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Sample records for enhanced boron-10 compound

  1. Double helix boron-10 powder thermal neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher L.; Bacon, Jeffrey D.

    2015-06-02

    A double-helix Boron-10 powder detector having intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency comparable to 36'' long, 2-in diameter, 2-bar Helium-3 detectors, and which can be used to replace such detectors for use in portal monitoring, is described. An embodiment of the detector includes a metallic plate coated with Boron-10 powder for generating alpha and Lithium-7 particles responsive to neutrons impinging thereon supported by insulators affixed to at least two opposing edges; a grounded first wire wound in a helical manner around two opposing insulators; and a second wire having a smaller diameter than that of the first wire, wound in a helical manner around the same insulators and spaced apart from the first wire, the second wire being positively biased. A gas, disposed within a gas-tight container enclosing the plate, insulators and wires, and capable of stopping alpha and Lithium-7 particles and generating electrons produces a signal on the second wire which is detected and subsequently related to the number of neutrons impinging on the plate.

  2. Boron-10 Based Neutron Coincidence Counter for Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2014-10-01

    The shortage of 3He has triggered the search for effective alternative neutron detection technologies for national security applications, including international nuclear safeguards. Any alternative neutron detection technology must satisfy two basic criteria: it must meet a neutron detection efficiency requirement, and it must be insensitive to gamma-ray interference at a prescribed level while still meeting the neutron detection requirement. For nuclear safeguards, a system must perform measurements in the field with a prescribed precision in a specified time. This paper describes an effort to design, model and test an alternatives-based neutron coincidence counter for nuclear safeguards applications. The technology chosen for use in an alternatives-based uranium neutron coincidence collar was boron-lined proportional counters. Extensive modeling was performed of various system configurations and comparisons were made to measurements on a commercial prototype boron-10 based uranium neutron coincidence collar.

  3. EDITORIAL: Enhance your outlook with Compound Semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedrock, Claire

    2007-12-01

    An overwhelming proportion of the articles published in this journal come under the heading of applied research. In this field research findings impact tomorrow's products, and so it's important to keep tabs on these developments. Grant applications, for example, can carry extra weight when the potential benefits to industry are outlined alongside the gains to fundamental science. What's more, it's just plain interesting to track how key breakthroughs in understanding can drive improvements in commercial devices. Within our publication group we offer free resources that can help you keep pace with trends in part of this sector. Compound Semiconductor magazine and its associated website, compoundsemiconductor.net, cover III-V, III-N, SiC and SiGe research in academia and industry, alongside all the business news and key manufacturing technology. A high proportion of our authoritative and timely content is exclusive, and you can access it for free by completing a simple registration procedure at compoundsemiconductor.net. Three examples of feature articles published this year in Compound Semiconductor include: • Non-polar GaN reaches tipping point by Steven DenBaars, Shuji Nakamura and Jim Speck from the University of California, Santa Barbara. Although conventional GaN LEDs are a great commercial success, they suffer from an intrinsic weakness—internal electric fields that pull apart the electrons and holes and ultimately limit efficiency. However, this problem can be overcome by growing nitrides on alternate crystal planes. Although early attempts were unsuccessful, due to high defect densities in the epilayers, this is not the case with growth on the latest Mitsubishi substrates that can lead to external quantum efficiencies of 45%. In this article the authors describe the development of their non-polar material, and their promising results for LEDs and laser diodes. • Inverting the triple junction improves efficiency and flexibility by Paul Sharps and

  4. Elevational spatial compounding for enhancing image quality in echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    McDicken, Norman; MacGillivray, Tom; Anderson, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Echocardiography is commonly used in clinical practice for the real-time assessment of cardiac morphology and function. Nevertheless, due to the nature of the data acquisition, cardiac ultrasound images are often corrupted by a range of acoustic artefacts, including acoustic noise, speckle and shadowing. Spatial compounding techniques have long been recognised for their ability to suppress common ultrasound artefacts, enhancing the imaged cardiac structures. However, they require extended acquisition times as well as accurate spatio-temporal alignment of the compounded data. Elevational spatial compounding acquires and compounds adjacent partially decorrelated planes of the same cardiac structure. Methods This paper employs an anthropomorphic left ventricle phantom to examine the effect of acquisition parameters, such as inter-slice angular displacement and 3D sector angular range, on the elevational spatial compounding of cardiac ultrasound data. Results and conclusion Elevational spatial compounding can produce substantial noise and speckle suppression as well as visual enhancement of tissue structures even for small acquisition sector widths (2.5° to 6.5°). In addition, elevational spatial compounding eliminates the need for extended acquisition times as well as the need for temporal alignment of the compounded datasets. However, moderate spatial registration may still be required to reduce any tissue/chamber blurring side effects that may be introduced. PMID:27274757

  5. Identification of Oct4-activating compounds that enhance reprogramming efficiency.

    PubMed

    Li, Wendong; Tian, E; Chen, Zhao-Xia; Sun, Guoqiang; Ye, Peng; Yang, Su; Lu, Dave; Xie, Jun; Ho, Thach-Vu; Tsark, Walter M; Wang, Charles; Horne, David A; Riggs, Arthur D; Yip, M L Richard; Shi, Yanhong

    2012-12-18

    One of the hurdles for practical application of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) is the low efficiency and slow process of reprogramming. Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) has been shown to be an essential regulator of embryonic stem cell (ESC) pluripotency and key to the reprogramming process. To identify small molecules that enhance reprogramming efficiency, we performed a cell-based high-throughput screening of chemical libraries. One of the compounds, termed Oct4-activating compound 1 (OAC1), was found to activate both Oct4 and Nanog promoter-driven luciferase reporter genes. Furthermore, when added to the reprogramming mixture along with the quartet reprogramming factors (Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4), OAC1 enhanced the iPSC reprogramming efficiency and accelerated the reprogramming process. Two structural analogs of OAC1 also activated Oct4 and Nanog promoters and enhanced iPSC formation. The iPSC colonies derived using the Oct4-activating compounds along with the quartet factors exhibited typical ESC morphology, gene-expression pattern, and developmental potential. OAC1 seems to enhance reprogramming efficiency in a unique manner, independent of either inhibition of the p53-p21 pathway or activation of the Wnt-β-catenin signaling. OAC1 increases transcription of the Oct4-Nanog-Sox2 triad and Tet1, a gene known to be involved in DNA demethylation. PMID:23213213

  6. Helium-3 and boron-10 concentration and depth measurements in alloys and semiconductors using NDP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünlü, Kenan; Saglam, Mehmet; Wehring, Bernard W.

    1999-02-01

    Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP) is a nondestructive near surface technique that is used to measure concentration versus absolute depth of several isotopes of light mass elements in various substrates. NDP is based on absorption reaction of thermal neutrons with the isotope of interest. Charged particles and recoil atoms are generated in the reaction. The depth profiles are determined by measuring the residual energy of the charged particles or the recoil atoms. The NDP technique has became an increasingly important method to measure depth profiles of 3He and 10B in alloys and semiconductor materials. A permanent NDP facility has been installed on the tangential beam port of the University of Texas (UT) TRIGA Mark-II research reactor. One of the standard applications of the UT-NDP facility involves the determination of boron profiles of borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) samples. NDP is also being used in combination with electron microscopy measurements to determine radiation damage and microstructural changes in stainless steel samples. This is done to study the long-term effects of high-dose alpha irradiation for weapons grade plutonium encapsulation. Measurements of implanted boron-10 concentration and depth profiles of semiconductor materials in order to calibrate commercial implanters is another application at the UT-NDP facility. The concentration and depth profiles measured with NDP and SIMS are compared with reported data given by various vendors or different implanters in order to verify implant quality of semiconductor wafers. The results of the measurements and other possible applications of NDP are presented.

  7. Optically enhanced oxidation of III-V compound semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Mitsuo; Takahei, Kenichiro

    1985-01-01

    Oxidation of III-V compound semiconductor (110) cleaved surfaces under light irradiation is studied. The light irradiation enhanced the reaction rate of oxidation but the relationship between oxide growth and oxidation time under logarithmic law scarcely changed within this experimental range. The oxidation trend observed under light irradiation is similar to that of thermal oxidation for GaP, GaAs, InP, InAs, InGaAs, and InGaAsP. Semiconductors having As as the V element tend to be easily oxidized, while those of the above mentioned six kinds of materials having Ga as the III element are quickly oxidized in their initial stage. Ternary and quaternary compound semiconductors have less tendency to be oxidized compared to their constituent binary materials. off

  8. Detection of volatile organic compounds using surface enhanced Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, A S; Maiti, A; Ileri, N; Bora, M; Larson, C C; Britten, J A; Bond, T C

    2012-03-22

    The authors present the detection of volatile organic compounds directly in their vapor phase by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates based on lithographically-defined two-dimensional rectangular array of nanopillars. The type of nanopillars is known as the tapered pillars. For the tapered pillars, SERS enhancement arises from the nanofocusing effect due to the sharp tip on top. SERS experiments were carried out on these substrates using various concentrations of toluene vapor. The results show that SERS signal from a toluene vapor concentration of ppm level can be achieved, and the toluene vapor can be detected within minutes of exposing the SERS substrate to the vapor. A simple adsorption model is developed which gives results matching the experimental data. The results also show promising potential for the use of these substrates in environmental monitoring of gases and vapors.

  9. Enhanced mineralization of organic compounds in nonaqueous-phase liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Labare, M.P.; Alexander, M.

    1995-11-01

    Biodegradation of phenanthrene, biphenyl, or di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate initially present in a variety of nonaqueous-phase liquids (NAPLs) was slow in samples of soil and aquifer solids. The NAPLs were hexadecane, dibutyl phthalate, 2, 2, 4 ,4, 6, 8, 8-heptamethylnonane, cyclohexane, commercial oils, crude oil, creosote, and kerosene. Slurrying the soil or aquifer solids markedly enhanced the rate and extent of mineralization of the test compounds initially in many of the NAPLs. Both the low rate and extent of mineralization of the three compounds initially in dibutyl phthalate in soil slurries and of di(2- ethylhexyl) phthalate in heptamethylnonane present in slurries of aquifer solids were increased by inoculation of acclimated microbial cultures. Increasing the NAPL volume decreased phenanthrene biodegradation in soil, but the effect of larger NAPL volume could be alleviated by slurrying and inoculation. The rate or extent of mineralization in aquifer slurries of di(2-ethylhexyi) phthalate initially in some NAPLs was increased by addition of N and P, and inoculation further enhanced the degradation.

  10. Enhanced environmental detection of uranyl compounds based on luminescence characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Jean Dennis

    Uranium (U) contamination can be introduced to the environment as a result of mining and manufacturing activities related to nuclear power, detonation of U-containing munitions (DoD), or nuclear weapons production/processing (DOE facilities). In oxidizing environments such as surface soils, U predominantly exists as U(VI), which is highly water soluble and very mobile in soils. U(VI) compounds typically contain the UO22+ group (uranyl compounds). The uniquely structured and long-lived green luminescence (fluorescence) of the uranyl ion (under UV radiation) has been studied and remained a strong topic of interest for two centuries. The presented research is distinct in its objective of improving capabilities for remotely sensing U contamination by understanding what environmental conditions are ideal for detection and need to be taken into consideration. Specific focuses include: (1) the accumulation and fluorescence enhancement of uranyl compounds at soil surfaces using distributed silica gel, and (2) environmental factors capable of influencing the luminescence response, directly or indirectly. In a complex environmental system, matrix effects co-exist from key soil parameters including moisture content (affected by evaporation, temperature and humidity), soil texture, pH, CEC, organic matter and iron content. Chapter 1 is a review of pertinent background information and provides justification for the selected key environmental parameters. Chapter 2 presents empirical investigations related to the fluorescence detection and characterization of uranyl compounds in soil and aqueous samples. An integrative experimental design was employed, testing different soils, generating steady-state fluorescence spectra, and building a comprehensive dataset which was then utilized to simultaneously test three hypotheses: The fluorescence detection of uranyl compounds is dependent upon (1) the key soil parameters, (2) the concentration of U contamination, and (3) time of analysis

  11. Isoliquiritigenin, a Chalcone Compound, Enhances Spontaneous Inhibitory Postsynaptic Response

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Junsung; Cho, Suengmok

    2014-01-01

    Isoliquiritigenin (ILTG) is a chalcone compound and shows various pharmacological properties, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In recent study, we have reported a novel role of ILTG in sleep through a positive allosteric modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA)-benzodiazepine (BZD) receptors. However, the effect of ILTG in GABAAR-mediated synaptic response in brain has not been tested yet. Here we report that ILTG significantly prolonged the decay of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) mediated by GABAAR in mouse hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons without affecting amplitude and frequency of sIPSCs. This enhancement was fully inhibited by flumazenil (FLU), a specific GABAA-BZD receptor antagonist. These results suggest a potential role of ILTG as a modulator of GABAergic synaptic transmission. PMID:24963281

  12. An enhanced hydrogen adsorption enthalpy for fluoride intercalated graphite compounds.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hansong; Sha, Xianwei; Chen, Liang; Cooper, Alan C; Foo, Maw-Lin; Lau, Garret C; Bailey, Wade H; Pez, Guido P

    2009-12-16

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study on H(2) physisorption in partially fluorinated graphite. This material, first predicted computationally using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and subsequently synthesized and characterized experimentally, represents a novel class of "acceptor type" graphite intercalated compounds that exhibit significantly higher isosteric heat of adsorption for H(2) at near ambient temperatures than previously demonstrated for commonly available porous carbon-based materials. The unusually strong interaction arises from the semi-ionic nature of the C-F bonds. Although a high H(2) storage capacity (>4 wt %) at room temperature is predicted not to be feasible due to the low heat of adsorption, enhanced storage properties can be envisaged by doping the graphitic host with appropriate species to promote higher levels of charge transfer from graphene to F(-) anions. PMID:19928879

  13. Enhancement of the Microbial Dehalogenation of a Model Chlorinated Compound

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Stuart N.; Alexander, Martin

    1981-01-01

    A number of chlorinated aromatic and aliphatic compounds were dehalogenated when incubated with sewage. Preincubating the sewage with nonchlorinated organic substrates enhanced the subsequent dehalogenation of the chlorinated chemicals. Dehalogenation of 4-chloro-3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid (CDBA) in lake water occurred as a result of microbial growth both in the light in the absence of added nutrients and in the dark in the presence of acetate. No organism able to use CDBA as a carbon source was isolated. Axenic bacterial cultures and a nonaxenic Chlamydomonas culture released chloride from CDBA. The metabolism of CDBA by the latter culture, a process that was inhibited by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, yielded a product that was identified as α-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde. This product of an apparent cometabolic transformation was mineralized by a strain of Streptomyces, thus suggesting that certain cometabolic products may not accumulate because they are carbon sources for other species. PMID:16345899

  14. Laser Stimulated Desorption from Compound Semiconductors, Dimerization Enhanced Phase Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, Akira; Cho, Seiji; Ichige, Kenji

    1987-01-01

    Laser stimulated desorption (LSD) of neutral particles has been investigated in compound semiconductors MX of GaN, GaP, GaAs and CdS. No effects of crystallographic orientations on the characteristics of LSD, desorption yields, mean kinetic energies, and speed ratios have been recognized among (111) and (100) orientations in GaP and GaAs. This fact suggests that LSD does not follow the unimolecular dissociation of locally excited surface bonds, but occurs via a bulky event involving a phase transtion. The threshold laser powers for LSD were correlated to the crystal bond ionicities fi, which are good measures for the structural stability of tetrahedral covalent solids. It was found that with increasing fi of the solids, threshold laser powers tend to decrease. The dominant species ejected from MX were found to be in the forms of monomer M and X as well as dimer X2. The ratio of the yields of X2 to those of X increases as the single-bond energy of X2 increases. Considering these experimental results, we propose a model of a non-local electronic excitation mechanism for LSD; namely, LSD occurs via the dimerization enhanced phase transition in a high-density electron-hole plasma.

  15. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a quinone compound and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a quinone compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  16. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a heterocyclic compound and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Quinlan, Jason

    2016-08-02

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a heterocyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  17. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicycle compound and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Quinlan, Jason

    2015-06-16

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  18. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a dioxy compound and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Sweeney, Matthew; Xu, Feng; Quinlan, Jason

    2016-07-19

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a dioxy compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  19. Enhanced removal of aqueous BPA model compounds using Metalloligs.

    PubMed

    Franz, Douglas M; Martin, Dean F

    2014-01-01

    A model compound, 4-(t-butyl)phenol, was used as a substitute for BPA (bisphenol acetone or Bisphenol A) a material used for the production of a large volume of common plastics. Unfortunately, BPA is suspected to have estrogenic properties, and there is a suspicion that even small amounts can have a deleterious effect against humans, especially female infants. The model compound has some similarities to BPA, but lacks some of the serious properties of BPA dust. Since other workers have demonstrated the capability of removing BPA from plastics by extraction with saline or alcohol, we studied whether Octolig, a polyethylenediimine supported on silica gel, or transition metal derivatives of Octolig could be used to remove concentrations for model compounds from aqueous solution. Octolig gave modest results 20%, the manganese (II) and iron (III) derivatives gave poor results, Cuprilig was an improvement over those two Metalloligs, but the cobalt(II) derivative was able to remove up to 56% of the model compound. Two methods were studied, batch and column chromatography. Under the conditions used in this study, the batch method was superior. PMID:24279622

  20. Ginsenoside compound K promotes β-amyloid peptide clearance in primary astrocytes via autophagy enhancement.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinhui; Chang, Li; Zhang, Xin; Pei, Sujuan; Yu, Meishuang; Gao, Jianlian

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ginsenoside compound K on β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide clearance in primary astrocytes. Aβ degradation in primary astrocytes was determined using an intracellular Aβ clearance assay. Aggregated LC3 in astrocyte cells, which is a marker for the level of autophagy, was detected using laser scanning confocal microscope. The effect of compound K on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/autophagy pathway was determined using western blot analysis, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for Aβ detection. The results demonstrated that compound K promoted the clearance of Aβ and enhanced autophagy in primary astrocytes. In addition, it was found that phosphorylation of mTOR was inhibited by compound K, which may have contributed to the enhanced autophagy. In conclusion, compound K promotes Aβ clearance by enhancing autophagy via the mTOR signaling pathway in primary astrocytes. PMID:25187838

  1. Inactivation of the panE Gene in Lactococcus lactis Enhances Formation of Cheese Aroma Compounds

    PubMed Central

    de Cadiñanos, Luz P. Gómez; García-Cayuela, Tomás; Yvon, Mireille; Martinez-Cuesta, M. Carmen; Peláez, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyacid dehydrogenases limit the conversion of α-keto acids into aroma compounds. Here we report that inactivation of the panE gene, encoding the α-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase activity in Lactococcus lactis, enhanced the formation of 3-methylbutanal and 3-methylbutanol. L. lactis IFPL953ΔpanE was an efficient strain producing volatile compounds related to cheese aroma. PMID:23524675

  2. Complex Hydride Compounds with Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, Daniel A.; Opalka, Susanne M.; Tang, Xia; Laube, Bruce L.; Brown, Ronald J.; Vanderspurt, Thomas H.; Arsenault, Sarah; Wu, Robert; Strickler, Jamie; Anton, Donald L.; Zidan, Ragaiy; Berseth, Polly

    2008-02-18

    The United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), in collaboration with major partners Albemarle Corporation (Albemarle) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), conducted research to discover new hydride materials for the storage of hydrogen having on-board reversibility and a target gravimetric capacity of ≥ 7.5 weight percent (wt %). When integrated into a system with a reasonable efficiency of 60% (mass of hydride / total mass), this target material would produce a system gravimetric capacity of ≥ 4.5 wt %, consistent with the DOE 2007 target. The approach established for the project combined first principles modeling (FPM - UTRC) with multiple synthesis methods: Solid State Processing (SSP - UTRC), Solution Based Processing (SBP - Albemarle) and Molten State Processing (MSP - SRNL). In the search for novel compounds, each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages; by combining them, the potential for success was increased. During the project, UTRC refined its FPM framework which includes ground state (0 Kelvin) structural determinations, elevated temperature thermodynamic predictions and thermodynamic / phase diagram calculations. This modeling was used both to precede synthesis in a virtual search for new compounds and after initial synthesis to examine reaction details and options for modifications including co-reactant additions. The SSP synthesis method involved high energy ball milling which was simple, efficient for small batches and has proven effective for other storage material compositions. The SBP method produced very homogeneous chemical reactions, some of which cannot be performed via solid state routes, and would be the preferred approach for large scale production. The MSP technique is similar to the SSP method, but involves higher temperature and hydrogen pressure conditions to achieve greater species mobility. During the initial phases of the project, the focus was on higher order alanate complexes in the phase space

  3. Phenolic compounds as enhancers in enzymatic and electrochemical oxidation of veratryl alcohol and lignins.

    PubMed

    Díaz-González, María; Vidal, Teresa; Tzanov, Tzanko

    2011-03-01

    Sixteen phenolic compounds, 14 of which naturally occurring, were compared to the synthetic 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and violuric acid (VA) in terms of their ability to act as mediators/enhancers in: (1) laccase oxidation of veratryl alcohol as a lignin model compound, and (2) electrochemical oxidation of kraft and flax lignins. HPLC analysis revealed that the syringyl-type phenols methyl syringate and acetosyringone were the most efficient natural enhancers in the laccase oxidation of veratryl alcohol. Both compounds, though far from the performance of ABTS were able to generate veratraldehyde in amount similar to that obtained with VA. By contrast, the best performing phenolic enhancers for the electrochemical oxidation of lignins were sinapinaldehyde, vanillin, acetovanillone, and syringic acid. Catalytic efficiencies close to those achieved with ABTS and VA were calculated for these phenolic compounds. PMID:21110019

  4. Transformation of the Herbicide Sulcotrione into a Root Growth Enhancer Compound by Sequential Photolysis and Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Goujon, Eric; Maruel, Sandra; Richard, Claire; Goupil, Pascale; Ledoigt, Gérard

    2016-01-27

    Xanthene-1,9-dione-3,4-dihydro-6-methylsulfonyl (1), the main product of sulcotrione phototransformation on plant leaves, was slowly hydrolyzed into 2-hydroxy-4-methylsulfonylbenzoic acid (2) and 1,3-cyclohexanedione (3) in aqueous solution. Interestingly, the rate of hydrolysis was significantly enhanced in the presence of roots of monocotyledonous plants, while the same treatment showed adverse effects on broadleaf weeds. Root growth enhancement varied according to the plant species and concentrations of compound 2, as shown with Zea mays roots. Compound 2 is a derivative of salicylic acid that is known to be a plant signaling messenger. Compound 2 was, therefore, able to mimic some known effects of this phytohormone. This work showed that a pesticide like sulcotrione was transformed into a compound exhibiting a positive impact on plant growth. This study exemplified a rarely reported situation where chemical and biological chain reactions transformed a xenobiotic into a compound exhibiting potential beneficial effects. PMID:26654319

  5. Flow-modulated targeted signal enhancement for volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Taylor; Gras, Ronda; Luong, Jim

    2016-06-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography is a technique that is becoming more widespread within the analytical community, especially in the separation of complex mixtures. Modulation in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography can be achieved by manipulating temperature or flow and offers many advantages such as increased separation power, but one underutilized advantage is increased detectability due to the reduction of peak width from the use of a modulator. A flow modulator was used to selectively target analytes for increased detectability with a standard flame ionization detector operated at 100 Hz, without the need for cryogens or advanced modulation software. By the collection of the entire peak volume followed by peak transfer rather than further separation, an increase of 12 times in peak height and detectability was realized for the analytes tested using an internal loop modulator configuration. An external loop flow modulator configuration allowed for more volatile analytes (with k < 5), and demonstrated an analyte detectability enhancement factor of at least 6. The collection loop size can be readily increased with an external loop configuration to accommodate for these naturally broader peaks. This novel flow modulated targeted signal enhancement approach was applied to industrially significant analyses like the analysis of methanol in a hydrocarbon streams. Methanol was detected at 7 ppb with a conventional flame ionization detector and without the need for pre-concentration. PMID:27120133

  6. Fiber-optic surface-enhanced Raman system for field screening of hazardous compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, T.L.; Goudonnet, J.P.; Arakawa, E.T.; Reddick, R.C.; Gammage, R.B.; Haas, J.W.; James, D.R.; Wachter, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering permits identification of compounds adsorbed onto a metal microbase that is microlithographically produced with submicron resolution. Less than one percent of a monolayer of a Raman Active target compound offers a high signal-to-noise ratio. By depositing the microbase on the exterior of a fiber optic cable, convenient field screening or monitoring is permitted. By using highly effective microbases, it is possible to reduce laser power requirements sufficiently to allow an economical, but complete, system to be housed in a suitcase. We shall present details of SERS system of this type and shall show data on samples of interest in the screening of hazardous compounds.

  7. Bioavailability enhancement by addition of surfactant and surfactant-like compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Strong-Gunderson, J.M.; Palumbo, A.V.

    1995-12-31

    The bioavailability and microbial degradation of contaminant compounds (e.g., toluene and naphthalene) were enhanced by adding synthetic surfactants, biosurfactants, and nutrients with surfactant like properties. In addition to enhanced contaminant degradation, these surfactant compounds have the potential to change the availability of natural organic matter (NOM), and thus may affect overall site bioremediation. Two bacterial bioreporter strains that are induced by toluene or naphthalene were used to directly measure contaminant bioavailability. A cell-free biosurfactant product, Tween-80, and an oleophilic fertilizer were added to aqueous suspensions and soil slurries containing toluene or naphthalene. The addition of these surfactant compounds at or below the critical micelle concentration (CMC) enhanced bioavailability as measured by increased levels of bioluminescence. Bioluminescence data were coupled with gas chromatographic analyses. The addition of Tween-80 increased not only the bioavailability of the contaminants but also, in a separate assay, the bioavailability of recalcitrant NOM. The enhanced NOM bioavailability was inferred from measurements of biomass by optical density increases and plate counts. Thus, adding surfactant compounds for enhanced contaminant degradation has the potential to introduce additional competition for nutrients and microbial metabolism, a significant area of concern for in situ site remediation.

  8. Monoclonal antibodies as surrogate receptors in a high throughput screen for compounds that enhance insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Bright, S W; Gold, G; Sage, S W; Sportsman, J R; Tinsley, F C; Dominianni, S J; Schmiegel, K K; Kellam, M L; Fitch, L L; Yen, T T

    1997-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) were made to a known insulin sensitivity enhancer (ISE) compound, CS-045. The MoAbs were characterized with respect to binding other known thiazolidinedione ISE compounds using a CS-045 labeled with b-phycoerythrin in a competitive particle concentration fluorescence immunoassay (PCFIA). By comparing the rank order of IC50 values for each compound to its respective potency as an ISE, one MoAb (13E3) was selected for further characterization. This MoAb was also used as a surrogate receptor in a high throughput screen to identify novel compounds that compete for binding to CS-045. Some of the hits were found to have efficacy in reducing blood glucose. Subsequently, another group reported that several compounds with the core thiazolidinedione structure of the ISE compounds bound with high affinity to peroxisome proliferator-activating receptors (PPAR). Therefore, we used the MoAb assay to test these and other compounds that are known to bind to PPARgamma and noted crossreactivity with some of the compounds. PMID:9408053

  9. Compound coverage enhancement of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry through the addition of a homemade needle.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shun; Qian, Shuai; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Yufeng; Cheng, Yiyu

    2013-03-21

    The response of many previously low-detectable or undetectable compounds in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has been enhanced by the addition of a simple, homemade needle into the traditional ESI interface. The needle located between the ESI emitter and the ion sweep cone (inlet of the detector) would ionize those neutral gaseous compounds, formed during electrospray, by a corona discharge process. The mobile phases, ESI parameters and positions of the needle were investigated and optimized. Several groups of compounds and herbal extracts were tested using the homemade set-up. Both the results of the flow injection and the hyphenated MS analyses showed significant enhancement effects of our homemade needle. The advantages of the proposed method include low cost, simplicity and practicality. PMID:23364279

  10. Identification of compounds that potentiate CREB signaling as possible enhancers of long-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Guo, Vicky; Southall, Noel; Cho, Ming-Hsuang; Inglese, James; Austin, Christopher P.; Nirenberg, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have implicated the cAMP Response Element Binding (CREB) protein signaling pathway in long-term memory. To identify small molecule enhancers of CREB activation of gene expression, we screened ≈73,000 compounds, each at 7–15 concentrations in a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) format, for activity in cells by assaying CREB mediated β-lactamase reporter gene expression. We identified 1,800 compounds that potentiated CREB mediated gene expression, with potencies as low as 16 nM, comprising 96 structural series. Mechanisms of action were systematically determined, and compounds that affect phosphodiesterase 4, protein kinase A, and cAMP production were identified, as well as compounds that affect CREB signaling via apparently unidentified mechanisms. qHTS folowed by interrogation of pathway targets is an efficient paradigm for lead generation for chemical genomics and drug development. PMID:19196967

  11. 40 CFR Table 36 to Subpart G of... - Compound Lists Used for Compliance Demonstrations for Enhanced Biological Treatment Processes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compound Lists Used for Compliance Demonstrations for Enhanced Biological Treatment Processes (See § 63.145(h)) 36 Table 36 to Subpart G of Part 63... Subpart G of Part 63—Compound Lists Used for Compliance Demonstrations for Enhanced Biological...

  12. 40 CFR Table 36 to Subpart G of... - Compound Lists Used for Compliance Demonstrations for Enhanced Biological Treatment Processes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compound Lists Used for Compliance Demonstrations for Enhanced Biological Treatment Processes (See § 63.145(h)) 36 Table 36 to Subpart G of Part 63... Subpart G of Part 63—Compound Lists Used for Compliance Demonstrations for Enhanced Biological...

  13. 40 CFR Table 36 to Subpart G of... - Compound Lists Used for Compliance Demonstrations for Enhanced Biological Treatment Processes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compound Lists Used for Compliance Demonstrations for Enhanced Biological Treatment Processes (See § 63.145(h)) 36 Table 36 to Subpart G of Part 63... Subpart G of Part 63—Compound Lists Used for Compliance Demonstrations for Enhanced Biological...

  14. 40 CFR Table 36 to Subpart G of... - Compound Lists Used for Compliance Demonstrations for Enhanced Biological Treatment Processes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compound Lists Used for Compliance Demonstrations for Enhanced Biological Treatment Processes (See § 63.145(h)) 36 Table 36 to Subpart G of Part 63... Subpart G of Part 63—Compound Lists Used for Compliance Demonstrations for Enhanced Biological...

  15. 40 CFR Table 36 to Subpart G of... - Compound Lists Used for Compliance Demonstrations for Enhanced Biological Treatment Processes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compound Lists Used for Compliance Demonstrations for Enhanced Biological Treatment Processes (See § 63.145(h)) 36 Table 36 to Subpart G of Part 63... Subpart G of Part 63—Compound Lists Used for Compliance Demonstrations for Enhanced Biological...

  16. Hydrogen atom donor compounds as contrast enhancers for black-and-white photothermographic and thermographic elements

    DOEpatents

    Harring, Lori S.; Simpson, Sharon M.; Sansbury, Francis H.

    1997-01-01

    Hydrogen atom donor compounds are useful as contrast enhancers when used in combination with (i) hindered phenol developers, and (ii) trityl hydrazide and/or formyl-phenyl hydrazine co-developers, to produce ultra-high contrast black-and-white photothermographic and thermographic elements. The photothermographic and thermographic elements may be used as a photomask in a process where there is a subsequent exposure of an ultraviolet or short wavelength visible radiation-sensitive imageable medium.

  17. Novel Application of Natural Anisole Compounds as Enhancers for Transdermal Delivery of Ligustrazine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Jun; Wang, Jiao-Ying; Li, Hui; He, Xin; Zhang, Run-Qi; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Li, Fei; Yang, Zhong-Lin; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    To improve the transdermal delivery of ligustrazine, Foeniculum vulgare food origin anisole compounds were employed as promoters. Transdermal fluxes of ligustrazine were determined by Franz-type diffusion cells. Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectra were used to detect the biophysical changes of the stratum corneum and to explore the mechanism of permeation enhancement. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to monitor the morphological changes of the skin. Among the three anisoles, anisic acid increased the penetration flux of ligustrazine significantly. The ligustrazine flux with anisic acid (11.9 μg/cm(2)/h) was higher than that any other group (p < 0.05). Spectra observations revealed that these anisole enhancers were able to disturb and extract the stratum corneum lipids. In addition, apparent density was used to describe the desquamation extent of the scutella. Multiple mechanisms are involved in the permeation enhancement of ligustrazine, including disturbing and extracting stratum corneum lipid, forming a competitive hydrogen bond. All data suggested that anisole compounds could be a group of safe and active penetration enhancers for transdermal delivery of ligustrazine. PMID:26446204

  18. In Vitro Screening for Compounds That Enhance Human L1 Mobilization

    PubMed Central

    Terasaki, Natsuko; Goodier, John L.; Cheung, Ling E.; Wang, Yue J.; Kajikawa, Masaki; Kazazian, Haig H.; Okada, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    The Long interspersed element 1 (LINE1 or L1) retrotransposon constitutes 17% of the human genome. There are currently 80–100 human L1 elements that are thought to be active in any diploid human genome. These elements can mobilize into new locations of the genome, resulting in changes in genomic information. Active L1s are thus considered to be a type of endogenous mutagen, and L1 insertions can cause disease. Certain stresses, such as gamma radiation, oxidative stress, and treatment with some agents, can induce transcription and/or mobilization of retrotransposons. In this study, we used a reporter gene assay in HepG2 cells to screen compounds for the potential to enhance the transcription of human L1. We assessed 95 compounds including genotoxic agents, substances that induce cellular stress, and commercially available drugs. Treatment with 15 compounds increased the L1 promoter activity by >1.5-fold (p<0.05) after 6 or 24 hours of treatment. In particular, genotoxic agents (benzo[a]pyrene, camptothecin, cytochalasin D, merbarone, and vinblastine), PPARα agonists (bezafibrate and fenofibrate), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diflunisal, flufenamic acid, salicylamide, and sulindac) induced L1 promoter activity. To examine their effects on L1 retrotransposition, we developed a high-throughput real-time retrotransposition assay using a novel secreted Gaussia luciferase reporter cassette. Three compounds (etomoxir, WY-14643, and salicylamide) produced a significant enhancement in L1 retrotransposition. This is the first study to report the effects of a wide variety of compounds on L1 transcription and retrotransposition. These results suggest that certain chemical- and drug-induced stresses might have the potential to cause genomic mutations by inducing L1 mobilization. Thus, the risk of induced L1 transcription and retrotransposition should be considered during drug safety evaluation and environmental risk assessments of chemicals. PMID:24040300

  19. Enhancing the Magnetic Anisotropy of Linear Cr(II) Chain Compounds Using Heavy Metal Substitutions.

    PubMed

    Christian, Jonathan H; Brogden, David W; Bindra, Jasleen K; Kinyon, Jared S; van Tol, Johan; Wang, Jingfang; Berry, John F; Dalal, Naresh S

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic properties of the series of three linear, trimetallic chain compounds Cr2Cr(dpa)4Cl2, 1, Mo2Cr(dpa)4Cl2, 2, and W2Cr(dpa)4Cl2, 3 (dpa = 2,2'-dipyridylamido), have been studied using variable-temperature dc and ac magnetometry and high-frequency EPR spectroscopy. All three compounds possess an S = 2 electronic ground state arising from the terminal Cr(2+) ion, which exhibits slow magnetic relaxation under an applied magnetic field, as evidenced by ac magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements. The slow relaxation stems from the existence of an easy-axis magnetic anisotropy, which is bolstered by the axial symmetry of the compounds and has been quantified through rigorous high-frequency EPR measurements. The magnitude of D in these compounds increases when heavier ions are substituted into the trimetallic chain; thus D = -1.640, -2.187, and -3.617 cm(-1) for Cr2Cr(dpa)4Cl2, Mo2Cr(dpa)4Cl2, and W2Cr(dpa)4Cl2, respectively. Additionally, the D value measured for W2Cr(dpa)4Cl2 is the largest yet reported for a high-spin Cr(2+) system. While earlier studies have demonstrated that ligands containing heavy atoms can enhance magnetic anisotropy, this is the first report of this phenomenon using heavy metal atoms as "ligands". PMID:26881994

  20. [Fluorescence enhancement character of terbium perchlorate and thulium perchlorate with phenylcarboxymethyl sulfoxide coordination compounds].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-xian; Wu, Guo-jiun; Liu, Zhong-shi; Han, Feng-mei

    2002-12-01

    (Tb1-x Tmx).L2.(ClO4).2H2O(x = 0.000 to 0.200, L = C6H5SOCH2COO-) have been synthesized. The coordination compounds have been studied by means of composition analysis, molar conductivity, IR, and the condition of coordination have been inferred. In the fluorescent spectra it was found that Tm3+ has a strongly sensitization effect to the fluorescence of Tb3+. The fluorescent emission intensity of Terbium perchlorate with phenylcarboxymethyl sulfoxide coordination compounds would be enhanced by Tm3+ in mixing. Tm3+ has a sensitization to the fluorescence of Tb3+ in the ratio of Tb3+:Tm3+ = 0.999:0.001-0.900:0.100. In the solubility experiment it was found that the complexes have high solubility in ethanol. PMID:12914160

  1. Neutron-capture therapy of human cancer: in vivo results on tumor localization of boron-10-labeled antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigen in the gw-39 tumor model system

    SciTech Connect

    Goldenberg, D.M.; Sharkey, R.M.; Primus, F.J.; Mizusawa, E.; Hawthorne, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Antibody against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was conjugated with p-(1,2-dicarba-closo-(1-/sup 3/H)dodecaboran(12)-2-yl)benzenediazonium ion by an azo-coupling reaction, resulting in 30 boron atoms per IgG molecule with no loss of antibody protein. Antibody immunoreactivity was not appreciably affected by this conjugation and was stable after incubation in vitro in hamster plasma for 24 hr. The efficacy of the boron-conjugated anti-CEA IgG for localizing selectively in CEA-containing human colonic carcinomas propagated in the hind leg musculature of hamsters was evaluated by labeling the antibodies with /sup 131/I and determining distribution of the radioactivity in vivo. The results show that the boron-conjugated antibodies retain selective localization in the tumors, thus indicating their suitability for transporting boron-10 to tumors for use in neutron-capture therapy of cancer. 17 references, 3 tables, 2 figures.

  2. Bulk interface engineering for enhanced magnetization in multiferroic BiFeO3 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, Shreeja; Bhuwal, Deepika; Banerjee, Alok; Shelke, Vilas

    2013-02-01

    We investigated composites of two antiferromagnetic perovskite oxides BiFeO3 and LaMnO3 to study change in bulk magnetic behavior. Composites with nominal compositions (1-x)BiFeO3-xLaMnO3 (x = 0, 5, 10, 20 wt. %) were synthesized by solid state reaction route. The structural analysis performed using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy indicated presence of phase separated compounds. Significant enhancement in magnetic moment is observed in composite samples, which was attributed to the uncompensated spins at the interface of two distinct antiferromagnetic phases.

  3. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a nitrogen-containing compound and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew

    2016-05-31

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a nitrogen-containing compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  4. ROLE OF REDUCTANTS IN THE ENHANCED DESORPTION AND TRANSFORMATION OF CHOROALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS BY MODIFIED FENTON'S REACTIONS. (R826163)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanism for enhanced desorption of chloroaliphatic compounds from a
    silty loam soil by modified Fenton's reagent was investigated using a series of
    probe compounds of varying hydrophobicities. Hexachloroethane, which has
    negligible reactivity with hydroxyl ra...

  5. Enhancing distributive mixing of immiscible polyethylene/thermoplastic starch blend through zeolite ZSM-5 compounding sequence.

    PubMed

    Thipmanee, Ranumas; Lukubira, Sam; Ogale, Amod A; Sane, Amporn

    2016-01-20

    The aim of this work was to explore the effect of zeolite ZSM-5 (ZSM5) incorporation sequence on the phase morphology, microstructure, and performance of polyethylene/thermoplastic starch (PE/TPS) films. Two processing sequences were used for preparing PE/TPS/ZSM5 composites at a weight ratio of PE to TPS of 70:30 and ZSM5 concentrations of 1-5 wt%: (i) melt compounding of PE with ZSM5 prior to melt blending with TPS (SI); and (ii) TPS was compounded with ZSM5 prior to blending with PE (SII). Distributive mixing and mechanical properties of PE/TPS blend were greatly enhanced when ZSM5 was incorporated via SII. These were caused by both the higher affinity between PE and ZSM5, compared to that of TPS and ZSM5, and the reduction of TPS viscosity after compounding with ZSM5, leading to migration of ZSM5 from TPS dispersed phase toward PE matrix and increase in breakup of TPS droplets during SII sequence. PMID:26572416

  6. Exogenous control over intracellular acidification: Enhancement via proton caged compounds coupled to gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Marilena; Sabbatella, Gianfranco; Antonaroli, Simonetta; Remita, Hynd; Orlando, Viviana; Biagioni, Stefano; Nucara, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    The pH regulation has a fundamental role in several intracellular processes and its variation via exogenous compounds is a potential tool for intervening in the intracellular processes. Proton caged compounds (PPCs) release protons upon UV irradiation and may efficiently provoke intracellular on-command acidification. Here, we explore the intracellular pH variation, when purposely synthesized PCCs are coupled to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and dosed to HEK-293 cells. We detected the acidification process caused by the UV irradiation by monitoring the intensity of the asymmetric stretching mode of the CO(2) molecule at 2343 cm(-1). The comparison between free and AuNPs functionalized proton caged compound demonstrates a highly enhanced CO(2) yield, hence pH variation, in the latter case. Finally, PCC functionalized AuNPs were marked with a purposely synthesized fluorescent marker and dosed to HEK-293 cells. The corresponding fluorescence optical images show green grains throughout the whole cytoplasm. PMID:26235337

  7. Enhanced Production of Phenolic Compounds from Pumpkin Leaves by Subcritical Water Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Jeong-Yeon; Ko, Mi-Ok; Kim, Dong-Shin; Lim, Sang-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced production of individual phenolic compounds by subcritical water hydrolysis (SWH) of pumpkin leaves was investigated at various temperatures ranging from 100 to 220°C at 20 min and at various reaction times ranging from 10 to 50 min at 160°C. Caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and gentisic acid were the major phenolic compounds in the hydrolysate of pumpkin leaves. All phenolic compounds except gentisic acid showed the highest yield at 160°C, but gentisic acid showed the highest yield at 180°C. The cumulative amount of individual phenolic compounds gradually increased by 48.1, 52.2, and 78.4 μg/g dry matter at 100°C, 120°C, and 140°C, respectively, and then greatly increased by 1,477.1 μg/g dry matter at 160°C. The yields of caffeic acid and ferulic acid showed peaks at 20 min, while those of cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and procatechuic acid showed peaks at 30 min. Antioxidant activities such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power values gradually increased with hydrolysis temperature and ranged from 6.77 to 12.42 mg ascorbic acid equivalents/g dry matter and from 4.25 to 8.92 mmol Fe2+/100 g dry matter, respectively. Color L* and b* values gradually decreased as hydrolysis temperature increased from 100°C to 140°C. At high temperatures (160°C to 220°C), L* and b* values decreased suddenly. The a* value peaked at 160°C and then decreased as temperature increased from 160°C to 220°C. These results suggest that SWH of pumpkin leaves was strongly influenced by hydrolysis temperature and may enhanced the production of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities. PMID:27390730

  8. Enhanced Production of Phenolic Compounds from Pumpkin Leaves by Subcritical Water Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jeong-Yeon; Ko, Mi-Ok; Kim, Dong-Shin; Lim, Sang-Bin

    2016-06-01

    Enhanced production of individual phenolic compounds by subcritical water hydrolysis (SWH) of pumpkin leaves was investigated at various temperatures ranging from 100 to 220°C at 20 min and at various reaction times ranging from 10 to 50 min at 160°C. Caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and gentisic acid were the major phenolic compounds in the hydrolysate of pumpkin leaves. All phenolic compounds except gentisic acid showed the highest yield at 160°C, but gentisic acid showed the highest yield at 180°C. The cumulative amount of individual phenolic compounds gradually increased by 48.1, 52.2, and 78.4 μg/g dry matter at 100°C, 120°C, and 140°C, respectively, and then greatly increased by 1,477.1 μg/g dry matter at 160°C. The yields of caffeic acid and ferulic acid showed peaks at 20 min, while those of cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and procatechuic acid showed peaks at 30 min. Antioxidant activities such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power values gradually increased with hydrolysis temperature and ranged from 6.77 to 12.42 mg ascorbic acid equivalents/g dry matter and from 4.25 to 8.92 mmol Fe(2+)/100 g dry matter, respectively. Color L* and b* values gradually decreased as hydrolysis temperature increased from 100°C to 140°C. At high temperatures (160°C to 220°C), L* and b* values decreased suddenly. The a* value peaked at 160°C and then decreased as temperature increased from 160°C to 220°C. These results suggest that SWH of pumpkin leaves was strongly influenced by hydrolysis temperature and may enhanced the production of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities. PMID:27390730

  9. Compound antimalarial ethosomal cataplasm: preparation, evaluation, and mechanism of penetration enhancement.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shuo; Liu, Shu-Zhi; Zhang, Yu-Shi; Du, Mao-Bo; Liang, Ai-Hua; Song, Li-Hua; Ye, Zu-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is still a serious public health problem in some parts of the world. The problems of recurrence and drug resistance are increasingly more serious. Thus, it is necessary to develop a novel antimalarial agent. The objectives of this study were to construct a novel compound antimalarial transdermal nanosystem-ethosomal cataplasm, to investigate its characteristics and efficiency, and to systematically explore the penetration-enhancing mechanisms of ethosomal cataplasm. Artesunate-loaded ethosomes and febrifugine-loaded ethosomes were prepared, and their characteristics were evaluated. Drug-loaded ethosomes were incorporated in the matrix of cataplasm to form the compound antimalarial ethosomal cataplasm. With the help of ethosomal technology, the accumulated permeation quantity of artesunate significantly increased at 8 hours after administration, which was 1.57 times as much as that of conventional cataplasm. Soon after administration, the ethosomal cataplasm could make a large quantity of antimalarial drug quickly penetrate through skin, then the remaining drug in the ethosomal cataplasm could be steadily released. These characteristics of ethosomal cataplasm are favorable for antimalarial drugs to kill Plasmodium spp. quickly and prevent the resurgence of Plasmodium spp. As expected, the ethosomal cataplasm showed good antimalarial efficiency in this experiment. The negative conversion rates were 100% and the recurrence rates were 0% at all dosages. The mechanism of penetration enhancement of the ethosomal cataplasm was systematically explored using an optics microscope, polarization microscope, and transmission electron microscopy. The microstructure, ultrastructure, and birefringent structure in skin were observed. Data obtained in this study showed that the application of ethosomal technology to antimalarial cataplasm could improve the transdermal delivery of drug, enhance the efficacy, and facilitate practical application in clinic. PMID:26170661

  10. Compound antimalarial ethosomal cataplasm: preparation, evaluation, and mechanism of penetration enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shuo; Liu, Shu-Zhi; Zhang, Yu-Shi; Du, Mao-Bo; Liang, Ai-Hua; Song, Li-Hua; Ye, Zu-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is still a serious public health problem in some parts of the world. The problems of recurrence and drug resistance are increasingly more serious. Thus, it is necessary to develop a novel antimalarial agent. The objectives of this study were to construct a novel compound antimalarial transdermal nanosystem–ethosomal cataplasm, to investigate its characteristics and efficiency, and to systematically explore the penetration-enhancing mechanisms of ethosomal cataplasm. Artesunate-loaded ethosomes and febrifugine-loaded ethosomes were prepared, and their characteristics were evaluated. Drug-loaded ethosomes were incorporated in the matrix of cataplasm to form the compound antimalarial ethosomal cataplasm. With the help of ethosomal technology, the accumulated permeation quantity of artesunate significantly increased at 8 hours after administration, which was 1.57 times as much as that of conventional cataplasm. Soon after administration, the ethosomal cataplasm could make a large quantity of antimalarial drug quickly penetrate through skin, then the remaining drug in the ethosomal cataplasm could be steadily released. These characteristics of ethosomal cataplasm are favorable for antimalarial drugs to kill Plasmodium spp. quickly and prevent the resurgence of Plasmodium spp. As expected, the ethosomal cataplasm showed good antimalarial efficiency in this experiment. The negative conversion rates were 100% and the recurrence rates were 0% at all dosages. The mechanism of penetration enhancement of the ethosomal cataplasm was systematically explored using an optics microscope, polarization microscope, and transmission electron microscopy. The microstructure, ultrastructure, and birefringent structure in skin were observed. Data obtained in this study showed that the application of ethosomal technology to antimalarial cataplasm could improve the transdermal delivery of drug, enhance the efficacy, and facilitate practical application in clinic. PMID:26170661

  11. Phenolic mediators enhance the manganese peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of recalcitrant lignin model compounds and synthetic lignin.

    PubMed

    Nousiainen, Paula; Kontro, Jussi; Manner, Helmiina; Hatakka, Annele; Sipilä, Jussi

    2014-11-01

    Fungal oxidative enzymes, such as peroxidases and laccases, are the key catalysts in lignin biodegradation in vivo, and consequently provide an important source for industrial ligninolytic biocatalysts. Recently, it has been shown that some syringyl-type phenolics have potential as industrial co-oxidants or mediators, in laccase-catalyzed modification of lignocellulosic material. We have now studied the effect of such mediators with ligninolytic peroxidases on oxidation of the most recalcitrant lignin model compounds. We found that they are able to enhance the manganese peroxidase (MnP) catalyzed oxidation reactions of small non-phenolic compounds, veratryl alcohol and veratrylglycerol β-guaiacyl ether (adlerol), which are not usually oxidized by manganese peroxidases alone. In these experiments we compared two peroxidases from white-rot fungi, MnP from Phlebia sp. Nf b19 and versatile peroxidase (VP) from Bjerkandera adusta under two oxidation conditions: (i) the Mn(III) initiated mediated oxidation by syringyl compounds and (ii) the system involving MnP-dependent lipid peroxidation, both with production of (hydrogen) peroxides in situ to maintain the peroxidase catalytic cycle. It was found that both peroxidases produced α-carbonyl oxidation product of veratryl alcohol in clearly higher yields in reactions mediated by phenoxy radicals than in lipid-peroxyl radical system. The oxidation of adlerol, on the other hand, was more efficient in lipid-peroxidation-system. VP was more efficient than MnP in the oxidation of veratryl alcohol and showed its lignin peroxidase type activity in the reaction conditions indicated by some cleavage of Cα-Cβ-bond of adlerol. Finally, the mediator assisted oxidation conditions were applied in the oxidation of synthetic lignin (DHP) and the structural analysis of the oxidized polymers showed clear modifications in the polymer outcome, e.g. the oxidation resulted in reduced amount of aliphatic hydroxyls indicated by (31)P NMR. PMID

  12. Enhancing trichloroethylene degradation using non-aromatic compounds as growth substrates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungjin; Hwang, Jeongmin; Chung, Jinwook; Bae, Wookeun

    2014-06-30

    The effect of non-aromatic compounds on the trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation of toluene-oxidizing bacteria were evaluated using Burkholderia cepacia G4 that expresses toluene 2-monooxygenase and Pseudomonas putida that expresses toluene dioxygenase. TCE degradation rates for B. cepacia G4 and P. putida with toluene alone as growth substrate were 0.144 and 0.123 μg-TCE/mg-protein h, respectively. When glucose, acetate and ethanol were fed as additional growth substrates, those values increased up to 0.196, 0.418 and 0.530 μg-TCE/mg-protein h, respectively for B. cepacia G4 and 0.319, 0.219 and 0.373 μg-TCE/mg-protein h, respectively for P. putida. In particular, the addition of ethanol resulted in a high TCE degradation rate regardless of the initial concentration. The use of a non-aromatic compound as an additional substrate probably enhanced the TCE degradation because of the additional supply of NADH that is consumed in co-metabolic degradation of TCE. Also, it is expected that the addition of a non-aromatic substrate can reduce the necessary dose of toluene and, subsequently, minimize the potential competitive inhibition upon TCE co-metabolism by toluene. PMID:24857894

  13. Plant compounds enhance the assay sensitivity for detection of active Bacillus cereus toxin.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven; Hernlem, Bradley; He, Xiaohua; Friedman, Mendel

    2015-03-01

    Bacillus cereus is an important food pathogen, producing emetic and diarrheal syndromes, the latter mediated by enterotoxins. The ability to sensitively trace and identify this active toxin is important for food safety. This study evaluated a nonradioactive, sensitive, in vitro cell-based assay, based on B. cereus toxin inhibition of green fluorescent protein (GFP) synthesis in transduced monkey kidney Vero cells, combined with plant extracts or plant compounds that reduce viable count of B. cereus in food. The assay exhibited a dose dependent GFP inhibition response with ~25% inhibition at 50 ng/mL toxin evaluated in culture media or soy milk, rice milk or infant formula, products associated with food poisonings outbreak. The plant extracts of green tea or bitter almond and the plant compounds epicatechin or carvacrol were found to amplify the assay response to ~90% inhibition at the 50 ng/mL toxin concentration greatly increasing the sensitivity of this assay. Additional studies showed that the test formulations also inhibited the growth of the B. cereus bacteria, likely through cell membrane disruption. The results suggest that the improved highly sensitive assay for the toxin and the rapid inactivation of the pathogen producing the toxin have the potential to enhance food safety. PMID:25767986

  14. Plant Compounds Enhance the Assay Sensitivity for Detection of Active Bacillus cereus Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Rasooly, Reuven; Hernlem, Bradley; He, Xiaohua; Friedman, Mendel

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is an important food pathogen, producing emetic and diarrheal syndromes, the latter mediated by enterotoxins. The ability to sensitively trace and identify this active toxin is important for food safety. This study evaluated a nonradioactive, sensitive, in vitro cell-based assay, based on B. cereus toxin inhibition of green fluorescent protein (GFP) synthesis in transduced monkey kidney Vero cells, combined with plant extracts or plant compounds that reduce viable count of B. cereus in food. The assay exhibited a dose dependent GFP inhibition response with ~25% inhibition at 50 ng/mL toxin evaluated in culture media or soy milk, rice milk or infant formula, products associated with food poisonings outbreak. The plant extracts of green tea or bitter almond and the plant compounds epicatechin or carvacrol were found to amplify the assay response to ~90% inhibition at the 50 ng/mL toxin concentration greatly increasing the sensitivity of this assay. Additional studies showed that the test formulations also inhibited the growth of the B. cereus bacteria, likely through cell membrane disruption. The results suggest that the improved highly sensitive assay for the toxin and the rapid inactivation of the pathogen producing the toxin have the potential to enhance food safety. PMID:25767986

  15. Field evaluation of potential of alarm pheromone compounds to enhance baits for control of grass-cutting ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Hughes, William O H; Howse, Philip E; Vilela, Evaldo F; Knapp, Jenny J; Goulson, Dave

    2002-06-01

    Leaf-cutting ants are important economic pests of the Neotropics, and the most common method of control involves the use of insecticidal baits. Baits that are currently available exhibit low attractiveness to grass-cutting species, thus there is a need to develop improved baits. The potential for using alarm pheromone compounds to enhance the attractiveness and subsequent harvest of baits was examined for two economically important species of grass-cutting ant, Atta bisphaerica (Forel) and Atta capiguara (Goncalves). Compounds of the alarm pheromone were applied to rubber septa that were then sealed inside plastic sachets together with citrus pulp-based bait. The best candidate compound for bait enhancement was 4-methyl-3-heptanone. This compound significantly increased the attractiveness of bait sachets to both species. It also appeared to improve the discovery of nearby unenhanced sachets. However, 4-methyl-3-heptanone resulted in only a slight and non-significant improvement in bait harvest. Enhanced and unenhanced bait sachets were applied at a number of positions to obtain an improvement in harvest, but without success. The possible reasons for the lack of an enhancement of harvest and the potential for using alarm pheromone compounds as leaf-cutting ant bait enhancers are discussed. PMID:12075997

  16. Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy on nucleic acids and related compounds adsorbed on colloidal silver particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneipp, K.; Pohle, W.; Fabian, H.

    1991-04-01

    Various nucleic acids and related compounds have been investigated by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) on silver sol. The time delay between the addition of the various nucleic acids to the silver sol and the appearance of their SER spectra, i.e. the time needed by the various molecules to adsorb on an active site of the silver surface with an adsorption geometry which allows a SERS enhancement, shows strong differences. For instance, an immediate appearance of SER spectra has been found for DNA, whereas ribonucleic acids (RNAs) demonstrated a strong time delay (up to days) of the appearance of their SER spectra. This delay can be tentatively explained by the higher rigidity of RNA molecules compared with DNA. The more flexible DNA molecules are better adaptable to adsorption on silver than RNAs. The SER spectra of RNAs and DNAs showed strong changes within their relative line intensities as a function of time before they achieved stationary conditions, which indicates a protracted re-arrangement of the large molecules on the silver surface.

  17. Gold nanoparticle-enhanced target for MS analysis and imaging of harmful compounds in plant, animal tissue and on fingerprint.

    PubMed

    Sekuła, Justyna; Nizioł, Joanna; Misiorek, Maria; Dec, Paulina; Wrona, Agnieszka; Arendowski, Adrian; Ruman, Tomasz

    2015-10-01

    Gold nanoparticle-enhanced target (AuNPET) was used for detailed investigation of various materials of biological origin - human fingerprint, onion bulb and chicken liver. Analysis of these objects was focused on toxic and harmful compounds - designer drug containing pentedrone, diphenylamine in onion and potentially cancerogenic metronidazole antibiotic in liver. Detection of large quantity of endogenous compounds from mentioned objects is also shown. Most of analyzed compounds were also localized with MS imaging and relationship between their function and location was discussed. Detected compounds belong to a very wide range of chemical compounds such as saccharides, ionic and non-ionic glycerides, amino acids, fatty acids, sulfides, sulfoxides, phenols etc. Fingerprint experiments demonstrate application of AuNPET for detection, structure confirmation and also co-localization of drug with ridge patterns proving person-drug contact. PMID:26454458

  18. Boron-10 ABUNCL Active Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2013-07-09

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report provides results from testing of the active mode of the General Electric Reuter-Stokes Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) at Los Alamos National Laboratory using sources and fuel pins.

