECs). Methods. MTS was conducted to confirm the antiproliferation effect of GSPP on hLECs; flow cytometry was employed to detect hLECs cycle distribution; the antimigration effect of GSPP on hLECs was investigated by wound healing experiment and transwell experiment; tube formation assay was used to examine its inhibitory effect on the lymphangiogenesis; western blotting was conducted to detect the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (Erk1/2) and p-Erk1/2 after GSPP and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) treatment. Nude mice models were established to investigate the antitumor effect of GSPP in vivo. Decreased lymphangiogenesis caused by GSPP in vivo was verified by immunohistochemical staining. Results. In vitro, GSPP (10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL) significantly inhibited bFGF-induced hLECs proliferation, migration, and tube-like structure formation (P < 0.05) and antagonized the phosphorylation activation of Erk1/2 induced by bFGF. In vivo, GSPP treatment (200 mg/kg/d) not only inhibited the growth of colon carcinoma, but also inhibited the tumor lymphangiogenesis. Conclusion. GSPP possesses the antitumor ability by inhibiting bFGF-inducing lymphangiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, which may further inhibit tumor lymphatic metastasis. PMID:27190997

  12. Enhanced antitumoral efficacy by intratumoral perfusion of activated macrophages associated with photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, Vasile F.; Vasiliu, Virgil V.; Laky, Dezideriu; Ionescu, Paul; Dima, Stefan V.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were performed on five batches of Wistar inbred rats with Walker-256 carcinosarcoma receiving photodynamic therapy (PDT), rMuIFN-gamma activated macrophages (AM(Phi) ) or associated therapy (PDT-AM(Phi) -A; PDT-AM(Phi) -B); the control batch (HBSS) consisted of animals with untreated Walker-256 tumors. The results were as follows: the sole treatment (PDT, AM(Phi) ) gave survival rates between 57.2 and 57.7% and cure rates ranging from 23.1 to 34.3%. The 'combined' therapy in multiple doses increased significantly (87.9%) the survival rate of tumor bearing rats as well as the rate of complete tumor regression (72.7%). Cell-mediated immunity test values in batches III and IV exposed to multiple doses of PDT-AM(Phi) showed higher values as compared to the values noticed in batches I - II and the control batch V, performed at 12 and 21 days post-treatment. Summing up, these results demonstrate that 'combined' photodynamic treatment and biotherapy with interferon activated macrophages stimulate cell-mediated antitumoral activity, increase survival rates and reduce incidence of Walker-256 carcinosarcoma in rat model.

  13. Antitumor Efficacy of Anti-GD2 IgG1 Is Enhanced by Fc Glyco-Engineering.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Guo, Hongfen; Cheung, Irene Y; Cheung, Nai-Kong V

    2016-07-01

    The affinity of therapeutic antibodies for Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) strongly influences their antitumor potency. To generate antibodies with optimal binding and immunologic efficacy, we compared the affinities of different versions of an IgG1 Fc region that had an altered peptide backbone, altered glycans, or both. To produce IgG1 with glycans that lacked α1,6-fucose, we used CHO cells that were deficient in the enzyme UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: α-3-d-mannoside-β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (GnT1), encoded by the MGAT1 gene. Mature N-linked glycans require this enzyme, and without it, CHO cells synthesize antibodies carrying only Man5-GlcNAc2, which were more effective in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Our engineered IgG1, hu3F8-IgG1, is specific for GD2, a neuroendocrine tumor ganglioside. Its peptide mutant is IgG1-DEL (S239D/I332E/A330L), both produced in wild-type CHO cells. When produced in GnT1-deficient CHO cells, we refer to them as IgG1n and IgG1n-DEL, respectively. Affinities for human FcγRs were measured using Biacore T-100 (on CD16 and CD32 polymorphic alleles), their immunologic properties compared for ADCC and complement-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) in vitro, and pharmacokinetics and antitumor effects were compared in vivo in humanized mice. IgG1n and IgG1n-DEL contained only mannose and acetylglucosamine and had preferential affinity for activating CD16s, over inhibitory CD32B, receptors. In vivo, the antitumor effects of IgG1, IgG1-DEL, and IgG1n-DEL were similar but modest, whereas IgG1n was significantly more effective (P < 0.05). Thus, IgG1n antibodies produced in GnT1-deficient CHO cells may have potential as improved anticancer therapeutics. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(7); 631-8. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197064

  14. A fiber-modified adenovirus co-expressing HSV-TK and Coli.NTR enhances antitumor activities in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Yang; Yu, Bin; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Hai-Hong; Wu, Hao; Feng, Xiao; Geng, Ran-Shen; Kong, Wei; Yu, Xiang-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancers especially in late and metastatic stages remain refractory to treatment despite advances in surgical techniques and chemotherapy. Suicide gene therapy based on adenoviral technology will be promising strategies for such advanced diseases. We previously showed that co-expression of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) and Escherichia coli nitroreductase (Coli.NTR) by an hTERT-driven adenovirus vector resulted in additive anti-tumor effects in breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. As many tumor tissue and cancer cells express low level of coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR), which is the functional receptor for the fiber protein of human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5), novel Ad5 vectors containing genetically modifi ed fiber are attractive vehicles for achieving targeted gene transfer and improving suicide gene expression in these cancer cells. In the present study, we first built a simplified Ad5 vector platform for fiber modification and quick detection for gene transfer. Then a fiber-modified adenovirus vector containing an RGD motif in the HI loop of the fiber knob was constructed. After recombined with HSV-TK and Coli.NTR gene, this fiber-modified Ad5 vector (Ad-RGD-hT-TK/NTR) was compared with that of our previously constructed Ad5 vector (Ad-hT-TK/NTR) for its therapeutic effects in human breast cancer cell lines. The anti-tumor activity of Ad-RGD-hT-TK/NTR was significantly enhanced compared with Ad-hT-TK/NTR both in vitro and in vivo. This new vector platform provided a robust and simplified approach for capsid modification, and the fiber-modified Ad5 with double suicide genes under the control of hTERT promoter would be a useful gene therapy strategy for breast cancer. PMID:25031704

  15. Young Barley Indicates Antitumor Effects in Experimental Breast Cancer In Vivo and In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Kubatka, Peter; Kello, Martin; Kajo, Karol; Kruzliak, Peter; Výbohová, Desanka; Šmejkal, Karel; Maršík, Petr; Zulli, Anthony; Gönciová, Gabriela; Mojžiš, Ján; Kapinová, Andrea; Murin, Radovan; Péč, Martin; Adamkov, Marián; Przygodzki, Ronald M

    2016-01-01

    The effect of dietary administered young barley containing a mixture of phytochemicals to female rats for the prevention of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis was evaluated. After carcinogen administration (14 wk), mammary tumors were removed and prepared for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Moreover, in vitro evaluation of possible mechanisms in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line was performed. Barley (0.3%) demonstrated mild antitumor effect in mammary carcinogenesis, yet 3% barley did not further improve this effect. Immunohistochemical analysis of rat tumor cells in treated groups showed significant increase in caspase-3 expression and significant reduction in Ki67 expression. In addition, 3% barley significantly decreased dityrosine levels versus control. Barley in higher dose significantly decreased serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in rats. In vitro studies showed that barley significantly decreased survival of MCF-7 cells in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and significantly decreased 5-bromo-20-deoxyuridine incorporation versus control. Barley prevented cell cycle progression and extended incubation with barley showed significant increase in the percentage of annexin V/propidium iodide-positive MCF-7 cells. Our results propose an antitumor effect for the mixture of phytochemicals present in young barley in a breast cancer model. PMID:27042893

  16. Heparin-functionalized Pluronic nanoparticles to enhance the antitumor efficacy of sorafenib in gastric cancers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying-Chi; Cai, Jun; Yin, Jie; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Kang-Li; Zhang, Zhong-Tao

    2016-01-20

    In this study, chitosan/heparin immobilized delivery system was developed for the delivery of sorafenib in gastric cancers. The SRF NP was nanosized with spherical outfit and present in the amorphous form. The SRF NP exhibited a sustained release of drug at pH 7.4 conditions and enhanced drug released at pH 5.5 conditions. Flow cytometer analysis showed that cellular uptake of NP increased two-fold after 4h of incubation compared to 1h incubation. The SRF NP showed superior anticancer effect compared to that of free SRF in BGC-823 cancer cells. SRF NP induced a remarkable apoptosis of cancer cells consistent with the cytotoxicity assay. Approximately, ∼ 50% of cell fractions were observed in early apoptosis phase with ∼ 15% of cells in the late apoptosis stage. Consistently, SRF NP exhibited a strong band for caspase-3 and P-53 than compared to free SRF in MGC-823 cancer cells. Importantly, SRF NP showed superior anticancer effect in xenograft tumor model making it a promising delivery vehicle in the treatment of gastric cancers. PMID:26572413

  17. In vivo pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and anti-tumor effect of paclitaxel-loaded targeted chitosan-based polymeric micelle.

    PubMed

    Rezazadeh, Mahboubeh; Emami, Jaber; Hasanzadeh, Farshid; Sadeghi, Hojjat; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Mostafavi, Abolfazl; Rostami, Mahboubeh; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

    2016-06-01

    A water-insoluble anti-tumor agent, paclitaxel (PTX) was successfully incorporated into novel-targeted polymeric micelles based on tocopherol succinate-chitosan-polyethylene glycol-folic acid (PTX/TS-CS-PEG-FA). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and efficacy of PTX/TS-CS-PEG-FA in comparison to Anzatax® in tumor bearing mice. The micellar formulation showed higher in vitro cytotoxicity against mice breast cancer cell line, 4T1, due to the folate receptor-mediated endocytosis. The IC50 value of PTX, a concentration at which 50% cells are killed, was 1.17 and 0.93 µM for Anzatax® and PTX/TS-CS-PEG-FA micelles, respectively. The in vivo anti-tumor efficacy of PTX/TS-CS-PEG-FA, as measured by reduction in tumor volume of 4T1 mouse breast cancer injected in Balb/c mice was significantly greater than that of Anzatax®. Pharmacokinetic study in tumor bearing mice revealed that the micellar formulation prolonged the systemic circulation time of PTX and the AUC of PTX/TS-CS-PEG-FA was obtained 0.83-fold lower than Anzatax®. Compared with Anzatax®, the Vd, T1/2ß and MRT of PTX/TS-CS-PEG-FA was increased by 2.76, 2.05 and 1.68-fold, respectively. As demonstrated by tissue distribution, the PTX/TS-CS-PEG-FA micelles increased accumulation of PTX in tumor, therefore, resulted in anti-tumor effects enhancement and drug concentration in the normal tissues reduction. Taken together, our evaluations show that PTX/TS-CS-PEG-FA micelle is a potential drug delivery system of PTX for the effective treatment of the tumor and systematic toxicity reduction, thus, the micellar formulation can provide a useful alternative dosage form for intravenous administration of PTX. PMID:25188785

  18. Combination treatment with oncolytic Vaccinia virus and cyclophosphamide results in synergistic antitumor effects in human lung adenocarcinoma bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The capacity of the recombinant Vaccinia virus GLV-1h68 as a single agent to efficiently treat different human or canine cancers has been shown in several preclinical studies. Currently, its human safety and efficacy are investigated in phase I/II clinical trials. In this study we set out to evaluate the oncolytic activity of GLV-1h68 in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line PC14PE6-RFP in cell cultures and analyzed the antitumor potency of a combined treatment strategy consisting of GLV-1h68 and cyclophosphamide (CPA) in a mouse model of PC14PE6-RFP lung adenocarcinoma. Methods PC14PE6-RFP cells were treated in cell culture with GLV-1h68. Viral replication and cell survival were determined by plaque assays and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, respectively. Subcutaneously implanted PC14PE6-RFP xenografts were treated by systemic injection of GLV-1h68, CPA or a combination of both. Tumor growth and viral biodistribution were monitored and immune-related antigen profiling of tumor lysates was performed. Results GLV-1h68 efficiently infected, replicated in and lysed human PC14PE6-RFP cells in cell cultures. PC14PE6-RFP tumors were efficiently colonized by GLV-1h68 leading to much delayed tumor growth in PC14PE6-RFP tumor-bearing nude mice. Combination treatment with GLV-1h68 and CPA significantly improved the antitumor efficacy of GLV-1h68 and led to an increased viral distribution within the tumors. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were distinctly elevated in tumors of GLV-1h68-treated mice. Factors expressed by endothelial cells or present in the blood were decreased after combination treatment. A complete loss in the hemorrhagic phenotype of the PC14PE6-RFP tumors and a decrease in the number of blood vessels after combination treatment could be observed. Conclusions CPA and GLV-1h68 have synergistic antitumor effects on PC14PE6-RFP xenografts. We strongly suppose that in the PC14PE6-RFP model the

  19. Antioxidant Activity, Antitumor Effect, and Antiaging Property of Proanthocyanidins Extracted from Kunlun Chrysanthemum Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Siqun; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity, antitumor effect, and antiaging property of proanthocyanidins from Kunlun Chrysanthemum flowers (PKCF) grown in Xinjiang. In vitro antioxidant experiments results showed that the total antioxidant activity and the scavenging capacity of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radicals increased in a concentration-dependent manner and were stronger than those of vitamin C. To investigate the antioxidant activity of PKCF in vivo, we used serum, liver, and kidney from mouse for the measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). Results indicated that PKCF had antioxidative effect in vivo which significantly improved the activity of SOD and T-AOC and decreased MDA content. To investigate the antitumor activity of PKCF, we used H22 cells, HeLa cells, and Eca-109 cells with Vero cells as control. Inhibition ratio and IC50 values were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay; PKCF showed great inhibitory activity on H22 cells and HeLa cells. We also used fruit flies as a model for analyzing the anti-aging property of PKCF. Results showed that PKCF has antiaging effect on Drosophila. Results of the present study demonstrated that PKCF could be a promising agent that may find applications in health care, medicine, and cosmetics. PMID:25628774

  20. Proton pump inhibitors induce a caspase-independent antitumor effect against human multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Canitano, Andrea; Iessi, Elisabetta; Spugnini, Enrico Pierluigi; Federici, Cristina; Fais, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    Multiple Myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematological malignancy and is responsive to a limited number of drugs. Unfortunately, to date, despite the introduction of novel drugs, no relevant increase in survival rates has been obtained. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been shown to have significant antitumor action as single agents as well as in combination with chemotherapy. This study investigates the potential anti-tumor effectiveness of two PPIs, Lansoprazole and Omeprazole, against human MM cells. We found that Lansoprazole exerts straightforward efficacy against myeloma cells, even at suboptimal concentrations (50 µM), while Omeprazole has limited cytotoxic action. The Lansoprazole anti-MM effect was mostly mediated by a caspase-independent apoptotic-like cytotoxicity, with only a secondary anti-proliferative action. This study provides clear evidence supporting the use of Lansoprazole in the strive against MM with an efficacy proven much higher than current therapeutical approaches and without reported side effects. It is however conceivable that, consistent with the results obtained in other human tumors, Lansoprazole may well be combined with existing anti-myeloma therapies with the aim to improve the low level of efficacy of the current strategies. PMID:27084522

  1. The antitumor effect of bromophenol derivatives in vitro and Leathesia nana extract in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Dayong; Li, Jing; Guo, Shuju; Su, Hua; Fan, Xiao

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the antitumor effect of bromophenol derivatives in vitro and Leathesia nana extract in vivo, six bromophenol derivatives 6-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl)-2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxy benzyl methyl ether (1), (+)-3-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-4-bromo-5,6-dihydroxy-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran (2), 3-bromo-4-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl)-5-methoxymethyl-pyrocatechol (3), 2,2',3,3'-tetrabromo-4,4',5,5'-tetrahydroxy-diphenylmethane (4), bis(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl) ether (5), 2,2',3-tribromo-3',4,4',5-tetrahydroxy-6'-ethyloxymethyldiphenylmethane (6) were isolated from brown alga Leathesia nana, and their cytotoxicity were tested by MTT assays in human cancer cell lines A549, BGC-823, MCF-7, B16-BL6, HT-1080, A2780, Bel7402 and HCT-8. Their inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) with over-expression of c-kit was analyzed also by ELISA. The antitumor activity of ethanolic extraction of Leathesia nana (EELN) was evaluated on S180-bearing mice. All compounds showed very potent cytotoxicity against all of the eight cancer cell lines with IC50 below 10 μg/mL. In PTK inhibition study, all bromophenol derivatives showed moderate inhibitory activity and compounds 2, 5 and 6 showed significant bioactivity with the inhibition ratio of 77.5%, 80.1% and 71.4%, respectively. Pharmacological studies reveal that EELN could inhibit the growth of Sarcoma 180 tumor and increase the indices of thymus and spleen to improve the immune system remarkably in vivo. Results indicated that the bromophenol derivatives and EELN can be used as potent antitumor agents for PTK over-expression of c-kit and considered in a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of cancer.

  2. Aurora inhibitor MLN8237 in combination with docetaxel enhances apoptosis and anti-tumor activity in mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wenqing; Cooke, Laurence S; Liu, Xiaobing; Rimsza, Lisa; Roe, Denise J; Manziolli, Ann; Persky, Daniel O; Miller, Thomas P; Mahadevan, Daruka

    2011-04-01

    Auroras (A and B) are oncogenic serine/threonine kinases that play key roles in the mitotic phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle. Analysis of the leukemia lymphoma molecular profiling project (LLMPP) database indicates Aurora over-expression correlates with poor prognosis. A tissue microarray (TMA) composed of 20 paired mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients demonstrated >75% of patients had high levels Aurora expression. Aurora A and B were also found elevated in 13 aggressive B-NHL cell lines. MLN8237, an Aurora inhibitor induced G2/M arrest with polyploidy and abrogated Aurora A and histone-H3 phosphorylation. MLN8237 inhibited aggressive B-NHL cell proliferation at an IC(50) of 10-50 nM and induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Low dose combinations of MLN8237+docetaxel enhanced apoptosis by ~3-4-fold in cell culture compared to single agents respectively. A mouse xenograft model of MCL demonstrated that MLN8237 (10 or 30 mg/kg) or docetaxel (10mg/kg) alone had modest anti-tumor activity. However, MLN8237 plus docetaxel demonstrated a statistically significant tumor growth inhibition and enhanced survival compared to single agent therapy. Together, our results suggest that MLN8237 plus docetaxel may represent a novel therapeutic strategy that could be evaluated in early phase trials in relapsed/refractory aggressive B-cell NHL. PMID:21291867

  3. Aminolevulinic Acid-Photodynamic Therapy Combined with Topically Applied Vascular Disrupting Agent Vadimezan Led to Enhanced Antitumor Responses

    PubMed Central

    Marrero, Allison; Becker, Theresa; Sunar, Ulas; Morgan, Janet; Bellnier, David

    2011-01-01

    The tumor-vascular disrupting agent (VDA) vadimezan (5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid, DMXAA) has been shown to potentiate the antitumor activity of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using systemically administered photosensitizers. Here, we characterized the response of subcutaneous syngeneic Colon26 murine colon adenocarcinoma tumors to PDT using the locally applied photosensitizer precursor aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in combination with a topical formulation of vadimezan. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), a non-invasive method for monitoring blood flow, was utilized to determine tumor vascular response to treatment. Additionally, correlative CD31-immunohistochemistry to visualize endothelial damage, ELISA assays to measure induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and tumor weight measurements were also examined in separate animals. In our previous work, DCS revealed a selective decrease in tumor blood flow over time following topical vadimezan. ALA-PDT treatment also induced a decrease in tumor blood flow. The onset of blood flow reduction was rapid in tumors treated with both ALA-PDT and vadimezan. CD31-immunostaining of tumor sections confirmed vascular damage following topical application of vadimezan. Tumor weight measurements revealed enhanced tumor growth inhibition with combination treatment compared to ALA-PDT or vadimezan treatment alone. In conclusion, vadimezan as a topical agent enhances treatment efficacy when combined with ALA-PDT. This combination could be useful in clinical applications. PMID:21575001

  4. Anti-CTLA-4 antibodies of IgG2a isotype enhance antitumor activity through reduction of intratumoral regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Selby, Mark J; Engelhardt, John J; Quigley, Michael; Henning, Karla A; Chen, Timothy; Srinivasan, Mohan; Korman, Alan J

    2013-07-01

    Antitumor activity of CTLA-4 antibody blockade is thought to be mediated by interfering with the negative regulation of T-effector cell (Teff) function resulting from CTLA-4 engagement by B7-ligands. In addition, a role for CTLA-4 on regulatory T cells (Treg), wherein CTLA-4 loss or inhibition results in reduced Treg function, may also contribute to antitumor responses by anti-CTLA-4 treatment. We have examined the role of the immunoglobulin constant region on the antitumor activity of anti-CTLA-4 to analyze in greater detail the mechanism of action of anti-CTLA-4 antibodies. Anti-CTLA-4 antibody containing the murine immunoglobulin G (IgG)2a constant region exhibits enhanced antitumor activity in subcutaneous established MC38 and CT26 colon adenocarcinoma tumor models compared with anti-CTLA-4 containing the IgG2b constant region. Interestingly, anti-CTLA-4 antibodies containing mouse IgG1 or a mutated mouse IgG1-D265A, which eliminates binding to all Fcγ receptors (FcγR), do not show antitumor activity in these models. Assessment of Teff and Treg populations at the tumor and in the periphery showed that anti-CTLA-4-IgG2a mediated a rapid and dramatic reduction of Tregs at the tumor site, whereas treatment with each of the isotypes expanded Tregs in the periphery. Expansion of CD8(+) Teffs is observed with both the IgG2a and IgG2b anti-CTLA-4 isotypes, resulting in a superior Teff to Treg ratio for the IgG2a isotype. These data suggest that anti-CTLA-4 promotes antitumor activity by a selective reduction of intratumoral Tregs along with concomitant activation of Teffs. PMID:24777248

  5. [Immunomodulative effects of Chinese herbs in mice treated with anti-tumor agent cyclophosphamide].

    PubMed

    Jin, R; Wan, L L; Mitsuishi, T; Kodama, K; Kurashige, S

    1994-07-01

    Extracts of Chinese herbs were administered with antitumor agent, cyclophosphamide (CY), and their effects on macrophages and lymphocytes were studied. Number of peritoneal macrophages significantly decreased and their chemotactic activity was suppressed by treatment with CY. Blastogenic responsiveness to Concanavalin A and NK cell activity of spleen lymphocytes were suppressed significantly in CY-treated mice. Extracts of Lithospermi radix, Astragali radix and Glycyrrhizae radix showed protective effects on immunosuppressive mice. The number of macrophages, chemotactic activity of macrophages and blastogenic response of lymphocytes were recovered to the same or more than that of normal levels. An extract of Ginseng radix showed protective effects on the number and functions of macrophages by treatment with CY but did not show any effects on the lymphocytic blastogenesis. On the contrary it showed a strong inhibitory effect on the NK cell activity. These results suggest that Chinese herbs could modulate cellular immune response, especially in the activation of macrophages and splenic lymphocytes. PMID:7932098

  6. Hyaluronidase Embedded in Nanocarrier PEG Shell for Enhanced Tumor Penetration and Highly Efficient Antitumor Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Fan, Zhiyuan; Deng, Junjie; Lemons, Pelin K; Arhontoulis, Dimitrios C; Bowne, Wilbur B; Cheng, Hao

    2016-05-11

    One of the major challenges in applying nanomedicines to cancer therapy is their low interstitial diffusion in solid tumors. Although the modification of nanocarrier surfaces with enzymes that degrade extracellular matrix is a promising strategy to improve nanocarrier diffusion in tumors, it remains challenging to apply this strategy in vivo via systemic administration of nanocarriers due to biological barriers, such as reduced blood circulation time of enzyme-modified nanocarriers, loss of enzyme function in vivo, and life-threatening side effects. Here, we report the conjugation of recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20 (rHuPH20), which degrades hyaluronic acid, on the surfaces of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-b-polyethylene glycol (PLGA-PEG) nanoparticles followed by anchoring a relatively low density layer of PEG, which reduces the exposure of rHuPH20 for circumventing rHuPH20-mediated clearance. Despite the extremely short serum half-life of rHuPH20, our unique design maintains the function of rHuPH20 and avoids its effect on shortening nanocarrier blood circulation. We also show that rHuPH20 conjugated on nanoparticles is more efficient than free rHuPH20 in facilitating nanoparticle diffusion. The facile surface modification quadruples the accumulation of conventional PLGA-PEG nanoparticles in 4T1 syngeneic mouse breast tumors and enable their uniform tumor distribution. The rHuPH20-modified nanoparticles encapsulating doxorubicin efficiently inhibit the growth of aggressive 4T1 tumors under a low drug dose. Thus, our platform technology may be valuable to enhance the clinical efficacy of a broad range of drug nanocarriers. This study also provides a general strategy to modify nanoparticles with enzymes that otherwise may reduce nanoparticle circulation or lose function in the blood. PMID:27057591

  7. Antitumor effects of Osthol from Cnidium monnieri: an in vitro and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Chou, Szu-Yuan; Hsu, Chun-Sen; Wang, Kun-Teng; Wang, Min-Chieh; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2007-03-01

    Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson is a Chinese medicine which is used widely by traditional medicine doctors. Osthol is a major bio-activity compound of the herb. In this study, osthol was isolated from C. monnieri and its in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects studied. The results of the in vitro study showed: that osthol inhibited the growth of HeLa, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with IC(50) values of 77.96 and 64.94 microm for 24 and 48 h, respectively; that osthol had lower cytotoxic effects in primary cultured normal cervical fibroblasts; and that increased DNA fragmentation and activated PARP in HeLa after treatment with osthol which could induce apoptosis. The results of the in vivo model showed that the survival days of the P-388 D1 tumor-bearing CDF(1) mice were prolonged (ILS% = 37) after osthol (30 mg/kg) was given once a day for 9 days. Based on these results, it is suggested that osthol could inhibit P-388 D1 cells in vivo and induce apoptosis in HeLa cells in vitro, and that osthol is good lead compound for developing antitumor drugs. However, C. formosanum Yabe of Taiwan's endemic plants contained little osthol, with no imperatorin, and its major components were different from that of C. monnieri. Therefore, it is suggested that C. formosanum also may possess economic worth. PMID:17154232

  8. Melatonin inhibits AP-2β/hTERT, NF-κB/COX-2 and Akt/ERK and activates caspase/Cyto C signaling to enhance the antitumor activity of berberine in lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Changlin; Qin, Lijun; Wang, Jingshu; Yu, Zhenlong; Shi, Dingbo; Xiao, Xiangsheng; Xie, Fangyun; Huang, Wenlin; Deng, Wuguo

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin, a molecule produced throughout the animal and plant kingdoms, and berberine, a plant derived agent, both exhibit antitumor and multiple biological and pharmacological effects, but they have never been combined altogether for the inhibition of human lung cancers. In this study, we investigated the role and underlying mechanisms of melatonin in the regulation of antitumor activity of berberine in lung cancer cells. Treatment with melatonin effectively increased the berberine-mediated inhibitions of cell proliferation, colony formation and cell migration, thereby enhancing the sensitivities of lung cancer cells to berberine. Melatonin also markedly increased apoptosis induced by berberine. Further mechanism study showed that melatonin promoted the cleavage of caspse-9 and PARP, enhanced the inhibition of Bcl2, and triggered the releasing of cytochrome C (Cyto C), thereby increasing the berberine-induced apoptosis. Melatonin also enhanced the berberine-mediated inhibition of telomerase reverses transcriptase (hTERT) by down-regulating the expression of AP-2β and its binding on hTERT promoter. Moreover, melatonin enhanced the berberine-mediated inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) by inhibiting the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and its binding on COX-2 promoter. Melatonin also increased the berberine-mediated inhibition of the phosphorylated Akt and ERK. Collectively, our results demonstrated that melatonin enhanced the antitumor activity of berberine by activating caspase/Cyto C and inhibiting AP-2β/hTERT, NF-κB/COX-2 and Akt/ERK signaling pathways. Our findings provide new insights in exploring the potential therapeutic strategies and novel targets for lung cancer treatment. PMID:26672764

