Science.gov

Sample records for enhanced single base

  1. Enhanced power quality based single phase photovoltaic distributed generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Aurobinda; Pathak, M. K.; Srivastava, S. P.

    2016-08-01

    This article presents a novel control strategy for a 1-ϕ 2-level grid-tie photovoltaic (PV) inverter to enhance the power quality (PQ) of a PV distributed generation (PVDG) system. The objective is to obtain the maximum benefits from the grid-tie PV inverter by introducing current harmonics as well as reactive power compensation schemes in its control strategy, thereby controlling the PV inverter to achieve multiple functions in the PVDG system such as: (1) active power flow control between the PV inverter and the grid, (2) reactive power compensation, and (3) grid current harmonics compensation. A PQ enhancement controller (PQEC) has been designed to achieve the aforementioned objectives. The issue of underutilisation of the PV inverter in nighttime has also been addressed in this article and for the optimal use of the system; the PV inverter is used as a shunt active power filter in nighttime. A prototype model of the proposed system is developed in the laboratory, to validate the effectiveness of the control scheme, and is tested with the help of the dSPACE DS1104 platform.

  2. Sorting of Single Biomolecules based on Fourier Polar Representation of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Leray, Aymeric; Brulé, Thibault; Buret, Mickael; Colas des Francs, Gérard; Bouhelier, Alexandre; Dereux, Alain; Finot, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy becomes increasingly used in biosensors for its capacity to detect and identify single molecules. In practice, a large number of SERS spectra are acquired and reliable ranking methods are thus essential for analysing all these data. Supervised classification strategies, which are the most effective methods, are usually applied but they require pre-determined models or classes. In this work, we propose to sort SERS spectra in unknown groups with an alternative strategy called Fourier polar representation. This non-fitting method based on simple Fourier sine and cosine transforms produces a fast and graphical representation for sorting SERS spectra with quantitative information. The reliability of this method was first investigated theoretically and numerically. Then, its performances were tested on two concrete biological examples: first with single amino-acid molecule (cysteine) and then with a mixture of three distinct odorous molecules. The benefits of this Fourier polar representation were highlighted and compared to the well-established statistical principal component analysis method. PMID:26833130

  3. Sorting of Single Biomolecules based on Fourier Polar Representation of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leray, Aymeric; Brulé, Thibault; Buret, Mickael; Colas Des Francs, Gérard; Bouhelier, Alexandre; Dereux, Alain; Finot, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy becomes increasingly used in biosensors for its capacity to detect and identify single molecules. In practice, a large number of SERS spectra are acquired and reliable ranking methods are thus essential for analysing all these data. Supervised classification strategies, which are the most effective methods, are usually applied but they require pre-determined models or classes. In this work, we propose to sort SERS spectra in unknown groups with an alternative strategy called Fourier polar representation. This non-fitting method based on simple Fourier sine and cosine transforms produces a fast and graphical representation for sorting SERS spectra with quantitative information. The reliability of this method was first investigated theoretically and numerically. Then, its performances were tested on two concrete biological examples: first with single amino-acid molecule (cysteine) and then with a mixture of three distinct odorous molecules. The benefits of this Fourier polar representation were highlighted and compared to the well-established statistical principal component analysis method.

  4. Single-Phase, Turbulent Heat-Transfer Friction-Factor Data Base Flow Enhanced Tb

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-01-21

    Heat-exchanger designers need to know what type of performance improvement can be obtained before they will consider enhanced tubes. In particular, they need access to the heat-transfer coefficients and friction-factor values of enhanced tube types that are commercially available. To compile these data from the numerous publications and reports in the open literature is a formidable task that can discourage the designer from using them. A computer program that contains a comprehensive data base withmore » a search feature would be a handy tool for the designer to obtain an estimate of the performance improvement that can be obtained with a particular enhanced tube geometry. In addition, it would be a valuable tool for researchers who are developing and/or validating new prediction methods. This computer program can be used to obtain friction-factor and/or heat-transfer data for a broad range of internally enhanced tube geometries with forced-convective turbulent flow. The program has search features; that is the user can select data for tubes with a particular enhancement geometry range or data obtained from a particular source or publication. The friction factor data base contains nearly 5,000 points and the heat-transfer data base contains more than 4,700 points. About 360 different tube geometries are included from the 36 different sources. Data for tubes with similar geometries and the same and/or different types can be easily extracted with the sort feature of this data base and compared. Users of the program are heat-exchanger designers, enhanced tubing suppliers, and research organizations or academia who are developing or validating prediction methods.« less

  5. Gold Nanoplate-Based 3D Hierarchical Microparticles: A Single Particle with High Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Yung, Lin-Yue Lanry

    2016-08-01

    Formation of intended nano- and microstructures with regular building blocks has attracted much attention because of their potential applications in the fields of optics, electronics, and catalysis. Herein, we report a novel strategy to spontaneously grow three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical cabbagelike microparticles (CLMPs) constructed by individual Au nanoplates. By reducing gold precursor to gold atoms, N-(3-amidino)-aniline (NAAN) itself was oxidized to form poly(N-(3-amidino)-aniline) (PNAAN), which specifically binds on Au(111) facet as a capping agent and which leads to the formation of gold nanoplates. Because of the incomplete coverage of Au(111) facet, new gold nanoplate growth sites were spontaneously generated from the crystal plane of existing Au nanoplates for the growth of other nanoplates. This process continued until the nanoplate density reached its maximum range, eventually resulting in CLMPs with well-controlled structures. This opens a new avenue to utilize the imperfection during nanoparticle (NP) growth for the construction of microstructures. The individual CLMP shows excellent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) performance with high enhancement factor (EF) and good reproducibility as it integrates the SERS enhancement effects of individual Au nanoplate and the nanogaps formed by the uniform and hierarchical structures. PMID:27452074

  6. Enhanced terahertz source based on external cavity difference-frequency generation using monolithic single-frequency pulsed fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Eliot B; Shi, Wei; Nguyen, Dan T; Yao, Zhidong; Zong, Jie; Chavez-Pirson, Arturo; Peyghambarian, N

    2010-07-01

    We demonstrate a resonant external cavity approach to enhance narrowband terahertz radiation through difference-frequency generation for the first time (to our knowledge). Two nanosecond laser pulses resonant in an optical cavity interact with a nonlinear crystal to produce a factor of 7 enhancement of terahertz power compared to a single-pass orientation. This external enhancement approach shows promise to significantly increase both terahertz power and conversion efficiency through optical pump pulse enhancement and effective recycling. PMID:20596183

  7. Block copolymer based design of highly sensitive substrates for detecting single molecules by surface enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Atikur; Black, Charles

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) relies on substrates with nanometer-scale curvature in order to concentrate and amplify the incident electromagnetic field to increase the spectroscopic signature of Raman scattering. The localization and amplification of incident light is maximum between two plasmonic nanostructures called as ``hot spot''. Here, we report a new, scalable method for fabricating high-performance SERS substrates based on self-assembly of nanostructured block copolymer thin films. Due to the high spatial density and extremely high field strengths of substrate hot spots, these substrate are capable of enhancing Raman scattering signals from target molecules by more than 10 billion times. We will describe the process of fabricating these remarkable diagnostic tools, which are ~cm2 area substrates composed of an extremely high density (~1011 /cm2) of hexagonally-arranged Au or Ag nanoparticles positioned atop ~70nm tall silicon nanopillars. Key to the substrate performance is the sub-5 nm separation between particles, which we control with nm level precision. By systematically varying the gap between nanoparticles, we demonstrate that both the high hotspot density and sub 5nm hot spot gap are necessary to achieve the highest degree of enhancement of the Raman signal. The enormous enhancements provided by these substrates make possible the detection of single molecules.