  19. In situ stimulation vs. bioaugmentation: Can microbial inoculation of plant roots enhance biodegradation of organic compounds?

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsley, M.T.; Metting, F.B. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Seidler, R.J.

    1993-06-01

    The use of plant roots and their associated rhizosphere bacteria for biocontainment and biorestoration offers several advantages for treating soil-dispersed contaminants and for application to large land areas. Plant roots function as effective delivery systems, since root growth transports bacteria vertically and laterally along the root in the soil column (see [ 1,2]). Movement of microbes along roots and downward in the soil column can be enhanced via irrigation [1-4]. For example, Ciafardini et al. [3] increased the nodulation and the final yield of soybeans during pod filling by including Bradyrhizobium japonicum in the irrigation water. Using rhizosphere microorganisms is advantageous for biodegradation of compounds that are degraded mainly by cometabolic processes, e.g., trichloroethylene (TCE). The energy source for bacterial growth and metabolism is supplied by the plant in the form of root exudates and other sloughed organic material. Plants are inexpensive, and by careful choice of species that possess either tap or fibrous root growth patterns, they can be used to influence mass transport of soil contaminants to the root surface via the transpiration stream [5]. Cropping of plants to remove heavy metals from contaminated soils has been proposed as a viable, low-cost, low-input treatment option [6]. The interest in use of plants as a remediation strategy has even reached the popular press [7], where the use of ragweed for the reclamation of sites contaminated with tetraethyl lead and other heavy metals was discussed.

  20. Target-seeking antifibrotic compound enhances wound healing and suppresses scar formation in mice.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, Tero A H; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2010-12-14

    Permanent scars form upon healing of tissue injuries such as those caused by ischemia (myocardial infarction, stroke), trauma, surgery, and inflammation. Current options in reducing scar formation are limited to local intervention. We have designed a systemically administered, target-seeking biotherapeutic for scar prevention. It consists of a vascular targeting peptide that specifically recognizes angiogenic blood vessels and extravasates into sites of injury, fused with a therapeutic molecule, decorin. Decorin prevents tissue fibrosis and promotes tissue regeneration by inhibiting TGF-β activity and by other regulatory activities. The decorin-targeting peptide fusion protein had substantially increased neutralizing activity against TGF-β1 in vitro compared with untargeted decorin. In vivo, the fusion protein selectively accumulated in wounds, and promoted wound healing and suppressed scar formation at doses where nontargeted decorin was inactive. These results show that selective targeting yields a tissue-healing and scar-reducing compound with enhanced specificity and potency. This approach may help make reducing scar formation by systemic drug delivery a feasible option for surgery and for the treatment of pathological processes in which scar formation is a problem. PMID:21106754

  1. Engineering synthetic bacterial consortia for enhanced desulfurization and revalorization of oil sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Igor; Mohamed, Magdy El-Said; Rozas, Daniel; García, José Luis; Díaz, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    The 4S pathway is the most studied bioprocess for the removal of the recalcitrant sulfur of aromatic heterocycles present in fuels. It consists of three sequential functional units, encoded by the dszABCD genes, through which the model compound dibenzothiophene (DBT) is transformed into the sulfur-free 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2HBP) molecule. In this work, a set of synthetic dsz cassettes were implanted in Pseudomonas putida KT2440, a model bacterial "chassis" for metabolic engineering studies. The complete dszB1A1C1-D1 cassette behaved as an attractive alternative - to the previously constructed recombinant dsz cassettes - for the conversion of DBT into 2HBP. Refactoring the 4S pathway by the use of synthetic dsz modules encoding individual 4S pathway reactions revealed unanticipated traits, e.g., the 4S intermediate 2HBP-sulfinate (HBPS) behaves as an inhibitor of the Dsz monooxygenases, and once secreted from the cells it cannot be further taken up. That issue should be addressed for the rational design of more efficient biocatalysts for DBT bioconversions. In this sense, the construction of synthetic bacterial consortia to compartmentalize the 4S pathway into different cell factories for individual optimization was shown to enhance the conversion of DBT into 2HBP, overcome the inhibition of the Dsz enzymes by the 4S intermediates, and enable efficient production of unattainable high added value intermediates, e.g., HBPS, that are difficult to obtain using the current monocultures. PMID:26802977

  2. Umami compounds enhance the intensity of retronasal sensation of aromas from model chicken soups.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Toshihide; Goto, Shingo; Miura, Kyo; Takakura, Yukiko; Egusa, Ai S; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko

    2016-04-01

    We examined the influence of taste compounds on retronasal aroma sensation using a model chicken soup. The aroma intensity of a reconstituted flavour solution from which glutamic acid (Glu), inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), or phosphate was omitted was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of the model soup. The aroma intensity of 0.4% NaCl solution containing the aroma chicken model (ACM) with added Glu and IMP was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of 0.4% NaCl solution containing only ACM. The quantitative analyses showed that adding monosodium glutamate (MSG) to aqueous aroma solution containing only ACM enhanced the intensity of retronasal aroma sensation by 2.5-folds with increasing MSG concentration from 0% to 0.3%. Sensation intensity using an umami solution with added MSG and IMP was significantly higher than that with only MSG when the MSG concentration was 0.05%, 0.075%, or 0.1%. However, it plateaued when MSG concentration was beyond 0.3%. PMID:26593530

  3. Enhanced Photoreduction of Nitro-aromatic Compounds by Hydrated Electrons Derived from Indole on Natural Montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Tian, Haoting; Guo, Yong; Pan, Bo; Gu, Cheng; Li, Hui; Boyd, Stephen A

    2015-07-01

    A new photoreduction pathway for nitro-aromatic compounds (NACs) and the underlying degradation mechanism are described. 1,3-Dinitrobenzene was reduced to 3-nitroaniline by the widely distributed aromatic molecule indole; the reaction is facilitated by montmorillonite clay mineral under both simulated and natural sunlight irradiation. The novel chemical reaction is strongly affected by the type of exchangeable cation present on montmorillonite. The photoreduction reaction is initiated by the adsorption of 1,3-dinitrobenzene and indole in clay interlayers. Under light irradiation, the excited indole molecule generates a hydrated electron and the indole radical cation. The structural negative charge of montmorillonite plausibly stabilizes the radical cation hence preventing charge recombination. This promotes the release of reactive hydrated electrons for further reductive reactions. Similar results were observed for the photoreduction of nitrobenzene. In situ irradiation time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies provided direct evidence for the generation of hydrated electrons and the indole radical cations, which supported the proposed degradation mechanism. In the photoreduction process, the role of clay mineral is to both enhance the generation of hydrated electrons and to provide a constrained reaction environment in the galley regions, which increases the probability of contact between NACs and hydrated electrons. PMID:26029791

  4. Enhancement of Electron Transfer in Various Photo-Assisted Oxidation Processes for Nitro-Phenolic Compound Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khue, Do Ngoc; Lam, Tran Dai; Minh, Do Binh; Loi, Vu Duc; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Bach, Vu Quang; Van Anh, Nguyen; Van Hoang, Nguyen; Hu'ng, Dao Duy

    2016-08-01

    The present study focuses on photo-assisted advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) with strongly enhanced electron transfer for degradation of nitro-phenolic compounds in aqueous medium. The effectiveness of these processes was estimated based on the pseudo-first order rate constant k determined from high-performance liquid chromatography. The degradation of four different nitro-phenolic compounds was systematically studied using selected AOPs; these four compounds were nitrophenol, dinitrophenol, trinitrophenol and trinitroresorcin. It was observed that the combination of ultraviolet light with hydrogen peroxide H2O2 enhanced and maintained hydroxyl radicals, and therefore increased the conversion yield of organic pollutants. These AOPs provided efficient and green removal of stable organic toxins found in a wide range of industrial wastewater.

  5. Enhancements of nonpoint source monitoring of volatile organic compounds in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lapham, W.W.; Moran, M.J.; Zogorski, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled a national retrospective data set of analyses of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ground water of the United States. The data are from Federal, State, and local nonpoint-source monitoring programs, collected between 1985–95. This data set is being used to augment data collected by the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program to ascertain the occurrence of VOCs in ground water nationwide. Eleven attributes of the retrospective data set were evaluated to determine the suitability of the data to augment NAWQA data in answering occurrence questions of varying complexity. These 11 attributes are the VOC analyte list and the associated reporting levels for each VOC, well type, well-casing material, type of openings in the interval (screened interval or open hole), well depth, depth to the top and bottom of the open interval(s), depth to water level in the well, aquifer type (confined or unconfined), and aquifer lithology. VOCs frequently analyzed included solvents, industrial reagents, and refrigerants, but other VOCs of current interest were not frequently analyzed. About 70 percent of the sampled wells have the type of well documented in the data set, and about 74 percent have well depth documented. However, the data set generally lacks documentation of other characteristics, such as well-casing material, information about the screened or open interval(s), depth to water level in the well, and aquifer type and lithology. For example, only about 20 percent of the wells include information on depth to water level in the well and only about 14 percent of the wells include information about aquifer type. The three most important enhancements to VOC data collected in nonpoint-source monitoring programs for use in a national assessment of VOC occurrence in ground water would be an expanded VOC analyte list, recording the reporting level for each analyte for every analysis, and recording key ancillary

  6. Volatile Organic Compounds Enhance Allergic Airway Inflammation in an Experimental Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Bönisch, Ulrike; Böhme, Alexander; Kohajda, Tibor; Mögel, Iljana; Schütze, Nicole; von Bergen, Martin; Simon, Jan C.; Lehmann, Irina; Polte, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies suggest an association between exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and adverse allergic and respiratory symptoms. However, whether VOCs exhibit a causal role as adjuvants in asthma development remains unclear. Methods To investigate the effect of VOC exposure on the development of allergic airway inflammation Balb/c mice were exposed to VOCs emitted by new polyvinylchloride (PVC) flooring, sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and characterized in acute and chronic murine asthma models. Furthermore, prevalent evaporated VOCs were analyzed and mice were exposed to selected single VOCs. Results Exposure of mice to PVC flooring increased eosinophilic lung inflammation and OVA-specific IgE serum levels compared to un-exposed control mice. The increased inflammation was associated with elevated levels of Th2-cytokines. Long-term exposure to PVC flooring exacerbated chronic airway inflammation. VOCs with the highest concentrations emitted by new PVC flooring were N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB). Exposure to NMP or TXIB also increased the allergic immune response in OVA-sensitized mice. In vitro or in vivo exposure to NMP or TXIB reduced IL-12 production in maturing dendritic cells (DCs) and enhanced airway inflammation after adoptive DC transfer into Balb/c mice. At higher concentrations both VOCs induced oxidative stress demonstrated by increased isoprostane and glutathione-S-transferase-pi1 protein levels in the lung of non-sensitized mice. Treatment of PVC flooring-exposed mice with N-acetylcysteine prevented the VOC-induced increase of airway inflammation. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that exposure to VOCs may increase the allergic immune response by interfering with DC function and by inducing oxidative stress and has therefore to be considerate as risk factor for the development of allergic diseases. PMID:22802943

  7. Enhanced Diffusion of Chlorinated Organic Compounds into Aquitards due to Cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayral, D.; Otero, M.; Chung, S.; Goltz, M. N.; Huang, J.; Demond, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    Despite great efforts, remediation of sites contaminated with dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) is very challenging because, even at residual saturations, DNAPLs can act as a long-term source for a dissolved phase contaminant plume. Current models consider the possibility of diffusion and storage of these compounds in unfractured low permeability layers. However, there is a need to consider the impact of cracks, whether naturally occurring or induced by the interaction between low permeable layers and DNAPLs. To evaluate the impact on diffusive fluxes, diffusion coefficients were measured in low permeability materials representative of aquitards at steady-state using the time-lag method. The experimental setup comprised silty soil, packed into a retaining ring, sandwiched in between two reservoirs. The analytical solution for the time-lag method requires constant conditions in the upper and lower reservoirs. The lower reservoir contained pure trichloroethylene (TCE), while the upper reservoir was maintained at a concentration of zero by bubbling air through it, sweeping TCE into toluene trap. In order to predict the flux, the experimental effective diffusion coefficients were used to calculate the flux through uncracked matrix whereas bulk diffusion coefficient was used to calculate flux through the cracks. By using the experimentally-obtained diffusion coefficients and experimentally-measured crack intensity factors (the ratio of the area of cracks to the uncracked area), the total flux was estimated over extended time periods. These calculations, based on experimental data, were used to evaluate if diffusive-based fluxes in the presence of cracks were significantly greater than in the case of diffusion into an uncracked matrix. The enhanced diffusive fluxes were evaluated to determine whether there is the potential for significantly greater storage in the low permeable layers in the case of cracks, or whether the possibility of advective fluxes into the

  8. Enhancement of intestinal absorption of poorly absorbed hydrophilic compounds by simultaneous use of mucolytic agent and non-ionic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Takatsuka, Shinya; Kitazawa, Takeo; Morita, Takahiro; Horikiri, Yuji; Yoshino, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    The effect of co-administration of a mucolytic agent with a penetration enhancer was assessed on the intestinal absorption of poorly absorbed hydrophilic compounds. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran with average molecular weight of ca. 4.4 kDa (FD-4) was used as a model compound, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was used as a mucolytic agent. Sodium caprate (C10), tartaric acid (TA), sodium taurodeoxycholate (TDC), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), p-t-octyl phenol polyoxyethylene-9.5 (Triton X-100, TX-100) were selected as penetration enhancers with different mechanisms of action. Various dosing solutions containing a penetration enhancer in the absence or in the presence of NAC were directly administered into the exposed rat jejunum, and the bioavailability of FD-4 up to 2 h was determined. The extent of improvement by co-administration was highly dependent on the penetration enhancer species applied. The observed enhancement was thought to result from the mucolytic activity of NAC, which can reduce the mucus viscosity and facilitate the penetration of FD-4 to mucosal membrane. Among the combinations tested, the simultaneous administration of NAC and TX-100 provided the highest enhancement (22.5-fold) of intestinal FD-4 absorption compared to the control. Although the detailed mechanism for the observed drastic improvement is unclear, one possible reason was thought to be due to the improved diffusivity of TX-100 micellar system in the mucus layer. All these results suggest that the combination of a mucolytic agent and a non-ionic surfactant may have potential as an enhancing system for peroral delivery of poorly absorbed hydrophilic compounds like protein and peptide drugs. PMID:16289777

  9. In vitro evaluation of enhancing effect of borneol on transcorneal permeation of compounds with different hydrophilicities and molecular sizes.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hui-Ping; Gao, Xiang-Chun; Zhang, Li-Qiong; Wei, Shu-Qin; Bi, Sheng; Yang, Zi-Chao; Cui, Hao

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the enhancing effect of borneol on transcorneal permeation of compounds with different hydrophilicities and molecular sizes. Six compounds, namely rhodamine B, sodium-fluorescein, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) dextrans of 4, 10, 20 and 40 kDa were selected as model drugs. Permeation studies were performed using excised cornea of rabbits by a Franz-type diffusion apparatus. The safety of borneol was assessed on the basis of corneal hydration level and Draize eye test. The application of 0.2% borneol to the cornea increased the apparent permeability coefficient by 1.82-(P<0.05), 2.49-(P<0.05), 4.18-(P<0.05) and 1.11-fold (not significant) for rhodamine B, sodium-fluorescein, FITC-dextrans of 4 and 10 kDa, respectively. No significant permeability enhancement of FITC dextrans of 10, 20 and 40 kDa with borneol was found compared to control. The permeability coefficient enhanced by 0.2% borneol was linear correlated to the molecular weight of model drugs (R(2)=0.9976). With the 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% borneol application, the corneal hydration values were <83% and Draize scores were <4. Borneol may improve the transcorneal penetration of both hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds without causing toxic reactions, especially hydrophilic ones. Furthermore, 0.2% borneol can enhance the permeation of hydrophilic compounds with molecular weight ≤4 kDa. Hence, borneol can be considered as a safe and effective penetration enhancer for ocular drug administration. PMID:23458068

  10. Exogenous control over intracellular acidification: Enhancement via proton caged compounds coupled to gold nanoparticles and an alternative pathway with DMSO

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Marilena; Sabbatella, Gianfranco; Antonaroli, Simonetta; Remita, Hynd; Orlando, Viviana; Biagioni, Stefano; Nucara, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Proton caged compounds exhibit a characteristic behavior when directly dosed into cells or being coupled to gold nanoparticles prior to the dosing. When irradiated in the near ultraviolet region, they release protons that interact with intracellular HCO3− to yield H2CO3. The dissociation of carbonic acid, then, releases CO2 that can be distinctively singled out in infrared spectra. In the process of searching a pathway to augment the intracellular uptake of proton caged compounds, we probed the association of 1-(2-nitrophenyl)-ethylhexadecyl sulfonate (HDNS) with DMSO, an agent to enhance the membrane permeability. We found out a different UV-induced protonation mechanism that opens up to new conduits of employing of proton caged compounds. Here, we report the infrared data we collected in this set of experiments. PMID:26870760

  11. Exogenous control over intracellular acidification: Enhancement via proton caged compounds coupled to gold nanoparticles and an alternative pathway with DMSO.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Marilena; Sabbatella, Gianfranco; Antonaroli, Simonetta; Remita, Hynd; Orlando, Viviana; Biagioni, Stefano; Nucara, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    Proton caged compounds exhibit a characteristic behavior when directly dosed into cells or being coupled to gold nanoparticles prior to the dosing. When irradiated in the near ultraviolet region, they release protons that interact with intracellular HCO3 (-) to yield H2CO3. The dissociation of carbonic acid, then, releases CO2 that can be distinctively singled out in infrared spectra. In the process of searching a pathway to augment the intracellular uptake of proton caged compounds, we probed the association of 1-(2-nitrophenyl)-ethylhexadecyl sulfonate (HDNS) with DMSO, an agent to enhance the membrane permeability. We found out a different UV-induced protonation mechanism that opens up to new conduits of employing of proton caged compounds. Here, we report the infrared data we collected in this set of experiments. PMID:26870760

  12. Neuroprotective and Cognition-Enhancing Effects of Compound K Isolated from Red Ginseng.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ji Yeon; Ju, Sung Hee; Oh, Jisun; Lee, Seung Kwon; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2016-04-13

    The present study was aimed at elucidating the effect of compound K derived from red ginseng on memory function in mouse model and glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. Compound K induced antioxidant enzymes in nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)-mediated manner, and effectively attenuated cytotoxicity and mitochondrial damage induced by glutamate in HT22 cells. However, the cytoprotective effect by compound K was abolished by heme oxygenase-1 inhibitor, tin protophorphyrin IX, suggesting that neuroprotective effect of compound K was caused by its Nrf2-mediated induction of antioxidant enzymes. Further, memory deficit induced by scopolamine was restored by compound K, which did not inhibit acetylcholine esterase, in C57BL/6 mice but not in Nrf2 knockout mice as assessed by passive avoidance test, Y-maze and water maze tests, suggesting that scopolamine-induced memory impairment was overcome by the induction of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes by the compound K. Overall, our data indicate that compound K could be useful in prevention and treatment of reactive oxygen species-induced neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27012214

  13. Enhanced photo-activated luminescence for screening polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and other related chlorinated compounds

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1994-06-07

    The presence of polychlorinated biphenyls and other chlorinated compounds in a sample is determined by treating the sample with a photo-activator and then exposing the treated sample to a UV light source. The UV light produces a photo-product complex, which is subsequently excited with UV light to cause luminescence of the complex. The luminescence is detected and characteristics of the luminescence spectra are used to determine the presence of chlorinated compounds and also the quantity of the chlorine in the compounds. 14 figs.

  14. Enhanced photo-activated luminescence for screening polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and other related chlorinated compounds

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1994-01-01

    The presence of polychlorinated biphenyls and other chlorinated compounds in a sample is determined by treating the sample with a photo-activator and then exposing the treated sample to a UV light source. The UV light produces a photo-product complex, which is subsequently excited with UV light to cause luminescence of the complex. The luminescence is detected and characteristics of the luminescence spectra are used to determine the presence of chlorinated compounds and also the quantity of the chlorine in the compounds

  15. Enhanced photo-activated luminescence for screening polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and other related chlorinated compounds

    DOEpatents

    Tuan Vodinh.

    1993-12-21

    The presence of polychlorinated biphenyls and other chlorinated compounds in a sample is determined by treating the sample with a photo-activator and then exposing the treated sample to a UV light source. The UV light produces a photo-product complex, which is subsequently excited with UV light to cause luminescence of the complex. The luminescence is detected and characteristics of the luminescence spectra are used to determine the presence of chlorinated compounds and also the quantity of the chlorine in the compounds. 14 figures.

  16. Enhanced photo-activated luminescence for screening polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and other related chlorinated compounds

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1993-01-01

    The presence of polychlorinated biphenyls and other chlorinated compounds in a sample is determined by treating the sample with a photo-activator and then exposing the treated sample to a UV light source. The UV light produces a photo-product complex, which is subsequently excited with UV light to cause luminescence of the complex. The luminescence is detected and characteristics of the luminescence spectra are used to determine the presence of chlorinated compounds and also the quantity of the chlorine in the compounds.

  17. Enhanced transformation of malachite green by laccase of Ganoderma lucidum in the presence of natural phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Yang, In-Hee; Kim, Young-Mo; Jeon, Jong-Rok; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the efficacy of phenolic extract of wheat bran and lignin-related phenolic compounds as natural redox mediators on laccase-mediated transformation of malachite green (MG) using purified laccase from the white-rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum. G. lucidum laccase was able to decolorize 40.7% MG dye (at 25 mg l(-1)) after 24 h of incubation. Whereas, the addition of phenolic extract of wheat bran enhanced the decolorization significantly (p<0.001) by two- to threefold than that of purified laccase alone. Among various natural phenolic compounds, acetovanillone, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, syringaldehyde, and vanillin were the most efficient mediators, as effective as the synthetic mediator 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. Characterization of MG transformation products by HPLC, UV-Vis, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-electrospray ionization analysis revealed that N-demethylation was the key mechanism of decolorization of MG by laccase. Growth inhibition test based on mycelial growth inhibition of white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium revealed that treatment with laccase plus natural mediators effectively reduced the growth inhibitory levels of MG than that of untreated one. Among all the tested compounds, syringaldehyde showed the highest enhanced decolorization, as a consequence reduced growth inhibition was observed in syringaldehyde-treated samples. The results of the present study revealed that the natural phenolic compounds could alternatively be used as potential redox mediators for effective laccase-mediated decolorization of MG. PMID:19130052

  18. ENHANCED CONCENTRATION AND ANALYSIS METHOD FOR MEASURING WATER SOLUABLE ENDOGENOUS COMPOUNDS IN HUMAN BREATH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled human breath analysis has become a standard technique for assessing exposure to exogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as trihalomethanes from water chlorination; aromatics, hydrocarbons, and oxygenates from fuels usage; and various chlorinated solvents from i...

  19. Branched truxene and triindole compounds and their solid-state luminescent enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xianchao; Yuan, Mao-Sen; Xu, Fan; Wang, Hui; Wang, Qin; Wang, Wenji; Wang, Dong-En; Wang, Jinyi

    2016-07-01

    C3-symmetric truxene and triindole have been widely used to design the branched optoelectronic molecules. However, most of them exhibit high luminous efficiency in the solution and quenched luminescence in the solid state. Here, we respectively chose alkylated truxene and triindole as the central core, 2-methylphenyl as the peripheral functional groups to synthesize three branched compounds. Their photophysical properties have been explored combining with the theoretical calculation. The three compounds exhibit good solubility and high solid-state fluorescence quantum yields. The absorption and emission peaks of triindole compound exhibit apparent red-shift in comparison with those of truxene compounds, which indicates triindole more highly electron delocalization than truxene. The single-crystal structure shows that alkylation of the central core and branched steric bulkiness of these molecules effectively reduce the intermolecular π ⋯ π stacking and avoid the non-radiative transition of these molecules from excited state to ground state in the solid state.

  20. Branched truxene and triindole compounds and their solid-state luminescent enhancement.

    PubMed

    Du, Xianchao; Yuan, Mao-Sen; Xu, Fan; Wang, Hui; Wang, Qin; Wang, Wenji; Wang, Dong-En; Wang, Jinyi

    2016-07-01

    C3-symmetric truxene and triindole have been widely used to design the branched optoelectronic molecules. However, most of them exhibit high luminous efficiency in the solution and quenched luminescence in the solid state. Here, we respectively chose alkylated truxene and triindole as the central core, 2-methylphenyl as the peripheral functional groups to synthesize three branched compounds. Their photophysical properties have been explored combining with the theoretical calculation. The three compounds exhibit good solubility and high solid-state fluorescence quantum yields. The absorption and emission peaks of triindole compound exhibit apparent red-shift in comparison with those of truxene compounds, which indicates triindole more highly electron delocalization than truxene. The single-crystal structure shows that alkylation of the central core and branched steric bulkiness of these molecules effectively reduce the intermolecular π⋯π stacking and avoid the non-radiative transition of these molecules from excited state to ground state in the solid state. PMID:27064459

  1. Proton enhanced scattering and nuclear reaction analysis microcharacterization of ternary graphite-lithium-calcium intercalation compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, P.; Pruvost, S.; Hérold, C.; Lagrange, P.

    2004-06-01

    Intercalation of lithium into graphite is of great interest, due to its largely expanded use as negative electrode material in the Li-ion batteries, especially the LiC 6 compound. Recently, the first ternary intercalation compounds associating lithium with a second metallic element were synthesized by immersing pyrographite platelet in a molten Ca-Li alloy. Photonic and neutronic diffractions on these graphite-lithium-calcium compounds reveal that lithium and calcium layers are intercalated between graphene sheets. However, the precise elemental composition still lacks. Chemical analysis gives an average composition but carbon is not measured in the same sample as calcium and lithium. Electron microprobe, SEM and TEM do not allow to determine lithium concentration and its distribution in these compounds. This paper reports the first elemental characterization of carbon-calcium-lithium intercalation compounds by means of nuclear microprobe. Using a 3.1 MeV proton beam, both lithium, calcium and carbon can be determined within a single measurement, from the 7Li(p,α) 4He nuclear reaction and from elastic scattering for calcium and carbon respectively. In the graphite-lithium-calcium system, three different intercalation compounds were synthesized, containing low to high lithium content. The mapping of the samples reveals lateral and also mainly in depth heterogeneity (along the c axis).

  2. Enhancement of skin penetration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs from extemporaneously compounded topical-gel formulations.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, D A; Fuhrman, L C

    1999-01-01

    Ketoprofen and ibuprofen topical gels were compounded with decyl methyl sulfoxide and the terpenes d-limonene, (-)-menthone, terpinen-4-ol, and a-terpineol as penetration enhancers. Transdermal penetration profiles for both ketoprofen and ibuprofen were determined using full-thickness human skin, modified Franz diffusion cells and an isotonic (pH7.4) phosphate buffer solution. Human skin was used in these experiments to approximate the therapeutic use of these gels. Ibuprofen was found to have superior transdermal kinetics when compared to ketoprofen. Ibuprofen is a smaller and more lipophilic molecule than ketoprofen, which gives it better penetration properties. All enhancers tested significantly increased the penetration (except (-)-menthone) and skin retention (except terpinen-4-ol) of ketoprofen. None of the enhancers tested significantly increased the penetration or retention of ibuprofen. Despite the lack of enhancer activity, ibuprofen still demonstrated higher skin penetration and retention than enhanced delivery of ketoproen. The results of these studies suggest that the addition of penetration enhancers can significantly increase the amount of ketoprofen penetration, while enhancers demonstrated no significant increase (and can actually decrease) the amount of ibuprofen penetrating into and through the skin. PMID:23985822

  3. Compound heat transfer enhancement for shell side of double-pipe heat exchanger by helical fins and vortex generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Hongmei; Wu, Jianhua; Du, Wenjuan

    2012-07-01

    To improve heat transfer performance of shell side of double-pipe heat exchanger with helical fins on its inner tube, some vortex generators (VGs) were installed along the centerline of the helical channel. Heat transfer performance and pressure drop characteristic of the enhanced heat exchangers were investigated using air as the working fluid and steam as the heating medium. The helical fins were in the annulus and span its full width at different helical pitch. Wing-type VGs (delta or rectangular wing) and winglet-type VGs (delta or rectangular winglet pair) were used to combine with helical fins. The friction factor and Nusselt number can be well correlated by power-law correlations in the Reynolds number range studied. In order to evaluate the thermal performance of the shell side enhanced over the shell side without enhancement, comparisons were made under three constraints: (1) identical mass flow rate, IMF; (2) identical pressure drop, IPD and (3) identical pumping power, IPP. The results show the shell side enhanced by the compound heat transfer enhancement has better performance than the shell side only enhanced by helical fins at shorter helical pitch under the three constraints.

  4. Enhanced catalysis of the electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction using composites of molybdenum-based compounds, gold nanoparticles and carbon.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Ubisha; Lee, Jing; Giordano, Cristina; Malkhandi, Souradip; Yeo, Boon Siang

    2016-08-21

    Molybdenum nitride has been recently reported to interact synergistically with gold to show an enhanced activity for the electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (2H(+) + 2e(-)→ H2, HER). In this work, we elucidated the roles of nitrogen, carbon, molybdenum and gold on this observed phenomenon. Composites of Mo-based compounds, carbon black (black pearl 2000) and/or Au nanoparticles (AuNP) were prepared, and their activities for the HER in a 0.5 M H2SO4 electrolyte were measured using linear sweep voltammetry. We show and discuss here for the first time that, while the presence of carbon is necessary for the synergy phenomenon, the nitrogen atoms present in the compounds play no apparent role in this synergy. In fact, all the compounds containing Mo, namely Mo2N, MoB and metallic Mo(0), exhibited extensive synergy with Au for the HER. A hypothesis for the enhanced catalysis of H2 evolution by the mixed metal composites is proposed and discussed. PMID:27424516

  5. Enhancing Alkane Production in Cyanobacterial Lipid Droplets: A ModeFl Platform for Industrially Relevant Compound Production

    PubMed Central

    Peramuna, Anantha; Morton, Ray; Summers, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacterial lipid droplets (LDs) are packed with hydrophobic energy-dense compounds and have great potential for biotechnological expression and the compartmentalization of high value compounds. Nostoc punctiforme normally accumulates LDs containing neutral lipids, and small amounts of heptadecane, during the stationary phase of growth. In this study, we further enhanced heptadecane production in N. punctiforme by introducing extrachromosomal copies of aar/adc genes, and report the discovery of a putative novel lipase encoded by Npun_F5141, which further enhanced alkane production. Extra copies of all three genes in high light conditions resulted in a 16-fold higher accumulation of heptadecane compared to the wild type strain in the exponential phase. LD accumulation during exponential phase also increased massively to accommodate the heptadecane production. A large number of small, less fluorescent LDs were observed at the cell periphery in exponential growth phase, whereas fewer number of highly fluorescent, much larger LDs were localized towards the center of the cell in the stationary phase. These advances demonstrate that cyanobacterial LDs are an ideal model platform to make industrially relevant compounds, such as alkanes, during exponential growth, and provide insight into LD formation in cyanobacteria. PMID:25821934

  6. Ionic Strength-Induced Formation of Smectite Quasicrystals Enhances Nitroaromatic Compound Sorption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of ionic strength on nitroaromatic compound sorption from water by K+- and Ca2+-saturated smectite (SWy-2) was examined. The results indicated that sorption of 1,3-dinitrobenzene by K-SWy-2 increased up to 2.2 times as KCl ionic strength increased from 0.01 to 0.30 M. In contrast, sorp...

  7. Small organic compounds enhance antigen loading of class II major histocompatibility complex proteins by targeting the polymorphic P1 pocket.

    PubMed

    Höpner, Sabine; Dickhaut, Katharina; Hofstätter, Maria; Krämer, Heiko; Rückerl, Dominik; Söderhäll, J Arvid; Gupta, Shashank; Marin-Esteban, Viviana; Kühne, Ronald; Freund, Christian; Jung, Günther; Falk, Kirsten; Rötzschke, Olaf

    2006-12-15

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are a key element of the cellular immune response. Encoded by the MHC they are a family of highly polymorphic peptide receptors presenting peptide antigens for the surveillance by T cells. We have shown that certain organic compounds can amplify immune responses by catalyzing the peptide loading of human class II MHC molecules HLA-DR. Here we show now that they achieve this by interacting with a defined binding site of the HLA-DR peptide receptor. Screening of a compound library revealed a set of adamantane derivatives that strongly accelerated the peptide loading rate. The effect was evident only for an allelic subset and strictly correlated with the presence of glycine at the dimorphic position beta86 of the HLA-DR molecule. The residue forms the floor of the conserved pocket P1, located in the peptide binding site of MHC molecule. Apparently, transient occupation of this pocket by the organic compound stabilizes the peptide-receptive conformation permitting rapid antigen loading. This interaction appeared restricted to the larger Gly(beta86) pocket and allowed striking enhancements of T cell responses for antigens presented by these "adamantyl-susceptible" MHC molecules. As catalysts of antigen loading, compounds targeting P1 may be useful molecular tools to amplify the immune response. The observation, however, that the ligand repertoire can be affected through polymorphic sites form the outside may also imply that environmental factors could induce allergic or autoimmune reactions in an allele-selective manner. PMID:17005558

  8. Three statistical experimental designs for enhancing yield of active compounds from herbal medicines and anti-motion sickness bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Cuiping; Zhang, Mei; Fu, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since antiquity, Zingiber officinale (ginger), pogostemonis herba, and radix aucklandiae have been used as traditional Chinese medicines to remit gastrointestinal discomfort. Recent evidences also show the efficacy of the three herbal medicines against nausea and vomiting. Objective: To optimize the CO2 supercritical fluid extraction (SFE-CO2) conditions for ginger and the ethanol reflux extraction conditions for radix aucklandiae, control the quality of pogostemonis herba essential oil, and evaluate anti-motion sickness activity of the compound recipes composed of the three herbal medicine extracts. Materials and Methods: Two orthogonal array designs L9 (3)4 were employed to optimize the SFE-CO2 conditions for enhancing yield of 6-gingerol from ginger and the ethanol reflux extraction conditions for enhancing yield of costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone from radix aucklandiae; a uniform design U5(53) was applied for evaluation of anti-motion sickness activity of the compound recipes. Results: Extraction pressure (P < 0.01), extraction temperature and extraction time (P < 0.05) have significant effects on the yield of 6-gingerol from ginger by SFE-CO2; ethanol concentration (P < 0.01) and times of repeating extraction (P < 0.05) have significant effects on the total yield of costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone from radix aucklandiae by ethanol reflux extraction; the anti-motion sickness effects of the optimized compound recipe composed of the three herbal medicine extracts were markedly better than those of dimenhydrinate. Conclusion: The compound recipe composed of ginger, pogostemonis herba, and radix aucklandiae could be developed as a promising anti-motion sickness medicine. PMID:26246716

  9. A cell-based fascin bioassay identifies compounds with potential anti-metastasis or cognition-enhancing functions

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Robert; Kahn, Allon; Medina-Franco, José L.; Orlowski, Mikayla L.; Baynes, Cayla; López-Vallejo, Fabian; Barnard, Kobus; Maggiora, Gerald M.; Restifo, Linda L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The actin-bundling protein fascin is a key mediator of tumor invasion and metastasis and its activity drives filopodia formation, cell-shape changes and cell migration. Small-molecule inhibitors of fascin block tumor metastasis in animal models. Conversely, fascin deficiency might underlie the pathogenesis of some developmental brain disorders. To identify fascin-pathway modulators we devised a cell-based assay for fascin function and used it in a bidirectional drug screen. The screen utilized cultured fascin-deficient mutant Drosophila neurons, whose neurite arbors manifest the ‘filagree’ phenotype. Taking a repurposing approach, we screened a library of 1040 known compounds, many of them FDA-approved drugs, for filagree modifiers. Based on scaffold distribution, molecular-fingerprint similarities, and chemical-space distribution, this library has high structural diversity, supporting its utility as a screening tool. We identified 34 fascin-pathway blockers (with potential anti-metastasis activity) and 48 fascin-pathway enhancers (with potential cognitive-enhancer activity). The structural diversity of the active compounds suggests multiple molecular targets. Comparisons of active and inactive compounds provided preliminary structure-activity relationship information. The screen also revealed diverse neurotoxic effects of other drugs, notably the ‘beads-on-a-string’ defect, which is induced solely by statins. Statin-induced neurotoxicity is enhanced by fascin deficiency. In summary, we provide evidence that primary neuron culture using a genetic model organism can be valuable for early-stage drug discovery and developmental neurotoxicity testing. Furthermore, we propose that, given an appropriate assay for target-pathway function, bidirectional screening for brain-development disorders and invasive cancers represents an efficient, multipurpose strategy for drug discovery. PMID:22917928

  10. Phenylalanine and LED lights enhance phenolic compound production in Tartary buckwheat sprouts.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeong-Min; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Yeon-Bok; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2015-06-15

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of different l-phenylalanine (l-Phe) concentrations and various light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the accumulation of phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, vitexin, rutin, quercetin, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside) in Tartary buckwheat sprouts. We found that 5mM was the optimum l-Phe concentration for the synthesis of total and individual phenolic compounds. The highest rutin (53.09 mg/g DW) and chlorogenic acid (5.62 mg/g DW) content was observed with Red+Blue and white lights. Comprehensive differences in total and individual anthocyanin content were observed between different lights; however, the total anthocyanin content (9.12 mg/g DW) was 1.5-fold higher in blue light. The expression levels of regulatory genes, such as FtDFR and FtANS, were 7.1-fold higher with l-Phe treatment. Gene expression results showed that the phenolic compounds in Tartary buckwheat sprouts increased with the use of l-Phe and LED lights. PMID:25660878

  11. DEMONSTRATION OF PILOT-SCALE PERVAPORATION SYSTEMS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND REMOVAL FROM A SURFACTANT ENHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION FLUID. II. HOLLOW FIBER MEMBRANE MODULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pilot-scale demonstration of pervaporation-based removal of volatile organic compounds from a surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) fluid has been conducted at USEPA's Test & Evaluation Facility using hollow fiber membrane modules. The membranes consisted of microporous...

  12. Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Yan, Nai-Qiang; Qu, Zan; Chi, Yao; Qiao, Shao-Hua; Dod, Ray; Chang, Shih-Ger; Miller, Charles

    2008-07-02

    Oxidation of Hg0 with any oxidant or converting it to a particle-bound form can facilitate its removal. Two sulfur-chlorine compounds, sulfur dichloride (SCl2) and sulfur monochloride (S2Cl2), were investigated as oxidants for Hg0 by gas phase reaction and by surface-involved reactions in the presence of flyash or activated carbon. The gas phase reaction rate constants between Hg0 and the sulfur/chlorine compounds were determined, and the effects of temperature and the main components in flue gases were studied. The gas phase reaction between Hg0 and SCl2 is shown to be more rapid than the gas phase reaction with chlorine, and the second order rate constant was 9.1(+-0.5) x 10-18 mL-molecules-1cdots-1 at 373oK. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibited the gas phase reaction of Hg0 with sulfur-chlorine compounds. The presence of flyash or powdered activated carbon in flue gas can substantially accelerate the reaction. The predicted Hg0 removal is about 90percent with 5 ppm SCl2 or S2Cl2 and 40 g/m3 of flyash in flue gas. The combination of activated carbon and sulfur-chlorine compounds is an effective alternative. We estimate that co-injection of 3-5 ppm of SCl2 (or S2Cl2) with 2-3 Lb/MMacf of untreated Darco-KB is comparable in efficiency to the injection of 2-3 Lb/MMacf Darco-Hg-LH. Extrapolation of kinetic results also indicates that 90percent of Hg0 can be removed if 3 Lb/MMacf of Darco-KB pretreated with 3percent of SCl2 or S2Cl2 is used. Unlike gas phase reactions, NO exhibited little effect on Hg0 reactions with SCl2 or S2Cl2 on flyash or activated carbon. Mercuric sulfide was identified as one of the principal products of the Hg0/SCl2 or Hg0/S2Cl2 reactions. Additionally, about 8percent of SCl2 or S2Cl2 in aqueous solutions is converted to sulfide ions, which would precipitate mercuric ion from FGD solution.

  13. Surface enhanced Raman scattering for detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrift, Will; Bhattacharjee, Arunima; Darvishzadeh-Varcheie, Mahsa; Lu, Ying; Hochbaum, Allon; Capolino, Filippo; Whiteson, Katrine; Ragan, Regina

    2015-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), a biofilm forming bacterium, commonly affects cystic fibrosis, burn victims, and immunocompromised patients. PA produces pyocyanin, an aromatic, redox active, secondary metabolite as part of its quorum sensing signaling system activated during biofilm formation. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors composed of Au nanospheres chemically assembled into clusters on diblock copolymer templates were fabricated and the ability to detect pyocyanin to monitor biofilm formation was investigated. Electromagnetic full wave simulations of clusters observed in scanning electron microcopy images show that the localized surface plasmon resonance wavelength is 696 nm for a dimer with a gap spacing of 1 nm in an average dielectric environment of the polymer and analyte; the local electric field enhancement is on the order of 400 at resonance, relative to free space. SERS data acquired at 785 nm excitation from a monolayer of benzenethiol on fabricated samples was compared with Raman data of pure benzenethiol and enhancement factors as large as 8×109 were calculated that are consistent with simulated field enhancements. Using this system, the limit of detection of pyocyanin in pure gradients was determined to be 10 parts per billion. In SERS data of the supernatant from the time dependent growth of PA shaking cultures, pyocyanin vibrational modes were clearly observable during the logarithmic growth phase corresponding to activation of genes related to biofilm formation. These results pave the way for the use of SERS sensors for the early detection of biofilm formation, leading to reduced healthcare costs and better patient outcomes.

  14. Compound Stimulus Presentation and the Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor Atomoxetine Enhance Long-Term Extinction of Cocaine-Seeking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Janak, Patricia H; Bowers, M Scott; Corbit, Laura H

    2012-01-01

    Drug abstinence is frequently compromised when addicted individuals are re-exposed to environmental stimuli previously associated with drug use. Research with human addicts and in animal models has demonstrated that extinction learning (non-reinforced cue-exposure) can reduce the capacity of such stimuli to induce relapse, yet extinction therapies have limited long-term success under real-world conditions (Bouton, 2002; O'Brien, 2008). We hypothesized that enhancing extinction would reduce the later ability of drug-predictive cues to precipitate drug-seeking behavior. We, therefore, tested whether compound stimulus presentation and pharmacological treatments that augment noradrenergic activity (atomoxetine; norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) during extinction training would facilitate the extinction of drug-seeking behaviors, thus reducing relapse. Rats were trained that the presentation of a discrete cue signaled that a lever press response would result in cocaine reinforcement. Rats were subsequently extinguished and spontaneous recovery of drug-seeking behavior following presentation of previously drug-predictive cues was tested 4 weeks later. We find that compound stimulus presentations or pharmacologically increasing noradrenergic activity during extinction training results in less future recovery of responding, whereas propranolol treatment reduced the benefit seen with compound stimulus presentation. These data may have important implications for understanding the biological basis of extinction learning, as well as for improving the outcome of extinction-based therapies. PMID:22089320

  15. Rattling-enhanced superconductivity in M V2A l20(M =Sc ,Lu ,Y ) intermetallic cage compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winiarski, M. J.; Wiendlocha, B.; Sternik, M.; Wiśniewski, P.; O'Brien, J. R.; Kaczorowski, D.; Klimczuk, T.

    2016-04-01

    Polycrystalline samples of four intermetallic compounds: M V2A l20 (M =Sc , Y, La, and Lu) were synthesized using an arc-melting technique. The crystal structures were analyzed by means of powder x-ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis, and the physical properties were studied by means of heat capacity, electrical resistivity, and magnetic susceptibility measurements down to 0.4 K. For Sc V2A l20 , Lu V2A l20 , and Y V2A l20 , superconductivity was observed with critical temperatures Tc=1.00 , 0.57, and 0.60 K, respectively. Superconductivity for the Lu compound is reported. Theoretical calculations of the electronic and phonon structures were conducted in order to analyze the superconductivity and dynamics in Sc V2A l20 , Y V2A l20 , and Lu V2A l20 and to explain the lack of a superconducting transition in La V2A l20 down to 0.4 K. The results of the experimental and theoretical studies show that all the compounds are weakly coupled type-II BCS superconductors, and reveal the importance of the M -atom anharmonic "rattling" modes for the superconductivity in these materials, which seem to enhance Tc, especially for Sc V2A l20 .

  16. Transformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by laccase is strongly enhanced by phenolic compounds present in soil.

    PubMed

    Cañas, Ana I; Alcalde, Miguel; Plou, Francisco; Martínez, Maria Jesús; Martínez, Angel T; Camarero, Susana

    2007-04-15

    Efficient transformation of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was obtained using a fungal laccase in the presence of phenolic compounds related to those formed in nature during the turnover of lignin and humus. The effect of these natural mediators, namely vanillin, acetovanillone, acetosyringone, syringaldehyde, 2,4,6-trimethylphenol, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and sinapic acid, was compared with that of synthetic mediators such as 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT). Anthracene was significantly degraded by laccase in the absence of mediators, whereas benzo[a]pyrene and pyrene were weakly transformed (less than 15% after 24 h). Vanillin, acetovanillone, 2,4,6-trimethylphenol, and, above all, p-coumaric acid strongly promoted the removal of PAHs by laccase. 9,10-Anthraquinone was the main product detected from anthracene oxidation by all the laccase-mediator systems. The yield of anthraquinone formed was directly correlated with the amount of p-coumaric acid used. This compound resulted in a better laccase mediator than ABTS and close similarity to HBT, attaining 95% removal of anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene and around 50% of pyrene within 24 h. Benzo[a]pyrene 1,6-, 3,6-, and 6,12-quinones were produced during benzo[a]pyrene oxidation with laccase and p-coumaric acid, HBT, or ABTS as mediators, although use of the latter mediator gave further oxidation products that were not produced by the two other systems. PMID:17533865

  17. Enhanced recovery of injured Escherichia coli by compounds that degrade hydrogen peroxide or block its formation.

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, L C; Hackney, C R; Ray, B

    1983-01-01

    Escherichia coli LSUFS was injured either by freezing at -10 degrees C or by heating at 57 degrees C for 12 min. Surviving cells were recovered on nonselective tryptone-glucose extract agar and selective violet red bile agar supplemented with compounds that degrade hydrogen peroxide or block its formation. Various concentrations of the following compounds were tested: sodium pyruvate, 3,3'-thiodipropionic acid, catalase, ascorbic acid, potassium permanganate, sodium thioglycolate, dimethylsulfoxide, ethoxyquin, n-propyl gallate, alpha-tocopherol sodium metabisulfite, and ferrous sulfate. Sodium pyruvate and 3,3'-thiodipropionic acid, when added to either medium, significantly (P greater than 0.01) increased recovery of injured cells. More than 90% of the heat-injured cells and 40 to 90% of the freeze-injured cells failed to grow on unsupplemented tryptone-glucose extract agar. Supplementation of violet red bile agar increased recovery, but the counts remained considerably lower than the tryptone-glucose extract agar counts. The repair detection procedure of Speck et al. (M. Speck, B. Ray, R. Read, Jr., Appl. Microbiol. 29:549-550, 1975) was greatly improved by the addition of pyruvate or 3,3'-thiodipropionic acid. However, when this improved repair detection procedure was applied to foods, pyruvate-supplemented media showed some false-positives. We therefore recommend that 3,3'-thiodipropionic acid be used to supplement media in the repair detection procedure. PMID:6338823

  18. Clinical study of the Immunoglobululin Enhancing effect of "Bala compound" on Infants.

    PubMed

    Appaji, Rao R; Sharma, R D; Katiyar, G P; Sai, Prasad A J V

    2009-01-01

    Kaumarbhritya a branch of Asthanga Ayurveda deals with neonatal, infant and child health care. Multicentric studies conducted in various developed and developing countries have indicated that Infant Mortality Rate (I.M.R.) is very high in developing countries, and infection has been observed as the major cause. Immune system in neonates is not yet fully functional. Bala compound having the ingredients ofAtibala (Abutilon indicum Linn), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Linn), Vidanga (Emblica ribes burn), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Welld Miers), Pippali (Piperlongum linn), Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn), Shankhapuspi (Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois ), Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn), Musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn) and Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum wall) are Medhya as well as Rasayana drugs mention in Ayurvedic classics. 'Bala compound" was tried in infants in the form of oral drops for a period of six months and result was assessed for serum immuoglobulins IgG, IgM, IgA for three months of interval of two follow ups (i.e., third and six month of infant). There is significant increase of immunoglobulins observed after six months administration of 'Bala compoumd" PMID:22557316

  19. Sonication enhances polyphenolic compounds, sugars, carotenoids and mineral elements of apple juice.

    PubMed

    Abid, Muhammad; Jabbar, Saqib; Wu, Tao; Hashim, Malik Muhammad; Hu, Bing; Lei, Shicheng; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2014-01-01

    A study was initiated with the objective of evaluating the effects of sonication treatment on quality characteristics of apple juice such as polyphenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, catechin, epicatechin and phloridzin), sugars (fructose, glucose and sucrose), mineral elements (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Cu and Zn), total carotenoids, total anthocyanins, viscosity and electrical conductivity. The fresh apple juice samples were sonicated for 0, 30 and 60 min at 20 °C (frequency 25 kHz and amplitude 70%), respectively. As results, the contents of polyphenolic compounds and sugars significantly increased (P<0.05) but the increases were more pronounced in juice samples sonicated for 30 min whereas, total carotenoids, mineral elements (Na, K and Ca) and viscosity significantly increased (P<0.05) in samples treated for 60 min sonication. Losses of some mineral elements (P, Mg and Cu) also occurred. Total anthocyanins, Zn and electrical conductivity did not undergo any change in the sonicated samples. Findings of the present study suggest that sonication technique may be applied to improve phytonutrients present naturally in apple juice. PMID:23835397

  20. Enhancing graphene oxide reinforcing potential in composites by combined latex compounding and spray drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yingyan; Zhang, Shubai; Zhang, Dandan; Chan, Tung W.; Liu, Li

    2014-04-01

    A new strategy was developed to prepare graphene oxide/styrene-butadiene rubber (GO/SBR) composites with highly exfoliated GO sheets and strong interfaces. In particular, GO/SBR microparticles, in which exfoliated GO sheets (with a thickness of ˜1 nm and diameter of tens of nanometers) are trapped in a well-dispersed state throughout the SBR matrix, were made by a combined latex-compounding and spray-drying method. Subsequently, a chemical bridge between GO and rubber matrix through KH550 and Si69 was built during vulcanization, and the interfacial strength of the cured GO/SBR composite was remarkably improved. Due to the highly exfoliated structure and the strong interface, the GO/SBR composite exhibited 7.8 times higher modulus at 300% strain and 6.4 times higher tensile strength compared with cured pure SBR. The combined latex-compounding and spray-drying method presented here is feasible and water-mediated and has great potential for industrial applications.

  1. Exchange enhanced paramagnetism of rare-earth (yttrium)-transition metal compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burzo, Emil

    2015-12-01

    The magnetic susceptibilities, χ, of R-M and R-M-B exchange enhanced paramagnets where R = Y, La, Lu and M= Co, Ni are analysed. As a general feature, there is a T2 dependence of χ values at T < 10 K, while for T > T* a Curie-Weiss behavior is shown. The experimental data are discussed in correlation with band structure calculations. The pressure dependence of LuCo2 magnetic susceptibility is also analysed.

  2. Exchange enhanced paramagnetism of rare-earth (yttrium)-transition metal compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Burzo, Emil

    2015-12-07

    The magnetic susceptibilities, χ, of R-M and R-M-B exchange enhanced paramagnets where R = Y, La, Lu and M= Co, Ni are analysed. As a general feature, there is a T{sup 2} dependence of χ values at T < 10 K, while for T > T* a Curie-Weiss behavior is shown. The experimental data are discussed in correlation with band structure calculations. The pressure dependence of LuCo{sub 2} magnetic susceptibility is also analysed.

  3. Observations of volatile organic compounds during ARCTAS - Part 1: Biomass burning emissions and plume enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornbrook, R. S.; Blake, D. R.; Diskin, G. S.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Meinardi, S.; Mikoviny, T.; Sachse, G. W.; Vay, S. A.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Wisthaler, A.; Hills, A.; Riemer, D. D.; Apel, E. C.

    2011-05-01

    Mixing ratios of a large number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were observed by the Trace Organic Gas Analyzer (TOGA) on board the NASA DC-8 as part of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) field campaign. Many of these VOCs were observed concurrently by one or both of two other VOC measurement techniques on board the DC-8: proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and whole air canister sampling (WAS). A comparison of these measurements to the data from TOGA indicates good agreement for the majority of co-measured VOCs. The ARCTAS study, which included both spring and summer deployments, provided opportunities to sample a large number of biomass burning (BB) plumes with origins in Asia, California and Central Canada, ranging from very recent emissions to plumes aged one week or more. For this analysis, identified BB plumes were grouped by flight, source region and, in some cases, time of day, generating 40 individual plume groups, each consisting of one or more BB plume interceptions. Normalized excess mixing ratios (EMRs) to CO were determined for each of the 40 plume groups for up to 19 different VOCs or VOC groups, many of which show significant variability, even within relatively fresh plumes. This variability demonstrates the importance of assessing BB plumes both regionally and temporally, as emissions can vary from region to region, and even within a fire over time. Comparisons with literature confirm that variability of EMRs to CO over an order of magnitude for many VOCs is consistent with previous observations. However, this variability is often diluted in the literature when individual observations are averaged to generate an overall regional EMR from a particular study. Previous studies give the impression that emission ratios are generally consistent within a given region, and this is not necessarily the case, as our results show. For some VOCs, earlier assumptions may lead to

  4. Development of an Assay Method to Search for Compounds Inhibiting Stress-Enhanced Allergy.

    PubMed

    Oku, Hisae; Kanaya, Ryoko; Ishiguro, Kyoko

    2016-01-01

    Stress exacerbates allergic disorders such as atopic dermatitis and asthma. It is also an important factor affecting blood flow (BF). Allergic reactions also affect blood flow. For example, we observed that mice sensitized with hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL) have decreased BF during the allergy induction phase. Based on this finding, we established a model for evaluating chronic restraint stress-enhanced allergies. Mice were sensitized with 12.5 µg/head of HEL on day 0, then restrained for 90 min daily on days 1-3, 5, and 6 in a modified 50 mL polystyrene conical centrifuge tube with multiple air holes for ventilation. We used the decrease in BF during that time as a guide for developing an in vivo assay for substances that can inhibit stress-enhanced allergies. Finally, we demonstrated the utility of the new method by testing crude drugs that are used solely or in combination with other crude drugs to treat stress-related illness and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Our model should be useful for identifying potential anti-stress-enhanced allergy drugs. PMID:27150154

  5. Simultaneous Catabolism of Plant-Derived Aromatic Compounds Results in Enhanced Growth for Members of the Roseobacter Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Gulvik, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant-derived aromatic compounds are important components of the dissolved organic carbon pool in coastal salt marshes, and their mineralization by resident bacteria contributes to carbon cycling in these systems. Members of the roseobacter lineage of marine bacteria are abundant in coastal salt marshes, and several characterized strains, including Sagittula stellata E-37, utilize aromatic compounds as primary growth substrates. The genome sequence of S. stellata contains multiple, potentially competing, aerobic ring-cleaving pathways. Preferential hierarchies in substrate utilization and complex transcriptional regulation have been demonstrated to be the norm in many soil bacteria that also contain multiple ring-cleaving pathways. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether substrate preference exists in S. stellata when the organism is provided a mixture of aromatic compounds that proceed through different ring-cleaving pathways. We focused on the protocatechuate (pca) and the aerobic benzoyl coenzyme A (box) pathways and the substrates known to proceed through them, p-hydroxybenzoate (POB) and benzoate, respectively. When these two substrates were provided at nonlimiting carbon concentrations, temporal patterns of cell density, gene transcript abundance, enzyme activity, and substrate concentrations indicated that S. stellata simultaneously catabolized both substrates. Furthermore, enhanced growth rates were observed when S. stellata was provided both compounds simultaneously compared to the rates of cells grown singly with an equimolar concentration of either substrate alone. This simultaneous-catabolism phenotype was also demonstrated in another lineage member, Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3. These findings challenge the paradigm of sequential aromatic catabolism reported for soil bacteria and contribute to the growing body of physiological evidence demonstrating the metabolic versatility of roseobacters. PMID:23563956

  6. Enhancing the Photostability of Arylvinylenebipyridyl Compounds as Fluorescent Indicators for Intracellular Zinc(II) Ions.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhao; Younes, Ali H; Allen, John R; Davidson, Michael W; Zhu, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Arylvinylenebipyridyl (AVB) ligands are bright, zinc(II)-sensitive fluoroionophores. The applicability of AVBs as fluorescent indicators for imaging cellular zinc(II), however, is limited by low photostability, partially attributable to the photoisomerization of the vinylene functionality. Two configurationally immobilized (i.e., "locked") AVB analogues are prepared in this work. The zinc(II)-sensitive photophysical properties and zinc(II) affinities of both AVBs and their locked analogues are characterized in organic and aqueous media. The zinc(II) sensitivity of the emission is attributed to the zinc(II)-dependent energies of the charge transfer excited states of these compounds. The configurationally locked ligands have improved photostability, while maintaining the brightness and zinc(II) sensibility of their AVB progenitors. The feasibility of the "locked" AVB analogues with improved photostability for imaging intracellular Zn(II) of eukaryotic cells using laser confocal fluorescence microscopy is demonstrated. PMID:25942357

  7. Fermentation enhances the content of bioactive compounds in kidney bean extracts.

    PubMed

    Limón, Rocio I; Peñas, Elena; Torino, M Inés; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Dueñas, Montserrat; Frias, Juana

    2015-04-01

    The influence of solid (SSF) or liquid state fermentation (LSF) for 48 and 96 h on the production of water soluble extracts from kidney beans was investigated. SSF was carried out by Bacillus subtilis, whilst LSF was performed either by natural fermentation (NF) or by Lactobacillus plantarum strain (LPF). SSF extracts showed high soluble phenolic compound content (31-36 mg/g) and antioxidant activity (508-541 μg trolox equivalents/g), whilst LSF extracts exhibited potential antihypertensive activity due to their large γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content (6.8-10.6 mg/g) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory (ACEI) activity (>90%). Therefore, fermentation can be considered as a valuable process to obtain bioactive ingredients from kidney beans, which could encourage their utilisation in the formulation of added-value functional foods. PMID:25442563

  8. Evaluations of an Enhanced Total Hydrocarbon Analyzer With Complex Mixtures of Volatile Organic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, John H.; Limero, Thomas F.; James, John T.; Breach, James; Hinton, Mark

    1995-01-01

    From the earliest manned missions, the volatile organic compound (VOC) content of spacecraft air has been a concern because of a much greater potential for contamination than air in most terrestrial settings. First, the volume of air is small compared to the mass of man- made materials comprising the interior furnishings of the spacecraft. These man-made materials offgas VOCs trapped during manufacture. Second, the nitrogen fraction of the air is recycled. Any VOCs not scrubbed out with charcoal filters or aqueous condensate (mainly water expired by the crew) will accumulate in the air. Third, the crew emits metabolic VOCs. Fourth, experimental payloads can also offgas or accidentally release a VOC; in fact a major organic constituent of the atmosphere is the disinfectant isopropanol released from swabs used in medical experiments.