  9. Melatonin inhibits AP-2β/hTERT, NF-κB/COX-2 and Akt/ERK and activates caspase/Cyto C signaling to enhance the antitumor activity of berberine in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian-Jun; Fu, Lingyi; Tang, Zhipeng; Zhang, Changlin; Qin, Lijun; Wang, Jingshu; Yu, Zhenlong; Shi, Dingbo; Xiao, Xiangsheng; Xie, Fangyun; Huang, Wenlin; Deng, Wuguo

    2016-01-19

    Melatonin, a molecule produced throughout the animal and plant kingdoms, and berberine, a plant derived agent, both exhibit antitumor and multiple biological and pharmacological effects, but they have never been combined altogether for the inhibition of human lung cancers. In this study, we investigated the role and underlying mechanisms of melatonin in the regulation of antitumor activity of berberine in lung cancer cells. Treatment with melatonin effectively increased the berberine-mediated inhibitions of cell proliferation, colony formation and cell migration, thereby enhancing the sensitivities of lung cancer cells to berberine. Melatonin also markedly increased apoptosis induced by berberine. Further mechanism study showed that melatonin promoted the cleavage of caspse-9 and PARP, enhanced the inhibition of Bcl2, and triggered the releasing of cytochrome C (Cyto C), thereby increasing the berberine-induced apoptosis. Melatonin also enhanced the berberine-mediated inhibition of telomerase reverses transcriptase (hTERT) by down-regulating the expression of AP-2β and its binding on hTERT promoter. Moreover, melatonin enhanced the berberine-mediated inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) by inhibiting the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and its binding on COX-2 promoter. Melatonin also increased the berberine-mediated inhibition of the phosphorylated Akt and ERK. Collectively, our results demonstrated that melatonin enhanced the antitumor activity of berberine by activating caspase/Cyto C and inhibiting AP-2β/hTERT, NF-κB/COX-2 and Akt/ERK signaling pathways. Our findings provide new insights in exploring the potential therapeutic strategies and novel targets for lung cancer treatment. PMID:26672764

  10. Therapeutic targeting of erbB3 with MM-121/SAR256212 enhances antitumor activity of paclitaxel against erbB2-overexpressing breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Elevated expression of erbB3 rendered erbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cells resistant to paclitaxel via PI-3 K/Akt-dependent upregulation of Survivin. It is unclear whether an erbB3-targeted therapy may abrogate erbB2-mediated paclitaxel resistance in breast cancer. Here, we study the antitumor activity of an anti-erbB3 antibody MM-121/SAR256212 in combination with paclitaxel against erbB2-overexpressing breast cancer. Methods Cell growth assays were used to determine cell viability. Cells undergoing apoptosis were quantified by a specific apoptotic ELISA. Western blot analyses were performed to assess the protein expression and activation. Lentiviral vector containing shRNA was used to specifically knockdown Survivin. Tumor xenografts were established by inoculation of BT474-HR20 cells into nude mice. The tumor-bearing mice were treated with paclitaxel and/or MM-121/SAR256212 to determine whether the antibody (Ab) enhances paclitaxel’s antitumor activity. Immunohistochemistry was carried out to study the combinatorial effects on tumor cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in vivo. Results MM-121 significantly facilitated paclitaxel-mediated anti-proliferative/anti-survival effects on SKBR3 cells transfected with a control vector or erbB3 cDNA. It specifically downregulated Survivin associated with inactivation of erbB2, erbB3, and Akt. MM-121 enhances paclitaxel-induced poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, activation of caspase-8 and -3, and apoptosis in both paclitaxel-sensitive and -resistant cells. Specific knockdown of Survivin in the trastuzumab-resistant BT474-HR20 cells dramatically enhanced paclitaxel-induced apoptosis, suggesting that increased Survivin caused a cross-resistance to paclitaxel. Furthermore, the studies using a tumor xenograft model-established from BT474-HR20 cells revealed that either MM-121 (10 mg/kg) or low-dose (7.5 mg/kg) paclitaxel had no effect on tumor growth, their combinations significantly

  11. Antitumor effect of para-toluenesulfonamide against lung cancer xenograft in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yang; Gao, Yonghua; Guan, Weijie; Huang, Liyan; Xu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Chenting; Chen, Xiuqing; Wu, Yizhuang; Zeng, Guangqiao

    2013-01-01

    Background Conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are relatively insensitive and unsatisfactory. Para-toluenesulfonamide (PTS), a unique antitumor drug for local intratumoral injection, shows an efficacy of severely suppressing solid tumor growth with mild side effects in clinical trials. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PTS on lung cancer H460 cells in vivo in nude mice and its underlying mechanisms in vitro. Methods A lung cancer model for in vivo experiment was established in BALB/c nude mice using H460 cells to examine the effect of local injection of PTS on tumor suppression. We also assessed the injury to the normal tissue by subcutaneous injection of PTS. In vitro, PTS was diluted into different doses for study on its antitumor mechanisms. We evaluated the necrotic effect of PTS on H460 cells by PI and Hoechst 33342 staining. Cell viability and membrane permeability were also determined by using CCK-8 and LDH assays respectively. All these tests were conducted in comparison with traditional local injection of anhydrous ethanol. Results PTS was shown to significantly inhibit the growth of H460 tumor xenografts in nude mice by inducing necrosis of the tumor histologically. Its effect on tumor growth was significantly stronger than that of anhydrous ethanol. By contrast, the injured normal tissue by PTS injection was less than that by ethanol. In vitro, PTS still demonstrated excellent necrotizing effect on H460 cells when diluted to a lower concentration. Detailed analysis of PTS on H460 cells indicated that PTS had a better effect on attenuating the cell viability and increasing the cell membrane permeability than ethanol at the same level. Conclusions PTS exhibits excellent inhibition effect on the growth of lung cancer by necrotizing tumor in vivo and in vitro, reducing tumor cell viability and augmenting the membrane permeability in vitro, with only mild injury to normal tissue. The

  12. San Huang Decoction downregulates Aurora kinase A to inhibit breast cancer cell growth and enhance chemosenstivity to anti-tumor drugs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanlei; Chen, Xu; Chen, Xiyan; Bian, Weihe; Yao, Chang; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Zhu, Xiaoshu; Chen, Jiajing; Ye, Xiaozhou

    2016-08-01

    Our study aimed to explore whether San Huang Decoction (SHD) inhibited the development of breast cancer by regulating Aurora A. Human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 were cultured and SHD extract was prepared. Cell growth assay and apoptosis analysis were respectively performed to detect the effects of SHD on breast cancer cells. In addition, the effects of SHD on the expression of Aurora A and p53 were determined by RT-PCR and western blot. Besides, we used Aurora A siRNA to knock down Aurora A. We then co-administrated SHD and tamoxifen or epirubicin to detect the effect of SHD on chemosensitivity to tamoxifen or epirubicin. SHD treatment significantly inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, SHD treatment resulted in a marked decrease in Aurora A expression and obvious increase in p53 expression. In addition, knockdown of Aurora A induced cell growth inhibition, which was similar to the effect of SHD treatment. Besides, SHD exerted an additive effect on cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induction when breast cancer cells were co-administration of SHD with tamoxifen or epirubicin. Our study indicates that SHD treatment may inhibit cell growth and enhance chemosenstivity to other anti-tumor drugs in breast cancer via down-regulation of Aurora A. PMID:27461831

  13. Combining Antiangiogenic Therapy with Adoptive Cell Immunotherapy Exerts Better Antitumor Effects in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Models

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shujing; Wang, Rui; Chen, Yitian; Song, Haizhu; Chen, Longbang; Huang, Guichun

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cytokine-induced killer cells (CIK cells) are a heterogeneous subset of ex-vivo expanded T lymphocytes which are characterized with a MHC-unrestricted tumor-killing activity and a mixed T-NK phenotype. Adoptive CIK cells transfer, one of the adoptive immunotherapy represents a promising nontoxic anticancer therapy. However, in clinical studies, the therapeutic activity of adoptive CIK cells transfer is not as efficient as anticipated. Possible explanations are that abnormal tumor vasculature and hypoxic tumor microenvironment could impede the infiltration and efficacy of lymphocytes. We hypothesized that antiangiogenesis therapy could improve the antitumor activity of CIK cells by normalizing tumor vasculature and modulating hypoxic tumor microenvironment. Methods We combined recombinant human endostatin (rh-endostatin) and CIK cells in the treatment of lung carcinoma murine models. Intravital microscopy, dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry were used to investigate the tumor vasculature and hypoxic microenvironment as well as the infiltration of immune cells. Results Our results indicated that rh-endostatin synergized with adoptive CIK cells transfer to inhibit the growth of lung carcinoma. We found that rh-endostatin normalized tumor vasculature and reduced hypoxic area in the tumor microenvironment. Hypoxia significantly inhibited the proliferation, cytotoxicity and migration of CIK cells in vitro and impeded the homing of CIK cells into tumor parenchyma ex vivo. Furthermore, we found that treatment with rh-endostatin significantly increased the homing of CIK cells and decreased the accumulation of suppressive immune cells in the tumor tissue. In addition, combination therapy produced higher level of tumor-infiltration lymphocytes compared with other treatments. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that rh-endostatin improves the therapeutic effect of adoptive CIK cells therapy against lung

  14. Antitumor effect and toxicity of free rhodium (II) citrate and rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles in mice bearing breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnetic fluids containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles represent an attractive platform as nanocarriers in chemotherapy. Recently, we developed a formulation of maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate, which resulted in in vitro cytotoxicity enhanced up to 4.6 times when compared to free rhodium (II) citrate formulation on breast carcinoma cells. In this work, we evaluate the antitumor activity and toxicity induced by these formulations in Balb/c mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast carcinoma. Methods Mice were evaluated with regard to the treatments’ toxicity through analyses of hemogram, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, iron, and creatinine; DNA fragmentation and cell cycle of bone marrow cells; and liver, kidney and lung histology. In addition, the antitumor activity of rhodium (II) citrate and maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate was verified by tumor volume reduction, histology and immunohistochemistry. Results Regarding the treatments’ toxicity, no experimental groups had alterations in levels of serum ALT or creatinine, and this suggestion was corroborated by the histopathologic examination of liver and kidney of mice. Moreover, DNA fragmentation frequency of bone marrow cells was lower than 15% in all experimental groups. On the other hand, the complexes rhodium (II) citrate-functionalized maghemite and free rhodium (II) citrate led to a marked growth inhibition of tumor and decrease in CD31 and Ki-67 staining. Conclusions In summary, we demonstrated that both rhodium (II) citrate and maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate formulations exhibited antitumor effects against 4T1 metastatic breast cancer cell line following intratumoral administration. This antitumor effect was followed by inhibition of both cell proliferation and microvascularization and by tumor tissue injury characterized as necrosis and fibrosis. Remarkably, this is the first published report

  15. Enhanced antitumor activity of realgar mediated by milling it to nanosize

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ye; Wang, Xiaobo; Xi, Ronggang; Pan, Weisan; Jiang, Shuang; Li, Zhao; Zhao, Yu; Gao, Guanghui; Liu, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Realgar is a poorly water-soluble compound that exhibits poor bioavailability. To improve this, the authors reduced the particle size of realgar to nanoscale by high-energy ball milling and optimized the preparation process under which (realgar weight 40 g, milling time 9 hours, milling speed 38 Hz, milling temperature −20°C) realgar nanoparticles (NPs) with an average size of 78±8.3 nm were prepared. The average particle size of realgar was characterized by laser scattering, and its apparent shape was observed by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The solubility of realgar was enhanced after milling until the particles were in the nanoscale region without altering its properties, as confirmed by a scanning electron microscopy energy-dispersive spectrometer. Realgar NPs had higher cytotoxicity on the selected cell lines, namely human breast cancer (MCF7), human hepatoma (HepG2), and human lung cancer (A549) cell lines, than coarse realgar. In addition, a pharmacokinetics study performed in rats indicated that the relative bioavailability of realgar NPs was 216.9% compared with coarse realgar; a biodistribution study performed in mice showed that after intragastric administration of realgar NPs, higher arsenic concentration was reached in the tumor, heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney compared with the administration of coarse realgar, as confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine the concentration of arsenic. This study indicated that high-energy ball milling is an effective way to reduce the average particle size of realgar, and compared with coarse realgar, the cytotoxicity and bioavailability of realgar NPs were significantly improved. PMID:24516332

  16. Iron oxide @ polypyrrole nanoparticles as a multifunctional drug carrier for remotely controlled cancer therapy with synergistic antitumor effect.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Xu, Huan; Liang, Chao; Liu, Yumeng; Li, Zhiwei; Yang, Guangbao; Cheng, Liang; Li, Yonggang; Liu, Zhuang

    2013-08-27

    Multifunctional nanoplatforms that are safe and have multiple therapeutic functions together with imaging capabilities are highly demanded in the development of new cancer theranostic approaches. A number of near-infrared (NIR)-absorbing inorganic nanomaterials, although having shown great promise not only to photothermally ablate tumors but also to enhance the efficacy of other types of therapies, are not biodegradable and would be retained in the body for a long time. Herein, we develop a multifunctional nanocomposite by coating magnetic iron oxide nanoclusters with a near-infrared light-absorbing polymer polypyrrole (PPy), obtaining Fe3O4@PPy core-shell nanoparticles, which after functionalization with polyethylene glycol could be used for imaging-guided, remotely controlled cancer combination therapy. In this system, the Fe3O4 core, which could be gradually decomposed in physiological environments, is useful for magnetically controlled drug delivery as well as a magnetic resonance imaging contrast. The PPy shell, as an organic polymer, is able to load therapeutic molecules with aromatic structures and also exhibits a strong photothermal effect, which can be used to enhance the chemotherapeutic efficacy, showing an outstanding in vivo synergistic antitumor effect. Our work encourages further exploration of light-absorbing polymer-based nanocomposites for cancer combination therapy under remote physical controls. PMID:23822176

  17. Enhanced anti-tumor activity of a new curcumin-related compound against melanoma and neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sharing the common neuroectodermal origin, melanoma and neuroblastoma are tumors widely diffused among adult and children, respectively. Clinical prognosis of aggressive neuroectodermal cancers remains dismal, therefore the search for novel therapies against such tumors is warranted. Curcumin is a phytochemical compound widely studied for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Recently, we have synthesized and tested in vitro various curcumin-related compounds in order to select new anti-tumor agents displaying stronger and selective growth inhibition activity on neuroectodermal tumors. Results In this work, we have demonstrated that the new α,β-unsaturated ketone D6 was more effective in inhibiting tumor cells growth when compared to curcumin. Normal fibroblasts proliferation was not affected by this treatment. Clonogenic assay showed a significant dose-dependent reduction in both melanoma and neuroblastoma colony formation only after D6 treatment. TUNEL assay, Annexin-V staining, caspases activation and PARP cleavage unveiled the ability of D6 to cause tumor cell death by triggering apoptosis, similarly to curcumin, but with a stronger and quicker extent. These apoptotic features appear to be associated with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release. In vivo anti-tumor activity of curcumin and D6 was surveyed using sub-cutaneous melanoma and orthotopic neuroblastoma xenograft models. D6 treated mice exhibited significantly reduced tumor growth compared to both control and curcumin treated ones (Melanoma: D6 vs control: P < 0.001 and D6 vs curcumin P < 0.01; Neuroblastoma: D6 vs both control and curcumin: P < 0.001). Conclusions Our data indicate D6 as a good candidate to develop new therapies against neural crest-derived tumors. PMID:20525240

  18. Antitumor effects of tyropeptin-boronic acid derivatives: New proteasome inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Momose, Isao; Abe, Hikaru; Watanabe, Takumi; Ohba, Shun-ichi; Yamazaki, Kanami; Dan, Shingo; Yamori, Takao; Masuda, Tohru; Nomoto, Akio

    2014-01-01

    The proteasome degrades numerous regulatory proteins that are critical for tumor growth. Thus, proteasome inhibitors are promising antitumor agents. New proteasome inhibitors, such as tyropeptins and tyropeptin-boronic acid derivatives, have a potent inhibitory activity. Here we report the antitumor effects of two new tyropeptin-boronic acid derivatives, AS-06 and AS-29. AS-06 and AS-29 significantly suppress the degradation of the proteasome-sensitive fluorescent proteins in HEK293PS cells, and induce the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in human multiple myeloma cells. We show that these derivatives also suppress the degradation of the NF-κB inhibitor IκB-α and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in multiple myeloma cells, resulting in the inhibition of NF-κB activation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that AS-06 and AS-29 induce apoptosis through the caspase-8 and caspase-9 cascades. In a xenograft mouse model, i.v. administration of tyropeptin-boronic acid derivatives inhibits proteasome in tumors and clearly suppresses tumor growth in mice bearing human multiple myeloma. Our results indicate that tyropeptin-boronic acid derivatives could be lead therapeutic agents against human multiple myeloma. PMID:25251038

  19. Antitumor Effect of a Polypeptide Fraction from Arca subcrenata in Vitro and in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xianjing; Song, Liyan; Huang, Lijiao; Zheng, Qin; Yu, Rongmin

    2012-01-01

    Arca subcrenata Lischke is a marine traditional Chinese medicine. The study investigated the antitumor effects of P2, a polypeptide fraction from A. subcrenata, and its toxicity in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that P2 could inhibit the proliferation of seven tumor cell lines, especially in HeLa and HT-29 cell lines. The IC50 values were 11.43 μg/mL for HeLa and 13.00 μg/mL for HT-29 treated by P2 for 48 h. P2 had little cytotoxicity on normal liver cells (L-02). The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of P2 on KM mice was 1000 mg/kg by i.p. or i.v. The tumor growth inhibitory ratios of P2 were 26.4%, 41.4% and 46.4% for H-22, and 34.0%, 45.8% and 60.1% for S-180 tumor-bearing mice. The results demonstrated that P2 might be a potential antitumor agent with high efficiency in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners and low toxicity. PMID:23342393

  20. Anti-tumor effect of β-glucan from Lentinus edodes and the underlying mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Zou, Siwei; Xu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Lina

    2016-01-01

    β-Glucans are well known for its various bioactivities, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully understood. This study focuses on the anti-tumor effect and the potential mechanism of a branched β-(1, 3)-glucan (LNT) extracted from Lentinus edodes. The in vivo data indicated that LNT showed a profound inhibition ratio of ~75% against S-180 tumor growth, even significantly higher than the positive control of Cytoxan (~54%). Interestingly, LNT sharply promoted immune cells accumulation into tumors accompanied by cell apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation during tumor development. Furthermore, LNT not only up-regulated expressions of the tumor suppressor p53, cell cycle arrestin p21 and pro-apoptotic proteins of Bax and caspase 3/9, but also down-regulated PARP1 and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 expressions in tumor tissues. It was first found that LNT initiated p53-dependent signaling pathway to suppress cell proliferation in vitro, and the caspase-dependent pathway to induce cell apoptosis in vivo. The underlying anti-tumor mechanism was proposed that LNT activated immune responses to induce cell apoptosis through caspase 3-dependent signaling pathway and to inhibit cell proliferation possibly via p53-dependent signaling pathway in vivo. Besides, LNT inhibited angiogenesis by suppressing VEGF expression, leading to slow progression of tumors. PMID:27353254

  1. Antitumor and Antimetastatic Effect of Small Immunostimulatory RNA against B16 Melanoma in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kabilova, Tatyana O.; Sen’kova, Aleksandra V.; Nikolin, Valeriy P.; Popova, Nelly A.; Zenkova, Marina A.; Vlassov, Valentin V.; Chernolovskaya, Elena L.

    2016-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs, depending on their structure, delivery system and sequence, can stimulate innate and adaptive immunity. The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor and antimetastatic effects of immunostimulatory 19-bp dsRNA with 3’- trinucleotide overhangs (isRNA) on melanoma B16 in C57Bl/6 mice. Recently developed novel cationic liposomes 2X3-DOPE were used for the in vivo delivery of isRNA. Administration of isRNA/2X3-DOPE complexes significantly inhibits melanoma tumor growth and metastasis. Histopathological analysis of spleen cross sections showed hyperplasia of the lymphoid white pulp and formation of large germinal centers after isRNA/2X3-DOPE administration, indicating activation of the immune system. The treatment of melanoma-bearing mice with isRNA/2X3-DOPE decreases the destructive changes in the liver parenchyma. Thus, the developed isRNA displays pronounced immunostimulatory, antitumor and antimetastatic properties against melanoma B16 and may be considered a potential agent in the immunotherapy of melanoma. PMID:26981617

  2. Anti-tumor effect of β-glucan from Lentinus edodes and the underlying mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hui; Zou, Siwei; Xu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Lina

    2016-01-01

    β-Glucans are well known for its various bioactivities, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully understood. This study focuses on the anti-tumor effect and the potential mechanism of a branched β-(1, 3)-glucan (LNT) extracted from Lentinus edodes. The in vivo data indicated that LNT showed a profound inhibition ratio of ~75% against S-180 tumor growth, even significantly higher than the positive control of Cytoxan (~54%). Interestingly, LNT sharply promoted immune cells accumulation into tumors accompanied by cell apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation during tumor development. Furthermore, LNT not only up-regulated expressions of the tumor suppressor p53, cell cycle arrestin p21 and pro-apoptotic proteins of Bax and caspase 3/9, but also down-regulated PARP1 and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 expressions in tumor tissues. It was first found that LNT initiated p53-dependent signaling pathway to suppress cell proliferation in vitro, and the caspase-dependent pathway to induce cell apoptosis in vivo. The underlying anti-tumor mechanism was proposed that LNT activated immune responses to induce cell apoptosis through caspase 3-dependent signaling pathway and to inhibit cell proliferation possibly via p53-dependent signaling pathway in vivo. Besides, LNT inhibited angiogenesis by suppressing VEGF expression, leading to slow progression of tumors. PMID:27353254

  3. Enhanced Antitumor Activity of EGFP-EGF1-Conjugated Nanoparticles by a Multitargeting Strategy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Ting; Ling, Li; Cao, Zhonglian; Zhao, Jingjing; Tuo, Yanyan; She, Xiaojian; Shen, Shun; Jiang, Xinguo; Hu, Yu; Pang, Zhiqing

    2016-04-13

    Tumor stromal cells have been increasingly recognized to interact with tumor parenchyma cells and promote tumor growth. Therefore, we speculated that therapeutics delivery to both parenchyma cells and stromal cells simultaneously might treat a tumor more effectively. Tissue factor (TF) was shown to be extensively located in a tumor and was abundantly sited in both tumor parenchyma cells and stromal cells including neo-vascular cells, tumor-associated fibroblasts, and tumor-associated macrophages, indicating it might function as a favorable target for drug delivery to multiple cell types simultaneously. EGFP-EGF1 is a fusion protein derived from factor VII, the natural ligand of TF. It retains the specific TF binding capability but does not cause coagulation. In the present study, a nanoparticle modified with EGFP-EGF1 (ENP) was constructed as a multitargeting drug delivery system. The protein binding experiment showed EGFP-EGF1 could bind well to A549 tumor cells and other stromal cells including neo-vascular cells, tumor-associated fibroblasts, and tumor-associated macrophages. Compared with unmodified nanoparticles (NP), ENP uptake by A549 cells and those stromal cells was significantly enhanced but inhibited by excessive free EGFP-EGF1. In addition, ENP induced more A549 tumor cell apoptosis than Taxol and NP when paclitaxel (PTX) was loaded. In vivo, ENP accumulated more specially in TF-overexpressed A549 tumors by in vivo imaging, mainly regions unoccupied by factor VII and targeted tumor parenchyma cells as well as different types of stromal cells by immunofluorescence staining. Treatment with PTX-loaded ENP (ENP-PTX) significantly reduced the A549 tumor growth in nude mice while NP-PTX- and Taxol-treated mice had lower response to the therapy. Furthermore, H&E and TUNEL staining revealed that ENP-PTX induced more severe tumor necrosis and more extensive cell apoptosis. Altogether, the present study demonstrated that ENP could target multiple key cell types

  4. A new sensitizer DVDMS combined with multiple focused ultrasound treatments: an effective antitumor strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Wenli; Wang, Pan; Hu, Jianmin; Jia, Yali; Wu, Lijie; Chen, Xiyang; Liu, Quanhong; Wang, Xiaobing

    2015-12-01

    Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) was developed as a promising noninvasive approach. The present study investigated the antitumor effect of a new sensitizer (sinoporphyrin sodium, referred to as DVDMS) combined with multiple ultrasound treatments on sarcoma 180 both in vitro and in vivo. The combined treatment significantly suppressed cell viability, potentiated apoptosis, and markedly inhibited angiogenesis in vivo. In vivo, the tumor weight inhibition ratio reached 89.82% fifteen days after three sonication treatments plus DVDMS. This effect was stronger than one ultrasound alone (32.56%) and than one round of sonication plus DVDMS (59.33%). DVDMS combined with multiple focused ultrasound treatments initiated tumor tissue destruction, induced cancer cell apoptosis, inhibited tumor angiogenesis, suppressed cancer cell proliferation, and decreased VEGF and PCNA expression levels. Moreover, the treatment did not show obvious signs of side effects or induce a drop in body weight. These results indicated that DVDMS combined with multiple focused ultrasounds may be a promising strategy against solid tumor.

  5. Nitric oxide involvement in the anti-tumor effect of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extracts Iscador on human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Mossalayi, M Djavad; Alkharrat, Abir; Malvy, Denis

    2006-06-01

    Lectins from different types of mistletoe (Viscum album, VA) have cytotoxic and immunomodulatory properties that may be relevant in the inhibition of tumor growth. The mechanism of this anti-tumoral activity remains unknown, although recent investigations point out the induction of anti-tumoral cytotoxic T cell activation. In this study therapeutically available mistletoe extracts (Iscador) prepared from Quercus (VA-Q), apple (Malus, VA-M) or pine (Pinus, VA-P) were used to investigate their capacity to induce tumor regression through the modulation of another T helper-1 (Th-1)-mediated anti-tumoral activity: the activation of macrophages. Macrophages are essential targets for both pro- or anti-inflammatory drugs and constitute an essential member of the anti-tumoral immune response. Freshly isolated human monocyte-derived macrophages are activated and various VA extracts are directly incorporated to cultures to assay their properties on the inflammatory and/or tumor cytotoxic responses. The data indicate that immunomodulatory activities of VA extracts differ according to their origin. VA-M and VA-P were able to increase anti-tumoral activity of activated human macrophages, with a possible role for nitric oxide in this effect. PMID:16927526

  6. Multivalent Presentation of MPL by Porous Silicon Microparticles Favors T Helper 1 Polarization Enhancing the Anti-Tumor Efficacy of Doxorubicin Nanoliposomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuewu; Yang, Marie; Williams, Laura; Savage, David J.; Gu, Jianhua; Rhudy, Jessica R.; Yokoi, Kenji; Lavelle, Ed C.; Serda, Rita E.

    2014-01-01

    Porous silicon (pSi) microparticles, in diverse sizes and shapes, can be functionalized to present pathogen-associated molecular patterns that activate dendritic cells. Intraperitoneal injection of MPL-adsorbed pSi microparticles, in contrast to free MPL, resulted in the induction of local inflammation, reflected in the recruitment of neutrophils, eosinophils and proinflammatory monocytes, and the depletion of resident macrophages and mast cells at the injection site. Injection of microparticle-bound MPL resulted in enhanced secretion of the T helper 1 associated cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α by peritoneal exudate and lymph node cells in response to secondary stimuli while decreasing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. MPL-pSi microparticles independently exhibited anti-tumor effects and enhanced tumor suppression by low dose doxorubicin nanoliposomes. Intravascular injection of the MPL-bound microparticles increased serum IL-1β levels, which was blocked by the IL-1 receptor antagonist Anakinra. The microparticles also potentiated tumor infiltration by dendritic cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and F4/80+ macrophages, however, a specific reduction was observed in CD204+ macrophages. PMID:24736547

  7. Antitumor Effects of Synthetic 6,7-Annulated-4-substituted Indole Compounds in L1210 Leukemic Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    PERCHELLET, JEAN-PIERRE H.; WATERS, ANDREW M.; PERCHELLET, ELISABETH M.; THORNTON, PAUL D.; BROWN, NEIL; HILL, DAVID; NEUENSWANDER, BEN; LUSHINGTON, GERALD H.; SANTINI, CONRAD; CHANDRASOMA, NALIN; BUSZEK, KEITH R.