  8. Plasma enhanced multistate storage capability of single ZnO nanowire based memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yunfeng; Xin, Pucong; Cheng, Shuying; Yu, Jinling; Zheng, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-state storage (MSS) is common for resistive random access memory, but the effects of plasma treatment on the MSS and the switching properties have been scarcely investigated. We have demonstrated a stable four-state storage capability of single zinc oxide nanowire (ZnO NW) treated by argon plasma. The electrical switching is attributed to the electron trapping and detrapping from the oxygen vacancies (Vos). The MSS relates to the electrical-thermal induced distribution of the Vos which determines electron transport behavior to show different resistance states. Additionally, programming (set and reset) voltages decrease with plasma treatment due to the thickness modulation of the interface barrier.

  9. Plasma enhanced multistate storage capability of single ZnO nanowire based memory

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Yunfeng Xin, Pucong; Cheng, Shuying; Yu, Jinling; Zheng, Qiao

    2015-01-19

    Multiple-state storage (MSS) is common for resistive random access memory, but the effects of plasma treatment on the MSS and the switching properties have been scarcely investigated. We have demonstrated a stable four-state storage capability of single zinc oxide nanowire (ZnO NW) treated by argon plasma. The electrical switching is attributed to the electron trapping and detrapping from the oxygen vacancies (V{sub o}s). The MSS relates to the electrical-thermal induced distribution of the V{sub o}s which determines electron transport behavior to show different resistance states. Additionally, programming (set and reset) voltages decrease with plasma treatment due to the thickness modulation of the interface barrier.

  10. Enhanced near-infrared photoresponse of organic phototransistors based on single-component donor-acceptor conjugated polymer nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Min; Lv, Shenchen; Wang, Qinghe; Zhang, Guobing; Lu, Hongbo; Qiu, Longzhen

    2016-03-01

    Single-component near-infrared phototransistors based on ambipolar organic semiconductor nanowires have been investigated and compared with their corresponding thin-film counterparts. The nanowire organic phototransistors (NW-OPTs) showed photocurrent/dark-current ratios and photoresponsivities as high as 1.3 × 104 and 440 mA W-1 for the p-type channel, and 3.3 × 104 and 70 mA W-1 for the n-type channel, respectively, upon near-infrared illumination with an intensity of 47.1 mW cm-2. These were much higher values compared to their thin-film counterparts. The enhancement of the near-infrared photoresponse could be attributed to the larger trap density originating from the semiconductor/insulator interface and the semiconductor/air interface. The performance of NW-OPTs was demonstrated to open up new possibilities to improve the near-infrared photoresponse of single-component devices.Single-component near-infrared phototransistors based on ambipolar organic semiconductor nanowires have been investigated and compared with their corresponding thin-film counterparts. The nanowire organic phototransistors (NW-OPTs) showed photocurrent/dark-current ratios and photoresponsivities as high as 1.3 × 104 and 440 mA W-1 for the p-type channel, and 3.3 × 104 and 70 mA W-1 for the n-type channel, respectively, upon near-infrared illumination with an intensity of 47.1 mW cm-2. These were much higher values compared to their thin-film counterparts. The enhancement of the near-infrared photoresponse could be attributed to the larger trap density originating from the semiconductor/insulator interface and the semiconductor/air interface. The performance of NW-OPTs was demonstrated to open up new possibilities to improve the near-infrared photoresponse of single-component devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09003b

  11. Structure-based Molecular Simulations Reveal the Enhancement of Biased Brownian Motions in Single-headed Kinesin

    PubMed Central

    Kanada, Ryo; Kuwata, Takeshi; Kenzaki, Hiroo; Takada, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Kinesin is a family of molecular motors that move unidirectionally along microtubules (MT) using ATP hydrolysis free energy. In the family, the conventional two-headed kinesin was experimentally characterized to move unidirectionally through “walking” in a hand-over-hand fashion by coordinated motions of the two heads. Interestingly a single-headed kinesin, a truncated KIF1A, still can generate a biased Brownian movement along MT, as observed by in vitro single molecule experiments. Thus, KIF1A must use a different mechanism from the conventional kinesin to achieve the unidirectional motions. Based on the energy landscape view of proteins, for the first time, we conducted a set of molecular simulations of the truncated KIF1A movements over an ATP hydrolysis cycle and found a mechanism exhibiting and enhancing stochastic forward-biased movements in a similar way to those in experiments. First, simulating stand-alone KIF1A, we did not find any biased movements, while we found that KIF1A with a large friction cargo-analog attached to the C-terminus can generate clearly biased Brownian movements upon an ATP hydrolysis cycle. The linked cargo-analog enhanced the detachment of the KIF1A from MT. Once detached, diffusion of the KIF1A head was restricted around the large cargo which was located in front of the head at the time of detachment, thus generating a forward bias of the diffusion. The cargo plays the role of a diffusional anchor, or cane, in KIF1A “walking.” PMID:23459019

  12. Iron-sulfur-based single molecular wires for enhancing charge transport in enzyme-based bioelectronic systems.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Aishwarya; Fernando, Teshan; Fernando, Sandun

    2016-04-15

    When redox enzymes are wired to electrodes outside a living cell (ex vivo), their ability to produce a sufficiently powerful electrical current diminishes significantly due to the thermodynamic and kinetic limitations associated with the wiring systems. Therefore, we are yet to harness the full potential of redox enzymes for the development of self-powering bioelectronics devices (such as sensors and fuel cells). Interestingly, nature uses iron-sulfur complexes ([Fe-S]), to circumvent these issues in vivo. Yet, we have not been able to utilize [Fe-S]-based chains ex vivo, primarily due to their instability in aqueous media. Here, a simple technique to attach iron (II) sulfide (FeS) to a gold surface in ethanol media and then complete the attachment of the enzyme in aqueous media is reported. Cyclic voltammetry and spectroscopy techniques confirmed the concatenation of FeS and glycerol-dehydrogenase/nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide (GlDH-NAD(+)) apoenzyme-coenzyme molecular wiring system on the base gold electrode. The resultant FeS-based enzyme electrode reached an open circuit voltage closer to its standard potential under a wide range of glycerol concentrations (0.001-1M). When probed under constant potential conditions, the FeS-based electrode was able to amplify current by over 10 fold as compared to electrodes fabricated with the conventional pyrroloquinoline quinone-based composite molecular wiring system. These improvements in current/voltage responses open up a wide range of possibilities for fabricating self-powering, bio-electronic devices. PMID:26657591

  13. Multiple enhanced self-protected spanning trees based architecture for recovery from single failure in metro ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Chen, Wentao; Jin, Depeng; Su, Li; Zeng, Lieguang

    2008-11-01

    Carriers and service providers are rushing to provide Ethernet-based virtual private network services in metro area network (MAN) as the most cost effective way to address the needs of the enterprise network market. To address the fast recovery from any signal failure issue in the Metro Ethernet, we propose a metro Ethernet architecture based on multiple Enhanced Self-protected Spanning Trees (ESST). The recovery mechanism, named Birthday-based Link Replacing Mechanism (BLRM), in this architecture is able to transform a self-protected spanning tree into another spanning tree after any signal link or node failure. Simulation result demonstrates the effectiveness of the BLRM in achieving fast recovery.