  9. Covalent grafting of carbon nanotubes with a biomimetic heme model compound to enhance oxygen reduction reactions.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ping-Jie; Yu, Guo-Qiang; Naruta, Yoshinori; Liu, Jin-Gang

    2014-06-23

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is one of the most important reactions in both life processes and energy conversion systems. The replacement of noble-metal Pt-based ORR electrocatalysts by nonprecious-metal catalysts is crucial for the large-scale commercialization of automotive fuel cells. Inspired by the mechanisms of dioxygen activation by metalloenzymes, herein we report a structurally well-defined, bio-inspired ORR catalyst that consists of a biomimetic model compound-an axial imidazole-coordinated porphyrin-covalently attached to multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Without pyrolysis, this bio-inspired electrocatalyst demonstrates superior ORR activity and stability compared to those of the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst in both acidic and alkaline solutions, thus making it a promising alternative as an ORR electrocatalyst for application in fuel-cell technology. PMID:24842193

  10. Polymer optical fiber compound parabolic concentrator tip for enhanced coupling efficiency for fluorescence based glucose sensors

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Nielsen, Kristian; Aasmul, Soren; Bang, Ole

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the light excitation and capturing efficiency of fluorescence based fiber-optical sensors can be significantly increased by using a CPC (Compound Parabolic Concentrator) tip instead of the standard plane-cut tip. We use Zemax modelling to find the optimum CPC tip profile and fiber length of a polymer optical fiber diabetes sensor for continuous monitoring of glucose levels. We experimentally verify the improved performance of the CPC tipped sensor and the predicted production tolerances. Due to physical size requirements when the sensor has to be inserted into the body a non-optimal fiber length of 35 mm is chosen. For this length an average improvement in efficiency of a factor of 1.7 is experimentally demonstrated and critically compared to the predicted ideal factor of 3 in terms of parameters that should be improved through production optimization. PMID:26713213

  11. Enhancing the Photostability of Arylvinylenebipyridyl Compounds as Fluorescent Indicators for Intracellular Zinc(II) Ions

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhao; Younes, Ali H.; Allen, John R.; Davidson, Michael W.; Zhu, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Arylvinylenebipyridyl (AVB) ligands are bright, zinc(II)-sensitive fluoroionophores. The applicability of AVBs as fluorescent indicators for imaging cellular zinc(II), however, is limited by low photostability, partially attributable to the photoisomerization of the vinylene functionality. Two configurationally immobilized (i.e., “locked”) AVB analogues are prepared in this work. The zinc(II)-sensitive photophysical properties and zinc(II) affinities of both AVBs and their locked analogues are characterized in organic and aqueous media. The zinc(II) sensitivity of the emission is attributed to the zinc(II)-dependent energies of the charge transfer excited states of these compounds. The configurationally locked ligands have improved photostability, while maintaining the brightness and zinc(II) sensibility of their AVB progenitors. The feasibility of the “locked” AVB analogues with improved photostability for imaging intracellular Zn(II) of eukaryotic cells using laser confocal fluorescence microscopy is demonstrated. PMID:25942357

  12. Efficiency enhancement of organic photovoltaic devices using a Sm:Al compound electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Li, Yan-Qing; Tang, Jian-Xin

    2013-02-01

    An effective cathode consisting of samarium (Sm) doped aluminum (Al) layer and a pure Al layer is reported for application in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs). Standard copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/C60 OPVs using this bilayer cathode show dramatically increased short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency, which are 64% increased by employing a appropriate ratio of 1:3 of Sm:Al layer as compared with that of control devices with pure Al cathode. The photoelectric properties reveal that the improved efficiency is mainly related to the balance of the enhanced electron collection ability and the optimized optical reflection of a Sm doped Al layer.

  13. Enhanced elemental mercury removal from coal-fired flue gas by sulfur-chlorine compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Nai-Qiang Yan; Zan Qu; Yao Chi; Shao-Hua Qiao; Ray L. Dod; Shih-Ger Chang; Charles Miller

    2009-07-15

    Oxidation of Hg{sup 0} with any oxidant or converting it to a particle-bound form can facilitate its removal. Two sulfur-chlorine compounds, sulfur dichloride (SCl{sub 2}) and sulfur monochloride (S{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}), were investigated as oxidants for Hg{sup 0} by gas-phase reaction and by surface-involved reactions in the presence of flyash or activated carbon. The gas-phase reaction between Hg{sup 0} and SCl{sub 2} is shown to be more rapid than the gas-phase reaction with chlorine, and the second order rate constant was 9.1({+-}0.5) x 10{sup -18} mL-molecules{sup -1}.s{sup -1} at 373 K. The presence of flyash or powdered activated carbon in flue gas can substantially accelerate the reaction. The predicted Hg{sup 0} removal is about 90% with 5 ppm SCl {sub 2} or S{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and 40 g/m{sup 3} of flyash in flue gas. The combination of activated carbon and sulfur-chlorine compounds is an effective alternative. We estimate that co-injection of 3-5 ppm of SCl{sub 2} (or S{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) with 2-3 Lb/MMacf of untreated Darco-KB is comparable in efficiency to the injection of 2-3 Lb/MMacf Darco-Hg-LH. Extrapolation of kinetic results also indicates that 90% of Hg{sup 0} can be removed if 3 Lb/MMacf of Darco-KB pretreated with 3% of SCl{sub 2} or S{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} is used. Mercuric sulfide was identified as one of the principal products of the Hg{sup 0}/SCl{sub 2} or Hg{sup 0}/S{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} reactions. Additionally, about 8% of SCl{sub 2} or S{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} in aqueous solutions is converted to sulfide ions, which would precipitate mercuric ion from FGD solution. 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Observations of nonmethane organic compounds during ARCTAS - Part 1: Biomass burning emissions and plume enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornbrook, R. S.; Blake, D. R.; Diskin, G. S.; Fried, A.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Meinardi, S.; Mikoviny, T.; Richter, D.; Sachse, G. W.; Vay, S. A.; Walega, J.; Weibring, P.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Wisthaler, A.; Hills, A.; Riemer, D. D.; Apel, E. C.

    2011-11-01

    Mixing ratios of a large number of nonmethane organic compounds (NMOCs) were observed by the Trace Organic Gas Analyzer (TOGA) on board the NASA DC-8 as part of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) field campaign. Many of these NMOCs were observed concurrently by one or both of two other NMOC measurement techniques on board the DC-8: proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and whole air canister sampling (WAS). A comparison of these measurements to the data from TOGA indicates good agreement for the majority of co-measured NMOCs. The ARCTAS study, which included both spring and summer deployments, provided opportunities to sample a large number of biomass burning (BB) plumes with origins in Asia, California and central Canada, ranging from very recent emissions to plumes aged one week or more. For this analysis, BB smoke interceptions were grouped by flight, source region and, in some cases, time of day, generating 40 identified BB plumes for analysis. Normalized excess mixing ratios (NEMRs) to CO were determined for each of the 40 plumes for up to 19 different NMOCs or NMOC groups. Although the majority of observed NEMRs for individual NMOCs or NMOC groups were in agreement with previously-reported values, the observed NEMRs to CO for ethanol, a rarely quantified gas-phase trace gas, ranged from values similar to those previously reported, to up to an order of magnitude greater. Notably, though variable between plumes, observed NEMRs of individual light alkanes are highly correlated within BB emissions, independent of estimated plume ages. BB emissions of oxygenated NMOC were also found to be often well-correlated. Using the NCAR Master Mechanism chemical box model initialized with concentrations based on two observed scenarios, fresh Canadian BB and fresh Californian BB, decreases are predicted for the low molecular weight carbonyls (i.e. formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone and methyl ethyl

  15. Enhanced thermoelectric performance in Cd doped CuInTe{sub 2} compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, N.; Liu, R.; Bai, S.; Shi, X. Chen, L.

    2014-04-28

    CuIn{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Te{sub 2} materials (x = 0, 0.02, 0.05, and 0.1) are prepared using melting-annealing method and the highly densified bulk samples are obtained through Spark Plasma Sintering. The X-ray diffraction data confirm that nearly pure chalcopyrite structures are obtained in all the samples. Due to the substitution of Cd at In sites, the carrier concentration is greatly increased, leading to much enhanced electrical conductivity and power factor. The single parabolic band model is used to describe the electrical transport properties of CuInTe{sub 2} and the low temperature Hall mobility is also modeled. By combing theoretical model and experiment data, the optimum carrier concentration in CuInTe{sub 2} is proposed to explain the greatly enhanced power factors in the Cd doped CuInTe{sub 2}. In addition, the thermal conductivity is reduced by extra phonon scattering due to the atomic mass and radius fluctuations between Cd and In atoms. The maximum zTs are observed in CuIn{sub 0.98}Cd{sub 0.02}Te{sub 2} and CuIn{sub 0.9}Cd{sub 0.1}Te{sub 2} samples, which are improved by over 100% at room temperature and around 20% at 600 K.

  16. Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties of La-Doped ZrNiSn Half-Heusler Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akram, Rizwan; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Dongwang; Zheng, Yun; Yan, Yonggao; Su, Xianli; Tang, Xinfeng

    2015-10-01

    The effect of La doping on ZrNiSn half-Heusler (HH) compound has been studied to explore the composition variation and structural modifications for improvement of its thermoelectric performance. A series of La x Zr1- x NiSn ( x = 0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.015, 0.02, 0.03) alloys were prepared by induction melting combined with plasma-activated sintering. Structural analysis using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the resulting material to be a composite of HH, NiZr, and La3Sn4-type phases. The volume fraction for the phases other than HH ranged from 1.5% to 25% with increasing La content, as estimated by Rietveld analysis. The solubility of La in ZrNiSn is estimated to be 1.5%. Point defects may play a significant role in carrier and phonon transport. Interestingly, the thermoelectric transport properties exhibited a considerable increase in electrical conductivity σ with La doping and a significant drop in thermal conductivity κ, leading to a thermoelectric figure of merit ( ZT) of 0.53 at 923 K, representing an improvement of about 37% compared with the undoped sample.

  17. Novel nitric oxide generating compound glycidyl nitrate enhances the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy and radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Shoucheng; Bednarski, Mark; Oronsky, Bryan; Scicinski, Jan; Knox, Susan J.

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • Glycidyl nitrate (GLYN) is a NO generating small molecule and has ability to release NO on bioactivation in tumor cells. • GLYN-induced intracellular NO generation was attenuated by NO scavengers. • GLYN increases tumor blood flow in tumor-bearing animal model. • GLYN significantly increased the anti-tumor efficacy of cisplatin and radiation therapy in mice. • GLYN is well tolerated with no obvious systemic toxicities at its effective therapeutic doses in preclinical animal studies. - Abstract: Selective release of nitric oxide (NO) in tumors could improve the tumor blood flow and drug delivery for chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy, thereby increasing the therapeutic index. Glycidyl nitrate (GLYN) is a NO generating small molecule, and has ability to release NO on bioactivation in SCC VII tumor cells. GLYN-induced intracellular NO generation was significantly attenuated by NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO (cPTIO) and NAC. GLYN significantly increases tumor blood flow, but has no effect on the blood flow of normal tissues in tumor-bearing mice. When used with cisplatin, GLYN significantly increased the tumor growth inhibition effect of cisplatin. GLYN also had a modest radiosensitizing effect in vitro and in vivo. GLYN was well tolerated and there were no acute toxicities found at its effective therapeutic doses in preclinical studies. These results suggest that GLYN is a promising new drug for use with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and provide a compelling rationale for future studies of GLYN and related compounds.

  18. Reduction of graphene oxide/alginate composite hydrogels for enhanced adsorption of hydrophobic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Semin; Yoo, Youngjae; Kim, Hanbit; Lee, Eunju; Lee, Jae Young

    2015-10-01

    Carbon-based materials, consisting of graphene oxide (GO) or reduced GO (rGO), possess unique abilities to interact with various molecules. In particular, rGO materials hold great promise for adsorption and delivery applications of hydrophobic molecules. However, conventional production and/or usage of rGO in aqueous solution often causes severe aggregation due to its low water solubility and thus difficulties in handling and applications. In our study, to prevent the severe aggregation of GO during reduction and to achieve a high adsorption capacity with hydrophobic compounds, GO/alginate composite hydrogels were first prepared and then reduced in an aqueous ascorbic acid solution at 37 °C. Adsorption studies with a model hydrophobic substance, rhodamine B, revealed that the reduced composite hydrogels are more highly absorbent than the unreduced hydrogels. In addition, the adsorption properties of the composite hydrogels, which are consequences of hydrophobic and ionic interactions, could be modulated by controlling the degree of reduction for the adsorption of different molecules. The composite hydrogels embedding rGO can be very useful in applications related to drug delivery, waste treatment, and biosensing.

  19. Subcritical Water Technology for Enhanced Extraction of Biochemical Compounds from Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Awaluddin, S A; Thiruvenkadam, Selvakumar; Izhar, Shamsul; Hiroyuki, Yoshida; Danquah, Michael K; Harun, Razif

    2016-01-01

    Subcritical water extraction (SWE) technology has been used for the extraction of active compounds from different biomass materials with low process cost, mild operating conditions, short process times, and environmental sustainability. With the limited application of the technology to microalgal biomass, this work investigates parametrically the potential of subcritical water for high-yield extraction of biochemicals such as carbohydrates and proteins from microalgal biomass. The SWE process was optimized using central composite design (CCD) under varying process conditions of temperature (180-374°C), extraction time (1-20 min), biomass particulate size (38-250 μm), and microalgal biomass loading (5-40 wt.%). Chlorella vulgaris used in this study shows high volatile matter (83.5 wt.%) and carbon content (47.11 wt.%), giving advantage as a feedstock for biofuel production. The results showed maximum total carbohydrate content and protein yields of 14.2 g/100 g and 31.2 g/100 g, respectively, achieved under the process conditions of 277°C, 5% of microalgal biomass loading, and 5 min extraction time. Statistical analysis revealed that, of all the parameters investigated, temperature is the most critical during SWE of microalgal biomass for protein and carbohydrate production. PMID:27366748

  20. Utilizing small nutrient compounds as enhancers of exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Daniel M.; Ashcroft, Stephen P.; Belew, Micah Y.; Stocks, Ben; Currell, Kevin; Baar, Keith; Philp, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Endurance exercise, when performed regularly as part of a training program, leads to increases in whole-body and skeletal muscle-specific oxidative capacity. At the cellular level, this adaptive response is manifested by an increased number of oxidative fibers (Type I and IIA myosin heavy chain), an increase in capillarity and an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. The increase in mitochondrial biogenesis (increased volume and functional capacity) is fundamentally important as it leads to greater rates of oxidative phosphorylation and an improved capacity to utilize fatty acids during sub-maximal exercise. Given the importance of mitochondrial biogenesis for skeletal muscle performance, considerable attention has been given to understanding the molecular cues stimulated by endurance exercise that culminate in this adaptive response. In turn, this research has led to the identification of pharmaceutical compounds and small nutritional bioactive ingredients that appear able to amplify exercise-responsive signaling pathways in skeletal muscle. The aim of this review is to discuss these purported exercise mimetics and bioactive ingredients in the context of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. We will examine proposed modes of action, discuss evidence of application in skeletal muscle in vivo and finally comment on the feasibility of such approaches to support endurance-training applications in humans. PMID:26578969

  1. Subcritical Water Technology for Enhanced Extraction of Biochemical Compounds from Chlorella vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Awaluddin, S. A.; Thiruvenkadam, Selvakumar; Izhar, Shamsul; Hiroyuki, Yoshida; Danquah, Michael K.; Harun, Razif

    2016-01-01

    Subcritical water extraction (SWE) technology has been used for the extraction of active compounds from different biomass materials with low process cost, mild operating conditions, short process times, and environmental sustainability. With the limited application of the technology to microalgal biomass, this work investigates parametrically the potential of subcritical water for high-yield extraction of biochemicals such as carbohydrates and proteins from microalgal biomass. The SWE process was optimized using central composite design (CCD) under varying process conditions of temperature (180–374°C), extraction time (1–20 min), biomass particulate size (38–250 μm), and microalgal biomass loading (5–40 wt.%). Chlorella vulgaris used in this study shows high volatile matter (83.5 wt.%) and carbon content (47.11 wt.%), giving advantage as a feedstock for biofuel production. The results showed maximum total carbohydrate content and protein yields of 14.2 g/100 g and 31.2 g/100 g, respectively, achieved under the process conditions of 277°C, 5% of microalgal biomass loading, and 5 min extraction time. Statistical analysis revealed that, of all the parameters investigated, temperature is the most critical during SWE of microalgal biomass for protein and carbohydrate production. PMID:27366748

  2. Reduction of graphene oxide/alginate composite hydrogels for enhanced adsorption of hydrophobic compounds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Semin; Yoo, Youngjae; Kim, Hanbit; Lee, Eunju; Lee, Jae Young

    2015-10-01

    Carbon-based materials, consisting of graphene oxide (GO) or reduced GO (rGO), possess unique abilities to interact with various molecules. In particular, rGO materials hold great promise for adsorption and delivery applications of hydrophobic molecules. However, conventional production and/or usage of rGO in aqueous solution often causes severe aggregation due to its low water solubility and thus difficulties in handling and applications. In our study, to prevent the severe aggregation of GO during reduction and to achieve a high adsorption capacity with hydrophobic compounds, GO/alginate composite hydrogels were first prepared and then reduced in an aqueous ascorbic acid solution at 37 °C. Adsorption studies with a model hydrophobic substance, rhodamine B, revealed that the reduced composite hydrogels are more highly absorbent than the unreduced hydrogels. In addition, the adsorption properties of the composite hydrogels, which are consequences of hydrophobic and ionic interactions, could be modulated by controlling the degree of reduction for the adsorption of different molecules. The composite hydrogels embedding rGO can be very useful in applications related to drug delivery, waste treatment, and biosensing. PMID:26377443

  3. Mutations in a translation initiation factor identify target of a memory-enhancing compound

    PubMed Central

    Sekine, Yusuke; Zyryanova, Alisa; Crespillo-Casado, Ana; Fischer, Peter M.; Harding, Heather P.; Ron, David

    2015-01-01

    The integrated stress response (ISR) modulates mRNA translation to regulate the mammalian unfolded protein response (UPR), immunity and memory formation. A chemical ISR inhibitor, ISRIB, enhances cognitive function and modulates the UPR in vivo. To explore mechanisms involved in ISRIB action we screened cultured mammalian cells for somatic mutations that reversed its effect on the ISR. Clustered missense mutations were found at the N-terminal portion of the delta subunit of guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) eIF2B. When reintroduced by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing of wildtype cells, these mutations reversed both ISRIB-mediated inhibition of the ISR and its stimulatory effect on eIF2B GEF activity towards its substrate, eIF2, in vitro. Thus ISRIB targets an interaction between eIF2 and eIF2B that lies at the core of the ISR. PMID:25858979

  4. In vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for the screening of boron-10 distribution in a rabbit knee: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Clackdoyle, R.; Shortkroff, S.; Yanch, J.

    2008-05-01

    Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) is under development as a potential treatment modality for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA is characterized by the inflammation of the synovium (the membrane lining articular joints), which leads to pain and a restricted range of motion. BNCS is a two-part procedure involving the injection of a boronated compound directly into the diseased joint followed by irradiation with a low-energy neutron beam. The neutron capture reactions taking place in the synovium deliver a local, high-linear energy transfer (LET) dose aimed at destroying the inflamed synovial membrane. For successful treatment via BNCS, a boron-labeled compound exhibiting both high synovial uptake and long retention time is necessary. Currently, the in vivo uptake behavior of potentially useful boronated compounds is evaluated in the knee joints of rabbits in which arthritis has been induced. This strategy involves the sacrifice and dissection of a large number of animals. An in vivo 10B screening approach is therefore under investigation with the goal of significantly reducing the number of animals needed for compound evaluation via dissection studies. The 'in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis' (IVPGNAA) approach uses a narrow neutron beam to irradiate the knee from several angular positions following the intra-articular injection of a boronated compound whose uptake characteristics are unknown. A high-purity germanium detector collects the 478 keV gamma photons produced by the 10B capture reactions. The 10B distribution in the knee is then reconstructed by solving a system of simultaneous equations using a weighted least squares algorithm. To study the practical feasibility of IVPGNAA, simulation data were generated with the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code. The boron-containing region of a rabbit knee was partitioned into 8 compartments, and the 10B prompt gamma signals were tallied from 16 angular positions. Results demonstrate that for this

  5. In vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for the screening of boron-10 distribution in a rabbit knee: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X; Clackdoyle, R; Shortkroff, S; Yanch, J

    2008-05-21

    Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) is under development as a potential treatment modality for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA is characterized by the inflammation of the synovium (the membrane lining articular joints), which leads to pain and a restricted range of motion. BNCS is a two-part procedure involving the injection of a boronated compound directly into the diseased joint followed by irradiation with a low-energy neutron beam. The neutron capture reactions taking place in the synovium deliver a local, high-linear energy transfer (LET) dose aimed at destroying the inflamed synovial membrane. For successful treatment via BNCS, a boron-labeled compound exhibiting both high synovial uptake and long retention time is necessary. Currently, the in vivo uptake behavior of potentially useful boronated compounds is evaluated in the knee joints of rabbits in which arthritis has been induced. This strategy involves the sacrifice and dissection of a large number of animals. An in vivo (10)B screening approach is therefore under investigation with the goal of significantly reducing the number of animals needed for compound evaluation via dissection studies. The 'in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis' (IVPGNAA) approach uses a narrow neutron beam to irradiate the knee from several angular positions following the intra-articular injection of a boronated compound whose uptake characteristics are unknown. A high-purity germanium detector collects the 478 keV gamma photons produced by the (10)B capture reactions. The (10)B distribution in the knee is then reconstructed by solving a system of simultaneous equations using a weighted least squares algorithm. To study the practical feasibility of IVPGNAA, simulation data were generated with the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code. The boron-containing region of a rabbit knee was partitioned into 8 compartments, and the (10)B prompt gamma signals were tallied from 16 angular positions. Results demonstrate that for

  6. Enhanced Optical Transmission and Sensing of a Thin Metal Film Perforated with a Compound Subwavelength Circular Hole Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangnan; Liu, Guiqiang; Liu, Zhengqi; Hu, Ying; Cai, Zhengjie

    2015-12-01

    We propose and numerically investigate the optical transmission behaviors of a sub-wavelength metal film perforated with a two-dimensional square array of compound circular holes. Enhanced optical transmission is obtained by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, which can be mainly attributed to the excitation and coupling of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) and surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), and Fano Resonances. The redshift of the transmission peak can be achieved by enlarging the size and number of small holes, the environmental dielectric constant. These indicate that the proposed structure has potential applications in integrated optoelectronic devices such as plasmonic filters and sensors. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11464019, 11264017, 11004088), Young Scientist Development Program of China (No. 20142BCB23008) and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province, China (Nos. 2014BAB212001, 20112BBE5033)

  7. Spin-orbit coupling enhanced superconductivity in Bi-rich compounds ABi3 (A = Sr and Ba)

    PubMed Central

    Shao, D. F.; Luo, X.; Lu, W. J.; Hu, L.; Zhu, X. D.; Song, W. H.; Zhu, X. B.; Sun, Y. P.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Bi-based compounds have attracted attentions because of the strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC). In this work, we figured out the role of SOC in ABi3 (A = Sr and Ba) by theoretical investigation of the band structures, phonon properties, and electron-phonon coupling. Without SOC, strong Fermi surface nesting leads to phonon instabilities in ABi3. SOC suppresses the nesting and stabilizes the structure. Moreover, without SOC the calculation largely underestimates the superconducting transition temperatures (Tc), while with SOC the calculated Tc are very close to those determined by measurements on single crystal samples. The SOC enhanced superconductivity in ABi3 is due to not only the SOC induced phonon softening, but also the SOC related increase of electron-phonon coupling matrix elements. ABi3 can be potential platforms to construct heterostructure of superconductor/topological insulator to realize topological superconductivity. PMID:26892681

  8. Engineering Stacks of V-Shaped Polyaromatic Compounds with Alkyl Chains for Enhanced Emission in the Solid State.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Shoya; Kondo, Kei; Sei, Yoshihisa; Akita, Munetaka; Yoshizawa, Michito

    2016-06-01

    A V-shaped bisanthracene derivative with three butyl groups formed two types of emissive solids that display bluish green and blue fluorescence (ΦF =72 and 32 %, respectively), depending on the preparation conditions. The crystal and powder X-ray analyses reveal that the highly emissive solid adopts a head-to-head arrangement with discrete stacks of the anthracene moieties, whereas the moderately emissive solid adopts a head-to-tail arrangement without the stacks. The obtained molecular arrangements are transformed by thermal stimuli accompanying the change in fluorescence. Furthermore, large enhancements of dye emissions (12-45-fold) through highly efficient host-guest energy transfer were achieved in the solid state by adding minute amounts of various fluorescent dyes (e.g. rubrene and Nile red) to the V-shaped compound. PMID:27121653

  9. Aspergillus niger Enhance Bioactive Compounds Biosynthesis As Well As Expression of Functional Genes in Adventitious Roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wang, Juan; Li, Jinxin; Liu, Dahui; Li, Hongfa; Gao, Wenyuan; Li, Jianli; Liu, Shujie

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the culture conditions for the accumulation of Glycyrrhiza uralensis adventitious root metabolites in balloon-type bubble bioreactors (BTBBs) have been optimized. The results of the culture showed that the best culture conditions were a cone angle of 90° bioreactor and 0.4-0.6-0.4-vvm aeration volume. Aspergillus niger can be used as a fungal elicitor to enhance the production of defense compounds in plants. With the addition of a fungal elicitor (derived from Aspergillus niger), the maximum accumulation of total flavonoids (16.12 mg g(-1)) and glycyrrhetinic acid (0.18 mg g(-1)) occurred at a dose of 400 mg L(-1) of Aspergillus niger resulting in a 3.47-fold and 1.8-fold increase over control roots. However, the highest concentration of polysaccharide (106.06 mg g(-1)) was achieved with a mixture of elicitors (Aspergillus niger and salicylic acid) added to the medium, resulting in a 1.09-fold increase over Aspergillus niger treatment alone. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) analysis was performed, showing that seven compounds were present after treatment with the elicitors, including uralsaponin B, licorice saponin B2, liquiritin, and (3R)-vestitol, only identified in the mixed elicitor treatment group. It has also been found that elicitors (Aspergillus niger and salicylic acid) significantly upregulated the expression of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), β-amyrin synthase (β-AS), squalene epoxidase (SE) and a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP72A154) genes, which are involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds, and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) activity. PMID:26490378

  10. Enhancing the intestinal absorption of poorly water-soluble weak-acidic compound by controlling local pH.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Kazunori; Kato, Shino; Miyazaki, Makoto; Kakemi, Masawo

    2013-12-01

    Recently, the number of poorly water-soluble drug candidates has increased and has hindered the rapid improvement of new drugs with low intestinal absorption; however, the intestinal absorption of pH-dependent poorly water-soluble compounds is expected to be markedly improved by changing the pH in the vicinity of the absorption site. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of local pH change in the intestinal tract by magnesium oxide on the intestinal absorption of hydrochlorothiazide, a model poorly water-soluble weak-acid compound. The application of hydrochlorothiazide granule containing magnesium oxide to the rat intestinal loop increased the pH in the vicinity of the dosing site to more than 8.5 for 90 min without any mucosal damage. As a result, absorption of hydrochlorothiazide increased by the addition of magnesium oxide to the granule. Intraintestinal administration of a suspension prepared from hydrochlorothiazide granules with magnesium oxide increased the intestinal absorption and the AUC value was 3-fold higher than that without magnesium oxide. To further increase the intestinal absorption of hydrochlorothiazide, we prepared granules containing magnesium oxide and chitosan as a mucoadhesive and tight junction opening material. Chitosan showed a marked increase of intestinal absorption, and the AUC value after the administration of suspensions of chitosan granules was more than 5-fold higher than that of granules containing hydrochlorothiazide alone, respectively. In summary, it has been clarified that the intestinal absorption of weak-acidic poorly water-soluble compound can be enhanced by increasing local pH, mucoadhesion and opening tight junction. PMID:22443480

  11. Enhancement of hydroxylation and deglycosylation of 2'-deoxyguanosine by carcinogenic nickel compounds.

    PubMed

    Kasprzak, K S; Hernandez, L

    1989-11-01

    The effects of nickel subsulfide (Ni3S2) and nickel chloride [Ni(II)] on hydroxylation and deglycosylation of pure 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) and on hydroxylation of guanine (Gu) residues in calf thymus DNA in the absence or presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and/or ascorbate (Ascb) were studied with the use of high-performance liquid chromatography. Incubation of 0.75 mM dG with 5 mg Ni3S2/ml (particle size less than 5 microns) at 37 degrees C in aerated 50 mM Tris/HCl buffer, pH 7.4, resulted in slow hydroxylation of dG to 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). This effect was greatly enhanced by 20 mM H2O2. Ni(II) alone at concentrations up to 10 mM was inactive but produced 8-OH-dG in the presence of 20 mM H2O2; the latter caused no dG hydroxylation by itself. Both Ni3S2 and Ni(II) increased the formation of 8-OH-dG from dG exposed to H2O2 + Ascb. At pH 7.4 and constant concentration of H2O2 and Ascb (20 and 8 mM, respectively), Ni(II) over the concentration range 1-10 mM raised the hydroxylation yield by up to five times that without Ni(II). Also, addition of 7.5 mM Ni(II) more than doubled the hydroxylation yield of Gu residues by the 20 mM H2O2 + 8 mM Ascb mixture (pH 7.4) in denatured DNA and doubled it in native DNA. Ni3S2 and Ni(II) alone had no effect on deglycosylation of dG and did not significantly influence the slow rate of Gu production from dG reacting with H2O2 or Ascb at pH 7.4. However, Ni(II), unlike Ni3S2, increased the extent of dG deglycosylation when added to the dG + H2O2 + Ascb system; 10 mM Ni(II) increased deglycosylation by a factor of 2.5 in 24 h. Thus, nickel carcinogens were shown for the first time to cause and/or enhance both hydroxylation and deglycosylation reactions of dG which may contribute to the observed genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of this metal. PMID:2790811

  12. Photochromism induced nonlinear optical absorption enhancement and ultrafast responses of several dithienylethene compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yaochuan; Yan, Yongli; Liu, Dajun; Wang, Guiqiu; Pu, Shouzhi

    2015-11-01

    The nonlinear optical properties and ultrafast dynamics of three dithienylethene photochromic derivatives (i.e., P1, P2, and P3) were investigated by two-photon fluorescence, open-aperture Z-scan, and femtosecond pump-probe experiments. Photoinduced ring-closure and ring-opening phenomena, as well as a photochromism induced nonlinear optical property enhancement, were observed. For both the ring-opening and ring-closure state, the curve exhibited an ultrafast absorption peak approximately 200 fs followed by a fast decay process (i.e., ˜1 ps) and a long decay process that had a duration longer than 5 ps. The ultrafast peak followed by a fast decay process and the long decay process were attributable to a special two-photon absorption process, the formation of a charge separation state, and the relaxation of the charge separation state, respectively. However, the magnitude of the signal under the ring-closure state is approximately fivefold greater than that of the ring-opening state, which is in good agreement with nonlinear optical results. Intramolecular charge transfer processes were observed in the dynamics curves of the P2' and P3' isomers with D- π-A and D- π-D structures.

  13. Enhanced Production of Bioactive Isoprenoid Compounds from Cell Suspension Cultures of Artemisia annua L. Using β-Cyclodextrins

    PubMed Central

    Rizzello, Francesca; De Paolis, Angelo; Durante, Miriana; Blando, Federica; Mita, Giovanni; Caretto, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell cultures as valuable tools for the production of specific metabolites can be greatly improved by the application of elicitors including cyclodextrins (CDs) for enhancing the yields of the desired plant compounds. Here the effects of 2,6-dimethyl-β-cyclodextrins (DIMEB) on the production of carotenoids and quinones from Artemisia annua L. cell suspension cultures were investigated. The addition of 50 mM DIMEB induced an early increase of intracellular carotenoid and quinone contents, which could be observed to a higher extent for lutein (10-fold), Q9 (3-fold) and Q10 (2.5-fold). Real Time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) gene in DIMEB treated cell cultures after three days was 2.5-fold higher than in untreated samples, thus suggesting that the DIMEB induced increase of carotenoids and quinones could be due to the induction of the plastidial isoprenoid biosynthetic route. In addition, the DIMEB treatment induced an enhanced release of carotenoids and quinones into the culture medium of A. annua cell suspension cultures possibly due to the ability of CDs to form inclusion complexes with hydrophobic molecules. PMID:25338048

  14. Enhanced production of bioactive isoprenoid compounds from cell suspension cultures of Artemisia annua L. using β-cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Francesca; De Paolis, Angelo; Durante, Miriana; Blando, Federica; Mita, Giovanni; Caretto, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell cultures as valuable tools for the production of specific metabolites can be greatly improved by the application of elicitors including cyclodextrins (CDs) for enhancing the yields of the desired plant compounds. Here the effects of 2,6-dimethyl-β-cyclodextrins (DIMEB) on the production of carotenoids and quinones from Artemisia annua L. cell suspension cultures were investigated. The addition of 50 mM DIMEB induced an early increase of intracellular carotenoid and quinone contents, which could be observed to a higher extent for lutein (10-fold), Q9 (3-fold) and Q10 (2.5-fold). Real Time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) gene in DIMEB treated cell cultures after three days was 2.5-fold higher than in untreated samples, thus suggesting that the DIMEB induced increase of carotenoids and quinones could be due to the induction of the plastidial isoprenoid biosynthetic route. In addition, the DIMEB treatment induced an enhanced release of carotenoids and quinones into the culture medium of A. annua cell suspension cultures possibly due to the ability of CDs to form inclusion complexes with hydrophobic molecules. PMID:25338048

  15. Herbal Compound Songyou Yin and Moderate Swimming Suppress Growth and Metastasis of Liver Cancer by Enhancing Immune Function.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan-Bao; Meng, Xiang-Ting; Jia, Qing-An; Bu, Yang; Ren, Zheng-Gang; Zhang, Bo-Heng; Tang, Zhao-You

    2016-09-01

    Objective Both the Chinese herbal compound Songyou Yin (SYY) and swimming exercise have been shown to have protective effects against liver cancer in animal models. In this study, we investigated whether SYY and moderate swimming (MS) have enhanced effect on suppressing progression of liver cancer by immunomodulation. Methods C57BL/6 mice were transplanted with Hepa1-6 murine liver cancer cell lines and received treatment with SYY alone or SYY combined with MS. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive metastatic foci in lungs were imaged with a stereoscopic fluorescence microscope. Flow cytometry was used to test the proportion of CD4 +, CD8 + T cells in peripheral blood and the proportions of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + Treg cells in peripheral blood, spleen, and tumor tissues. Cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 level in serum was detected by ELISA. Results SYY plus MS significantly suppressed the growth and lung metastasis of liver cancer and prolonged survival in tumor-burdened mice. SYY plus MS markedly raised the CD4 to CD8 ratio in peripheral blood and lowered the serum TGF-β1 level and the proportions of Treg cells in peripheral blood, spleen, and tumor tissue. The effects of the combined intervention were significantly superior to SYY or MS alone. Conclusion The combined application of SYY and MS exerted an enhanced effect on suppressing growth and metastasis of liver cancer by strengthening immunity. PMID:26699805

  16. A Naturally-Derived Compound Schisandrin B Enhanced Light Sensation in the pde6c Zebrafish Model of Retinal Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liyun; Xiang, Lue; Liu, Yiwen; Venkatraman, Prahatha; Chong, Leelyn; Cho, Jin; Bonilla, Sylvia; Jin, Zi-Bing; Pang, Chi Pui; Ko, Kam Ming; Ma, Ping; Zhang, Mingzhi; Leung, Yuk Fai

    2016-01-01

    Retinal degeneration is often progressive. This feature has provided a therapeutic window for intervention that may extend functional vision in patients. Even though this approach is feasible, few promising drug candidates are available. The scarcity of new drugs has motivated research to discover novel compounds through different sources. One such example is Schisandrin B (SchB), an active component isolated from the five-flavor fruit (Fructus Schisandrae) that is postulated in traditional Chinese medicines to exert prophylactic visual benefit. This SchB benefit was investigated in this study in pde6cw59, a zebrafish retinal-degeneration model. In this model, the pde6c gene (phosphodiesterase 6C, cGMP-specific, cone, alpha prime) carried a mutation which caused cone degeneration. This altered the local environment and caused the bystander rods to degenerate too. To test SchB on the pde6cw59 mutants, a treatment concentration was first determined that would not cause morphological defects, and would initiate known physiological response. Then, the mutants were treated with the optimized SchB concentration before the appearance of retinal degeneration at 3 days postfertilization (dpf). The light sensation of animals was evaluated at 6 dpf by the visual motor response (VMR), a visual startle that could be initiated by drastic light onset and offset. The results show that the VMR of pde6cw59 mutants towards light onset was enhanced by the SchB treatment, and that the initial phase of the enhancement was primarily mediated through the mutants' eyes. Further immunostaining analysis indicates that the treatment specifically reduced the size of the abnormally large rods. These observations implicate an interesting hypothesis: that the morphologically-improved rods drive the observed VMR enhancement. Together, these investigations have identified a possible visual benefit of SchB on retinal degeneration, a benefit that can potentially be further developed to extend

  17. A Naturally-Derived Compound Schisandrin B Enhanced Light Sensation in the pde6c Zebrafish Model of Retinal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liyun; Xiang, Lue; Liu, Yiwen; Venkatraman, Prahatha; Chong, Leelyn; Cho, Jin; Bonilla, Sylvia; Jin, Zi-Bing; Pang, Chi Pui; Ko, Kam Ming; Ma, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Retinal degeneration is often progressive. This feature has provided a therapeutic window for intervention that may extend functional vision in patients. Even though this approach is feasible, few promising drug candidates are available. The scarcity of new drugs has motivated research to discover novel compounds through different sources. One such example is Schisandrin B (SchB), an active component isolated from the five-flavor fruit (Fructus Schisandrae) that is postulated in traditional Chinese medicines to exert prophylactic visual benefit. This SchB benefit was investigated in this study in pde6cw59, a zebrafish retinal-degeneration model. In this model, the pde6c gene (phosphodiesterase 6C, cGMP-specific, cone, alpha prime) carried a mutation which caused cone degeneration. This altered the local environment and caused the bystander rods to degenerate too. To test SchB on the pde6cw59 mutants, a treatment concentration was first determined that would not cause morphological defects, and would initiate known physiological response. Then, the mutants were treated with the optimized SchB concentration before the appearance of retinal degeneration at 3 days postfertilization (dpf). The light sensation of animals was evaluated at 6 dpf by the visual motor response (VMR), a visual startle that could be initiated by drastic light onset and offset. The results show that the VMR of pde6cw59 mutants towards light onset was enhanced by the SchB treatment, and that the initial phase of the enhancement was primarily mediated through the mutants’ eyes. Further immunostaining analysis indicates that the treatment specifically reduced the size of the abnormally large rods. These observations implicate an interesting hypothesis: that the morphologically-improved rods drive the observed VMR enhancement. Together, these investigations have identified a possible visual benefit of SchB on retinal degeneration, a benefit that can potentially be further developed to extend

  18. Enhancement of protocatechuate decarboxylase activity for the effective production of muconate from lignin-related aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Sonoki, Tomonori; Morooka, Miyuki; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Masaya; Jellison, Jody; Goodell, Barry

    2014-12-20

    The decarboxylation reaction of protocatechuate has been described as a bottleneck and a rate-limiting step in cis,cis-muconate (ccMA) bioproduction from renewable feedstocks such as sugar. Because sugars are already in high demand in the development of many bio-based products, our work focuses on improving protocatechuate decarboxylase (Pdc) activity and ccMA production in particular, from lignin-related aromatic compounds. We previously had transformed an Escherichia coli strain using aroY, which had been used as a protocatechuate decarboxylase encoding gene from Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae A170-40, and inserted other required genes from Pseudomonas putida KT2440, to allow the production of ccMA from vanillin. This recombinant strain produced ccMA from vanillin, however the Pdc reaction step remained a bottleneck during incubation. In the current study, we identify a way to increase protocatechuate decarboxylase activity in E. coli through enzyme production involving both aroY and kpdB; the latter which encodes for the B subunit of 4-hydroxybenzoate decarboxylase. This permits expression of Pdc activity at a level approximately 14-fold greater than the strain with aroY only. The expression level of AroY increased, apparently as a function of the co-expression of AroY and KpdB. Our results also imply that ccMA may inhibit vanillate demethylation, a reaction step that is rate limiting for efficient ccMA production from lignin-related aromatic compounds, so even though ccMA production may be enhanced, other challenges to overcome vanilate demethylation inhibition still remain. PMID:25449108

  19. Characterization of the 2,3-Oxidosqualene Cyclase Gene from Antrodia cinnamomea and Enhancement of Cytotoxic Triterpenoid Compound Production.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan-Liang; Lee, Yi-Ru; Tsao, Nai-Wen; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Shaw, Jei-Fu; Chu, Fang-Hua

    2015-07-24

    Antrodia cinnamomea is a scarce, epiphyte, host-specific, brown-rot fungus that produces diverse bioactive compounds with potent biological activity. Natural wild-type fruiting bodies of A. cinnamomea are rare and highly valued, but their artificial culture poses challenges. Triterpenoids are a group of secondary metabolites that contribute to the bioactivities of A. cinnamomea. 2,3-Oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) is a key enzyme in triterpenoid biosynthesis, which converts 2,3-oxidosqualene (OS) into polycyclic triterpenoids. In this study, we isolated a 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclase gene from A. cinnamomea with degenerate primers and designated it as AcOSC. The full length AcOSC cDNA was subcloned into a yeast expression vector, and AcOSC activity was confirmed. RT-PCR results showed that AcOSC expression was highest in the wild-type fruiting body and correlated with a higher concentration of triterpenoids. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transformation was conducted to enhance the triterpenoid synthesis capacity of the cultured mycelium. Metabolite profiling was conducted by LC-MS/MS and principal component analysis (PCA). The compositions and contents of metabolites in the AcOSC transgenic lines were different from those in the wild-type mycelium and vector control. The levels of two important triterpenoids, dehydrosulphurenic acid (DSA) and dehydroeburicoic acid (DEA), were increased in A. cinnamomea oxidosqualene cyclase overexpression strains compared to controls. In summary an Agrobacterium-mediated gene transformation procedure was established that successfully increased the level of transgene expression and enhanced the triterpenoid content in cultured A. cinnamomea. PMID:26125648

  20. Enhancing muconic acid production from glucose and lignin-derived aromatic compounds via increased protocatechuate decarboxylase activity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Johnson, Christopher W.; Salvachua, Davinia; Khanna, Payal; Smith, Holly; Peterson, Darren J.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-04-22

    The conversion of biomass-derived sugars and aromatic molecules to cis,cis-muconic acid (referred to hereafter as muconic acid or muconate) has been of recent interest owing to its facile conversion to adipic acid, an important commodity chemical. Metabolic routes to produce muconate from both sugars and many lignin-derived aromatic compounds require the use of a decarboxylase to convert protocatechuate (PCA, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate) to catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene), two central aromatic intermediates in this pathway. Several studies have identified the PCA decarboxylase as a metabolic bottleneck, causing an accumulation of PCA that subsequently reduces muconate production. A recent study showed that activity of the PCAmore » decarboxylase is enhanced by co-expression of two genetically associated proteins, one of which likely produces a flavin-derived cofactor utilized by the decarboxylase. Using entirely genome-integrated gene expression, we have engineered Pseudomonas putida KT2440-derived strains to produce muconate from either aromatic molecules or sugars and demonstrate in both cases that co-expression of these decarboxylase associated proteins reduces PCA accumulation and enhances muconate production relative to strains expressing the PCA decarboxylase alone. In bioreactor experiments, co-expression increased the specific productivity (mg/g cells/h) of muconate from the aromatic lignin monomer p-coumarate by 50% and resulted in a titer of >15 g/L. In strains engineered to produce muconate from glucose, co-expression more than tripled the titer, yield, productivity, and specific productivity, with the best strain producing 4.92+/-0.48 g/L muconate. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that overcoming the PCA decarboxylase bottleneck can increase muconate yields from biomass-derived sugars and aromatic molecules in industrially relevant strains and cultivation conditions.« less

  1. Enhanced antitumor effects of the BRBP1 compound peptide BRBP1-TAT-KLA on human brain metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Bo; Long, Wei; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Aifeng; Miao, Fengqin; Shen, Yuqing; Pan, Ning; Gan, Guangming; Nie, Fang; He, Youji; Zhang, Jianqiong; Teng, Gaojun

    2015-01-01

    Novel molecularly targeted agents that block the development and metastasis of human brain metastatic breast cancer hold great promise for their translational value. In this study, we constructed a novel targeting composite peptide BRBP1-TAT-KLA comprising of three elements: a brain metastatic breast carcinoma cell (231-BR)-binding peptide BRBP1, a cell penetrating peptide TAT, and a proapoptotic peptide KLA. This composite peptide efficiently internalized in 231-BR cells and consequently induced mitochondrial damage and cellular apoptosis. Exposure of 231-BR cells to BRBP1-TAT-KLA significantly decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis compared with the cells treated with the control peptides. In vivo relevance of these findings was further corroborated in the 231-BR tumor-bearing mice that demonstrated significantly delayed tumor development and metastasis following administration of BRBP1-TAT-KLA compared with those treated with TAT-KLA alone. Interestingly, BRBP1-TAT-KLA inhibited the formation of both large and micro-metastases, while TAT-KLA alone failed to significantly reduce micro-metastases in the breast cancer brain metastasis mice. BRBP1-TAT-KLA selectively homed to the tumors in vivo where it induced cellular apoptosis without significant toxicity on non-tumor tissues. Our findings therefore demonstrated the enhanced antitumor effects of the BRBP1 compound peptide BRBP1-TAT-KLA, providing insights toward development of a potential therapeutic strategy for brain metastatic breast cancer. PMID:25619721

  2. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based volatile organic compounds (VOCs) detection using plasmonic bimetallic nanogap substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chi Lok; Dinish, U. S.; Buddharaju, Kavitha Devi; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Olivo, Malini

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we present surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based volatile organic compounds (VOCs) detection with bimetallic nanogap structure substrate. Deep UV photolithography at the wavelength of 250 nm is used to pattern circular shape nanostructures. The nanogap between adjacent circular patterns is 30 ± 5 nm. Silver (30 nm) and gold (15 nm) plasmonic active layers are deposited on the nanostructures subsequently. SERS measurements on different concentrations of acetone vapor ranged from 0.7, 1.5, 3.5, 10.3, 24.5 % and control have been performed with the substrate. The measurement results are found reproducible, and the detection limit is found to be 9.5 pg (acetone molecule). The detection sensitivity is 28.7 % higher than that of the recent reported leaning silicon nanopillar substrate. With further system miniaturization, the sensing technique can work as a portable SERS-based VOCs detection platform for point-of-care breath analysis, homeland security, chemical sensing and environmental monitoring.

  3. Body protective compound-157 enhances alkali-burn wound healing in vivo and promotes proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tonglie; Zhang, Kuo; Sun, Lijuan; Xue, Xiaochang; Zhang, Cun; Shu, Zhen; Mu, Nan; Gu, Jintao; Zhang, Wangqian; Wang, Yukun; Zhang, Yingqi; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Chemical burns take up a high proportion of burns admissions and can penetrate deep into tissues. Various reagents have been applied in the treatment of skin chemical burns; however, no optimal reagent for skin chemical burns currently exists. The present study investigated the effect of topical body protective compound (BPC)-157 treatment on skin wound healing, using an alkali burn rat model. Topical treatment with BPC-157 was shown to accelerate wound closure following an alkali burn. Histological examination of skin sections with hematoxylin–eosin and Masson staining showed better granulation tissue formation, reepithelialization, dermal remodeling, and a higher extent of collagen deposition when compared to the model control group on the 18th day postwounding. BPC-157 could promote vascular endothelial growth factor expression in wounded skin tissues. Furthermore, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and cell cycle analysis demonstrated that BPC-157 enhanced the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Transwell assay and wound healing assay showed that BPC-157 significantly promoted migration of HUVECs. We also observed that BPC-157 upregulated the expression of VEGF-a and accelerated vascular tube formation in vitro. Moreover, further studies suggested that BPC-157 regulated the phosphorylation level of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) as well as its downstream targets, including c-Fos, c-Jun, and Egr-1, which are key molecules involved in cell growth, migration, and angiogenesis. Altogether, our results indicated that BPC-157 treatment may accelerate wound healing in a model of alkali burn-induced skin injury. The therapeutic mechanism may be associated with accelerated granulation tissue formation, reepithelialization, dermal remodeling, and collagen deposition through ERK1/2 signaling pathway. PMID:25995620

  4. Neuroprotective effects of compound FLZ in an ischemic model mediated by improving cerebral blood flow and enhancing Hsp27 expression.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bo; Li, Min; Ma, Tao; Liu, Geng-Tao; Zhang, Jianjun

    2016-08-01

    Compound FLZ is a synthetic novel derivate of natural squamosamide, which has potent neuroprotective effects based on our previous study. We are now aiming to investigate the effects of FLZ on cerebral blood flow (CBF), infarct volume, neurological function, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), and Hsp27 expression in transient focal ischemia. For this goal, an animal model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2h followed by reperfusion was used, and animals received low or high doses of FLZ (150 or 300mg/kg), orally 10min after MCAO onset. The results show that the infarct volume was 32.7% for the vehicle control group, and reduced to 17.6 and 12.8% for the low and high dose FLZ-treated groups, respectively. FLZ treatment also significantly improved the neurobehavioral score from 2.6 in the vehicle control group to 1.0 and 0.9 in the low and high dose groups, respectively. Further, FLZ significantly induced Hsp27 over-expression and reduced over-expression of HSP70, a sensitive marker of acute ischemia, in ipsilateral cortex by a dose-dependent manner. In addition, CBF was quantified using laser-Doppler flowmetry. During ischemia, regional CBF (rCBF) was improved from approximately 30% to over 50% of the baseline and the reperfusion-induced hyperemia was reduced in both FLZ dosage groups. Particularly, high dose FLZ reduced rCBF during hyperemia by 30%. In conclusion, FLZ (150 and 300mg/kg) can significantly reduce the infarct volume and improve neurobehavioral deficits in a rat MCAO model, most likely through improving CBF in the penumbra and enhancing Hsp27 expression. PMID:24675028

  5. Body protective compound-157 enhances alkali-burn wound healing in vivo and promotes proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tonglie; Zhang, Kuo; Sun, Lijuan; Xue, Xiaochang; Zhang, Cun; Shu, Zhen; Mu, Nan; Gu, Jintao; Zhang, Wangqian; Wang, Yukun; Zhang, Yingqi; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Chemical burns take up a high proportion of burns admissions and can penetrate deep into tissues. Various reagents have been applied in the treatment of skin chemical burns; however, no optimal reagent for skin chemical burns currently exists. The present study investigated the effect of topical body protective compound (BPC)-157 treatment on skin wound healing, using an alkali burn rat model. Topical treatment with BPC-157 was shown to accelerate wound closure following an alkali burn. Histological examination of skin sections with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining showed better granulation tissue formation, reepithelialization, dermal remodeling, and a higher extent of collagen deposition when compared to the model control group on the 18th day postwounding. BPC-157 could promote vascular endothelial growth factor expression in wounded skin tissues. Furthermore, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and cell cycle analysis demonstrated that BPC-157 enhanced the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Transwell assay and wound healing assay showed that BPC-157 significantly promoted migration of HUVECs. We also observed that BPC-157 upregulated the expression of VEGF-a and accelerated vascular tube formation in vitro. Moreover, further studies suggested that BPC-157 regulated the phosphorylation level of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) as well as its downstream targets, including c-Fos, c-Jun, and Egr-1, which are key molecules involved in cell growth, migration, and angiogenesis. Altogether, our results indicated that BPC-157 treatment may accelerate wound healing in a model of alkali burn-induced skin injury. The therapeutic mechanism may be associated with accelerated granulation tissue formation, reepithelialization, dermal remodeling, and collagen deposition through ERK1/2 signaling pathway. PMID:25995620

  6. Highly enhanced photoreductive degradation of perchlorinated compounds on dye-sensitized metal/TiO2 under visible light.

    PubMed

    Bae, Eunyoung; Choi, Wonyong

    2003-01-01

    This study reports an example of visible-light photocatalyst based on TiO2 modified by ruthenium-complex sensitizers and noble metal deposits. The photodegradation of trichloroacetate (TCA) and carbon tetrachloride was used as a probe reaction for evaluating the visible light activity of the photocatalyst under the illumination of lambda > 420 nm. Photodeposition of platinum nanoparticles on dye-sensitized TiO2 (Pt/TiO2/Ru(II)L3) drastically enhanced the degradation rate of TCA and CCl4. The visible light reactivity of Pt/TiO2/Ru(II)L3 was optimal with [Ru(II)L3] = 10 microM, [TiO2] = 0.5 g/L, and Pt loading of about 0.2 wt %. Although no electron donors to regenerate the oxidized Ru-sensitizers were added in the aqueous suspension, the photoreductive dechlorination of perchlorinated compounds proceeded far beyond the stoichiometric limit of the initial sensitizer concentration. Water acted as an electron donor to regenerate the sensitizer with a concurrent production of dioxygen. On the other hand, Pt/TiO2/Ru(II)L3 was completely inactive in the presence of dissolved oxygen and the in-situ generated dioxygen gradually decelerated the dechlorination rate. Conduction band electrons transferred to O2 in preference to CCl4 and TCA on Pt deposits. Other noble metals (Ag, Au, and Pd) deposited on TiO2 showed a better oxygen-tolerance but less visible-light reactivity than PtTiO2/Ru(II)L3. Effects of metal loading on the visible light activity and its implications for the efficientvisible-light photocatalyst development are discussed. PMID:12542303

  7. Enhanced bioavailability of a poorly water-soluble weakly basic compound using a combination approach of solubilization agents and precipitation inhibitors: a case study.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu; Pollock-Dove, Crystal; Dong, Liang C; Chen, Jing; Creasey, Abla A; Dai, Wei-Guo

    2012-05-01

    Poorly water-soluble weakly basic compounds which are solubilized in gastric fluid are likely to precipitate after the solution empties from the stomach into the small intestine, leading to a low oral bioavailability. In this study, we reported an approach of combining solubilization agents and precipitation inhibitors to produce a supersaturated drug concentration and to prolong such a drug concentration for an extended period of time for an optimal absorption, thereby improving oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. A weakly basic compound from Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development was used as a model compound. A parallel microscreening precipitation method using 96-well plates and a TECAN robot was used to assess the precipitation of the tested compound in the simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and the simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), respectively, for lead solubilizing agents and precipitation inhibitors. The precipitation screening results showed vitamin E TPGS was an effective solubilizing agent and Pluronic F127 was a potent precipitation inhibitor for the tested compound. Interestingly, the combination of Pluronic F127 with vitamin E TPGS resulted in a synergistic effect in prolonging compound concentration upon dilution in SIF. In addition, HPMC E5 and Eudragit L100-55 were found to be effective precipitation inhibitors for the tested compounds in SGF. Furthermore, optimization DOE study results suggested a formulation sweet spot comprising HPMC, Eudragit L 100-55, vitamin E TPGS, and Pluronic F127. The lead formulation maintained the tested compound concentration at 300 μg/mL upon dilution in SIF, and more than 70% of the compound remained solubilized compared with the compound alone at <1 μg/mL of its concentration. Dosing of the solid dosage form predissolved in SGF in dogs resulted in 52% of oral bioavailability compared to 26% for the suspension control, a statistically significant increase (p = 0.002). The enhanced

  8. A systematic evaluation of solubility enhancing excipients to enable the generation of permeability data for poorly soluble compounds in Caco-2 model.

    PubMed

    Shah, Devang; Paruchury, Sundeep; Matta, Muralikrishna; Chowan, Gajendra; Subramanian, Murali; Saxena, Ajay; Soars, Matthew G; Herbst, John; Haskell, Roy; Marathe, Punit; Mandlekar, Sandhya

    2014-01-01

    The study presented here identified and utilized a panel of solubility enhancing excipients to enable the generation of flux data in the Human colon carcinoma (Caco-2) system for compounds with poor solubility. Solubility enhancing excipients Dimethyl acetamide (DMA) 1 % v/v, polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 1% v/v, povidone 1% w/v, poloxamer 188 2.5% w/v and bovine serum albumin (BSA) 4% w/v did not compromise Caco-2 monolayer integrity as assessed by trans-epithelial resistance measurement (TEER) and Lucifer yellow (LY) permeation. Further, these excipients did not affect P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated bidirectional transport of digoxin, permeabilities of high (propranolol) or low permeability (atenolol) compounds, and were found to be inert to Breast cancer resistant protein (BCRP) mediated transport of cladribine. This approach was validated further using poorly soluble tool compounds, atazanavir (poloxamer 188 2.5% w/v) and cyclosporine A (BSA 4% w/v) and also applied to new chemical entity (NCE) BMS-A in BSA 4% w/v, for which Caco-2 data could not be generated using the traditional methodology due to poor solubility (<1 µM) in conventional Hanks balanced salt solution (HBSS). Poloxamer 188 2.5% w/v increased solubility of atazanavir by >8 fold whereas BSA 4% w/v increased the solubility of cyclosporine A and BMS-A by >2-4 fold thereby enabling permeability as well as efflux liability estimation in the Caco-2 model with reasonable recovery values. To conclude, addition of excipients such as poloxamer 188 2.5% w/v and BSA 4% w/v to HBSS leads to a significant improvement in the solubility of the poorly soluble compounds resulting in enhanced recoveries without modulating transporter-mediated efflux, expanding the applicability of Caco-2 assays to poorly soluble compounds. PMID:25429513

  9. The effect of warming and enhanced ultraviolet radiation on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds from European aspen.