    2014-01-01

    fragmentation. Indeed the antiproliferative annulated indoles caused a time-dependent increase of caspase-3 activity with a peak at 6 h. Interestingly, the compounds with the most potent antiproliferative IC50 values at day 2 were consistently the most effective at inhibiting DNA synthesis at 3 h and inducing DNA fragmentation at 24 h. After 24–48 h, antiproliferative concentrations of annulated indoles increased the mitotic index of L1210 cells and stimulated the formation of many bi-nucleated cells, multi-nucleated cells, apoptotic cells and micronuclei, suggesting that these antitumor compounds might enhance mitotic abnormality, induce chromosomal damage or missegregation, and block cytokinesis to induce apoptosis. Conclusion Although annulated indoles may have interesting bioactivity, novel derivatives with different substitutions must be synthesized to elucidate structure-activity relationships, identify more potent antitumor lead compounds, and investigate their molecular targets and mechanisms of action. PMID:23155229

  8. Anti-Tumor and Immune Enhancing Activities of Rice Bran Gramisterol on Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Somintara, Somsuda; Leardkamolkarn, Vijittra; Suttiarporn, Panawan; Mahatheeranont, Sugunya

    2016-01-01

    genes controlling cell survival and function. Phosphorylation of STAT1 was absent in WEHI-3. Instead, similar treatments significantly decreased pSTAT3 signaling that regulates transcription of genes controlling tumor growth and proliferation. Conclusions Rice bran gramisterol possesses a promising anti-cancer effect against a tumor of white blood cells and induces the production of anti-cancer immune-related cytokines. Gramisterol induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via suppression of pSTAT3 signaling control of tumor cells’ growth and progression. Gramisterol increased IFN-γ production and prevented the dysfunctional immune system of leukemic mice by enhancing pSTAT1 transcription signal controlling proliferation and functions of hematopoietic cells in the spleen. Together with IFN-γ, gramisterol efficiently facilitates leukemic mice immune system modulation leading to improvement of the AML condition. Administration of RBDS containing gramisterol potentiates immune recovery of leukemic mice and extends their survival. This finding encourages the medicinal application of rice bran gramisterol as a palliative treatment or an alternative agent for future drug development against AML. PMID:26752299

  9. The Effect of MicroRNA-124 Overexpression on Anti-Tumor Drug Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shiau-Mei; Chou, Wen-Cheng; Hu, Ling-Yueh; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Chu, Hou-Wei; Huang, Yuan-Ling; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Shen, Chen-Yang

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs play critical roles in regulating various physiological processes, including growth and development. Previous studies have shown that microRNA-124 (miR-124) participates not only in regulation of early neurogenesis but also in suppression of tumorigenesis. In the present study, we found that overexpression of miR-124 was associated with reduced DNA repair capacity in cultured cancer cells and increased sensitivity of cells to DNA-damaging anti-tumor drugs, specifically those that cause the formation of DNA strand-breaks (SBs). We then examined which DNA repair–related genes, particularly the genes of SB repair, were regulated by miR-124. Two SB repair–related genes, encoding ATM interactor (ATMIN) and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), were strongly affected by miR-124 overexpression, by binding of miR-124 to the 3¢-untranslated region of their mRNAs. As a result, the capacity of cells to repair DNA SBs, such as those resulting from homologous recombination, was significantly reduced upon miR-124 overexpression. A particularly important therapeutic implication of this finding is that overexpression of miR-124 enhanced cell sensitivity to multiple DNA-damaging agents via ATMIN- and PARP1-mediated mechanisms. The translational relevance of this role of miR-124 in anti-tumor drug sensitivity is suggested by the finding that increased miR-124 expression correlates with better breast cancer prognosis, specifically in patients receiving chemotherapy. These findings suggest that miR-124 could potentially be used as a therapeutic agent to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy with DNA-damaging agents. PMID:26115122

  10. Enhanced antitumor activity and mechanism of biodegradable polymeric micelles-encapsulated chetomin in both transgenic zebrafish and mouse models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qinjie; Li, Guoyou; Deng, Senyi; Ouyang, Liang; Li, Ling; Liu, Lei; Luo, Na; Song, Xiangrong; He, Gu; Gong, Changyang; Wei, Yuquan

    2014-09-01

    Chetomin is a promising molecule with anti-tumor activities in the epipolythiodioxopiperazine family of fungal secondary metabolites; however, strong hydrophobicity has limited its further applications. In this work, chetomin was encapsulated into polymeric micelles to obtain an aqueous formulation, and the chetomin loaded micelles (Che-M) exhibited small particle size and high encapsulation efficiency. When the concentration of copolymer was higher than the critical gelation concentration, the Che-M could form a thermosensitive hydrogel (Che-H), which was free-flowing sol at ambient temperature and converted into a non-flowing gel at body temperature. The molecular modeling study has indicated that chetomin interacted with PCL as a core, which was embraced by PEG as a shell. Che-M showed equal cytotoxicity with free chetomin, but the apoptosis inducing effects of Che-M were more significant. Besides, Che-M could increase the GSSG level, decrease the GSH level, and increase the ROS in CT26 cells. Furthermore, stronger inhibitory effects of Che-M were observed on embryonic angiogenesis, tumor-induced angiogenesis and tumor growth in transgenic zebrafish models. In addition, Che-M was effective in inhibiting tumor growth and prolonging survival in a subcutaneous CT26 tumor model. In a colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis model, both Che-M and Che-H showed excellent therapeutic effects, but Che-H was more effective. In conclusion, Che-M and Che-H may serve as candidates for cancer therapy.

  11. Targeted expression of BikDD combined with metronomic doxorubicin induces synergistic antitumor effect through Bax activation in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dai, Huei-Yue; Chen, Hui-Yu; Lai, Wei-Chen; Hung, Mien-Chie; Li, Long-Yuan

    2015-09-15

    Conventional chemotherapy is commonly used to treat advanced non-resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but this treatment modality has not demonstrated convincing survival benefit in HCC patients. Our previous studies indicated that targeted expression of therapeutic BikDD driven by a liver cancer-specific α-fetoprotein promoter/enhancer (eAFP) in the VISA backbone (eAFP-VISA-BikDD) significantly and specifically kills HCC cells in multiple orthotopic animal models. To enhance its therapeutic efficacy, we combined eAFP-VISA-BikDD with chemotherapeutic agents and found that eAFP-VISA-BikDD plus doxorubicin (Dox) or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) demonstrated synergistic cytotoxicity in HCC cells. Specifically, the combination of eAFP-VISA-BikDD plus Dox markedly induced apoptosis via increased Bax mitochondrial translocation and cytoplasmic cytochrome c release. Compared with either agent alone, a low dose of Dox combined with eAFP-VISA-BikDD induced better antitumor effect and prolonged longer survival of mice in two orthotopic liver cancer xenograft models. Our findings provide strong preclinical support for evaluating the combined therapy of eAFP-VISA-BikDD and Dox in a clinical setting as a treatment option for HCC. PMID:26247632

  12. Potential anti-tumor effects of FTY720 associated with PP2A activation: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Cristóbal, Ion; Madoz-Gúrpide, Juan; Manso, Rebeca; González-Alonso, Paula; Rojo, Federico; García-Foncillas, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    FTY720 (Fingolimod, Gilenya (†) ) is an FDA-approved immunosuppressant currently used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. However, a large number of studies over the last few years have shown that FTY720 shows potent antitumor properties that suggest its potential usefulness as a novel anticancer agent. Interestingly, the restoration of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity mediated by FTY720 could play a key role in its antitumor effects. Taking into account that PP2A inactivation is a common event that determines poor outcome in several tumor types, FTY720 could serve as an alternative therapeutic strategy for cancer patients with such alterations. PMID:26950691

  13. Blocking the interleukin 2 (IL2)-induced systemic autophagic syndrome promotes profound antitumor effects and limits toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lotze, Michael T; Buchser, William J; Liang, Xiaoyan

    2012-08-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death in the United States in those dying under the age of 85. Although cancer is increasingly controlled as a chronic disease, true cures of patients with metastatic epithelial malignancies have rarely been obtained with currently available systemic therapies. For example, administration of high-dose recombinant interleukin 2 (IL2), enhancing cytolytic immune cell proliferation and delivery, promotes complete antitumor responses in < 10% of treated individuals. Means to reduce the toxicity, attributed to a cytokine storm and an associated "systemic autophagic syndrome" as well as enhance efficacy and increase the potential set of malignancies in which it is applied (currently patients with renal cancer and melanoma) would be of great interest. IL2 promotes both T-cell and NK cell induction of immune cell-mediated autophagy (iC-MA) in tumor targets. We have demonstrated that HMGB1 is detected at high levels in the serum of IL2-treated mice with translocation to the cytoplasm from the nucleus in the liver, consistent with HMGB1's release in response to stress, and ability to sustain autophagy. Limiting autophagy in mice with coadministration of chloroquine (CQ) diminishes serum levels of HMGB1, cytokines (IFNG and IL6 but not IL18), and autophagic flux, attenuating weight gain, enhancing DC, T-cell and NK cell numbers, and promoting long-term tumor control in a murine hepatic metastases model. Autophagy (programmed cell survival) is a metabolic process associated with promotion of late cancer growth. In tumor cell lines, CQ treatment limits ATP production through inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation and promotion of apoptosis. CQ increases autophagic vacuoles and LC3-II levels in tumor cells, associated with increased annexin V(+)/PI(-) cells, cleaved-PARP, cleaved-CASP3, and cytochrome c release from mitochondria. These observations, limiting toxicity and prolonging antitumor effects, with a combination of IL2 and autophagy

  14. Combination of poly-gamma-glutamate and cyclophosphamide enhanced antitumor efficacy against tumor growth and metastasis in a murine melanoma model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Doo-Jin; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Tae-Young; Won, Ji-Na; Sung, Moon-Hee; Poo, Haryoung

    2013-09-28

    Conventional chemotherapeutic regimens often accompany severe side effects and fail to induce complete regression of chemoresistant or relapsing metastatic cancers. The need for establishing more efficacious anticancer strategies led to the development of a combined modality treatment of chemotherapy in conjunction with immunotherapy or radiotherapy. It has been reported that poly-gamma-glutamate (γ-PGA), a natural polymer composed of glutamic acids, increases antitumor activity by activating antigen-presenting cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Here, we investigated the antitumor effect of γ-PGA in combination with cyclophosphamide in a murine melanoma model. Whereas cyclophosphamide alone directly triggered apoptosis of tumor cells in vitro, γ-PGA did not show cytotoxicity in tumor cells. Instead, it activated macrophages, as reflected by the upregulation of surface activation markers and the secretion of proinflammatory factors, such as nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor α. When the antitumor effects were examined in a mouse model, combined treatment with cyclophosphamide and γ-PGA markedly suppressed tumor growth and metastasis. Notably, γ-PGA treatment dramatically increased the NK cell population in lung tissues, coinciding with decreased metastasis and increased survival. These data collectively suggest that γ-PGA can act as an immunotherapeutic agent that exhibits a synergistic antitumor effect in combination with conventional chemotherapy. PMID:23867701

  15. Cell-specific expression of the analgesic-antitumor peptide coding sequence under the control of the human α-fetoprotein gene promoter and enhancer

    PubMed Central

    JIN, SISI; LIN, XIANFAN; GUAN, HUAQIN; WU, JINMING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to construct a gene-modified hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-specific analgesic-antitumor peptide (AGAP) expression vector regulated by the α-fetoprotein (AFP) promoter and enhancer, in order to evaluate its effect. The AFP promoter is generally used in HCC-specific gene therapy strategies. However, this approach is limited by the weak activity of the AFP promoter. Linking the AFP enhancer and promoter has been shown to generate a stronger and more HCC-selective promoter. The AGAP DNA fragment was amplified from the total RNA of the Chinese scorpion, Buthus martensii Karsch. The fragment was subsequently cloned into the pAFP plasmid with the minimal essential DNA fragment, which included the AFP gene promoter and enhancer, to construct the recombinant plasmid, pAFP-AGAP. The plasmid was transfected into HepG2 cells and the mRNA expression levels of AGAP were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, Cell Counting Kit 8 (CCK-8) was used to analyze the cytotoxicity of plasmid transfection. The length, position and orientation of the inserted AGAP gene were all confirmed to be correct; thus, the recombinant vector was successfully constructed. Using RT-PCR and CCK-8 analysis, the mRNA expression levels of AGAP and the cytotoxicity in AFP-producing human HCC cells were determined. The AFP promoter and enhancer were found to specifically accelerate the expression of the target genes within the cells that were positive for AFP. Therefore, the method used in the present study was demonstrated to be a novel integration of traditional Chinese medicine with western medicine. PMID:25667643

  16. Inhibition of protein kinase CK2 reduces CYP24A1 expression and enhances 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 anti-tumor activity in human prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Yu, Wei-Dong; Ma, Yingyu; Chernov, Mikhail; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D has broad range of physiological functions and anti-tumor effects. 24-hydroxylase, encoded by the CYP24A1 gene, is the key enzyme for degrading many forms of vitamin D including the most active form, 1,25D3. Inhibition of CYP24A1 enhances 1,25D3 anti-tumor activity. In order to isolate regulators of CYP24A1 expression in prostate cancer cells, we established a stable prostate cancer cell line PC3 with CYP24A1 promoter driving luciferase expression to screen a small molecular library for compounds that inhibit CYP24A1 promoter activity. From this screening, we identified, 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzimidazole (TBBz), a protein kinase CK2 selective inhibitor as a disruptor of CYP24A1 promoter activity. We show that TBBz inhibits CYP24A1 promoter activity induced by 1,25D3 in prostate cancer cells. In addition, TBBz downregulates endogenous CYP24A1 mRNA level in TBBz treated PC3 cells. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated CK2 knockdown reduces 1,25D3 induced CYP24A1 mRNA expression in PC3 cells. These results suggest that CK2 contributes to 1,25D3 mediated target gene expression. Lastly, inhibition of CK2 by TBBz or CK2 siRNA significantly enhanced 1,25D3 mediated anti-proliferative effect in vitro and in vivo in a xenograft model. In summary, our findings reveal that protein kinase CK2 is involved in the regulation of CYP24A1 expression by 1,25D3 and CK2 inhibitor enhances 1,25D3 mediated anti-tumor effect. PMID:23358686

  17. Intercalation between antitumor anthracyclines and DNA as probed by resonance and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smulevich, G.; Mantini, A. R.; Casu, M.; Marzocchi, M. P.

    1991-05-01

    The antiturnor anthracyclincs, idarubicin (IDA ), adrianiycin (ADM), epirubicin (EPI), carminomycin (CAR) and 1 1-deoxycarminornycin (DCM), whose siructural formula includes a substituted hydroxyanthraquirionc chrornophore and a sugar residue, form intercalation complexes with DNA. The stacking interaction between the chromophore and the base-pairs of DNA gives rise to noticeable ciTects on resonance Raman (RR) and surface-enhanced resonance Raman (SERRS) scattering as well as on the absorption (ABS), its second derivative (D2) and fluorescence emission (FEM) spectra.

  18. pH-Triggered Surface Charge Reversed Nanoparticle with Active Targeting To Enhance the Antitumor Activity of Doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Du, Jiang-Bo; Cheng, Ying; Teng, Zeng-Hui; Huan, Meng-Lei; Liu, Miao; Cui, Han; Zhang, Bang-le; Zhou, Si-Yuan

    2016-05-01

    PLGA nanoparticles are widely used in tumor targeting drug delivery systems. However, the naked PLGA nanoparticles (NNPs) not only have low drug loading but also can be rapidly removed from blood circulation by the immune system. The aim of this study was to prepare pH-triggered surface charge reversed lipid hybrid PLGA nanoparticles (LNPs) to enhance drug loading and drug delivery efficiency. CHO-Arg-His-OMe and FA-PEG-DSPE were synthesized to modify PLGA nanoparticles to prepare LNPs. The drug loading and encapsulation rate of LNPs were greatly improved as compared with NNPs. In pH 7.4 medium, doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded LNPs showed negative charge and released DOX slowly. In pH 5.0 medium, DOX-loaded LNPs exhibited positive charge and released DOX quickly. DOX-loaded LNPs delivered more DOX to the nucleus of KB cells and MBA-MD-231/ADR cells than did free DOX. In addition, DOX-loaded LNPs significantly inhibited the proliferation of KB cells and MBA-MD-231/ADR cells. Compared with free DOX, the same dose of the DOX-loaded LNPs delivered more DOX to tumor tissue. Thus, DOX-loaded LNPs significantly inhibited the growth of tumor in tumor-bearing nude mice and obviously reduced the systemic toxicity of DOX. In conclusion, pH-triggered surface charge reversed DOX-loaded LNPs significantly enhanced the antitumor activity of DOX in vitro and in vivo. DOX-loaded LNPs had great potential in tumor targeted chemotherapy. PMID:26998644

  19. Proteomic Analysis of Anti-Tumor Effects of 11-Dehydrosinulariolide on CAL-27 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chih-I; Chen, Cheng-Chi; Chen, Jiing-Chuan; Su, Jui-Hsin; Huang, Han Hsiang; Chen, Jeff Yi-Fu; Wu, Yu-Jen

    2011-01-01

    The anti-tumor effects of 11-dehydrosinulariolide, an active ingredient isolated from soft coral Sinularia leptoclados, on CAL-27 cells were investigated in this study. In the MTT assay for cell proliferation, increasing concentrations of 11-dehydrosinulariolide decreased CAL-27 cell viability. When a concentration of 1.5 μg/mL of 11-dehydrosinulariolide was applied, the CAL-27 cells viability was reduced to a level of 70% of the control sample. The wound healing function decreased as the concentration of 11-dehydrosinulariolide increased. The results in this study indicated that treatment with 11-dehydrosinulariolide for 6 h significantly induced both early and late apoptosis of CAL-27 cells, observed by flow cytometric measurement and microscopic fluorescent observation. A comparative proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of 11-dehydrosinulariolide on CAL-27 cells at the molecular level by comparison between the protein profiling (revealed on a 2-DE map) of CAL-27 cells treated with 11-dehydrosinulariolide and that of CAL-27 cells without the treatment. A total of 28 differential proteins (12 up-regulated and 16 down-regulated) in CAL-27 cells treated with 11-dehydrosinulariolide have been identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. Some of the differential proteins are associated with cell proliferation, apoptosis, protein synthesis, protein folding, and energy metabolism. The results of this study provided clues for the investigation of biochemical mechanisms of the anti-tumor effects of 11-dehydrosinulariolide on CAL-27 cells and could be valuable information for drug development and progression monitoring of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). PMID:21822415

  20. Location and Effects of an Antitumoral Catechin on the Structural Properties of Phosphatidylethanolamine Membranes.

    PubMed

    Casado, Francisco; Teruel, José A; Casado, Santiago; Ortiz, Antonio; Rodríguez-López, José N; Aranda, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    Green tea catechins exhibit high diversity of biological effects including antioncogenic properties, and there is enormous interest in their potential use in the treatment of a number of pathologies. It is recognized that the mechanism underlying the activity of catechins relay in part in processes related to the membrane, and many studies revealed that the ability of catechins to interact with lipids plays a probably necessary role in their mechanism of action. We present in this work the characterization of the interaction between an antitumoral synthetically modified catechin (3-O-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)-(-)-catechin, TMCG) and dimiristoylphosphatidyl-ethanolamine (DMPE) membranes using an array of biophysical techniques which include differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations. We found that TMCG incorporate into DMPE bilayers perturbing the thermotropic transition from the gel to the fluid state forming enriched domains which separated into different gel phases. TMCG does not influence the overall bilayer assembly of phosphatidylethanolamine systems but it manages to influence the interfacial region of the membrane and slightly decrease the interlamellar repeat distance of the bilayer. TMCG seems to be located in the interior of the phosphatidylethanolamine bilayer with the methoxy groups being in the deepest position and some portion of the molecule interacting with the water interface. We believe that the reported interactions are significant not only from the point of view of the known antitumoral effect of TMCG, but also might contribute to understanding the basic molecular mechanism of the biological effects of the catechins found at the membrane level. PMID:27347914

  1. Resveratrol potentiates the in vitro and in vivo anti-tumoral effects of curcumin in head and neck carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Masuelli, Laura; Stefano, Enrica Di; Fantini, Massimo; Mattera, Rosanna; Benvenuto, Monica; Marzocchella, Laura; Sacchetti, Pamela; Focaccetti, Chiara; Bernardini, Roberta; Tresoldi, Ilaria; Izzi, Valerio; Mattei, Maurizio; Frajese, Giovanni Vanni; Lista, Florigio; Modesti, Andrea; Bei, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The survival rate of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) patients has not considerably changed over the last two decades. Polyphenols inhibit the growth of cancer cells. We determined whether the combination of Resveratrol (RES) and Curcumin (CUR) enhanced their in vitro and in vivo antitumor activities on HNSCC cell lines compared to the single compounds. We provide evidence that RES potentiated the apoptotic effect and reduced the IC50 of CUR on HNSCC cell lines. The model of compounds interaction indicated the onset of an additive effect of the two compounds compared to the single treatment after decrease of their concentrations. RES+CUR compared to CUR increased the PARP-1 cleavage, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, the inhibition of ERK1 and ERK2 phosphorylation, and the expression of LC3 II simultaneously with the formation of autophagic vacuoles. RES and CUR induced cytoplasmic NF-κB accumulation. RES+CUR administrations were safe in BALB/c mice and reduced the growth of transplanted salivary gland cancer cells (SALTO) more efficiently than CUR. Overall, combinations of CUR and RES was more effective in inhibiting in vivo and in vitro cancer growth than the treatment with CUR. Additional studies will be needed to define the therapeutic potential of these compounds in combination. PMID:25296980

  2. Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities of the Extracts from Chinese Yam (Dioscorea opposite Thunb.) Flesh and Peel and the Effective Compounds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanxue; Li, Hongfa; Fan, Yaya; Man, Shuli; Liu, Zhen; Gao, Wenyuan; Wang, Tingting

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the antioxidant and antitumor activities of the water and ethanol extracts isolated from Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposite Thunb.) flesh (CYF) and peel (CYP) and the effective compounds. It was found that all peel portions have a better effect on reactive oxygen (ROS) scavenging assay than meat portions, especially for the water extract of Chinese yam peel (CYP-W). Its IC50 values for hydroxyl radical (OH•) scavenging assay (744.25 ± 3.46 μg/mL) and for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay (374.85 ± 6.78 μg/mL) were both lower than that of yam flesh (CYF-W). Furthermore, the antitumor property of yam peel was more effective than that of yam flesh (CYF-W) on mouse models, with tumor inhibition rates were 47.92% and 27.41% for Ehrlich Ascites Tumor (EAC) model and 40.44% and 24.22% for H22 hepatocarcinoma tumor (H22) model. Meanwhile, extracts of peel showed higher allantoin, total flavonoids, and total phenolics contents than extracts of flesh. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that CYP-W exerted better antitumor activity than flesh extracts and the scavenging ROS effects were also significantly higher in the CYP-W in vitro. Moreover, the data indicated that allantoin may play an important role on antioxidative and antitumor capacity in yam peel. PMID:27122252

  3. [Assessment of Antitumor Effect of Submerged Culture of Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris].

    PubMed

    Avtonomova, A V; Krasnopolskaya, L M; Shuktueva, M I; Isakova, E B; Bukhman, V M

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris metabolites showed a high potential in the treatment of tumors as well as some other diseases. Antitumor properties of O. sinensis and C. militaris submerged mycelium were investigated. It was found that the O. sinensis dry biomass in a dose of 50 mg/kg administered once a day to the mice with subcutaneously inoculated P388 lympholeucosis lowered the tumor growth by 65% vs. 54% for the C. militaris dry biomass. The water extract of O. sinensis submerged culture however accelerated the growth of the P388 lympholeucosis tumor node in the mice almost two times, compared to the control. A greater caution in using this fungus as a source of biologically active substances is required since unwanted tumor-stimulating effects can arise. PMID:26863737

  4. Regulatory T cell effects in antitumor laser immunotherapy: a mathematical model and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawkins, Bryan A.; Laverty, Sean M.

    2016-03-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have tremendous influence on treatment outcomes in patients receiving immunotherapy for cancerous tumors. We present a mathematical model incorporating the primary cellular and molecular components of antitumor laser immunotherapy. We explicitly model developmental classes of dendritic cells (DCs), cytotoxic T cells (CTLs), primary and metastatic tumor cells, and tumor antigen. Regulatory T cells have been shown to kill antigen presenting cells, to influence dendritic cell maturation and migration, to kill activated killer CTLs in the tumor microenvironment, and to influence CTL proliferation. Since Tregs affect explicitly modeled cells, but we do not explicitly model dynamics of Treg themselves, we use model parameters to analyze effects of Treg immunosuppressive activity. We will outline a systematic method for assigning clinical outcomes to model simulations and use this condition to associate simulated patient treatment outcome with Treg activity.