  14. Pre-Trial EEG-Based Single-Trial Motor Performance Prediction to Enhance Neuroergonomics for a Hand Force Task.

    PubMed

    Meinel, Andreas; Castaño-Candamil, Sebastián; Reis, Janine; Tangermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We propose a framework for building electrophysiological predictors of single-trial motor performance variations, exemplified for SVIPT, a sequential isometric force control task suitable for hand motor rehabilitation after stroke. Electroencephalogram (EEG) data of 20 subjects with mean age of 53 years was recorded prior to and during 400 trials of SVIPT. They were executed within a single session with the non-dominant left hand, while receiving continuous visual feedback of the produced force trajectories. The behavioral data showed strong trial-by-trial performance variations for five clinically relevant metrics, which accounted for reaction time as well as for the smoothness and precision of the produced force trajectory. 18 out of 20 tested subjects remained after preprocessing and entered offline analysis. Source Power Comodulation (SPoC) was applied on EEG data of a short time interval prior to the start of each SVIPT trial. For 11 subjects, SPoC revealed robust oscillatory EEG subspace components, whose bandpower activity are predictive for the performance of the upcoming trial. Since SPoC may overfit to non-informative subspaces, we propose to apply three selection criteria accounting for the meaningfulness of the features. Across all subjects, the obtained components were spread along the frequency spectrum and showed a variety of spatial activity patterns. Those containing the highest level of predictive information resided in and close to the alpha band. Their spatial patterns resemble topologies reported for visual attention processes as well as those of imagined or executed hand motor tasks. In summary, we identified subject-specific single predictors that explain up to 36% of the performance fluctuations and may serve for enhancing neuroergonomics of motor rehabilitation scenarios. PMID:27199701

  15. Pre-Trial EEG-Based Single-Trial Motor Performance Prediction to Enhance Neuroergonomics for a Hand Force Task

    PubMed Central

    Meinel, Andreas; Castaño-Candamil, Sebastián; Reis, Janine; Tangermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We propose a framework for building electrophysiological predictors of single-trial motor performance variations, exemplified for SVIPT, a sequential isometric force control task suitable for hand motor rehabilitation after stroke. Electroencephalogram (EEG) data of 20 subjects with mean age of 53 years was recorded prior to and during 400 trials of SVIPT. They were executed within a single session with the non-dominant left hand, while receiving continuous visual feedback of the produced force trajectories. The behavioral data showed strong trial-by-trial performance variations for five clinically relevant metrics, which accounted for reaction time as well as for the smoothness and precision of the produced force trajectory. 18 out of 20 tested subjects remained after preprocessing and entered offline analysis. Source Power Comodulation (SPoC) was applied on EEG data of a short time interval prior to the start of each SVIPT trial. For 11 subjects, SPoC revealed robust oscillatory EEG subspace components, whose bandpower activity are predictive for the performance of the upcoming trial. Since SPoC may overfit to non-informative subspaces, we propose to apply three selection criteria accounting for the meaningfulness of the features. Across all subjects, the obtained components were spread along the frequency spectrum and showed a variety of spatial activity patterns. Those containing the highest level of predictive information resided in and close to the alpha band. Their spatial patterns resemble topologies reported for visual attention processes as well as those of imagined or executed hand motor tasks. In summary, we identified subject-specific single predictors that explain up to 36% of the performance fluctuations and may serve for enhancing neuroergonomics of motor rehabilitation scenarios. PMID:27199701

  16. Enhanced ultraviolet-visible light responses of phototransistors based on single and a few ZrS3 nanobelts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, You-Rong; Wu, Jia-Jing; Wu, Xing-Cai

    2015-08-01

    Phototransistors based on single and three ZrS3 nanobelts were fabricated on SiO2/Si wafers by photolithography and the lift-off technique, respectively, and their light-induced electric properties were investigated in detail. Both the devices demonstrate a remarkable photoresponse from ultraviolet to near infrared light. The photoswitch current ratio (PCR) of the single-nanobelt phototransistor is 13 under the illumination of 405 nm light with an optical power of 10.5 mW cm-2 at a bias of 5 V, while the PCR of the three-nanobelt device is 210 under the illumination of 405 nm light with an optical power of 5.57 mW cm-2 at a bias of 1 V. On comparison of the photoresponses under the same conditions, the latter is found to be superior to the former, and both the devices show a much better photoresponse than the reported flexible ZrS3-nanobelt-film photodetector.

  17. Enhanced ultraviolet-visible light responses of phototransistors based on single and a few ZrS₃ nanobelts.

    PubMed

    Tao, You-Rong; Wu, Jia-Jing; Wu, Xing-Cai

    2015-09-14

    Phototransistors based on single and three ZrS3 nanobelts were fabricated on SiO2/Si wafers by photolithography and the lift-off technique, respectively, and their light-induced electric properties were investigated in detail. Both the devices demonstrate a remarkable photoresponse from ultraviolet to near infrared light. The photoswitch current ratio (PCR) of the single-nanobelt phototransistor is 13 under the illumination of 405 nm light with an optical power of 10.5 mW cm(-2) at a bias of 5 V, while the PCR of the three-nanobelt device is 210 under the illumination of 405 nm light with an optical power of 5.57 mW cm(-2) at a bias of 1 V. On comparison of the photoresponses under the same conditions, the latter is found to be superior to the former, and both the devices show a much better photoresponse than the reported flexible ZrS3-nanobelt-film photodetector. PMID:26242883

  18. Can template-based protein models guide the design of sequence fitness for enhanced thermal stability of single domain antibodies?

    PubMed

    Olson, Mark A; Zabetakis, Dan; Legler, Patricia M; Turner, Kendrick B; Anderson, George P; Goldman, Ellen R

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the practical use of comparative (template-based) protein models in replica-exchange simulations of single-domain antibody (sdAb) chains to evaluate if the models can correctly predict in rank order the thermal susceptibility to unfold relative to experimental melting temperatures. The baseline model system is the recently determined crystallographic structure of a llama sdAb (denoted as A3), which exhibits an unusually high thermal stability. An evaluation of the simulation results for the A3 comparative model and crystal structure shows that, despite the overall low Cα root-mean-square deviation between the two structures, the model contains misfolded regions that yields a thermal profile of unraveling at a lower temperature. Yet comparison of the simulations of four different comparative models for sdAb A3, C8, A3C8 and E9, where A3C8 is a design of swapping the sequence of the complementarity determining regions of C8 onto the A3 framework, discriminated among the sequences to detect the highest and lowest experimental melting transition temperatures. Further structural analysis of A3 for selected alanine substitutions by a combined computational and experimental study found unexpectedly that the comparative model performed admirably in recognizing substitution 'hot spots' when using a support-vector machine algorithm. PMID:26374895

  19. Single-particle Raman measurements of gold nanoparticles used in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based sandwich immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hye-Young; Lipert, Robert J.; Porter, Marc D.