    PubMed

    Maja, Mengistu M; Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2016-03-15

    Different environmental stress factors often occur together but their combined effects on plant secondary metabolism are seldom considered. We studied the effect of enhanced ultraviolet (UV-B) (31% increase) radiation and temperature (ambient +2 °C) singly and in combination on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 2-year-old clones of European aspen (Populus tremula L.). Plants grew in 36 experimental plots (6 replicates for Control, UV-A, UV-B, T, UV-A+T and UV-B+T treatments), in an experimental field. VOCs emitted from shoots were sampled from two (1 male and 1 female) randomly selected saplings (total of 72 saplings), per plot on two sampling occasions (June and July) in 2014. There was a significant UV-B×temperature interaction effect on emission rates of different VOCs. Isoprene emission rate was increased due to warming, but warming also modified VOC responses to both UV-A and UV-B radiation. Thus, UV-A increased isoprene emissions without warming, whereas UV-B increased emissions only in combination with warming. Warming-modified UV-A and UV-B responses were also seen in monoterpenes (MTs), sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and green leaf volatiles (GLVs). MTs showed also a UV × gender interaction effect as females had higher emission rates under UV-A and UV-B than males. UV × gender and T × gender interactions caused significant differences in VOC blend as there was more variation (more GLVs and trans-β-caryophyllene) in VOCs from female saplings compared to male saplings. VOCs from the rhizosphere were also collected from each plot in two exposure seasons, but no significant treatment effects were observed. Our results suggest that simultaneous warming and elevated-UV-radiation increase the emission of VOCs from aspen. Thus the contribution of combined environmental factors on VOC emissions may have a greater impact to the photochemical reactions in the atmosphere compared to the impact of individual factors acting alone. PMID

  10. Topical Niosome Gel of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Extract for Anti-inflammatory Activity Enhanced Skin Permeation and Stability of Compound D.

    PubMed

    Priprem, Aroonsri; Janpim, Khwanhatai; Nualkaew, Somsak; Mahakunakorn, Pramote

    2016-06-01

    An extract of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. (ZC) was encapsulated in niosomes of which a topical gel was formed. (E)-4-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)but-3-en-1-ol or compound D detected by a gradient HPLC was employed as the marker and its degradation determined to follow zero-order kinetics. Niosomes significantly retarded thermal-accelerated decomposition of compound D in the gel (p < 0.05) but did not change the activation energy of compound D. Niosomes enhanced in vitro permeation rate of compound D from the gel. Topical applications of ZC noisome gel gave a faster change in tail flick latency than piroxicam gel and hydrocortisone cream (p < 0.05) while there were insignificant differences in anti-inflammatory activity up to 6 h using croton oil-induced ear edema model in mice (p > 0.05). Thus, encapsulation of ZC extract in niosomes enhanced chemical stability and skin permeation with comparable topical anti-inflammatory effects to steroid and NSAID. PMID:26292930

  11. Boron-10 ABUNCL Prototype Initial Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report provides results of initial testing of an Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) design built by General Electric Reuter-Stokes. Several configurations of the ABUNCL models, which use 10B-lined proportional counters in place of 3He proportional counters for the neutron detection elements, were previously reported. The ABUNCL tested is of a different design than previously modeled. Initial experimental testing of the as-delivered passive ABUNCL was performed, and modeling will be conducted. Testing of the system reconfigured for active testing will be performed in the near future, followed by testing with nuclear fuel.

  12. Boron-10 ABUNCL Models of Fuel Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Siciliano, Edward R.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.

    2013-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report provides results from MCNP simulations of the General Electric Reuter-Stokes Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) active configuration model with fuel pins previously measured at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A comparison of the GE-ABUNCL simulations and simulations of 3He based UNCL-II active counter (the system for which the GE-ABUNCL was targeted to replace) with the same fuel pin assemblies is also provided.

  13. Boron-10 Lined Proportional Counter Model Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2012-06-30

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) is supporting the project “Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology” at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube-based alternative system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report discusses the validation studies performed to establish the degree of accuracy of the computer modeling methods current used to simulate the response of boron-lined tubes. This is the precursor to developing models for the uranium neutron coincidence collar under Task 2 of this project.

  14. Boron-10 Lined Proportional Counter Wall Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Siciliano, Edward R.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2012-05-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) is supporting the project 'Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology' at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube based system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report provides information about how variations in proportional counter radius and gas pressure in a typical coincident counter design might affect the observed signal from boron-lined tubes. A discussion comparing tubes to parallel plate counters is also included.

  15. Development of an Enhanced Phenotypic Screen of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Lytic Granule Exocytosis Suitable for Use with Synthetic Compound and Natural Product Collections.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ziyan; deMayo, James A; West, Ashley M; Balunas, Marcy J; Zweifach, Adam

    2016-07-01

    We previously developed an assay of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte lytic granule exocytosis based on externalization of LAMP-1/CD107A using nonphysiological stimuli to generate maximal levels of exocytosis. Here, we used polystyrene beads coated with anti-CD3 antibodies to stimulate cells. Light scatter let us distinguish cells that contacted beads from cells that had not, allowing comparison of signaling events and exocytosis from stimulated and unstimulated cells in one sample. Bead stimulation resulted in submaximal exocytosis, making it possible to detect compounds that either augment or inhibit lytic granule exocytosis. Coupled with the assay's ability to distinguish responses in cells that have and have not contacted a stimulatory bead, it is possible to detect three kinds of compounds: inhibitors, stimulators, which cause exocytosis, and augmenters, which enhance receptor-stimulated exocytosis. To validate the assay, we screened a set of synthetic compounds identified using our previous assay and a library of 320 extracts prepared from tunicate-associated bacteria. One of the extracts augmented exocytosis threefold. Activity-guided fractionation and structure elucidation revealed that this compound is the known PKC activator teleocidin A-1. We conclude that our modified assay is suitable for screening synthetic compound plates and natural product collections, and will be useful for identifying immunologically active small molecules. PMID:27048485

  16. Enhanced accumulation of phytosterols and phenolic compounds in cyclodextrin-elicited cell suspension culture of Daucus carota.

    PubMed

    Miras-Moreno, Begoña; Almagro, Lorena; Pedreño, M A; Sabater-Jara, Ana Belén

    2016-09-01

    In this work, suspension-cultured cells of Daucus carota were used to evaluate the effect of β-cyclodextrins on the production of isoprenoid and phenolic compounds. The results showed that the phytosterols and phenolic compounds were accumulated in the extracellular medium (15100μgL(-1) and 477.46μgL(-1), respectively) in the presence of cyclodextrins. Unlike the phytosterol and phenolic compound content, β-carotene (1138.03μgL(-1)), lutein (25949.54μgL(-1)) and α-tocopherol (8063.82μgL(-1)) chlorophyll a (1625.13μgL(-1)) and b (9.958 (9958.33μgL(-1)) were mainly accumulated inside the cells. Therefore, cyclodextrins were able to induce the cytosolic mevalonate pathway, increasing the biosynthesis of phytosterols and phenolic compounds, and accumulate them outside the cells. However, in the absence of these cyclic oligosaccharidic elicitors, carrot cells mainly accumulated carotenoids through the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway. Therefore, the use of cyclodextrins would allow the extracellular accumulation of both phytosterols and phenolic compounds by diverting the carbon flux towards the cytosolic mevalonate/phenylpropanoid pathway. PMID:27457992

  17. Environmental monitoring of the role of phosphate compounds in enhancing immobilization and reducing bioavailability of lead in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Hee; Bolan, Nanthi S; Chung, Jae Woo; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2011-08-01

    Lead is a highly toxic element and forms stable compounds with phosphate, which is commonly used to immobilize Pb in soils. However, few studies have monitored the long-term stability of immobilized Pb, which is a critical factor in determining the effectiveness of the in situ stabilization technique. Both soluble and insoluble phosphate compounds were tested for Pb immobilization, and its subsequent mobility and bioavailability in a contaminated soil from a shooting range. Adding tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, rock phosphate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate reduced the concentration of ammonium-nitrate-extractable Pb in the contaminated soil by 78.6%, 48.3%, 40.5% and 80.1%, respectively. Insoluble phosphate amendments significantly reduced leached Pb concentration from the column while soluble potassium dihydrogen phosphate compound increased P and Pb concentrations in the leachate. Rock phosphate reduced Pb accumulation in earthworms by 21.9% compared to earthworms in the control treatment. The long-term stability of immobilized Pb was evaluated after 2 years' incubation of the contaminated soil with rock phosphate or soluble phosphate compounds. Bioavailable Pb concentration as measured by simple bioavailability extraction test (SBET) showed the long-term stability of immobilized Pb by P amendments. Therefore, Pb immobilization using phosphate compounds is an effective remediation technique for Pb-contaminated soils. PMID:21748178

  18. Enhancement effect of water associated with natural organic matter (NOM) on organic compound-NOM interactions: a case study with carbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Borisover, Mikhail; Sela, Maggie; Chefetz, Benny

    2011-03-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) in soils and sediments is recognized to strongly affect environmental distributions of organic compounds. Water associated with NOM may have a significant impact on NOM-organic compound interactions. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine the effect of hydration of a model NOM sorbent on interactions with a probe organic compound, carbamazepine (CBZ), and (2) based on the comparison with the literature data, to evaluate the effect of organic compound structure on the cooperative participation of water molecules in organic sorbate-NOM interactions. CBZ is one of the most widely reported water pollutants from the pharmaceutical and personal care products family. Therefore, CBZ sorption on Pahokee peat was compared from water and from n-hexadecane, using solubility-normalized solute concentrations. CBZ-NOM interactions were enhanced by one to two orders of magnitudes when NOM became fully hydrated. This enhancement is associated with the distinct ability of CBZ to undergo strong, specific interactions with NOM which was revealed by comparing the transfer of CBZ and another model sorbate, phenanthrene, from solution in n-hexadecane to the hydrated NOM sorbent. The enhancing effect of NOM hydration on CBZ-NOM interactions was also observed when CBZ sorption was examined on partially hydrated NOM. In comparison with a smaller-size organic sorbate such as phenol, CBZ needs more NOM-associated water in order to demonstrate the strengthening of interactions with NOM. Therefore, for penetration of the larger sorbate molecules into the NOM interior, a greater number of water molecules are needed to compensate for the local NOM disintegration thus suggesting the greater extent of the cooperativity in an involvement of water molecules in the CBZ-NOM interactions. PMID:21138776

  19. [Study of volatile organic compounds of fresh allium species using headspace combined with surface-enhanced Raman scattering].

    PubMed

    Si, Min-Zhen; Zhang, De-Qing; Liu, Ren-Ming

    2014-09-01

    In order to identify volatile organic compounds of fresh plants at room temperature and avoid sample pretreatment and extractions which can be labor intensive, garlic, Chinese chives and scallion were chopped into pieces. Then some of them were placed in the headspace vial and sealed. The gases were drawn from the vial with a syringe and were injected very slowly into Ag colloids for test using R-3000 portable Raman spectrometer. The spectra of volatile organic compounds of allium species, fresh garlic, Chinese chive and shallot plants were successfully.recorded for the first time. For garlic high intensity bands are present at 307, 399, 569, 711, 1,182, 1,287, 1,397 and 1,622 cm(-1). For Chinese chives the high intensity band is present at 672 cm(-1). Low intensity bands are present at 274, 412, 575, 1,185, 1,289, 1,396, 1,618 cm(-1). For shallot high intensity bands are present at 693 cm(-1). Lower intensity bands are present at 372, 888, 1,023 cm(-1). Low intensity bands are present at 1,088, 1,211 and 1,322 cm(-1). The SERS of diallyl disulfide, allyl methyl sulfide and 1-propanethiol in liquid state and gas state were also obtained. The main volatile organic compound of fresh garlic, Chinese chive and shallot are diallyl disulfide, allyl methyl sulfide and 1-propanethiol respectively, and the volatile organic compound of fresh onion, scallion, shallot and chive are all 1-propanethiol. The presented results illustrate that combining headspace and SERS is a powerful tool for volatile organic compound analysis in fresh plants. The volatile organic compound can be detected in fresh plant samples directly and quickly without extraction. PMID:25532343

  20. Lending a helping hand, screening chemical libraries for compounds that enhance beta-hexosaminidase A activity in GM2 gangliosidosis cells.

    PubMed

    Tropak, Michael B; Mahuran, Don

    2007-10-01

    Enzyme enhancement therapy is an emerging therapeutic approach that has the potential to treat many genetic diseases. Candidate diseases are those associated with a mutant protein that has difficulty folding and/or assembling into active oligomers in the endoplasmic reticulum. Many lysosomal storage diseases are candidates for enzyme enhancement therapy and have the additional advantage of requiring only 5-10% of normal enzyme levels to reduce and/or prevent substrate accumulation. Our long experience in working with the beta-hexosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.52) isozymes system and its associated deficiencies (Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff disease) lead us to search for possible enzyme enhancement therapy-agents that could treat the chronic forms of these diseases which express 2-5% residual activity. Pharmacological chaperones are enzyme enhancement therapy-agents that are competitive inhibitors of the target enzyme. Each of the known beta-hexosaminidase inhibitors (low microm IC50) increased mutant enzyme levels to >or= 10% in chronic Tay-Sachs fibroblasts and also attenuated the thermo-denaturation of beta-hexosaminidase. To expand the repertoire of pharmacological chaperones to more 'drug-like' compounds, we screened the Maybridge library of 50,000 compounds using a real-time assay for noncarbohydrate-based beta-hexosaminidase inhibitors and identified several that functioned as pharmacological chaperones in patient cells. Two of these inhibitors had derivatives that had been tested in humans for other purposes. These observations lead us to screen the NINDS library of 1040 Food and Drug Administration approved compounds for pharmacological chaperones. Pyrimethamine, an antimalarial drug with well documented pharmacokinetics, was confirmed as a beta-hexosaminidase pharmacological chaperone and compared favorably with our best carbohydrate-based pharmacological chaperone in patient cells with various mutant genotypes. PMID:17894780

  1. Electron-beam-enhanced oxidation processes in II-VI compound semiconductors observed by high-resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Thangaraj, N.; Wessels, B.W.

    1990-02-01

    Enhanced oxidation of ZnS and ZnSe semiconductor surfaces has been observed in situ during electron irradiation in a high-resolution electron microscope. The phase present at the surface region has been identified as ZnO by optical diffractogram and selected area electron diffraction techniques. For ZnS oxidation, both hexagonal ZnO having a random orientation and cubic ZnO in perfect epitaxial relationship with the bulk ZnS were observed. Enhanced oxidation of ZnSe to ZnO has also been observed under electron beam irradiation. However, only the hexagonal form was observed. The oxidation rates for both ZnS and ZnSe depended on electron flux but was independent of orientation. A model in which the oxidation process is limited by diffusion through the oxide film is proposed. By electron irradiation the diffusion rate is enhanced presumably by a nonthermal process.

  2. Spectral imaging of chemical compounds using multivariate optically enhanced filters integrated with InGaAs VGA cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priore, Ryan J.; Jacksen, Niels

    2016-05-01

    Infrared hyperspectral imagers (HSI) have been fielded for the detection of hazardous chemical and biological compounds, tag detection (friend versus foe detection) and other defense critical sensing missions over the last two decades. Low Size/Weight/Power/Cost (SWaPc) methods of identification of chemical compounds spectroscopy has been a long term goal for hand held applications. We describe a new HSI concept for low cost / high performance InGaAs SWIR camera chemical identification for military, security, industrial and commercial end user applications. Multivariate Optical Elements (MOEs) are thin-film devices that encode a broadband, spectroscopic pattern allowing a simple broadband detector to generate a highly sensitive and specific detection for a target analyte. MOEs can be matched 1:1 to a discrete analyte or class prediction. Additionally, MOE filter sets are capable of sensing an orthogonal projection of the original sparse spectroscopic space enabling a small set of MOEs to discriminate a multitude of target analytes. This paper identifies algorithms and broadband optical filter designs that have been demonstrated to identify chemical compounds using high performance InGaAs VGA detectors. It shows how some of the initial models have been reduced to simple spectral designs and tested to produce positive identification of such chemicals. We also are developing pixilated MOE compressed detection sensors for the detection of a multitude of chemical targets in challenging backgrounds/environments for both commercial and defense/security applications. This MOE based, real-time HSI sensor will exhibit superior sensitivity and specificity as compared to currently fielded HSI systems.

  3. Differential sensitivity of spinach and amaranthus to enhanced UV-B at varying soil nutrient levels: association with gas exchange, UV-B-absorbing compounds and membrane damage.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suruchi; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, S B

    2013-07-01

    The metabolic reasons associated with differential sensitivity of C3 and C4 plant species to enhanced UV-B under varying soil nutrient levels are not well understood. In the present study, spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. var All Green), a C3 and amaranthus (Amaranthus tricolor L. var Pusa Badi Chaulai), a C4 plant were subjected to enhanced UV-B (280-315 nm; 7.2 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) over ambient under varying soil nutrient levels. The nutrient amendments were recommended Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), 1.5× recommended NPK, 1.5× recommended N and 1.5× recommended K. Enhanced UV-B negatively affected both the species at all nutrient levels, but the reductions varied with nutrient concentration and combinations. Reductions in photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content were significantly more in spinach compared with amaranthus. The reduction in photosynthetic rate was maximum at 1.5× recommended K and minimum in 1.5× NPK amended plants. The oxidative damage to membranes measured in terms of malondialdehyde content was significantly higher in spinach compared with amaranthus. Enhanced UV-B reduced SOD activity in both the plants except in amaranthus at 1.5× recommended K. POX activity increased under enhanced UV-B at all nutrient levels in amaranthus, but only at 1.5× K in spinach. Amaranthus had significantly higher UV-B-absorbing compounds than spinach even under UV-B stress. Lowest reductions in yield and total biomass under enhanced UV-B compared with ambient were observed in amaranthus grown at 1.5× recommended NPK. Enhanced UV-B did not significantly change the nitrogen use efficiency in amaranthus at all NPK levels, but reduced in spinach except at 1.5× K. These findings suggest that the differential sensitivity of the test species under enhanced UV-B at varying nutrient levels is due to varying antioxidative and UV-B screening capacity, and their ability to utilize nutrients. Amaranthus tolerated enhanced UV-B stress

  4. SITE DEMONSTRATION OF ENHANCED IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CHLORINATED AND NON-CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN FRACTURED BEDROCK

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field demonstration of an enhanced in situ bioremediation technology was conducted between March 1998 and August 1999 at the ITT Industries Nithg Vision (ITTNV) Division plant in Roanoke, Virginia. The bioremediation process was evaluated for its effectiveness in treating both ...

  5. Osmoregulation in Klebsiella pneumoniae: enhancement of anaerobic growth and nitrogen fixation under stress by proline betaine, gamma-butyrobetaine, and other related compounds.

    PubMed

    Le Rudulier, D; Bernard, T; Goas, G; Hamelin, J

    1984-03-01

    Exogenous proline betaine ( stachydrine or N- dimethylproline ) or gamma-butyrobetaine (gamma-trimethylaminobutyrate), at a concentration as low as 1 mM, were found to stimulate the growth rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae, wild type M5A1 , in media of inhibitory osmotic strength (0.8 M NaC1). Simultaneously, nitrogen fixation by whole cells, a process particularly sensitive to osmotic stress, was strongly enhanced by these compounds. However, in the absence of sodium chloride, both the growth and nitrogen fixation were not affected by the addition of the methylammonium derivatives in the medium. The sensitivity of the nitrogen fixation to osmotic stress was used as a bioassay to evaluate the potentiality of osmoprotective compound in relation to the number of methyl groups on the nitrogen atom of glycine, proline, and gamma-aminobutyrate. Experiments with sarcosine ( monomethylglycine ), dimethylglycine, and glycine betaine ( trimethylglycine ), or experiments with mono- and di- methylproline or gamma-mono-, gamma-di, gamma-tri- methylaminobutyrate , indicated that the greatest stress tolerance was always obtained with the more N-methylated compounds. PMID:6372974

  6. Real-time analysis of organic compounds in ship engine aerosol emissions using resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation and proton transfer mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Radischat, Christian; Sippula, Olli; Stengel, Benjamin; Klingbeil, Sophie; Sklorz, Martin; Rabe, Rom; Streibel, Thorsten; Harndorf, Horst; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    Organic combustion aerosols from a marine medium-speed diesel engine, capable to run on distillate (diesel fuel) and residual fuels (heavy fuel oil), were investigated under various operating conditions and engine parameters. The online chemical characterisation of the organic components was conducted using a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI TOF MS) and a proton transfer reaction-quadrupole mass spectrometer (PTR-QMS). Oxygenated species, alkenes and aromatic hydrocarbons were characterised. Especially the aromatic hydrocarbons and their alkylated derivatives were very prominent in the exhaust of both fuels. Emission factors of known health-hazardous compounds (e.g. mono- and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons) were calculated and found in higher amounts for heavy fuel oil (HFO) at typical engine loadings. Lower engine loads lead in general to increasing emissions for both fuels for almost every compound, e.g. naphthalene emissions varied for diesel fuel exhaust between 0.7 mg/kWh (75 % engine load, late start of injection (SOI)) and 11.8 mg/kWh (10 % engine load, late SOI) and for HFO exhaust between 3.3 and 60.5 mg/kWh, respectively. Both used mass spectrometric techniques showed that they are particularly suitable methods for online monitoring of combustion compounds and very helpful for the characterisation of health-relevant substances. Graphical abstract Three-dimensional REMPI data of organic species in diesel fuel and heavy fuel oil exhaust. PMID:25600686

  7. Enhancing production of a 24-membered ring macrolide compound by a marine bacterium using response surface methodology*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua; Wu, Mian-bin; Chen, Zheng-jie; Wang, Ming-lu; Lin, Jian-ping; Yang, Li-rong

    2013-01-01

    A 24-membered ring macrolide compound, macrolactin A has potential applications in pharmaceuticals for its anti-infectious and antiviral activity. In this study, macrolactin A was produced by a marine bacterium, which was identified as Bacillus subtilis by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence analysis. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy analyses were used to characterize this compound. To improve the production, response surface methodology (RSM) involving Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed. Faeces bombycis, the main by-product in sericulture, was used as a nitrogen source in fermentation. The interactions between three significant factors, F. bombycis, soluble starch, and (NH4)2SO4 were investigated. A quadratic model was constructed to fit the production and the factors. Optimum medium composition was obtained by analysis of the model. When cultivated in the optimum medium, the production of macrolactin A was increased to 851 mg/L, 2.7 times as compared to the original. This study is also useful to find another way in utilizing F. bombycis. PMID:23549852

  8. Enhancing of chemical compound and drug name recognition using representative tag scheme and fine-grained tokenization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The functions of chemical compounds and drugs that affect biological processes and their particular effect on the onset and treatment of diseases have attracted increasing interest with the advancement of research in the life sciences. To extract knowledge from the extensive literatures on such compounds and drugs, the organizers of BioCreative IV administered the CHEMical Compound and Drug Named Entity Recognition (CHEMDNER) task to establish a standard dataset for evaluating state-of-the-art chemical entity recognition methods. Methods This study introduces the approach of our CHEMDNER system. Instead of emphasizing the development of novel feature sets for machine learning, this study investigates the effect of various tag schemes on the recognition of the names of chemicals and drugs by using conditional random fields. Experiments were conducted using combinations of different tokenization strategies and tag schemes to investigate the effects of tag set selection and tokenization method on the CHEMDNER task. Results This study presents the performance of CHEMDNER of three more representative tag schemes-IOBE, IOBES, and IOB12E-when applied to a widely utilized IOB tag set and combined with the coarse-/fine-grained tokenization methods. The experimental results thus reveal that the fine-grained tokenization strategy performance best in terms of precision, recall and F-scores when the IOBES tag set was utilized. The IOBES model with fine-grained tokenization yielded the best-F-scores in the six chemical entity categories other than the "Multiple" entity category. Nonetheless, no significant improvement was observed when a more representative tag schemes was used with the coarse or fine-grained tokenization rules. The best F-scores that were achieved using the developed system on the test dataset of the CHEMDNER task were 0.833 and 0.815 for the chemical documents indexing and the chemical entity mention recognition tasks, respectively. Conclusions The

  9. Microemulsion-enhanced electrochemiluminescence of luminol-H2O2 for sensitive flow injection analysis of antioxidant compounds.

    PubMed

    Xiuhua, Wei; Chao, Liu; Yifeng, Tu

    2012-05-30

    A microemulsion enhanced electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol-H(2)O(2) was studied with the flow-injection (FI) technique. The results revealed that the microemulsion composed with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), n-butanol, n-heptane and water greatly enhanced the ECL especially in acidic medium. The ECL emission increased for 20 to 2 times in this microemulsion medium over the pH range of 5.0-8.0 compared to that in aqueous solution. The mechanism of enhancement of surfactant and microemulsion for luminol-H(2)O(2) ECL was discussed. It is mainly based on the electrostatic interaction between luminol anion and the head group of surfactant, which causes the adsorption and promotes the dissociation of luminol on the surfaces of the microemulsion droplets, favors the oxidation of luminol by the yielded reactive oxygen species (ROSs) during electrolysis. This research is very significant for ECL applications because of the extended practicable pH range which was suitable for environmental and biological systems. As an example, this FI-ECL technique can be applied for determination of oligo proanthocyanidin (OPC) because of its antioxidant property and to evaluate the total antioxidant activity of the grape skin using OPC as an index. PMID:22608450

  10. Enhanced anti-tumor activity of a new curcumin-related compound against melanoma and neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sharing the common neuroectodermal origin, melanoma and neuroblastoma are tumors widely diffused among adult and children, respectively. Clinical prognosis of aggressive neuroectodermal cancers remains dismal, therefore the search for novel therapies against such tumors is warranted. Curcumin is a phytochemical compound widely studied for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Recently, we have synthesized and tested in vitro various curcumin-related compounds in order to select new anti-tumor agents displaying stronger and selective growth inhibition activity on neuroectodermal tumors. Results In this work, we have demonstrated that the new α,β-unsaturated ketone D6 was more effective in inhibiting tumor cells growth when compared to curcumin. Normal fibroblasts proliferation was not affected by this treatment. Clonogenic assay showed a significant dose-dependent reduction in both melanoma and neuroblastoma colony formation only after D6 treatment. TUNEL assay, Annexin-V staining, caspases activation and PARP cleavage unveiled the ability of D6 to cause tumor cell death by triggering apoptosis, similarly to curcumin, but with a stronger and quicker extent. These apoptotic features appear to be associated with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release. In vivo anti-tumor activity of curcumin and D6 was surveyed using sub-cutaneous melanoma and orthotopic neuroblastoma xenograft models. D6 treated mice exhibited significantly reduced tumor growth compared to both control and curcumin treated ones (Melanoma: D6 vs control: P < 0.001 and D6 vs curcumin P < 0.01; Neuroblastoma: D6 vs both control and curcumin: P < 0.001). Conclusions Our data indicate D6 as a good candidate to develop new therapies against neural crest-derived tumors. PMID:20525240

  11. Nanowired drug delivery of antioxidant compound H-290/51 enhances neuroprotection in hyperthermia-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Muresanu, Dafin F; Sharma, Aruna; Tian, Z Ryan; Smith, Mark A; Sharma, Hari Shanker

    2012-02-01

    Nanoparticles from the environment or through industrial sources can induce profound alterations in human health, often leading to brain dysfunction. However, it is still unclear whether nanoparticle intoxication could also alter the physiological or pathological responses of additional brain injury, stress response or disease processes. Military personals engaged in combat or peacekeeping operations are often exposed to nanoparticles from various environmental sources, e.g., Ag, Cu, Si, C, Al. In addition, these military personals are often exposed to high environmental heat, or gun and missle explosion injury leading to head or spinal trauma. Thus it is likely that additional CNS injury or stress-induced pathophysiological processes are influenced by nanoparticle intoxication. In this situation, when a combination of nanoparticles and central nervous system (CNS) injury or stress exist together, drug therapy needed to correct these anomalies may not work as effectively as in normal situation. Previous studies from our laboratory show that nanoparticle-intoxicated animals when subjected to hyperthermia resulted in exacerbation of brain pathology. In these animals, antioxidant compounds, e.g., H-290/51 that inhibits free radical formation and induces marked neuroprotection in normal rats after heat stress, failed to protect brain damage when a combination of nanoparticles and heat exposure was used. However, nanowired H-290/51 resulted in better neuroprotection in nanoparticles intoxicated animals after heat stress. Interestingly, high doses of the normal compound induced some neuroprotection in these nanoparticle-treated, heat-stressed rats. These observations suggest that a combination of nanoparticles and heat stress is dangerous and in such situations modification of drug dosage is needed to achieve comparable neuroprotection. In this review possible mechanisms of nanoparticle-induced exacerbation of heat induced neurotoxicity and brain protection achieved by

  12. Removal of organic compounds and trace metals from oil sands process-affected water using zero valent iron enhanced by petroleum coke.

    PubMed

    Pourrezaei, Parastoo; Alpatova, Alla; Khosravi, Kambiz; Drzewicz, Przemysław; Chen, Yuan; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2014-06-15

    The oil production generates large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), referring to the water that has been in contact with oil sands or released from tailings deposits. There are concerns about the environmental impacts of the release of OSPW because of its toxicity. Zero valent iron alone (ZVI) and in combination with petroleum coke (CZVI) were investigated as environmentally friendly treatment processes for the removal of naphthenic acids (NAs), acid-extractable fraction (AEF), fluorophore organic compounds, and trace metals from OSPW. While the application of 25 g/L ZVI to OSPW resulted in 58.4% removal of NAs in the presence of oxygen, the addition of 25 g petroleum coke (PC) as an electron conductor enhanced the NAs removal up to 90.9%. The increase in ZVI concentration enhanced the removals of NAs, AEF, and fluorophore compounds from OSPW. It was suggested that the electrons generated from the oxidation of ZVI were transferred to oxygen, resulting in the production of hydroxyl radicals and oxidation of NAs. When OSPW was de-oxygenated, the NAs removal decreased to 17.5% and 65.4% during treatment with ZVI and CZVI, respectively. The removal of metals in ZVI samples was similar to that obtained during CZVI treatment. Although an increase in ZVI concentration did not enhance the removal of metals, their concentrations effectively decreased at all ZVI loadings. The Microtox(®) bioassay with Vibrio fischeri showed a decrease in the toxicity of ZVI- and CZVI-treated OSPW. The results obtained in this study showed that the application of ZVI in combination with PC is a promising technology for OSPW treatment. PMID:24681364

  13. Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds in artificial sea-water using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS).

    PubMed

    Péron, Olivier; Rinnert, Emmanuel; Lehaitre, Michel; Crassous, Philippe; Compère, Chantal

    2009-07-15

    This paper reports an accurate synthesis of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active substrates, based on gold colloidal monolayer, suitable for in situ environmental analysis. Quartz substrates were functionalized by silanization with (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPMS) or (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS) and they subsequently reacted with colloidal suspension of gold metal nanoparticles: respectively, the functional groups SH and NH(2) bound gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles were prepared by the chemical reduction of HAuCl(4) using sodium tricitrate and immobilized onto silanized quartz substrates. Active substrate surface morphology was characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements and gold nanoparticles presented a diameter in the range 40-100 nm. Colloidal hydrophobic films, allowing nonpolar molecule pre-concentration, were obtained. The surfaces exhibit strong enhancement of Raman scattering from molecules adsorbed on the films. Spectra were recorded for two PAHs, naphthalene and pyrene, in artificial sea-water (ASW) with limits of detection (LODs) of 10 ppb for both on MPMS silanized substrates. PMID:19559865

  14. A Novel Compound Rasatiol Isolated from Raphanus sativus Has a Potential to Enhance Extracellular Matrix Synthesis in Dermal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Seok-Seon; Park, Seung-Bae; Park, Seong-Mo; Choi, Byoung Wook; Lee, Min-Ho; Hwang, Yul-Lye; Kim, Chang Hun; Jeong, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Chang Deok

    2013-01-01

    Background The fibrous proteins of extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by dermal fibroblast contributes to the maintenance of connective tissue integrity. Objective This study is carried out to identify the bioactive ingredient from natural products that enhances ECM production in dermal fibroblasts. Methods Bioassay-directed fractionation was used to isolate the active ingredient from natural extracts. The effects of rasatiol (isolated from Raphanus sativus) on ECM production in primary cultured human dermal fibroblasts was investigated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and western blot analysis. Results Rasatiol accelerated fibroblast growth in a dose-dependent manner and increased the production of type 1 collagen, fibronectin and elastin. Phosphorylation of p42/44 extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and Akt was remarkably increased by rasatiol, indicating that enhanced ECM production is linked to the activation of intracellular signaling cascades. Conclusion These results indicate that rasatiol stimulates the fibrous components of ECM production, and may be applied to the maintenance of skin texture. PMID:24003274

  15. Enhancement of critical current through compound defect with proton irradiation and heavy ion irradiation in YBCO coated conductors and FeSexTe1-x crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihlstrom, Karen; Leroux, Maxime; Holleis, Sigrid; Harris, Danielle; Welp, Ulrich; Claus, Helmut; Kayani, Asghar; Gu, Genda; Rupch, Marty; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Fleshler, Steven; Laviano, Francesco; Gozzelino, Laura; Gerbaldo, Roberto; Ghigo, Gianluca; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    We investigate the enhancement of vortex pinning by both point and columnar defects and compare the results in 2G YBCO coated conductors (CC), with Tc 90K, and in FeSexTe1-x single crystals with Tc 14K. Both samples were irradiated with 250 MeV Au ions to a dose-matching field of 1T. The samples were then irradiated with 4 MeV protons to a dose of 4x1016 p/cm2 and 8x1016 p/cm2 in the CC and single crystal, respectively. The major effect of compound particle irradiation in both samples resulted in a synergetic enhancement of the critical current across a wide field range, beyond the enhancement from either individual irradiation type. This work supported by the Center for Emergent Superconductivity, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. D.O.E., Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The work in Italy was supported by the INFN-TERASPARC project.

  16. Enhancement of SMN protein levels in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy using novel drug-like compounds

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Jonathan J; Osman, Erkan Y; Evans, Matthew C; Choi, Sungwoon; Xing, Xuechao; Cuny, Gregory D; Glicksman, Marcie A; Lorson, Christian L; Androphy, Elliot J

    2013-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive muscle weakness, which primarily targets proximal muscles. About 95% of SMA cases are caused by the loss of both copies of the SMN1 gene. SMN2 is a nearly identical copy of SMN1, which expresses much less functional SMN protein. SMN2 is unable to fully compensate for the loss of SMN1 in motor neurons but does provide an excellent target for therapeutic intervention. Increased expression of functional full-length SMN protein from the endogenous SMN2 gene should lessen disease severity. We have developed and implemented a new high-throughput screening assay to identify small molecules that increase the expression of full-length SMN from a SMN2 reporter gene. Here, we characterize two novel compounds that increased SMN protein levels in both reporter cells and SMA fibroblasts and show that one increases lifespan, motor function, and SMN protein levels in a severe mouse model of SMA. PMID:23740718

  17. Sonication, Vacuum Infiltration and Thiol Compounds Enhance the Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation Frequency of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

    PubMed Central

    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Kapil Dev, Gnajothi; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Selvaraj, Natesan; Ganapathi, Andy; Manickavasagam, Markandan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have established a stable transformation protocol via Agrobacterium tumafacines for the pharmaceutically important Withania somnifera. Six day-old nodal explants were used for 3 day co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring the vector pCAMIBA2301. Among the different injury treatments, sonication, vacuum infiltration and their combination treatments tested, a vacuum infiltration for 10 min followed by sonication for 10 sec with A. tumefaciens led to a higher transient GUS expression (84% explants expressing GUS at regenerating sites). In order to improve gene integration, thiol compounds were added to co-cultivation medium. A combined treatment of L-Cys at 100 mg/l, STS at 125 mg/l, DTT at 75 mg/l resulted in a higher GUS expression (90%) in the nodal explants. After 3 days of co-cultivation, the explants were subjected to three selection cycles with increasing concentrations of kanamycin [100 to 115 mg/l]. The integration and expression of gusA gene in T0 and T1 transgenic plants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Southern blott analysis. These transformed plants (T0 and T1) were fertile and morphologically normal. From the present investigation, we have achieved a higher transformation efficiency of (10%). Withanolides (withanolide A, withanolide B, withanone and withaferin A) contents of transformed plants (T0 and T1) were marginally higher than control plants. PMID:25927703

  18. Tricrystalline TiO2 with enhanced photocatalytic activity and durability for removing volatile organic compounds from indoor air.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kunyang; Zhu, Lizhong; Yang, Kun

    2015-06-01

    It is important to develop efficient and economic techniques for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air. Heterogeneous TiO2-based semiconductors are a promising technology for achieving this goal. Anatase/brookite/rutile tricrystalline TiO2 with mesoporous structure was synthesized by a low-temperature hydrothermal route in the presence of HNO3. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic decomposition of toluene in air under UV light illumination. The results show that tricrystalline TiO2 exhibited higher photocatalytic activity and durability toward gaseous toluene than bicrystalline TiO2, due to the synergistic effects of high surface area, uniform mesoporous structure and junctions among mixed phases. The tricrystalline TiO2 prepared at RHNO3=0.8, containing 80.7% anatase, 15.6% brookite and 3.7% rutile, exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity, about 3.85-fold higher than that of P25. The high activity did not significantly degrade even after five reuse cycles. In conclusion, it is expected that our study regarding gas-phase degradation of toluene over tricrystalline TiO2 will enrich the chemistry of the TiO2-based materials as photocatalysts for environmental remediation and stimulate further research interest on this intriguing topic. PMID:26040745

  19. Stress responses. Mutations in a translation initiation factor identify the target of a memory-enhancing compound.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Yusuke; Zyryanova, Alisa; Crespillo-Casado, Ana; Fischer, Peter M; Harding, Heather P; Ron, David

    2015-05-29

    The integrated stress response (ISR) modulates messenger RNA translation to regulate the mammalian unfolded protein response (UPR), immunity, and memory formation. A chemical ISR inhibitor, ISRIB, enhances cognitive function and modulates the UPR in vivo. To explore mechanisms involved in ISRIB action, we screened cultured mammalian cells for somatic mutations that reversed its effect on the ISR. Clustered missense mutations were found at the amino-terminal portion of the delta subunit of guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) eIF2B. When reintroduced by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing of wild-type cells, these mutations reversed both ISRIB-mediated inhibition of the ISR and its stimulatory effect on eIF2B GEF activity toward its substrate, the translation initiation factor eIF2, in vitro. Thus, ISRIB targets an interaction between eIF2 and eIF2B that lies at the core of the ISR. PMID:25858979

  20. Enhancement of singlet oxygen production based on FRET between Coumarin tri-compound and CdSe/ZnS QDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, Hong Dinh; Lee, Jee Won; Rhee, Jong Il

    2014-08-01

    The compatibility between coumarin-derived dendrimer (CdD)-captured silica particles (SiCdDs) and watersoluble CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) in the FRET process improved the excited state of QDs in the reaction of singlet oxygen production under LED irradiation. Sol-gel GA was successfully used to improve the binding between SiCdDs and QDs. Singlet oxygen production using QDs coated with SiCdDs through sol-gel GA was enhanced by about 80 % compared to that achieved using QDs only. The single oxygen produced by the QDs, the QDs/GA-SiCdDs complexes and the SiCdDs/GA-QDs complexes in this study could be used in the treatment of HeLa cells.

  1. Enhanced targeted anticancer effects and inhibition of tumor metastasis by the TMTP1 compound peptide TMTP1-TAT-NBD.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ronghua; Xi, Ling; Luo, Danfeng; Ma, Xiangyi; Yang, Wanhua; Xi, Yandong; Wang, Hongyan; Qian, Ming; Fan, Liangsheng; Xia, Xi; Li, Kezheng; Wang, Daowen; Zhou, Jianfeng; Meng, Li; Wang, Shixuan; Ma, Ding

    2012-08-10

    Micromolecular agents that block tumor development and metastasis hold great promise as cancer-targeted therapies. Tumor molecular targeted peptide 1 (TMTP1) was previously shown to target primary tumors and metastatic foci specifically. In this study, a group of composite peptides were incorporated to TMPT1. The NF-κB essential modulator-binding domain (NBD), and the trans-activator of transcription (TAT) peptide, were synthesized to enhance the targeted anti-tumor effects of TMTP1. TMTP1-NBD did not exhibit strong affinity to tumor cells as we had expected. Conjugating TAT with TMTP1-NBD ameliorated the poor hydrophilicity and negative charge of TMTP1-NBD. Therefore TMTP1-TAT-NBD displayed strong affinity and anti-tumor effects as we expected in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly cytoplasmic glycogen accumulation as well as apoptosis was observed in TMTP1-TAT-NBD treated PC-3M-1E8 cells. The downstream signaling pathways including AKT, GSK-3β, IκBα and NF-κB activity were verified to decrease by TMTP1-TAT-NBD. The pharmacokinetics and distribution of TMTP1-TAT-NBD in MDA-MB-231 tumor-bearing mice model provided some evidence for safety of the composite peptide, which showed the fluorescence of the peptide peaked in the tumor 6h after injection, with little fluorescence detected in normal organs except for very weak fluorescence in kidney. In conclusion, TMTP1-TAT-NBD may be a promising targeted anti-tumor agent for primary tumor and metastatic foci, which enhances the anticancer effects through inhibiting the AKT/GSK-3β/NF-κB pathway comparing with TMTP1. PMID:22580115

  2. Synergistic effect and mechanisms of compound bioflocculant and AlCl3 salts on enhancing Chlorella regularis harvesting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaofan; Wang, Xiansheng; Wang, Yao; Li, Yunbao; Zhou, Dandan; Jia, Yanwu

    2016-06-01

    The high energy input required for harvesting microalgae means that commercial production of microalgal biodiesel is economically unfeasible. In this study, we investigated the flocculation efficiency and synergistic mechanisms of novel coupled flocculants, AlCl3 and compound bioflocculants (CBF), to overcome this difficulty. AlCl3 flocculation was found to be very sensitive to pH, and flocculation efficiency increased from 55 to 95 % when pH increased from 4 to 10. CBF was environmental friendly, less reliant on pH, but had a relatively low flocculation of 75 % in optimum conditions. The harvesting efficiency of Chlorella regularis can achieve a satisfactory level of 96.77 % even in neutral conditions, with a CBF dosage of 0.26 g/L, AlCl3 dosage of 0.18 g/L, and coagulant aid (CaCl2) dosage of 0.12 g/L. Interestingly, compared with the use of single flocculant, the dosage of CBF, AlCl3, and coagulant aid (CaCl2) were reduced by about 52, 49, and 66 %, respectively. Besides, the aluminum (Al) ion content of the supernatant decreased significantly to a residue of only 0.03 mg/L, therefore meeting the downstream process needs easily. Patching and bridging played key roles in coupled flocculant flocculation, in which AlCl3 mainly carried out the electrical neutralization. This work provides new insight into an efficient, economical, and environmentally friendly protocol for microalgae harvesting. PMID:27102131

  3. Enhancement on wettability and intermetallic compound formation with an addition of Al on Sn-0.7Cu lead-free solder fabricated via powder metallurgy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adli, Nisrin; Razak, Nurul Razliana Abdul; Saud, Norainiza

    2016-07-01

    Due to the toxicity of lead (Pb), the exploration of another possibility for lead-free solder is necessary. Nowadays, SnCu alloys are being established as one of the lead-free solder alternatives. In this study, Sn-0.7Cu lead-free solder with an addition of 1wt% and 5wt% Al were investigated by using powder metallurgy method. The effect of Al addition on the wettability and intermetallic compound thickness (IMC) of Sn-0.7Cu-Al lead-free solder were appraised. Results showed that Al having a high potential to enhance Sn-0.7Cu lead-free solder due to its good wetting and reduction of IMC thickness. The contact angle and IMC of the Sn-0.7Cu-Al lead-free solder were decreased by 14.32% and 40% as the Al content increased from 1 wt% to 5 wt%.

  4. A New Method for In-situ Characterization of Important Actinides and Technetium Compounds via Fiberoptic Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)

    SciTech Connect

    Dai Sheng; Gu, B.

    2005-09-28

    This project serves to fill information gap through the development of a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy to selectively and sensitively monitor and characterize the chemical speciation of radionuclides at trace levels. The SERS technique permits both of these measurements to be made simultaneously, and results in significant improvement over current methods in reducing time of analysis, cost, and sample manipulation. Our overall goal is (a) to develop a scientific basis for this new methodology to detect radionuclides via SERS and (b) to rationally synthesize and evaluate novel sol-gel based SERS substrates tailored to sensitively detect and characterize inorganic radionuclides such as TcO4 -, actinyl ions (e.g. UO2 2+, NpO2 +, and PuO2 2+) and other chemical compounds of interest.

  5. Enhanced ferromagnetism and emergence of spin-glass-like transition in pyrochlore compound Dy2Ti2-xVxO7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Zou, Youming; Ling, Langsheng; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Changjin; Zhang, Yuheng

    2015-08-01

    We have studied the magnetic properties of spin-frustrated compound Dy2Ti2-xVxO7 single crystals. Bulk magnetization data show that ferromagnetic interaction enhances with increasing content of V, resulting from the ferromagnetic interactions between Dy and V ions. It is also found from ac susceptibility that the modestly doped samples (x≤0.4) still keep ice state, demonstrating the robustness of spin ice. When the doped concentration increases up to 0.5, more disorder on B site and internal field associated with V4+ ions would affect the macroscopic ground-state degeneracy and relieve the frustration, leading to the disappearance of spin ice and occurrence of a spin-glass-like transition. The magnetic properties of the system are related to magnetic frustration and local structural disorder.

  6. Co-culturing of Pichia guilliermondii enhanced volatile flavor compound formation by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in the model system of Thai soy sauce fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wah, Thin Thin; Walaisri, Supawan; Assavanig, Apinya; Niamsiri, Nuttawee; Lertsiri, Sittiwat

    2013-01-01

    The roles of salt-tolerant yeasts such as Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Candida versatilis, and Candida etchellsii in the production of volatile flavor compounds (VFCs) in soy sauce fermentation have been well documented. However, the knowledge of VFC production by other salt-tolerant yeasts is still limited. In this work, the roles of Z. rouxii and Pichia guilliermondii strains in VFC production were investigated in moromi medium as a model system for soy sauce fermentation. Inoculation of a single culture of either Z. rouxii or P. guilliermondii as well as co-cultures of these two yeasts into moromi medium showed increased numbers of viable yeast at around 0.7 to 1.9 log CFU/mL after 7days of cultivation at 30°C. During cultivation, both single and co-cultures displayed survival over a 7-day time period, compared with the controls (no culture added). Overall, yeast inoculation enhanced the production of VFCs in the moromi media with higher amounts of ethanol, alcohols, furanones, esters, aldehyde, acid, pyrone and phenols, known as important characteristic flavor compounds in soy sauce. Moreover, the co-culture produced more alcohols, furanones, esters, maltol and benzoic acid than the single culture of Z. rouxii. PMID:23290236

  7. Pre-harvest treatments of pepper plants with nitrophenolates increase crop yield and enhance nutritive and bioactive compounds in fruits at harvest and during storage.

    PubMed

    Valero, D; Zapata, P J; Martínez-Romero, D; Guillén, F; Castillo, S; Serrano, M

    2014-06-01

    Pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv Lamuyo) were treated with a mix of nitrophenolates either by foliar spray or in the irrigation system, and its effect on crop yield and the content of nutritive and bioactive compounds in fruit were analysed at harvest and after post-harvest storage. Treatments were applied at 2-week intervals from the development of first floral bunch (1 March) to end of August. Pepper fruits were harvested at commercial ripening stage (red surface colour) along the growth cycle (from May to September). Total yield (cumulative kilogram per plant) was increased ( 4.5% more) by nitrophenolate treatments due to significant increases in fruit mass, although the number of fruits per plant was unaffected. Pepper fruit quality (weight, firmness and pericarp thickness), its content in nutritive (sugars and organic acids) and bioactive compounds (vitamin C and total phenolics) and antioxidant activity were also enhanced by nitrophenolate treatments at the three harvested dates assayed (end May, mid July and end August). In addition, all these parameters were maintained at higher levels in treated peppers during storage, while diminutions in these parameters occurred generally in control fruit. Thus, nitrophenolate treatments were able to improve crop yield as well as the nutritional value and antioxidant properties of peppers at harvest and after fruit storage. PMID:23751541

  8. Foliar application of biofilm formation-inhibiting compounds enhances control of citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinyun; Wang, Nian

    2014-02-01

    Citrus canker caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is an economically important disease of citrus worldwide. Biofilm formation plays an important role in early infection of X. citri subsp. citri on host leaves. In this study, we assessed the hypothesis that small molecules inhibiting biofilm formation reduce X. citri subsp. citri infection and enhance the control of citrus canker disease. D-leucine and 3-indolylacetonitrile (IAN) were found to prevent biofilm formation by X. citri subsp. citri on different abiotic surfaces and host leaves at a concentration lower than the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that IAN repressed expression of chemotaxis/motility-related genes in X. citri subsp. citri. In laboratory experiments, planktonic and biofilm cells of X. citri subsp. citri treated with D-leucine and IAN, either alone or in combination, were more susceptible to copper (CuSO4) than those untreated. In greenhouse assays, D-leucine and IAN applied alone or combined with copper reduced both the number of canker lesions and bacterial populations of X. citri subsp. citri on citrus host leaves. This study provides the basis for the use of foliar-applied biofilm inhibitors for the control of citrus canker alone or combined with copper-based bactericides. PMID:23901828

  9. Simultaneous enhancement of phenolic compound degradations by Acinetobacter strain V2 via a step-wise continuous acclimation process.

    PubMed

    Lin, Johnson; Sharma, Vikas; Milase, Ridwaan; Mbhense, Ntuthuko

    2016-06-01

    Phenol degradation enhancement of Acinetobacter strain V2 by a step-wise continuous acclimation process was investigated. At the end of 8 months, three stable adapted strains, designated as R, G, and Y, were developed with the sub-lethal concentration of phenol at 800, 1100, and 1400 mg/L, respectively, from 400 mg/L of V2 parent strain. All strains degraded phenol at their sub-lethal level within 24 h, their growth rate increased as the acclimation process continued and retained their degradation properties even after storing at -80 °C for more than 3 years. All adapted strains appeared coccoid with an ungranulated surface under electron microscope compared to typical rod-shaped parental strain V2 . The adapted Y strain also possessed superior degradation ability against aniline, benzoate, and toluene. This study demonstrated the use of long term acclimation process to develop efficient and better pollutant degrading bacterial strains with potentials in industrial and environmental bioremediation. PMID:26471472

  10. Enhancement of enzymatic digestion of Antarctic krill and successive extraction of selenium organic compounds by ultrasound treatment.

    PubMed

    Siwek, Mariana; Bari Noubar, Amir; Bergmann, Jan; Niemeyer, Bernd; Galunsky, Boris

    2006-01-01

    In a previous work we described the isolation of selenium organic species from Antarctic krill after enzymatic hydrolysis. In this paper we present the results of the influence of ultrasonication on the enzymatic treatment and the successive isolation of selenomethionine. We showed that ultrasound-assisted enzymatic digestion leads to quantitative release of selenium in the soluble fraction and recovery of selenomethionine from the krill protein within a time 2 orders of magnitude shorter. The solubilised sample was analysed by size-exclusion chromatography and the selenomethionine content was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In total, 99% of the selenomethionine in the krill hydrolysate was recovered from the chromatographic fractions. It corresponds to 35% of the total selenium content in Antarctic krill. Monitoring by microscopy of the changes in the structure of the krill samples during ultrasonication suggested that the enhancement of the ultrasound-assisted enzymatic reaction was mainly due to decrease of mass transfer limitations. A reference experiment for ultrasound-assisted enzymatic digestion of cell-free protein in a homogeneous system does not exclude direct influence of the ultrasound energy on the enzyme-substrate interaction. PMID:16283261

  11. Giant enhancement of magnetocaloric effect at room temperature by the formation of nanoparticle of La0.48Ca0.52MnO3 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kalipada; Das, I.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetocaloric effect (MCE) is the change in temperature or entropy of a material due to the application of external magnetic field. The temperature dependence of MCE shows maximum value near the ferromagnetic transition of the material. Material with large MCE near room temperature will make revolutionary change in cooling technology and will have large impact in human society. We have transformed antiferromagnetic bulk manganite material La0.48Ca0.52MnO3 to ferromagnetic material by the reduction of the particle size in nanometer scale. MCE, as well as the Relative cooling power (RCP) of the material at room temperature (RT) systematically increase with the reduction of the particle sizes. The RCP value for the 45 nm particle size sample at RT is about 400% larger compared with the bulk counterpart. Our detail study on the nano form of the compound highlights an effective way to enhance the MCE. It opens up a vast possibility of achieving giant enhancement of MCE of several already known materials just by the reduction of the particle size in nanometer scale.

  12. X-231A demonstration of in-situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media by soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or reactive barrier destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L. |; Lowe, K.S.; Murdoch, L.D. |; Slack, W.W.; Houk, T.C.

    1998-03-01

    The overall goal of the program of activities is to demonstrate robust and cost-effective technologies for in situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media (LPM), including adaptations and enhancements of conventional technologies to achieve improved performance for DNAPLs in LPM. The technologies sought should be potential for application at simple, small sites (e.g., gasoline underground storage tanks) as well as at complex, larger sites (e.g., DOE land treatment units). The technologies involved in the X-231A demonstration at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) utilized subsurface manipulation of the LPM through soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or horizontal barrier in place destruction. To enable field evaluation of these approaches, a set of four test cells was established at the X-231A land treatment unit at the DOE PORTS plant in August 1996 and a series of demonstration field activities occurred through December 1997. The principal objectives of the PORTS X-231A demonstration were to: determine and compare the operational features of hydraulic fractures as an enabling technology for steam and hot air enhanced soil vapor extraction and mass recovery, in situ interception and reductive destruction by zero valent iron, and in situ interception and oxidative destruction by potassium permanganate; determine the interaction of the delivered agents with the LPM matrix adjacent to the fracture and within the fractured zone and assess the beneficial modifications to the transport and/or reaction properties of the LPM deposit; and determine the remediation efficiency achieved by each of the technology strategies.

  13. Enhanced Fenton-like degradation of refractory organic compounds by surface complex formation of LaFeO(3) and H(2)O(2).