  5. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is involved in the antitumor effect of fulvestrant on rat prolactinoma MMQ cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lei; Gao, Hua; Li, Ping; Gui, Songbai; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2014-06-01

    Although an antiestrogen treatment for estrogen-dependent diseases, such as breast cancers, has been reported, the effect of this endocrine therapy on prolactinomas and its possible mechanism are unclear. This study investigates the antitumor effect of fulvestrant, which is a new estrogen receptor antagonist, on rat prolactinoma MMQ cells and the possible roles of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway that is involved in this antitumor effect. To investigate the antitumor effect of fulvestrant, the effects of exposure to gradient doses of fulvestrant (0, 0.04, 1, 25, and 625 nM) on the proliferation of cells and the secretion of prolactin (PRL) were studied. Then, the expression levels of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway-related proteins β-catenin and Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1) were measured to investigate their possible roles in the antitumor effect of fulvestrant. The cells were also treated with decitabine (10 μM) to investigate the epigenetic mechanism of WIF-1 expression. The proliferation of MMQ cells and the secretion of PRL were suppressed by fulvestrant in a dose-dependent manner (up to 57.0 ± 3.9 % and 51.2 ± 4.9 %, respectively). β-Catenin expression was downregulated and was positively correlated with ER-α expression (P<0.01). As a tumor suppressor, WIF-1 expression was upregulated and was negatively correlated with ER-α expression (P<0.01). Furthermore, WIF-1 expression was upregulated via the hypomethylation of the promoter by decitabine, and cellular proliferation was correspondingly suppressed (37.8 ± 4.3 %). Antitumor effect of fulvestrant was partially disrupted by SB 216763 via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In conclusion, through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, fulvestrant can suppress the proliferation of MMQ cells and the secretion of PRL. PMID:24643679

  6. Incorporation of a Michael acceptor enhances the antitumor activity of triterpenoic acids.

    PubMed

    Heller, Lucie; Schwarz, Stefan; Perl, Vincent; Köwitsch, Alexander; Siewert, Bianka; Csuk, René

    2015-08-28

    Finding and developing drugs for the treatment of cancer has been challenging scientists for many decades, and using compounds of natural origin represents one of several strategies. Triterpenoic acids are a very promising class of secondary metabolites being able to induce apoptosis while their cytotoxicity is low. Therefore, derivatizations have to be conducted to improve cytotoxicity while retaining their ability to induce programmed cell death. The incorporation of a Michael acceptor into molecules resulted very often in drugs of improved cytotoxicity. Thus, in this study we synthesized and evaluated several Michael acceptor substituted compounds derived from glycyrrhetinic, ursolic, oleanolic and platanic acid. The influence of the presence of such a functional group onto the cytotoxicity was investigated in colorimetric sulforhodamine B assays employing several human cancer cell lines. EC50 values in the single-digit micromolar range were measured. Thus, the incorporation of a Michael acceptor unit into triterpenoic acids enhances the cytotoxicity of these compounds significantly. PMID:26177446

  7. In vivo antitumor and antimetastatic effects of flavokawain B in 4T1 breast cancer cell-challenged mice

    PubMed Central

    Abu, Nadiah; Mohamed, Nurul Elyani; Yeap, Swee Keong; Lim, Kian Lam; Akhtar, M Nadeem; Zulfadli, Aimi Jamil; Kee, Beh Boon; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2015-01-01

    Flavokawain B (FKB) is a naturally occurring chalcone that can be isolated through the root extracts of the kava-kava plant (Piper methysticum). It can also be synthesized chemically to increase the yield. This compound is a promising candidate as a biological agent, as it is reported to be involved in a wide range of biological activities. Furthermore, FKB was reported to have antitumorigenic effects in several cancer cell lines in vitro. However, the in vivo antitumor effects of FKB have not been reported on yet. Breast cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related deaths in the world today. Any potential treatment should not only impede the growth of the tumor, but also modulate the immune system efficiently and inhibit the formation of secondary tumors. As presented in our study, FKB induced apoptosis in 4T1 tumors in vivo, as evidenced by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and hematoxylin and eosin staining of the tumor. FKB also regulated the immune system by increasing both helper and cytolytic T-cell and natural killer cell populations. In addition, FKB also enhanced the levels of interleukin 2 and interferon gamma but suppressed interleukin 1B. Apart from that, FKB was also found to inhibit metastasis, as evaluated by clonogenic assay, bone marrow smearing assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and proteome profiler analysis. All in all, FKB may serve as a promising anticancer agent, especially in treating breast cancer. PMID:25834398

  8. Fluoride-containing podophyllum derivatives exhibit antitumor activities through enhancing mitochondrial apoptosis pathway by increasing the expression of caspase-9 in HeLa cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Ya-Xuan; Zhou, Chen; Li, Hong-Mei; Tang, Ya-Ling; Liang, Xin-Hua; Chen, Tao; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to provide sampling of halogen-containing aniline podophyllum derivatives and their mode of action with an in-depth comparison among fluorine, chloride and bromide for clarifying the important role and impact of fluorine substitution on enhancing antitumor activity, with an emphasis on the development of drug rational design for antitumor drug. The tumor cytotoxicity of fluoride-containing aniline podophyllum derivatives were in general improved by 10–100 times than those of the chloride and bromide-containing aniline podophyllum derivatives since fluoride could not only strongly solvated in protic solvents but also forms tight ion pairs in most aprotic solvents. When compared with chloride and bromide, the higher electronegativity fluoride substituted derivatives significantly enhanced mitochondrial apoptosis pathway by remarkably increasing the expression of caspase-9 in HeLa cells. The current findings would stimulate an enormous amount of research directed toward exploiting novel leading compounds based on podophyllum derivatives, especially for the fluoride-substituted structures with promising antitumor activity. PMID:26608216

  9. Relationship between antitumor effect and metabolites of 5-fluorouracil in combination treatment with 5-fluorouracil and guanosine in ascites Sarcoma 180 tumor system

    SciTech Connect

    Iigo, M.; Kuretani, K.; Hoshi, A.

    1983-12-01

    The antitumor activity of (6-14C)5-fluorouracil ((6-14C)FUra) against ascites Sarcoma 180 was significantly enhanced by coadministration of guanosine, and slightly by adenosine, but not by cytidine or uridine. In advanced ascites Sarcoma 180, guanosine also enhanced the action of FUra, but adenosine, uridine, and cytidine did not. The potentiation of antitumor activity by guanosine was reversed by addition of cytidine. The antitumor activity of FUra was significantly potentiated when guanosine was administered either 0 to 15 min before or 5 min after FUra. Changes in metabolites of FUra after potentiation by guanosine were investigated. The potentiation of antitumor activity of FUra by guanosine was considered to be due to an increase in incorporation of FUra into FUra-nucleotides and RNA in the tumor cells.

  10. Anti-tumor effects of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF): implication for cancer therapy. A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Belkacemi, Louiza; Zhang, Shaun Xiaoliu

    2016-01-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a secreted glycoprotein and a non-inhibitory member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) family. It is widely expressed in human fetal and adult tissues but its expression decreases with age and in malignant tissues. The main anti-cancer activities of PEDF derive from its dual effects, either indirectly on the tumor microenvironment (indirect antitumor action) or directly on the tumor itself (direct antitumor influence). The indirect antitumor activities of PEDF were uncovered from the early findings that it stimulates retinoblastoma cell differentiation and that additionally it possesses anti-angiogenic, anti-tumorigenic and anti-metastatic properties. The mechanisms of its direct antitumor effect, however, have not been fully elucidated. This review highlights recent progress in our understanding of the multifunctional activities of PEDF and, in particular, its anti-cancer signaling mechanisms. Additionally, we discuss the possibility of using novel phosphaplatin compounds that can upregulate PEDF expression as a chemotherapy for cancer treatment. PMID:26746675

  11. RGD peptide conjugation results in enhanced antitumor activity of PD0325901 against glioblastoma by both tumor-targeting delivery and combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jianjun; Diao, Yiping; Li, Wei; Yang, Zhenjun; Zhang, Lihe; Chen, Zili; Wu, Yun

    2016-05-30

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive tumor type in the central nervous system. Both tumor-targeting drug delivery and combination therapy of multiple therapeutic agents with distinct mechanisms are important for GBM treatment. We combined these two strategies and developed a new platform of peptide-drug conjugate (RGD-PEG-Suc-PD0325901, W22) for tumor-targeting delivery using a combination of PD0325901 (a MEK1/2 inhibitor) and RGD peptide. In the present study, the combination of PD0325901 and RGD peptide strongly inhibited U87MG model in vitro and in vivo. This inhibition contributed to synergistic suppression of cell proliferation by blocking ERK pathway activity and cell migration. Modified by conjugation strategy, their conjugate W22 enhanced PD0325901 delivery to GBM cells by receptor mediated cellular internalization. W22 showed great superiority in targeting to U87MG xenografted tumors and strong anti-tumor efficacy based on ERK pathway inhibition and tumor-targeted delivery in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, W22 was stable in serum and able to release PD0325901 in the enzymatic environment. These data indicated that the RGD-PEG-Suc-PD0325901 conjugate provided a strategy for effective delivery of PD0325901 and RGD peptide into the GBM cells and inhibition of tumor growth in a synergistic manner. PMID:27085642

  12. JAK2 inhibitor combined with DC-activated AFP-specific T-cells enhances antitumor function in a Fas/FasL signal-independent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Yue-ru; Ding, Guang-hui; Yang, Ting-song; Yao, Le; Hua, Jie; He, Zhi-gang; Qian, Ming-ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective Combination therapy for cancer is more effective than using only standard chemo- or radiotherapy. Our previous results showed that dendritic cell-activated α-fetoprotein (AFP)-specific T-cells inhibit tumor in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we focused on antitumor function of CD8+ T-cells combined with or without JAK2 inhibitor. Methods Proliferation and cell cycle were analyzed by CCK-8 and flow cytometry. Western blot was used to analyze the expression level of related protein and signaling pathway. Results We demonstrated reduced viability and induction of apoptosis of tumor cells with combination treatment. Intriguingly, cell cycle was blocked at the G1 phase by using AFP-specific CD8+ T-cells combined with JAK2 inhibitor (AG490). Furthermore, an enhanced expression of BAX but no influence on Fas/FasL was detected from the tumor cells. Conclusion These results indicate a Fas/FasL-independent pathway for cellular apoptosis in cancer therapies with the treatment of AFP-specific CD8+ T-cells combined with JAK2 inhibitor. PMID:27499636

  13. A modified spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion method for the preparation of curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles with enhanced in vitro anti-tumor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cen; Yang, Wei; Wang, Dan-Tong; Chen, Chao-Long; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Kong, Xiang-Dong

    2014-12-01

    To improve the anti-tumor activity of hydrophobic drug curcumin, we prepared curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (PLGA-Cur NPs) through a modified spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion (modified-SESD) method. The influence of main preparation parameters was investigated, such as the volume ratio of binary organic solvents and the concentration of surfactant. Results indicated that the synthesized regular spherical PLGA NPs with the average diameter of 189.7 nm exhibited relatively higher yield (58.9%), drug loading (11.0% (w/w)) and encapsulation efficiency (33.5%), and also a controllable drug release profile. In order to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of the prepared NPs, MTT assay was conducted, and results showed that the NPs could effectively inhibit HL60 and HepG2 cells with lower IC50 values compared with free curcumin. Furthermore, confocal microscopy together with flow cytometry analysis proved the enhanced apoptosis-inducing ability of PLGA-Cur NPs. Polymeric NP formulations are potential to be used for hydrophobic drug delivery systems in cancer therapy.

  14. MLN4924, a Novel NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor, exhibits antitumor activity and enhances cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in human cervical carcinoma: in vitro and in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Chou; Kuo, Kuan-Lin; Shi, Chung-Sheng; Wu, June-Tai; Hsieh, Ju-Ton; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Liao, Shih-Ming; Chou, Chien-Tso; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Chiu, Wei-Shuo; Chiu, Tzu-Yuan; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Ho, I-Lin; Wang, Zuo-He; Chang, Shih-Chen; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Huang, Kuo-How

    2015-01-01

    MLN4924, an inhibitor of NEDD8 activating enzyme (NAE), has been reported to have activity against various malignancies. Here, we investigated the antitumor properties of MLN4924 and MLN4924 in combination with cisplatin on human cervical carcinoma (CC) in vitro and in vivo. Two human CC cell lines, ME-180 and HeLa, were used in this study. The cytotoxic effects of MLN4924 and/or cisplatin were measured by cell viability (MTT), proliferation (BrdU incorporation), apoptosis (flow cytometry with annexin V-FITC labeling), and the expression of cell apoptosis-related proteins (Western blotting). In vivo efficacy was determined in Nu/Nu nude mice with ME-180 and HeLa xenografts. The results showed that MLN4924 elicited viability inhibition, anti-proliferation and apoptosis in human CC cells, accompanied by activations of apoptosis-related molecules and Bid, Bcl-2 phosphorylation interruption, and interference with cell cycle regulators. Moreover, MLN4924 caused an endoplasmic reticulum stress response (caspase-4, ATF-4 and CHOP activations) and expression of other cellular stress molecules (JNK and c-Jun activations). Additionally, MLN4924 suppressed growth of CC xenografts in nude mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that MLN4924 potentiated cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in CC cells with activation of caspases. Consistently with this, MLN4924 significantly enhanced cisplatin-induced growth inhibition of CC xenografts. Together, these findings suggest that MLN4924 alone or in combination with cisplatin is of value in treating human CCs. PMID:26807316

  15. Intratumoral delivery of CpG-conjugated anti-MUC1 antibody enhances NK cell anti-tumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Schettini, Jorge; Kidiyoor, Amritha; Besmer, Dahlia M.; Tinder, Teresa L.; Roy, Lopamudra Das; Lustgarten, Joseph; Gendler, Sandra J.

    2013-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against tumor-associated antigens are useful anticancer agents. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is one of the major mechanisms responsible for initiating natural killer cell (NK)-mediated killing of tumors. However, the regulation of ADCC via NK cells is poorly understood. We have investigated the cytolytic activity of NK cells against pancreatic cancer cells that were coated with an antibody directed against the human tumor antigen, Mucin-1 designated HMFG-2, either alone or conjugated to CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN). Conjugated antibodies were tested for their ability to elicit ADCC in vitro and in vivo against pancreatic cancer cells. NK cells cultured in the presence of immobilized CpG ODN, HMFG-2 Ab, or CpG ODN-conjugated HMFG-2 Ab were able to up-regulate perforin similarly. Interestingly, a significant higher ADCC was observed when CpG ODN-conjugated HMFG-2-coated tumor cells were co-cultured with NK cells compared to unconjugated HMFG-2 Ab or CpG ODN alone. Moreover, MyD88-deficient NK cells can perform ADCC in vitro. Furthermore, intratumoral injections of CpG ODN-conjugated HMFG-2 induced a significant reduction in tumor burden in vivo in an established model of pancreatic tumor in nude mice compared to CpG ODN or the HMFG-2 alone. Depletion of macrophages or NK cells before treatment confirmed that both cells were required for the anti-tumor response in vivo. Results also suggest that CpG ODN and HMFG-2 Ab could be sensed by NK cells on the mAb-coated tumor cells triggering enhanced ADCC in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22543528

  16. Intratumoral delivery of CpG-conjugated anti-MUC1 antibody enhances NK cell anti-tumor activity.

    PubMed

    Schettini, Jorge; Kidiyoor, Amritha; Besmer, Dahlia M; Tinder, Teresa L; Roy, Lopamudra Das; Lustgarten, Joseph; Gendler, Sandra J; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2012-11-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against tumor-associated antigens are useful anticancer agents. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is one of the major mechanisms responsible for initiating natural killer cell (NK)-mediated killing of tumors. However, the regulation of ADCC via NK cells is poorly understood. We have investigated the cytolytic activity of NK cells against pancreatic cancer cells that were coated with an antibody directed against the human tumor antigen, Mucin-1 designated HMFG-2, either alone or conjugated to CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN). Conjugated antibodies were tested for their ability to elicit ADCC in vitro and in vivo against pancreatic cancer cells. NK cells cultured in the presence of immobilized CpG ODN, HMFG-2 Ab, or CpG ODN-conjugated HMFG-2 Ab were able to up-regulate perforin similarly. Interestingly, a significant higher ADCC was observed when CpG ODN-conjugated HMFG-2-coated tumor cells were co-cultured with NK cells compared to unconjugated HMFG-2 Ab or CpG ODN alone. Moreover, MyD88-deficient NK cells can perform ADCC in vitro. Furthermore, intratumoral injections of CpG ODN-conjugated HMFG-2 induced a significant reduction in tumor burden in vivo in an established model of pancreatic tumor in nude mice compared to CpG ODN or the HMFG-2 alone. Depletion of macrophages or NK cells before treatment confirmed that both cells were required for the anti-tumor response in vivo. Results also suggest that CpG ODN and HMFG-2 Ab could be sensed by NK cells on the mAb-coated tumor cells triggering enhanced ADCC in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22543528

  17. Anti-tumor angiogenesis effect of a new compound: B-9-3 through interference with VEGFR2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qin; Chen, Wei; Chen, Wen

    2016-05-01

    B-9-3, a derivative of harmine, was first synthesized in our laboratory. We have reported that B-9-3 has an anti-proliferative effect against human lung cancer cells via induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell migration. In the present study, we first studied that the anti-tumor angiogenesis effect and the molecular mechanism of B-9-3-induced tumor vascular degrade and mortify in lung cancer. In vitro, the results showed that B-9-3 selectively inhibited the proliferation of endothelial cells IC50 = 6.16 μg/ml) and vascular fibroblasts (IC50 = 12.59 μg/ml) and induced regression of tumor cells of the following: Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), Mouse fore-stomach carcinoma (MFC), Human ovarian cancer (SK-OV-3), and prostate cancer (22RV1). Moreover, B-9-3 could significantly increase the apoptosis rate (80.95 %) of vascular endothelial cells, while inhibiting migration of endothelial cells, capillary tube formation of endothelial cells, neovascularization of the rat thoracic aorta ring, and the angiogenesis of chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) predominantly through blocking VEGFR2 signaling pathway. In vivo, we investigated the anti-tumor rate and the signal transduction mechanism of B-9-3 by LCC-bearing C57BL/6 mice. The data showed that the tumor inhibition ratio of high dose (20 mg/kg) of B-9-3 was 72.9 %, and quantification of CD34 marker indicated a marked reduction in the number of neovessels after B-9-3 treatment as compared with control group (66.87 %). Remarkably, using IHC and q-RT-PCR, we found that downregulation of the expression of VEGFR2, VEGF-A, and TGFβ1 in tumor confers enhancement to the angiogenesis effect of B-9-3. These data suggest that the angiogenesis inhibitor B-9-3 selectively induces apoptosis of endothelial cells, in part through disruption of VEGF-A/VEGFR2 signaling. PMID:26611645

  18. Chemopreventive effect of a mixture of Chinese Herbs (antitumor B) on chemically induced oral carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yian; Yao, Ruisheng; Gao, Song; Wen, Weidong; Du, Yinqiu; Szabo, Eva; Hu, Ming; Lubet, Ronald A; You, Ming

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated chemopreventive efficacy of Antitumor B, a Chinese herbal mixture of six plants (Sophora tonkinensis, Polygonum bistorta, Prunella vulgaris, Sonchus arvensis L., Dictamnus dasycarpus, and Dioscorea bulbifera) on the development of 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) induced oral squamous cell carcinomas in A/J mice. Antitumor B, delivered through diet, inhibited 4NQO-induced oral cancer development by 59.19%. The reduction of cell proliferation appears to be associated with efficacy of Antitumor B against 4NQO-induced oral cancer in A/J mice. The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and phosphorylated EGFR (Tyr1173) were down-regulated by Antitumor B. Tissue distribution of Antitumor B was determined using obacunone, matrine, and maackiain as marker chemicals. We found significant amounts of obacunone, matrine, and maackiain in the blood after 1-wk treatment. The concentrations of these three compounds did not increase further at 18  wk, suggesting that plasma concentrations had reached a steady-state level at 1  wk. There was no significant body weight loss and there was no other obvious sign of toxicity in Antitumor B-treated mice. These results suggest that Antitumor B is a promising agent for human oral cancer chemoprevention. PMID:22086836

  19. ATN-224 enhances antitumor efficacy of oncolytic herpes virus against both local and metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ji Young; Yu, Jun-Ge; Kaka, Azeem; Pan, Quintin; Kumar, Pawan; Kumar, Bhavna; Zhang, Jianying; Mazar, Andrew; Teknos, Theodoros N; Kaur, Balveen; Old, Matthew O

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most frequent cancer worldwide, and the 5-year survival rates are among the worst of the major cancers. Oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (oHSV) have the potential to make a significant impact in the targeted treatment of these patients. Here, we tested antitumor efficacy of RAMBO, an oHSV armed with the antiangiogenic Vstat120, alone and in conjunction with ATN-224, a copper chelator against HNSCC in vitro and in vivo animal models. We found that all tested HNSCC cells responded well to virus treatment and were sensitive to RAMBO-mediated oncolytic destruction. In vivo, RAMBO had a significant antiangiogenic and antitumorigenic effect. Physiologic levels of copper inhibited viral replication and HNSCC cell killing. Chelation of copper using ATN-224 treatment significantly improved serum stability of RAMBO and permitted systemic delivery in HNSCC tumor xenografts models. Furthermore, our results show that the combination of ATN-224 and RAMBO strongly inhibits lung metastases in a mouse model of HNSCC. These findings suggest that combining ATN-224 with RAMBO has potential for clinical trials in both early and advanced HNSCC patients. PMID:27119105

  20. Anti-EGFR-iRGD recombinant protein conjugated silk fibroin nanoparticles for enhanced tumor targeting and antitumor efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Xinyu; Wu, Puyuan; Sha, Huizi; Qian, Hanqing; Wang, Qing; Cheng, Lei; Yang, Yang; Yang, Mi; Liu, Baorui

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report a novel kind of targeting with paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded silk fibroin nanoparticles conjugated with iRGD–EGFR nanobody recombinant protein (anti-EGFR-iRGD). The new nanoparticles (called A-PTX-SF-NPs) were prepared using the carbodiimide-mediated coupling procedure and their characteristics were evaluated. The cellular cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of A-PTX-SF-NPs were also investigated. The results in vivo suggested that NPs conjugated with the recombinant protein exhibited more targeting and anti-neoplastic property in cells with high EGFR expression. In the in vivo antitumor efficacy assay, the A-PTX-SF-NPs group showed slower tumor growth and smaller tumor volumes than PTX-SF-NPs in a HeLa xenograft mouse model. A real-time near-infrared fluorescence imaging study showed that A-PTX-SF-NPs could target the tumor more effectively. These results suggest that the anticancer activity and tumor targeting of A-PTX-SF-NPs were superior to those of PTX-SF-NPs and may have the potential to be used for targeted delivery for tumor therapies. PMID:27313461

  1. Cooperative therapeutic anti-tumor effect of IL-15 agonist ALT-803 and co-targeting soluble NKG2D ligand sMIC

    PubMed Central

    Basher, Fahmin; Jeng, Emily K.; Wong, Hing; Wu, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Shedding of the human NKG2D ligand MIC (MHC class I-chain-related molecule) from tumor cell surfaces correlates with progression of many epithelial cancers. Shedding-derived soluble MIC (sMIC) enables tumor immune escape through multiple immune suppressive mechanisms, such as disturbing natural killer (NK) cell homeostatic maintenance, impairing NKG2D expression on NK cells and effector T cells, and facilitating the expansion of arginase I+ myeloid suppressor cells. Our recent study has demonstrated that sMIC is an effective cancer therapeutic target. Whether targeting tumor-derived sMIC would enhance current active immunotherapy is not known. Here, we determined the in vivo therapeutic effect of an antibody co-targeting sMIC with the immunostimulatory IL-15 superagonist complex, ALT-803, using genetically engineered transplantable syngeneic sMIC+ tumor models. We demonstrate that combined therapy of a nonblocking antibody neutralizing sMIC and ALT-803 improved the survival of animals bearing sMIC+ tumors in comparison to monotherapy. We further demonstrate that the enhanced therapeutic effect with combined therapy is through concurrent augmentation of NK and CD8 T cell anti-tumor responses. In particular, expression of activation-induced surface molecules and increased functional potential by cytokine secretion are improved greatly by the administration of combined therapy. Depletion of NK cells abolished the cooperative therapeutic effect. Our findings suggest that administration of the sMIC-neutralizing antibody can enhance the anti-tumor effects of ALT-803. With ALT-803 currently in clinical trials to treat progressive solid tumors, the majority of which are sMIC+, our findings provide a rationale for co-targeting sMIC to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of ALT-803 or other IL-15 agonists. PMID:26625316

  2. Anti-tumor effect via passive anti-angiogenesis of PEGylated liposomes encapsulating doxorubicin in drug resistant tumors.

    PubMed

    Kibria, Golam; Hatakeyama, Hiroto; Sato, Yusuke; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2016-07-25

    The PEGylated liposomal (PEG-LP) Doxorubicin, PEG-LP (DOX), with a diameter of around 100nm, accumulates in tumors via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, and is used clinically for the treatment of several types of cancer. However, there are a number of tumor types that are resistant to DOX. We report herein on a unique anti-tumor effect of PEG-LP (DOX) in a DOX-resistant tumor xenograft model. PEG-LP (DOX) failed to suppress the growth of the DOX-resistant tumors (ex. non-small cell lung cancer, H69AR; renal cell carcinoma, OSRC-2) as observed in the xenograft model. Unexpectedly, tumor growth was suppressed in a DOX-resistant breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) xenograft model. We investigated the mechanism by which PEG-LP (DOX) responses differ in different drug resistant tumors. In hyperpermeable OSRC-2 tumors, PEG-LP was distributed to deep tumor tissues, where it delivers DOX to drug-resistant tumor cells. In contrast, extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules such as collagen, pericytes, cancer-associated fibroblasts render MDA-MB-231 tumors hypopermeable, which limits the extent of the penetration and distribution of PEG-LP, thereby enhancing the delivery of DOX to the vicinity of the tumor vasculature. Therefore, a remarkable anti-angiogenic effect with a preferential suppression in tumor growth is achieved. Based on the above findings, it appears that the response of PEG-LP (DOX) to drug-resistant tumors results from differences in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27234700

  3. Antitumoral effect of PLK-1-inhibitor BI2536 in combination with cisplatin and docetaxel in squamous cell carcinoma cell lines of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Wagenblast, Jens; Hirth, Daniel; Eckardt, Anne; Leinung, Martin; Diensthuber, Marc; Stöver, Timo; Hambek, Markus

    2013-03-01

    Inhibition of the polo-like-kinase-1 (PLK-1) has been shown to be effective in several haematological and solid tumor models. In this systemic in vitro study, the antitumor effect of BI2536, a small molecule inhibitor of PLK-1, in combination with cisplatin and docetaxel was examined in nine squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, most of which had a head and neck origin (SCCHN). Dose escalation studies were conducted with nine SCCHN cell lines using BI2536, cisplatin and docetaxel in cell line-specific concentrations. Growth inhibitory and proapoptotic effects were measured quantitatively using cytohistology and a Human Apoptose Array kit. BI2536 in combination with cisplatin and docetaxel showed a markedly higher antiproliferative and apoptotic activity in the SCCHN cell lines investigated (P≤0.008), compared with single agent cisplatin or docetaxel alone. The findings of this study showed that the addition of PLK-1-inhibitor BI2536 to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs led to a statistically higher antiproliferative and apoptotic effect in SCCHN cell lines compared with cisplatin or docetaxel alone. Inaugurating BI2536 in the clinical setting might enhance the antitumoral activity of conventional drugs, possibly leading to less toxic side effects of cancer therapy. PMID:24649162

  4. Enhanced magnetocaloric effect material

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Laura J. H.

    2006-07-18

    A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure having a core layer of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, and a constricting material layer coated on at least one surface of the magnetocaloric material core layer. The constricting material layer may enhance the magnetocaloric effect by restriction of volume changes of the core layer during application of a magnetic field to the heterostructure. A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure powder comprising a plurality of core particles of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, wherein each of the core particles is encapsulated within a coating of a constricting material is also disclosed. A method for enhancing the magnetocaloric effect within a giant magnetocaloric material including the step of coating a surface of the magnetocaloric material with a constricting material is disclosed.