    2004-12-01

    The effect of particle size on the intensity of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using labeled gold nanoparticles has been investigated. Two sets of experiments were preformed, both of which employed 632.8-nm laser excitation. The first entailed a sandwich immunoassay in which an antibody coupled to a smooth gold substrate selectively captured free-prostate specific antigen (f-PSA) from buffered aqueous solutions. The presence of captured f-PSA was then detected by the response of Raman-labeled immunogold nanoparticles with nominal diameters of 30, 40, 50, 60, or 80 nm. The resulting SERS responses were correlated to particle densities, which were determined by atomic force microscopy, by calculating the average response per particle after accounting for differences in particle surface area. This analysis showed that the magnitude of the SERS response increased with increasing particle size. The second set of experiments examined the response of individual nanoparticles. These experiments differed in that the labeled nanoparticles were coupled to the smooth gold substrate by an amine-terminated thiolate, yielding a much smaller average separation between the particles and substrate. The results revealed that particles with a diameter of ~70 nm exhibited the largest enhancement. The origin of the difference in the two sets of findings, which is attributed to the distance dependence of the plasmon coupling between the nanoparticles and underlying substrate, is briefly discussed.

  20. Microfluidic single-cell transcriptional analysis rationally identifies novel surface marker profiles to enhance cell-based therapies.

    PubMed

    Rennert, Robert C; Januszyk, Michael; Sorkin, Michael; Rodrigues, Melanie; Maan, Zeshaan N; Duscher, Dominik; Whittam, Alexander J; Kosaraju, Revanth; Chung, Michael T; Paik, Kevin; Li, Alexander Y; Findlay, Michael; Glotzbach, Jason P; Butte, Atul J; Gurtner, Geoffrey C

    2016-01-01

    Current progenitor cell therapies have only modest efficacy, which has limited their clinical adoption. This may be the result of a cellular heterogeneity that decreases the number of functional progenitors delivered to diseased tissue, and prevents correction of underlying pathologic cell population disruptions. Here, we develop a high-resolution method of identifying phenotypically distinct progenitor cell subpopulations via single-cell transcriptional analysis and advanced bioinformatics. When combined with high-throughput cell surface marker screening, this approach facilitates the rational selection of surface markers for prospective isolation of cell subpopulations with desired transcriptional profiles. We establish the usefulness of this platform in costly and highly morbid diabetic wounds by identifying a subpopulation of progenitor cells that is dysfunctional in the diabetic state, and normalizes diabetic wound healing rates following allogeneic application. We believe this work presents a logical framework for the development of targeted cell therapies that can be customized to any clinical application. PMID:27324848

  1. Using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and electrochemically driven melting to discriminate Yersinia pestis from Y. pseudotuberculosis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms within unpurified polymerase chain reaction amplicons.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Evanthia; Goodchild, Sarah A; Cleary, David W; Weller, Simon A; Gale, Nittaya; Stubberfield, Michael R; Brown, Tom; Bartlett, Philip N

    2015-02-01

    The development of sensors for the detection of pathogen-specific DNA, including relevant species/strain level discrimination, is critical in molecular diagnostics with major impacts in areas such as bioterrorism and food safety. Herein, we use electrochemically driven denaturation assays monitored by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to target single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that distinguish DNA amplicons generated from Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, from the closely related species Y. pseudotuberculosis. Two assays targeting SNPs within the groEL and metH genes of these two species have been successfully designed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to produce Texas Red labeled single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) amplicons of 262 and 251 bases for the groEL and metH targets, respectively. These amplicons were used in an unpurified form to hybridize to immobilized probes then subjected to electrochemically driven melting. In all cases electrochemically driven melting was able to discriminate between fully homologous DNA and that containing SNPs. The metH assay was particularly challenging due to the presence of only a single base mismatch in the middle of the 251 base long PCR amplicon. However, manipulation of assay conditions (conducting the electrochemical experiments at 10 °C) resulted in greater discrimination between the complementary and mismatched DNA. Replicate data were collected and analyzed for each duplex on different days, using different batches of PCR product and different sphere segment void (SSV) substrates. Despite the variability introduced by these differences, the assays are shown to be reliable and robust providing a new platform for strain discrimination using unpurified PCR samples. PMID:25551670

  2. Part-Per-Trillion Level SF6 Detection Using a Quartz Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy-Based Sensor with Single-Mode Fiber-Coupled Quantum Cascade Laser Excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Spagnolo, V.; Patimisco, P.; Borri, Simone; Scamarcio, G.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Kriesel, J.M.

    2012-10-23

    A sensitive spectroscopic sensor based on a hollow-core fiber-coupled quantum cascade laser (QCL) emitting at 10.54 µm and quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) technique is reported. The design and realization of mid-infrared fiber and coupler optics has ensured single-mode QCL beam delivery to the QEPAS sensor . The collimation optics was designed to produce a laser beam of significantly reduced beam size and waist so as to prevent illumination of the quartz tuning fork and micro-resonator tubes. SF6 was selected as the target gas. A minimum detection sensitivity of 50 parts per trillion in 1 s was achieved with a QCL power of 18 mW, corresponding to a normalized noise-equivalent absorption of 2.7x10-10 W•cm-1/Hz1/2.

  3. A Single Methylene Group in Oligoalkylamine-Based Cationic Polymers and Lipids Promotes Enhanced mRNA Delivery.

    PubMed

    Jarzębińska, Anita; Pasewald, Tamara; Lambrecht, Jana; Mykhaylyk, Olga; Kümmerling, Linda; Beck, Philipp; Hasenpusch, Günther; Rudolph, Carsten; Plank, Christian; Dohmen, Christian

    2016-08-01

    The development of chemically modified mRNA holds great promise as a new class of biologic therapeutics. However, the intracellular delivery and endosomal escape of mRNA encapsulated in nanoparticles has not been systematically investigated. Here, we synthesized a diverse set of cationic polymers and lipids from a series of oligoalkylamines and subsequently characterized their mRNA delivery capability. Notably, a structure with an alternating alkyl chain length between amines showed the highest transfection efficiency, which was linked to a high buffering capacity in a narrow range of pH 6.2 to 6.5. Variation in only one methylene group resulted in enhanced mRNA delivery to both the murine liver as well as porcine lungs after systemic or aerosol administration, respectively. These findings reveal a novel fundamental structure-activity relationship for the delivery of mRNA that is independent of the class of mRNA carrier and define a promising new path of exploration in the field of mRNA therapeutics. PMID:27376704

  4. Enhancing Problem-Based Learning Designs with a Single E-Learning Scaffolding Tool: Two Case Studies Using Challenge FRAP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Terry M.; MacIntyre, William R.; Galea, Victor J.; Steel, Caroline H.

    2007-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a powerful instructional approach. By working through assessable complex problem-solving tasks learners can be encouraged to actively engage in investigation and inquiry and to use high level cognitive thought processes to solve real-life problems in professional contexts. A critical element of a successful PBL…

  5. Enhanced genetic algorithm optimization model for a single reservoir operation based on hydropower generation: case study of Mosul reservoir, northern Iraq.