    PubMed

    Nie, Yulun; Zhang, Lili; Li, Yu-You; Hu, Chun

    2015-08-30

    Nanoscale LaFeO(3) was prepared via sol-gel method and characterized by XRD, FTIR and N2 adsorption/desorption experiment. The results indicated that, LaFeO(3) had a typical perovskite structure with a BET area of 8.5m(2)/g. LaFeO(3) exhibited excellent Fenton activity and stability for the degradation of pharmaceuticals and herbicides in water, as demonstrated with sulfamethoxazole, phenazone, phenytoin, acyclovir and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2-chlorophenol. Among them, sulfamethoxazole (SMX) could be completely removed in LaFeO(3)-H(2)O(2) system after reaction for 120 min at neutral pH. Based on the ATR-FTIR analysis, the surface complex of LaFeO(3) and H(2)O(2). was formed, which was important and essential for the enhanced Fenton reaction by accelerating the cycle of Fe(3+)/Fe(2+). Hence, more OH and O(2)(-)/HO(2)(-) were then produced in LaFeO(3)-H(2)O(2) system, resulting in more efficient removal of refractory organic compounds. Based on the surface interaction of LaFeO(3) and H(2)O(2), a heterogeneous Fenton reaction mechanism was proposed. PMID:25867592

  14. Nizatidine, a small molecular compound, enhances killed H5N1 vaccine cell-mediated responses and protects mice from lethal viral challenge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Wu, Bing; Xue, Jia; Wang, Ming; Chen, Ruiai; Wang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Nizatidine (NIZ), closely related to Cimetidine, is a histamine H2 receptor inverse agonist used primarily as an anti-acid drug. Recent studies showed that this class of compounds may also modulate immune responses. To evaluate adjuvant effects of NIZ on vaccine immune modulation, we formulated NIZ with a H5N1 killed viral antigen and tested in vitro and in vivo. NIZ activated DC maturation and stimulated Th1 and Th2 immune responses to H5N1 vaccine. As a result, it enhanced both antibody and T cell-mediated immune responses. We also observed that a single immunization into C57BL/6 mice blocked IL-10 upregulation and potentiated Th1/Th2 dual polarization. Importantly, the inoculation of H5N1 vaccine with NIZ significantly improved protection of animals from death after challenge and reduced virus loads in the lung tissues. Considering its water-soluble nature, compared with Cimetidine, Nizatidine may be a better choice to use as a vaccine adjuvant. PMID:24253609

  15. A Novel Heterocyclic Compound CE-104 Enhances Spatial Working Memory in the Radial Arm Maze in Rats and Modulates the Dopaminergic System

    PubMed Central

    Aher, Yogesh D.; Subramaniyan, Saraswathi; Shanmugasundaram, Bharanidharan; Sase, Ajinkya; Saroja, Sivaprakasam R.; Holy, Marion; Höger, Harald; Beryozkina, Tetyana; Sitte, Harald H.; Leban, Johann J.; Lubec, Gert

    2016-01-01

    Various psychostimulants targeting monoamine neurotransmitter transporters (MATs) have been shown to rescue cognition in patients with neurological disorders and improve cognitive abilities in healthy subjects at low doses. Here, we examined the effects upon cognition of a chemically synthesized novel MAT inhibiting compound 2-(benzhydrylsulfinylmethyl)-4-methylthiazole (named as CE-104). The efficacy of CE-104 in blocking MAT [dopamine transporter (DAT), serotonin transporter (SERT), and norepinephrine transporter] was determined using in vitro neurotransmitter uptake assay. The effect of the drug at low doses (1 and 10 mg/kg) on spatial memory was studied in male rats in the radial arm maze (RAM). Furthermore, the dopamine receptor and transporter complex levels of frontal cortex (FC) tissue of trained and untrained animals treated either with the drug or vehicle were quantified on blue native PAGE (BN-PAGE). The drug inhibited dopamine (IC50: 27.88 μM) and norepinephrine uptake (IC50: 160.40 μM), but had a negligible effect on SERT. In the RAM, both drug-dose groups improved spatial working memory during the performance phase of RAM as compared to vehicle. BN-PAGE Western blot quantification of dopamine receptor and transporter complexes revealed that D1, D2, D3, and DAT complexes were modulated due to training and by drug effects. The drug’s ability to block DAT and its influence on DAT and receptor complex levels in the FC is proposed as a possible mechanism for the observed learning and memory enhancement in the RAM. PMID:26941626

  16. AVCRI104P3, a novel multitarget compound with cognition-enhancing and anxiolytic activities: studies in cognitively poor middle-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Llort, L; Ratia, M; Pérez, B; Camps, P; Muñoz-Torrero, D; Badia, A; Clos, M V

    2015-06-01

    The present work describes, for the first time, the in vivo effects of the multitarget compound AVCRI104P3, a new anticholinesterasic drug with potent inhibitory effects on human AChE, human BuChE and BACE-1 activities as well as on the AChE-induced and self-induced Aβ aggregation. We characterized the behavioral effects of chronic treatment with AVCRI104P3 (0.6 μmol kg(-1), i.p., 21 days) in a sample of middle aged (12-month-old) male 129/Sv×C57BL/6 mice with poor cognitive performance, as shown by the slow acquisition curves of saline-treated animals. Besides, a comparative assessment of cognitive and non-cognitive actions was done using its in vitro equipotent doses of huprine X (0.12 μmol kg(-1)), a huperzine A-tacrine hybrid. The screening assessed locomotor activity, anxiety-like behaviors, cognitive function and side effects. The results on the 'acquisition' of spatial learning and memory show that AVCRI104P3 exerted pro-cognitive effects improving both short- and long-term processes, resulting in a fast and efficient acquisition of the place task in the Morris water maze. On the other hand, a removal test and a perceptual visual learning task indicated that both AChEIs improved short-term 'memory' as compared to saline treated mice. Both drugs elicited the same response in the corner test, but only AVCRI104P3 exhibited anxiolytic-like actions in the dark/light box test. These cognitive-enhancement and anxiolytic-like effects demostrated herein using a sample of middle-aged animals and the lack of adverse effects, strongly encourage further studies on AVCRI104P3 as a promising multitarget therapeutic agent for the treatment of cholinergic dysfunction underlying natural aging and/or dementias. PMID:25732954

  17. Trace level detection of compounds related to the chemical weapons convention by 1H-detected 13C NMR spectroscopy executed with a sensitivity-enhanced, cryogenic probehead.

    PubMed

    Cullinan, David B; Hondrogiannis, George; Henderson, Terry J

    2008-04-15

    Two-dimensional 1H-13C HSQC (heteronuclear single quantum correlation) and fast-HMQC (heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation) pulse sequences were implemented using a sensitivity-enhanced, cryogenic probehead for detecting compounds relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention present in complex mixtures. The resulting methods demonstrated exceptional sensitivity for detecting the analytes at trace level concentrations. 1H-13C correlations of target analytes at < or = 25 microg/mL were easily detected in a sample where the 1H solvent signal was approximately 58,000-fold more intense than the analyte 1H signals. The problem of overlapping signals typically observed in conventional 1H spectroscopy was essentially eliminated, while 1H and 13C chemical shift information could be derived quickly and simultaneously from the resulting spectra. The fast-HMQC pulse sequences generated magnitude mode spectra suitable for detailed analysis in approximately 4.5 h and can be used in experiments to efficiently screen a large number of samples. The HSQC pulse sequences, on the other hand, required roughly twice the data acquisition time to produce suitable spectra. These spectra, however, were phase-sensitive, contained considerably more resolution in both dimensions, and proved to be superior for detecting analyte 1H-13C correlations. Furthermore, a HSQC spectrum collected with a multiplicity-edited pulse sequence provided additional structural information valuable for identifying target analytes. The HSQC pulse sequences are ideal for collecting high-quality data sets with overnight acquisitions and logically follow the use of fast-HMQC pulse sequences to rapidly screen samples for potential target analytes. Use of the pulse sequences considerably improves the performance of NMR spectroscopy as a complimentary technique for the screening, identification, and validation of chemical warfare agents and other small-molecule analytes present in complex mixtures and environmental

  18. Enhanced negative thermal expansion in La(1-x)Pr(x)Fe10.7Co0.8Si1.5 compounds by doping the magnetic rare-earth element praseodymium.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Huang, Rongjin; Wang, Wei; Tan, Jie; Zhao, Yuqiang; Li, Shaopeng; Huang, Chuanjun; Shen, Jun; Li, Laifeng

    2014-06-01

    Experiments have been performed to enhance negative thermal expansion (NTE) in the La(Fe,Co,Si)13-based compounds by optimizing the chemical composition, i.e., proper substitution of La by magnetic element Pr. It is found that increasing the absolute value of the average coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) in the NTE temperature region (200-300 K) attributes to enhancement of the spontaneous magnetization and its growth rate with increasing Pr content. Typically, the average CTE of La(1-x)Pr(x)Fe10.7Co0.8Si1.5 with x = 0.5 reaches as large as -38.5 × 10(-6) K(-1) between 200 and 300 K (ΔT = 100 K), which is 18.5% larger than that of x = 0. The present results highlight the potential applications of La(Fe,Co,Si)13-based compounds with a larger NTE coefficient. PMID:24848739

  19. Changes in phenolic compounds and cellular ultrastructure of arctic and antarctic strains of Zygnema (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) after exposure to experimentally enhanced UV to PAR ratio.

    PubMed

    Pichrtová, Martina; Remias, Daniel; Lewis, Louise A; Holzinger, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has become an important stress factor in polar regions due to anthropogenically induced ozone depletion. Although extensive research has been conducted on adaptations of polar organisms to this stress factor, few studies have focused on semi-terrestrial algae so far, in spite of their apparent vulnerability. This study investigates the effect of UV on two semi-terrestrial arctic strains (B, G) and one Antarctic strain (E) of the green alga Zygnema, isolated from Arctic and Antarctic habitats. Isolates of Zygnema were exposed to experimentally enhanced UV A and B (predominant UV A) to photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) ratio. The pigment content, photosynthetic performance and ultrastructure were studied by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), chlorophyll a fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, phylogenetic relationships of the investigated strains were characterised using rbcL sequences, which determined that the Antarctic isolate (E) and one of the Arctic isolates (B) were closely related, while G is a distinct lineage. The production of protective phenolic compounds was confirmed in all of the tested strains by HPLC analysis for both controls and UV-exposed samples. Moreover, in strain E, the content of phenolics increased significantly (p = 0.001) after UV treatment. Simultaneously, the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II photochemistry significantly decreased in UV-exposed strains E and G (p < 0.001), showing a clear stress response. The phenolics were most probably stored at the cell periphery in vacuoles and cytoplasmic bodies that appear as electron-dense particles when observed by TEM after high-pressure freeze fixation. While two strains reacted moderately on UV exposure in their ultrastructure, in strain G, damage was found in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Plastidal pigments and xanthophyll cycle pigments were investigated by HPLC analysis; UV A- and UV B

  20. Compound matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravvaritis, Christos; Mitrouli, Marilena

    2009-02-01

    This paper studies the possibility to calculate efficiently compounds of real matrices which have a special form or structure. The usefulness of such an effort lies in the fact that the computation of compound matrices, which is generally noneffective due to its high complexity, is encountered in several applications. A new approach for computing the Singular Value Decompositions (SVD's) of the compounds of a matrix is proposed by establishing the equality (up to a permutation) between the compounds of the SVD of a matrix and the SVD's of the compounds of the matrix. The superiority of the new idea over the standard method is demonstrated. Similar approaches with some limitations can be adopted for other matrix factorizations, too. Furthermore, formulas for the n - 1 compounds of Hadamard matrices are derived, which dodge the strenuous computations of the respective numerous large determinants. Finally, a combinatorial counting technique for finding the compounds of diagonal matrices is illustrated.

  1. Neurotoxic compound N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP4) depletes endogenous norepinephrine and enhances release of (/sup 3/H)norepinephrine from rat cortical slices

    SciTech Connect

    Landa, M.E.; Rubio, M.C.; Jaim-Etcheverry, G.

    1984-10-01

    The alkylating compound N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP4) injected to rodents blocks norepinephrine (NE) uptake and reduces endogenous NE levels in the central nervous system and in the periphery. To investigate the processes leading to these alterations, rat cortical slices were incubated in the presence of DSP4. Cortical NE was depleted by 40% after incubation of slices in 10(-5) M DSP4 for 60 min and this was blocked by desipramine. The spontaneous outflow of radioactivity from cortical slices labeled previously with (/sup 3/H)NE was enhanced markedly both during exposure to DSP4 and during the subsequent washings, suggesting that NE depletion could be due to this stimulation of NE release. The radioactivity released by DSP4 was accounted for mainly by NE and its deaminated metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol. The enhanced release, independent of external Ca++, apparently originated from the vesicular pool as it was absent after reserpine pretreatment. Activities of the enzymes related to NE synthesis were not altered by DSP4 in vitro and only monoamine oxidase activity was inhibited at high concentrations. Thus, the depletion of endogenous NE produced by DSP4 is probably due to a persistent enhancement of its release from the vesicular pool. Fixation of DSP4 to the NE transport system is necessary but not sufficient to produce the acute NE depletion and the characteristic long-term actions of the compound.

  2. Uptake of N-(4 prime -pyridoxyl)amines and release of amines by renal cells: A model for transporter-enhanced delivery of bioactive compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Zuomin Zhang; McCormick, D.B. )

    1991-12-01

    The importing of vitamin B{sub 6} by renal proximal tubular cells from the rat is facilitated and Na{sup +}-dependent and reflects specificity for the meta-phenolate pyridinium structure with a 5-hydroxymethyl function. This transporter can, however, accept competitively each of the natural non-phosphorylated vitamers (pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxal) and other B{sub 6} analogues differing only in the groups at position 4. A series of N-(4{prime}-pyridoxyl)amines was synthesized by sodium borohydride or boro({sup 3}H)hydride reduction of aldimines formed by condensing the amines with pyridoxal. The unlabeled B{sub 6}-secondary amine compounds were found to competitively inhibit the uptake of (4{prime}-{sup 3}H)pyridoxine by the reenal cells. Moreover, the {sup 3}H-labeled N-(4{prime}pyridoxyl)amines were shown to enter the cells by the process facilitated by the B{sub 6} transporter. Upon entry the labeled compounds were converted to n-(5{prime}-phospho-4{prime}-pyridoxyl)amines in a reaction catalyzed by pyridoxal kinase, an enzyme that tolerates considerable functional variation in position 4 of the B{sub 6} structure. The 5{prime}-phosphates were subsequently converted within the cell to pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate with liberation of the original amine in a reaction catalyzed by pyridoxamine (pyridoxine) 5{prime}-phosphate oxidase, an enzyme with broad specificity for 4{prime}-substituted amines on the 5{prime}-phospho-B{sub 6} structure. This system illustrates how knowledge of transporter specificity can permit design of a compound with potential biologic activity. A drug or other intracellular effector may be piggybacked onto a transported solute (e.g., vitamin or other nutrient) that gains facilitated entry to a cell and is, thereafter, metabolized to release the active compound.

  3. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Wertsching, Alan K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.; Jones, Michael G.

    2010-08-10

    A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

  4. Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar Model Utilizing Boron-10 Lined Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Jeremy L.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2012-09-18

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report, providing results for model development of Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) designs, is a deliverable under Task 2 of the project.

  5. Boron-10 ABUNCL Prototype Models And Initial Active Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2013-04-23

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report provides results from MCNPX model simulations and initial testing of the active mode variation of the Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) design built by General Electric Reuter-Stokes. Initial experimental testing of the as-delivered passive ABUNCL was previously reported.

  6. Introduction to Neutron Coincidence Counter Design Based on Boron-10

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2012-01-22

    The Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation Policy (NA-241) is supporting the project 'Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology' at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is ultimately to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube based alternative system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report, providing background information for this project, is the deliverable under Task 1 of the project.

  7. Laser annealing of neutron irradiated boron-10 isotope doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Jagannadham, K.; Butler, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    10B isotope doped p-type diamond epilayer grown by chemical vapor deposition on (110) oriented type IIa diamond single crystal substrate was subjected to neutron transmutation at a fluence of 2.4 9 1020 thermal and 2.4 9 1020 fast neutrons. After neutron irradiation, the epilayer and the diamond substrate were laser annealed using Nd YAG laser irradiation with wave length, 266 nm and energy, 150 mJ per pulse. The neutron irradiated diamond epilayer and the substrate were characterized before and after laser annealing using different techniques. The characterization techniques include optical microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, Raman, photoluminescence and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, and electrical sheet conductance measurement. The results indicate that the structure of the irradiation induced amorphous epilayer changes to disordered graphite upon laser annealing. The irradiated substrate retains the (110) crystalline structure with neutron irradiation induced defects.

  8. Enhancement of downy mildew disease resistance in pearl millet by the G_app7 bioactive compound produced by Ganoderma applanatum.

    PubMed

    Jogaiah, Sudisha; Shetty, Hunthrike Shekar; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-08-01

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) stands sixth among the most important cereal crops grown in the semi-arid and arid regions of the world. The downy mildew disease caused by Sclerospora graminicola, an oomycete pathogen, has been recognized as a major biotic constraint in pearl millet production. On the other hand, basidiomycetes are known to produce a large number of antimicrobial metabolites, providing a good source of anti-oomycete agrochemicals. Here, we report the discovery and efficacy of a compound, named G_app7, purified from Ganoderma applanatum on inhibition of growth and development of S. graminicola, as well as the effects of seed treatment with G_app7 on protection of pearl millet from downy mildew. G_app7 consistently demonstrated remarkable effects against S. graminicola by recording significant inhibition of sporangium formation (41.4%), zoospore release (77.5%) and zoospore motility (91%). Analyses of G_app7 compound using two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed its close resemblance to metominostrobin, a derivative of strobilurin group of fungicides. Furthermore, the G_app7 was shown to stably maintain the inhibitory effects at different temperatures between 25 and 80 °C. In addition, the anti-oomycete activity of G_app7 was fairly stable for a period of at least 12 months at 4 °C and was only completely lost after being autoclaved. Seed treatment with G_app7 resulted in a significant increase in disease protection (63%) under greenhouse conditions compared with water control. The identification and isolation of this novel and functional anti-oomycete compound from G. applanatum provide a considerable agrochemical importance for plant protection against downy mildew in an environmentally safe and economical manner. PMID:27093114

  9. A NEW METHOD FOR IN-SITU CHARACTERIZATION OF IMPORTANT ACTINIDES AND TECHNETIUM COMPOUNDS VIA FIBEROPTIC SURFACE ENHANCED RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY (SERS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project serves to fill information gap through the development of a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy to selectively and sensitively monitor and characterize the chemical speciation of radionuclides at trace levels. The SERS technique permits both o...

  10. ENVIROMETAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC. - METAL-ENHANCED DECHLORINATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING AN ABOVE-GROUND REACTOR, INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EnviroMetal Technology's metal-enhanced dechlorination technology employs an electrochemical process that involves oxidation of iron and reductive dehalogenation of halogenated VOCs in aqueous media. The process can be operated as an above ground reactor or can alternatively perf...

  11. DEMONSTRATION OF PILOT-SCALE PREVAPORATION SYSTEMS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND REMOVAL FROM A SURFACTANT ENHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION FLUID. I. SPIRAL WOUND MEMBRANE MODULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the summer of 1996, a pilot-scale demonstration of a surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) process for removal of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) from soils was conducted at Hill Air Force Base in Layton, Utah. Five thousand gallons of the extracted DNAP...

  12. Ultrasound processing to enhance drying of cashew apple bagasse puree: Influence on antioxidant properties and in vitro bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Fonteles, Thatyane Vidal; Leite, Ana Karoline Ferreira; Silva, Ana Raquel Araújo; Carneiro, Alessandra Pinheiro Góes; Miguel, Emilio de Castro; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Fernandes, Fabiano André Narciso; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2016-07-01

    The present study has evaluated the effects of power ultrasound pre-treatment on air-drying and bioactive compounds of cashew apple bagasse. The sonication induced the disruption of cashew bagasse parenchyma, which resulted in lower resistance to water diffusion, less hysteresis, and increased rehydration rate. The processing did not affect the lignocellulose fibers or the sclerenchyma cells. For sonicated samples, water activity reached values below 0.4, after 2h of drying, which is appropriate to prevent bacterial and fungi growth. The sorption isotherms of cashew apple bagasse presented sigmoid-shape for all samples and followed the type II according to BET classification. Sonicated cashew apple bagasse showed higher antioxidant activity, higher total phenolic compounds (TPC) and higher vitamin C content when compared to the non-sonicated sample. The increase in TPC and vitamin C contributed to the product antioxidant activity. A slight reduction on Vitamin C bioaccessibility was observed, but the TPC bioaccessibility has increased. Sonication reduced the quality loss of conventional drying treatments improving the quality of the dried product. PMID:26964946

  13. Does the wide use of quaternary ammonium compounds enhance the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance and thus threaten our health?

    PubMed

    Hegstad, Kristin; Langsrud, Solveig; Lunestad, Bjørn Tore; Scheie, Anne Aamdal; Sunde, Marianne; Yazdankhah, Siamak P

    2010-06-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely used biocides that possess antimicrobial effect against a broad range of microorganisms. These compounds are used for numerous industrial purposes, water treatment, antifungal treatment in horticulture, as well as in pharmaceutical and everyday consumer products as preserving agents, foam boosters, and detergents. Resistance toward QACs is widespread among a diverse range of microorganisms and is facilitated by several mechanisms such as modifications in the membrane composition, expression of stress response and repair systems, or expression of efflux pump genes. Development of resistance in both pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria has been related to application in human medicine and the food industry. QACs in cosmetic products will inevitably come into intimate contact with the skin or mucosal linings in the mouth and thus are likely to add to the selection pressure toward more QAC-resistant microorganisms among the skin or mouth flora. There is increasing evidence of coresistance and cross-resistance between QACs and a range of other clinically important antibiotics and disinfectants. Use of QACs may have driven the fixation and spread of certain resistance cassette collectors (class 1 integrons), currently responsible for a major part of antimicrobial resistance in gram-negative bacteria. More indiscriminate use of QACs such as in cosmetic products may drive the selection of further new genetic elements that will aid in the persistence and spread of antimicrobial resistance and thus in limiting our treatment options for microbial infections. PMID:20370507

  14. Section IV.D.3 for DOE 2013 Annual Report: Novel Phosphazene-based Compounds to Enhance Safety and Stability of Cell Chemistries for High Voltage Applications (INL)

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Gering; Mason K. Harrup; Eric J. Dufek; Sergiy V. Sazhin; Harry W. Rollins; David K. Jamison; Fred F. Stewart; John Burba

    2013-09-01

    Electrolytes play a central role in performance and aging in most electrochemical systems. As automotive and grid applications place a higher reliance on electrochemical stored energy, it becomes more urgent to have electrolyte components that enable optimal battery performance while promoting battery safety and longevity. Safety remains a foremost concern for widespread utilization of Li-ion technology in electric-drive vehicles, especially as the focus turns to higher voltage systems (5V). This work capitalizes on the long established INL expertise regarding phosphazene chemistry, aimed at battery-viable compounds for electrolytes and electrodes that are highly tolerant to abusive conditions. This report showcases our 2013 work for the DOE applied battery research (ABR) program, wherein testing results are summarized for INL electrolytes and alternative anode materials.

  15. Building a Better Analgesic: Multifunctional Compounds that Address Injury-Induced Pathology to Enhance Analgesic Efficacy while Eliminating Unwanted Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Largent-Milnes, T. M.; Brookshire, S. W.; Skinner, D. P.; Hanlon, K. E.; Giuvelis, D.; Yamamoto, T.; Davis, P.; Campos, C. R.; Nair, P.; Deekonda, S.; Bilsky, E. J.; Porreca, F.; Hruby, V. J.

    2013-01-01

    The most highly abused prescription drugs are opioids used for the treatment of pain. Physician-reported drug-seeking behavior has resulted in a significant health concern among doctors trying to adequately treat pain while limiting the misuse or diversion of pain medications. In addition to abuse liability, opioid use is associated with unwanted side effects that complicate pain management, including opioid-induced emesis and constipation. This has resulted in restricting long-term doses of opioids and inadequate treatment of both acute and chronic debilitating pain, demonstrating a compelling need for novel analgesics. Recent reports indicate that adaptations in endogenous substance P/neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1) are induced by chronic pain and sustained opioid exposure, and these changes may contribute to processes responsible for opioid abuse liability, emesis, and analgesic tolerance. Here, we describe a multifunctional mu-/delta-opioid agonist/NK1 antagonist compound [Tyr-d-Ala-Gly-Phe-Met-Pro-Leu-Trp-NH-Bn(CF3)2 (TY027)] that has a preclinical profile of excellent antinociceptive efficacy, low abuse liability, and no opioid-related emesis or constipation. In rodent models of acute and neuropathic pain, TY027 demonstrates analgesic efficacy following central or systemic administration with a plasma half-life of more than 4 hours and central nervous system penetration. These data demonstrate that an innovative opioid designed to contest the pathology created by chronic pain and sustained opioids results in antinociceptive efficacy in rodent models, with significantly fewer side effects than morphine. Such rationally designed, multitargeted compounds are a promising therapeutic approach in treating patients who suffer from acute and chronic pain. PMID:23860305

  16. Multipurpose Compound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  17. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 63% of US magnesium compounds production during 2000. Premier Services in Florida, Dow Chemical in Michigan, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties, and Rohm & Haas recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from seawater. And Premier Services' recoveries, in Nevada, were from magnasite.

  18. Microbial Consortia Development and Microcosm and Column Experiments for Enhanced Bioremediation of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds, West Branch Canal Creek Wetland Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Majcher, Emily H.; Jones, Elizabeth J.; Voytek, Mary A.

    2008-01-01

    Chlorinated solvents, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform, are reaching land surface in localized areas of focused ground-water discharge (seeps) in a wetland and tidal creek in the West Branch Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. In cooperation with the U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, the U.S. Geological Survey is developing enhanced bioremediation methods that simulate the natural anaerobic degradation that occurs without intervention in non-seep areas of the wetland. A combination of natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation could provide a remedy for the discharging ground-water plumes that would minimize disturbance to the sensitive wetland ecosystem. Biostimulation (addition of organic substrate or nutrients) and bioaugmentation (addition of microbial consortium), applied either by direct injection at depth in the wetland sediments or by construction of a permeable reactive mat at the seep surface, were tested as possible methods to enhance anaerobic degradation in the seep areas. For the first phase of developing enhanced bioremediation methods for the contaminant mixtures in the seeps, laboratory studies were conducted to develop a microbial consortium to degrade 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and its chlorinated daughter products under anaerobic conditions, and to test biostimulation and bioaugmentation of wetland sediment and reactive mat matrices in microcosms. The individual components required for the direct injection and reactive mat methods were then combined in column experiments to test them under groundwater- flow rates and contaminant concentrations observed in the field. Results showed that both direct injection and the reactive mat are promising remediation methods, although the success of direct injection likely would depend on adequately distributing and maintaining organic substrate throughout the wetland sediment in the seep

  19. Enhanced optical power of GaN-based light-emitting diode with compound photonic crystals by multiple-exposure nanosphere-lens lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yonghui; Wei, Tongbo Xiong, Zhuo; Shang, Liang; Tian, Yingdong; Zhao, Yun; Zhou, Pengyu; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin

    2014-07-07

    The light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with single, twin, triple, and quadruple photonic crystals (PCs) on p-GaN are fabricated by multiple-exposure nanosphere-lens lithography (MENLL) process utilizing the focusing behavior of polystyrene spheres. Such a technique is easy and economical for use in fabricating compound nano-patterns. The optimized tilted angle is decided to be 26.6° through mathematic calculation to try to avoid the overlay of patterns. The results of scanning electron microscopy and simulations reveal that the pattern produced by MENLL is a combination of multiple ovals. Compared to planar-LED, the light output power of LEDs with single, twin, triple, and quadruple PCs is increased by 14.78%, 36.03%, 53.68%, and 44.85% under a drive current 350 mA, respectively. Furthermore, all PC-structures result in no degradation of the electrical properties. The stimulated results indicate that the highest light extraction efficiency of LED with the clover-shape triple PC is due to the largest scattering effect on propagation of light from GaN into air.

  20. Six-phase soil heating for enhanced removal of contaminants: Volatile organic compounds in non-arid soils integrated demonstration, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Bergsman, T.M.; Caley, S.M.

    1994-10-01

    In November 1993, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel conducted a demonstration of six-phase soil heating (SPSH) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. The demonstration was part of the Volatile Organic Compounds in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration being conducted near the M-Area operations at the SRS, along a corridor that once contained a process sewer leading to the M-Area seepage basin. In the early 1980s, this sewer line was discovered to be leaking process wastes into the subsurface and contributing to groundwater contamination in the vicinity of M-Area seepage basin. Although use of the sewer line has been discontinued, the slow release of chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) from the heterogeneous vadose zone soil continues to be a source of potential groundwater contamination. A significant portion of the VOCs at the demonstration site are retained in low-permeability clay zones. Previous studies have shown that the rate of conventional SVE remediation of the SRS clays is quite slow. The permeability of the clay is of order 10{sup {minus}12} cm{sup 2}, which makes this a particularly difficult interval to remediate. Thus, the challenge for SPSH is to effectively remediate this clay zone by accelerating the removal of TCE and PCE.

  1. Alternation of light/dark period priming enhances clomazone tolerance by increasing the levels of ascorbate and phenolic compounds and ROS detoxification in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plantlets.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Majd; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Vidal, Véronique; El Maâtaoui, Mohamed; Sallanon, Huguette

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the alternation of light/dark periods (AL) (16/8 min light/dark cycles and a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 50 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) for three days) to clarify the mechanisms involved in the clomazone tolerance of tobacco plantlets primed with AL was studied. Clomazone decreased PSII activity, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), and the ascorbate and total polyphenol contents and increased H2O2 and starch grain accumulation and the number of the cells that underwent programmed cell death (PCD). The pretreatment with AL reduced the inhibitory effect of clomazone on the PSII activity and photosynthesis, as indicated by the decreases in the H2O2 and starch grain accumulation and the PCD levels, and increased the content of ascorbate and certain phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and rutin. The AL treatment could promote photorespiration via post-illumination burst (PIB) effects. This alternative photorespiratory electron pathway may reduce H2O2 generation via the consumption of photochemical energy, such as NADH+H(+). At 10 days (D10) of AL treatment, this process induced moderate stress which stimulates H2O2 detoxification systems by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the biosynthesis of antioxidant components. Therefore, the PCD levels provoked by clomazone were noticeably decreased. PMID:25863439

  2. Bifunctional quaternary ammonium compounds to inhibit biofilm growth and enhance performance for activated carbon air-cathode in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; Liu, Yinan; An, Jingkun; Feng, Cuijuan; Wang, Xin

    2014-12-01

    The slow diffusion of hydroxyl out of the catalyst layer as well as the biofouling on the surface of cathode are two problems affecting power for membrane-less air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In order to solve both of them simultaneously, here we simply modify activated carbon air-cathode using a bifunctional quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) by forced evaporation. The maximum power density reaches 1041 ± 12 mW m-2 in an unbuffered medium (0.5 g L-1 NaCl), which is 17% higher than the control, probably due to the accelerated anion transport in the catalyst layer. After 2 months, the protein content reduced by a factor of 26 and the power density increases by 33%, indicating that the QAC modification can effectively inhibit the growth of cathodic biofilm and improve the stability of performance. The addition of NaOH and QAC epoxy have a negative effect on power production due to the clogging of pores in catalyst layer.

  3. Usefulness of liquid-crystal oral formulations to enhance the bioavailability and skin tissue targeting of p-amino benzoic acid as a model compound.

    PubMed

    Kadhum, Wesam R; Oshizaka, Takeshi; Ichiro, Hijikuro; Todo, Hiroaki; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2016-06-10

    Topical formulations are not always suitable to deliver active ingredients to large areas of skin. Thus, in this study, we aimed to develop an oral formulation for skin tissue targeting with a high bioavailability using liquid crystal (LC) dispersions comprising cubosomes of a mal-absorptive model compound, p-amino benzoic acid (PABA), which is an active element in cosmeceuticals, dietary supplements and skin disorder medicines. The bioavailability and skin concentration of PABA were investigated after oral administration in rats. The effect of the remaining amount of the LC formulation in the stomach on the pharmacokinetic profiles of orally administered PABA was evaluated. The skin permeation and concentration of PABA were also investigated using an in vitro permeation experiment. As a result, the bioavailability of PABA was significantly improved by administration of PABA-LC formulations compared with PABA solution alone, although the effect was greatly influenced by the type of LC-forming lipids. The in vitro skin permeation study showed that the PABA concentration in the skin when applied from the dermis side was higher than when applied from the epidermis side. These findings suggested that oral administration advantageously supports skin targeting, and oral LC formulations could be a promising material in cosmeceutical, dietary and clinical fields. PMID:27072433

  4. Gelation-induced enhanced fluorescence emission from organogels of salicylanilide-containing compounds exhibiting excited-state intramolecular proton transfer: synthesis and self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Manoj Kumar; Kim, Byung-Hwa; Kwon, Ji Eon; Park, Sanghyuk; Seo, Jangwon; Chung, Jong Won; Park, Soo Young

    2010-07-01

    Self-assembly structure, stability, hydrogen-bonding interaction, and optical properties of a new class of low molecular weight organogelators (LMOGs) formed by salicylanilides 3 and 4 have been investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV/Vis absorption and photoluminescence, as well as theoretical studies by DFT and semiempirical calculations with CI (AM1/PECI=8) methods. It was found that salicylanilides form gels in nonpolar solvents due to pi-stacking interaction complemented by the presence of both inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The supramolecular arrangement in these organogels predicted by XRD shows lamellar and hexagonal columnar structures for gelators 3 and 4, respectively. Of particular interest is the observation of significant fluorescence enhancement accompanying gelation, which was ascribed to the formation of J-aggregates and inhibition of intramolecular rotation in the gel state. PMID:20491121

  5. Enhanced Levels of the Aroma and Flavor Compound S-Linalool by Metabolic Engineering of the Terpenoid Pathway in Tomato Fruits1

    PubMed Central

    Lewinsohn, Efraim; Schalechet, Fernond; Wilkinson, Jack; Matsui, Kenji; Tadmor, Yaakov; Nam, Kyoung-Hee; Amar, Orit; Lastochkin, Elena; Larkov, Olga; Ravid, Uzi; Hiatt, William; Gepstein, Shimon; Pichersky, Eran

    2001-01-01

    The aromas of fruits, vegetables, and flowers are mixtures of volatile metabolites, often present in parts per billion levels or less. We show here that tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants transgenic for a heterologous Clarkia breweri S-linalool synthase (LIS) gene, under the control of the tomato late-ripening-specific E8 promoter, synthesize and accumulate S-linalool and 8-hydroxylinalool in ripening fruits. Apart from the difference in volatiles, no other phenotypic alterations were noted, including the levels of other terpenoids such as γ- and α-tocopherols, lycopene, β-carotene, and lutein. Our studies indicate that it is possible to enhance the levels of monoterpenes in ripening fruits by metabolic engineering. PMID:11706204

  6. Highly Active and Specific Tyrosine Ammonia-Lyases from Diverse Origins Enable Enhanced Production of Aromatic Compounds in Bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Stahlhut, Steen Gustav; Li, Mingji; Gaspar, Paula; Siedler, Solvej; Förster, Jochen; Maury, Jérôme; Borodina, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Phenylalanine and tyrosine ammonia-lyases form cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid, which are precursors of a wide range of aromatic compounds of biotechnological interest. Lack of highly active and specific tyrosine ammonia-lyases has previously been a limitation in metabolic engineering approaches. We therefore identified 22 sequences in silico using synteny information and aiming for sequence divergence. We performed a comparative in vivo study, expressing the genes intracellularly in bacteria and yeast. When produced heterologously, some enzymes resulted in significantly higher production of p-coumaric acid in several different industrially important production organisms. Three novel enzymes were found to have activity exclusively for phenylalanine, including an enzyme from the low-GC Gram-positive bacterium Brevibacillus laterosporus, a bacterial-type enzyme from the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, and a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from the moss Physcomitrella patens (producing 230 μM cinnamic acid per unit of optical density at 600 nm [OD600]) in the medium using Escherichia coli as the heterologous host). Novel tyrosine ammonia-lyases having higher reported substrate specificity than previously characterized enzymes were also identified. Enzymes from Herpetosiphon aurantiacus and Flavobacterium johnsoniae resulted in high production of p-coumaric acid in Escherichia coli (producing 440 μM p-coumaric acid OD600 unit−1 in the medium) and in Lactococcus lactis. The enzymes were also efficient in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where p-coumaric acid accumulation was improved 5-fold over that in strains expressing previously characterized tyrosine ammonia-lyases. PMID:25911487

  7. Sensitivity of a renal K+ channel (ROMK2) to the inhibitory sulfonylurea compound glibenclamide is enhanced by coexpression with the ATP-binding cassette transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator.

    PubMed Central

    McNicholas, C M; Guggino, W B; Schwiebert, E M; Hebert, S C; Giebisch, G; Egan, M E

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate here that coexpression of ROMK2, an inwardly rectifying ATP-sensitive renal K+ channel (IKATP) with cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) significantly enhances the sensitivity of ROMK2 to the sulfonylurea compound glibenclamide. When expressed alone, ROMK2 is relatively insensitive to glibenclamide. The interaction between ROMK2, CFTR, and glibenclamide is modulated by altering the phosphorylation state of either ROMK2, CFTR, or an associated protein, as exogenous MgATP and the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A significantly attenuate the inhibitory effect of glibenclamide on ROMK2. Thus CFTR, which has been demonstrated to interact with both Na+ and Cl- channels in airway epithelium, modulates the function of renal ROMK2 K+ channels. PMID:8755607

  8. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production during 2002. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida. They were also recovered from well brines in Michigan by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And they were recovered from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals.

  9. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, seawater and natural brines accounted for 51% of US magnesium compounds production. World magnesia production was estimated to be 14.5 Mt. Most of the production came from China, North Korea, Russia and Turkey. Although no specific production figures are available, Japan and the United States are estimated to account for almost one-half of the world's capacity from seawater and brines.

  10. Enhancement of the antibiotic activity of erythromycin by volatile compounds of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown against Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Veras, Helenicy N. H.; Campos, Adriana R.; Rodrigues, Fabíola F. G.; Botelho, Marco A.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; da Costa, José Galberto M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown, popularly known as “erva-cidreira,” is commonly found in northeastern Brazil. The leaves tea is used to treat digestive disturbances, nausea, cough, and bronchitis. Objective: This work reports the chemical composition and erythromycin-modifying activity by gaseous contact against Staphylococcus aureus. Materials and Methods: The leaves of L. alba were subjected to hydrodistillation, and the essential oil extracted was examined with respect to the chemical composition, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the essential oil extracted was evaluated for antibacterial and antibiotic-modifying activity by gaseous contact. Results: The overall yield of essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was 0.52%. The GC-MS analysis has led to the identification of the main components: geranial (31.4%) and neral (29.5%). It was verified that the essential oil interfered with erythromycin antibiotic activity against S. aureus ATCC 25923 was enhanced (221.4%) in the presence of 12% essential oil. The 3% essential oil increased the effect against S. aureus ATCC 25923 (41.6%) and S. aureus ATCC 6538 (58.3%). Conclusion: The essential oil of L. alba influences the activity of erythromycin and may be used as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy against respiratory tract bacterial pathogens. Conclusion: The essential oil of L. alba influences the activity of erythromycin and may be used as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy against respiratory tract bacterial pathogens. PMID:22262937

  11. Enhanced bactericidal activity of enterocin AS-48 in combination with essential oils, natural bioactive compounds and chemical preservatives against Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat salad.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Cobo Molinos; Abriouel, Hikmate; López, Rosario Lucas; Omar, Nabil Ben; Valdivia, Eva; Gálvez, Antonio

    2009-09-01

    Enterocin AS-48 (30-60 microg/g) significantly reduced viable counts of Listeria monocytogenes in Russian-type salad during one week storage at 10 degrees C. Antilisterial activity of AS-48 (30 microg/g) in salad was strongly enhanced by essential oils (thyme verbena, thyme red, Spanish oregano, ajowan, tea tree, clove, and sage oils tested at 1%, as well as with 2% rosemary oil). Antilisterial activity also increased in combination with bioactive components from essential oils and plant extracts, with other related antimicrobials of natural origin or derived from chemical synthesis (carvacrol, eugenol, thymol, terpineol, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, caffeic, ferulic and vanillic acid, luteolin, geranyl butyrate, geranyl phenylacetate, pyrocatechol, hydrocinnamic acid, tert butylhydroquinone, phenylphosphate, isopropyl methyl phenol, coumaric acid, and 2-nitropropanol), and with food preservatives (citric and lactic acid, sucrose palmitate, sucrose stearate, p-hydroxybenzoic methylester acid -- PHBME, and Nisaplin). AS-48 acted synergistically with citric, lactic acid, and PHBME. A mixed population of two L. monocytogenes strains was markedly reduced for one week in salads treated with AS-48 (30 microg/g) in combination with lactic acid, PHBME or Nisaplin. The increased bactericidal activity of these combinations is interesting to improve protection against L. monocytogenes during salad storage. PMID:19520136

  12. A sensitive electrochemiluminescence immunosensor based on luminophore capped Pd@Au core-shell nanoparticles as signal tracers and ferrocenyl compounds as signal enhancers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuting; Wang, Haijun; Xiong, Chengyi; Yuan, Yali; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo

    2016-07-15

    In this work, N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol) (ABEI), an analogue of luminol, is served as both the reductant and luminescence reagent to synthesize ABEI capped Pd@Au core-shell nanoparticles (ABEI-Pd@AuNPs). The nanoparticles not only exhibit inherent electrochemiluminescence (ECL) property, but also possess advantages of noble-metal nanomaterials such as outstanding electronic property, high specific surface area and good biocompatibility. In order to enhance the luminescence efficiency, ferrocene monocarboxylic acid (Fc) as catalyzer is grafted on the surface of ABEI-Pd@AuNPs with the aid of l-cysteine (l-Cys). When the Fc is electrochemically oxidized to ferricinium cation species (Fc(+)), the decomposition of H2O2 which existed in detection solution can be catalyzed by Fc(+) to generate oxygen-related free radicals, resulting effective signal amplification for ABEI-H2O2 system. For potential applications, the Pd@Au core-shell nanoparticles bifunctionalized by ABEI and catalyzer are employed as nano-carriers to immobilize detection antibody (Ab2). Based on sandwiched immunoreactions, a "signal-on" ECL immunosensor is developed for detection of human collagen type IV (Col IV), a potential biomarker associated with diabetic nephropathy. Consequently, the proposed immunosensor provides a wide linear detection ranging from 1pgmL(-1) to 10ngmL(-1) with a relatively low detection limit of 0.3pgmL(-1) (S/N=3). PMID:26985586

  13. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 40 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2009. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover, and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  14. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60% of US magnesium compounds production in 2001. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater in Florida by Premier Chemicals. They were also recovered from Michigan well brines by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And Premier Chemicals recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from magnesite in Nevada. Reilly Industries and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah.

  15. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 54 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2010. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  16. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  17. Intermetallic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagiwa, Y.; Matsuura, Y.; Kimura, K.

    2014-06-01

    We have focused on the binary narrow-bandgap intermetallic compounds FeGa3 and RuGa3 as thermoelectric materials. Their crystal structure is FeGa3-type (tetragonal, P42/ mnm) with 16 atoms per unit cell. Despite their simple crystal structure, their room temperature thermal conductivity is in the range 4-5-W-m-1-K-1. Both compounds have narrow-bandgaps of approximately 0.3-eV near the Fermi level. Because their Seebeck coefficients are quite large negative values in the range 350-<-| S 373K|-<-550- μV-K-1 for undoped samples, it should be possible to obtain highly efficient thermoelectric materials both by adjusting the carrier concentration and by reducing the thermal conductivity. Here, we report the effects of doping on the thermoelectric properties of FeGa3 and RuGa3 as n and p-type materials. The dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, was significantly improved by substitution of Sn for Ga in FeGa3 (electron-doping) and by substitution of Zn for Ga in RuGa3 (hole-doping), mainly as a result of optimization of the electronic part, S 2 σ.

  18. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  19. Bismaleimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.

    1986-01-14

    Bismaleimides of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, C1 or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  20. Bismaleimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Adams, J.E.; Jamieson, D.R.

    1986-01-14

    Bismaleimides of the formula shown in the diagram wherein R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] each independently is H, C[sub 1-4]-alkyl, C[sub 1-4]-alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1--3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1--3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  1. Solvent-assisted stir bar sorptive extraction by using swollen polydimethylsiloxane for enhanced recovery of polar solutes in aqueous samples: Application to aroma compounds in beer and pesticides in wine.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; David, Frank; Sandra, Pat

    2016-07-15

    A novel solvent-assisted stir bar sorptive extraction (SA-SBSE) technique was developed for enhanced recovery of polar solutes in aqueous samples. A conventional PDMS stir bar was swollen in several solvents with log Kow ranging from 1.0 to 3.5 while stirring for 30min prior to extraction. After extraction, thermal desorption - gas chromatography - (tandem) mass spectrometry (TD-GC-(MS/)MS) or liquid desorption - large volume injection (LD-LVI)-GC-MS were performed. An initial study involved investigation of potential solvents for SA-SBSE by weighing of the residual solvent in the swollen PDMS stir bar before and after extraction. Compared to conventional SBSE, SA-SBSE using diethyl ether, methyl isobutyl ketone, dichloromethane, diisopropyl ether and toluene provided higher recoveries from water samples for test solutes with log Kow<2.5. For SA-SBSE using dichloromethane, recoveries were improved by factors of 1.4-4.1, while maintaining or even improving the recoveries for test solutes with log Kow>2.5. The performance of the SA-SBSE method using dichloromethane, diisopropyl ether, and cyclohexane is illustrated with analyses of aroma compounds in beer and of pesticides in wine. PMID:27289502

  2. Electromigration enhanced kinetics of copper-tin intermetallic compounds in lead-free solder joints and copper low-k dual damascene processing using step and flash imprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Huang-Lin

    This dissertation constitutes two major sections. In the first major section, a kinetic analysis was established to investigate the electromigration (EM), enhanced intermetallic compound (IMC) growth and void formation for Sn-based Pb-free solder joints to Cu under bump metallization (UBM). The model takes into account the interfacial intermetallic reaction, Cu-Sn interdiffusion, and current stressing. A new approach was developed to derive atomic diffusivities and effective charge numbers based on Simulated Annealing (SA) in conjunction with the kinetic model. The finite difference (FD) kinetic model based on this approach accurately predicted the intermetallic compound growth when compared to empirical observation. The ultimate electromigration failure of the solder joints was caused by extensive void formation at the intermetallic interface. The void formation mechanism was analyzed by modeling the vacancy transport under electromigration. The effects of current density and Cu diffusivity in Sn solder were also investigated with the kinetic model. The second major section describes the integration of Step and Flash Imprint Lithography (S-FILRTM) into an industry standard Cu/low-k dual damascene process. The yield on a Back End Of the Line (BEOL) test vehicle that contains standard test structures such as via chains with 120 nm vias was established by electrical tests. S-FIL shows promise as a cost effective solution to patterning sub 45 nm features and is capable of simultaneously patterning two levels of interconnect structures, which provides a low cost BEOL process. The critical processing step in the integration is the reactive ion etching (RIE) process that transfers the multilevel patterns to the inter-level dielectrics (ILD). An in-situ, multistep etch process was developed that gives excellent pattern structures in two industry standard Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) low-k dielectrics. The etch process showed excellent pattern fidelity and a wide process

  3. Intracellular distribution of various boron compounds for use in boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T; Brownell, G L; Holden, S A; Teicher, B A

    1993-01-01

    The neutron capture reaction in boron (10B(n, alpha)7Li) generates two short-range particles with high linear energy transfer. The effect of neutron capture therapy depends on the selective localization of 10B atoms in target cells. The determination of the distribution of boron compounds in cancer cells at the subcellular level is required for the understanding of the effect of this treatment. The monomeric sulfhydryl borane (BSH) compound has been used clinically in Japan and preclinically in the U.S.A. Recently, new compounds have been developed: a dimeric sulfhydryl borane (BSSB), a boronophenylalanine (BPA), and two porphyrin complexes (BOPP and VCDP). This study demonstrates that the porphyrin complexes (BOPP and VCDP) are more cytotoxic than the other three compounds to the rat 9L gliosarcoma cell line. Using atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine boron content for cellular uptake studies of these agents, we found that of the five compounds tested BOPP (25 microM) exposure resulted in the greatest boron uptake averaging 305 ng B/10(6) cells. BSSB (500 microM) was second averaging 93 ng B/10(6) cells, BSH (500 microM) third averaging 62 ng B/10(6) cells, VCDP (25 microM) fourth averaging 58 ng B/10(6) cells, and BPA (500 microM) fifth averaging 7.4 ng B/10(6) cells. Data on the distribution of boron in the nuclei, mitochondria, lysosomes, microsomes, and cytosomes of 9L cells are also presented. PMID:8424808

  4. Enhancing bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Koenigsberg, S.

    1997-02-01

    Oxygen is often the limiting factor in aerobic bioremediation. Without adequate oxygen, contaminant degradation will either cease or proceed by highly inefficient anaerobic processes. Researchers at Regenesis Bioremediation Products recently develope a technology to combat this problem, Oxygen Release Compound (ORC) a unique formulation of magnesium peroxide release oxygen slowly when hydrated. ORC is idea for supporting bioremediation of underground storage tank releases. ORC treatment represents a low intensity approach to remediation - simple, passive, low-cost, long term enhancement of a natural attenuation. 1 fig.

  5. Compounding in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Zdoryk, Oleksandr A; Georgiyants, Victoriya A; Gryzodub, Oleksandr I; Schnatz, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounding in modern Ukraine has a rich history and goes back to ancient times. Today in the Ukraine, there is a revival of compounding practice, the opening of private compounding pharmacies, updating of legislative framework and requirements of the State Pharmacopeia of Ukraine for compounding preparations, and the introduction of Good Pharmaceutical Practice. PMID:23696172

  6. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  7. Dinitroso and polynitroso compounds

    PubMed Central

    Gowenlock, Brian G.; Richter-Addo, George B.

    2005-01-01

    The growing interest in the chemistry of C-nitroso compounds (RN=O; R = alkyl or aryl group) is due in part to the recognition of their participation in various metabolic processes of nitrogen-containing compounds. C-Nitroso compounds have a rich organic chemistry in their own right, displaying interesting intra- and intermolecular dimerization processes and addition reactions with unsaturated compounds. In addition, they have a fascinating coordination chemistry. While most of the attention has been directed towards C-nitroso compounds containing a single –NO moiety, there is an emerging area of research dealing with dinitroso and polynitroso compounds. In this critical review, we present and discuss the synthetic routes and properties of these relatively unexplored dinitroso and polynitroso compounds, and suggest areas of further development involving these compounds. (126 references.) PMID:16100619

  8. Caulking compound poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Caulking compounds are substances used to seal cracks and holes around windows and other openings. Caulking compound poisoning occurs when someone swallows these substances. This is for information only and not for use in the ...

  9. Absorption of different lead compounds

    PubMed Central

    Barltrop, D.; Meek, F.

    1975-01-01

    A rapid method for the determination of relative absorption of dietary lead by rats is described. The influence of age, weight and dose rate has been determined and using standard conditions the tissue lead content of blood, kidney and femur are significantly correlated with each other and are a function of ingested lead. Eight lead compounds were evaluated using this technique and the findings related to lead acetate as a reference compound. Of the inorganic preparations studied, lead carbonate (basic) and metallic lead showed a twelve-fold difference in absorption, with the remaining compounds giving intermediate values. The absorption of lead from four organic compounds was determined from diets containing 7·5% corn oil added to the standard diet. Lead tallate was absorbed to the same degree as lead acetate, but lesser absorptions resulted from lead octoate, naphthenate and alsynate. The addition of corn oil to a final concentration of 7·5% of the diet enhanced the absorption of lead acetate. PMID:1208290

  10. Enhanced Absorption Study of Ginsenoside Compound K (20-O-β-(D-Glucopyranosyl)-20(S)-protopanaxadiol) after Oral Administration of Fermented Red Ginseng Extract (HYFRG™) in Healthy Korean Volunteers and Rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Il-Dong; Ryu, Ju-Hee; Lee, Dong-Eun; Lee, Myoung-Hee; Shim, Jae-Joong; Ahn, Young-Tae; Sim, Jae-Hun; Huh, Chul-Sung; Shim, Wang-Seob; Yim, Sung-Vin; Chung, Eun-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of compound K after oral administration of HYFRG and RG in humans, an open-label, randomized, single-dose, fasting, and one-period pharmacokinetic study was conducted. After oral administration of a single 3 g dose of HYFRG and RG to 24 healthy Korean males, the mean (±SD) of AUC0–t and Cmax of compound K from HYFRG were 1466.83 ± 295.89 ng·h/mL and 254.45 ± 51.20 ng/mL, being 115.2- and 80-fold higher than those for RG (12.73 ± 7.83 ng·h/mL and 3.18 ± 1.70 ng/mL), respectively; in case of Sprague Dawley rats the mean (±SD) of AUC0–t and Cmax of compound K from HYFRG was 58.03 ± 32.53 ng·h/mL and 15.19 ± 10.69 ng/mL, being 6.3- and 6.0-fold higher than those from RG (9.21 ± 7.52 ng·h/mL and 2.55 ± 0.99 ng/mL), respectively. Tmax of compound K in humans and rats was 2.54 ± 0.92 and 3.33 ± 0.50 h for HYFRG and 9.11 ± 1.45 and 6.75 ± 3.97 hours for RG, respectively. In conclusion, the administration of HYFRG resulted in a higher and faster absorption of compound K in both humans and rats compared to RG. PMID:27516803

  11. Effects of polyhydroxy compounds on beetle antifreeze protein activity

    PubMed Central

    Amornwittawat, Natapol; Wang, Sen; Banatlao, Joseph; Chung, Melody; Velasco, Efrain; Duman, John G.; Wen, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) noncolligatively depress the nonequilibrium freezing point of a solution and produce a difference between the melting and freezing points termed thermal hysteresis (TH). Some low-molecular-mass solutes can affect the TH values. The TH enhancement effects of selected polyhydroxy compounds including polyols and carbohydrates on an AFP from the beetle Dendroides canadensis were systematically investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The number of hydroxyl groups dominates the molar enhancement effectiveness of polyhydroxy compounds having one to five hydroxyl groups. However, the above rule does not apply for polyhydroxy compounds having more than five hydroxyl groups. The most efficient polyhydroxy enhancer identified is trehalose. In a combination of enhancers the strongest enhancer plays the major role in determining the TH enhancement. Mechanistic insights into identification of highly efficient AFP enhancers are discussed. PMID:19038370

  12. Production of epoxy compounds from olefinic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Gelbein, A.P.; Kwon, J.T.

    1985-01-29

    Chlorine and tertiary alkanol dissolved in an inert organic solvent are reacted with aqueous alkali to produce tertiary alkyl hypochlorite which is recovered in the organic solvent and reacted with water and olefinically unsaturated compound to produce chlorohydrin and tertiary alkanol. Chlorohydrin and tertiary alkanol recovered in the organic solvent are contacted with aqueous alkali to produce the epoxy compound, and tertiary alkanol recovered in the organic solvent is recycled to hypochlorite production. The process may be integrated with the electrolytic production of chlorine, with an appropriate treatment of the recycle aqueous stream when required.

  13. Ecotoxicology of organofluorous compounds.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Margaret B; Loi, Eva I H; Kwok, Karen Y; Lam, Paul K S

    2012-01-01

    Organofluorous compounds have been developed for myriad purposes in a variety of fields, including manufacturing, industry, agriculture, and medicine. The widespread use and application of these compounds has led to increasing concern about their potential ecological toxicity, particularly because of the stability of the C-F bond, which can result in chemical persistence in the environment. This chapter reviews the chemical properties and ecotoxicology of four groups of organofluorous compounds: fluorinated refrigerants and propellants, per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), fluorinated pesticides, and fluoroquinolone antibiotics. These groups vary in their environmental fate and partitioning, but each raises concern in terms of ecological risk on both the regional and global scale, particularly those compounds with long environmental half-lives. Further research on the occurrence and toxicities of many of these compounds is needed for a more comprehensive understanding of their ecological effects. PMID:21952849

  14. XAFS Model Compound Library

    DOE Data Explorer

    Newville, Matthew

    The XAFS Model Compound Library contains XAFS data on model compounds. The term "model" compounds refers to compounds of homogeneous and well-known crystallographic or molecular structure. Each data file in this library has an associated atoms.inp file that can be converted to a feff.inp file using the program ATOMS. (See the related Searchable Atoms.inp Archive at http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~newville/adb/) This Library exists because XAFS data on model compounds is useful for several reasons, including comparing to unknown data for "fingerprinting" and testing calculations and analysis methods. The collection here is currently limited, but is growing. The focus to date has been on inorganic compounds and minerals of interest to the geochemical community. [Copied, with editing, from http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~newville/ModelLib/

  15. Preparation of uranium compounds

    DOEpatents

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Montreal, Marisa J; Thomson, Robert K; Cantat, Thibault; Travia, Nicholas E

    2013-02-19

    UI.sub.3(1,4-dioxane).sub.1.5 and UI.sub.4(1,4-dioxane).sub.2, were synthesized in high yield by reacting turnings of elemental uranium with iodine dissolved in 1,4-dioxane under mild conditions. These molecular compounds of uranium are thermally stable and excellent precursor materials for synthesizing other molecular compounds of uranium including alkoxide, amide, organometallic, and halide compounds.

  16. Nitrodifluoraminoterphenyl compounds and processes

    DOEpatents

    Lerom, M.W.; Peters, H.M.

    1975-07-08

    This patent relates to the nitrodifluoraminoterphenyl compounds: 3,3''-bis (difluoramino)-2,2'' 4,4', 4'',6,6',6''-octanitro-m-terphenyl (DDONT) and 3,3''-bis(difluoramino)-2,2',2''4,4',4'',6,6',6''-nonanitro-m-terphenyl (DDNONA). Procedures are described wherein diamino precursors of the indicated compounds are prepared and the final compounds are obtained by a fluorination operation. The compounds are highly energetic and suitable for use as explosives and particularly in exploding bridge wire (EBW) detonators. (auth)

  17. Branched peptide amphiphiles, related epitope compounds and self assembled structures thereof

    DOEpatents

    Stupp, Samuel I.; Guler, Mustafa O.

    2008-11-18

    Branched peptide amphiphilic compounds incorporating one or residues providing a pendant amino group for coupling one or more epitope sequences thereto, such compounds and related compositions for enhanced epitope presentation.

  18. INFLUENCE OF SURFACTANTS OF MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surfactants have the ability to increase aqueous concentrations o poorly soluble compounds and interfacial areas between immiscible fluids, thus potentially improving the accessibility of these substrates to microorganisms. owever, both enhancements and inhibitions of biodegradat...

  19. INFLUENCE OF SURFACTANTS ON MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surfactants have the ability to increase aqueous concentrations of poorly soluble compounds and interfacial areas between immiscible fluids, thus potentially improving the accessibility of these substrates to microorganisms. However, both enhancements and inhibitions of biodegrad...

  20. Boron compounds as anion binding agents for nonaqueous battery electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xia-Oing; McBreen, James; Xiang, Caili

    2000-02-08

    Novel fluorinated boron-based compounds which act as anion receptors in non-aqueous battery electrolytes are provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the fluorinated boron-based compounds of the invention enhance ionic conductivity and cation transference number of non-aqueous electrolytes. The fluorinated boron-based anion receptors include borane and borate compounds bearing different fluorinated alkyl and aryl groups.

  1. Stabilized Lanthanum Sulphur Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, George H. (Inventor); Elsner, Norbert B. (Inventor); Shearer, Clyde H. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Lanthanum sulfide is maintained in the stable cubic phase form over a temperature range of from 500 C to 1500 C by adding to it small amounts of calcium, barium. or strontium. This novel compound is an excellent thermoelectric material.

  2. Heart testing compound

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, Jr., Furn F.; Goodman, Mark M.

    1985-01-01

    The compound 15-(p-[.sup.125 I]-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

  3. Heart testing compound

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Goodman, M.M.

    1983-06-29

    The compound 15-(p-(/sup 125/I)-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

  4. Anti-Fog Compound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Tracer Chemical Corporation's TRX Anti-Fog Composition is an inexpensive product which prevents condensation on plastic and glass surfaces. It was the result from a Tech Briefs article detailing a Johnson Space Center compound.

  5. Compounding a Problem?

    PubMed

    Berlin, Joey

    2016-01-01

    Allergist-immunologists say a U.S. Pharmacopeia proposal will mess with an allergy treatment system that's worked for more than a century. The revised standards, if adopted, would remove a key exemption separating allergen extract preparations from the stricter requirements of other compounds. Immunologists say the exemption has allowed them to compound allergen extracts in their own offices, and they've done so safely and effectively millions of times a year. PMID:27175928

  6. Chemistry of peroxide compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volnov, I. I.

    1981-01-01

    The history of Soviet research from 1866 to 1967 on peroxide compounds is reviewed. This research dealt mainly with peroxide kinetics, reactivity and characteristics, peroxide production processes, and more recently with superoxides and ozonides and emphasis on the higher oxides of group 1 and 2 elements. Solid state fluidized bed synthesis and production of high purity products based on the relative solubilities of the initial, intermediate, and final compounds and elements in liquid ammonia are discussed.