  5. The therapeutic effect of death: Newcastle disease virus and its antitumor potential.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado-Castano, Sara; Sanchez-Aparicio, Maria T; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Villar, Enrique

    2015-11-01

    Programmed cell death is essential to survival of multicellular organisms. Previously restricted to apoptosis, the concept of programmed cell death is now extended to other mechanisms, as programmed necrosis or necroptosis, autophagic cell death, pyroptosis and parthanatos, among others. Viruses have evolved to manipulate and take control over the programmed cell death response, and the infected cell attempts to neutralize viral infections displaying different stress signals and defensive pathways before taking the critical decision of self-destruction. Learning from viruses and their interplay with the host may help us to better understand the complexity of the self-defense death response that when altered might cause disorders as important as cancer. In addition, as the fields of immunotherapy and oncolytic viruses advance as promising novel cancer therapies, the programmed cell death response reemerges as a key point for the success of both therapeutic approaches. In this review we summarize the research of the multimodal cell death response induced by Newcastle disease viruses (NDV), considered nowadays a promising viral oncolytic therapeutic, and how the manipulation of the host programmed cell death response can enhance the NDV antitumor capacity. PMID:26221764

  6. The effect of microneedles on the skin permeability and antitumor activity of topical 5-fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    Naguib, Youssef W.; Kumar, Amit; Cui, Zhengrong

    2014-01-01

    Topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is approved for the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis. However, 5-FU suffers from poor skin permeation. Microneedles have been successfully applied to improve the skin permeability of small and large molecules, and even nanoparticles, by creating micron-sized pores in the stratum corneum layer of the skin. In this report, the feasibility of using microneedles to increase the skin permeability of 5-FU was tested. Using full thickness mouse skin mounted on Franz diffusion apparatus, it was shown that the flux of 5-FU through the skin was increased by up to 4.5-fold when the skin was pretreated with microneedles (500 μm in length, 50 μm in base diameter). In a mouse model with B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells implanted in the subcutaneous space, the antitumor activity of a commercially available 5-FU topical cream (5%) was significantly enhanced when the cream was applied on a skin area that was pretreated with microneedles, as compared to when the cream was simply applied on a skin area, underneath which the tumor cells were implanted, and without pretreatment of the skin with microneedles. Fluorouracil is not approved for melanoma therapy, but the clinical efficacy of topical 5-FU against tumors such as basal cell carcinoma may be improved by integrating microneedle technology into the therapy. PMID:25313350

  7. Chemically and biologically synthesized CPP-modified gelonin for enhanced anti-tumor activity.

    PubMed

    Shin, Meong Cheol; Zhang, Jian; David, Allan E; Trommer, Wolfgang E; Kwon, Young Min; Min, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Jin H; Yang, Victor C

    2013-11-28

    The ineffectiveness of small molecule drugs against cancer has generated significant interest in more potent macromolecular agents. Gelonin, a plant-derived toxin that inhibits protein translation, has attracted much attention in this regard. Due to its inability to internalize into cells, however, gelonin exerts only limited tumoricidal effect. To overcome this cell membrane barrier, we modified gelonin, via both chemical conjugation and genetic recombination methods, with low molecular weight protamine (LMWP), a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) which was shown to efficiently ferry various cargoes into cells. Results confirmed that gelonin-LMWP chemical conjugate (cG-L) and recombinant gelonin-LMWP chimera (rG-L) possessed N-glycosidase activity equivalent to that of unmodified recombinant gelonin (rGel); however, unlike rGel, both gelonin-LMWPs were able to internalize into cells. Cytotoxicity studies further demonstrated that cG-L and rG-L exhibited significantly improved tumoricidal effects, with IC50 values being 120-fold lower than that of rGel. Moreover, when tested against a CT26 s.c. xenograft tumor mouse model, significant inhibition of tumor growth was observed with rG-L doses as low as 2 μg/tumor, while no detectable therapeutic effects were seen with rGel at 10-fold higher doses. Overall, this study demonstrated the potential of utilizing CPP-modified gelonin as a highly potent anticancer drug to overcome limitations of current chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:23973813

  8. Antitumor Effect of Folate-Targeted Liposomal Doxorubicin in KB Tumor-Bearing Mice after Intravenous Administration

    PubMed Central

    Riviere, Kareen; Huang, Zhaohua; Jerger, Katherine; Macaraeg, Nichole; Szoka, Francis C.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of folate-targeted liposomal doxorubicin (FTL-Dox) has been well characterized in folate receptor (FR) over-expressing tumors in vitro, particularly in KB human carcinoma cells. However, there are few studies evaluating the in vivo efficacy of FTL-Dox in KB murine xenograft models. In this study, we investigated the antitumor activity of FTL-Dox injected intravenously in mice bearing KB tumors. Folate ligands comprising of folate-polyethyleneglycol-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (FA-PEG-DSPE) were synthesized with different MW PEG. To design an optimum FTL-Dox formulation for therapeutic studies, we prepared various FTLs and characterized their in vitro targeting and in vivo tissue biodistribution. Mice were administered a single intravenous injection of free Dox, non-targeted PEGylated liposomal Dox (PL-Dox), or FTL-Dox. FTLs and PLs accumulated similarly in tumor tissue, despite FTLs’ faster clearance from circulation. Mice treated with FTL-Dox 20 mg/kg had a slightly greater tumor growth inhibition and almost a 50% increase in life span than mice receiving PL-Dox 20 mg/kg (P = 0.0121; log-rank test). We conclude that FTLs administered systemically have the potential to enhance the delivery of anticancer drugs in vivo; however, their removal by FR expressing normal tissues may have to be blocked if the benefits of tumor targeting are to be realized. PMID:20353291

  9. Docetaxel Loaded PEG-PLGA Nanoparticles: Optimized Drug Loading, In-vitro Cytotoxicity and In-vivo Antitumor Effect

    PubMed Central

    Noori Koopaei, Mona; Khoshayand, Mohammad Reza; Mostafavi, Seyed Hossein; Amini, Mohsen; Khorramizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Jeddi Tehrani, Mahmood; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2014-01-01

    In this study a 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design was used to prepare optimized docetaxel (DTX) loaded pegylated poly lactide-co-glycolide (PEG-PLGA) Nanoparticles (NPs) with polymer concentration (X1), drug concentration (X2) and ratio of the organic to aqueous solvent (X3) as the independent variables and particle size (Y1), poly dispersity index (PDI) (Y2) and drug loading (Y3) as the responses. The cytotoxicity of optimized DTX loaded PEG-PLGA NPs was studied in SKOV3 tumor cell lines by standard MTT assay. The in-vivo antitumor efficacy of DTX loaded PLGA-PEG NPs was assessed in tumor bearing female BALB/c mice. The optimum level of Y1, Y2 and Y3 predicted by the model were 188 nm, 0.16 and 9% respectively with perfect agreement with the experimental data. The in-vitro release profile of optimum formulation showed a burst release of approximately 20% (w/w) followed by a sustained release profile of the loaded drug over 288 h. The DTX loaded optimized nanoparticles showed a greater cytotoxicity against SKOV3 cancer cells than free DTX. Enhanced tumor-suppression effects were achieved with DTX-loaded PEG-PLGA NPs. These results demonstrated that optimized NPs could be a potentially useful delivery system for DTX as an anticancer agent. PMID:25276182

  10. Effects of extraction methods on the yield, chemical structure and anti-tumor activity of polysaccharides from Cordyceps gunnii mycelia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Dong, Fengying; Liu, Xiaocui; Lv, Qian; YingYang; Liu, Fei; Chen, Ling; Wang, Tiantian; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Yongmin

    2016-04-20

    This study was to investigate the effects of different extraction methods on the yield, chemical structure and antitumor activity of polysaccharides from Cordyceps gunnii (C. gunnii) mycelia. Five extraction methods were used to extract crude polysaccharides (CPS), which include room-temperature water extraction (RWE), hot-water extraction (HWE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and cellulase-assisted extraction (CAE). Then Sephadex G-100 was used for purification of CPS. As a result, the antitumor activities of CPS and PPS on S180 cells were evaluated. Five CPS and purified polysaccharides (PPS) were obtained. The yield of CPS by microwave-assisted extraction (CPSMAE) was the highest and its anti-tumor activity was the best and its macromolecular polysaccharide (3000-1000kDa) ratio was the largest. The PPS had the same monosaccharide composition, but their obvious difference was in the antitumor activity and the physicochemical characteristics, such as intrinsic viscosity, specific rotation, scanning electron microscopy and circular dichroism spectra. PMID:26876874

  11. Antitumor Effects of EGFR Antisense Guanidine-Based Peptide Nucleic Acids in Cancer Models

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sufi M.; Sahu, Bichismita; Rapireddy, Srinivas; Bahal, Raman; Wheeler, Sarah E.; Procopio, Eva M.; Kim, Joseph; Joyce, Sonali C.; Contrucci, Sarah; Wang, Yun; Chiosea, Simion I.; Lathrop, Kira L.; Watkins, Simon; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Armitage, Bruce A.; Ly, Danith H.

    2013-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids have emerged over the past two decades as a promising class of nucleic acid mimics because of their strong binding affinity and sequence selectivity toward DNA and RNA, and resistance to enzymatic degradation by proteases and nucleases. While they have been shown to be effective in regulation of gene expression in vitro, and to a small extent in vivo, their full potential for molecular therapy has not yet been fully realized due to poor cellular uptake. Herein, we report the development of cell-permeable, guanidine-based peptide nucleic acids targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in preclinical models as therapeutic modality for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A GPNA oligomer, 16 nucleotides in length, designed to bind to EGFR gene transcript elicited potent antisense effects in HNSCC and NSCLC cells in preclinical models. When administered intraperitoneally in mice, EGFRAS-GPNA was taken-up by several tissues including the xenograft tumor. Systemic administration of EGFRAS-GPNA induced antitumor effects in HNSCC xenografts, with similar efficacies as the FDA-approved EGFR inhibitors: cetuximab and erlotinib. In addition to targeting wild-type EGFR, EGFRAS-GPNA is effective against the constitutively active EGFR vIII mutant implicated in cetuximab resistance. Our data reveals that GPNA is just as effective as a molecular platform for treating cetuximab resistant cells, demonstrating its utility in the treatment of cancer. PMID:23113581

  12. Anti-tumor effects in mice induced by survivin-targeted siRNA delivered through polysaccharide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feifei; Huang, Wei; Li, Yunfei; Liu, Shan; Jin, Mingji; Wang, Yuli; Jia, Lihua; Gao, Zhonggao

    2013-07-01

    Recently, survivin has been attracting great attention because it plays an important role in inhibiting the apoptosis process of tumor cells. Down-regulating the expression of survivin gene by small interfering RNA (siRNA) offers a promising method for anti-tumor therapy. However, lack of appropriate siRNA delivery vector has significantly hindered the successful application of survivin-targeted siRNA in anti-tumor therapy. The purpose of this study was to use polysaccharide vector TAT-g-CS we synthesized to deliver functional siRNA and evaluate its in vivo anti-tumor activity. TAT-g-CS vector was firstly synthesized and well structurally characterized. MTT assay showed that TAT-g-CS vector exhibited good biocompatibility. TAT-g-CS complexed with siRNA offering nanoparticles with an average particle size of 212.2 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.121, and the zeta potential of the nanoparticles was +18.58 mV. Results from reporter gene assay suggested that luciferase-targeted siRNA when delivered by TAT-g-CS could down-regulate the expression of luciferase gene with 75.3% reduction. Most importantly, we use siRNA(Sur) targeting survivin gene to assess the in vitro and in vivo delivery capacity of TAT-g-CS and its anti-tumor effects. Our results demonstrated that TAT-g-CS/siRNA(Sur) nanoparticles not only strongly inhibited the in vitro proliferation of 4T1-Luc tumor cells via inducing cell apoptosis, but also effectively inhibited the in vivo growth and metastasis of malignant breast tumor, which suggested that TAT-g-CS/siRNA nanoparticle was a highly efficient non-viral system for siRNA delivery, especially for anti-tumor therapy based on siRNA therapeutics. PMID:23632321

  13. Propionibacterium acnes Augments Antitumor, Anti-Angiogenesis and Immunomodulatory Effects of Melatonin on Breast Cancer Implanted in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Talib, Wamidh H.; Saleh, Suhair

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most invasive cancers with high mortality. The immune stimulating Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram positive bacterium that has the ability to cause inflammation and activate Th1-type cytokine immune response. Antitumor response was associated with the inflammation induced by P. acnes, but the antitumor effect of this bacterium was not evaluated in combination with other agents. The aim of this study was to test the antitumor potential of a combination of melatonin and P. acnes against breast cancer implanted in mice. Balb/C mice were transplanted with EMT6/P cell line and in vivo antitumor effect was assessed for P. acnes, melatonin, and a combination of melatonin and P. acnes. Tumor and organs sections were examined using hematoxylin/eosin staining protocol, and TUNEL colorimetric assay was used to detect apoptosis. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was measured in tumor sections and serum levels of INF-γ, and IL-4 were measured to evaluate the immune system function. To evaluate the toxicity of our combination, AST and ALT levels were measured in the serum of treated mice. The combination of melatonin and P. acnes has high efficiency in targeting breast cancer in mice. Forty percent of treated mice were completely cured using this combination and the combination inhibited metastasis of cancer cells to other organs. The combination therapy reduced angiogenesis, exhibited no toxicity, induced apoptosis, and stimulates strong Th1-type cytokine antitumor immune response. The combination of melatonin and P. acnes represents a promising option to treat breast cancer. However, carful preclinical and clinical evaluation is needed before considering this combination for human therapy. PMID:25919398

  14. Propionibacterium acnes Augments Antitumor, Anti-Angiogenesis and Immunomodulatory Effects of Melatonin on Breast Cancer Implanted in Mice.

    PubMed

    Talib, Wamidh H; Saleh, Suhair

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most invasive cancers with high mortality. The immune stimulating Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram positive bacterium that has the ability to cause inflammation and activate Th1-type cytokine immune response. Antitumor response was associated with the inflammation induced by P. acnes, but the antitumor effect of this bacterium was not evaluated in combination with other agents. The aim of this study was to test the antitumor potential of a combination of melatonin and P. acnes against breast cancer implanted in mice. Balb/C mice were transplanted with EMT6/P cell line and in vivo antitumor effect was assessed for P. acnes, melatonin, and a combination of melatonin and P. acnes. Tumor and organs sections were examined using hematoxylin/eosin staining protocol, and TUNEL colorimetric assay was used to detect apoptosis. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was measured in tumor sections and serum levels of INF-γ, and IL-4 were measured to evaluate the immune system function. To evaluate the toxicity of our combination, AST and ALT levels were measured in the serum of treated mice. The combination of melatonin and P. acnes has high efficiency in targeting breast cancer in mice. Forty percent of treated mice were completely cured using this combination and the combination inhibited metastasis of cancer cells to other organs. The combination therapy reduced angiogenesis, exhibited no toxicity, induced apoptosis, and stimulates strong Th1-type cytokine antitumor immune response. The combination of melatonin and P. acnes represents a promising option to treat breast cancer. However, carful preclinical and clinical evaluation is needed before considering this combination for human therapy. PMID:25919398

  15. Bystander Activation and Anti-Tumor Effects of CD8+ T Cells Following Interleukin-2 Based Immunotherapy Is Independent of CD4+ T Cell Help

    PubMed Central

    Grossenbacher, Steven K.; Hsiao, Hui-Hua; Zamora, Anthony E.; Mirsoian, Annie; Koehn, Brent; Blazar, Bruce R.; Weiss, Jonathan M.; Wiltrout, Robert H.; Sckisel, Gail D.; Murphy, William J.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that immunotherapy combining agonistic anti-CD40 and IL-2 (IT) results in synergistic anti-tumor effects. IT induces expansion of highly cytolytic, antigen-independent “bystander-activated” (CD8+CD44high) T cells displaying a CD25−NKG2D+ phenotype in a cytokine dependent manner, which were responsible for the anti-tumor effects. While much attention has focused on CD4+ T cell help for antigen-specific CD8+ T cell expansion, little is known regarding the role of CD4+ T cells in antigen-nonspecific bystander-memory CD8+ T cell expansion. Utilizing CD4 deficient mouse models, we observed a significant expansion of bystander-memory T cells following IT which was similar to the non-CD4 depleted mice. Expanded bystander-memory CD8+ T cells upregulated PD-1 in the absence of CD4+ T cells which has been published as a hallmark of exhaustion and dysfunction in helpless CD8+ T cells. Interestingly, compared to CD8+ T cells from CD4 replete hosts, these bystander expanded cells displayed comparable (or enhanced) cytokine production, lytic ability, and in vivo anti-tumor effects suggesting no functional impairment or exhaustion and were enriched in an effector phenotype. There was no acceleration of the post-IT contraction phase of the bystander memory CD8+ response in CD4-depleted mice. The response was independent of IL-21 signaling. These results suggest that, in contrast to antigen-specific CD8+ T cell expansion, CD4+ T cell help is not necessary for expansion and activation of antigen-nonspecific bystander-memory CD8+ T cells following IT, but may play a role in regulating conversion of these cells from a central memory to effector phenotype. Additionally, the expression of PD-1 in this model appears to be a marker of effector function and not exhaustion. PMID:25119341

  16. Inhibition of Autophagy by Chloroquine Enhances the Antitumor Efficacy of Sorafenib in Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangyu; Sun, Kangjian; Wang, Handong; Dai, Yuyuan

    2016-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive and common brain tumor in adults. Sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor, has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis through inhibition of STAT3 signaling in glioblastoma cells and in intracranial gliomas. However, sorafenib also induces cell autophagy. Due to the dual roles of autophagy in tumor cell survival and death, the therapeutic effect of sorafenib on glioblastoma is uncertain. Here, we combined sorafenib treatment in GBM cells (U373 and LN229) and tumors with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine. We found that blockage of autophagy further inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest the possibility of combination treatment with sorafenib and autophagy inhibitors for GBM. PMID:26971793

  17. Antitumor effects of celecoxib in COX-2 expressing and non-expressing canine melanoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Kyoung-won; Coh, Ye-rin; Rebhun, Robert B.; Ahn, Jin-ok; Han, Sei-Myung; Lee, Hee-woo; Youn, Hwa-Young

    2016-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a potential target for chemoprevention and cancer therapy. Celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, inhibits cell growth of various types of human cancer including malignant melanoma. In dogs, oral malignant melanoma represents the most common oral tumor and is often a fatal disease. Therefore, there is a desperate need to develop additional therapeutic strategies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticancer effects of celecoxib on canine malignant melanoma cell lines that express varying levels of COX-2. Celecoxib induced a significant anti-proliferative effect in both LMeC and CMeC-1 cells. In the CMeC cells, treatment of 50 µM celecoxib caused an increase in cells in the G0/G1 and a decreased proportion of cells in G-2 phase. In the LMeC cells, 50 µM of celecoxib led to an increase in the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase and a significant activation of caspase-3 when compared to CMeC-1 cells. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that celecoxib exhibits antitumor effects on canine melanoma LMeC and CMeC-1 cells by induction of G1-S cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Our data suggest that celecoxib might be effective as a chemotherapeutic agent against canine malignant melanoma. PMID:24656746

  18. Evaluation of antitumor effects of folate-conjugated methyl-β-cyclodextrin in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Motoyama, Keiichi; Onodera, Risako; Tanaka, Nao; Kameyama, Kazuhisa; Higashi, Taishi; Kariya, Ryusho; Okada, Seiji; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is a life-threatening disorder and its incidence is increasing gradually. Despite the numerous treatment approaches, conventional systemic chemotherapy has not reduced the mortality rate among melanoma patients, probably due to the induction of toxicity to normal tissues. Recently, we have developed folate-conjugated methyl-β-cyclodextrin (FA-M-β-CyD) and clarified its potential as a new antitumor agent involved in autophagic cell death. However, it remains uncertain whether FA-M-β-CyD exerts anticancer effects against melanomas. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of FA-M-β-CyD on the folate receptor-α (FR-α)-expressing melanoma cell-selective cytotoxic effect. FA-M-β-CyD showed cytotoxic effects in Ihara cells, a human melanoma cell line expressing FR-α. In sharp contrast to methyl-β-cyclodextrin, FA-M-β-CyD entered Ihara cells [FR-α(+)] through FR-α-mediated endocytosis. Additionally, FA-M-β-CyD elicited the formation of autophagosomes in Ihara cells. Notably, FA-M-β-CyD suppressed melanoma growth in BALB/c nude recombinase-activating gene-2 (Rag-2)/Janus kinase 3 (Jak3) double deficient mice bearing Ihara cells. Therefore, these results suggest that FA-M-β-CyD could be utilized as a potent anticancer agent for melanoma chemotherapy by regulating autophagy. PMID:25757918

  19. TWEAK mediates anti-tumor effect of tumor-infiltrating macrophage

    SciTech Connect

    Kaduka, Yuki; Takeda, Kazuyoshi . E-mail: ktakeda@med.juntendo.ac.jp; Nakayama, Masafumi; Kinoshita, Katsuyuki; Yagita, Hideo; Okumura, Ko

    2005-06-03

    TWEAK induces diverse cellular responses, including pro-inflammatory chemokine production, migration, proliferation, and cell death through the TWEAK receptor, Fn14. In the present study, we examined the effect of TWEAK or Fn14 expression in tumor cells on tumor outgrowth in vivo. Administration of neutralizing anti-TWEAK mAb significantly reduced the frequency of tumor rejection and shortened the survival of mice intraperitoneally inoculated with TWEAK-sensitive Fn14-expressing tumor cells. Moreover, anti-TWEAK mAb treatment promoted the subcutaneous growth of TWEAK-sensitive Fn14-expressing tumor cells, and this promotion was abolished by the inhibition of macrophage infiltration but not NK cell depletion. In contrast, administration of anti-TWEAK mAb had no apparent effect on the growth of TWEAK-resistant tumor cells, even if tumor cells expressed Fn14. On the other hand, TWEAK expression in tumor cells had no significant effect on subcutaneous tumor growth. These results indicate that TWEAK mediates anti-tumor effect of macrophages in vivo.

  20. Comparative study of antitumor effects of bromelain and papain in human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Müller, Alena; Barat, Samarpita; Chen, Xi; Bui, Khac Cuong; Bozko, Przemyslaw; Malek, Nisar P; Plentz, Ruben R

    2016-05-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) worldwide is the most common biliary malignancy with poor prognostic value and new systemic treatments are desirable. Plant extracts like bromelain and papain, which are cysteine proteases from the fruit pineapple and papaya, are known to have antitumor activities. Therefore, in this study for the first time we investigated the anticancer effect of bromelain and papain in intra- and extrahepatic human CC cell lines. The effect of bromelain and papain on human CC cell growth, migration, invasion and epithelial plasticity was analyzed using cell proliferation, wound healing, invasion and apoptosis assay, as well as western blotting. Bromelain and papain lead to a decrease in the proliferation, invasion and migration of CC cells. Both plant extracts inhibited NFκB/AMPK signalling as well as their downstream signalling proteins such as p-AKT, p-ERK, p-Stat3. Additionally, MMP9 and other epithelial-mesenchymal-transition markers were partially found to be downregulated. Apoptosis was induced after bromelain and papain treatment. Interestingly, bromelain showed an overall more effective inhibition of CC as compared to papain. siRNA mediated silencing of NFκB on CC cells indicated that bromelain and papain have cytotoxic effects on human CC cell lines and bromelain and partially papain in comparison impair tumor growth by NFκB/AMPK signalling. Especially bromelain can evolve as promising, potential therapeutic option that might open new insights for the treatment of human CC. PMID:26935541

  1. Oncolytic Adenoviral Mutants with E1B19K Gene Deletions Enhance Gemcitabine-induced Apoptosis in Pancreatic Carcinoma Cells and Anti-Tumor Efficacy In vivo

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Stephan; Sweeney, Katrina; Öberg, Daniel; Davies, Derek; Miranda, Enrique; Lemoine, Nick R.; Halldén, Gunnel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a rapidly progressive malignancy that is highly resistant to current chemotherapeutic modalities and almost uniformly fatal.We show that a novel targeting strategy combining oncolytic adenoviral mutants with the standard cytotoxic treatment, gemcitabine, can markedly improve the anticancer potency. Experimental Design Adenoviral mutants with the E1B19K gene deleted with and without E3B gene expression (AdΔE1B19K and dl337 mutants, respectively) were assessed for synergistic interactions in combination with gemcitabine. Cell viability, mechanism of cell death, and antitumor efficacy in vivo were determined in the pancreatic carcinoma cells PT45 and Suit2, normal human bronchial epithelial cells, and in PT45 xenografts. Results The ΔE1B19K-deleted mutants synergized with gemcitabine to selectively kill cultured pancreatic cancer cells and xenografts in vivo with no effect in normal cells. The corresponding wild-type virus (Ad5) stimulated drug-induced cell killing to a lesser degree. Gemcitabine blocked replication of all viruses despite the enhanced cell killing activity due to gemcitabine-induced delay in G1/S-cell cycle progression, with repression of cyclin E and cdc25A, which was not abrogated by viral E1A-expression. Synergistic cell death occurred through enhancement of gemcitabine-induced apoptosis in the presence of both AdΔE1B19K and dl337 mutants, shown by increased cell membrane fragmentation, caspase-3 activation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Conclusions Our data suggest that oncolytic mutants lacking the antiapoptotic E1B19K gene can improve efficacy of DNA-damaging drugs such as gemcitabine through convergence on cellular apoptosis pathways.These findings imply that less toxic doses than currently practicedin the clinic could efficiently target pancreatic adenocarcinomas when combined with adenoviral mutants. PMID:19223497

  2. Effects of IRF1 and IFN-β interaction on the M1 polarization of macrophages and its antitumor function

    PubMed Central

    XIE, CHANGLI; LIU, CUIYING; WU, BITAO; LIN, YAN; MA, TINGTING; XIONG, HAIYU; WANG, QIN; LI, ZIWEI; MA, CHENYU; TU, ZHIGUANG

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages that differentiate from precursor monocytes can be polarized into a classically activated (M1) or alternatively activated (M2) status depending on different stimuli. Generally, interferon (IFN)-γ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are considered the classical stimuli with which to establish M1 polarization. IFN regulatory factor (IRF)1 and IFN-β are two crucial molecules involved in IFN-γ- and LPS-initialed signaling. However, the association between IRF1 and IFN-β in the context of the M1 polarization of macrophages is not yet fully understood. In this study, we demonstrate that U937-derived macrophages, in response to IFN-γ and LPS stimulation, readily acquire an M1 status, indicated by the increased expression of interleukin (IL)-12, IL-6, IL-23, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the M1-specific cell surface antigen, CD86, and the decreased expression of the M2-specific mannose receptor, CD206. However, the knockdown of IRF1 in U937-derived macrophages led to an impaired M1 status, as indicated by the decreased expression of the above-mentioned M1 markers, and the increased expression of the M2 markers, CD206 and IL-10. A similar phenomenon was observed in the M1 macrophages in which IFN-β was inhibited. Furthermore, we demonstrated that IRF1 and IFN-β may interact with each other in the IFN-γ- and LPS-initiated signaling pathway, and contribute to the IRF5 regulation of M1 macrophages. In addition, the conditioned medium collected from the M1 macrophages in which IRF1 or IFN-β were inhibited, exerted pro-tumor effects on the HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells, as indicated by an increase in proliferation, the inhibition of apoptosis and an enhanced invasion capability. The findings of our study suggest that the interactions of IRF1, IFN-β and IRF5 are involved in the M1 polarization of macro phages and have antitumor functions. These data may provide a novel antitumor strategy for targeted cancer therapy. PMID:27176664

  3. Small-molecule BH3 mimetic and pan-Bcl-2 inhibitor AT-101 enhances the antitumor efficacy of cisplatin through inhibition of APE1 repair and redox activity in non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Tao; Shan, Jinlu; Li, Mengxia; Qing, Yi; Qian, Chengyuan; Wang, Guangjie; Li, Qing; Lu, Guoshou; Li, Chongyi; Peng, Yu; Luo, Hao; Zhang, Shiheng; Yang, Yuxing; Cheng, Yi; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    AT-101 is a BH3 mimetic and pan-Bcl-2 inhibitor that has shown potent anticancer activity in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in murine models, but failed to show clinical efficacy when used in combination with docetaxel in NSCLC patients. Our recent study has demonstrated that AT-101 enhanced the antitumor effect of cisplatin (CDDP) in a murine model of NSCLC via inhibition of the interleukin-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway. This study explored the underlying mechanisms for the enhanced anticancer activity of CDDP by AT-101. Our results show that, when compared with monotherapy, AT-101 significantly enhanced the inhibitory effects of CDDP on proliferation and migration of A549 cells and on tube formation and migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. AT-101 promoted the proapoptotic activity of CDDP in A549 cells. AT-101 also enhanced the inhibitory effect of CDDP on DNA repair and redox activities of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) in A549 cells. In tumor tissues from nude mice treated with AT-101 plus CDDP or monotherapy, the combination therapy resulted in greater inhibition of angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation than the monotherapy. These results suggest that AT-101 can enhance the antitumor activity of CDDP in NSCLC via inhibition of APE1 DNA repair and redox activities and by angiogenesis and induction of apoptosis, but other mechanisms cannot be excluded. We are now conducting a Phase II trial to examine the clinical efficacy and safety profile of combined use of AT-101 plus CDDP in advanced NSCLC patients. PMID:26089640

  4. The Safety and Anti-Tumor Effects of Ozonated Water in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Kohei; Azuma, Kazuo; Mori, Takuro; Kawamoto, Kinya; Murahata, Yusuke; Tsuka, Takeshi; Osaki, Tomohiro; Ito, Norihiko; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Itoh, Fumio; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Ozonated water is easier to handle than ozone gas. However, there have been no previous reports on the biological effects of ozonated water. We conducted a study on the safety of ozonated water and its anti-tumor effects using a tumor-bearing mouse model and normal controls. Local administration of ozonated water (208 mM) was not associated with any detrimental effects in normal tissues. On the other hand, local administration of ozonated water (20.8, 41.6, 104, or 208 mM) directly into the tumor tissue induced necrosis and inhibited proliferation of tumor cells. There was no significant difference in the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells following administration of ozonated water. The size of the necrotic areas was dependent on the concentration of ozonated water. These results indicate that ozonated water does not affect normal tissue and damages only the tumor tissue by selectively inducing necrosis. There is a possibility that it exerts through the production of reaction oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the induction of necrosis rather than apoptosis is very useful in tumor immunity. Based on these results, we believe that administration of ozonated water is a safe and potentially simple adjunct or alternative to existing antineoplastic treatments. PMID:26506343