    PubMed

    Al-Aqeeli, Yousif H; Lee, T S; Abd Aziz, S

    2016-01-01

    Achievement of the optimal hydropower generation from operation of water reservoirs, is a complex problems. The purpose of this study was to formulate and improve an approach of a genetic algorithm optimization model (GAOM) in order to increase the maximization of annual hydropower generation for a single reservoir. For this purpose, two simulation algorithms were drafted and applied independently in that GAOM during 20 scenarios (years) for operation of Mosul reservoir, northern Iraq. The first algorithm was based on the traditional simulation of reservoir operation, whilst the second algorithm (Salg) enhanced the GAOM by changing the population values of GA through a new simulation process of reservoir operation. The performances of these two algorithms were evaluated through the comparison of their optimal values of annual hydropower generation during the 20 scenarios of operating. The GAOM achieved an increase in hydropower generation in 17 scenarios using these two algorithms, with the Salg being superior in all scenarios. All of these were done prior adding the evaporation (Ev) and precipitation (Pr) to the water balance equation. Next, the GAOM using the Salg was applied by taking into consideration the volumes of these two parameters. In this case, the optimal values obtained from the GAOM were compared, firstly with their counterpart that found using the same algorithm without taking into consideration of Ev and Pr, secondly with the observed values. The first comparison showed that the optimal values obtained in this case decreased in all scenarios, whilst maintaining the good results compared with the observed in the second comparison. The results proved the effectiveness of the Salg in increasing the hydropower generation through the enhanced approach of the GAOM. In addition, the results indicated to the importance of taking into account the Ev and Pr in the modelling of reservoirs operation. PMID:27390638

  6. Nanochannel Based Single Molecule Recycling

    PubMed Central

    Lesoine, John F.; Venkataraman, Prahnesh A.; Maloney, Peter C.; Dumont, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We present a method for measuring the fluorescence from a single molecule hundreds of times without surface immobilization. The approach is based on the use of electroosmosis to repeatedly drive a single target molecule in a fused silica nanochannel through a stationary laser focus. Single molecule fluorescence detected during the transit time through the laser focus is used to repeatedly reverse the electrical potential controlling the flow direction. Our method does not rely on continuous observation and therefore is less susceptible to fluorescence blinking than existing fluorescence-based trapping schemes. The variation in the turnaround times can be used to measure the diffusion coefficient on a single molecule level. We demonstrate the ability to recycle both proteins and DNA in nanochannels and show that the procedure can be combined with single-pair Förster energy transfer. Nanochannel-based single molecule recycling holds promise for studying conformational dynamics on the same single molecule in solution and without surface tethering. PMID:22662745

  7. Enhancement of Single-Photon Sources with Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaginov, M. Y.; Bogdanov, S.; Vorobyov, V. V.; Lagutchev, A. S.; Kildishev, A. V.; Akimov, A. V.; Boltasseva, A.; Shalaev, V. M.

    2015-06-01

    Scientists are looking for new, breakthrough solutions that can greatly advance computing and networking systems. These solutions will involve quantum properties of matter and light as promised by the ongoing experimental and theoretical work in the areas of quantum computation and communication. Quantum photonics is destined to play a central role in the development of such technologies due to the high transmission capacity and outstanding low-noise properties of photonic information channels. Among the vital problems to be solved in this direction, are efficient generation and collection of single photons. One approach to tackle these problems is based on engineering emission properties of available single-photon sources using metamaterials. Metamaterials are artificially engineered structures with sub-wavelength features whose optical properties go beyond the limitations of conventional materials. As promising single-photon sources, we have chosen nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond, which are capable to operate stably in a single-photon regime at room temperature in a solid state environment. In this chapter, we report both theoretical and experimental studies of the radiation from a nanodiamond single NV center placed near a hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM). In particular, we derive the reduction of excited-state lifetime and the enhancement of collected single-photon emission rate and compare them with the experimental observations. These results could be of great impact for future integrated quantum sources, especially owing to a CMOS-compatible approach to HMM synthesis.

  8. Single-site surface-enhanced Raman scattering beyond spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takase, Mai; Yasuda, Satoshi; Murakoshi, Kei

    2016-04-01

    Recent progress in the observation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is reviewed to examine the possibility of finding a novel route for the effective photoexcitation of materials. The importance of well-controlled SERS experiments on a single molecule at a single site is discussed based on the difference in the information obtained from ensemble SERS measurements using multiple active sites with an uncontrolled number of molecules. A single-molecule SERS observation performed at a mechanically controllable breaking junction with a simultaneous conductivity measurement provides clear evidence of the drastic changes both in the intensity and in the Raman mode selectivity of the electromagnetic field generated by localized surface plasmon resonance. Careful control of the field at a few-nanometer-wide gap of a metal nanodimer results in the modification of the selection rule of electronic excitation of an isolated single-walled carbon nanotube. The examples shown in this review suggest that a single-site SERS observation could be used as a novel tool to find, develop, and implement applications of plasmon-induced photoexcitation of materials.

  9. Spatial Attention Enhances Perceptual Processing of Single-Element Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, William; Johnston, James C.; Remington, Roger W.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Shiu and Pashler (1993) reported that precueing masked, single-element displays had negligible effects on identification accuracy. They argued that spatial attention does not actually enhance stimulus perceptibility, but only reduces decision noise. Alternatively, such negative results may arise if cues are sub-optimal, or if masks place an insufficient premium on timely deployment of attention. We report results showing that valid cueing enhances processing of even single-element displays. Spatial attention does indeed enhance perceptual processes.

  10. Laboratory evolution of Geobacter sulfurreducens for enhanced growth on lactate via a single-base-pair substitution in a transcriptional regulator

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Zarath M; Ueki, Toshiyuki; Ismail, Wael; Haveman, Shelley A; Lovley, Derek R

    2012-01-01

    The addition of organic compounds to groundwater in order to promote bioremediation may represent a new selective pressure on subsurface microorganisms. The ability of Geobacter sulfurreducens, which serves as a model for the Geobacter species that are important in various types of anaerobic groundwater bioremediation, to adapt for rapid metabolism of lactate, a common bioremediation amendment, was evaluated. Serial transfer of five parallel cultures in a medium with lactate as the sole electron donor yielded five strains that could metabolize lactate faster than the wild-type strain. Genome sequencing revealed that all five strains had non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the same gene, GSU0514, a putative transcriptional regulator. Introducing the single-base-pair mutation from one of the five strains into the wild-type strain conferred rapid growth on lactate. This strain and the five adaptively evolved strains had four to eight-fold higher transcript abundance than wild-type cells for genes for the two subunits of succinyl-CoA synthase, an enzyme required for growth on lactate. DNA-binding assays demonstrated that the protein encoded by GSU0514 bound to the putative promoter of the succinyl-CoA synthase operon. The binding sequence was not apparent elsewhere in the genome. These results demonstrate that a single-base-pair mutation in a transcriptional regulator can have a significant impact on the capacity for substrate utilization and suggest that adaptive evolution should be considered as a potential response of microorganisms to environmental change(s) imposed during bioremediation. PMID:22113376

  11. Plasmon-enhanced emission from single fluorescent proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donehue, Jessica E.; Haas, Beth L.; Wertz, Esther; Talicska, Courtney N.; Biteen, Julie S.