  7. Compound composite odontoma

    PubMed Central

    Girish, G; Bavle, Radhika M; Singh, Manish Kumar; Prasad, Sahana N

    2016-01-01

    The term odontoma has been used as a descriptor for any tumor of odontogenic origin. It is a growth in which both epithelial and mesenchymal cells exhibits complete differentiation. Odontomas are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasm. They are usually discovered on routine radiographic examination. Odontomas, according to the World Health Organization, are classified into complex odontoma and compound odontomas. The present paper reports a case of compound composite odontomas. PMID:27194882

  8. Compound composite odontoma.

    PubMed

    Girish, G; Bavle, Radhika M; Singh, Manish Kumar; Prasad, Sahana N

    2016-01-01

    The term odontoma has been used as a descriptor for any tumor of odontogenic origin. It is a growth in which both epithelial and mesenchymal cells exhibits complete differentiation. Odontomas are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasm. They are usually discovered on routine radiographic examination. Odontomas, according to the World Health Organization, are classified into complex odontoma and compound odontomas. The present paper reports a case of compound composite odontomas. PMID:27194882

  9. Phenolic Molding Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  10. Understanding medication compounding issues.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Rodney W

    2014-04-01

    The potential for contamination of compounded products and the resulting infections are a serious threat to patient safety. Immediate use products are used frequently in the perioperative department, and perioperative nurses should be familiar with the guidelines and practices that aim to reduce the contamination that can occur during the sterile compounding process. Four common themes lead to successful compounding: quality (eg, product identification, purity, stability, compatibility, risk level assessment), the environment (eg, using a segregated compounding area with specialized airflow capabilities, reducing particulate matter, practicing proper hand hygiene, performing gloved fingertip sampling, properly cleaning equipment and work areas), personnel activities (eg, familiarity with types of containers used and how often they can be accessed, following expiration dates and the number of times containers can be accessed), and the control process (eg, process monitoring, quality improvement). If a third-party vendor is contracted to handle compounding for a facility, perioperative personnel should be aware of the responsibilities for the facility and the vendor to ensure a quality compounding program. PMID:24674793

  11. Nonpost mold cure compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Akihiro

    1997-08-01

    The recent low price trend of electronic products has made IC manufacturing efficiency a top priority in the semiconductor industry. Post mold cure (PMC) process, which generally involves heating the packages in the oven at 175 C for 4 to 8 hours, takes up much longer time than most other assembly processes. If this PMC process can be reduced or eliminated, semiconductor makers will be rewarded with a much higher cost merit. We define the purpose of Non-PMC as 'to get high reliability with suitable physical and electrical properties without PMC'. We compared carious properties of molding compound before and after PMC. We found that curing reaction has almost complete through DSC and C-NMR measurement, but several properties have not stabilized yet, and that not all properties after PMC were better than before PMC. We developed new grade of molding compound considering these facts. And we found that main factors to accomplish non-PMC compound are curability and flowability, and more, increasing of fundamental properties. To accomplish non-PMC, at first, molding compound need to have very high curability. Generally speaking, too high curability causes low flowability, and causes incomplete filing, wire sweep, pad shift, and weak adhesion to inner parts of IC packages. To prevent these failures, various compound properties were studied, and we achieved in adding good flowability to very high curable molding compound. Finally, anti-popcorn property was improved by adding low moisture, high adhesion, high Tg, and high flexural strengths at high temperature. Through this study, we developed new compound grade for various package, especially large QFP using standard ECN resin.

  12. Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 Inactivation, Color, and Bioactive Compounds Enhancement on Raspberries during Frozen Storage after Decontamination Using New Formula Sanitizer Washing or Pulsed Light.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenqing; Chen, Haiqiang; Wu, Changqing

    2016-07-01

    Berries are normally washed before they are frozen. Washing with sanitizer and treatment with pulsed light (PL) were studied for their effectiveness to inactivate foodborne pathogens on raspberries during frozen storage, while maintaining or enhancing major quality parameters. Raspberries were inoculated with Salmonella or Escherichia coli O157:H7 and then underwent a washing treatment with citric acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (CA+SDS) or citric acid plus thymol (CA+THY) or treatment with PL (dry PL, water-assisted [wet] PL, and PL-SDS). Pathogen survival was determined immediately after treatments and during frozen storage at -20°C for 3 months. Washing with CA+SDS or CA+THY significantly reduced Salmonella (by 3.6 and 3.2 log CFU/g, respectively) and E. coli O157:H7 (by 4.1 and 3.7 log CFU/g, respectively). At the end of storage, washing with CA+SDS reduced Salmonella to 0.6 log CFU/g and E. coli O157:H7 to 0.5 log CFU/g; washing with CA+THY reduced Salmonella to 0.9 log CFU/g and E. coli O157:H7 to 0.5 log CFU/g. PL-SDS showed decontamination efficacy on raspberries, with 0.7 log CFU/g Salmonella and 0.9 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 surviving at the end of storage; in comparison, in the control, 1.6 log CFU/g Salmonella and 1.5 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 survived. Pathogen survival in raspberries that had been washed or treated with PL-SDS was significantly lower than in untreated raspberries. Major quality parameters, including color, total phenolic content, total anthocyanin content, total bacterial count, and total yeast and mold counts, were evaluated on raspberries immediately after treatments and during frozen storage. Redness increased in PL-treated raspberries. At the end of storage, PL-treated raspberries had significantly higher total phenolic content and total anthocyanin content compared with control samples. Washing with sanitizers and treatment with PL decreased the total bacterial count and total yeast and mold counts on raspberries and maintained

  13. Hybrid compounds: from simple combinations to nanomachines.

    PubMed

    Müller-Schiffmann, Andreas; Sticht, Heinrich; Korth, Carsten

    2012-02-01

    The combination of two different and independently acting compounds into one covalently linked hybrid compound can convey synergy from the effects of both independently acting moieties to the new composite compound, leading to a pharmacological potency greater than the sum of each individual moiety's potencies. Here, we review a variety of such hybrid compounds, which can consist of various functional parts, molecular recognition or subcellular targeting moieties, or combinations thereof, acting either simultaneously or sequentially. Such moieties within a hybrid compound can consist of a variety of substance classes, including small organic molecules, polypeptides or nucleic acids identified either via rational molecular design or selection from libraries. Precedent for hybrid compounds comes from naturally occurring proteins and small molecules, such as botulinum toxin and bleomycin, which are secreted by micro-organisms. We review the high degree of suitability of hybrid compounds for the treatment of multifactorial diseases by simultaneously hitting several targets along an identified disease pathway. Examples are hybrid compounds against Alzheimer's disease, against the cancer-relevant phosphoinisitide-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and epidermal growth factor signaling cascade, or in antimalarial therapy via simultaneous hitting of different mechanisms of hemozoin formation. Molecular recognition by peptides or aptamers (recognition-specific RNA or peptide sequences) can be combined with the transport of small molecule β-sheet breakers or toxins, or targeting to ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. The vision of molecular nanomachines is currently realized in sequentially acting modular nanotransporters, consisting of four modules including a target, a membrane and nuclear translocation sequence, as well as a drug attachment domain. Through the rational combination of existing drugs and the synergy of their effects, a rapid

  14. Compound management beyond efficiency.

    PubMed

    Burr, Ian; Winchester, Toby; Keighley, Wilma; Sewing, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    Codeveloping alongside chemistry and in vitro screening, compound management was one of the first areas in research recognizing the need for efficient processes and workflows. Material management groups have centralized, automated, miniaturized and, importantly, found out what not to do with compounds. While driving down cost and improving quality in storage and processing, researchers still face the challenge of interfacing optimally with changing business processes, in screening groups, and with external vendors and focusing on biologicals in many companies. Here we review our strategy to provide a seamless link between compound acquisition and screening operations and the impact of material management on quality of the downstream processes. Although this is driven in part by new technologies and improved quality control within material management, redefining team structures and roles also drives job satisfaction and motivation in our teams with a subsequent positive impact on cycle times and customer feedback. PMID:19502566

  15. Sulfur compounds in coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attar, A.; Corcoran, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    The literature on the chemical structure of the organic sulfur compounds (or functional groups) in coal is reviewed. Four methods were applied in the literature to study the sulfur compounds in coal: direct spectrometric and chemical analysis, depolymerization in drastic conditions, depolymerization in mild conditions, and studies on simulated coal. The data suggest that most of the organic sulfur in coal is in the form of thiophenic structures and aromatic and aliphatic sulfides. The relative abundance of the sulfur groups in bituminous coal is estimated as 50:30:20%, respectively. The ratio changes during processing and during the chemical analysis. The main effects are the transformation during processing of sulfides to the more stable thiophenic compounds and the elimination of hydrogen sulfide.

  16. Metalloid compounds as drugs

    PubMed Central

    Sekhon, B. S.

    2013-01-01

    The six elements commonly known as metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium. Metalloid containing compounds have been used as antiprotozoal drugs. Boron-based drugs, the benzoxaboroles have been exploited as potential treatments for neglected tropical diseases. Arsenic has been used as a medicinal agent and arsphenamine was the main drug used to treat syphilis. Arsenic trioxide has been approved for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Pentavalent antimonials have been the recommended drug for visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Tellurium (IV) compounds may have important roles in thiol redox biological activity in the human body, and ammonium trichloro (dioxoethylene-O, O’-)tellurate (AS101) may be a promising agent for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Organosilicon compounds have been shown to be effective in vitro multidrug-resistance reverting agents. PMID:24019824

  17. Interactions of iodoperfluorobenzene compounds with gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Blakey, Idriss; Merican, Zul; Rintoul, Llewellyn; Chuang, Ya-Mi; Jack, Kevin S; Micallef, Aaron S

    2012-03-14

    Understanding the interactions of small molecules with gold nanoparticles is important for controlling their surface chemistry and, hence, how they can be used in specific applications. The interaction of iodoperfluorobenzene compounds with gold nanoparticles was investigated by UV-Vis difference spectroscopy, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and Synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results from UV-Vis difference spectroscopy demonstrated that iodoperfluorobenzene compounds undergo charge transfer complexation with gold nanoparticles. SERS of the small molecule-gold nanoparticle adducts provided further evidence for formation of charge transfer complexes, while Synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy provided evidence of the binding mechanism. Demonstration of interactions of iodoperfluorobenzene compounds with gold nanoparticles further expands the molecular toolbox that is available for functionalising gold nanoparticles and has significant potential for expanding the scope for generation of hybrid halogen bonded materials. PMID:22314792

  18. Microoptical compound lens

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Gill, David D.

    2007-10-23

    An apposition microoptical compound lens comprises a plurality of lenslets arrayed around a segment of a hollow, three-dimensional optical shell. The lenslets collect light from an object and focus the light rays onto the concentric, curved front surface of a coherent fiber bundle. The fiber bundle transports the light rays to a planar detector, forming a plurality of sub-images that can be reconstructed as a full image. The microoptical compound lens can have a small size (millimeters), wide field of view (up to 180.degree.), and adequate resolution for object recognition and tracking.

  19. Global Exposure Modelling of Semivolatile Organic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmo, F.; Lammel, G.; Maier-Reimer, E.

    2008-12-01

    Organic compounds which are persistent and toxic as the agrochemicals γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH, lindane) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) pose a hazard for the ecosystems. These compounds are semivolatile, hence multicompartmental substances and subject to long-range transport (LRT) in atmosphere and ocean. Being lipophilic, they accumulate in exposed organism tissues and biomagnify along food chains. The multicompartmental global fate and LRT of DDT and lindane in the atmosphere and ocean have been studied using application data for 1980, on a decadal scale using a model based on the coupling of atmosphere and (for the first time for these compounds) ocean General Circulation Models (ECHAM5 and MPI-OM). The model system encompasses furthermore 2D terrestrial compartments (soil and vegetation) and sea ice, a fully dynamic atmospheric aerosol (HAM) module and an ocean biogeochemistry module (HAMOCC5). Large mass fractions of the compounds are found in soil. Lindane is also found in comparable amount in ocean. DDT has the longest residence time in almost all compartments. The sea ice compartment locally almost inhibits volatilization from the sea. The air/sea exchange is also affected , up to a reduction of 35 % for DDT by partitioning to the organic phases (suspended and dissolved particulate matter) in the global oceans. Partitioning enhances vertical transport in the sea. Ocean dynamics are found to be more significant for vertical transport than sinking associated with particulate matter. LRT in the global environment is determined by the fast atmospheric circulation. Net meridional transport taking place in the ocean is locally effective mostly via western boundary currents, upon applications at mid- latitudes. The pathways of the long-lived semivolatile organic compounds studied include a sequence of several cycles of volatilisation, transport in the atmosphere, deposition and transport in the ocean (multihopping substances). Multihopping is

  20. Parity violation in the compound nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, G. E.; Crawford, B. E.; Grossmann, C. A.; Lowie, L. Y.; Bowman, J. D.; Knudson, J.; Penttilae, S.; Seestrom, S. J.; Smith, D. A.; Yen, Yi-Fen; Yuan, V. W.; Delheij, P. P. J.; Haseyama, T.; Masaike, A.; Matsuda, Y.; Postma, H.; Roberson, N. R.; Sharapov, E. I.; Stephenson, S. L.

    1999-06-10

    Measurements have been performed on the helicity dependence of the neutron resonance cross section for many nuclei by our TRIPLE Collaboration. A large number of parity violations are observed. Generic enhancements amplify the signal for symmetry breaking and the stochastic properties of the compound nucleus permit the strength of the symmetry-breaking interaction to be determined without knowledge of the wave functions of individual states. A total of 15 nuclei have been analyzed with this statistical approach. The results are summarized.

  1. Urinary Compounds in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcorn, A.; Berney, T.; Bretherton, K.; Mills, M.; Savery, D.; Shattock, P.

    2004-01-01

    Although earlier claims to identify specific compounds in the urine of people with autism had been discredited, it was subsequently suggested that there might be biochemical characteristics that were specific to early childhood, particularly in those who also did not have a severe degree of intellectual disability This study was to establish…

  2. Aminopropyl thiophene compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, M.M.; Knapp, F.F.

    1990-04-03

    This patent describes radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation of regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain.

  3. Fun with Ionic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logerwell, Mollianne G.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2007-01-01

    Ionic bonding is a fundamental topic in high school chemistry, yet it continues to be a concept that students struggle to understand. Even if they understand atomic structure and ion formation, it can be difficult for students to visualize how ions fit together to form compounds. This article describes several engaging activities that help…

  4. The Onium Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarevsky, Nicolay V.; Slaveykova, Vera; Manev, Stefan; Lazarov, Dobri

    1997-06-01

    The onium salts are of a big interest for theoretical and structural chemistry, and for organic synthesis. Some representatives of the group (e.g. ammonium salts) were known from the oldest times. Many onium salts are met the nature: ammonium salts (either as inorganic salts, and organic derivatives, e.g. aminoacids, salts of biogenic amines and alkaloids, etc.); oxonium salts (plant pigments as anthocyans are organic oxonium compounds), etc. In 1894 C. Hartmann and V. Meyer prepared the first iodonium salts - 4-iododiphenyliodonium hydrogensulfate and diphenyliodonium salts, and suggested the ending -onium for all compounds with properties similar to those of ammonium salts. Nowadays onium compounds of almost all nonmetals are synthesised and studied. A great variety of physical methods: diffraction (e.g. XRD) and spectral methods (IR-, NMR-, and UV-spectra), as well as the chemical properties and methods of preparation of onium salts have been used in determination of the structure of these compounds. The application of different onium salts is immense. Ammonium, phosphonium and sulfonium salts are used as phase-transfer catalysts; diazonium salts - for the preparation of dyes, metalochromic and pH-indicators. All the onium salts and especially diazonium and iodonium salts are very useful reagents in organic synthesis.

  5. Analyzing cranberry bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Côté, J; Caillet, S; Doyon, G; Sylvain, J-F; Lacroix, M

    2010-10-01

    There is a growing public interest for the North American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) as a functional food because of the potential health benefits linked to phytochemical compounds present in the fruit--the anthocyanin pigments, responsible for its brilliant red color, and other secondary plant metabolites (flavonols, flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acid derivatives). Isolation of these phenolic compounds and flavonoids from a sample matrix is a prerequisite to any comprehensive analysis scheme. By far the most widely employed analytical technique for the characterization of these compounds has been high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) coupled with ultraviolet-visible(UV/Vis) and mass spectrometer(MS) detection. This review covers the cranberry major bioactive compounds, the extraction and purification methods, and the analytical conditions for HPLC used to characterize them. Extraction, chromatographic separation and detection strategies, analyte determinations, and applications in HPLC are discussed and the information regarding methods of specific cranberry analyte analyses has been summarized in tabular form to provide a means of rapid access to information pertinent to the reader. PMID:20924868

  6. Aminopropyl thiophene compounds

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1990-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation of regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain.

  7. PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have gained notoriety in the recent past. Global distribution of PFCs in wildlife, environmental samples and humans has sparked a recent increase in new investigations concerning PFCs. Historically PFCs have been used in a wide variety of consume...

  8. Zinc and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc and Compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 66 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  9. Boron and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Boron and Compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 42 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  10. Lead and compounds (inorganic)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Lead and compounds ( inorganic ) ; CASRN 7439 - 92 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  11. Barium and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Barium and Compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 39 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  12. Beryllium and compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Beryllium and compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 41 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  13. Selenium and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenium and Compounds ; CASRN 7782 - 49 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  14. 8-fluoropurine compounds

    DOEpatents

    Barrio, Jorge R.; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Namavari, Mohammad; Phelps, Michael E.

    2001-01-01

    An efficient, regiocontrolled approach to the synthesis of 8-fluoropurines by direct fluorination of purines with dilute elemental fluorine, or acetyl hypofluorite, is provided. In a preferred embodiment, a purine compound is dissolved in a polar solvent and reacted with a dilute mixture of F.sub.2 in He or other inert gas.

  15. Noun Compounding in Thai.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasold, Ralph William August

    The present study, a slightly revised version of the author's 1968 Ph.D. thesis presented to the University of Chicago, investigates compound formation in Thai. Chapter 1 summarizes the transformational generative theory on which the study is based, discusses the concept that Thai is a "simple" language in comparison with English, and briefly…

  16. Compound floating pivot micromechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Ernest J.

    2001-04-24

    A new class of tilting micromechanical mechanisms have been developed. These new mechanisms use compound floating pivot structures to attain far greater tilt angles than are practical using other micromechanical techniques. The new mechanisms are also capable of bi-directional tilt about multiple axes.

  17. Boron-10 quantification and microdosimetric studies in a clinical trial of BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Kiger, W.S. III; Solares, G.R.; Yam, C.S.

    1996-12-31

    Five boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) treatments have been delivered as part of the New England Deaconess Hospital-Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) phase-I BNCT dose-escalation protocol for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. The first four irradiations, in which the boron agent boronophenylalanine (L-BPA) was administered orally in a fruit juice suspension, were done using epithermal neutrons from the MIT research reactor employing four fractions. The fifth irradiation, in which the subject received the fructose form of BPA (BPA-f) via intravenous infusion, was delivered in a single fraction. This paper presents the results from the measurements of {sup 10}B concentrations in tumor, normal tissue, and blood for the subjects who underwent this protocol because, to ascribe potential efficacy to BNCT, it is necessary to show that there is an adequate differential uptake of boron by tumor cells relative to normal cells, These measurements used high-resolution quantitative autoradiography, prompt gamma neutron activation analysis, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emissions spectroscopy.

  18. Moral Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Opponents of biomedical enhancement often claim that, even if such enhancement would benefit the enhanced, it would harm others. But this objection looks unpersuasive when the enhancement in question is a moral enhancement — an enhancement that will expectably leave the enhanced person with morally better motives than she had previously. In this article I (1) describe one type of psychological alteration that would plausibly qualify as a moral enhancement, (2) argue that we will, in the medium-term future, probably be able to induce such alterations via biomedical intervention, and (3) defend future engagement in such moral enhancements against possible objections. My aim is to present this kind of moral enhancement as a counter-example to the view that biomedical enhancement is always morally impermissible. PMID:19132138

  19. Elicitation of Diacetylenic Compounds in Suspension Cultured Cells of Eggplant

    PubMed Central

    Imoto, Setsuko; Ohta, Yoshimoto

    1988-01-01

    Induction of stress metabolites in the suspension cultured cells of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) was examined. When autoclaved RNase A or nigeran, both of which are nonspecific phytoalexin elicitors in bean cells, were added to the cell culture of eggplant, greatly enhanced levels of three compounds were observed. One of them was cis-pentadeca-6-ene-1,3-diyne-5,15-diol, a novel diacetylenic compound. This compound has considerable fungitoxic activity. Also identified was falcarindiol, another fungitoxic diacetylenic compound previously reported as one of the phytoalexins in infected tomato fruits and leaves. Elicited compounds preferentially accumulated in the culture medium rather than in the cells and decreased to original levels during prolonged culturing. The elicitation of these compounds was closely correlated with cellular damage in terms of the decrease of growth rate and was inhibited by 10 micromolar cycloheximide. PMID:16665862

  20. Synthesis and in-vivo detection of boronated compounds for use in BNCT. Final progress report, August 1, 1989--April 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kabalka, G.W.

    1993-08-01

    Carboranes contain ten boron atoms in a three-dimensional space equivalent to a benzene ring; consequently, the carborane isomers can be utilized to prepare a variety of boron-rich agents for potential use in boron-neutron capture therapy. We developed synthetic methodology suitable for use with carboranes preparing amino acids and other physio-logically active compounds of potential use in BNCT. The methodology involves the conversion of simple carboranes into more complex, reactive organometallic reagents which can then be utilized to prepare agents which will target the nuclei of tumor cells. Specific examples include the projected syntheses of boron analogs of known intercolators such as Diazaquone (AZQ) which have been proven effectiveness in chemotherapy. We have also synthesized and carried out biodistribution studies of gadolinium labeled liposomes (GLL) which were developed in our laboratory. Gadolinium like boron-10, has an excellent neutron cross section and is considered to be of potential use in neutron capture therapy. GLL are constructed by adding gadolinium based amphiphiles.

  1. Arsonium compounds in algae

    PubMed Central

    Benson, A. A.

    1989-01-01

    Search for a precursor of the arsenobetaine discovered in Western Australian rock lobster tail muscle has led to an algal metabolite of radioarsenate having the properties of a trimethylarsoniumriboside derivative of the major arsenicals of aquatic plants, dimethylarsinoylribosylglycerol, its sulfate ester, and the corresponding riboside of phosphatidylglycerol. Such an arsonium compound could serve as metabolic precursor of arsenobetaine, the innocuous arsenical component of many marine food products. The oceanic diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis, cultured in radioarsenate produced a compound whose chemical, chromatographic, and electrophoretic properties are described. It was found to be identical to the trimethylarsonium derivative synthesized from the major algal arsenical, 1-(5′-dimethylarsinoyl-5′-deoxyribosyl)glycerol-3-O -sulfate. PMID:16594059

  2. Organic compounds in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    Recent studies of carbonaceous chondrites provide evidence that certain organic compounds are indigenous and the result of an abiotic, chemical synthesis. The results of several investigators have established the presence of amino acids and precursors, mono- and dicarboxylic acids, N-heterocycles, and hydrocarbons as well as other compounds. For example, studies of the Murchison and Murray meteorites have revealed the presence of at least 40 amino acids with nearly equal abundances of D and L isomers. The population consists of both protein and nonprotein amino acids including a wide variety of linear, cyclic, and polyfunctional types. Results show a trend of decreasing concentration with increasing carbon number, with the most abundant being glycine (41 n Moles/g). These and other results to be reviewed provide persuasive support for the theory of chemical evolution and provide the only natural evidence for the protobiological subset of molecules from which life on earth may have arisen.

  3. Photofunctions of intercalation compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Makoto; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    1995-03-01

    In this article, the authors review the studies on the photofunctions of intercalation compounds. (The structures and properties of host materials which have been used for immobilizing photoactive species have been summarized in the following section.) some of these studies are for the purpose of characterizing the properties of host materials and host-guest systems, and others are for the purpose of contributing to future practical applications. The well-defined layered structures as well as the ability to accommodate guest species on the surface of the layers are very useful for organizing photoactive species to evaluate and control the photofunctions. Table 1 summarizes the characteristics of typical host-guest systems studied for immobilizing photoactive species. Attention is mainly focused on the role of layered structure on the organization of photoactive species; the photofunctions of intercalation compounds are discussed only in connection with the microscopic structures. 321 refs.

  4. Compound cycle engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobula, G. A.; Wintucky, W. T.; Castor, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    The Compound Cycle Engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power compounded power plant which combines the lightweight pressure rise capability of a gas turbine with the high efficiency of a diesel. When optimized for a rotorcraft, the CCE will reduce fuel burned for a typical 2 hr (plus 30 min reserve) mission by 30 to 40 percent when compared to a conventional advanced technology gas turbine. The CCE can provide a 50 percent increase in range-payload product on this mission. A program to establish the technology base for a Compound Cycle Engine is presented. The goal of this program is to research and develop those technologies which are barriers to demonstrating a multicylinder diesel core in the early 1990's. The major activity underway is a three-phased contract with the Garrett Turbine Engine Company to perform: (1) a light helicopter feasibility study, (2) component technology development, and (3) lubricant and material research and development. Other related activities are also presented.

  5. Antifungal Compounds from Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Shishido, Tânia K.; Humisto, Anu; Jokela, Jouni; Liu, Liwei; Wahlsten, Matti; Tamrakar, Anisha; Fewer, David P.; Permi, Perttu; Andreote, Ana P. D.; Fiore, Marli F.; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders. PMID:25871291

  6. Compound chondrules fused cold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    About 4-5% of chondrules are compound: two separate chondrules stuck together. This is commonly believed to be the result of the two component chondrules having collided shortly after forming, while still molten. This allows high velocity impacts to result in sticking. However, at T ∼ 1100 K, the temperature below which chondrules collide as solids (and hence usually bounce), coalescence times for droplets of appropriate composition are measured in tens of seconds. Even at 1025 K, at which temperature theory predicts that the chondrules must have collided extremely slowly to have stuck together, the coalescence time scale is still less than an hour. These coalescence time scales are too short for the collision of molten chondrules to explain the observed frequency of compound chondrules. We suggest instead a scenario where chondrules stuck together in slow collisions while fully solid; and the resulting chondrule pair was subsequently briefly heated to a temperature in the range of 900-1025 K. In that temperature window the coalescence time is finite but long, covering a span of hours to a decade. This is particularly interesting because those temperatures are precisely the critical window for thermally ionized MRI activity, so compound chondrules provide a possible probe into that vital regime.

  7. Toxic compounds in honey.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. PMID:24214851

  8. Optically generated ultrasound for enhanced drug delivery

    DOEpatents

    Visuri, Steven R.; Campbell, Heather L.; Da Silva, Luiz

    2002-01-01

    High frequency acoustic waves, analogous to ultrasound, can enhance the delivery of therapeutic compounds into cells. The compounds delivered may be chemotherapeutic drugs, antibiotics, photodynamic drugs or gene therapies. The therapeutic compounds are administered systemically, or preferably locally to the targeted site. Local delivery can be accomplished through a needle, cannula, or through a variety of vascular catheters, depending on the location of routes of access. To enhance the systemic or local delivery of the therapeutic compounds, high frequency acoustic waves are generated locally near the target site, and preferably near the site of compound administration. The acoustic waves are produced via laser radiation interaction with an absorbing media and can be produced via thermoelastic expansion, thermodynamic vaporization, material ablation, or plasma formation. Acoustic waves have the effect of temporarily permeabilizing the membranes of local cells, increasing the diffusion of the therapeutic compound into the cells, allowing for decreased total body dosages, decreased side effects, and enabling new therapies.

  9. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  10. Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed The Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding Get Consumer Updates by E-mail Consumer ... page: A Troubling Trend What You Can Do Pharmacy compounding is a practice in which a licensed ...

  11. Oligosilanylated Antimony Compounds

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    By reactions of magnesium oligosilanides with SbCl3, a number of oligosilanylated antimony compounds were obtained. When oligosilanyl dianions were used, either the expected cyclic disilylated halostibine was obtained or alternatively the formation of a distibine was observed. Deliberate formation of the distibine from the disilylated halostibine was achieved by reductive coupling with C8K. Computational studies of Sb–Sb bond energies, barriers of pyramidal inversion at Sb, and the conformational behavior of distibines provided insight for the understanding of the spectroscopic properties. PMID:25937691

  12. Titanium alkoxide compound

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, Timothy J.

    2007-08-14

    A titanium alkoxide composition is provided, as represented by the chemical formula (OC.sub.6H.sub.5N).sub.2Ti(OC.sub.6H.sub.5NH.sub.2).sub.2. As prepared, the compound is a crystalline substance with a hexavalent titanium atom bonded to two OC.sub.6H.sub.5NH.sub.2 groups and two OC.sub.6H.sub.5N groups with a theoretical molecular weight of 480.38, comprising 60.01% C, 5.04% H and 11.66% N.

  13. Immunomodulating compounds in Basidiomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Masashi; Nishitani, Yosuke

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are distinguished as important food containing immunomodulating and anticancer agents. These compounds belong mostly to polysaccharides especially β-d-glucans. Among them, β-1,3-glucan with side chain β-1,6-glucose residues have more important roles in immunomodulating and antitumor activities. In this review, we have introduced polysaccharide mainly from Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei Murill with immunomodulating and antitumor activities. In addition, the mechanism of activation of immune response and signal cascade are also reviewed. PMID:23704809

  14. Boronated porphyrin compounds

    DOEpatents

    Kahl, Stephen B.; Koo, Myoung-Seo

    1992-01-01

    A compound is described having the structure ##STR1## where R preferably is ##STR2## and most preferably R.sup.3 is a closo-carborane and R.sup.2 is --H, an alkyl or aryl having 1 to about 7 carbon atoms, This invention was made with Government support under NIH Grant No. CA-37961 awarded by the Department of Health and Human Services and under the Associated Universities Inc. Contract No. De-AC02-76CH00016 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has rights in this invention.

  15. Boronated porphyrin compounds

    DOEpatents

    Kahl, S.B.; Koo, M.S.

    1992-09-22

    A compound is described having the structure ##STR1## where R preferably is ##STR2## and most preferably R.sup.3 is a closo-carborane and R.sup.2 is --H, an alkyl or aryl having 1 to about 7 carbon atoms, This invention was made with Government support under NIH Grant No. CA-37961 awarded by the Department of Health and Human Services and under the Associated Universities Inc. Contract No. De-AC02-76CH00016 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has rights in this invention.

  16. Turbo compound engine

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, M.; Sekiyama, S.

    1988-06-07

    A turbo compound engine is described comprising: an engine having an exhaust gas passage and a crankshaft; a power turbine disposed in the exhaust gas passage so as to recover the exhaust gas energy; driving power transmission means for drivingly connecting the power turbine and the crankshaft so as to transmit the driving power; a fluid passage connected to a portion of the exhaust passage which lies between the power turbine and the engine; and fluid passage switching means for closing the exhaust passage upstream of the fluid passage while opening the fluid passage during exhaust braking.

  17. Compound allergy. An overview.

    PubMed

    Bashir, S J; Maibach, H I

    1997-04-01

    This review defines the term "compound allergy" in the context of new findings, and discusses evidence that allergenic reaction products have been identified. Material was gathered by searching Index Medicus and the Science Citation Index, and reviewing several standard texts. Issues regarding the validity of patch test results are addressed and we introduce the term "pseudocompound allergy" to cover cases of false-negative patch tests. We present new theories regarding the mechanisms by which new allergens are formed and a means of classification. PMID:9165199

  18. Novel biosensors for environmental monitoring of phenolic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, O.; Wang, J.

    1995-12-01

    This presentation will describe new strategies for amperometric biosensing of phenolic compounds. The class enzyme tyrosinase is employed in connection with these biosensing schemes. The enzyme can tolerate the high temperature of screen-printing/drying processes used for fabricating disposable sensor strips. In addition to single-use electrodes, we will describe the characteristic of a remote enzyme electrode for field monitoring of phenolic compounds. Finally, a novel bioamplification scheme for enhancing the sensitivity of phenol biosensing will be reported.

  19. Chemically enhanced in situ recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, T.; Pitts, M.; Wyatt, K.

    1996-08-01

    Chemically enhanced recovery is a promising alternative to current technologies for management of subsurface releases of organic liquids. Through the inclusion of surfactants, solvents, polymers, and/or alkaline agents to a waterflood, the transport of targeted organic compounds can be increased and rates of recovery enhanced. By far, the vast majority of work done in the field of chemically enhanced recovery has been at a laboratory scale. The following text focuses on chemically enhanced recovery from a field application perspective with emphasis given to chlorinated solvents in a low permeability setting. While chlorinated solvents are emphasized, issues discussed are also relevant to organic liquids less dense than water such as petroleum products. Topics reviewed include: (1) Description of technology; (2) General technology considerations; (3) Low permeability media considerations; (4) Cost and reliability considerations; (5) Commercial availability; and (6) Case histories. Through this paper an appreciation is developed of both the potential and limitations of chemically enhanced recovery. Excluded from the scope of this paper is the in situ destruction of organic compounds through processes such as chemical or biological oxidation, chemically enhanced recovery of inorganic compounds, and ex situ soil treatment processes. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Organometallic chemistry of bimetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.P.

    1991-07-01

    This report consists of six sections: heterobimetallic dihydrides, early-late transition metal heterobimetallic compounds, amphiphilic carbene complexes and hydroxycarbene complexes, diiron compounds with bridging hydrocarbon ligands, diphosphine chelates with natural bite angles near 120 degrees, and synthesis and reactions of M=M compounds. (WET)

  1. Potential risks of pharmacy compounding.

    PubMed

    Gudeman, Jennifer; Jozwiakowski, Michael; Chollet, John; Randell, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Pharmacy compounding involves the preparation of customized medications that are not commercially available for individual patients with specialized medical needs. Traditional pharmacy compounding is appropriate when done on a small scale by pharmacists who prepare the medication based on an individual prescription. However, the regulatory oversight of pharmacy compounding is significantly less rigorous than that required for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs; as such, compounded drugs may pose additional risks to patients. FDA-approved drugs are made and tested in accordance with good manufacturing practice regulations (GMPs), which are federal statutes that govern the production and testing of pharmaceutical products. In contrast, compounded drugs are exempt from GMPs, and testing to assess product quality is inconsistent. Unlike FDA-approved drugs, pharmacy-compounded products are not clinically evaluated for safety or efficacy. In addition, compounded preparations do not have standard product labeling or prescribing information with instructions for safe use. Compounding pharmacies are not required to report adverse events to the FDA, which is mandatory for manufacturers of FDA-regulated medications. Some pharmacies engage in activities that extend beyond the boundaries of traditional pharmacy compounding, such as large-scale production of compounded medications without individual patient prescriptions, compounding drugs that have not been approved for use in the US, and creating copies of FDA-approved drugs. Compounding drugs in the absence of GMPs increases the potential for preparation errors. When compounding is performed on a large scale, such errors may adversely affect many patients. Published reports of independent testing by the FDA, state agencies, and others consistently show that compounded drugs fail to meet specifications at a considerably higher rate than FDA-approved drugs. Compounded sterile preparations pose the additional risk

  2. Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1987-01-01

    A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique.

  3. Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1987-07-14

    A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique. 7 figs.

  4. Activation of shallow dopants in II-VI compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Walukiewicz, W.

    1995-08-01

    The amphoteric native defect model is applied to the understanding of the variations in the dopant activation efficiency in II-VI compounds. It is shown that the location of the common energy reference, the Fermi level stabilization energy, relative to the band edges can be used to determine the doping induced reduction of the formation energy and the enhancement of the concentration of compensating native defects. The model is applied to the most extensively studied compound semiconductors as well as to ternary and quaternary alloys. The effects of the compound ionicity on the dopant activation are briefly discussed.

  5. Reactive spreading: Adsorption, ridging and compound formation

    SciTech Connect

    Saiz, E.; Cannon, R.M.; Tomsia, A.P.

    2000-09-11

    Reactive spreading, in which a chemically active element is added to promote wetting of noble metals on nonmetallic materials, is evaluated. Theories for the energetics and kinetics of the necessary steps involved in spreading are outlined and compared to the steps in compound formation that typically accompany reactive wetting. These include: fluid flow, active metal adsorption, including nonequilibrium effects, and triple line ridging. All of these can be faster than compound nucleation under certain conditions. Analysis and assessment of recently reported experiments on metal/ceramic systems lead to a focus on those conditions under which spreading proceeds ahead of the actual formation of a new phase at the interface. This scenario may be more typical than believed, and perhaps the most effective situation leading to enhanced spreading. A rationale for the pervasive variability and hysteresis observed during high temperature wetting also emerges.

  6. Biodiversity in production of antibiotics and other bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Girish; Balachandran, Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Microbes continue to play a highly considerable role in the drug discovery and development process. Nevertheless, the number of new chemical entities (NCEs) of microbial origin that has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been reduced in the past decade. This scarcity can be partly attributed to the redundancy in the discovered molecules from microbial isolates, which are isolated from common terrestrial ecological units. However, this situation can be partly overcome by exploring rarely exploited ecological niches as the source of microbes, which reduces the chances of isolating compounds similar to existing ones. The use of modern and advanced isolation techniques, modification of the existing fermentation methods, genetic modifications to induce expression of silent genes, analytical tools for the detection and identification of new chemical entities, use of polymers in fermentation to enhance yield of fermented compounds, and so on, have all aided in enhancing the frequency of acquiring novel compounds. These compounds are representative of numerous classes of diverse compounds. Thus, compounds of microbial origin and their analogues undergoing clinical trials continue to demonstrate the importance of compounds from microbial sources in modern drug discovery. PMID:24840777

  7. CO2 TEA Laser-Enhanced Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry (TELLAMIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Staci R.; Akpovo, Charlemagne A.; Ford, Alan; Herbert, Kenley; Johnson, Lewis

    2014-03-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the relative abundance of isotopes in enriched materials can be determined via laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in a technique known as laser-ablation molecular isotopic spectroscopy (LAMIS). The original LAMIS work has focused on single-pulse (SP) LIBS for the excitation. However, dual-pulse (DP) LIBS reduces shot-to-shot variation and can lower detection limits of an element by about an order of magnitude or more. It also has the potential to improve the accuracy of the determination of the relative abundances of isotopes in LAMIS by minimizing the signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, a DP-LIBS technique for improving LAMIS relative-abundance information from a sample is presented. The new technique, called (TEA) Transverse-Excited breakdown in Atmosphere Laser-Enhanced Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry (TELLAMIS), uses a carbon dioxide (CO2) laser to increase the breakdown emission from LIBS in the LAMIS method. This technique is demonstrated on a collection of relative abundance isotopes of boron- 10 and boron-11 in varying concentrations in boric acid. Least-squares fitting to theoretical models are used to deduce plasma parameters and understand reproducibility of results. DTRA.

  8. PARGYLINE AND Y-BUTYROLACTONE ENHANCE TYROSINE HYDROXYLASE IMMUNOSTAINING OF NIGROSTRIATAL AXONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Administration of pargyline or q-butyrolactone enhanced immunostaining of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive axons within the striatum. he qualitative characteristics of this enhancement were compound dependent and the enhancement was not associated with an increase in the amoun...

  9. Turbo compound engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, H.

    1988-05-24

    A turbo compound engine having a first exhaust turbine coupled to an exhaust pipe of an internal combustion engine and a second exhaust turbine coupled to an exhaust port of the first exhaust turbine is described comprising: a first generator drivable by the first exhaust turbine; a second generator drivable by the second exhaust turbine; a motor operatively coupled to an output shaft of the internal combustion engine; speed detecting means for detecting the speed of rotation of the internal combustion engine; and control means for controlling the frequency of electric power, which is the sum of electric power outputs from the first and second generators and supplied to the motor, based on a signal from the speed detecting means, in order to control operation of the motor.

  10. Microoptical telescope compound eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duparré, Jacques W.; Schreiber, Peter; Matthes, André; Pshenay–Severin, Ekaterina; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas; Völkel, Reinhard; Eisner, Martin; Scharf, Toralf

    2005-02-01

    A new optical concept for compact digital image acquisition devices with large field of view is developed and proofed experimentally. Archetypes for the imaging system are compound eyes of small insects and the Gabor Superlens. A paraxial 3x3 matrix formalism is used to describe the telescope arrangement of three microlens arrays with different pitch to find first order parameters of the imaging system. A 2mm thin imaging system with 21x3 channels, 70ºx10º field of view and 4.5mm x 0.5mm image size is optimized and analyzed using sequential and non sequential raytracing and fabricated by microoptics technology. Anamorphic lenses, where the parameters are a function of the considered optical channel, are used to achieve a homogeneous optical performance over the whole field of view. Captured images are presented and compared to simulation results.

  11. Microoptical telescope compound eye.

    PubMed

    Duparré, Jacques; Schreiber, Peter; Matthes, André; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas; Völkel, Reinhard; Eisner, Martin; Scharf, Toralf

    2005-02-01

    A new optical concept for compact digital image acquisition devices with large field of view is developed and proofed experimentally. Archetypes for the imaging system are compound eyes of small insects and the Gabor-Superlens. A paraxial 3x3 matrix formalism is used to describe the telescope arrangement of three microlens arrays with different pitch to find first order parameters of the imaging system. A 2mm thin imaging system with 21x3 channels, 70 masculinex10 masculine field of view and 4.5mm x 0.5mm image size is optimized and analyzed using sequential and non-sequential raytracing and fabricated by microoptics technology. Anamorphic lenses, where the parameters are a function of the considered optical channel, are used to achieve a homogeneous optical performance over the whole field of view. Captured images are presented and compared to simulation results. PMID:19494951

  12. Piezoelectrically Enhanced Photocathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Robert A.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Bell, Lloyd Douglas; Strittmatter, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Doping of photocathodes with materials that have large piezoelectric coefficients has been proposed as an alternative means of increasing the desired photoemission of electrons. Treating cathode materials to increase emission of electrons is called "activation" in the art. It has been common practice to activate photocathodes by depositing thin layers of suitable metals (usually, cesium). Because cesium is unstable in air, fabrication of cesiated photocathodes and devices that contain them must be performed in sealed tubes under vacuum. It is difficult and costly to perform fabrication processes in enclosed, evacuated spaces. The proposed piezoelectrically enhanced photocathodes would have electron-emission properties similar to those of cesiated photocathodes but would be stable in air, and therefore could be fabricated more easily and at lower cost. Candidate photocathodes include nitrides of elements in column III of the periodic table . especially compounds of the general formula Al(x)Ga(1.x)N (where 0< or = x < or =.1). These compounds have high piezoelectric coefficients and are suitable for obtaining response to ultraviolet light. Fabrication of a photocathode according to the proposal would include inducement of strain in cathode layers during growth of the layers on a substrate. The strain would be induced by exploiting structural mismatches among the various constituent materials of the cathode. Because of the piezoelectric effect in this material, the strain would give rise to strong electric fields that, in turn, would give rise to a high concentration of charge near the surface. Examples of devices in which piezoelectrically enhanced photocathodes could be used include microchannel plates, electron- bombarded charge-coupled devices, image tubes, and night-vision goggles. Piezoelectrically enhanced photocathode materials could also be used in making highly efficient monolithic photodetectors. Highly efficient and stable piezoelectrically enhanced

  13. Parity violation in the compound nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, G.E.; Crawford, B.E.; Grossmann, C.A.; Lowie, L.Y.; Bowman, J.D.; Knudson, J.; Penttilae, S.; Seestrom, S.J.; Smith, D.A.; Yen, Y.; Yuan, V.W.; Delheij, P.P.; Haseyama, T.; Masaike, A.; Matsuda, Y.; Postma, H.; Roberson, N.R.; Sharapov, E.I.; Stephenson, S.L.

    1999-06-01

    Measurements have been performed on the helicity dependence of the neutron resonance cross section for many nuclei by our TRIPLE Collaboration. A large number of parity violations are observed. Generic enhancements amplify the signal for symmetry breaking and the stochastic properties of the compound nucleus permit the strength of the symmetry-breaking interaction to be determined without knowledge of the wave functions of individual states. A total of 15 nuclei have been analyzed with this statistical approach. The results are summarized. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Appetite-Enhancing Effects of Curry Oil.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kakuyou; Ito, Michiho

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of scent compounds with phenylpropanoidal structures, such as trans-cinnamaldehyde, is expected to increase the appetite. The scent of curry powder is well known for its appetite-enhancing effect on humans. In this work, we show that the appetite of mice after inhalation of curry powder essential oil or benzylacetone showed a similar increase. The components of curry oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, trans-anethole, and eugenol, each showed appetite-enhancing effects; therefore, these three scent compounds may be the active compounds in curry powder oil. PMID:27582336

  15. Overview of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAC)

    PubMed Central

    Achten, Christine; Andersson, Jan T.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical group of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), including the better-known subgroup of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the heterocyclic aromatic compounds (NSO-PAC, heterocycles), comprise several thousand individual compounds. It is hard to find a comprehensive overview in the literature of these PACs that includes a substantial amount of relevant properties. Here an attempt is made to summarize the most studied but also some less well-known PACs. In addition to basic data such as recommended names, abbreviations, CAS numbers, molecular formulas, chemical structures, and exact mono-isotopic molecular weights, physico-chemical properties taken from the literature like boiling points, vapor pressures, water solubilities, Henry's Law constants, n-octanol-water partition coefficients (log KOW), and pKa are summarized. Selected toxicological data are listed indicating carcinogenic and mutagenic activity or effects on different organisms. PAC nomenclature is a complex topic, so suggestions for practical use are made. Regarding available data, estimated (instead of measured) values should be used with caution because considerable deviations from experimentally determined values can occur. For an enhanced understanding of the behavior of single PACs in comparison with each other, some of the properties mentioned above are plotted vs. the number of rings or the degree of alkylation. Also, some physico-chemical data are correlated with different functional groups as substituents of the PAHs. This article reveals that rather little is known about the less common PACs, e.g., higher molecular weight compounds, alkylated or otherwise substituted aromatics, for instance, keto-, oxo-, amino-, nitro-, cyano-PAHs, or some heterocyclic aromatic compounds, including their derivatives. It mirrors the limited state of knowledge about the variety of PACs that do not belong to the 16 EPA PAHs. PMID:26823644

  16. Surfactant and process for enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, P. R.

    1985-03-12

    A novel surfactant is formed by reacting maleic anhydride with a polynuclear aromatic compound having a molecular weight of at least 155. A novel surfactant system useful in enhanced oil recovery containing the above surfactant is also provided. In addition, an improved process for the enhanced recovery of oil is provided utilizing the novel surfactant system.

  17. Group-IV semiconductor compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Berding, M.A.; Sher, A.; van Schilfgaarde, M.

    1997-08-01

    Properties of ordered group-IV compounds containing carbon, silicon, and germanium are calculated within the local density approximation. Twenty-seven fully relaxed compounds represented by seven different compound structures are compared and, with the exception of SiC, all compounds are found to be metastable. Two trends emerge: carbon-germanium bonds are disfavored, and compounds that have carbon on a common sublattice are the least unbound because of their relatively low strain. When carbon shares a sublattice with silicon or germanium, the large strain results in a narrowing of the band gap, and in some cases the compound is metallic. The most promising structures with the lowest excess energy contain carbon on one sublattice and although they do not lattice match to silicon, they match rather well to silicon carbide. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Compound chondrules: an experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Hewins, R. H.; Atre, N.; Lofgren, G. E.

    1994-07-01

    Compound chondrules are considered to be the product of collisions between molten chondrules during chondrule formation Wasson, J. T. et al. (1994) have argued that some compound chondrules are formed when a chondrule with an accretional rim experienced a flash-melting event similar to a chondrule-forming event. We have designed experiments to investigate the formation of compound chondrules by both methods. Experiments were performed on a Deltech vertical muffle tube furnace to form synthetic chondrules to use as accretion rim material. For our experimental conditions, it is clear that compound chondrules can only be made by a collisional event. Our changes maintain their spherical shape and produce distinct boundaries between charges that are similar to natural compound chondrules. Furthermore, collision event(s) between chondrules will cause nucleation if they are molten and undercooled, thus producing chondrule textures. Flash melting chondrules with accretionary rims will not produce compound chondrules but will produce new chondrules with new textures.

  19. Compounding with Silicones.

    PubMed

    Allen, Loyd V

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1940s, methylchlorosilanes have been used to treat glassware to prevent blood from clotting. The use of silicones in pharmaceutical and medical applications has grown to where today they are used in many life-saving devices (pacemakers, hydrocephalic shunts) and pharmaceutical applications from tubing, to excipients in topical formulations, to adhesives to affix transdermal drug delivery systems, and are also being used in products as active pharmaceutical ingredients, such as antiflatulents. About 60% of today's skin-care products now contain some type of silicone where they are considered safe and are known to provide a pleasant "silky-touch," non-greasy, and non-staining feel. Silicones exhibit many useful characteristics, and the safety of these agents supports their numerous applications; their biocompatibility is partially due to their low-chemical reactivity displayed by silicones, low-surface energy, and their hydrophobicity. Silicones are used both as active ingredients and as excipients. In addition is their use for "siliconization," or surface treatment, of many parenteral packaging components. Dimethicone and silicone oil are used as lubricants on stoppers to aid machineability, in syringes to aid piston movement, or on syringe needles to reduce pain upon injection. Silicones are also useful in pharmaceutical compounding as is discussed in this artiele included with this article are in developing formulations with silicones. PMID:26714363

  20. Compounding in synthetic aperture imaging.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jens Munk; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-09-01

    A method for obtaining compound images using synthetic aperture data is investigated using a convex array transducer. The new approach allows spatial compounding to be performed for any number of angles without reducing the frame rate or temporal resolution. This important feature is an intrinsic property of how the compound images are constructed using synthetic aperture data and an improvement compared with how spatial compounding is obtained using conventional methods. The synthetic aperture compound images are created by exploiting the linearity of delay-and-sum beamformation for data collected from multiple spherical emissions to synthesize multiple transmit and receive apertures, corresponding to imaging the tissue from multiple directions. The many images are added incoherently, to produce a single compound image. Using a 192-element, 3.5-MHz, λ-pitch transducer, it is demonstrated from tissue-phantom measurements that the speckle is reduced and the contrast resolution improved when applying synthetic aperture compound imaging. At a depth of 4 cm, the size of the synthesized apertures is optimized for lesion detection based on the speckle information density. This is a performance measure for tissue contrast resolution which quantifies the tradeoff between resolution loss and speckle reduction. The speckle information density is improved by 25% when comparing synthetic aperture compounding to a similar setup for compounding using dynamic receive focusing. The cystic resolution and clutter levels are measured using a wire phantom setup and compared with conventional application of the array, as well as to synthetic aperture imaging without compounding. If the full aperture is used for synthetic aperture compounding, the cystic resolution is improved by 41% compared with conventional imaging, and is at least as good as what can be obtained using synthetic aperture imaging without compounding. PMID:23007781

  1. New England Compounding Center Indictment.

    PubMed

    Cabaleiro, Joe

    2015-01-01

    This article is a review of the lapses in compliance with United States Pharmacopeia standards and pharmacy law as alleged by the New England Compounding Center indictment. This indictment was a result of an outbreak of fungal meningitis traced to fungal contamination of compounded methylprednisolone suspension for epidural steroid injections. This article is also intended as a gap analysis for compounders to review compliance at their own facility, and, if necessary, take the appropriate steps to implement best practices. PMID:26685489

  2. Method of producing cyclohexasilane compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Elangovan, Arumugasamy; Anderson, Kenneth; Boudjouk, Philip R; Schulz, Douglas L

    2015-03-10

    A method of preparing a cyclohexasilane compound from trichlorosilane is provided. The method includes contacting trichlorosilane with a reagent composition to produce a compound containing a tetradecahalocyclohexasilane dianion, such as a tetradecachlorocyclohexasilane dianion. The reagent composition typically includes (a) tertiary polyamine ligand; and (b) a deprotonating reagent, such as a tertiary amine having a pKa of at least about 10.5. Methods of converting the tetradecahalocyclohexasilane dianion-containing compound to cyclohexasilane or a dodecaorganocyclohexasilane are also provided.

  3. Method of preparing metallocene compounds

    DOEpatents

    Rosenblum, Myron; Matchett, Stephen A.

    1992-01-01

    This invention describes a novel method of preparing metallocene compounds. The invention is based on synthesis of novel bis cyclopentadienides that, under appropriate conditions, will either encapsulate a transition metal to produce a metallocene such as ferrocene, or ferrocene derivative, or will yield a polymeric metallocene. Compounds produced by this process are useful as catalysts in propulsion systems, or as anti-knock compounds in gasolines.

  4. Biomedical Compounds from Marine organisms

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Rajeev Kumar; Zi-rong, Xu

    2004-01-01

    The Ocean, which is called the ‘mother of origin of life’, is also the source of structurally unique natural products that are mainly accumulated in living organisms. Several of these compounds show pharmacological activities and are helpful for the invention and discovery of bioactive compounds, primarily for deadly diseases like cancer, acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), arthritis, etc., while other compounds have been developed as analgesics or to treat inflammation, etc. The life-saving drugs are mainly found abundantly in microorganisms, algae and invertebrates, while they are scarce in vertebrates. Modern technologies have opened vast areas of research for the extraction of biomedical compounds from oceans and seas.

  5. Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Grorge

    2001-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites are relatively enriched in soluble organic compounds. To date, these compounds provide the only record available to study a range of organic chemical processes in the early Solar System chemistry. The Murchison meteorite is the best-characterized carbonaceous meteorite with respect to organic chemistry. The study of its organic compounds has related principally to aqueous meteorite parent body chemistry and compounds of potential importance for the origin of life. Among the classes of organic compounds found in Murchison are amino acids, amides, carboxylic acids, hydroxy acids, sulfonic acids, phosphonic acids, purines and pyrimidines (Table 1). Compounds such as these were quite likely delivered to the early Earth in asteroids and comets. Until now, polyhydroxylated compounds (polyols), including sugars (polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones), sugar alcohols, sugar acids, etc., had not been identified in Murchison. Ribose and deoxyribose, five-carbon sugars, are central to the role of contemporary nucleic acids, DNA and RNA. Glycerol, a three-carbon sugar alcohol, is a constituent of all known biological membranes. Due to the relative lability of sugars, some researchers have questioned the lifetime of sugars under the presumed conditions on the early Earth and postulated other (more stable) compounds as constituents of the first replicating molecules. The identification of potential sources and/or formation mechanisms of pre-biotic polyols would add to the understanding of what organic compounds were available, and for what length of time, on the ancient Earth.

  6. Retrospective Revaluation Effects Following Serial Compound Training and Target Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effting, Marieke; Vervliet, Bram; Kindt, Merel

    2010-01-01

    Using a conditioned suppression task, two experiments examined retrospective revaluation effects after serial compound training in a release from overshadowing design. In Experiment 1, serial X [right arrow] A+ training produced suppression to target A, which was enhanced when preceded by feature X, whereas X by itself elicited no suppression.…

  7. Superconductivity in uranium compounds with Cu3Au structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, H. R.; Hulliger, F.; Rudigier, H.; Fisk, Z.

    1985-02-01

    Superconductivity has been observed in uranium compounds with partly disordered Cu3Au-type crystal structure and interatomic U-U distances of more than 4 Å. Low-temperature specific-heat experiments reveal no anomalous enhancement of the electronic specific heat thus distinguishing the present materials from the unconventional superconductors UBe13 and UPt3.

  8. Compounds altering fat storage in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Jordão, Rita; Garreta, Elba; Campos, Bruno; Lemos, Marco F L; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Tauler, Romà; Barata, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of lipid disruptive effects in invertebrates is limited by our poor knowledge of the lipid metabolic pathways. A recent study showed that tributyltin activated the ecdysteroid, juvenile hormone and retinoic X receptor signaling pathways, and disrupted the dynamics of neutral lipids in the crustacean Daphnia magna impairing the transfer of triacylglycerols to eggs and hence promoting their accumulation in post-spawning females. Tributyltin disruptive effects correlated with lower fitness for offspring and adults. The present study aims to addresses effects of existing compounds on storage lipids in post-spawning females and their health effects. D. magna individuals were exposed 12 chemicals that included vertebrate obesogens (tributyltin, triphenyltin, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate), other contaminants known to affect arthropods (pyriproxyfen, fenarimol, methoprene, emamectin benzoate and fluoxetine), as well as the natural hormones methyl farnesoate and 20-hydroxyecdysone. Reproductive effects were also assessed. Quantitative changes in storage lipids accumulated in lipid droplets were studied using Nile red staining, which showed a close relationship with whole organism levels of triacylglycerols. Ten compounds altered storage lipids in a concentration related manner enhancing (tributyltin, bisphenol A, methyl farnesoate, pyriproxyfen and 20-hydroxyecdysone) or decreasing (nonylphenol, fenarimol, emamectin benzoate, methoprene and fluoxetine) their levels in post-spawning females. Eight compounds that altered lipid levels also had detrimental effects on growth and/or reproduction. PMID:26747981

  9. Antimicrobial Compounds in Tears

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    The tear film coats the cornea and conjunctiva and serves several important functions. It provides lubrication, prevents drying of the ocular surface epithelia, helps provide a smooth surface for refracting light, supplies oxygen and is an important component of the innate defense system of the eye providing protection against a range of potential pathogens. This review describes both classic antimicrobial compounds found in tears such as lysozyme and some more recently identified such as members of the cationic antimicrobial peptide family and surfactant protein-D as well as potential new candidate molecules that may contribute to antimicrobial protection. As is readily evident from the literature review herein, tears, like all mucosal fluids, contain a plethora of molecules with known antimicrobial effects. That all of these are active in vivo is debatable as many are present in low concentrations, may be influenced by other tear components such as the ionic environment, and antimicrobial action may be only one of several activities ascribed to the molecule. However, there are many studies showing synergistic/additive interactions between several of the tear antimicrobials and it is highly likely that cooperativity between molecules is the primary way tears are able to afford significant antimicrobial protection to the ocular surface in vivo. In addition to effects on pathogen growth and survival some tear components prevent epithelial cell invasion and promote the epithelial expression of innate defense molecules. Given the protective role of tears a number of scenarios can be envisaged that may affect the amount and/or activity of tear antimicrobials and hence compromise tear immunity. Two such situations, dry eye disease and contact lens wear, are discussed here. PMID:23880529

  10. Antifungal Compounds from Piper Species

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wen-Hui; Li, Xing-Cong

    2013-01-01

    This review documents chemical structures and antifungal activities of 68 compounds isolated from 22 Piper species of the plant family Piperaceae. These compounds include amides, flavonoids, prenylated benzoic acid derivatives, lignans, phenylpropanoids, butenolides, and cyclopentendiones. Some of them may serve as leads for potential pharmaceutical or agricultural fungicide development. PMID:24307889

  11. Morphological Dynamics in Compound Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperman, Victor; Bertram, Raymond; Baayen, R. Harald

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the time-course of morphological processing of trimorphemic Finnish compounds. We find evidence for the parallel access to full-forms and morphological constituents diagnosed by the early effects of compound frequency, as well as early effects of left constituent frequency and family size. We also observe an interaction between…

  12. Bilingual Reading of Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong; Wang, Min; Kim, Say Young

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether bilingual readers activate constituents of compound words in one language while processing compound words in the other language via decomposition. Two experiments using a lexical decision task were conducted with adult Korean-English bilingual readers. In Experiment 1, the lexical decision of real English…

  13. ATMOSPHERIC FREONS AND HALOGENATED COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient levels of atmospheric Freons, halogenated hydrocarbons, and SF6 were measured at various locations in the U.S.A. Compounds such as CCl3F, CCl2F2, CH3-CCl3, and CCl4 were ubiquitious and generally measured at sub ppb levels. Tropospherically reactive compounds such as C2Cl...