  5. Curcumin exerts antitumor effects in retinoblastoma cells by regulating the JNK and p38 MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoming; Zhong, Jingtao; Yan, Li; Li, Jie; Wang, Hui; Wen, Yan; Zhao, Yu

    2016-09-01

    Curcumin, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound present in turmeric (Curcuma longa), exerts antitumor effects in various types of malignancy. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for the effects of curcumin on retinoblastoma (RB) cells have not been fully explored. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms by which curcumin exerts its anticancer effects in RB Y79 cells were investigated. The results showed that curcumin reduced cell viability in Y79 cells. Curcumin induced G1 phase arrest through downregulating the expression of cyclin D3 and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2/6 and upregulating the expression of CDK inhibitor proteins p21 and p27. Curcumin-induced apoptosis of Y79 cells occurred through the activation of caspases-9/-3. Moreover, flow cytometric analysis showed that curcumin induced mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψm) collapse in Y79 cells. We also found that curcumin induced the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). JNK and p38 MAPK inhibitors significantly suppressed curcumin‑induced activation of caspases-9/-3 and inhibited the apoptosis of Y79 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that curcumin induced the apoptosis of Y79 cells through the activation of JNK and p38 MAPK pathways. These findings provide a novel treatment strategy for human RB. PMID:27432244

  6. Pronounced antitumor effects and tumor radiosensitization of double suicide gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Rogulski, K R; Zhang, K; Kolozsvary, A; Kim, J H; Freytag, S O

    1997-11-01

    The efficacy of HSV-1 thymidine kinase (TK) and Escherichia coli cytosine deaminase (CD) suicide gene therapies as cancer treatments are currently being examined in humans. We demonstrated previously that compared to single suicide gene therapy, greater levels of targeted cytotoxicity and radiosensitization can be achieved in vitro by genetically modifying tumor cells to express CD and HSV-1 TK concomitantly, as a fusion protein. In the present study, the efficacy of the combined double suicide gene therapy/radiotherapy approach was examined in vivo. Nude mice were injected either s.c. or i.m. with 9L gliosarcoma cells expressing an E. coli CD/HSV-1 TK fusion gene. Double suicide gene therapy using 5-fluorocytosine (500 mg/kg) and ganciclovir (30 mg/kg) proved to be markedly better at delaying tumor growth and achieving a tumor cure than single suicide gene therapy, which used 5-fluorocytosine or ganciclovir administered independently. Importantly, double suicide gene therapy was highly effective against large experimental tumors (>2 cm3), reducing tumor volume an average of 99% and producing a 40% tumor cure. Moreover, double suicide gene therapy profoundly potentiated the antitumor effects of radiation. The results indicate that double suicide gene therapy, particularly when coupled with radiotherapy, may represent a highly effective means of eradicating tumors. PMID:9815600

  7. Antitumor effect of vandetanib through EGFR inhibition in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Jonah D.; Christopoulos, Apostolos; Ahn, Sun M.; Gooding, William E.; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Kim, Seungwon

    2013-01-01

    Background The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) have been implicated as therapeutic targets for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Vandetanib is a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) with dual specificity for EGFR and VEGFR. Here we characterize the phenotypic and biochemical effects of vandetanib on various HNSCC cell lines. Methods In vitro models were used for studying tumor cell viability, invasion, and signaling as well as in vivo xenograft models. Results Treatment with vandetanib reduced viability, invasion, and tumor growth of HNSCC cell lines. Phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) were reduced in vandetanib-treated HNSCC cells. Additionally, vandetanib abrogates EGF-induced STAT3 activity and STAT3 target gene expression. Conclusions We demonstrated that vandetanib inhibits the growth of head and neck cancer cell lines. The antitumor effects of vandetanib appear to be exerted via the EGFR inhibitory effect of the compound. PMID:22307735

  8. Combinatorial Antitumor Effect of Rapamycin and β-Elemene in Follicular Thyroid Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; He, Li-Li; Ding, Xiao-Fei; Yuan, Qiu-Qi; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Liu, Shuang-Chun; Chen, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Background. mTOR signaling would be a promising target for thyroid cancer therapy. However, in clinical trials, objective response rate with mTOR inhibitor monotherapy in most cancer types was modest. A new focus on development of combinatorial strategies with rapalogs is increasing. Objective. Investigating the combinatorial antitumor effect of rapamycin and β-elemene in follicular thyroid cancer cells. Methods. MTT assay was used to determine the FTC-133 cell proliferation after culturing with rapamycin and/or β-elemene. To analyze their combinatorial effect, immunoblotting was performed to analyze the activation status of AKT. Moreover, β-elemene attenuated rapamycin-induced immunosuppression was tested in mice. Results. Combination of rapamycin and β-elemene exerted significant synergistic antiproliferative effects in FTC-133 cell lines in vitro, based on inhibiting the AKT feedback activation induced by rapamycin. In vivo, the β-elemene could attenuate rapamycin-induced immunosuppression via reversing imbalance of Treg/Th17, with the underlying mechanism needed to be declared. Conclusions. We demonstrate that the novel combination of mTOR inhibitor with β-elemene synergistically attenuates tumor cell growth in follicular thyroid cancer, which requires additional preclinical validation. PMID:27274989

  9. A new sensitizer DVDMS combined with multiple focused ultrasound treatments: an effective antitumor strategy

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Wenli; Wang, Pan; Hu, Jianmin; Jia, Yali; Wu, Lijie; Chen, Xiyang; Liu, Quanhong; Wang, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) was developed as a promising noninvasive approach. The present study investigated the antitumor effect of a new sensitizer (sinoporphyrin sodium, referred to as DVDMS) combined with multiple ultrasound treatments on sarcoma 180 both in vitro and in vivo. The combined treatment significantly suppressed cell viability, potentiated apoptosis, and markedly inhibited angiogenesis in vivo. In vivo, the tumor weight inhibition ratio reached 89.82% fifteen days after three sonication treatments plus DVDMS. This effect was stronger than one ultrasound alone (32.56%) and than one round of sonication plus DVDMS (59.33%). DVDMS combined with multiple focused ultrasound treatments initiated tumor tissue destruction, induced cancer cell apoptosis, inhibited tumor angiogenesis, suppressed cancer cell proliferation, and decreased VEGF and PCNA expression levels. Moreover, the treatment did not show obvious signs of side effects or induce a drop in body weight. These results indicated that DVDMS combined with multiple focused ultrasounds may be a promising strategy against solid tumor. PMID:26631871

  10. Mechanism by which orally administered beta-1,3-glucans enhance the tumoricidal activity of antitumor monoclonal antibodies in murine tumor models.

    PubMed

    Hong, Feng; Yan, Jun; Baran, Jarek T; Allendorf, Daniel J; Hansen, Richard D; Ostroff, Gary R; Xing, Pei Xiang; Cheung, Nai-Kong V; Ross, Gordon D

    2004-07-15

    Antitumor mAb bind to tumors and activate complement, coating tumors with iC3b. Intravenously administered yeast beta-1,3;1,6-glucan functions as an adjuvant for antitumor mAb by priming the inactivated C3b (iC3b) receptors (CR3; CD11b/CD18) of circulating granulocytes, enabling CR3 to trigger cytotoxicity of iC3b-coated tumors. Recent data indicated that barley beta-1,3;1,4-glucan given orally similarly potentiated the activity of antitumor mAb, leading to enhanced tumor regression and survival. This investigation showed that orally administered yeast beta-1,3;1,6-glucan functioned similarly to barley beta-1,3;1,4-glucan with antitumor mAb. With both oral beta-1,3-glucans, a requirement for iC3b on tumors and CR3 on granulocytes was confirmed by demonstrating therapeutic failures in mice deficient in C3 or CR3. Barley and yeast beta-1,3-glucan were labeled with fluorescein to track their oral uptake and processing in vivo. Orally administered beta-1,3-glucans were taken up by macrophages that transported them to spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow. Within the bone marrow, the macrophages degraded the large beta-1,3-glucans into smaller soluble beta-1,3-glucan fragments that were taken up by the CR3 of marginated granulocytes. These granulocytes with CR3-bound beta-1,3-glucan-fluorescein were shown to kill iC3b-opsonized tumor cells following their recruitment to a site of complement activation resembling a tumor coated with mAb. PMID:15240666

  11. Enhancement of the in vivo persistence and antitumor efficacy of CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells through the delivery of modified TERT mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yun; Kan, Shifeng; Zhou, Shixin; Wang, Yuting; Xu, Jun; Cooke, John P; Wen, Jinhua; Deng, Hongkui

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor T cell immunotherapy is a promising therapeutic strategy for treating tumors, demonstrating its efficiency in eliminating several hematological malignancies in recent years. However, a major obstacle associated with current chimeric antigen receptor T cell immunotherapy is that the limited replicative lifespan of chimeric antigen receptor T cells prohibits the long-term persistence and expansion of these cells in vivo, potentially hindering the long-term therapeutic effects of chimeric antigen receptor T cell immunotherapy. Here we showed that the transient delivery of modified mRNA encoding telomerase reverse transcriptase to human chimeric antigen receptor T cells targeting the CD19 antigen (CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells) would transiently elevate the telomerase activity in these cells, leading to increased proliferation and delayed replicative senescence without risk of insertion mutagenesis or immortalization. Importantly, compared to conventional CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells, after the transient delivery of telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA, these CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells showed improved persistence and proliferation in mouse xenograft tumor models of human B-cell malignancies. Furthermore, the transfer of CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells after the transient delivery of telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA enhanced long-term antitumor effects in mouse xenograft tumor models compared with conventional CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cell transfer. The results of the present study provide an effective and safe method to improve the therapeutic potential of chimeric antigen receptor T cells, which might be beneficial for treating other types of cancer, particularly solid tumors. PMID:27462436

  12. Drug activity screening based on microsomes-hydrogel system in predicting metabolism induced antitumor effect of oroxylin A

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huiying; Li, Jianfeng; Zheng, Yuanting; Zhou, Lu; Tong, Shanshan; Zhao, Bei; Cai, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    A novel microsomes-hydrogel added cell culture system (MHCCS) was employed in the antitumor activity screening of natural compounds, aiming to achieve drug screening with better in vivo correlation, higher initiative to explore the potential active metabolites, and investigation of the antitumor mechanism from the perspective of metabolism. MTT assay and cell apoptosis detection showed that test drug oroxylin A (OA) had enhanced cytotoxicity and wogonin (W) with reduced cytotoxicity on MCF-7 cell line upon MHCCS incubation. In vivo antitumor evaluations also demonstrated that OA induced higher tumor inhibition than W at the same dosage. To explore the reasons, nine major metabolites of OA were separated and collected through UPLC-Q-TOF and semi-preparative HPLC. Metabolites M318 exhibited higher cytotoxicity than OA and other metabolites by MTT assay. 1H NMR spectrums, HPLC and TOF MS/MS results revealed that OA was catalyzed into its active metabolite M318 via a ring-opening reaction. M318 induced significant cell apoptosis and S-phase arrest through affecting tumor survival related genes after mechanism study. In conclusion, our MHCCS could be a useful tool for drug activity screening from a perspective of metabolism. PMID:26905263

  13. Could Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Expand the Antitumor Effect of Tamoxifen in Breast Carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Motawi, Tarek K; Abdelazim, Samy A; Darwish, Hebatallah A; Elbaz, Eman M; Shouman, Samia A

    2016-01-01

    Despite tamoxifen (TAM) is beneficial in treating a significant proportion of patients with breast cancer, many women still relapse after long-term therapy. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a component of honeybee propolis, with a plethora of important biological actions including anticancer activity. This study aimed to explore the cytotoxicity, the type of drugs interaction as well as the apoptotic and autophagic pathways of the combined treatment of TAM and CAPE in MCF-7 cells. Their antitumor activity and effect on survival of mice bearing Ehrlich tumor were also analyzed. The results showed synergistic cytotoxic effects, manifested by significant activation of apoptotic machinery, along with downregulation of protein levels of Bcl-2 and beclin-1, upon using the combination regimen. However, the ratio between microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II and -I was not altered. Moreover, a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor level was detected. Similarly, TAM + CAPE increased the life span of tumor-bearing animals and caused a marked regression in their tumor size and weight compared with those treated with either TAM or CAPE alone. In conclusion, CAPE relatively improved the anticancer activity of TAM in both in vitro and in vivo models via its apoptotic and angiostatic potentials. PMID:27007181

  14. Supercritical fluid extracts of rosemary leaves exhibit potent anti-inflammation and anti-tumor effects.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chiung-Huei; Su, Jeng-De; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Sung, Tzu-Ying; Ho, Shin-Shien; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Peng, Robert Y

    2007-09-01

    Supercritical fluid SF-CO2 treatment of Rosemarinus officinalis L. fresh leaves under optimum conditions (80 degrees C at 5,000 psi) yielded 5.3% of extract supercritical fluid extraction (SFE)-80, in which five major active principles were identified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), viz., rosmarinic acid, carnosol, 12-methoxycarnosic acid, carnosic acid, and methyl carnosate. Total phenolic content was 155.8 mg/ gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g in SFE-80, which showed 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging of 81.86% at 0.01 mg/ml. When treated in RAW 264.7, apparent dose-dependent NO inhibition occurred at dosages of 1.56 to 6.25 microg/ml, and more drastically at 12.5 and 25 microg/ml. At 0.5 to 5.0 microg/ml, SFE-80 exhibited dose-dependent viability suppression and significant tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production in Hep 3B, whereas no effect was found in Chang liver cells. Furthermore, no effect was observed in RAW 264.7 at dosages of 3.13 to 25 microg/ml, indicating that SFE-80 exhibited a noncytotoxic character. Conclusively, rosemary can be considered an herbal anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor agent. PMID:17827696

  15. Antitumor effect of metformin on cholangiocarcinoma: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Takayuki; Kato, Kiyohito; Fujihara, Shintaro; Iwama, Hisakazu; Yamashita, Takuma; Kobayashi, Kiyoyuki; Kamada, Hideki; Morishita, Asahiro; Kobara, Hideki; Mori, Hirohito; Okano, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2015-12-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the most common biliary malignancy and the second most common hepatic malignancy after hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Treatment with the anti-diabetic drug metformin has been associated with reduced cancer incidence in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thus, the present study evaluated the effects of metformin on human CCA cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo and identified the microRNAs associated with its antitumor effects. Metformin inhibited the proliferation of the CCA cell lines HuCCT-1 and TFK-1 and blocked the G0 to G1 cell cycle transition, accompanied by AMP kinase pathway activation. Metformin treatment also led to marked decreases in cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 4 protein levels and retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. However, this drug did not affect p27kip protein expression. In addition, it reduced the phosphorylation of Axl, EphA10, ALK and PYK, as well as tumor proliferation in athymic nude mice with xenograft tumors. Furthermore, it markedly altered microRNA expression. These findings suggest that metformin may have clinical use in the treatment of CCA. PMID:26398221

  16. Antitumor effect of temsirolimus against oral squamous cell carcinoma associated with bone destruction.

    PubMed

    Okui, Tatsuo; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Fukazawa, Takuya; Kurio, Naito; Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Honami, Tatsuki; Takaoka, Munenori; Naomoto, Yoshio; Sasaki, Akira

    2010-11-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is engaged in the molecular pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma, which frequently invades the maxilla or the mandible. However, the effects of a mTOR inhibitor on bone destruction associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of temsirolimus-mediated mTOR inhibition against advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma. Temsirolimus inhibited the proliferation and migration of HSC-2 oral squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro and suppressed the growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in vivo. Significantly, we clearly show that temsirolimus inhibited osteoclast formation both in vitro and in vivo. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis showed that temsirolimus decreased the mRNA expression of receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand, known as an osteoclast differentiation factor in bone stromal ST2 cells. Moreover, temsirolimus normalized blood-free calcium concentration in mouse models for humoral hypercalcemia. These findings suggest that mTOR signaling is a potential target of oral squamous cell carcinoma associated with bone destruction, and hence we describe the efficacy of temsirolimus for the treatment of advanced oral squamous carcinoma. PMID:20858724

  17. Myxoma Virus Expressing a Fusion Protein of Interleukin-15 (IL15) and IL15 Receptor Alpha Has Enhanced Antitumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tosic, Vesna; Thomas, Diana L.; Kranz, David M.; Liu, Jia; McFadden, Grant; Shisler, Joanna L.; MacNeill, Amy L.; Roy, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Myxoma virus, a rabbit poxvirus, can efficiently infect various types of mouse and human cancer cells. It is a strict rabbit-specific pathogen, and is thought to be safe as a therapeutic agent in all non-rabbit hosts tested including mice and humans. Interleukin-15 (IL15) is an immuno-modulatory cytokine with significant potential for stimulating anti-tumor T lymphocytes and NK cells. Co-expression of IL15 with the α subunit of IL15 receptor (IL15Rα) greatly enhances IL15 stability and bioavailability. Therefore, we engineered a new recombinant myxoma virus (vMyx-IL15Rα-tdTr), which expresses an IL15Rα-IL15 fusion protein plus tdTomato red fluorescent reporter protein. Permissive rabbit kidney epithelial (RK-13) cells infected with vMyx-IL15Rα-tdTr expressed and secreted the IL15Rα-IL15 fusion protein. Functional activity was confirmed by demonstrating that the secreted fusion protein stimulated proliferation of cytokine-dependent CTLL-2 cells. Multi-step growth curves showed that murine melanoma (B16-F10 and B16.SIY) cell lines were permissive to vMyx-IL15Rα-tdTr infection. In vivo experiments in RAG1-/- mice showed that subcutaneous B16-F10 tumors treated with vMyx-IL15Rα-tdTr exhibited attenuated tumor growth and a significant survival benefit for the treated group compared to the PBS control and the control viruses (vMyx-IL15-tdTr and vMyx-tdTr). Immunohistological analysis of the subcutaneous tumors showed dramatically increased infiltration of NK cells in vMyx-IL15Rα-tdTr treated tumors compared to the controls. In vivo experiments with immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice revealed a strong infiltrate of both NK cells and CD8+ T cells in response to vMyx-IL15Rα-tdTr, and prolonged survival. We conclude that delivery of IL15Rα-IL15 in a myxoma virus vector stimulates both innate and adaptive components of the immune system. PMID:25329832

  18. Antisense oligonucleotides and all-trans retinoic acid have a synergistic anti-tumor effect on oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qin; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Wantao

    2008-01-01

    Background Antisense oligonucleotides against hTR (As-ODN-hTR) have shown promising results as treatment strategies for various human malignancies. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a signalling molecule with important roles in differentiation and apoptosis. Biological responses to ATRA are currently used therapeutically in various human cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of As-ODN-hTR combined with ATRA in vivo. Methods In situ human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) models were established by subcutaneous injection of Tca8113 cells. Mice were treated with sense oligonucleotides against hTR(S-ODN-hTR) alone, As-ODN-hTR alone, ATRA alone, As-ODN-hTR plus ATRA, or S-ODN-hTR plus ATRA. Tumor size and weight were assessed in the mice. Telomerase activity was detected by a TRAP assay, apoptotic cells were evaluated with a Tunel assay, the expression of apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2 and Bax) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural morphological changes in the tumor specimen were examined. Results Both As-ODN-hTR and ATRA can significantly inhibit tumor growth in this OSCC xenograft solid-tumor model, and the combination of the two agents had a synergistic anti-tumorogenic effect. We also demonstrated that this anti-tumor effect correlated with inhibition of telomerase activity. Furthermore, significant increases in the number of apoptotic cells, typical apoptotic morphology and a downregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein, bcl-2 were observed in the treated tissues. Conclusion The combination of As-ODN-hTR and ATRA has a synergistic anti-tumor effect. This anti-tumor effect can be mainly attributed to apoptosis induced by a decrease in telomerase activity. Bcl-2 plays an important role in this process. Therefore, combining As-ODN-hTR and ATRA may be an approach for the treatment of human oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:18522733

  19. Combined expression of miR-34a and Smac mediated by oncolytic vaccinia virus synergistically promote anti-tumor effects in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Wen; Wang, Shibing; Yang, Chunmei; Huang, Xianbo; Chen, Zhenzhen; He, Wei; Shen, Jianping; Liu, Xinyuan; Qian, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Despite great progress made in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), it is still incurable. Promising phase II clinical results have been reported recently for oncolytic vaccinia virus (OVV) clinic therapeutics. One reason for this has focused on the critical therapeutic importance of the immune response raised by these viruses. However, few studies have performed their applications as an optimal delivery system for therapeutic gene, especially miRNA in MM. In this study, we constructed two novel OVVs (TK deletion) that express anti-tumor genes, miR-34a and Smac, respectively, in MM cell lines and xenograft model. The results demonstrated that the novel OVV can effectively infect MM cell lines, and forcefully enhance the exogenous gene (miR-34a or Smac) expression. Furthermore, utilization of VV-miR-34a combined with VV-Smac synergistically inhibited tumor growth and induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. The underlying mechanism is proposed that blocking of Bcl-2 by VV-miR-34a increases the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and then synergistically amplifies the antitumor effects of Smac-induced cell apoptosis. Our study is the first to utilize OVV as the vector for miR-34a or Smac expression to treat MM, and lays the groundwork for future clinical therapy for MM. PMID:27552933

  20. Combined expression of miR-34a and Smac mediated by oncolytic vaccinia virus synergistically promote anti-tumor effects in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Lei, Wen; Wang, Shibing; Yang, Chunmei; Huang, Xianbo; Chen, Zhenzhen; He, Wei; Shen, Jianping; Liu, Xinyuan; Qian, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Despite great progress made in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), it is still incurable. Promising phase II clinical results have been reported recently for oncolytic vaccinia virus (OVV) clinic therapeutics. One reason for this has focused on the critical therapeutic importance of the immune response raised by these viruses. However, few studies have performed their applications as an optimal delivery system for therapeutic gene, especially miRNA in MM. In this study, we constructed two novel OVVs (TK deletion) that express anti-tumor genes, miR-34a and Smac, respectively, in MM cell lines and xenograft model. The results demonstrated that the novel OVV can effectively infect MM cell lines, and forcefully enhance the exogenous gene (miR-34a or Smac) expression. Furthermore, utilization of VV-miR-34a combined with VV-Smac synergistically inhibited tumor growth and induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. The underlying mechanism is proposed that blocking of Bcl-2 by VV-miR-34a increases the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and then synergistically amplifies the antitumor effects of Smac-induced cell apoptosis. Our study is the first to utilize OVV as the vector for miR-34a or Smac expression to treat MM, and lays the groundwork for future clinical therapy for MM. PMID:27552933

  1. Potassium increases the antitumor effects of ascorbic acid in breast cancer cell lines in vitro

    PubMed Central

    FRAJESE, GIOVANNI VANNI; BENVENUTO, MONICA; FANTINI, MASSIMO; AMBROSIN, ELENA; SACCHETTI, PAMELA; MASUELLI, LAURA; GIGANTI, MARIA GABRIELLA; MODESTI, ANDREA; BEI, ROBERTO

    2016-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (A) has been demonstrated to exhibit anti-cancer activity in association with chemotherapeutic agents. Potassium (K) is a regulator of cellular proliferation. In the present study, the biological effects of A and K bicarbonate, alone or in combination (A+K), on breast cancer cell lines were evaluated. The survival of cancer cells was determined by sulforhodamine B cell proliferation assay, while analysis of the cell cycle distribution was conducted via fluorescence-activated cell sorting. In addition, the expression of signaling proteins was analyzed upon treatment. The results indicated that there was a heterogeneous response of the different cell lines to A and K, and the best effects were achieved by A+K and A treatment. The interaction between A+K indicated an additive or synergistic effect. In addition, A+K increased the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle, and was the most effective treatment in activating the degradation of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1. In the breast cancer cell line MCF-7, A+K induced the appearance of the 18 kDa isoform of B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X protein (Bax), which is a more potent inducer of apoptosis than the full-length Bax-p21. The effects of A and K on the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1 and ERK2 were heterogeneous. In addition, treatment with K, A and A+K inhibited the expression of nuclear factor-κB. Overall, the results of the present study indicated that K potentiated the anti-tumoral effects of A in breast cancer cells in vitro. PMID:27313770

  2. Evaluation of antitumor, immunomodulatory and free radical scavenging effects of a new herbal prescription seaweed complex preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Shao, Changlun; Kong, Wenwen; Fang, Yuchun; Wang, Changyun

    2013-09-01

    Seaweed Complex Preparation (SCP) is a clinical traditional Chinese medicine preparation which is composed of seven traditional Chinese herbs, and it has been used for treatment of lung cancer, liver cancer and digestive cancer. However, little information is available about the pharmacodynamic basis. The antitumor, immunomodulatory and free radical scavenging effects of SCP were evaluated in this study. Transplanted tumor in vivo method was used to determine the antitumor effect. The effects on splenocyte proliferation and phagocytosis of macrophages in tumor-bearing mice were measured by the MTT method and the phagocytizing cock red blood cell (CRBC) method respectively. The scavenging activities of SCP on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals in vitro were investigated. It was found that the medium-dose and high-dose of SCP could significantly inhibit the growth of transplanted hepatic tumor of murine hepatocarcinoma cell line H22, and promote proliferation of splenocytes and phagocytosis of macrophages. SCP possessed noticeable scavenging activities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. The antitumor effects of SCP might be achieved by improving immune system and scavenging free radicals, which is in accordance with the viewpoint of traditional Chinese medicine in promoting the body resistance and eliminating pathogenic factors for cancer treatment.

  3. PHY906(KD018), an adjuvant based on a 1800-year-old Chinese medicine, enhanced the anti-tumor activity of Sorafenib by changing the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Wing; Jiang, Zaoli; Guan, Fulan; Huang, Xiu; Hu, Rong; Wang, Jing; Bussom, Scott; Liu, Shwu-Huey; Zhao, Hongyu; Yen, Yun; Cheng, Yung-Chi

    2015-01-01

    PHY906 (KD018) is a four-herb Chinese Medicine Formula. It has been shown to potentially enhance the therapeutic indices of different class anticancer agents in vivo. Here, PHY906 is reported to enhance the anti-tumor activity of Sorafenib in nude mice bearing HepG2 xenografts. Among the four herbal ingredients of PHY906, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (S) and Paeonia lactiflora Pall (P) are required; however, S plays a more important role than P in increasing tumor apoptosis induced by Sorafenib with an increase of mouse(m)FasL and human(h)FasR expression. PHY906 may potentiate Sorafenib action by increasing hMCP1 expression and enhancing infiltration of macrophages into tumors with a higher M1/M2 (tumor rejection) signature expression pattern, as well as affect autophagy by increasing AMPKα-P and ULK1-S555-P of tumors. Depletion of macrophage could counteract PHY906 to potentiate the anti-tumor activity of Sorafenib. It was reported that tumor cells with higher levels of ERK1/2-P are more susceptible to Sorafenib, and the S component of PHY906 may increase ERK1/2-P via inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphatase in HepG2 tumors. PHY906 may potentiate the anti-hepatoma activity of Sorafenib by multiple mechanisms targeting on the inflammatory state of microenvironment of tumor tissue through two major ingredients (P and S) of PHY906. PMID:25819872

  4. The combination therapy of α-galactosylceramide and 5-fluorouracil showed antitumor effect synergistically against liver tumor in mice.