    2013-02-01

    In this work, we use evaporated gold nanoparticle films (GNPFs) as substrates for plasmon-enhanced imaging of two fluorescent proteins (FPs): mCherry and YFP. Through single-molecule epifluorescence microscopy, we show enhancement of single FP emission in the presence of GNPFs. The gold-coupled FPs demonstrate emission up to four times brighter and seven times longer lived, yielding order-of-magnitude enhancements in total photons detected. Ultimately, this results in increased localization accuracies for single-molecule imaging. Furthermore, we introduce preliminary results for enhancement of mCherry-labeled TcpP membrane proteins inside live Vibrio cholerae cells coupled to GNPFs. Our work indicates that plasmonic substrates are uniquely advantageous for super-resolution imaging and that plasmon-enhanced imaging is a promising technique for improving live cell single-molecule microscopy.

  12. Highly sensitive impedimetric immunosensor based on single-walled carbon nanohorns as labels and bienzyme biocatalyzed precipitation as enhancer for cancer biomarker detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Han, Jing; Zhuo, Ying; Yang, Zhehan; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo

    2014-05-15

    A novel sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor based on functionalized nanomaterial labels and bienzyme (horseradish peroxidase and glucose oxidase) biocatalyzed precipitation was developed for the detection of α-fetoprotein (AFP). The enzymes linked to functionalized nanomaterials as biocatalysts could accelerate the oxidation of 4-chloro-1-naphthol (4-CN) by H2O2 to yield the insoluble product on the electrode surface; the mass loading of the precipitates on the device led to a significant enhanced signal. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques were used to monitor the enhanced precipitation of 4-CN that accumulated on the electrode surface and subsequent decrement in the electrode surface area by monitoring the reduction process of the Fe(CN)6(4-/3-) redox couple. Under optimal conditions, the proposed immunosensor showed a high sensitivity and a wide linear range from 0.001 to 60 ng mL(-1) with a low detection limit of 0.33 pg mL(-1). Moreover, the immunosensor exhibited good selectivity, acceptable stability and reproducibility. The amplification strategy showed good promise for clinical screening of tumor biomarkers. PMID:24419078

  13. Highly enhanced gas sensing in single-walled carbon nanotube-based thin-film transistor sensors by ultraviolet light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tingting; Wei, Liangming; Zhou, Zhihua; Shi, Diwen; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Jiang; Yu, Yuan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yafei

    2012-11-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) random networks are easily fabricated on a wafer scale, which provides an attractive path to large-scale SWCNT-based thin-film transistor (TFT) manufacturing. However, the mixture of semiconducting SWCNTs and metallic SWCNTs (m-SWCNTs) in the networks significantly limits the TFT performance due to the m-SWCNTs dominating the charge transport. In this paper, we have achieved a uniform and high-density SWCNT network throughout a complete 3-in. Si/SiO2 wafer using a solution-based assembly method. We further utilized UV radiation to etch m-SWCNTs from the networks, and a remarkable increase in the channel current on/off ratio ( I on/ I off) from 11 to 5.6 × 103 was observed. Furthermore, we used the SWCNT-TFTs as gas sensors to detect methyl methylphosphonate, a stimulant of benchmark threats. It was found that the SWCNT-TFT sensors treated with UV radiation show a much higher sensitivity and faster response to the analytes than those without treatment with UV radiation.

  14. Enhancing the mechanical properties of single-crystal CVD diamond.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qi; Yan, Chih-Shiue; Meng, Yufei; Lai, Joseph; Krasnicki, Szczesny; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Hemley, Russell J

    2009-09-01

    Approaches for enhancing the strength and toughness of single-crystal diamond produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at high growth rates are described. CVD processes used to grow single-crystal diamond in high density plasmas were modified to incorporate boron and nitrogen. Semi-quantitative studies of mechanical properties were carried out using Vickers indentation techniques. The introduction of boron in single-crystal CVD diamond can significantly enhance the fracture toughness of this material without sacrificing its high hardness (∼78 GPa). Growth conditions were varied to investigate its effect on boron incorporation and optical properties by means of photoluminescence, infrared, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. Boron can be readily incorporated into single-crystal diamond by the methods used, but with nitrogen addition, the incorporation of boron was hindered. The spectroscopic measurements indicate that nitrogen and boron coexist in the diamond structure, which helps explain the origin of the enhanced fracture toughness of this material. Further, low pressure/high temperature annealing can enhance the intrinsic hardness of single-crystal CVD diamond by a factor of two without appreciable loss in fracture toughness. This doping and post-growth treatment of diamond may lead to new technological applications that require enhanced mechanical properties of diamond. PMID:21832321

  15. Enhanced photostability of an anthracene-based dye due to supramolecular encapsulation: a new type of photostable fluorophore for single-molecule study.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Masaaki; Higashi, Koji; Takahashi, Ryoya; Hirumi, Yohei; Kobayashi, Kenji

    2014-08-01

    For single-molecule fluorescence studies, highly photostable fluorophores are absolutely imperative, because photo-induced degradation (i.e., photobleaching) limits the observation time of individual molecules. Herein, the photophysics and photostability of a highly fluorescent 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene derivative (G) and its self-assembled boronic ester encapsulation complex (G@Cap) embedded in a glassy polymer matrix are investigated by single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy (SMFS). The heterogeneity of the fluorescence emission wavelength and triplet blinking kinetics of the guest G are significantly decreased by supramolecular encapsulation due to conformational restriction and reduced heterogeneity in the local environment. A nearly 10-fold increase in the photostability of G due to encapsulation is quantitatively confirmed by evaluating the photobleaching yields of G and G@Cap. In addition, it is found that the G@Cap is >30-fold more photostable than rhodamine 6G, a widely used fluorescent dye in single-molecule studies. These results demonstrate that the G@Cap can serve as a very bright, long-lasting fluorescent probe for single-molecule studies. PMID:24887756

  16. SPR based fiber-optic sensor with enhanced electric field intensity and figure of merit using different single and bimetallic configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabassum, Rana; Gupta, Banshi D.

    2016-05-01

    We present numerical simulations of electric field intensity, sensitivity and figure of merit (FOM) for different single and bimetallic configured surface plasmon resonance (SPR) fiber optic sensors. The metals considered are gold (Au), silver (Ag), copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al). The overall performance of the sensor is evaluated in terms of electric field intensity, sensitivity, FOM, chemical stability and the cost of fabrication of the sensor. More specifically, in terms of the sensing parameters, Al and Cu bimetallic configuration is found to be much better than the single and the other bimetallic configured sensors. The bimetallic configuration of Al and Cu for fiber optic SPR sensor is also evaluated experimentally. Additionally, the film adhesion capability of both the materials gets improved when used in bimetallic combination which further improves the chemical stability of the sensor; this is a serious problem with Al and Cu in their single layer configuration. The combinations which possess gold as outer layer are more chemically stable but found to be weaker in terms of sensing parameters and cost of fabrication as gold is highly expensive.

  17. Relationship Enhancement for Single Females: Interpersonal Network Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Debi H.; Avery, Arthur W.