  14. METHOD OF REDUCING PLUTONIUM COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Johns, I.B.

    1958-06-01

    A method is described for reducing plutonium compounds in aqueous solution from a higher to a lower valence state. This reduction of valence is achieved by treating the aqueous solution of higher valence plutonium compounds with hydrogen in contact with an activated platinum catalyst.

  15. Effect of Se treatment on the volatile compounds in broccoli.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jiayu; Wu, Jie; Zuo, Jinhua; Fan, Linlin; Shi, Junyan; Gao, Lipu; Li, Miao; Wang, Qing

    2017-02-01

    Broccoli contains high levels of bioactive compounds but deteriorates and senesces easily. In the present study, freshly harvested broccoli was treated with selenite and stored at two different temperatures. The effect of selenite treatment on sensory quality and postharvest physiology were analyzed. Volatile components were assessed by HS-SPME combined with GC-MS and EN. The metabolism of Se and S was also examined. Results indicated that Se treatment had a significant effect on maintaining the sensory quality, suppressing the respiration intensity and ethylene production, as well as increasing the content of Se and decreasing the content of S. In particular, significant differences in the composition of volatile compounds were present between control and Se-treated. The differences were mainly due to differences in alcohols and sulfide compounds. These results demonstrate that Se treatment can have a positive effect on maintaining quality and enhancing its sensory quality through the release of volatile compounds. PMID:27596413

  16. Bilayer Effects of Antimalarial Compounds.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Nicole B; Andersen, Olaf S

    2015-01-01

    Because of the perpetual development of resistance to current therapies for malaria, the Medicines for Malaria Venture developed the Malaria Box to facilitate the drug development process. We tested the 80 most potent compounds from the box for bilayer-mediated effects on membrane protein conformational changes (a measure of likely toxicity) in a gramicidin-based stopped flow fluorescence assay. Among the Malaria Box compounds tested, four compounds altered membrane properties (p< 0.05); MMV007384 stood out as a potent bilayer-perturbing compound that is toxic in many cell-based assays, suggesting that testing for membrane perturbation could help identify toxic compounds. In any case, MMV007384 should be approached with caution, if at all. PMID:26551613

  17. Macrocyclic compounds as corrosion inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Quraishi, M.A.; Rawat, J.; Ajmal, M.

    1998-12-01

    The influence of three macrocyclic compounds on corrosion of mild steel (MS) in hydrochloric acid (HCl) was investigated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, alternating current (AC) impedance, and hydrogen permeation techniques. All the investigated compounds showed significant efficiencies and reduced permeation of hydrogen through MS in HCl. Inhibition efficiency (IE) varied with the nature and concentrations of the inhibitors, temperature, and concentrations of the acid solutions. The addition of iodide ions (I{sup {minus}}) increased IE of all the tested compounds as a result of the synergistic effect. Potentiodynamic polarization results revealed that macrocyclic compounds acted as mixed inhibitors in 1 M HCl to 5 M HCl. Adsorption on the metal surface obeyed Temkin`s adsorption isotherm. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) of the polished MS surface, exposed with tetraphenyldithia-octaazacyclotetradeca-hexaene (PTAT) proved adsorption of this compound on the surface through nitrogen and sulfur atoms.

  18. Assimilation of Unusual Carbon Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelhoven, Wouter J.

    Yeast taxa traditionally are distinguished by growth tests on several sugars and organic acids. During the last decades it became apparent that many yeast species assimilate a much greater variety of naturally occurring carbon compounds as sole source of carbon and energy. These abilities are indicative of a greater role of yeasts in the carbon cycle than previously assumed. Especially in acidic soils and other habitats, yeasts may play a role in the degradation of carbon compounds. Such compounds include purines like uric acid and adenine, aliphatic amines, diamines and hydroxyamines, phenolics and other benzene compounds and polysaccharides. Assimilation of purines and amines is a feature of many ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. However, benzene compounds are degraded by only a few ascomycetous yeasts (e.g. the Stephanoascus/ Blastobotrys clade and black yeastlike fungi) but by many basidiomycetes, e.g. Filobasidiales, Trichosporonales, red yeasts producing ballistoconidia and related species, but not by Tremellales. Assimilation of polysaccharides is wide-spread among basidiomycetes

  19. Antiparasitic Compounds That Target DNA

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, W. David; Tanious, Farial A.; Mathis, Amanda; Tevis, Denise; Hall, James Edwin; Boykin, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Designed, synthetic heterocyclic diamidines have excellent activity against eukaryotic parasites that cause diseases such as sleeping sickness and leishmania and adversely affect millions of people each year. The most active compounds bind specifically and strongly in the DNA minor groove at AT sequences. The compounds enter parasite cells rapidly and appear first in the kinetoplast that contains the mitochondrial DNA of the parasite. With time the compounds are also generally seen in the cell nucleus but are not significantly observed in the cytoplasm. The kinetoplast decays over time and disappears from the mitochondria of treated cells. At this point the compounds begin to be observed in other regions of the cell, such as the acidocalcisomes. The cells typically die in 24–48 hours after treatment. Active compounds appear to selectively target extended AT sequences and induce changes in kinetoplast DNA minicircles that cause a synergistic destruction of the catenated kinetoplast DNA network and cell death. PMID:18343228

  20. Bilayer Effects of Antimalarial Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Nicole B.; Andersen, Olaf S.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the perpetual development of resistance to current therapies for malaria, the Medicines for Malaria Venture developed the Malaria Box to facilitate the drug development process. We tested the 80 most potent compounds from the box for bilayer-mediated effects on membrane protein conformational changes (a measure of likely toxicity) in a gramicidin-based stopped flow fluorescence assay. Among the Malaria Box compounds tested, four compounds altered membrane properties (p< 0.05); MMV007384 stood out as a potent bilayer-perturbing compound that is toxic in many cell-based assays, suggesting that testing for membrane perturbation could help identify toxic compounds. In any case, MMV007384 should be approached with caution, if at all. PMID:26551613

  1. Devices for collecting chemical compounds

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R; Groenewold, Gary S

    2013-12-24

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from a fixed surface so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  2. Valproic Acid Induces Antimicrobial Compound Production in Doratomyces microspores

    PubMed Central

    Zutz, Christoph; Bacher, Markus; Parich, Alexandra; Kluger, Bernhard; Gacek-Matthews, Agnieszka; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Wagner, Martin; Rychli, Kathrin; Strauss, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in public health is the rising number of antibiotic resistant pathogens and the lack of novel antibiotics. In recent years there is a rising focus on fungi as sources of antimicrobial compounds due to their ability to produce a large variety of bioactive compounds and the observation that virtually every fungus may still contain yet unknown so called “cryptic,” often silenced, compounds. These putative metabolites could include novel bioactive compounds. Considerable effort is spent on methods to induce production of these “cryptic” metabolites. One approach is the use of small molecule effectors, potentially influencing chromatin landscape in fungi. We observed that the supernatant of the fungus Doratomyces (D.) microsporus treated with valproic acid (VPA) displayed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and two methicillin resistant clinical S. aureus isolates. VPA treatment resulted in enhanced production of seven antimicrobial compounds: cyclo-(L-proline-L-methionine) (cPM), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, cyclo-(phenylalanine-proline) (cFP), indole-3-carboxylic acid, phenylacetic acid (PAA) and indole-3-acetic acid. The production of the antimicrobial compound phenyllactic acid was exclusively detectable after VPA treatment. Furthermore three compounds, cPM, cFP, and PAA, were able to boost the antimicrobial activity of other antimicrobial compounds. cPM, for the first time isolated from fungi, and to a lesser extent PAA, are even able to decrease the minimal inhibitory concentration of ampicillin in MRSA strains. In conclusion we could show in this study that VPA treatment is a potent tool for induction of “cryptic” antimicrobial compound production in fungi, and that the induced compounds are not exclusively linked to the secondary metabolism. Furthermore this is the first discovery of the rare diketopiperazine cPM in fungi. Additionally we could demonstrate that cPM and PAA boost antibiotic activity

  3. Biocatalyst Enhancement

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing availability of enzyme collections has assisted attempts by pharmaceutical producers to adopt green chemistry approaches to manufacturing. A joint effort between an enzyme producer and a pharmaceutical manufacturer has been enhanced over the past three years by ena...

  4. Enhancer Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchikawa, Masanori; Takemoto, Tatsuya

    During embryonic development, genes are expressed under a strict spatial and temporal order in cells and tissues. This regulation is governed by regulatory regions in the genome, usually identified as enhancers (Kondoh, 2008). The identification and mapping of a set of enhancers allow clarification of essential regulatory elements involved in the enhancer action and their interacting protein factors. Enhancer analysis also determines upstream signaling cascades that regulate interacting protein factors. If the regulatory regions do not function properly, spatio-temporal order of the gene expression will be disrupted, and this may cause abnormal development and dis eases (Kleinjan & van Heyningen, 2005; Sabherwal et al., 2007). Thus, identifica tion of the regulatory regions provides an important entry point to clarify regulatory mechanisms underlying embryonic development.

  5. Discovery of a Teraryl Oxazolidinone Compound (S)-N-((3-(3-Fluoro-4-(4-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl)-2-oxooxazolidin-5-yl)methyl)acetamide Phosphate as a Novel Antimicrobial Agent with Enhanced Safety Profile and Efficacies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Chen, Gong; Sang, Zitai; Liu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Xiaoyan; Chang, Ying; Long, Haiyue; Ang, Wei; Tang, Jianying; Wang, Zhenling; Li, Guobo; Yang, Shengyong; Zhang, Jingren; Wei, Yuquan; Luo, Youfu

    2015-08-27

    A series of novel teraryl oxazolidinone compounds was designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity and toxicities. The compounds with aromatic N-heterocyclic substituents at the 4-position of pyrazolyl ring showed better antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria than other compounds with different patterns of substitution. Among all potent compounds, 10f exhibited promising safety profile in MTT assays and in hERG K(+) channel inhibition test. Furthermore, its phosphate was found to be highly soluble in water (47.1 mg/mL), which is beneficial for the subsequent in vivo test. In MRSA systemic infection mice models, 10f phosphate exerted significantly improved survival protection compared with linezolid. The compound also demonstrated high oral bioavailability (F = 99.1%). Moreover, from the results of in vivo toxicology experiments, 10f phosphate would be predicted to have less bone marrow suppression. PMID:26212502

  6. Bioavailability of bioactive food compounds: a challenging journey to bioefficacy

    PubMed Central

    Rein, Maarit J.; Renouf, Mathieu; Cruz‐Hernandez, Cristina; Actis‐Goretta, Lucas; Thakkar, Sagar K.; da Silva Pinto, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Bioavailability is a key step in ensuring bioefficacy of bioactive food compounds or oral drugs. Bioavailability is a complex process involving several different stages: liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination phases (LADME). Bioactive food compounds, whether derived from various plant or animal sources, need to be bioavailable in order to exert any beneficial effects. Through a better understanding of the digestive fate of bioactive food compounds we can impact the promotion of health and improvement of performance. Many varying factors affect bioavailability, such as bioaccessibility, food matrix effect, transporters, molecular structures and metabolizing enzymes. Bioefficacy may be improved through enhanced bioavailability. Therefore, several technologies have been developed to improve the bioavailability of xenobiotics, including structural modifications, nanotechnology and colloidal systems. Due to the complex nature of food bioactive compounds and also to the different mechanisms of absorption of hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive compounds, unravelling the bioavailability of food constituents is challenging. Among the food sources discussed during this review, coffee, tea, citrus fruit and fish oil were included as sources of food bioactive compounds (e.g. (poly)phenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)) since they are examples of important ingredients for the food industry. Although there are many studies reporting on bioavailability and bioefficacy of these bioactive food components, understanding their interactions, metabolism and mechanism of action still requires extensive work. This review focuses on some of the major factors affecting the bioavailability of the aforementioned bioactive food compounds. PMID:22897361

  7. Membrane rejection of nitrogen compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Rejection characteristics of nitrogen compounds were examined for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes. The rejection of nitrogen compounds is explained by integrating experimental results with calculations using the extended Nernst-Planck model coupled with a steric hindrance model. The molecular weight and chemical structure of nitrogen compounds appear to be less important in determining rejection than electrostatic properties. The rejection is greatest when the Donnan potential exceeds 0.05 V or when the ratio of the solute radius to the pore radius is greater than 0.8. The transport of solute in the pore is dominated by diffusion, although convective transport is significant for organic nitrogen compounds. Electromigration contributes negligibly to the overall solute transport in the membrane. Urea, a small organic compound, has lower rejection than ionic compounds such as ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite, indicating the critical role of electrostatic interaction in rejection. This suggests that better treatment efficiency for organic nitrogen compounds can be obtained after ammonification of urea.

  8. New syntheses of diazo compounds.

    PubMed

    Maas, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Diazo compounds (R1R2C=N2) are known as versatile and useful substrates for an array of chemical transformations and, therefore, diazo chemistry is still far from losing anything of its long-standing fascination. In addition to many studies on the subsequent chemistry of the diazo group, the inventory of methods for the preparation of diazo compounds is continuously supplemented by new methods and novel variations of established procedures. Several of these synthetic approaches take into account the lability and remarkable chemical reactivity of certain classes of diazo compounds, and environmentally more benign procedures also continue to be developed. PMID:19790217

  9. Regulation of Compound Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan; Chen, Rujin

    2013-01-01

    Leaf morphology is one of the most variable, yet inheritable, traits in the plant kingdom. How plants develop a variety of forms and shapes is a major biological question. Here, we discuss some recent progress in understanding the development of compound or dissected leaves in model species, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Cardamine hirsuta and Medicago truncatula, with an emphasis on recent discoveries in legumes. We also discuss progress in gene regulations and hormonal actions in compound leaf development. These studies facilitate our understanding of the underlying regulatory mechanisms and put forward a prospective in compound leaf studies. PMID:27135488

  10. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Stowell, Michael S.

    1995-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  11. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Stowell, M.S.

    1995-08-22

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired. 5 figs.

  12. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Stowell, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  13. Enhanced formulations for neutralization of chemical, biological and industrial toxants

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D [Albuqueque, NM

    2008-06-24

    An enhanced formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The enhanced formulation according to the present invention is non-toxic and non-corrosive and can be delivered by a variety of means and in different phases. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator and water.

  14. Phenyl boron-based compounds as anion receptors for non-aqueous battery electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xiao-Qing; McBreen, James; Sun, Xuehui

    2002-01-01

    Novel fluorinated boronate-based compounds which act as anion receptors in non-aqueous battery electrolytes are provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the fluorinated boronate-based compounds of the invention enhance ionic conductivity and cation transference number of non-aqueous electrolytes. The fluorinated boronate-based anion receptors include different fluorinated alkyl and aryl groups.

  15. Compound cuing in free recall.

    PubMed

    Lohnas, Lynn J; Kahana, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect should be greater when the 2 most recently recalled items were studied in contiguous list positions. A meta-analysis of published free recall experiments demonstrates evidence for compound cuing in both conditional response probabilities and interresponse times. To help rule out a rehearsal-based account of these compound cuing effects, we conducted an experiment with immediate, delayed, and continual-distractor free recall conditions. Consistent with retrieved context theory but not with a rehearsal-based account, compound cuing was present in all conditions, and was not significantly influenced by the presence of interitem distractors. PMID:23957364

  16. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Stowell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  17. Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA's fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

  18. Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA`s fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

  19. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    1996-01-01

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chloated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis.

  20. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-02-06

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chlorinated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method are disclosed. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis. 5 figs.

  1. Sulfated compounds from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Kornprobst, J M; Sallenave, C; Barnathan, G

    1998-01-01

    More than 500 sulfated compounds have been isolated from marine organisms so far but most of them originate from two phyla only, Spongia and Echinodermata. The sulfated compounds are presented according to the phyla they have been identified from and to their chemical structures. Biological activities, when available, are also given. Macromolecules have also been included in this review but without structural details. PMID:9530808

  2. Volatile Organic Compounds in Uremia

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Luzia; Slodzinski, Rafael; Jankowski, Joachim; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although “uremic fetor” has long been felt to be diagnostic of renal failure, the compounds exhaled in uremia remain largely unknown so far. The present work investigates whether breath analysis by ion mobility spectrometry can be used for the identification of volatile organic compounds retained in uremia. Methods Breath analysis was performed in 28 adults with an eGFR ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 26 adults with chronic renal failure corresponding to an eGFR of 10–59 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and 28 adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) before and after a hemodialysis session. Breath analysis was performed by ion mobility spectrometryafter gas-chromatographic preseparation. Identification of the compounds of interest was performed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results Breath analyses revealed significant differences in the spectra of patients with and without renal failure. Thirteen compounds were chosen for further evaluation. Some compounds including hydroxyacetone, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone and ammonia accumulated with decreasing renal function and were eliminated by dialysis. The concentrations of these compounds allowed a significant differentiation between healthy, chronic renal failure with an eGFR of 10–59 ml/min, and ESRD (p<0.05 each). Other compounds including 4-heptanal, 4-heptanone, and 2-heptanone preferentially or exclusively occurred in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Conclusion Impairment of renal function induces a characteristic fingerprint of volatile compounds in the breath. The technique of ion mobility spectrometry can be used for the identification of lipophilic uremic retention molecules. PMID:23049998

  3. Sensing acetylcholine and anticholinesterase compounds.

    PubMed

    Schena, Alberto; Johnsson, Kai

    2014-01-27

    Acetylcholine is a key neurotransmitter, and anticholinesterase agents are essential compounds used as medical drugs, pesticides, and chemical warfare agents. A semisynthetic fluorescence-based probe for the direct, real-time detection of acetylcholine and anticholinesterase compounds is introduced. The probe possesses good sensitivity, tunable detection range, and can be selectively targeted to cell surfaces, thereby making it an attractive tool for applications in analytical chemistry and quantitative biology. PMID:24339043

  4. Aza compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.Q.; McBreen, J.

    1998-01-06

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of Li{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

  5. Aza compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xiao-Qing; McBreen, James

    1998-01-06

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of Li.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

  6. LASIK enhancements.

    PubMed

    Durrie, D S; Vande Garde, T L

    2000-01-01

    As the field of refractive surgery continues to evolve, an increasing number of surgical options are available for LASIK enhancements. Nonetheless, older methods such as AK continue to play an important role in enhancement procedures. Improvements in instruments and techniques allow for previously made LASIK flaps to be safely lifted for additional myopic or hyperopic ablations. Newer methods such as Intacs placement provide an effective option for patients who are not good candidates for further ablative procedures. These advancements allow refractive surgeons to treat a wider range of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism effectively in eyes with a history of LASIK surgery. PMID:10941651

  7. Photochemical dimerization of organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, R.H.; Brown, S.H.; Muedas, C.A.; Ferguson, R.R.

    1992-04-14

    This patent describes improvement in a Group IIb photosensitized vapor phase dimerization of an organic compound in which a gaseous mixture of a Group IIB metal and the organic compound is irradiated in a reaction zone with a photosensitizing amount of radiant energy. The improvement comprises: a continuous stream of the gaseous mixture is passed as a vapor phase in a single pass through the reaction zone at a temperature at which the thus-produced dimer condenses immediately upon the formation thereof; the starting gaseous mixture comprises hydrogen and two ethylenically unsaturated compounds selected from the group consisting of alkenes of at least six carbon atoms, unsaturated nitriles, unsaturated epoxides, unsaturated silanes, unsaturated amines, unsaturated phosphines, and fluorinated alkenes; the gaseous mixture comprises nitrous oxide and the organic compound is a saturated compound with C-H bond strengths greater than 100 kcal/mol or a mixture of the saturated compound and an alkene; or the starting gaseous comprises an activating amount of hydrogen and the dimerization is a dehydrodimerization or cross-dimerization of a saturated hydrocarbon.

  8. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes

    PubMed Central

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L’Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A.; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  9. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  10. Skin penetration enhancers.

    PubMed

    Lane, Majella E

    2013-04-15

    The skin has evolved to prevent excessive water loss from the internal organs and to limit the ability of xenobiotics and hazardous substances to enter the body. Notwithstanding this barrier function, a number of strategies have been developed by scientists to deliver drugs to and through the skin. The aim of this review is to consider the various types of chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs) which have been investigated in the scientific literature. Potential pathways for CPEs to exert their action are examined with reference to the physical chemistry of passive skin transport. The emphasis is on those studies which have focussed on human and porcine skin because of the limitations associated with skin permeation data collated from other species. Where known, the mechanisms of action of these compounds are also discussed. Examples of enhancers used in commercial topical and transdermal formulations are provided. It is proposed that overall the effects of CPEs on the skin barrier may best be explained by a Diffusion-Partition-Solubility theory. Finally, some of the limitations of studies in the literature are considered and the importance of monitoring the fate of the penetration enhancer as well as the active is highlighted. PMID:23462366

  11. Eugenol: a natural compound with versatile pharmacological actions.

    PubMed

    Pramod, Kannissery; Ansari, Shahid H; Ali, Javed

    2010-12-01

    Eugenol, the major constituent of clove oil, has been widely used for its anesthetic and analgesic action in dentistry. Eugenol exhibits pharmacological effects on almost all systems and our aim is to review the research work that has identified these pharmacological actions. Eugenol possesses significant antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular properties, in addition to analgesic and local anesthetic activity. The metabolism and pharmacokinetics of the compound in humans have been studied. Eugenol has also been used as a penetration enhancer. The compound is a very promising candidate for versatile applications, and the design of new drugs based on the pharmacological effects of eugenol could be beneficial. PMID:21299140

  12. Method for purifying bidentate organophosphorus compounds

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Wallace W.

    1977-01-01

    Bidentate organophosphorus compounds useful for extracting actinide elements from acidic nuclear waste solutions are purified of undesirable acidic impurities by contacting the compounds with ethylene glycol which preferentially extracts the impurities found in technical grade bidentate compounds.

  13. Host compounds for red phosphorescent OLEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Chuanjun; Cheon, Kwang -Ohk

    2015-08-25

    Novel compounds containing a triphenylene moiety linked to an .alpha..beta. connected binaphthyl ring system are provided. These compounds have surprisingly good solubility in organic solvents and are useful as host compounds in red phosphorescent OLEDs.

  14. Roles of Titanium-Intermetallic Compound Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chii-Chang

    Four different configurations have been tested: Al-Cu, Ti/Al-Cu, Al-Cu/Ti, and Ti/Al-Cu/Ti to evaluate the possible contributions of Ti-intermetallic compound layer(s) to enhancement of the lifetime to failure. Basically, the proposed mechanisms can be classified into two groups: shunting effect and effects limited to changes in Al-Cu conducting layer(s). A resistance monitoring technique was adopted to supplement lifetime measurement to separate these two effects. By correlating the first resistance jump (spike) to the happening of a complete open across Al-Cu layer, it was found that the shunting effect contributes to enhancement of the lifetime by 4 times in Ti/Al-Cu, 2 times in Al-Cu/Ti, and 2 times in Ti/Al-Cu/Ti. A Ti underlayer was found to contribute mainly the shunting effect. However, from drift velocity measurements and failure mode analysis, it is possible to deduce that a Ti overlayer contributes not only the shunting effect but also another effect that acts to diminish the grain boundary mass transport rate by a factor of about 76. It is believed that the latter effect is a consequence of the high compressive yield stength conferred by the Ti-intermetallic compound overlayer to the Al-Cu layer. Finally, an important non-destructive technique, based on the characteristic x-rays generated by energetic electrons, to characterize the mass divergences in multilayer interconnects, was developed in this research, called SMEISIS, representing Simultaneous Multiple Elements Intensity Scanning of Interconnecting Stripes. This technique was proved to be capable of revealing detail about the shapes, nature, and location of mass divergence that cannot be revealed by thermal wave image technique and that requires time consuming multiple sectioning in TEM and SEM methods.

  15. Transformations of Aromatic Compounds by Nitrosomonas europaea

    PubMed Central

    Keener, William K.; Arp, Daniel J.

    1994-01-01

    Benzene and a variety of substituted benzenes inhibited ammonia oxidation by intact cells of Nitrosomonas europaea. In most cases, the inhibition was accompanied by transformation of the aromatic compound to a more oxidized product or products. All products detected were aromatic, and substituents were often oxidized but were not separated from the benzene ring. Most transformations were enhanced by (NH4)2SO4 (12.5 mM) and were prevented by C2H2, a mechanism-based inactivator of ammonia monooxygenase (AMO). AMO catalyzed alkyl substituent hydroxylations, styrene epoxidation, ethylbenzene desaturation to styrene, and aniline oxidation to nitrobenzene (and unidentified products). Alkyl substituents were preferred oxidation sites, but the ring was also oxidized to produce phenolic compounds from benzene, ethylbenzene, halobenzenes, phenol, and nitrobenzene. No carboxylic acids were identified. Ethylbenzene was oxidized via styrene to two products common also to oxidation of styrene; production of styrene is suggestive of an electron transfer mechanism for AMO. Iodobenzene and 1,2-dichlorobenzene were oxidized slowly to halophenols; 1,4-dichlorobenzene was not transformed. No 2-halophenols were detected as products. Several hydroxymethyl (-CH2OH)-substituted aromatics and p-cresol were oxidized by C2H2-treated cells to the corresponding aldehydes, benzaldehyde was reduced to benzyl alcohol, and o-cresol and 2,5-dimethylphenol were not depleted. PMID:16349282

  16. Computational and Physical Analysis of Catalytic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Richard; Sohn, Jung Jae; Kyung, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Nanoparticles exhibit unique physical and chemical properties depending on their geometrical properties. For this reason, synthesis of nanoparticles with controlled shape and size is important to use their unique properties. Catalyst supports are usually made of high-surface-area porous oxides or carbon nanomaterials. These support materials stabilize metal catalysts against sintering at high reaction temperatures. Many studies have demonstrated large enhancements of catalytic behavior due to the role of the oxide-metal interface. In this paper, the catalyzing ability of supported nano metal oxides, such as silicon oxide and titanium oxide compounds as catalysts have been analyzed using computational chemistry method. Computational programs such as Gamess and Chemcraft has been used in an effort to compute the efficiencies of catalytic compounds, and bonding energy changes during the optimization convergence. The result illustrates how the metal oxides stabilize and the steps that it takes. The graph of the energy computation step(N) versus energy(kcal/mol) curve shows that the energy of the titania converges faster at the 7th iteration calculation, whereas the silica converges at the 9th iteration calculation.

  17. Acoustic transmission through compound subwavelength slit arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, G. P.; Hibbins, A. P.; Sambles, J. R.; Smith, J. D.

    2016-07-01

    The angular dependence of the transmission of sound in air through four types of two-dimensional slit arrays formed of aluminium slats is explored, both experimentally and numerically. For a simple, subwavelength periodic slit array, it is well known that Fabry-Perot-like waveguide resonances, supported by the slit cavities, coupled to diffracted evanescent waves, result in enhanced acoustic transmission at frequencies determined by the length, width, and separation of each slit cavity. We demonstrate that altering the spacing or width of some of the slits to form a compound array (i.e., an array having a basis comprised of more than one slit) results in sharp dips in the transmission spectra, which may have a strong angular dependence. These features correspond to phase resonances, which have been studied extensively in the electromagnetic case. This geometry allows for additional near-field configurations compared to the simple array, whereby the field in adjacent cavities can be out of phase. Several types of compound slit arrays are investigated; one such structure is optimized to minimize the effect of boundary-layer loss mechanisms present in each slit cavity, thereby achieving a deep, sharp transmission minimum in a broad maximum.

  18. Polyphenol Compound as a Transcription Factor Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Park, Seyeon

    2015-11-01

    A target-based approach has been used to develop novel drugs in many therapeutic fields. In the final stage of intracellular signaling, transcription factor-DNA interactions are central to most biological processes and therefore represent a large and important class of targets for human therapeutics. Thus, we focused on the idea that the disruption of protein dimers and cognate DNA complexes could impair the transcriptional activation and cell transformation regulated by these proteins. Historically, natural products have been regarded as providing the primary leading compounds capable of modulating protein-protein or protein-DNA interactions. Although their mechanism of action is not fully defined, polyphenols including flavonoids were found to act mostly as site-directed small molecule inhibitors on signaling. There are many reports in the literature of screening initiatives suggesting improved drugs that can modulate the transcription factor interactions responsible for disease. In this review, we focus on polyphenol compound inhibitors against dimeric forms of transcription factor components of intracellular signaling pathways (for instance, c-jun/c-fos (Activator Protein-1; AP-1), c-myc/max, Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and β-catenin/T cell factor (Tcf)). PMID:26529010

  19. Recent changes in anthropogenic reactive nitrogen compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronache, Constantin

    2014-05-01

    Significant anthropogenic perturbations of the nitrogen cycle are the result of rapid population growth, with mounting need for food and energy production. The increase of reactive nitrogen compounds (such as NOx, HNO3, NH3, and N2O) has a significant impact on human health, environment, and climate. NOx emissions contribute to O3 chemistry, aerosol formation and acidic precipitation. Ammonia is a notable atmospheric pollutant that may deteriorate ecosystems and contribute to respiratory problems. It reacts with acidic gases to form aerosols or is deposited back to ecosystems. The application of fertilizers accounts for most of the N2O production, adding to greenhouse gas emissions. We analyze the change of some reactive nitrogen compounds based on observations, in eastern United States. Results show that the control of NOx and SO2 emissions over the last decades caused a significant decrease of acidic deposition. The nitrate deposition is highest in eastern US, while the ammonium ion concentration is highest in central US regions. Overall, the inorganic nitrogen wet deposition from nitrate and ammonium is enhanced in central, and eastern US. Research shows that sensitive ecosystems in northeastern regions exhibit a slow recovery from the accumulated effects of acidic deposition. Given the growing demand for nitrogen in agriculture and industry, we discuss possible pathways to reduce the impact of excess reactive nitrogen on the environment.

  20. Polyphenol Compound as a Transcription Factor Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seyeon

    2015-01-01

    A target-based approach has been used to develop novel drugs in many therapeutic fields. In the final stage of intracellular signaling, transcription factor–DNA interactions are central to most biological processes and therefore represent a large and important class of targets for human therapeutics. Thus, we focused on the idea that the disruption of protein dimers and cognate DNA complexes could impair the transcriptional activation and cell transformation regulated by these proteins. Historically, natural products have been regarded as providing the primary leading compounds capable of modulating protein–protein or protein-DNA interactions. Although their mechanism of action is not fully defined, polyphenols including flavonoids were found to act mostly as site-directed small molecule inhibitors on signaling. There are many reports in the literature of screening initiatives suggesting improved drugs that can modulate the transcription factor interactions responsible for disease. In this review, we focus on polyphenol compound inhibitors against dimeric forms of transcription factor components of intracellular signaling pathways (for instance, c-jun/c-fos (Activator Protein-1; AP-1), c-myc/max, Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and β-catenin/T cell factor (Tcf)). PMID:26529010

  1. Saccharide sensing molecules having enhanced fluorescent properties

    DOEpatents

    Satcher Jr., Joe H.; Lane, Stephen M.; Darrow, Christopher B.; Cary, Douglas R.; Tran, Joe Anh

    2004-01-06

    The present invention provides formulae for fluorescent compounds that have a number of properties which make them uniquely suited for use in sensors of analytes such as saccharides. The advantageous fluorescent properties include favorable excitation wavelengths, emission wavelengths, fluorescence lifetimes, and photostability. Additional advantageous properties include enhanced aqueous solubility, as well as temperature and pH sensitivity. The compound comprises an aryl or a substituted phenyl botonic acid that acts as a substrate recognition component, a fluorescence switch component, and a fluorophore. Fluorescent compounds are described that are excited at wavelengths greater than 400 nm and emit at wavelengths greater than 450 nm, which is advantageous for optical transmission through skin. The fluorophore is typically selected from transition metal-ligand complexes and thiazine, oxazine, oxazone, or oxazine-one as well as anthracene compounds. The fluorescent compound can be immobilized in a glucose permeable biocompatible polymer matrix that is implantable below the skin.

  2. [Importance of estrogens and estrogen-active compounds for udder health in cattle. A review].

    PubMed

    Zdunczyk, S; Zerbe, H; Hoedemaker, M

    2003-11-01

    High oestrogen concentrations in blood or high intake of oestrogen-active compounds with forage can be associated with an enhanced occurrence of udder diseases. Mean somatic cell count (MSCC) can increase and milk yield can decrease. Subclinically infected udder quarters can develop clinical mastitis and the rate of new infections can be high. This review describes concentrations of oestrogens in peripheral blood plasma in cattle and occurrence of oestrogen-active compounds in forage. Relationships between oestrogens or oestrogen-active compounds and udder health are presented. The possible mechanisms of enhanced susceptibility of the udder to infection under the influence of oestrogens are discussed. PMID:14679840

  3. Extraterrestrial Organic Compounds in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botta, Oliver; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Many organic compounds or their precursors found in meteorites originated in the interstellar or circumstellar medium and were later incorporated into planetesimals during the formation of the solar system. There they either survived intact or underwent further processing to synthesize secondary products on the meteorite parent body. The most distinct feature of CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites, two types of stony meteorites, is their high carbon content (up to 3% of weight), either in the form of carbonates or of organic compounds. The bulk of the organic carbon consists of an insoluble macromolecular material with a complex structure. Also present is a soluble organic fraction, which has been analyzed by several separation and analytical procedures. Low detection limits can be achieved by derivatization of the organic molecules with reagents that allow for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. The CM meteorite Murchison has been found to contain more than 70 extraterrestrial amino acids and several other classes of compounds including carboxylic acids, hydroxy carboxylic acids, sulphonic and phosphonic acids, aliphatic, aromatic and polar hydrocarbons, fullerenes, heterocycles as well as carbonyl compounds, alcohols, amines and amides. The organic matter was found to be enriched in deuterium, and distinct organic compounds show isotopic enrichments of carbon and nitrogen relative to terrestrial matter.

  4. Cytotoxic Compounds from Brucea mollis

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Mai Hung Thanh; Đuc, Ho Viet; Huong, Tran Thu; Duong, Nguyen Thanh; Phuong, Do Thi; Thao, Do Thi; Tai, Bui Huu; Kim, Young Ho; Bach, Tran The; Cuong, Nguyen Manh

    2013-01-01

    Ten compounds, including soulameanone (1), isobruceine B (2), 9-methoxy-canthin-6-one (3), bruceolline F (4), niloticine (5), octatriacontan-1-ol (6), bombiprenone (7), α-tocopherol (8), inosine (9), and apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), were isolated from the leaves, stems, and roots of Brucea mollis Wall. ex Kurz. Their structures were determined using one-and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against KB (human carcinoma of the mouth), LU-1 (human lung adenocarcinoma), LNCaP (human prostate adeno-carcinoma), and HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia) cancer cell lines. Compound 2 showed significant cytotoxic activity against KB, LU-1, LNCaP, and HL-60 cancer cells with IC50 values of 0.39, 0.40, 0.34, and 0.23 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, compounds 3 and 5 showed significant cytotoxic activity against KB, LU-1, LNCaP, and HL-60 cancer cells with IC50 values around 1–4 μg/mL. Compounds 9-methoxycanthin-6-one (3) and niloticine (5) have been discovered for the first time from the Brucea genus. PMID:24106661

  5. Micro-explosion of compound drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Kuei; Lin, Ta-Hui

    2014-08-01

    Introducing water into spray combustion systems, by either water-in-oil emulsification or supplementary water injection, is one of the major techniques for combustion improvement and NOx reduction. Plentiful researches are available on combustion of water-in-oil emulsion fuel drops. The emulsified liquid is a heterogeneous mixture of immiscible liquids. One component forms the continuous phase and the other component forms the discrete phase. The discrete phase consists of globules of the one fluid that are suspended in the continuous phase fluid. Water-in-oil emulsions are commonly considered for combustion applications because emulsions can result in micro-explosion, thereby reducing the average drop diameter to enhance liquid vaporization, and suppressing the formation of soot and NOx. However, the water addition generally does not exceed about 20% for smooth engine operations[!, 21. The combustion characteristics and micro-explosion of emulsion drop were studied by many researchers. The micro-explosion of water in fuel emulsion drops was caused by very fast growth of superheated water vapor bubbles, its superheat limits must be lower than the boiling point temperature of the fuel. These bubbles were primarily governed by the pressure difference between the superheated vapor and the liquid, and by the inertia imparted to the liquid by the motion of the bubble surface[3 6 In this study, we used a coaxial nozzle to generation the multi-component drop. The different type of water-in-oil fuel drops called the compound drops. Unlike an emulsion drop, a compound drop consists of a water core and a fuel shell, which can originate from the phase separation of emulsion[7, 81 or a water drop colliding with a fuel drop[9, 101 Burning and micro-explosion of compound drops have been found to be distinct from those of emulsion drops[9-111 Wang et al.[9 , 101 studied the combustion characteristics of collision merged alkane-water drops. The merged drops appeared in adhesive

  6. Microbial Identification in Pharmaceutical Compounding.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Tiffany; Anstead, James; Schade, Lisa; Zellner, James

    2016-01-01

    Compounding pharmacies and contract testing laboratories can readily utilize critical information that microbial identification methods provide. Rapidly identifying the genus and species of environmental isolates and sample contaminates provides pharmacies and laboratories the opportunity to determine the possible source and implement corrective actions to improve compounding and testing processes. The microbial identification data collected from a compounding environment is critical. It is important to have accurate and specific microbial information to guide environmental collection practices, validation studies, and troubleshooting initiatives. The different technologies available provide varying levels of identification. They range from phenotypic assays to more accurate molecular-based techniques, including macromolecular methods and whole genome sequencing. Selecting the appropriate identification methodology requires evaluating multiple factors including the level of information required (genus only, genus and species, etc.) and the pharmacy's tolerance for unidentified or incorrectly identified isolates. PMID:27125052

  7. Antitumor Compounds from Marine Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Olano, Carlos; Méndez, Carmen; Salas, José A.

    2009-01-01

    Chemotherapy is one of the main treatments used to combat cancer. A great number of antitumor compounds are natural products or their derivatives, mainly produced by microorganisms. In particular, actinomycetes are the producers of a large number of natural products with different biological activities, including antitumor properties. These antitumor compounds belong to several structural classes such as anthracyclines, enediynes, indolocarbazoles, isoprenoides, macrolides, non-ribosomal peptides and others, and they exert antitumor activity by inducing apoptosis through DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase I or II inhibition, mitochondria permeabilization, inhibition of key enzymes involved in signal transduction like proteases, or cellular metabolism and in some cases by inhibiting tumor-induced angiogenesis. Marine organisms have attracted special attention in the last years for their ability to produce interesting pharmacological lead compounds. PMID:19597582

  8. Antimicrobial Compounds from Drypetes staudtii.

    PubMed

    Grace, David; Khan, Madiha S; Friesen, Kenneth; Ata, Athar

    2016-07-01

    Antimicrobial-directed phytochemical investigation of the MeOH extract of Drypetes staudtii afforded two new compounds, 4,5-(methylenedioxy)-o-coumaroylputrescine (1), 4,5-(methylenedioxy)-o-coumaroyl-4'-N-methylputrescine (2), along with seven known natural products 4α-hydroxyeremophila-1,9-diene-3,8-dione (3), drypemolundein B (4), friedelan-3β-ol (5), erythrodiol (6), ursolic acid (7), p-coumaric acid (8), and β-sitosterol (9). Structures of compounds 1 - 9 were elucidated with the aid of extensive NMR and mass spectral studies. All of the isolates exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 8 - 128 μg/ml. Compounds 1 - 2 were also moderately active against Candida albicans with an MIC value of 32 μg/ml. PMID:27288642

  9. Gallium-containing anticancer compounds

    PubMed Central

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    There is an ever pressing need to develop new drugs for the treatment of cancer. Gallium nitrate, a group IIIa metal salt, inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo and has shown activity against non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and bladder cancer in clinical trials. Gallium can function as an iron mimetic and perturb iron-dependent proliferation and other iron-related processes in tumor cells. Gallium nitrate lacks cross resistance with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and is not myelosuppressive; it can be used when other drugs have failed or when the blood count is low. Given the therapeutic potential of gallium, newer generations of gallium compounds are now in various phases of preclinical and clinical development. These compounds hold the promise of greater anti-tumor activity against a broader spectrum of cancers. The development of gallium compounds for cancer treatment and their mechanisms of action will be discussed. PMID:22800370

  10. Preventive and Therapeutic Effects of Chinese Herbal Compounds against Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bing; An, Hong-Mei; Wang, Shuang-Shuang; Chen, Jin-Jun; Xu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicines, unique biomedical and pharmaceutical resources, have been widely used for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prevention and treatment. Accumulated Chinese herb-derived compounds with significant anti-cancer effects against HCC have been identified. Chinese herbal compounds are effective in preventing carcinogenesis, inhibiting cell proliferation, arresting cell cycle, inducing apoptosis, autophagy, cell senescence and anoikis, inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition, metastasis and angiogenesis, regulating immune function, reversing drug resistance and enhancing the effects of chemotherapy in HCC. This paper comprehensively reviews these compounds and their effects on HCC. Finally, the perspectives and rational application of herbal compounds for HCC management are discussed. PMID:26828466

  11. Rodent repellents: Preparation and properties of thiouronium compounds and cyclic imides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bellack, E.; DeWitt, J.B.

    1954-01-01

    Syntheses and bioassays of cyclic imides and thiouronium compounds were carried out as part of a search for materials capable of preventing rodent damage to packaged commodities. Previous studies had shown that repellent activity was associated with functional groups containing nitrogen and sulfur, and was enhanced by the presence of ionic linkages. Twenty-seven thiouronium compounds and 40 imides, including 1 0 compounds not described previously, were prepared for these tests. Ten imides and 26 thiouronium compounds were repellent under the conditions of test. Information obtained in these studies will be utilized in the development and selection of more effective materials for prevention of rodent damage to foods and other commodities.

  12. Biodegradation of halogenated organic compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, G R; Chapalamadugu, S

    1991-01-01

    In this review we discuss the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons by microorganisms, emphasizing the physiological, biochemical, and genetic basis of the biodegradation of aliphatic, aromatic, and polycyclic compounds. Many environmentally important xenobiotics are halogenated, especially chlorinated. These compounds are manufactured and used as pesticides, plasticizers, paint and printing-ink components, adhesives, flame retardants, hydraulic and heat transfer fluids, refrigerants, solvents, additives for cutting oils, and textile auxiliaries. The hazardous chemicals enter the environment through production, commercial application, and waste. As a result of bioaccumulation in the food chain and groundwater contamination, they pose public health problems because many of them are toxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic. Although synthetic chemicals are usually recalcitrant to biodegradation, microorganisms have evolved an extensive range of enzymes, pathways, and control mechanisms that are responsible for catabolism of a wide variety of such compounds. Thus, such biological degradation can be exploited to alleviate environmental pollution problems. The pathways by which a given compound is degraded are determined by the physical, chemical, and microbiological aspects of a particular environment. By understanding the genetic basis of catabolism of xenobiotics, it is possible to improve the efficacy of naturally occurring microorganisms or construct new microorganisms capable of degrading pollutants in soil and aquatic environments more efficiently. Recently a number of genes whose enzyme products have a broader substrate specificity for the degradation of aromatic compounds have been cloned and attempts have been made to construct gene cassettes or synthetic operons comprising these degradative genes. Such gene cassettes or operons can be transferred into suitable microbial hosts for extending and custom designing the pathways for rapid degradation of recalcitrant

  13. Biodegradation of halogenated organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, G R; Chapalamadugu, S

    1991-03-01

    In this review we discuss the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons by microorganisms, emphasizing the physiological, biochemical, and genetic basis of the biodegradation of aliphatic, aromatic, and polycyclic compounds. Many environmentally important xenobiotics are halogenated, especially chlorinated. These compounds are manufactured and used as pesticides, plasticizers, paint and printing-ink components, adhesives, flame retardants, hydraulic and heat transfer fluids, refrigerants, solvents, additives for cutting oils, and textile auxiliaries. The hazardous chemicals enter the environment through production, commercial application, and waste. As a result of bioaccumulation in the food chain and groundwater contamination, they pose public health problems because many of them are toxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic. Although synthetic chemicals are usually recalcitrant to biodegradation, microorganisms have evolved an extensive range of enzymes, pathways, and control mechanisms that are responsible for catabolism of a wide variety of such compounds. Thus, such biological degradation can be exploited to alleviate environmental pollution problems. The pathways by which a given compound is degraded are determined by the physical, chemical, and microbiological aspects of a particular environment. By understanding the genetic basis of catabolism of xenobiotics, it is possible to improve the efficacy of naturally occurring microorganisms or construct new microorganisms capable of degrading pollutants in soil and aquatic environments more efficiently. Recently a number of genes whose enzyme products have a broader substrate specificity for the degradation of aromatic compounds have been cloned and attempts have been made to construct gene cassettes or synthetic operons comprising these degradative genes. Such gene cassettes or operons can be transferred into suitable microbial hosts for extending and custom designing the pathways for rapid degradation of recalcitrant

  14. Extraction optimization of carbohydrate compound from Huangqi using orthogonal design.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shen-kang; Bi, Tie-Nan; Xu, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Rui-Li; Yang, Mei-Juan

    2013-07-01

    The effect of extraction time, extraction temperature and time on the yield of Huangqi carbohydrate compound (HQCC) was investigated using single factor and orthogonal experiment design. The influence by the parameters on the extraction yields of carbohydrate compound decreased in the order of: C (extraction number)>A (extraction time)>B (extraction temperature) according to the R values. Based on this analysis, and considering the carbohydrate compound extraction efficiency, the cost of energy and the feasibility of experiment, the optimum conditions of extraction were therefore determined as follows: extraction time 120min, extraction temperature 80°C, and extraction number 4. Oral administration of HQCC reduced lipid peroxidation level and enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities in gastric mucosa. In addition, HQCC reduced the serum IL-8 and TNF-α levels. In conclusion, these data reveal that HQCC promotes regeneration of damaged gastric mucosa, probably through its antioxidative mechanism. PMID:23541555

  15. Survey of electrochemical production of inorganic compounds. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The electrochemical generation of inorganic compounds, excluding chlorine/caustic, has been critically reviewed. About 60 x 10/sup 12/ Btu/y fossil fuel equivalent will be used in the year 2000 for the electrosynthesis of inorganic compounds. Significant energy savings in chlorate production can result from the development of suitable electrocatalysts for lowering the cathodic overpotential. Perchlorates, electrolytic hypochlorite, electrolytic manganese dioxide, fluorine and other miscellaneous compounds use relatively small amounts of electrical energy. Implementation of caustic scrubber technology for stack gas cleanup would result in appreciable amounts of sodium sulfate which could be electrolyzed to regenerate caustic. Hydrogen peroxide, now produced by the alkyl anthraquinone process, could be made electrolytically by a new process coupling anodic oxidation of sulfate with cathodic reduction of oxygen in alkaline solution. Ozone is currently manufactured using energy-inefficient silent discharge equipment. A novel energy-efficient approach which uses an oxygen-enhanced anodic reaction is examined.

  16. Metamaterial resonator arrays for organic and inorganic compound sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Spada, Luigi; Bilotti, Filiberto; Vegni, Lucio

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, an electromagnetic metamaterial resonator operating in the terahertz frequency range is presented. By arranging the resonator in a planar array, it is possible to use the structure as a sensing device for organic and inorganic compounds. The sensor is designed to detect the presence of a biological compound by permittivity or absorption measurements. The presence of the biological matter modifies the effective permittivity and, thus, the resonant frequency significantly varies. In addition, biological compounds typically exhibit absorption characteristics that depend on the corresponding molecular structure. Therefore, it is necessary to illuminate the material selectively. We show that by employing the "selective" properties of the metamaterial resonator proposed, it is possible to enhance the sensing performances. The proposed design is suitable to sense the presence of healthy and malignant tissues, with possible applications in food and medical diagnostics. The operation of the sensing device has been demonstrated through proper full-wave simulations.

  17. Metamaterial resonator arrays for organic and inorganic compound sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Spada, Luigi; Bilotti, Filiberto; Vegni, Lucio

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, an electromagnetic metamaterial resonator operating in the terahertz frequency range is presented. By arranging the resonator in a planar array, it is possible to use the structure as a sensing device for organic and inorganic compounds. The sensor is designed to detect the presence of a biological compound by permittivity or absorption measurements. The presence of the biological matter modifies the effective permittivity and, thus, the resonant frequency significantly varies. In addition, biological compounds typically exhibit absorption characteristics that depend on the corresponding molecular structure. Therefore, it is necessary to illuminate the material selectively. We show that by employing the "selective" properties of the metamaterial resonator proposed, it is possible to enhance the sensing performances. The proposed design is suitable to sense the presence of healthy and malignant tissues, with possible applications in food and medical diagnostics. The operation of the sensing device has been demonstrated through proper full-wave simulations.

  18. Persulfate Oxidation of Gasoline Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sra, K.; Thomson, N.; Barker, J.

    2009-05-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using persulfate is a promising remediation technology that can be potentially applied to a wide range of organic contaminants. Gasoline compounds are of particular interest because they extensively impact the soil and groundwater, and are highly persistent and toxic. In this investigation, destruction of specific gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzenes, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes (TMBs) and naphthalene), and fractions (F1 and F2) by activated and inactivated persulfate was studied at the bench-scale. Aqueous phase batch reactors (25 mL) for inactivated systems employed persulfate at two concentrations (1 or 20 g/L), and activated systems were conducted with a persulfate concentration of 20 g/L. In the activated systems, the ability of hydrogen peroxide or chelated-ferrous as an activator was examined at two experimental conditions (peroxide molar ratio 0.1 and 1.0 with respect to persulfate; and citric acid chelated ferrous at 150 and 600 mg/L). All treatments and controls contained an initial gasoline concentration of approximately 25 mg/L and were run in triplicate. Sampling for gasoline compounds was conducted over <28 day reaction period. The controls showed insignificant degradation for all the gasoline compounds and fractions examined while inactivated persulfate at 1 g/L showed little (<10%) decrease in the concentration of gasoline compounds over the 28 day reaction period. Inactivated persulfate at 20 g/L demonstrated a significant decrease in the aqueous concentration of BTEX (>99%), TMB (>94%) and naphthalene (>71%). Oxidation of the F1 fraction (>94%) was more pronounced than the F2 fraction (>80%), and >93% TPH was oxidized. Use of peroxide as an activator at a molar ratio of 0.1 improved the destruction of TMBs (>99%) and naphthalene (>85%) while maintaining the high removal of BTEX (>99%) compounds. Increase in activator strength (molar ratio 1.0) decreased the destruction of xylenes (>86%) and TMBs (>81

  19. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  20. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1994-03-29

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. 62 figures.

  1. Compound Cuing in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity…

  2. Organophosphorus Compounds in Organic Electronics.

    PubMed

    Shameem, Muhammad Anwar; Orthaber, Andreas

    2016-07-25

    This Minireview describes recent advances of organophosphorus compounds as opto-electronic materials in the field of organic electronics. The progress of (hetero-) phospholes, unsaturated phosphanes, and trivalent and pentavalent phosphanes since 2010 is covered. The described applications of organophosphorus materials range from single molecule sensors, field effect transistors, organic light emitting diodes, to polymeric materials for organic photovoltaic applications. PMID:27276233

  3. Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cerium oxide and cerium compounds ; CASRN 1306 - 38 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  4. Infrared Spectroscopy of Deuterated Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCarthy, Patrick

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for an experiment (based on the potassium bromide pressed-pellet method) involving the infrared spectroscopy of deuterated compounds. Deuteration refers to deuterium-hydrogen exchange at active hydrogen sites in the molecule. (JN)

  5. Reconstructive compounding for IVUS palpography.

    PubMed

    Danilouchkine, Mikhail G; Mastik, Frits; van der Steen, Antonius F W

    2009-12-01

    This study proposes a novel algorithm for luminal strain reconstruction from sparse irregularly sampled strain measurements. It is based on the normalized convolution (NC) algorithm. The novel extension comprises the multilevel scheme, which takes into account the variable sampling density of the available strain measurements during the cardiac cycle. The proposed algorithm was applied to restore luminal strain values in intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) palpography. The procedure of reconstructing and averaging the strain values acquired during one cardiac cycle forms a technique, coined as reconstructive compounding. The accuracy of strain reconstruction was initially tested on the luminal strain map, computed from 3 in vivo IVUS pullbacks. The high quality of strain restoration was observed after systematically removing up to 90% of the initial elastographic measurements. The restored distributions accurately reproduced the original strain patterns and the error did not exceed 5%. The experimental validation of the reconstructed compounding technique was performed on 8 in vivo IVUS pullbacks. It demonstrated that the relative decrease in number of invalid strain estimates amounts to 92.05 +/- 6.03% and 99.17 +/- 0.92% for the traditional and reconstructive strain compounding schemes, respectively. In conclusion, implementation of the reconstructive compounding scheme boosts the diagnostic value of IVUS palpography. PMID:20040400

  6. Students' Categorizations of Organic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domin, Daniel S.; Al-Masum, Mohammad; Mensah, John

    2008-01-01

    Categorization is a fundamental psychological ability necessary for problem solving and many other higher-level cognitive tasks. In organic chemistry, students must establish groupings of different chemical compounds in order not only to solve problems, but also to understand course content. Classic models of categorization emphasize similarity as…

  7. Instability of viscoelastic compound jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Han-Yu; Yang, Li-Jun; Fu, Qing-Fei

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the axisymmetric instability of a viscoelastic compound jet, for which the constitutive relation is described by the Oldroyd B model. It is found that a viscoelastic compound jet is more unstable than a Newtonian compound jet, regardless of whether the viscoelastic compound jet is inner-Newtonian-outer-viscoelastic, inner-viscoelastic-outer-Newtonian, or fully viscoelastic. It is also found that an increase in the stress relaxation time of the inner or outer fluid renders the jet more unstable, while an increase in the time constant ratio makes the jet less unstable. An analysis of the energy budget of the destabilization process is performed, in which a formulation using the relative rate of change of energy is adopted. The formulation is observed to provide a quantitative analysis of the contribution of each physical factor (e.g., release of surface energy and viscous dissipation) to the temporal growth rate. The energy analysis reveals the mechanisms of various trends in the temporal growth rate, including not only how the growth rate changes with the parameters, but also how the growth rate changes with the wavenumber. The phenomenon of the dispersion relation presenting two local maxima, which occurred in previous research, is explained by the present energy analysis.