    PubMed

    Aketa, Hiroshi; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Kohga, Keisuke; Tsunematsu, Hinako; Aono, Satoshi; Shimizu, Satoshi; Kodama, Takahiro; Nawa, Takatoshi; Shigekawa, Minoru; Hikita, Hayato; Sakamori, Ryotaro; Hosui, Atsushi; Miyagi, Takuya; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Kanto, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Norio; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2013-09-01

    α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) has been reported to be therapeutic against metastatic liver tumors in mice. However, little is known regarding the efficacy of combined chemo-immunotherapy using α-GalCer and anticancer drugs. In this study, we evaluated the antitumor effect of the combination therapy of α-GalCer and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) against liver tumors of MC38 colon cancer cells. The liver weights of tumor-bearing mice treated with the combination were significantly lower than those of nontreated mice and of mice treated with 5-FU or α-GalCer alone. No toxic effects on the liver and renal functions were observed in any of the treatment groups. α-GalCer treatment induced significant activation of liver NK cells in vivo, but 5-FU treatment did not. 5-FU treatment resulted in a significant upregulation of NKG2D activating molecules (Rae-1 and H60) and DNAM-1 ligands (CD112 and CD155) on MC38 cells, but α-GalCer did not. The cytolytic activity of α-GalCer-activated liver mononuclear cells against 5-FU-treated MC38 cells was significantly higher than that against nontreated cells. The increase of the cytolytic activity induced by 5-FU partially depended on NKG2D-Rae-1 or H60 signals. Depletion of NK cells significantly inhibited the antitumor efficacy of 5-FU against MC38 liver tumors, which suggested that the antitumor effect of 5-FU partially depended on the cytolytic activity of NK cells. These results demonstrated that the combination therapy of α-GalCer and 5-FU produced synergistic antitumor effects against liver tumors by increasing the expression of NK activating molecules on cancer cells. This study suggests a promising new chemo-immunotherapy against metastatic liver cancer. PMID:23420533

  5. Anti-Tumor Effects of Second Generation β-Hydroxylase Inhibitors on Cholangiocarcinoma Development and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Waihong; de la Monte, Suzanne; Thomas, John-Michael; Olsen, Mark; Carlson, Rolf; Yu, Tunan; Dong, Xiaoqun; Wands, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has a poor prognosis due to widespread intrahepatic spread. Aspartate β-hydroxylase (ASPH) is a transmembrane protein and catalyzes the hydroxylation of aspartyl and asparaginyl residues in calcium binding epidermal growth factor (cbEGF)-like domains of various proteins, including Notch receptors and ligands. ASPH is highly overexpressed (>95%) in human CCA tumors. We explored the molecular mechanisms by which ASPH mediated the CCA malignant phenotype and evaluated the potential of ASPH as a therapeutic target for CCA. The importance of expression and enzymatic activity of ASPH for CCA growth and progression was examined using shRNA “knockdown” and a mutant construct that reduced its catalytic activity. Second generation small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) of β-hydroxylase activity were developed and used to target ASPH in vitro and in vivo. Subcutaneous and intrahepatic xenograft rodent models were employed to determine anti-tumor effects on CCA growth and development. It was found that the enzymatic activity of ASPH was critical for mediating CCA progression, as well as inhibiting apoptosis. Mechanistically, ASPH overexpression promoted Notch activation and modulated CCA progression through a Notch1-dependent cyclin D1 pathway. Targeting ASPH with shRNAs or a SMI significantly suppressed CCA growth in vivo. PMID:26954680

  6. Mechanisms underlying the anti-tumoral effects of Citrus Bergamia juice.

    PubMed

    Delle Monache, Simona; Sanità, Patrizia; Trapasso, Elena; Ursino, Maria Rita; Dugo, Paola; Russo, Marina; Ferlazzo, Nadia; Calapai, Gioacchino; Angelucci, Adriano; Navarra, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Based on the growing deal of data concerning the biological activity of flavonoid-rich natural products, the aim of the present study was to explore in vitro the potential anti-tumoral activity of Citrus Bergamia (bergamot) juice (BJ), determining its molecular interaction with cancer cells. Here we show that BJ reduced growth rate of different cancer cell lines, with the maximal growth inhibition observed in neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) after 72 hs of exposure to 5% BJ. The SH-SY5Y antiproliferative effect elicited by BJ was not due to a cytotoxic action and it did not induce apoptosis. Instead, BJ stimulated the arrest in the G1 phase of cell cycle and determined a modification in cellular morphology, causing a marked increase of detached cells. The inhibition of adhesive capacity on different physiologic substrates and on endothelial cells monolayer were correlated with an impairment of actin filaments, a reduction in the expression of the active form of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) that in turn caused inhibition of cell migration. In parallel, BJ seemed to hinder the association between the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and FAK. Our data suggest a mechanisms through which BJ can inhibit important molecular pathways related to cancer-associated aggressive phenotype and offer new suggestions for further studies on the role of BJ in cancer treatment. PMID:23613861

  7. Magnetic properties and antitumor effect of nanocomplexes of iron oxide and doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Orel, Valerii; Shevchenko, Anatoliy; Romanov, Andriy; Tselepi, Marina; Mitrelias, Thanos; Barnes, Crispin H W; Burlaka, Anatoliy; Lukin, Sergey; Shchepotin, Igor

    2015-01-01

    We present a technology and magneto-mechanical milling chamber for the magneto-mechano-chemical synthesis (MMCS) of magneto-sensitive complex nanoparticles (MNC) comprising nanoparticles Fe3O4 and anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOXO). Magnetic properties of MNC were studied with vibrating magnetometer and electron paramagnetic resonance. Under the influence of mechano-chemical and MMCS, the complex show a hysteresis curve, which is typical for soft ferromagnetic materials. We also demonstrate that Lewis lung carcinoma had a hysteresis loop typical for a weak soft ferromagnet in contrast to surrounding tissues, which were diamagnetic. Combined action of constant magnetic field and radio frequency moderate inductive hyperthermia (RFH) below 40°C and MNC was found to induce greater antitumor and antimetastatic effects as compared to conventional DOXO. Radiospectroscopy shows minimal activity of FeS-protein electron transport chain of mitochondria, and an increase in the content of non-heme iron complexes with nitric oxide in the tumor tissues under the influence of RFH and MNC. PMID:25101880

  8. Controlled Release and Antitumor Effect of Pluronic F127 Mixed with Cisplatin in a Rabbit Model

    SciTech Connect

    Sonoda, Akinaga Nitta, Norihisa; Ohta, Shinich; Nitta-Seko, Ayumi; Morikawa, Shigehiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Masashi; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate pluronic F127 for the controlled release of cisplatin in a rabbit model. Pluronic F127 becomes liquid at temperatures <25{sup o}C and converts to a gelatinous state at temperatures between 25 and 60{sup o}C. Six Japanese white rabbits were injected with pluronic + cisplatin (n = 3, renal group A) or saline + cisplatin (n = 3, renal group B) to measure the platinum concentration in kidneys. Another 25 rabbits with VX2 liver tumors were divided into five equal groups. They were injected with saline, saline + cisplatin, iodized oil + cisplatin, pluronic alone, or pluronic + cisplatin and labeled as liver groups A, B, C, D, and E, respectively. The antitumor effect of pluronic was then assessed. In the presence of pluronic, the platinum concentration in the kidneys of rabbits remained relatively high. In animals with liver tumors, the delivery of pluronic + cisplatin produced higher tumor reduction rates (P < 0.05) than in the other groups, without apparent damage to normal liver tissue. We conclude that pluronic is useful for the controlled release of cisplatin in a rabbit model.

  9. Anti-tumor effects of dehydroaltenusin, a specific inhibitor of mammalian DNA polymerase {alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Naoki; Kokai, Yasuo; Ohtani, Seiji; Sahara, Hiroeki; Kuriyama, Isoko; Kamisuki, Shinji; Takahashi, Shunya; Sakaguchi, Kengo; Sugawara, Fumio; Yoshida, Hiromi; Sato, Noriyuki; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki . E-mail: mizushin@nutr.kobegakuin.ac.jp

    2007-01-12

    In the screening of selective inhibitors of eukaryotic DNA polymerases (pols), dehydroaltenusin was found to be an inhibitor of pol {alpha} from a fungus (Alternaria tennuis). We succeeded in chemically synthesizing dehydroaltenusin, and the compound inhibited only mammalian pol {alpha} with IC{sub 50} value of 0.5 {mu}M, and did not influence the activities of other replicative pols such as pols {delta} and {epsilon}, but also showed no effect on pol {alpha} activity from another vertebrate, fish, or from a plant species. Dehydroaltenusin also had no influence on the other pols and DNA metabolic enzymes tested. The compound also inhibited the proliferation of human cancer cells with LD{sub 50} values of 38.0-44.4 {mu}M. In an in vivo anti-tumor assay on nude mice bearing solid tumors of HeLa cells, dehydroaltenusin was shown to be a promising suppressor of solid tumors. Histopathological examination revealed that increased tumor necrosis and decreased mitotic index were apparently detected by the compound in vivo. Therefore, dehydroaltenusin could be of interest as not only a mammalian pol {alpha}-specific inhibitor, but also as a candidate drug for anti-cancer treatment.

  10. Antitumor effect of murine dendritic and tumor cells transduced with IL-2 gene.

    PubMed

    Wojas-Turek, Justyna; Pajtasz-Piasecka, Elżbieta; Rossowska, Joanna; Piasecki, Egbert; Duś, Danuta

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin (IL-) 2 acts on a number of types of immune cells promoting their effector functions. To replace systemic administration of recombinant form of this cytokine, various genetically modified cells have been used indifferent preclinical models for tumor growth inhibition. In this study, dendritic or tumor cells transduced with retroviral vector carrying IL-2 gene (JAWS II/IL-2, X63/IL-2, MC38/IL-2 cells) alone or combined with tumor antigen-stimulated dendritic cells (JAWS II/TAg) were exploited to treat colon carcinoma MC38-bearing mice. After the peritumoral injection of vaccine cells, the tumor growth delay and the increase in the number of tumor infiltrating CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T lymphocytes were noted. A considerable increase in CD4⁺ cell influx into tumor tissue was observed when JAWS II/IL-2 cells or JAWS II/TAg with syngeneic MC38/IL-2 cells were applied. The increase in intensity of CD8⁺ cell infiltration was associated with immune reaction triggered by the same combination of applied cells or JAWS II/TAg with allogeneic X63/IL-2 cells. The effect observed in vivo was accompanied by MC38/0 cell specific cytotoxic activity of spleen cells in vitro. Thus, the application of vaccines, including IL-2-secreting cells of various origins, was able to induce different antitumor responses polarized by exogenous IL-2 and the encountered tumor antigen. PMID:23042272

  11. Design, Synthesis of Novel Platinum(II) Glycoconjugates, and Evaluation of Their Antitumor Effects.

    PubMed

    Han, Jianbin; Gao, Xiangqian; Liu, Ran; Yang, Jinna; Zhang, Menghua; Mi, Yi; Shi, Ying; Gao, Qingzhi

    2016-06-01

    A new series of sugar-conjugated (trans-R, R-cyclohexane-1, 2-diamine)-2-halo-malonato-platinum(II) complexes were designed and synthesized to target tumor-specific glucose transporters (GLUTs). The water solubility of the sugar-conjugated platinum (II) complexes was greatly improved by average of 570-fold, 33-fold, and 94-fold, respectively, compared to cisplatin (1.0 mg/mL), carboplatin (17.1 mg/mL), and the newest generation of clinical drug oxaliplatin (6.0 mg/mL). Despite the high water solubility, the platinum(II) glycoconjugates exhibited a notable increase in cytotoxicity by a margin of 1.5- to 6.0-fold in six different human cancer cell lines with respect to oxaliplatin. The potential GLUT1 transportability of the complexes was investigated through a molecular docking study and was confirmed with GLUT1 inhibitor-mediated cytotoxicity dependency evaluation. The results showed that the sugar-conjugated platinum(II) complexes can be recognized by the glucose recognition binding site of GLUT1 and their cell killing effect depends highly on the GLUT1 inhibitor, quercetin. The research presenting a prospective concept for targeted therapy anticancer drug design, and with the analysis of the synthesis, water solubility, antitumor activity, and the transportability of the platinum(II) glycoconjugates, this study provides fundamental data supporting the inherent potential of these designed conjugates as lead compounds for GLUT-mediated tumor targeting. PMID:26706102

  12. Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-Tumoral Effects of Citrus bergamia Juice

    PubMed Central

    Delle Monache, Simona; Sanità, Patrizia; Trapasso, Elena; Ursino, Maria Rita; Dugo, Paola; Russo, Marina; Ferlazzo, Nadia; Calapai, Gioacchino; Angelucci, Adriano; Navarra, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Based on the growing deal of data concerning the biological activity of flavonoid-rich natural products, the aim of the present study was to explore in vitro the potential anti-tumoral activity of Citrus Bergamia (bergamot) juice (BJ), determining its molecular interaction with cancer cells. Here we show that BJ reduced growth rate of different cancer cell lines, with the maximal growth inhibition observed in neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) after 72 hs of exposure to 5% BJ. The SH-SY5Y antiproliferative effect elicited by BJ was not due to a cytotoxic action and it did not induce apoptosis. Instead, BJ stimulated the arrest in the G1 phase of cell cycle and determined a modification in cellular morphology, causing a marked increase of detached cells. The inhibition of adhesive capacity on different physiologic substrates and on endothelial cells monolayer were correlated with an impairment of actin filaments, a reduction in the expression of the active form of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) that in turn caused inhibition of cell migration. In parallel, BJ seemed to hinder the association between the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and FAK. Our data suggest a mechanisms through which BJ can inhibit important molecular pathways related to cancer-associated aggressive phenotype and offer new suggestions for further studies on the role of BJ in cancer treatment. PMID:23613861

  13. Antitumor effects and immune regulation activities of a purified polysaccharide extracted from Juglan regia.

    PubMed

    Ruijun, Wang; Shi, Wang; Yijun, Xia; Mengwuliji, Tu; Lijuan, Zhang; Yumin, Wang

    2015-01-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide, named as JRP1, was extracted and fractioned from the epicarp of immature fruit of Juglans mandshurica Maxim. The determination of the monosaccharide composition in JRP1 with gas chromatography (GC) showed that JRP1 was composed of Gal (43.1%), Glu (23.6%), Ara (16.2%), Rha (9.8%) and Fru (7.3%). The results in vitro showed that 25, 50 and 100 μg/mL of JRP1 could present a significant inhibition on the growth of S180 cells, and furthermore, a significant improvement on the proliferation ability of lymphocytes and the phagocytic activity of macrophages. The results in vivo showed that compared with those in the control group, the inhibition rates of different doses of JRP1 on S180 cells in the tumor-bearing mice were 35.3%, 40.6% and 48.1%, respectively, and serum immune cytokine levels such as IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ were significantly improved. Our results confirm that JRP1 has the activities of effective antitumor and immunomodulatory function. PMID:25265339

  14. Antitumor effects of calgranulin B internalized in human colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Byong Chul; Ku, Ja-Lok; Shin, Young-Kyoung; Cho, Jae Youl; Kim, Minjae; Kwon, Myung-Hee; Goh, Sung Ho; Chang, Hee Jin; Oh, Jae Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Calgranulin B is a small, calcium-binding protein expressed in neutrophils that is secreted into the tumor microenvironment in cancer cases. We previously showed that calgranulin B levels are increased in the stools of colorectal cancer patients. In patient tumor tissues, calgranulin B protein levels correlated with the presence of stromal inflammatory cells surrounding tumor cells, and calgranulin B promoter methylation was observed in both paired human tissues and colon cancer cell lines. Cell lines did not express calgranulin B, but in vitro studies showed that colon cancer cells internalized extracellular calgranulin B, while other types of cancer cells did not. Calgranulin B internalization led to reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptotic cell death. AKT and ERK signals were also increased after calgranulin B treatment, as were p53, β-catenin, E-cadherin and cleaved caspase-3 levels. Additionally, a human protein microarray identified aurora A kinase as a calgranulin B binding partner, and binding inhibited aurora A kinase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate the antitumor effects of calgranulin B in the inflammatory microenvironment and suggest that calgranulin B could be potentially efficacious in the treatment of colon cancer. PMID:26933915

  15. Anti-Tumor Effects of Ketogenic Diets in Mice: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Klement, Rainer J.; Champ, Colin E.; Otto, Christoph; Kämmerer, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Background Currently ketogenic diets (KDs) are hyped as an anti-tumor intervention aimed at exploiting the metabolic abnormalities of cancer cells. However, while data in humans is sparse, translation of murine tumor models to the clinic is further hampered by small sample sizes, heterogeneous settings and mixed results concerning tumor growth retardation. The aim was therefore to synthesize the evidence for a growth inhibiting effect of KDs when used as a monotherapy in mice. Methods We conducted a Bayesian random effects meta-analysis on all studies assessing the survival (defined as the time to reach a pre-defined endpoint such as tumor volume) of mice on an unrestricted KD compared to a high carbohydrate standard diet (SD). For 12 studies meeting the inclusion criteria either a mean survival time ratio (MR) or hazard ratio (HR) between the KD and SD groups could be obtained. The posterior estimates for the MR and HR averaged over four priors on the between-study heterogeneity τ2 were MR = 0.85 (95% highest posterior density interval (HPDI) = [0.73, 0.97]) and HR = 0.55 (95% HPDI = [0.26, 0.87]), indicating a significant overall benefit of the KD in terms of prolonged mean survival times and reduced hazard rate. All studies that used a brain tumor model also chose a late starting point for the KD (at least one day after tumor initiation) which accounted for 26% of the heterogeneity. In this subgroup the KD was less effective (MR = 0.89, 95% HPDI = [0.76, 1.04]). Conclusions There was an overall tumor growth delaying effect of unrestricted KDs in mice. Future experiments should aim at differentiating the effects of KD timing versus tumor location, since external evidence is currently consistent with an influence of both of these factors. PMID:27159218

  16. Optimized anti-tumor effects of anthracyclines plus Vinca alkaloids using a novel, mechanism-based application schedule.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, Harald; Schrembs, David; Moritz, Christian; Wachter, Franziska; Haldar, Subrata; Graubner, Ulrike; Nathrath, Michaela; Jeremias, Irmela

    2011-12-01

    Application of anthracyclines and Vinca alkaloids on the same day represents a hallmark of polychemotherapy protocols for hematopoietic malignancies. Here we show, for the first time, that both drugs might act most efficiently if they are applied on different days. Proof-of-concept studies in 18 cell lines revealed that anthracyclines inhibited cell death by Vinca alkaloids in 83% of cell lines. Importantly, in a preclinical mouse model, doxorubicin reduced the anti-tumor effect of vincristine. Both drugs acted in a sequence-dependent manner and the strongest anti-tumor effect was obtained if both drugs were applied on different days. Most notably for clinical relevance, in 34% of 35 fresh primary childhood leukemia cells tested in vitro, doxorubicin reduced the anti-tumor effect of vincristine. As underlying mechanism, doxorubicin activated p53, p53 induced cell-cycle arrest, and cell-cycle arrest disabled inactivation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members by vincristine; therefore, vincristine was unable to activate downstream apoptosis signaling. As molecular proof, antagonism was rescued by knockdown of p53, whereas knockdown of cyclin A inhibited vincristine-induced apoptosis. Our data suggest evaluating anthracyclines and Vinca alkaloids on different days in future trials. Selecting drug combinations based on mechanistic understanding represents a novel conceptional strategy for potent polychemotherapy protocols. PMID:21926351

  17. Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) Hydrolysates Produced on a Plant Scale Have Antitumor Activity and Immunostimulating Effects in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Kai; He, Hai-Lun; Wang, Guo-Fan; Wu, Hao; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Oyster extracts have been reported to have many bioactive peptides. But the function of oyster peptides produced by proteolysis is still unknown. In this study, the oligopeptide-enriched hydrolysates from oyster (Crassostrea gigas) were produced using the protease from Bacillus sp. SM98011 at laboratory level, and scaled up to pilot (100 L) and plant (1,000 L) levels with the same conditions. And the antitumor activity and immunostimulating effects of the oyster hydrolysates in BALB/c mice were investigated. The growth of transplantable sarcoma-S180 was obviously inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in BALB/c mice given the oyster hydrolysates. Mice receiving 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/g of body weight by oral gavage had 6.8%, 30.6% and 48% less tumor growth, respectively. Concurrently, the weight coefficients of the thymus and the spleen, the activity of natural killer (NK) cells, the spleen proliferation of lymphocytes and the phagocytic rate of macrophages in S180-bearing mice significantly increased after administration of the oyster hydrolysates. These results demonstrated that oyster hydrolysates produced strong immunostimulating effects in mice, which might result in its antitumor activity. The antitumor and immunostimulating effects of oyster hydrolysates prepared in this study reveal its potential for tumor therapy and as a dietary supplement with immunostimulatory activity. PMID:20390104

  18. Anti-tumor effects of genetic vaccines against HPV major oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Marcelo Nazário; Paolini, Francesca; Massa, Silvia; Curzio, Gianfranca; Illiano, Elena; Duarte Silva, Anna Jéssica; Franconi, Rosella; Bissa, Massimiliano; Morghen, Carlo De Giuli; de Freitas, Antonio Carlos; Venuti, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Expression of HPV E5, E6 and E7 oncogenes are likely to overcome the regulation of cell proliferation and to escape immunological control, allowing uncontrolled growth and providing the potential for malignant transformation. Thus, their three oncogenic products may represent ideal target antigens for immunotherapeutic strategies. In previous attempts, we demonstrated that genetic vaccines against recombinant HPV16 E7 antigen were able to affect the tumor growth in a pre-clinical mouse model. To improve this anti-HPV strategy we developed a novel approach in which we explored the effects of E5-based genetic immunization. We designed novel HPV16 E5 genetic vaccines based on two different gene versions: whole E5 gene and E5Multi. The last one is a long multi epitope gene designed as a harmless E5 version. Both E5 genes were codon optimized for mammalian expression. In addition, we demonstrated that HPV 16 E5 oncogene is expressed in C3 mouse cell line making it an elective model for the study of E5 based vaccine. In this mouse model the immunological and biological activity of the E5 vaccines were assessed in parallel with the activity of anti-E7 and anti-E6 vaccines already reported to be effective in an immunotherapeutic setting. These E7 and E6 vaccines were made with mutated oncogenes, the E7GGG mutant that does not bind pRb and the E6F47R mutant that is less effective in inhibiting p53, respectively. Results confirmed the immunological activity of genetic formulations based on attenuated HPV16 oncogenes and showed that E5-based genetic immunization provided notable anti-tumor effects. PMID:25483514

  19. Alarmin IL-33 acts as an immunoadjuvant for enhancing antigen-specific cell-mediated immunity resulting in potent anti-tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Daniel O.; Wise, Megan C.; Walters, Jewell N.; Reuschel, Emma; Choi, Min Joung; Obeng-Adjei, Nyamekye; Yan, Jian; Morrow, Matthew P.; Weiner, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin 33 (IL-33) has emerged as a cytokine that can exhibit pleiotropic properties. Here we examine IL-33 for its immunoadjuvant effects in an HPV-associated cancer immune therapy model in which cell-mediated immunity is critical for protection. It is known that two biologically active forms of IL-33 exist: full-length IL-33 and mature IL-33. The potential ability of both isoforms to act as vaccine adjuvants to influence the CD4 Th1 and CD8 T cell immune responses has not been well defined. We show that both isoforms of IL-33 are capable of enhancing potent antigen (Ag)-specific effector and memory T cell immunity in vivo in a DNA vaccine setting. We also show that while both forms of IL-33 drove robust IFN-γ responses, neither form drove high secretion of IL-4 or any elevation of IgE levels. Moreover, both isoforms augmented vaccine-induced Ag-specific polyfunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses, with a large proportion of CD8+ T cells undergoing cytolytic plurifunctional degranulation. Therapeutic studies indicated that established TC-1-bearing mice undergo rapid and complete regression after therapeutic vaccination with both IL-33 adjuvant isoforms used in conjunction with an HPV DNA vaccine. Furthermore, using the P14 transgenic mouse model, we show that IL-33 can significantly expand the magnitude of Ag-specific CD8+ T cell responses and elicit bonafide effector-memory CD8+ T cells. Overall, the data suggests the potential use of these two IL-33 isoforms as immunoadjuvant candidates in future vaccination against other pathogens and in the context of anti-tumor immune-based therapy. PMID:24448242

  20. SCIB2, an antibody DNA vaccine encoding NY-ESO-1 epitopes, induces potent antitumor immunity which is further enhanced by checkpoint blockade

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Wei; Metheringham, Rachael L.; Brentville, Victoria A.; Gunn, Barbara; Symonds, Peter; Yagita, Hideo; Ramage, Judith M.; Durrant, Lindy G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Checkpoint blockade has demonstrated promising antitumor responses in approximately 10–40% of patients. However, the majority of patients do not make a productive immune response to their tumors and do not respond to checkpoint blockade. These patients may benefit from an effective vaccine that stimulates high-avidity T cell responses in combination with checkpoint blockade. We have previously shown that incorporating TRP-2 and gp100 epitopes into the CDR regions of a human IgG1 DNA (ImmunoBody®: IB) results in significant tumor regression both in animal models and patients. This vaccination strategy is superior to others as it targets antigen to antigen-presenting cells and stimulates high-avidity T cell responses. To broaden the application of this vaccination strategy, 16 NY-ESO-1 epitopes, covering over 80% of HLA phenotypes, were incorporated into the IB (SCIB2). They produced higher frequency and avidity T cell responses than peptide vaccination. These T cells were of sufficient avidity to kill NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor cells, and in vivo controlled the growth of established B16-NY-ESO-1 tumors, resulting in long-term survival (35%). When SCIB2 was given in combination with Treg depletion, CTLA-4 blockade or PD-1 blockade, long-term survival from established tumors was significantly enhanced to 56, 67 and 100%, respectively. Translating these responses into the clinic by using a combination of SCIB2 vaccination and checkpoint blockade can only further improve clinical responses. PMID:27471648

  1. Antitumor effect and mechanism of an ellagic acid derivative on the HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, HUI; GUO, ZENG-JUN; XU, WEN-MING; YOU, XIAO-JUAN; HAN, LING; HAN, YAN-XIA; DAI, LIU-JIANG

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, to identify the effective components of Chinese traditional herbs, Euphorbia hylonoma Hand.-Mazz. (Euphorbiaceae), a folk herb that has been used among the Qinling mountain area for hundreds of years, was investigated. 3,3′-Di-O-methyl ellagic acid-4′-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (JNE2), an ellagic acid derivative, was isolated from the acetone extract of the herb and its antitumor activity against human hepatoma HepG2 cells was detected in vitro. The results showed that JNE2 inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and blocked the cell cycle at the G1/S phase. A high dosage of JNE2 induced apoptosis of the tumor cells, but no significant differences were identified between the treatment groups. The invasiveness of HepG2 cells was also inhibited by JNE2. The mechanism of the antitumor effect of JNE2 at the molecular level was presumed to be due to the upregulation of the protein expression of Bax and caspase-3, and the downregulation of the protein expression of Bcl-2 and CCND1. The results suggested that JNE2 is a potential antitumor agent that merits further investigation. PMID:24396481

  2. In vitro antitumor effects of two novel oligostilbenes, cis- and trans-suffruticosol D, isolated from Paeonia suffruticosa seeds.