    1984-01-01

    Assessed the effects of relationship enhancement training on the level of communication skills, amount of relationship change, and friendship strength of single female friendship pairs (N=38). Results indicated the trained experimental group increased their communication skills and amount of relationship change. (BH)

  18. Mutanolysin enhancement of serogrouping of single colonies of streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Calandra, G B; Henson, C L

    1982-01-01

    Single colonies of beta-hemolytic streptococci could be grouped by antibody-coated latex bead agglutination or coagglutination with staphylococci coated with antibody after incubation of the colonies with mutanolysin. This simple and quick procedure provided an enzymatic means of enhancing the sensitivity of tests such as Phadebact and SeroSTAT. PMID:6764770

  19. Enhancing efficiency of single, large-aperture antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M.; Grimes, D. E.; Littlepage, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    Numerical analysis method provides means of describing energy distribution in focal plane of parabolic surface in terms of phase and wavelength. Two approaches for enhancing antenna efficiency include single, large reflector focused to feeding element, and array of smaller apertures whose individual outputs are summed.

  20. Development of an enhanced bovine viral diarrhea virus subunit vaccine based on E2 glycoprotein fused to a single chain antibody which targets to antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Pecora, Andrea; Malacari, Darío A; Pérez Aguirreburualde, María S; Bellido, Demian; Escribano, José M; Dus Santos, María J; Wigdorovitz, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important cause of economic losses worldwide. E2 is an immunodominant protein and a promising candidate to develop subunit vaccines. To improve its immunogenicity, a truncated E2 (tE2) was fused to a single chain antibody named APCH, which targets to antigen-presenting cells. APCH-tE2 and tE2 proteins were expressed in the baculovirus system and their immunogenicity was firstly compared in guinea pigs. APCH-tE2 vaccine was the best one to evoke a humoral response, and for this reason, it was selected for a cattle vaccination experiment. All the bovines immunized with 1.5 μg of APCH-tE2 developed high levels of neutralizing antibodies against BVDV up to a year post-immunization, demonstrating its significant potential as a subunit vaccine. This novel vaccine is undergoing scale-up and was transferred to the private sector. Nowadays, it is being evaluated for registration as the first Argentinean subunit vaccine for cattle. PMID:25697468

  1. Novel Single-Tube Agar-Based Test System for Motility Enhancement and Immunocapture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by H7 Flagellar Antigen-Specific Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Murinda, Shelton E.; Nguyen, Lien T.; Ivey, Susan J.; Almeida, Raul A.; Oliver, Stephen P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a novel single-tube agar-based technique for motility enhancement and immunoimmobilization of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Motility indole ornithine medium and agar (0.4%, wt/vol) media containing either nutrient broth, tryptone broth, or tryptic soy broth (TSBA) were evaluated for their abilities to enhance bacterial motility. Twenty-six E. coli strains, including 19 O157:H7 strains, 1 O157:H− strain, and 6 generic E. coli strains, were evaluated. Test bacteria were stab inoculated in the center of the agar column, and tubes were incubated at 37°C for 18 to 96 h. Nineteen to 24 of the 26 test strains (73.1 to 92.3%) were motile in the different media. TSBA medium performed best and was employed in subsequent studies of motility enhancement and H7 flagellar immunocapture. H7 flagellar antiserum (30 and 60 μl) mixed with TSBA was placed as a band (1 ml) in the middle of an agar column separating the top (3-ml) and bottom (3-ml) agar layers. The top agar layer was inoculated with the test bacterial strains. The tubes were incubated at 37°C for 12 to 18 h and for 18 to 96 h. The specificity and sensitivity of the H7 flagellar immunocapture tests were 75 and 100%, respectively. The procedure described is simple and sensitive and could be adapted easily for routine use in laboratories that do not have sophisticated equipment and resources for confirming the presence of H7 flagellar antigens. Accurate and rapid identification of H7 flagellar antigen is critical for the complete characterization of E. coli O157:H7, owing to the immense clinical, public health, and economic significance of this food-borne pathogen. PMID:12454173

  2. Image enhancement based on edge boosting algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngernplubpla, Jaturon; Chitsobhuk, Orachat

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a technique for image enhancement based on proposed edge boosting algorithm to reconstruct high quality image from a single low resolution image is described. The difficulty in single-image super-resolution is that the generic image priors resided in the low resolution input image may not be sufficient to generate the effective solutions. In order to achieve a success in super-resolution reconstruction, efficient prior knowledge should be estimated. The statistics of gradient priors in terms of priority map based on separable gradient estimation, maximum likelihood edge estimation, and local variance are introduced. The proposed edge boosting algorithm takes advantages of these gradient statistics to select the appropriate enhancement weights. The larger weights are applied to the higher frequency details while the low frequency details are smoothed. From the experimental results, the significant performance improvement quantitatively and perceptually is illustrated. It can be seen that the proposed edge boosting algorithm demonstrates high quality results with fewer artifacts, sharper edges, superior texture areas, and finer detail with low noise.

  3. Enhancing Single Molecule Imaging in Optofluidics and Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Laporte, Gregoire P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidics and optofluidics have revolutionized high-throughput analysis and chemical synthesis over the past decade. Single molecule imaging has witnessed similar growth, due to its capacity to reveal heterogeneities at high spatial and temporal resolutions. However, both resolution types are dependent on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the image. In this paper, we review how the SNR can be enhanced in optofluidics and microfluidics. Starting with optofluidics, we outline integrated photonic structures that increase the signal emitted by single chromophores and minimize the excitation volume. Turning then to microfluidics, we review the compatible functionalization strategies that reduce noise stemming from non-specific interactions and architectures that minimize bleaching and blinking. PMID:21954349

  4. Enhanced resistance of single-layer graphene to ion bombardment

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, J. J.; Greer, F.; Greer, J. R.

    2010-05-15

    We report that single-layer graphene on a SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate withstands ion bombardment up to {approx}7 times longer than expected when exposed to focused Ga{sup +} ion beam. The exposure is performed in a dual beam scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam system at 30 kV accelerating voltage and 41 pA current. Ga{sup +} ion flux is determined by sputtering a known volume of hydrogenated amorphous carbon film deposited via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

  5. Single molecule surface enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofkens, Johan; De Schryver, Frans C.; Cotlet, Mircea; Habuchi, Satoshi

    2004-06-01

    One of the most intriguing findings in single molecule spectroscopy (SMS) is the observation of Raman spectra of individual molecules, despite the small cross section of the transitions involved. The observation of the spectra can be explained by the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERRS) effect. At the single-molecule level, the SERRS-spectra recorded as a function of time reveal inhomogeneous behaviour such as on/off blinking, spectral diffusion, intensity fluctuations of vibrational line, and even splitting of some lines within the spectrum of one molecule. Single-molecule SERRS (SM-SERRS) spectroscopy opens up exciting opportunities in the field of biophysics and biomedical spectroscopy. The first example of single protein SERRS was performed on hemoglobin. However, the possibility of extracting the heme group by silver sols can not be excluded. Here we report on SM-SERRS spectra of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in which the chromophore is kept in the protein. The time series of SM-SERRS spectra suggest the conversion of the EGFP chromophore between the deprotonated and the protonated form. Autocorrelation analysis of SM-SERRS trajectory reveals the presence of fast dynamics taking place in the protein. Our findings show the potential of the technique to study structural dynamics of protein molecules.

  6. Single well tracer method to evaluate enhanced recovery

    DOEpatents

    Sheely, Jr., Clyde Q.; Baldwin, Jr., David E.