  8. The Likelihood of Cognitive Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Gary; Palmer, Linda C.; Gall, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Whether drugs that enhance cognition in healthy individuals will appear in the near future has become a topic of considerable interest. We address this possibility using a three variable system (psychological effect, neurobiological mechanism, efficiency vs. capabilities) for classifying candidates. Ritalin and modafinil, two currently available compounds, operate on primary psychological states that in turn affect cognitive operations (attention, memory), but there is little evidence that these effects translate into improvements in complex cognitive processing. A second category of potential enhancers includes agents that improve memory encoding, generally without large changes in primary psychological states. Unfortunately, there is little information on how these compounds affect cognitive performance in standard psychological tests. Recent experiments have identified a number of sites at which memory drugs could, in principle, manipulate the cell biological systems underlying the learning-related long-term potentiation (LTP) effect; this may explain the remarkable diversity of memory promoting compounds. Indeed, many of these agents are known to have positive effects on LTP. A possible third category of enhancement drugs directed specifically at integrated cognitive operations is nearly empty. From a neurobiological perspective, two plausible candidate classes have emerged that both target the fast excitatory transmission responsible for communication within cortical networks. One acts on nicotinic receptors (alpha7, alpha4) that regulate release of the neurotransmitter glutamate while the other (‘ampakines’) allosterically modulates the glutamate receptors mediating the post-synaptic response (EPSCs). Brain imaging in primates has shown that ampakines expand cortical networks engaged by a complex task; coupled with behavioral data, these findings provide evidence for the possibility of generating new cognitive capabilities. Finally, we suggest that

  9. Olive oil phenolic compounds affect the release of aroma compounds.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; Villani, Veronica; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-08-15

    Twelve aroma compounds were monitored and quantified by dynamic headspace analysis after their addition in refined olive oil model systems with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) biophenols to simulate EVOO aroma. The influence of polyphenols on aroma release was studied under simulated mouth conditions by using human saliva, and SPME-GC/MS analysis. While few differences were observed in orthonasal assay (without saliva), interesting results were obtained for retronasal aroma. Biophenols caused generally the lowest headspace release of almost all volatile compounds. However, only ethyl esters and linalool concentrations were significantly lower in retronasal than orthonasal assay. Saliva also caused higher concentration of hexanal, probably due to hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) action on linoleyl hydroperoxides. Epicatechin was compared to EVOO phenolics and the behaviour was dramatically different, likely to be due to salivary protein-tannin binding interactions, which influenced aroma headspace release. These results were also confirmed using two extra virgin olive oils. PMID:25794752

  10. Non-targeted analyses of organic compounds in urban wastewater.

    PubMed

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Sartori, Luci; Silva, Lorena M A; Silva, Bianca F; Fadini, Pedro S; Soong, Ronald; Simpson, Andre; Ferreira, Antonio G

    2015-09-01

    A large number of organic pollutants that cause damage to the ecosystem and threaten human health are transported to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The problems regarding water pollution in Latin America have been well documented, and there is no evidence of substantive efforts to change the situation. In the present work, two methods to study wastewater samples are employed: non-targeted 1D ((13)C and (1)H) and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis to characterize the largest possible number of compounds from urban wastewater and analysis by HPLC-(UV/MS)-SPE-ASS-NMR to detect non-specific recalcitrant organic compounds in treated wastewater without the use of common standards. The set of data is composed of several compounds with the concentration ranging considerably with treatment and seasonality. An anomalous discharge, the influence of stormwater on the wastewater composition and the presence of recalcitrant compounds (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactant homologs) in the effluent were further identified. The seasonal variations and abnormality in the composition of organic compounds in sewage indicated that the procedure that was employed can be useful in the identification of the pollution source and to enhance the effectiveness of WWTPs in designing preventive action to protect the equipment and preserve the environment. PMID:25354334

  11. Improving rubber concrete by waste organic sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Chou, Liang-Hisng; Lin, Chun-Nan; Lu, Chun-Ku; Lee, Cheng-Haw; Lee, Maw-Tien

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the use of crumb tyres as additives to concrete was investigated. For some time, researchers have been studying the physical properties of concrete to determine why the inclusion of rubber particles causes the concrete to degrade. Several methods have been developed to improve the bonding between rubber particles and cement hydration products (C-S-H) with the hope of creating a product with an improvement in mechanical strength. In this study, the crumb tyres were treated with waste organic sulfur compounds from a petroleum refining factory in order to modify their surface properties. Organic sulfur compounds with amphiphilic properties can enhance the hydrophilic properties of the rubber and increase the intermolecular interaction forces between rubber and C-S-H. In the present study, a colloid probe of C-S-H was prepared to measure these intermolecular interaction forces by utilizing an atomic force microscope. Experimental results showed that rubber particles treated with waste organic sulfur compounds became more hydrophilic. In addition, the intermolecular interaction forces increased with the adsorption of waste organic sulfur compounds on the surface of the rubber particles. The compressive, tensile and flexural strengths of concrete samples that included rubber particles treated with organic sulfur compound also increased significantly. PMID:19710121

  12. Molecular insights on the biosynthesis of antitumour compounds by actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Olano, Carlos; Méndez, Carmen; Salas, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Natural products are traditionally the main source of drug leads. In particular, many antitumour compounds are either natural products or derived from them. However, the search for novel antitumour drugs active against untreatable tumours, with fewer side‐effects or with enhanced therapeutic efficiency, is a priority goal in cancer chemotherapy. Microorganisms, particularly actinomycetes, are prolific producers of bioactive compounds, including antitumour drugs, produced as secondary metabolites. Structural genes involved in the biosynthesis of such compounds are normally clustered together with resistance and regulatory genes, which facilitates the isolation of the gene cluster. The characterization of these clusters has represented, during the last 25 years, a great source of genes for the generation of novel derivatives by using combinatorial biosynthesis approaches: gene inactivation, gene expression, heterologous expression of the clusters or mutasynthesis. In addition, these techniques have been also applied to improve the production yields of natural and novel antitumour compounds. In this review we focus on some representative antitumour compounds produced by actinomycetes covering the genetic approaches used to isolate and validate their biosynthesis gene clusters, which finally led to generating novel derivatives and to improving the production yields. PMID:21342461

  13. Isolation, identification, and quantification of roasted coffee antibacterial compounds.

    PubMed

    Daglia, Maria; Papetti, Adele; Grisoli, Pietro; Aceti, Camilla; Spini, Valentina; Dacarro, Cesare; Gazzani, Gabriella

    2007-12-12

    Coffee brew is a widely consumed beverage with multiple biological activities due both to naturally occurring components and to the hundreds of chemicals that are formed during the roasting process. Roasted coffee extract possesses antibacterial activity against a wide range of microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans, whereas green coffee extract exhibits no such activity. The naturally occurring coffee compounds, such as chlorogenic acids and caffeine, cannot therefore be responsible for the significant antibacterial activity exerted by coffee beverages against both bacteria. The very low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) found for standard glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and diacetyl compounds formed during the roasting process points to these alpha-dicarbonyl compounds as the main agents responsible for the antibacterial activity of brewed coffee against Sa. aureus and St. mutans. However, their low concentrations determined in the beverage account for only 50% of its antibacterial activity. The addition of caffeine, which has weak intrinsic antibacterial activity, to a mixture of alpha-dicarbonyl compounds at the concentrations found in coffee demonstrated that caffeine synergistically enhances the antibacterial activity of alpha-dicarbonyl compounds and that glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and diacetyl in the presence of caffeine account for the whole antibacterial activity of roasted coffee. PMID:18001036

  14. EDITORIAL: Enhancing nanolithography Enhancing nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Lithography was invented in late 18th century Bavaria by an ambitious young playwright named Alois Senefelder. Senefelder experimented with stone, wax, water and ink in the hope of finding a way of reproducing text so that he might financially gain from a wider distribution of his already successful scripts. His discovery not only facilitated the profitability of his plays, but also provided the world with an affordable printing press that would ultimately democratize the dissemination of art, knowledge and literature. Since Senefelder, experiments in lithography have continued with a range of innovations including the use of electron beams and UV that allow increasingly higher-resolution features [1, 2]. Applications for this have now breached the limits of paper printing into the realms of semiconductor and microelectronic mechanical systems technology. In this issue, researchers demonstrate a technique for fabricating periodic features in poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) [3]. Their method combines field enhancements from silica nanospheres with laser-interference lithography to provide a means of patterning a polymer that has the potential to open the market of low-end, high-volume microelectronics. Laser-interference lithography has already been used successfully in patterning. Researchers in Korea used laser-interference lithography to generate stamps for imprinting a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure into green light emitting diodes (LEDs) [4]. The imprinted patterns comprised depressions 100 nm deep and 180 nm wide with a periodicity of 295 nm. In comparison with unpatterned LEDs, the intensity of photoluminescence was enhanced by a factor of seven in the LEDs that had the photonic crystal structures imprinted in them. The potential of exploiting field enhancements around nanostructures for new technologies has also attracted a great deal of attention. Researchers in the USA and Australia have used the field

  15. An integrated circuit/microsystem/nano-enhanced four species radiation sensor for inexpensive fissionable material detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waguespack, Randy Paul

    2011-12-01

    Small scale radiation detectors sensitive to alpha, beta, electromagnetic, neutron radiation are needed to combat the threat of nuclear terrorism and maintain national security. There are many types of radiation detectors on the market, and the type of detector chosen is usually determined by the type of particle to be detected. In the case of fissionable material, an ideal detector needs to detect all four types of radiation, which is not the focus of many detectors. For fissionable materials, the two main types of radiation that must be detected are gamma rays and neutrons. Our detector uses a glass or quartz scintillator doped with 10B nanoparticles to detect all four types of radiation particles. Boron-10 has a thermal neutron cross section of 3,840 barns. The interaction between the neutron and boron results in a secondary charge particle in the form of an alpha particle to be emitted, which is detectable by the scintillator. Radiation impinging on the scintillator matrix produces varying optical pulses dependent on the energy of the particles. The optical pulses are then detected by a photomultiplier (PM) tube, creating a current proportional to the energy of the particle. Current pulses from the PM tube are differentiated by on-chip pulse height spectroscopy, allowing for source discrimination. The pulse height circuitry has been fabricated with discrete circuits and designed into an integrated circuit package. The ability to replace traditional PM tubes with a smaller, less expensive photomultiplier will further reduce the size of the device and enhance the cost effectiveness and portability of the detector.

  16. Enhanced Boron Tolerance in Plants Mediated by Bidirectional Transport Through Plasma Membrane Intrinsic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mosa, Kareem A.; Kumar, Kundan; Chhikara, Sudesh; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C.; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2016-01-01

    High boron (B) concentration is toxic to plants that limit plant productivity. Recent studies have shown the involvement of the members of major intrinsic protein (MIP) family in controlling B transport. Here, we have provided experimental evidences showing the bidirectional transport activity of rice OsPIP1;3 and OsPIP2;6. Boron transport ability of OsPIP1;3 and OsPIP2;6 were displayed in yeast HD9 mutant strain (∆fps1∆acr3∆ycf1) as a result of increased B sensitivity, influx and accumulation by OsPIP1;3, and rapid efflux activity by OsPIP2;6. RT-PCR analysis showed strong upregulation of OsPIP1;3 and OsPIP2;6 transcripts in roots by B toxicity. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines overexpressing OsPIP1;3 and OsPIP2;6 exhibited enhanced tolerance to B toxicity. Furthermore, B concentration was significantly increased after 2 and 3 hours of tracer boron (10B) treatment. Interestingly, a rapid efflux of 10B from the roots of the transgenic plants was observed within 1 h of 10B treatment. Boron tolerance in OsPIP1;3 and OsPIP2;6 lines was inhibited by aquaporin inhibitors, silver nitrate and sodium azide. Our data proved that OsPIP1;3 and OsPIP2;6 are indeed involved in both influx and efflux of boron transport. Manipulation of these PIPs could be highly useful in improving B tolerance in crops grown in high B containing soils. PMID:26902738

  17. Enhanced Boron Tolerance in Plants Mediated by Bidirectional Transport Through Plasma Membrane Intrinsic Proteins.

    PubMed

    Mosa, Kareem A; Kumar, Kundan; Chhikara, Sudesh; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2016-01-01

    High boron (B) concentration is toxic to plants that limit plant productivity. Recent studies have shown the involvement of the members of major intrinsic protein (MIP) family in controlling B transport. Here, we have provided experimental evidences showing the bidirectional transport activity of rice OsPIP1;3 and OsPIP2;6. Boron transport ability of OsPIP1;3 and OsPIP2;6 were displayed in yeast HD9 mutant strain (∆fps1∆acr3∆ycf1) as a result of increased B sensitivity, influx and accumulation by OsPIP1;3, and rapid efflux activity by OsPIP2;6. RT-PCR analysis showed strong upregulation of OsPIP1;3 and OsPIP2;6 transcripts in roots by B toxicity. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines overexpressing OsPIP1;3 and OsPIP2;6 exhibited enhanced tolerance to B toxicity. Furthermore, B concentration was significantly increased after 2 and 3 hours of tracer boron ((10)B) treatment. Interestingly, a rapid efflux of (10)B from the roots of the transgenic plants was observed within 1 h of (10)B treatment. Boron tolerance in OsPIP1;3 and OsPIP2;6 lines was inhibited by aquaporin inhibitors, silver nitrate and sodium azide. Our data proved that OsPIP1;3 and OsPIP2;6 are indeed involved in both influx and efflux of boron transport. Manipulation of these PIPs could be highly useful in improving B tolerance in crops grown in high B containing soils. PMID:26902738

  18. Parametric study on a compound-drop spray flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsuan, Chung-Yao; Lin, Ta-Hui

    2012-06-01

    The introduction of compound-drop spray in a combustion system is a new concept. These droplets bear two gasification stages to cause an integral positive or negative effect on a premixed flame to raise or lower the local temperature of the gasification region. In this paper, we adopt a compound drop which contains a water core encased by a layer of shell fuel. A one-dimensional homogeneous lean or rich premixed flame with the dilute compound-drop spray was investigated by using large activation energy asymptotic analysis. The compound-drop spray burning mode was defined and divided into completely pre-vaporised burning (CPB), shell pre-vaporised burning (SPB) and shell partially pre-vaporised (SPP) burning modes by way of the gasification zones of the shell fuel and the core water relative to the flame position. The influences of the initial droplet radius, the shell-fuel mass fraction and the liquid loading of the compound-drop spray on the lean and rich flames were analysed. By means of the normalisation parameter of flame propagation mass flux (?), enhancement, suppression or extinction of the compound-drop spray flame can be represented clearly. Furthermore, from the observation of extinction, the necessary conditions of extinction of a lean spray flame by the internal heat transfer are that the spray is a negative effect and causes a sufficient heat loss rate at flame sheet downstream side. For a rich spray flame, three extinction patterns were observed; they occur in SPP, SPB or at the critical SPB mode, but do not in CPB. The extinction maps of the compound-drop spray demarcate the patterns and also indicate the limitations and corresponding conditions of the flame extinction.

  19. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Robert P.; Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A.; Dean, Mark P. M.; Rahnejat, Kaveh C.; Saxena, Siddharth S.; Ellerby, Mark

    2015-02-26

    This study examines the field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds which has a history dating back to the 1960s. This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC₆ and YbC₆ in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how this relates to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic states and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.

  20. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smith, Robert P.; Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A.; Dean, Mark P. M.; Rahnejat, Kaveh C.; Saxena, Siddharth S.; Ellerby, Mark

    2015-02-26

    This study examines the field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds which has a history dating back to the 1960s. This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC₆ and YbC₆ in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how this relates to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic statesmore » and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.« less

  1. Heuristics for chemical compound matching.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Masahiro; Okuno, Yasushi; Goto, Susumu; Kanehisa, Minoru

    2003-01-01

    We have developed an efficient algorithm for comparing two chemical compounds, where the chemical structure is treated as a 2D graph consisting of atoms as vertices and covalent bonds as edges. Based on the concept of functional groups in chemistry, 68 atom types (vertex types) are defined for carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and other atomic species with different environments, which has enabled detection of biochemically meaningful features. Maximal common subgraphs of two graphs can be found by searching for maximal cliques in the association graph, and we have introduced heuristics to accelerate the clique finding. Our heuristic procedure is controlled by some adjustable parameters. Here we applied our procedure to the latest KEGG/LIGAND database with different sets of parameters, and demonstrated the correlation of parameters in our algorithm with the distribution of similarity scores and/or the execution time. Finally, we showed the effectiveness of our heuristics for compound pairs along metabolic pathways. PMID:15706529

  2. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-09-07

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 figures.

  3. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  4. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1994-06-14

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  5. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1989-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  6. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  7. Thin compound-eye camera.

    PubMed

    Duparré, Jacques; Dannberg, Peter; Schreiber, Peter; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2005-05-20

    An artificial compound-eye objective fabricated by micro-optics technology is adapted and attached to a CMOS sensor array. The novel optical sensor system with an optics thickness of only 0.2 mm is examined with respect to resolution and sensitivity. An optical resolution of 60 x 60 pixels is determined from captured images. The scaling behavior of artificial compound-eye imaging systems is analyzed. Cross talk between channels fabricated by different technologies is evaluated, and the influence on an extension of the field of view by addition of a (Fresnel) diverging lens is discussed. The lithographic generation of opaque walls between channels for optical isolation is experimentally demonstrated. PMID:15929282

  8. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1989-07-18

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  9. Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jong-Su; Keum, Young-Soo; Li, Qing X.

    2009-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are among the most prevalent and persistent pollutants in the environment. Petroleum-contaminated soil and sediment commonly contain a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatics. Aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Biodegradation is a major mechanism of removal of organic pollutants from a contaminated site. This review focuses on bacterial degradation pathways of selected aromatic compounds. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene are described in detail. Bacterial catabolism of the heterocycles dibenzofuran, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzodioxin is discussed. Bacterial catabolism of alkylated PAHs is summarized, followed by a brief discussion of proteomics and metabolomics as powerful tools for elucidation of biodegradation mechanisms. PMID:19440284

  10. Bioactive compounds from Carissa spinarum.

    PubMed

    Wangteeraprasert, Ruchira; Lipipun, Vimolmas; Gunaratnam, Mekala; Neidle, Stephen; Gibbons, Simon; Likhitwitayawuid, Kittisak

    2012-10-01

    In our continuing efforts to find new antiherpetic agents from plants, an extract prepared from the stems of Carissa spinarum L. was found to possess appreciable activity against herpes simplex viruses (HSV I and II). A chemical study of this plant was then initiated, and this led to the isolation of 12 compounds, including a coumarin, two cardiac glycosides and nine lignans. These isolated compounds were evaluated for several biological activities, including antiherpetic, cytotoxic, antioxidant and antibacterial effects. The cardiac glycoside evomonoside was found to be the only antiherpetic principle, showing moderate activity against herpes simplex virus types I and II in the inactivation method. The lignans (-)-carinol, (-)-carissanol and (-)-nortrachelogenin exhibited cytotoxicity against breast (MCF7) and lung (A549) cancer cells. Moderate anti-DPPH free radical activity was observed for all the lignans. None of the isolates showed antibacterial activity. PMID:22308099

  11. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    DOEpatents

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  12. Quantitative analysis of endogenous compounds.

    PubMed

    Thakare, Rhishikesh; Chhonker, Yashpal S; Gautam, Nagsen; Alamoudi, Jawaher Abdullah; Alnouti, Yazen

    2016-09-01

    Accurate quantitative analysis of endogenous analytes is essential for several clinical and non-clinical applications. LC-MS/MS is the technique of choice for quantitative analyses. Absolute quantification by LC/MS requires preparing standard curves in the same matrix as the study samples so that the matrix effect and the extraction efficiency for analytes are the same in both the standard and study samples. However, by definition, analyte-free biological matrices do not exist for endogenous compounds. To address the lack of blank matrices for the quantification of endogenous compounds by LC-MS/MS, four approaches are used including the standard addition, the background subtraction, the surrogate matrix, and the surrogate analyte methods. This review article presents an overview these approaches, cite and summarize their applications, and compare their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, we discuss in details, validation requirements and compatibility with FDA guidelines to ensure method reliability in quantifying endogenous compounds. The standard addition, background subtraction, and the surrogate analyte approaches allow the use of the same matrix for the calibration curve as the one to be analyzed in the test samples. However, in the surrogate matrix approach, various matrices such as artificial, stripped, and neat matrices are used as surrogate matrices for the actual matrix of study samples. For the surrogate analyte approach, it is required to demonstrate similarity in matrix effect and recovery between surrogate and authentic endogenous analytes. Similarly, for the surrogate matrix approach, it is required to demonstrate similar matrix effect and extraction recovery in both the surrogate and original matrices. All these methods represent indirect approaches to quantify endogenous compounds and regardless of what approach is followed, it has to be shown that none of the validation criteria have been compromised due to the indirect analyses. PMID

  13. Compound hydraulic seismic source vibrator

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, W.J.

    1989-12-05

    This patent describes a compound seismic source vibrator. It comprises: a housing having an upper section and a low frequency radiating section; a low frequency means for vibrating the low frequency radiating section; a high frequency radiating section flexibly connected to the low frequency radiating section; and a high frequency means rigidly secured to the low frequency radiating section for separately vibrating the high frequency radiating section.

  14. Human detoxification of perfluorinated compounds.

    PubMed

    Genuis, S J; Birkholz, D; Ralitsch, M; Thibault, N

    2010-07-01

    There has been no proven method thus far to accelerate the clearance of potentially toxic perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in humans. PFCs are a family of commonly used synthetic compounds with many applications, including repelling oil and stains on furniture, clothing, carpets and food packaging, as well as in the manufacturing of polytetrafluoroethylene - a non-stick surfacing often used in cookware (e.g. Teflon(r)). Some PFCs remain persistent within the environment due to their inherent chemical stability, and are very slowly eliminated from the human body due, in part, to enterohepatic recirculation. Exposure to PFCs is widespread and some subpopulations, living in proximity to or working in fluorochemical manufacturing plants, are highly contaminated. PFC bioaccumulation has become an increasing public health concern as emerging evidence suggests reproductive toxicity, neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity, and some PFCs are considered to be likely human carcinogens. A case history is presented where an individual with high concentrations of PFCs in serum provided: (1) sweat samples after use of a sauna; and (2) stool samples before and after oral administration of each of two bile acid sequestrants - cholestyramine (CSM) and saponin compounds (SPCs). Stool samples before and after use of a cation-exchange zeolite compound were also examined. PFCs found in serum were not detected in substantial quantities in sweat or in stool prior to treatment. Minimal amounts of perfluorooctanoic acid, but no other PFCs, were detected in stool after SPC use; minimal amounts of perfluorooctanesulfonate, but no other PFCs, were detected in stool after zeolite use. All PFC congeners found in serum were detected in stool after CSM use. Serum levels of all PFCs subsequently declined after regular use of CSM. Further study is required but this report suggests that CSM therapy may facilitate gastrointestinal elimination of some PFCs from the human body. PMID:20621793

  15. BIOSYNTHESIS OF NITRO COMPOUNDS I.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Paul D.; Wang, Nancy

    1964-01-01

    Shaw, Paul D. (University of Illinois, Urbana), and Nancy Wang. Biosynthesis of nitro compounds. I. Nitrogen and carbon requirements for the biosynthesis of β-nitropropionic acid by Penicillium atrovenetum. J. Bacteriol. 88:1629–1635. 1964.—β-Nitropropionic acid was produced by Penicillium atrovenetum when this fungus was grown on a Raulin-Thom medium in shake flasks. The nitro compound was formed in the early stages of growth, and the total amount in the medium decreased when the fungus reached the end of the log phase. When increasing amounts of nitrate were substituted for the ammonia in the growth medium, production of β-nitropropionic acid decreased. Aspartic acid did not promote the synthesis of the nitro compound unless either ammonium chloride or sodium tartrate was also added to the medium. The addition of small amounts of hydroxylamine or sodium nitrite to the Raulin-Thom medium stimulated β-nitropropionic acid production to a greater degree on a molar basis than the amount of hydroxylamine or nitrite added. The nature of possible precursors to the nitro group of β-nitropropionic acid is discussed. PMID:14240949

  16. Compound facial expressions of emotion.

    PubMed

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M

    2014-04-15

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories--happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

  17. Hydrogen storage in molecular compounds.

    PubMed

    Mao, Wendy L; Mao, Ho-Kwang

    2004-01-20

    At low temperature (T) and high pressure (P), gas molecules can be held in ice cages to form crystalline molecular compounds that may have application for energy storage. We synthesized a hydrogen clathrate hydrate, H(2)(H(2)O)(2), that holds 50 g/liter hydrogen by volume or 5.3 wt %. The clathrate, synthesized at 200-300 MPa and 240-249 K, can be preserved to ambient P at 77 K. The stored hydrogen is released when the clathrate is warmed to 140 K at ambient P. Low T also stabilizes other molecular compounds containing large amounts of molecular hydrogen, although not to ambient P, e.g., the stability field for H(2)(H(2)O) filled ice (11.2 wt % molecular hydrogen) is extended from 2,300 MPa at 300 K to 600 MPa at 190 K, and that for (H(2))(4)CH(4) (33.4 wt % molecular hydrogen) is extended from 5,000 MPa at 300 K to 200 MPa at 77 K. These unique characteristics show the potential of developing low-T molecular crystalline compounds as a new means for hydrogen storage. PMID:14711993

  18. Compound facial expressions of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories—happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

  19. Natural Compounds Modulating Mitochondrial Functions

    PubMed Central

    Gibellini, Lara; Bianchini, Elena; De Biasi, Sara; Nasi, Milena; Cossarizza, Andrea; Pinti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are organelles responsible for several crucial cell functions, including respiration, oxidative phosphorylation, and regulation of apoptosis; they are also the main intracellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the last years, a particular interest has been devoted to studying the effects on mitochondria of natural compounds of vegetal origin, quercetin (Qu), resveratrol (RSV), and curcumin (Cur) being the most studied molecules. All these natural compounds modulate mitochondrial functions by inhibiting organelle enzymes or metabolic pathways (such as oxidative phosphorylation), by altering the production of mitochondrial ROS and by modulating the activity of transcription factors which regulate the expression of mitochondrial proteins. While Qu displays both pro- and antioxidant activities, RSV and Cur are strong antioxidant, as they efficiently scavenge mitochondrial ROS and upregulate antioxidant transcriptional programmes in cells. All the three compounds display a proapoptotic activity, mediated by the capability to directly cause the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria or indirectly by upregulating the expression of proapoptotic proteins of Bcl-2 family and downregulating antiapoptotic proteins. Interestingly, these effects are particularly evident on proliferating cancer cells and can have important therapeutic implications. PMID:26167193

  20. Rotor phases in compound semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.L.; Howells, W.S.

    1994-11-01

    Quasi-elastic neutron scattering is used to study the disordering processes in two classes of semiconductor: I-IV Zintl compounds and the phosphorus-selenium system. Two alkali-metal-polyvalent metal Zintl compounds, CsPb and NaSn, exhibit a two-stage melting process with high-temperature solid phases characterized by rapid dynamical disorder. In CsPb this disorder is clearly associated with rapid reorientations of polyanions with the cations participating in the dynamical disorder on the same time scale. In NaSn the disorder is associated with fast reorientations of the polyanions closely coupled to a slower migration of the cations. The two high-temperature solid phases of the molecular crystal P{sub 4}Se{sub 3} are confirmed to be rotor phases with small but significant differences in the reorientational motions in the two phases. Zintl compounds are formed from an electropositive metal A and an electronegative metal on semimetal M. Electron transfer from A to M, along with directional bonding between the M-ions, leads to chemical behavior in these ions characteristic of elements to the right of M in the periodic table.

  1. Biofiltration of volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Malhautier, Luc; Khammar, Nadia; Bayle, Sandrine; Fanlo, Jean-Louis

    2005-07-01

    The removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated airstreams has become a major air pollution concern. Improvement of the biofiltration process commonly used for the removal of odorous compounds has led to a better control of key parameters, enabling the application of biofiltration to be extended also to the removal of VOCs. Moreover, biofiltration, which is based on the ability of micro-organisms to degrade a large variety of compounds, proves to be economical and environmentally viable. In a biofilter, the waste gas is forced to rise through a layer of packed porous material. Thus, pollutants contained in the gaseous effluent are oxidised or converted into biomass by the action of microorganisms previously fixed on the packing material. The biofiltration process is then based on two principal phenomena: (1) transfer of contaminants from the air to the water phase or support medium, (2) bioconversion of pollutants to biomass, metabolic end-products, or carbon dioxide and water. The diversity of biofiltration mechanisms and their interaction with the microflora mean that the biofilter is defined as a complex and structured ecosystem. As a result, in addition to operating conditions, research into the microbial ecology of biofilters is required in order better to optimise the management of such biological treatment systems. PMID:15803311

  2. Neuroprotective compounds of Tilia amurensis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bohyung; Weon, Jin Bae; Eom, Min Rye; Jung, Youn Sik; Ma, Choong Je

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tilia amurensis (Tiliacese) has been used for anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory in Korea, China, and Japan. Objective: In this study, we isolated five compounds from T. amurensis and determined whether protected neuronal cells against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in HT22 cells. Materials and Methods: Compounds were isolated using chromatographic techniques including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 open column and high performance liquid chromatography analysis, and evaluated neuroprotective effect in HT22 cells by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Results: β-D-fructofuranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside (1), (-)-epicatechin (2), nudiposide (3), lyoniside (4), and scopoletin (5) were isolated by bioactivity-guided fractionation from the ethyl acetate fraction of T. amurensis. Among them, (-)-epicatechin, nudiposide, lyoniside, and scopoletin had significant neuroprotective activities against glutamate-injured neurotoxicity in HT22 cells. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that compound two, three, four, and five have a pronounced protective effect against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in HT22 cells. PMID:26664019

  3. Enrichment of boron-10 by inverse-frontal chromatography using quaternized 4-vinylpyridine-divinylbenzene anion-exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Mardan, A.

    1997-08-01

    In order to enrich {sup 10}B, 40 meter band migration of boric acid-mannitol with hydrochloric acid solution was performed by inverse frontal chromatography on a porous, 25% crosslinked, 38% quaternized 4-vinylpyridine-divinylbenzene resin. The maximum enrichment (R{sub L}) of {sup 10}B was 94.15%. The overall process parameters, namely slope coefficient (k) and separation coefficient (e), were found to be 0.1282 cm{sup {minus}1} and 0.02967, respectively.

  4. Bioactive compounds from northern plants.

    PubMed

    Hohtola, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Northern conditions are characterised by long days with much light and low temperatures during the growing season. It has been chimed that herbs and berries grown in the north are stronger tasting compared to those of southern origin. The compounds imparting aroma and color to berries and herbs are secondary metabolites which in plants mostly act as chemical means of defense. Recently, the production of secondary metabolites using plant cells has been the subject of expanding research. Light intensity, photoperiod and temperature have been reported to influence the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. Native wild aromatic and medicinal plant species of different families are being studied to meet the needs of raw material for the expanding industry of e.g., health-promoting food products known as nutraceutics. There are already a large number of known secondary compounds produced by plants, but the recent advances in modern extraction and analysis should enable many more as yet unknown compounds to be found, characterised and utilised. Rose root (Rhodiola rosea) is a perennial herbaceous plant which inhabits mountain regions throughout Europe, Asia and east coastal regions of North America. The extract made from the rhizomes acts as a stimulant like the Ginseng root. Roseroot has been categorized as an adaptogen and is reported to have many pharmacological properties. The biologically active components of the extract are salitroside tyrosol and cinnamic acid glycosides (rosavin, rosarin, rosin). Round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) has circumboreal distribution. It inhabits nutrient-poor, moist and sunny areas such as peat bogs and wetlands. Sundew leaves are collected from the wild-type for various medicinal preparations and can be utilized in treating e.g., as an important "cough-medicine" for different respiratory diseases. The antimicrobial activity of extracts of aerial parts against various bacteria has been investigated. Drosera produces

  5. A Common Molecular Motif Characterizes Extracellular Allosteric Enhancers of GPCR Aminergic Receptors and Suggests Enhancer Mechanism of Action

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Robert Root; Dillon, Patrick F

    2014-01-01

    Several classes of compounds that have no intrinsic activity on aminergic systems nonetheless enhance the potency of aminergic receptor ligands three-fold or more while significantly increasing their duration of activity, preventing tachyphylaxis and reversing fade. Enhancer compounds include ascorbic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, cortico-steroids, opioid peptides, opiates and opiate antagonists. This paper provides the first review of aminergic enhancement, demonstrating that all enhancers have a common, inobvious molecular motif and work through a common mechanism that is manifested by three common characteristics. First, aminergic enhancers bind directly to the amines they enhance, suggesting that the common structural motif is reflected in common binding targets. Second, one common target is the first extracellular loop of aminergic receptors. Third, at least some enhancers are antiphosphodiesterases. These observations suggest that aminergic enhancers act on the extracellular surface of aminergic receptors to keep the receptor in its high affinity state, trapping the ligand inside the receptor. Enhancer binding produces allosteric modifications of the receptor structure that interfere with phosphorylation of the receptor, thereby inhibiting down-regulation of the receptor. The mechanism explains how enhancers potentiate aminergic activity and increase duration of activity and makes testable predictions about additional compounds that should act as aminergic enhancers. PMID:25174918

  6. Anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Jothimani, P; Kalaichelvan, G; Bhaskaran, A; Selvaseelan, D Augustine; Ramasamy, K

    2003-09-01

    Many aromatic compounds and their monomers are existing in nature. Besides they are introduced into the environment by human activity. The conversion of these aromatic compounds is mainly an aerobic process because of the involvement of molecular oxygen in ring fission and as an electron acceptor. Recent literatures indicated that ring fission of monomers and obligomers mainly occurs in anaerobic environments through anaerobic respiration with nitrate, sulphate, carbon dioxide or carbonate as electron acceptors. These anaerobic processes will help to work out the better situation for bioremediation of contaminated environments. While there are plenty of efforts to reduce the release of these chemicals to the environment, already contaminated sites need to be remediated not only to restore the sites but to prevent the leachates spreading to nearby environment. Basically microorganisms are better candidates for breakdown of these compounds because of their wider catalytic mechanisms and the ability to act even in the absence of oxygen. These microbes can be grouped based on their energy mechanisms. Normally, the aerobic counterparts employ the enzymes like mono-and-dioxygenases. The end product is basically catechol, which further may be metabolised to CO2 by means of quinones reductases cycles. In the absense of reductases compounds, the reduced catechols tend to become oxidised to form many quinone compounds. The quinone products are more recalcitrant and lead to other aesthetic problems like colour in water, unpleasant odour, etc. On the contrary, in the reducing environment this process is prevented and in a cascade of pathways, the cleaved products are converted to acetyl co-A to be integrated into other central metabolite paths. The central metabolite of anaerobic degradation is invariably co-A thio-esters of benzoic acid or hydroxy benzoic acid. The benzene ring undergoes various substitution and addition reactions to form chloro-, nitro-, methyl- compounds

  7. Removal of phenolic compounds in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Nam-Koong, W.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this research was an evaluation of the removal rates of phenolic compounds in soil. Seventeen phenolic compounds with similar structure were chosen. Relative toxicity of phenolic compounds also was determined by the Microtox{sup TM} System to evaluate the relationship between the toxicity of the phenolic compounds and removal rate. The amount of ATP in the soil was measured by a Lumac/3M biocounter to evaluate any effect of phenolic compounds on the soil microbial activity. Preferential removal of phenolic compounds occurred in mixtures. The presence of phenol and/or o-cresol reduced the removal rate of 2,4-dichlorophenol. Reapplications of the phenolic compounds did not change the removal rate of the compounds. There was good correlation between the relative toxicity of phenolic compounds and zero order removal rates. The less toxic phenolic compounds were removed more rapidly. No lag phase was observed for the removal of phenolic compounds when the compounds were applied to soil below the toxic level. Phenolic compounds had a significant effect on soil microbial activity based on ATP measurement. The increase in soil ATP was related to a rapid removal of phenol. A gradual decrease in soil ATP was observed with the removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol.

  8. Choice of optimal properties of molding compounds for extrusion of block supports and catalysts with the honeycomb structure

    SciTech Connect

    Prokof`ev, V.Yu.; Il`in, A.P.; Shirokov, Yu.G.; Yurchenko, E.N.

    1995-09-20

    Properties of compounds for molding of block supports and catalysts with the honeycomb structure have been studied. The examples studied include ultraporcelain, alumina, titanium dioxide, clays, and graphite. The molding properties of these compounds are characterized by such parameters as the relationship between deformations, relaxation time, power for destruction of the coagulation structure, and flow index. For molding of blocks with the honeycomb structure compounds with enhanced plastic properties and a stable coagulation structure are suggested.

  9. Freehand spatial-angular compounding of photoacoustic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun-Jae; Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Guo, Xiaoyu; Taylor, Russell H.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2014-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging medical imaging modality that relies on the absorption of optical energy and the subsequent emission of acoustic waves that are detected with a conventional ultrasound probe. PA images are susceptible to background noise artifacts that reduce the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). We investigated spatial-angular compounding of PA images to enhance these image qualities. Spatial-angular compounding was implemented by averaging multiple PA images acquired as an ultrasound probe was rotated about the elevational axis with the laser beam and PA target fixed in the same location. An external tracking system was used to provide the position and orientation (i.e. pose) information of each PA image. Based on this pose information, frames in similar elevational planes were filtered from the acquired image data and compounded using one of two methods. One method registered overlapping signals between frames prior to compounding (using the pose information), while the second method omitted this spatial registration step. These two methods were applied to pre-beamformed RF, beamformed RF, and envelope-detected data, resulting in six different compounding pipelines. Compounded PA images with similar lateral resolution to a single reference image had factors of 1.1 - 1.6, 2.0 - 11.1, and 2.0 - 11.1 improvements in contrast, CNR, and SNR, respectively, when compared to the reference image. These improvements depended on the amount of relative motion between the reference image and the images that were compounded. The inclusion of spatial registration prior to compounding preserved lateral resolution and signal location when the relative rotations about the elevation axis were 3.5° or less for images that were within an elevational distance of 2.5 mm from the reference image, particularly when the method was applied to the enveloped-detected data. Results indicate that spatial-angular compounding has the

  10. Effect of UV-B light on soluble phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of various specialty crops and pomaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    UV-B treatment is the basis of a novel value-added processing method that enhances the nutrient content of specialty crops by increasing the synthesis of terpenes, polyphenolic compounds, and nitrogen-containing compounds. Whole fruits and vegetables and thin layers of peel and pomace by-products we...

  11. Governing processes for reactive nitrogen compounds in the European atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, O.; Skjøth, C. A.; Reis, S.; Bleeker, A.; Harrison, R. M.; Cape, J. N.; Fowler, D.; Skiba, U.; Simpson, D.; Jickells, T.; Kulmala, M.; Gyldenkærne, S.; Sørensen, L. L.; Erisman, J. W.; Sutton, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) compounds have different fates in the atmosphere due to differences in the governing processes of physical transport, deposition and chemical transformation. Nr compounds addressed here include reduced nitrogen (NHx: ammonia (NH3) and its reaction product ammonium (NH4+)), oxidized nitrogen (NOy: nitrogen monoxide (NO) + nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and their reaction products) as well as organic nitrogen compounds (organic N). Pollution abatement strategies need to take into account the differences in the governing processes of these compounds when assessing their impact on ecosystem services, biodiversity, human health and climate. NOx (NO + NO2) emitted from traffic affects human health in urban areas where the presence of buildings increases the residence time in streets. In urban areas this leads to enhanced exposure of the population to NOx concentrations. NOx emissions generally have little impact on nearby ecosystems because of the small dry deposition rates of NOx. These compounds need to be converted into nitric acid (HNO3) before removal through deposition is efficient. HNO3 sticks quickly to any surface and is thereby either dry deposited or incorporated into aerosols as nitrate (NO3-). In contrast to NOx compounds, NH3 has potentially high impacts on ecosystems near the main agricultural sources of NH3 because of its large ground-level concentrations along with large dry deposition rates. Aerosol phase NH4+ and NO3- contribute significantly to background PM2.5 and PM10 (mass of aerosols with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 and 10 μm, respectively) with an impact on radiation balance as well as potentially on human health. Little is known quantitatively and qualitatively about organic N in the atmosphere, other than that it contributes a significant fraction of wet-deposited N, and is present in both gaseous and particulate forms. Further studies are needed to characterise the sources, air chemistry and

  12. Statistical Modelling of Compound Floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevacqua, Emanuele; Maraun, Douglas; Vrac, Mathieu; Widmann, Martin; Manning, Colin

    2016-04-01

    In the recent special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) on extreme events it has been highlighted that an important class of extreme events has received little attention so far: so-called compound events (CEs) (Seneviratne et al., 2012). Compound events (CEs) are multivariate extreme events in which the individual contributing events might not be extreme themselves, but their joint occurrence causes an extreme impact. Following Leonard et al., 2013, we define events as CEs only when the contributing events are statistically dependent. For many events analysed so far, the contributing events have not been statistically dependent (e.g. the floods in Rotterdam, Van den Brink et al., 2005). Two typical examples of CEs are severe drought in conjunction with a heatwave, and storm surges coinciding with heavy rain that cause the so-called Compound Floods in the lower section of a river. We develop a multivariate statistical model to represent and analyse the physical mechanisms driving CEs, and to quantify the risk associated with these events. The model is based on pair-copula construction theory, which has the advantage of building joint probability distributions modeling the marginal distributions separately from the dependence structure among variables. This allows to analyse the individual contributing variables underlying the CE separately to their dependence structure. Here is presented an application of the statistical model for Compound Floods, based on a conceptual case study. For these particular events it is not trivial to find satisfying data. Usually, water level stations are not present in the area of the river where both the influence of the sea and river are seen. The main reason being that this critical area is small and stakeholders have little interest in measuring both effect from the sea and from the river. For these reasons we have developed a conceptual case study which allows us to vary the system's physical parameters

  13. BTF Potts compound texture model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haindl, Michal; Reměs, Václav; Havlíček, Vojtěch

    2015-03-01

    This paper introduces a method for modeling mosaic-like textures using a multispectral parametric Bidirectional Texture Function (BTF) compound Markov random field model (CMRF). The primary purpose of our synthetic texture approach is to reproduce, compress, and enlarge a given measured texture image so that ideally both natural and synthetic texture will be visually indiscernible, but the model can be easily applied for BFT material editing. The CMRF model consist of several sub-models each having different characteristics along with an underlying structure model which controls transitions between these sub models. The proposed model uses the Potts random field for distributing local texture models in the form of analytically solvable wide-sense BTF Markovian representation for single regions among the fields of a mosaic approximated by the Voronoi diagram. The control field of the BTF-CMRF is generated by the Potts random field model build on top of the adjacency graph of a measured mosaic. The compound random field synthesis combines the modified fast Swendsen- Wang Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the hierarchical Potts MRF part with the fast and analytical synthesis of single regional BTF MRFs. The local texture regions (not necessarily continuous) are represented by an analytical BTF model which consists of single factors modeled by the adaptive 3D causal auto-regressive (3DCAR) random field model which can be analytically estimated as well as synthesized. The visual quality of the resulting complex synthetic textures generally surpasses the outputs of the previously published simpler non-compound BTF-MRF models.

  14. Therapeutic Phytogenic Compounds for Obesity and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hee Soong; Lim, Yun; Kim, Eun-Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Natural compounds have been used to develop drugs for many decades. Vast diversities and minimum side effects make natural compounds a good source for drug development. However, the composition and concentrations of natural compounds can vary. Despite this inconsistency, half of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved pharmaceuticals are natural compounds or their derivatives. Therefore, it is essential to continuously investigate natural compounds as sources of new pharmaceuticals. This review provides comprehensive information and analysis on natural compounds from plants (phytogenic compounds) that may serve as anti-obesity and/or anti-diabetes therapeutics. Our growing understanding and further exploration of the mechanisms of action of the phytogenic compounds may afford opportunities for development of therapeutic interventions in metabolic diseases. PMID:25421245

  15. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE MANUFACTURING WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preliminary survey information on the organophosphorus pesticide industry wastewater streams and analytical methods to monitor levels of organic compounds present in these streams are presented. The identification and quantification of organophosphorus compounds was emphasized, b...

  16. Groundwater Dating with Atmospheric Halogenated Compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haase, Karl B.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2014-01-01

    "Atmospheric environmental releases refer to the emission of stable, long-lived compounds of solely anthropogenic origin into the atmosphere and the use of the compounds to estimate dates of their incorporation into groundwater."

  17. Aroma compounds in fresh cut pomegranate arils.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum). Although arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing actual compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Since most commercial usage of pomegranates in...

  18. Polyfluorinated Compounds: Past, Present, and Future

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interest and concern about polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), erfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and an increasing number of other related compounds is growing as more is learned about these ubiquitous anthropogenic substances. Many of these co...

  19. Hyperpolarizable compounds and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Therien, Michael J.; DiMagno, Stephen G.

    1998-01-01

    Substituted compounds having relatively large molecular first order hyperpolarizabilities are provided, along with devices and materials containing them. In general, the compounds bear electron-donating and electron-withdrawing chemical substituents on a polyheterocyclic core.

  20. Hyperpolarizable compounds and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Therien, M.J.; DiMagno, S.G.

    1998-07-21

    Substituted compounds having relatively large molecular first order hyperpolarizabilities are provided, along with devices and materials containing them. In general, the compounds bear electron-donating and electron-withdrawing chemical substituents on a polyheterocyclic core. 13 figs.

  1. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.; Bomstad, Theresa M.; Sorini-Wong, Susan S.; Wong, Gregory K.

    2011-03-01

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  2. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.; Bomstad, Theresa M.; Sorini-Wong, Susan S.

    2009-02-10

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  3. Enantioselective effects in coordination compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurganov, Alexander A.; Ponomareva, T. M.; Davankov, Vadim A.

    1990-02-01

    The information that has appeared during the last 15 years relating to enantioselectivity in the formation and reactions of kinetically inert and kinetically labile complexes is classified in the present review. Attention is mainly given to chiral discrimination of ligands that are exchanged in the internal or external coordination spheres of the complexes. The occurrence of enantioselective effects has also been recorded in reactions of coordination compounds that occur without ligand exchange, in particular, in photochemical processes. The variety of forms in which enantioselectivity is displayed is shown and methods for studying it are described. The bibliography includes 223 references.

  4. Biosurfactant-enhanced soil bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Kosaric, N.; Lu, G.; Velikonja, J.

    1995-12-01

    Bioremediation of soil contaminated with organic chemicals is a viable alternative method for clean-up and remedy of hazardous waste sites. The final objective in this approach is to convert the parent toxicant into a readily biodegradable product which is harmless to human health and/or the environment. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil can also efficiently be enhanced by addition or in-situ production of biosufactants. It was generally observed that the degradation time was shortened and particularly the adaptation time for the microbes. More data from our laboratories showed that chlorinated aromatic compounds, such as 2,4-dichlorophenol, a herbicide Metolachlor, as well as naphthalene are degraded faster and more completely when selected biosurfactants are added to the soil. More recent data demonstrated an enhanced biodegradation of heavy hydrocarbons in petrochemical sludges, and in contaminated oil when biosurfactants were present or were added prior to the biodegradation process.

  5. Enhanced Histopathology of the Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Susan A.

    2007-01-01

    The spleen is the largest secondary lymphoid organ, is considered the draining site for compounds that are administered intravenously, and is therefore considered an important organ to evaluate for treatment-related lesions. Due to the presence of B and T lymphocytes, the immunotoxic effects of xenobiotics or their metabolites on these cell populations may be reflected in the spleen. Therefore it is one of the recommended organs to evaluate for enhanced histopathology of the immune system. The two major functional zones of the spleen are the hematogenous red pulp and the lymphoid white pulp (periarteriolar sheaths, follicles and marginal zones). For enhanced histopathology, these splenic compartments should be evaluated separately for changes in size and cellularity, and descriptive rather than interpretive terminology should be used to characterize any changes (Haley et al., 2005). Moreover, germinal center development within the lymphoid follicles should be noted as increased or decreased. PMID:17067950

  6. Two new acetylenic compounds from Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Mei; Cai, Jin-Long; Wang, Wen-Xiang; Ai, Hong-Lian; Mao, Zi-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Two new acetylenic compounds, asparoffins A (1) and B (2), together with two known compounds, nyasol (3) and 3″-methoxynyasol (4), were isolated from stems of Asparagus officinalis. The structures of two new compounds were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR). All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against three human cancer cell lines. PMID:26558641

  7. Thermoelectric properties of iron-based superconductors and parent compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallecchi, Ilaria; Caglieris, Federico; Putti, Marina

    2016-07-01

    Herewith, we review the available experimental data of thermoelectric transport properties of iron-based superconductors and parent compounds. We discuss possible physical mechanisms into play in determining the Seebeck effect, from whence one can extract information about Fermi surface reconstruction and Lifshitz transitions, multiband character, coupling of charge carriers with spin excitations and its relevance in the unconventional superconducting pairing mechanism, nematicity, quantum critical fluctuations close to the optimal doping for superconductivity, correlation. Additional information is obtained from the analysis of the Nernst effect, whose enhancement in parent compounds must be related partially to multiband transport and low Fermi level, but mainly to the presence of Dirac cone bands at the Fermi level. In the superconducting compounds, large Nernst effect in the normal state is explained in terms of fluctuating precursors of the spin density wave state, while in the superconducting state it mirrors the usual vortex liquid dissipative regime. A comparison between the phenomenology of thermoelectric behavior of different families of iron-based superconductors and parent compounds allows to evidence the key differences and analogies, thus providing clues on the rich and complex physics of these fascinating unconventional superconductors.

  8. Phenolic compounds in ectomycorrhizal interaction of lignin modified silver birch

    PubMed Central

    Sutela, Suvi; Niemi, Karoliina; Edesi, Jaanika; Laakso, Tapio; Saranpää, Pekka; Vuosku, Jaana; Mäkelä, Riina; Tiimonen, Heidi; Chiang, Vincent L; Koskimäki, Janne; Suorsa, Marja; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Häggman, Hely

    2009-01-01

    Background The monolignol biosynthetic pathway interconnects with the biosynthesis of other secondary phenolic metabolites, such as cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether genetic modification of the monolignol pathway in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) would alter the metabolism of these phenolic compounds and how such alterations, if exist, would affect the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Results Silver birch lines expressing quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides L.) caffeate/5-hydroxyferulate O-methyltransferase (PtCOMT) under the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) promoter showed a reduction in the relative expression of a putative silver birch COMT (BpCOMT) gene and, consequently, a decrease in the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl composition ratio. Alterations were also detected in concentrations of certain phenolic compounds. All PtCOMT silver birch lines produced normal ectomycorrhizas with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus (Batsch: Fr.), and the formation of symbiosis enhanced the growth of the transgenic plants. Conclusion The down-regulation of BpCOMT in the 35S-PtCOMT lines caused a reduction in the syringyl/guaiacyl ratio of lignin, but no significant effect was seen in the composition or quantity of phenolic compounds that would have been caused by the expression of PtCOMT under the 35S or UbB1 promoter. Moreover, the detected alterations in the composition of lignin and secondary phenolic compounds had no effect on the interaction between silver birch and P. involutus. PMID:19788757

  9. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOEpatents

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  10. The Modification of Compounds by Attributive Adjectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the modification of nominal compounds by attributive adjectives in English. It draws on a distinction between compound-external (i.e. syntactic) and compound-internal (i.e. morphological) modification. An analysis is presented of more than 1000 pertinent cases, which are roughly equally divided into two-, three- and four-noun…

  11. Five new bioactive compounds from Chenopodium ambrosioides.

    PubMed

    Song, Kun; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Hong-Qing; Liu, Chao; Li, Bao-Ming; Kang, Jie; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2015-05-01

    Five new bioactive compounds, chenopodiumamines A-D (1-4) and chenopodiumoside A (5), were isolated from the ethanol extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by various spectroscopic means (UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Compounds 1-3 had moderate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26001043

  12. Semiconducting compounds and devices incorporating same

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Tobin J; Facchetti, Antonio; Boudreault, Pierre-Luc; Miyauchi, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed are molecular and polymeric compounds having desirable properties as semiconducting materials. Such compounds can exhibit desirable electronic properties and possess processing advantages including solution-processability and/or good stability. Organic transistor and photovoltaic devices incorporating the present compounds as the active layer exhibit good device performance.

  13. Semiconducting compounds and devices incorporating same

    DOEpatents

    Marks, Tobin J.; Facchetti, Antonio; Boudreault, Pierre-Luc; Miyauchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-19

    Disclosed are molecular and polymeric compounds having desirable properties as semiconducting materials. Such compounds can exhibit desirable electronic properties and possess processing advantages including solution-processability and/or good stability. Organic transistor and photovoltaic devices incorporating the present compounds as the active layer exhibit good device performance.

  14. Latent IBP Compound Dirichlet Allocation.

    PubMed

    Archambeau, Cedric; Lakshminarayanan, Balaji; Bouchard, Guillaume

    2015-02-01

    We introduce the four-parameter IBP compound Dirichlet process (ICDP), a stochastic process that generates sparse non-negative vectors with potentially an unbounded number of entries. If we repeatedly sample from the ICDP we can generate sparse matrices with an infinite number of columns and power-law characteristics. We apply the four-parameter ICDP to sparse nonparametric topic modelling to account for the very large number of topics present in large text corpora and the power-law distribution of the vocabulary of natural languages. The model, which we call latent IBP compound Dirichlet allocation (LIDA), allows for power-law distributions, both, in the number of topics summarising the documents and in the number of words defining each topic. It can be interpreted as a sparse variant of the hierarchical Pitman-Yor process when applied to topic modelling. We derive an efficient and simple collapsed Gibbs sampler closely related to the collapsed Gibbs sampler of latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), making the model applicable in a wide range of domains. Our nonparametric Bayesian topic model compares favourably to the widely used hierarchical Dirichlet process and its heavy tailed version, the hierarchical Pitman-Yor process, on benchmark corpora. Experiments demonstrate that accounting for the power-distribution of real data is beneficial and that sparsity provides more interpretable results. PMID:26353244

  15. Corrosion Preventive Compounds Lifetime Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Stephanie M.; Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2007-01-01

    Lifetime Testing of Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) was performed to quantify performance in the various environments to which the Space Shuttle Orbiter is exposed during a flight cycle. Three CPCs are approved for use on the Orbiter: HD Calcium Grease, Dinitrol AV-30, and Braycote 601 EF. These CPCs have been rigorously tested to prove that they mitigate corrosion in typical environments, but little information is available on how they perform in the unique combination of the coastal environment at the launch pad, the vacuum of low-earth orbit, and the extreme heat of reentry. Currently, there is no lifetime or reapplication schedule established for these compounds that is based on this combination of environmental conditions. Aluminum 2024 coupons were coated with the three CPCs and exposed to conditions that simulate the environments to which the Orbiter is exposed. Uncoated Aluminum 2024 coupons were exposed to the environmental conditions as a control. Visual inspection and Electro- Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) were performed on the samples in order to determine the effectiveness of the CPCs. The samples were processed through five mission life cycles or until the visual inspection revealed the initiation of corrosion and EIS indicated severe degradation of the coating.

  16. Corrosion Preventive Compounds Lifetime Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Stephanie M.; Kammerer, Catherine C.; Copp, Tracy L.

    2007-01-01

    Lifetime Testing of Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) was performed to quantify performance in the various environments to which the Space Shuttle Orbiter is exposed during a flight cycle. Three CPCs are approved for use on the Orbiter: RD Calcium Grease, Dinitrol AV-30, and Braycote 601 EF. These CPCs have been rigorously tested to prove that they mitigate corrosion in typical environments, but little information is available on how they perform in the unique combination of the coastal environment at the launch pad, the vacuum of low-earth orbit, and the extreme heat of reentry. Currently, there is no lifetime or reapplication schedule established for these compounds that is based on this combination of environmental conditions. Aluminum 2024 coupons were coated with the three CPCs and exposed to conditions that simulate the environments to which the Orbiter is exposed. Uncoated Aluminum 2024 coupons were exposed to the environmental conditions as a control. Visual inspection and Electro- Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) were performed on the samples in order to determine the effectiveness of the CPCs. The samples were processed through five mission life cycles or until the visual inspection revealed the initiation of corrosion and EIS indicated severe degradation of the coating.

  17. Prebiotic Evolution of Nitrogen Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, G.

    1999-01-01

    Support from this four year grant has funded our research on two general problems. One involves attempts to model the abiotic formation of simple source compounds for functional biomolecules, their concentration from dilute state in the hydrosphere and, in several cases, surface induced reactions to form precursor monomers for bioactive end products (refs. 1-5). Because of the pervasiveness and antiquity of phosphate based biochemistry and the catalytic activity of RNA we have exploring the hypothesis of an RNA World as an early stage in the emergence of life. This concept is now rather generally considered, but has been questioned due to the earlier lack of an experimentally demonstrated successful scheme for the spontaneous formation of ribose phosphate, the key backbone molecule in RNA. That impediment has now been removed. This has been achieved by demonstrating probable sources of activated (condensed) highly soluble and strongly sorbed phosphates in nature (Refs. 1,2) and effective condensation of aldehyde phosphates to form ribose phosphate in high yield (ref.6), thereby placing the RNA World concept on a somewhat safer experimental footing. Like all work in this field these experiments are oversimplifications that largely ignore competing side reactions with other compounds expected to be present. None the less our choice of experimental conditions aim at selective processes that eliminate interfering reactions. We have also sought to narrow the credibility gap by simulating geophysically and geochemically plausible conditions surrounding the putative prebiotic reactions.

  18. Compound prism design principles, I

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Nathan; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2011-01-01

    Prisms have been needlessly neglected as components used in modern optical design. In optical throughput, stray light, flexibility, and in their ability to be used in direct-view geometry, they excel over gratings. Here we show that even their well-known weak dispersion relative to gratings has been overrated by designing doublet and double Amici direct-vision compound prisms that have 14° and 23° of dispersion across the visible spectrum, equivalent to 800 and 1300 lines/mm gratings. By taking advantage of the multiple degrees of freedom available in a compound prism design, we also show prisms whose angular dispersion shows improved linearity in wavelength. In order to achieve these designs, we exploit the well-behaved nature of prism design space to write customized algorithms that optimize directly in the nonlinear design space. Using these algorithms, we showcase a number of prism designs that illustrate a performance and flexibility that goes beyond what has often been considered possible with prisms. PMID:22423145

  19. Effect of γ-irradiation on volatile compounds of dried Welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyawali, Rajendra; Seo, Hye-Young; Lee, Hyun-Ju; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Dong-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2006-02-01

    The volatile compounds of γ-irradiated dried Welsh onion were isolated by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) technique and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) along with their non-irradiated counterparts. A total of 35 volatile compounds were identified in non-irradiated and 1 kGy irradiated samples and 36 volatile compounds were identified in 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy irradiated samples so far belong to chemical classes of acid, alcohol, aldehyde, ester, furan, ketone and S-containing compound. S-containing compounds were detected as major volatile compounds of all experimental samples. Though the content of several compounds was increased after irradiation, content of major S-containing compounds was found to decreased in the process. Application of high-dose irradiation if required for microbial decontamination of dried Welsh onion is feasible as it enhanced the total concentration of volatile compounds by 31.60% and 24.85% at 10 and 20 kGy, respectively.

  20. INSENSITIVE HIGH-NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    D. CHAVEZ; ET AL

    2001-03-01

    The conventional approach to developing energetic molecules is to chemically place one or more nitro groups onto a carbon skeleton, which is why the term ''nitration'' is synonymous to explosives preparation. The nitro group carries the oxygen that reacts with the skeletal carbon and hydrogen fuels, which in turn produces the heat and gaseous reaction products necessary for driving an explosive shock. These nitro-containing energetic molecules typically have heats of formation near zero and therefore most of the released energy is derived from the combustion process. Our investigation of the tetrazine, furazan and tetrazole ring systems has offered a different approach to explosives development, where a significant amount of the chemical potential energy is derived from their large positive heats of formation. Because these compounds often contain a large percentage of nitrogen atoms, they are usually regarded as high-nitrogen fuels or explosives. A general artifact of these high-nitrogen compounds is that they are less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine, several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. Some of the first compounds are 3,6-diamino-s-tetrazine-1,4-dioxide (LAX-112) and 3,6-dihydrazino-s-tetrazine (DHT). LAX-112 was once extensively studied as an insensitive explosive by Los Alamos; DHT is an example of a high-nitrogen explosive that relies entirely on its heat of formation for sustaining a detonation. Recent synthesis efforts have yielded an azo-s-tetrazine, 3,3'-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, which has a very high positive heat of formation. The compounds, 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be