    PubMed

    Almosnid, Nadin Marwan; Gao, Ying; He, Chunnian; Park, Hyo Sim; Altman, Elliot

    2016-02-01

    Naturally derived stilbenes have been shown to elicit cytotoxic, anti-steroidal, anti-mutagenic, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor bioactivities. Previous phytochemical studies revealed that the seeds of Paeonia suffruticosa are rich in natural stilbenes. In this study the antitumor effects and mechanism of action of the oligostilbene isomers, cis- and trans-suffruticosol D, isolated from the seeds of P. suffruticosa were examined. cis- and trans-suffruticosol D exhibited remarkable cytotoxicity against the human cancer cell lines A549 (lung), BT20 (breast), MCF-7 (breast), and U2OS (osteosarcoma), but showed significantly less toxicity to the normal human cell lines HMEC (breast) and HPL1A (lung). We also demonstrated that cis- and trans-suffruticosol D exerted their antitumor effects by provoking oxidative stress, stimulating apoptosis, decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibiting cell motility, and blocking the NF-κB pathway in human lung cancer cells. In addition, we evaluated their respective bioefficacy and found that trans-suffruticosol D is more potent than cis-suffruticosol D. Collectively, our results suggest that cis- and trans-suffruticosol D could be promising chemotherapeutic agents against cancer. PMID:26647827

  3. Effect of the antitumoral alkylating agent 3-bromopyruvate on mitochondrial respiration: role of mitochondrially bound hexokinase.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-Ferreira, Clara; da Silva, Ana Paula Pereira; Galina, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    The alkylating agent 3-Bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) has been used as an anti-tumoral drug due to its anti-proliferative property in hepatomas cells. This propriety is believed to disturb glycolysis and respiration, which leads to a decreased rate of ATP synthesis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the alkylating agent 3-BrPA on the respiratory states and the metabolic steps of the mitochondria of mice liver, brain and in human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2. The mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)), O(2) consumption and dehydrogenase activities were rapidly dissipated/or inhibited by 3-BrPA in respiration medium containing ADP and succinate as respiratory substrate. 3-BrPA inhibition was reverted by reduced glutathione (GSH). Respiration induced by yeast soluble hexokinase (HK) was rapidly inhibited by 3-BrPA. Similar results were observed using mice brain mitochondria that present HK naturally bound to the outer mitochondrial membrane. When the adenine nucleotide transporter (ANT) was blocked by the carboxyatractiloside, the 3-BrPA effect was significantly delayed. In permeabilized human hepatoma HepG2 cells that present HK type II bound to mitochondria (mt-HK II), the inhibiting effect occurred faster when the endogenous HK activity was activated by 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG). Inhibition of mt-HK II by glucose-6-phosphate retards the mitochondria to react with 3-BrPA. The HK activities recovered in HepG2 cells treated or not with 3-BrPA were practically the same. These results suggest that mitochondrially bound HK supporting the ADP/ATP exchange activity levels facilitates the 3-BrPA inhibition reaction in tumors mitochondria by a proton motive force-dependent dynamic equilibrium between sensitive and less sensitive SDH in the electron transport system. PMID:22322891

  4. Antitumor effects of different administration sequences of cisplatin and Endostar on Lewis lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    FAN, JUAN; DU, JIANGRONG; WU, JINGBO; FU, SHAOZHI; HU, DEFENG; WAN, QIANG

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays an essential role in the growth and metastasis of a number of tumors. Anti-angiogenic drugs are able to normalize tumor vasculature and inhibit tumor growth. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that the combination of cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs and angiogenesis inhibitors may exert complementary therapeutic benefits in the treatment of cancer. In the present study, the effect of the angiogenesis inhibitor, recombinant human endostatin (Endostar), in combination with cisplatin, was evaluated in C57/BL/6 mouse xenografts under different administration sequences. The drug combinations and sequences of administration were analyzed within the cancer xenografts for any inhibitory effects. Changes in the cell cycle distribution of the cells were monitored using flow cytometry. The effects of Endostar, particularly a reduction in the density of microvessels, were assessed using a method that employed anti-cluster of differentiation 31 antibodies. The concentration of cisplatin in the blood and tumor tissue at various time-points following administration was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. The tumor tissues that received simultaneous Endostar and cisplatin exhibited increased inhibition of tumor growth and improved cell cycle distribution compared with those that received cisplatin alone, or those in which Endostar was administered prior to cisplatin. The simultaneous administration of the drugs resulted in the lowest microvessel density in the xenografts. Under these conditions, the concentration of cisplatin was revealed to be the highest in the grafted tumor tissue. The results of the present study suggest that the co-administration of Endostar and cisplatin may aid in the optimization of the antitumor activity of cisplatin. PMID:25624906

  5. Antitumor effect and antiangiogenic potential of the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus against malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Makio; Yamada, Tadaaki; Tamura, Masaya; Ishikawa, Daisuke; Hoda, Mir Alireza; Matsumoto, Isao; Klepetko, Walter; Oda, Makoto; Yano, Seiji; Watanabe, Go

    2014-03-01

    The mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus has antitumor and antiangiogenic activity against several carcinomas, yet few reports document the efficacy of temsirolimus against malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of temsirolimus and the antiangiogenic effect of temsirolimus in the treatment of MPM. We examined the efficacy of temsirolimus alone and the efficacy of the combination of temsirolimus and cisplatin or pemetrexed against four MPM cell lines using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effect of temsirolimus on the production of proangiogenic cytokines by MPM cell lines was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Expression of mTOR and proangiogenic cytokines in clinical specimens from MPM patients was determined by immunohistochemistry. Temsirolimus inhibited cell viability and suppressed cell proliferation of all MPM cell lines. Combined treatment with temsirolimus and cisplatin inhibited the viability of all MPM cell lines more effectively than temsirolimus alone. Temsirolimus strongly inhibited the phosphorylation of p70s6k, a downstream molecule of mTOR, in all MPM cell lines and led to an increase in the levels of cleaved caspase-3 in the H226 and Y-meso14 cells. Temsirolimus also inhibited the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA). Phosphorylated mTOR and high expression of VEGF and PDGF were detected in 2 and 3, respectively, out of the 5 MPM specimens. These results suggest that temsirolimus has activity against MPM cells by inhibition of cell proliferation and angiogenesis, and may be beneficial for a subset of MPM patients with high mTOR expression. PMID:24378576

  6. Antitumor effects and molecular mechanisms of ponatinib on endometrial cancer cells harboring activating FGFR2 mutations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hee; Kwak, Yeonui; Kim, Nam Doo; Sim, Taebo

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant mutational activation of FGFR2 is associated with endometrial cancers (ECs). AP24534 (ponatinib) currently undergoing clinical trials has been known to be an orally available multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Our biochemical kinase assay showed that AP24534 is potent against wild-type FGFR1-4 and 5 mutant FGFRs (V561M-FGFR1, N549H-FGFR2, K650E-FGFR3, G697C-FGFR3, N535K-FGFR4) and possesses the strongest kinase-inhibitory activity on N549H-FGFR2 (IC50 of 0.5 nM) among all FGFRs tested. We therefore investigated the effects of AP24534 on endometrial cancer cells harboring activating FGFR2 mutations and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. AP24534 significantly inhibited the proliferation of endometrial cancer cells bearing activating FGFR2 mutations (N549K, K310R/N549K, S252W) and mainly induced G1/S cell cycle arrest leading to apoptosis. AP24534 also diminished the kinase activity of immunoprecipitated FGFR2 derived from MFE-296 and MFE-280 cells and reduced the phosphorylation of FGFR2 and FRS2 on MFE-296 and AN3CA cells. AP24534 caused substantial reductions in ERK phosphorylation, PLCγ signaling and STAT5 signal transduction on ECs bearing FGFR2 activating mutations. Akt signaling pathway was also deactivated by AP24534. AP24534 causes the chemotherapeutic effect through mainly the blockade of ERK, PLCγ and STAT5 signal transduction on ECs. Moreover, AP24534 inhibited migration and invasion of endometrial cancer cells with FGFR2 mutations. In addition, AP24534 significantly blocked anchorage-independent growth of endometrial cancer cells. We, for the first time, report the molecular mechanisms by which AP24534 exerts antitumor effects on ECs with FGFR2 activating mutations, which would provide mechanistic insight into ongoing clinical investigations of AP24534 for ECs. PMID:26574622

  7. PLK1 is a critical determinant of tumor cell sensitivity to CPT11 and its inhibition enhances the drug antitumor efficacy in squamous cell carcinoma models sensitive and resistant to camptothecins.

    PubMed

    Zuco, Valentina; De Cesare, Michelandrea; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Lanzi, Cinzia; Cassinelli, Giuliana

    2015-04-20

    Intrinsic and acquired tumor drug resistance limits the therapeutic efficacy of camptothecins (CPTs). Downregulation of the mitotic kinase PLK1 was found associated with apoptosis induced by SN38 (CPT11 active metabolite). We investigated the role of PLK1 in the cell response to CPTs in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and pediatric sarcoma cell lines and explored the therapeutic potential of the combination of CPT11 and the PLK1 inhibitor BI2536 in CPT-sensitive and -resistant tumor models. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments established a direct role for PLK1 in counteracting SN38 antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects. The ability to activate an efficient G2/M cell cycle checkpoint allowing PLK1 ubiquitination and degradation was found associated with SN38-induced apoptosis in SCC cells. However, the synergistic interaction between SN38 and BI2536 enhanced apoptosis in cell lines both sensitive and resistant to SN38-induced apoptotic cell death. A well-tolerated CPT11/BI2536 cotreatment resulted in improved antitumor effect against SCC xenografts in mice compared to single agent treatments. The increased apoptosis induction was reflected in a high rate of complete responses and cures in mice harboring SCC, including tumors with intrinsic or acquired resistance to CPTs. PLK1 inhibition represents a promising strategy to improve the antitumor efficacy of CPT11-based regimens. PMID:25826089

  8. In vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of novel actinomycin D analogs with amino acid substituted in the cyclic depsipeptides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bang-zhi; Wang, Kai-rong; Yan, Jie-xi; Zhang, Wei; Song, Jing-jing; Ni, Jing-man; Wang, Rui

    2010-04-01

    The actinomycin D (AMD) analogs in which the D-valine residues (the second amino acid residue in the cyclic depsipeptide of AMD) and the N-methyl-L-valine residues (the fifth amino acid residue in the cyclic depsipeptide of AMD) were replaced with D-Phe or l- and D-forms N-methylvalines, N-methylisoleucine, N-methylleucine, N-methylphenylalanine, N-methylalanine, and sarcosine were synthesized. The antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic activities of these compounds in vitro were investigated. The results showed that most D-valine substituted analogs had much lower antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic activities in vitro than AMD itself, but three N-methyl-L-valine substituted analogs had comparable or even more remarkable cytotoxic activities in vitro than AMD. Acute toxicities and antitumor effects of the N-methyl-L-valine substituted analogs in mice were also examined. The result showed that the acute toxicity of compound 4 L-methylleucine(5)-AMD analog is comparable to AMD itself and that of compound 3(L-Methylisoleucine(5)-AMD analog) is slightly more toxic, about 1.25-fold than AMD. However, the acute toxicity of compound 5 D-methylleucine5-AMD analog is about 2-fold lower than AMD. This suggested that the N-methyl-D-amino acid replacement in the cyclic ring might play a vital role in their decreased acute toxicities, and perhaps the N-methyl-D-leucine substituent is more favorable, though there may be a slight loss of antitumor activity. This finding may be helpful for the design and development of more potent antitumor agents together with low acute toxicity, and suggests that the N-methyl-D-leucine substituent has the potential to be used as antitumor drug lead. PMID:20045716

  9. Gecko Proteins Exert Anti-Tumor Effect against Cervical Cancer Cells Via PI3-Kinase/Akt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ae-Jin; Chung, Chung-Nam; Kim, Hye-Jin; Bae, Kil Soo; Choi, Song; Jun, Woo Jin; Shim, Sang In; Kang, Tae-Hong; Leem, Sun-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Anti-tumor activity of the proteins from Gecko (GP) on cervical cancer cells, and its signaling mechanisms were assessed by viable cell counting, propidium iodide (PI) staining, and Western blot analysis. GP induced the cell death of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner while it did not affect the viability of normal cells. Western blot analysis showed that GP decreased the activation of Akt, and co-administration of GP and Akt inhibitors synergistically exerted anti-tumor activities on HeLa cells, suggesting the involvement of PI3-kinase/Akt pathway in GP-induced cell death of the cancer cells. Indeed, the cytotoxic effect of GP against HeLa cells was inhibited by overexpression of constituvely active form of Akt in HeLa cells. The candidates of the functional proteins in GP were analyzed by Mass-spectrum. Taken together, our results suggest that GP elicits anti-tumor activity against HeLa cells by inhibition of PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. PMID:23118562

  10. Gecko Proteins Exert Anti-Tumor Effect against Cervical Cancer Cells Via PI3-Kinase/Akt Pathway.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ae-Jin; Chung, Chung-Nam; Kim, Hye-Jin; Bae, Kil Soo; Choi, Song; Jun, Woo Jin; Shim, Sang In; Kang, Tae-Hong; Leem, Sun-Hee; Chung, Jin Woong

    2012-10-01

    Anti-tumor activity of the proteins from Gecko (GP) on cervical cancer cells, and its signaling mechanisms were assessed by viable cell counting, propidium iodide (PI) staining, and Western blot analysis. GP induced the cell death of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner while it did not affect the viability of normal cells. Western blot analysis showed that GP decreased the activation of Akt, and co-administration of GP and Akt inhibitors synergistically exerted anti-tumor activities on HeLa cells, suggesting the involvement of PI3-kinase/Akt pathway in GP-induced cell death of the cancer cells. Indeed, the cytotoxic effect of GP against HeLa cells was inhibited by overexpression of constituvely active form of Akt in HeLa cells. The candidates of the functional proteins in GP were analyzed by Mass-spectrum. Taken together, our results suggest that GP elicits anti-tumor activity against HeLa cells by inhibition of PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. PMID:23118562

  11. Antitumor effect of combined NAMPT and CD73 inhibition in an ovarian cancer model.

    PubMed

    Sociali, Giovanna; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Magnone, Mirko; Zamporlini, Federica; Emionite, Laura; Sturla, Laura; Bianchi, Giovanna; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Nahimana, Aimable; Nencioni, Alessio; Raffaelli, Nadia; Bruzzone, Santina

    2016-01-19

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is a crucial enzyme in the biosynthesis of intracellular NAD+. NAMPT inhibitors have potent anticancer activity in several preclinical models by depleting NAD+ and ATP levels. Recently, we demonstrated that CD73 enables the utilization of extracellular NAD+/nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) by converting them to Nicotinamide riboside (NR), which can cross the plasmamembrane and fuel intracellular NAD+ biosynthesis in human cells. These processes are herein confirmed to also occur in a human ovarian carcinoma cell line (OVCAR-3), by means of CD73 or NRK1 specific silencing. Next, we investigated the anti-tumor activity of the simultaneous inhibition of NAMPT (with FK866) and CD73 (with α, β-methylene adenosine 5'-diphosphate, APCP), in an in vivo human ovarian carcinoma model. Interestingly, the combined therapy was found to significantly decrease intratumor NAD+, NMN and ATP levels, compared with single treatments. In addition, the concentration of these nucleotides in ascitic exudates was more remarkably reduced in animals treated with both FK866 and APCP compared with single treatments. Importantly, tumors treated with FK866 in combination with APCP contained a statistically significant lower proportion of Ki67 positive proliferating cells and a higher percentage of necrotic area. Finally, a slight but significant increase in animal survival in response to the combined therapy, compared to the single agents, could be demonstrated. Our results indicate that the pharmacological inhibition of CD73 enzymatic activity could be considered as a means to potentiate the anti-cancer effects of NAMPT inhibitors. PMID:26658104

  12. Antitumor effect of combined NAMPT and CD73 inhibition in an ovarian cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Magnone, Mirko; Zamporlini, Federica; Emionite, Laura; Sturla, Laura; Bianchi, Giovanna; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Nahimana, Aimable; Nencioni, Alessio; Raffaelli, Nadia; Bruzzone, Santina

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is a crucial enzyme in the biosynthesis of intracellular NAD+. NAMPT inhibitors have potent anticancer activity in several preclinical models by depleting NAD+ and ATP levels. Recently, we demonstrated that CD73 enables the utilization of extracellular NAD+/nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) by converting them to Nicotinamide riboside (NR), which can cross the plasmamembrane and fuel intracellular NAD+ biosynthesis in human cells. These processes are herein confirmed to also occur in a human ovarian carcinoma cell line (OVCAR-3), by means of CD73 or NRK1 specific silencing. Next, we investigated the anti-tumor activity of the simultaneous inhibition of NAMPT (with FK866) and CD73 (with α, β-methylene adenosine 5′-diphosphate, APCP), in an in vivo human ovarian carcinoma model. Interestingly, the combined therapy was found to significantly decrease intratumor NAD+, NMN and ATP levels, compared with single treatments. In addition, the concentration of these nucleotides in ascitic exudates was more remarkably reduced in animals treated with both FK866 and APCP compared with single treatments. Importantly, tumors treated with FK866 in combination with APCP contained a statistically significant lower proportion of Ki67 positive proliferating cells and a higher percentage of necrotic area. Finally, a slight but significant increase in animal survival in response to the combined therapy, compared to the single agents, could be demonstrated. Our results indicate that the pharmacological inhibition of CD73 enzymatic activity could be considered as a means to potentiate the anti-cancer effects of NAMPT inhibitors. PMID:26658104

  13. Antitumor Effect of IP-10 by Using Two Different Approaches: Live Delivery System and Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Taslimi, Yasaman; Zahedifard, Farnaz; Habibzadeh, Sima; Taheri, Tahereh; Abbaspour, Hossain; Sadeghipour, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Immunotherapy is one of the treatment strategies for breast cancer, the most common cancer in women worldwide. In this approach, the patient's immune system is stimulated to attack microscopic tumors and control metastasis. Here, we used interferon γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10), which induces and strengthens antitumor immunity, as an immunotherapeutic agent. We employed Leishmania tarentolae, a nonpathogenic lizard parasite that lacks the ability to persist in mammalian macrophages, was used as a live delivery system for carrying the immunotherapeutic agent. It has been already shown that arginase activity, and consequently, polyamine production, are associated with tumor progression. Methods A live delivery system was constructed by stable transfection of pLEXSY plasmid containing the IP-10-enhanced green fluorescent protein (IP-10-egfp) fusion gene into L. tarentolae. Then, the presence of the IP-10-egfp gene and the accurate integration location into the parasite genome were confirmed. The therapeutic efficacy of IP-10 delivered via L. tarentolae and recombinant pcDNA-(IP-10-egfp) plasmid was compared by determining the arginase activity in a mouse 4T1 breast cancer model. Results The pcDNA-(IP-10-egfp) group showed a significant reduction in tumor weight and growth. Histological evaluation also revealed that only this group demonstrated inhibition of metastasis to the lung tissue. The arginase activity in the tissue of the pcDNA-(IP-10-egfp) mice significantly decreased in comparison with that in normal mice. No significant difference was observed in arginase activity in the sera of mice receiving other therapeutic strategies. Conclusion Our data indicates that IP-10 immunotherapy is a promising strategy for breast cancer treatment, as shown in the 4T1-implanted BALB/c mouse model. However, the L. tarentolae-(IP-10-EGFP) live delivery system requires dose modifications to achieve efficacy in the applied regimen (six injections in 3 weeks). Our results

  14. Additive Anti-Tumor Effects of Lovastatin and Everolimus In Vitro through Simultaneous Inhibition of Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Nölting, Svenja; Maurer, Julian; Spöttl, Gerald; Aristizabal Prada, Elke Tatjana; Reuther, Clemens; Young, Karen; Korbonits, Márta; Göke, Burkhard; Grossman, Ashley; Auernhammer, Christoph J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The mTORC1-inhibitor everolimus shows limited efficacy in treating patients with gastro-entero-pancreatic or pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), and poor outcome in patients with malignant pheochromocytoma or hepatic carcinoma. We speculated that any effect may be enhanced by antogonising other signaling pathways. Methods Therefore, we tested the effect of lovastatin—known to inhibit both ERK and AKT signaling—and everolimus, separately and in combination, on cell viability and signaling pathways in human midgut (GOT), pancreatic (BON1), and pulmonary (H727) NET, hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2, Huh7), and mouse pheochromocytoma (MPC, MTT) cell lines. Results Lovastatin and everolimus separately significantly reduced cell viability in H727, HepG2, Huh7, MPC and MTT cells at clinically relevant doses (P ≤ 0.05). However, high doses of lovastatin were necessary to affect GOT or BON1 cell viability. Clinically relevant doses of both drugs showed additive anti-tumor effects in H727, HepG2, Huh7, MPC and MTT cells (P ≤ 0.05), but not in BON1 or GOT cells. In all cell lines investigated, lovastatin inhibited EGFR and AKT signaling. Subsequently, combination treatment more strongly inhibited EGFR and AKT signaling than everolimus alone, or at least attenuated everolimus-induced EGFR or AKT activation. Vice versa, everolimus constantly decreased pp70S6K and combination treatment more strongly decreased pp70S6K than lovastatin alone, or attenuated lovastatin-induced p70S6K activation: in BON1 cells lovastatin-induced EGFR inhibition was least pronounced, possibly explaining the low efficacy and consequent absent additive effect. Conclusion In summary, clinically relevant doses of lovastatin and everolimus were effective separately and showed additive effects in 5 out of 7 cell lines. Our findings emphasize the importance of targeting several interacting signaling pathways simultaneously when attempting to attenuate tumor growth. However, the variable

  15. NLRC5 elicits antitumor immunity by enhancing processing and presentation of tumor antigens to CD8+ T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Galaxia M.; Bobbala, Diwakar; Serrano, Daniel; Mayhue, Marian; Champagne, Audrey; Saucier, Caroline; Steimle, Viktor; Kufer, Thomas A.; Menendez, Alfredo; Ramanathan, Sheela; Ilangumaran, Subburaj

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cancers can escape immunesurveillance by diminishing the expression of MHC class-I molecules (MHC-I) and components of the antigen-processing machinery (APM). Developing new approaches to reverse these defects could boost the efforts to restore antitumor immunity. Recent studies have shown that the expression of MHC-I and antigen-processing molecules is transcriptionally regulated by NOD-like receptor CARD domain containing 5 (NLRC5). To investigate whether NLRC5 could be used to improve tumor immunogenicity, we established stable lines of B16-F10 melanoma cells expressing NLRC5 (B16-5), the T cell co-stimulatory molecule CD80 (B16-CD80) or both (B16-5/80). Cells harboring NLRC5 constitutively expressed MHC-I and LMP2, LMP7 and TAP1 genes of the APM. The B16-5 cells efficiently presented the melanoma antigenic peptide gp10025–33 to Pmel-1 TCR transgenic CD8+ T cells and induced their proliferation. In the presence of CD80, B16-5 cells stimulated Pmel-1 cells even without the addition of gp100 peptide, indicating that NLRC5 facilitated the processing and presentation of endogenous tumor antigen. Upon subcutaneous implantation, B16-5 cells showed markedly reduced tumor growth in C57BL/6 hosts but not in immunodeficient hosts, indicating that the NLRC5-expressing tumor cells elicited antitumor immunity. Following intravenous injection, B16-5 and B16-5/80 cells formed fewer lung tumor foci compared to control cells. In mice depleted of CD8+ T cells, B16-5 cells formed large subcutaneous and lung tumors. Finally, immunization with irradiated B16-5 cells conferred protection against challenge by parental B16 cells. Collectively, our findings indicate that NLRC5 could be exploited to restore tumor immunogenicity and to stimulate protective antitumor immunity. PMID:27471621

  16. NLRC5 elicits antitumor immunity by enhancing processing and presentation of tumor antigens to CD8(+) T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Galaxia M; Bobbala, Diwakar; Serrano, Daniel; Mayhue, Marian; Champagne, Audrey; Saucier, Caroline; Steimle, Viktor; Kufer, Thomas A; Menendez, Alfredo; Ramanathan, Sheela; Ilangumaran, Subburaj

    2016-06-01

    Cancers can escape immunesurveillance by diminishing the expression of MHC class-I molecules (MHC-I) and components of the antigen-processing machinery (APM). Developing new approaches to reverse these defects could boost the efforts to restore antitumor immunity. Recent studies have shown that the expression of MHC-I and antigen-processing molecules is transcriptionally regulated by NOD-like receptor CARD domain containing 5 (NLRC5). To investigate whether NLRC5 could be used to improve tumor immunogenicity, we established stable lines of B16-F10 melanoma cells expressing NLRC5 (B16-5), the T cell co-stimulatory molecule CD80 (B16-CD80) or both (B16-5/80). Cells harboring NLRC5 constitutively expressed MHC-I and LMP2, LMP7 and TAP1 genes of the APM. The B16-5 cells efficiently presented the melanoma antigenic peptide gp10025-33 to Pmel-1 TCR transgenic CD8(+) T cells and induced their proliferation. In the presence of CD80, B16-5 cells stimulated Pmel-1 cells even without the addition of gp100 peptide, indicating that NLRC5 facilitated the processing and presentation of endogenous tumor antigen. Upon subcutaneous implantation, B16-5 cells showed markedly reduced tumor growth in C57BL/6 hosts but not in immunodeficient hosts, indicating that the NLRC5-expressing tumor cells elicited antitumor immunity. Following intravenous injection, B16-5 and B16-5/80 cells formed fewer lung tumor foci compared to control cells. In mice depleted of CD8(+) T cells, B16-5 cells formed large subcutaneous and lung tumors. Finally, immunization with irradiated B16-5 cells conferred protection against challenge by parental B16 cells. Collectively, our findings indicate that NLRC5 could be exploited to restore tumor immunogenicity and to stimulate protective antitumor immunity. PMID:27471621

  17. Bortezomib-induced unfolded protein response increases oncolytic HSV-1 replication resulting in synergistic, anti-tumor effects

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ji Young; Hurwitz, Brian S; Bolyard, Chelsea; Yu, Jun-Ge; Zhang, Jianying; Selvendiran, Karuppaiyah; Rath, Kellie S; He, Shun; Bailey, Zachary; Eaves, David; Cripe, Timothy P; Parris, Deborah S.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Yu, Jianhua; Old, Matthew; Kaur, Balveen

    2014-01-01

    Background Bortezomib is an FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor, and oncolytic HSV-1 (oHSV) is a promising therapeutic approach for cancer. We tested the impact of combining bortezomib with oHSV for anti-tumor efficacy. Methods The synergistic interaction between oHSV and bortezomib was calculated using Chou-Talalay analysis. Viral replication was evaluated using plaque assay and immune fluorescence. Western-blot assays were used to evaluate induction of ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR). Inhibitors targeting Hsp90 were utilized to investigate the mechanism of cell killing. Anti-tumor efficacy in vivo was evaluated using subcutaneous and intracranial tumor xenografts of glioma and head and neck cancer. Survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curves and two-sided log rank test. Results Combination treatment with bortezomib and oHSV, 34.5ENVE, displayed strong synergistic interaction in ovarian cancer, head & neck cancer, glioma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) cells. Bortezomib treatment induced ER stress, evident by strong induction of Grp78, CHOP, PERK and IRE1α (western blot analysis) and the UPR (induction of hsp40, 70 and 90). Bortezomib treatment of cells at both sublethal and lethal doses increased viral replication (p value <0.001), but inhibition of Hsp90 ablated this response, reducing viral replication and synergistic cell killing. The combination of bortezomib and 34.5ENVE significantly enhanced anti-tumor efficacy in multiple different tumor models in vivo. Conclusions The dramatic synergy of bortezomib and 34.5ENVE is mediated by bortezomib- induced UPR and warrants future clinical testing in patients. PMID:24815720

  18. The Anti-Tumor Effect of A3 Adenosine Receptors Is Potentiated by Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in Cultured Neural Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Targa, Martina; Corciulo, Carmen; Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Setti, Stefania; Cadossi, Ruggero; Borea, Pier Andrea; Varani, Katia

    2012-01-01

    A3 adenosine receptors (ARs) play a pivotal role in the development of cancer and their activation is involved in the inhibition of tumor growth. The effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on cancer have been controversially discussed and the detailed mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In the past we have demonstrated that PEMFs increased A2A and A3AR density and functionality in human neutrophils, human and bovine synoviocytes, and bovine chondrocytes. In the same cells, PEMF exposure increased the anti-inflammatory effect mediated by A2A and/or A3ARs. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate if PEMF exposure potentiated the anti-tumor effect of A3ARs in PC12 rat adrenal pheochromocytoma and U87MG human glioblastoma cell lines in comparison with rat cortical neurons. Saturation binding assays and mRNA analysis revealed that PEMF exposure up-regulated A2A and A3ARs that are well coupled to adenylate cyclase activity and cAMP production. The activation of A2A and A3ARs resulted in the decrease of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) levels in tumor cells, whilst only A3ARs are involved in the increase of p53 expression. A3AR stimulation mediated an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation evaluated by thymidine incorporation. An increase of cytotoxicity by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and apoptosis by caspase-3 activation in PC12 and U87MG cells, but not in cortical neurons, was observed following A3AR activation. The e