    1978-01-01

    Data useful to evaluate the effectiveness of or to design an enhanced recovery process (the recovery process involving mobilizing and moving hydrocarbons through a hydrocarbon-bearing subterranean formation from an injection well to a production well by injecting a mobilizing fluid into the injection well) are obtained by a process which comprises sequentially: determining hydrocarbon saturation in the formation in a volume in the formation near a well bore penetrating the formation, injecting sufficient of the mobilizing fluid to mobilize and move hydrocarbons from a volume in the formation near the well bore penetrating the formation, and determining by the single well tracer method a hydrocarbon saturation profile in a volume from which hydrocarbons are moved. The single well tracer method employed is disclosed by U.S. Pat. No. 3,623,842. The process is useful to evaluate surfactant floods, water floods, polymer floods, CO.sub.2 floods, caustic floods, micellar floods, and the like in the reservoir in much less time at greatly reduced costs, compared to conventional multi-well pilot test.

  7. Advanced piezoelectric single crystal based actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Rehrig, Paul W.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.; Smith, Edward; Dong, Shuxiang; Viehland, Dwight; Moore, Jim, Jr.; Patrick, Brian

    2005-05-01

    TRS is developing new actuators based on single crystal piezoelectric materials such as Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)1-xTixO3 (PZN-PT) and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)x-1TixO3 (PMN-PT) which exhibit very high piezoelectric coefficients (d33 = 1800-2200 pC/N) and electromechanical coupling factors (k33 > 0.9), respectively, for a variety of applications, including active vibration damping, active flow control, high precision positioning, ultrasonic motors, deformable mirrors, and adaptive optics. The d32 cut crystal plate actuators showed d32 ~ -1600 pC/N, inter-digital electroded (IDE) plate actuators showed effective d33 ~ 1100 pC/N. Single crystal stack actuators with stroke of 10 μm-100 μm were developed and tested at both room temperature and cryogenic temperatures. Flextensional single crystal piezoelectric actuators with either stack driver or plate driver were developed with stroke 70 μm - > 250 μm. For large stroke cryogenic actuation (> 1mm), a single crystal piezomotor was developed and tested at temperature of 77 K-300K and stroke of > 10mm and step resolution of 20 nm were achieved. In order to demonstrate the significance of developed single crystal actuators, modeling on single crystal piezoelectric deformable mirrors and helicopter flap control using single crystal actuators were conducted and the modeling results show that more than 20 wavelength wavefront error could be corrected by using the single crystal deformable mirrors and +/- 5.8 ° flap deflection will be obtained for a 36" flap using single crystal stack actuators.

  8. Combination of MVDR beamforming and single-channel spectral processing for enhancing noisy and reverberant speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauchi, Benjamin; Kodrasi, Ina; Rehr, Robert; Gerlach, Stephan; Jukić, Ante; Gerkmann, Timo; Doclo, Simon; Goetze, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a system aiming at joint dereverberation and noise reduction by applying a combination of a beamformer with a single-channel spectral enhancement scheme. First, a minimum variance distortionless response beamformer with an online estimated noise coherence matrix is used to suppress noise and reverberation. The output of this beamformer is then processed by a single-channel spectral enhancement scheme, based on statistical room acoustics, minimum statistics, and temporal cepstrum smoothing, to suppress residual noise and reverberation. The evaluation is conducted using the REVERB challenge corpus, designed to evaluate speech enhancement algorithms in the presence of both reverberation and noise. The proposed system is evaluated using instrumental speech quality measures, the performance of an automatic speech recognition system, and a subjective evaluation of the speech quality based on a MUSHRA test. The performance achieved by beamforming, single-channel spectral enhancement, and their combination are compared, and experimental results show that the proposed system is effective in suppressing both reverberation and noise while improving the speech quality. The achieved improvements are particularly significant in conditions with high reverberation times.

  9. Thermoelectric ZT enhanced by asymmetric configuration in single-molecule-magnet junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Pengbin; Shi, Yunlong; Sun, Zhu; Nie, Yi-Hang; Luo, Hong-Gang

    2016-02-01

    In mesoscopic devices, many factors like the Coulomb and spin interactions can enhance the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT. Here we use a system consisting of a single-molecule magnet (SMM) connected to two ferromagnetic electrodes to consider the possible enhancement effects of thermoelectric efficiency. By introducing an asymmetric configuration to the transport junction, we find that this configuration can significantly enhance the thermoelectric ZT. The optimized asymmetric thermoelectric ZT is five times that of the ZT with a symmetric configuration or non-magnetic case. Due to this asymmetry, a non-zero charge thermopower at the electron-hole symmetry point is also found. These results demonstrate that the asymmetry of the transport junction helps to enhance thermoelectric efficiency and is useful for fabricating SMM-based thermoelectric devices.

  10. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Single Molecules and Single Nano-Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinman, Samuel Louis

    Although plasmonic nanoparticles are widely utilized in spectroscopy and sensing applications, a quantitative structure-function relationship is lacking. In this dissertation, we discuss measurements of single noble metal nanoparticles using localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and transmission electron microscopy to elucidate structure-function relationships. Correlated studies involving two or all three of these techniques relate optical properties of the same nanoparticle to its structure. Through these correlated techniques we have been able to elucidate some of the structural motifs which give rise to the largest SERS enhancements. A variety of SERS substrates are used and the strengths and weaknesses of each type are compared. This information can be applied to sensing and detection methodologies. The utility of SERS is further explored through the use of SER spectroelectrochemistry. This confluence of techniques provided unique insight into the intermolecular interactions present in self-assembled monolayers of tetrathiafulvalene-modified thiolates on gold. Both ensemble-averaged and single-molecule SERS are thoroughly explored and with their benefits and limitations used synergistically to access the most fundamental physics of the light-matter interaction.

  11. Nanoscale mapping of intrinsic defects in single-layer graphene using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Su, Weitao; Kumar, Naresh; Dai, Ning; Roy, Debdulal

    2016-07-01

    Non-gap mode tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) is used for the first time to successfully map the intrinsic defects in single-layer graphene with 20 nm spatial resolution. The nanoscale Raman mapping is enabled by an unprecedented near-field to far-field signal contrast of 8.5 at the Ag-coated TERS tip-apex. These results demonstrate the potential of TERS for characterisation of defects in single-layer graphene-based devices at the nanometre length-scale. PMID:27279142

  12. Nanoparticle Based Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Talley, C E; Huser, T R; Hollars, C W; Jusinski, L; Laurence, T; Lane, S M

    2005-01-03

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering is a powerful tool for the investigation of biological samples. Following a brief introduction to Raman and surface-enhanced Raman scattering, several examples of biophotonic applications of SERS are discussed. The concept of nanoparticle based sensors using SERS is introduced and the development of these sensors is discussed.

  13. Surface enhanced Raman scattering detection of single R6G molecules on nanoporous gold films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongwen; Zhang, L.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Iwasaki, H.; Inouye, Y.; Xue, Q. K.; Chen, M. W.

    2011-03-01

    Detecting single molecules with high sensitivity and molecular specificity is of great practical interest in many fields such as chemistry, biology, medicine, and pharmacology. For this purpose, cheap and highly active substrates are of crucial importance. Recently, nanoporous metals (NPMs), with a three-dimensional continuous network structure and pore channels usually much smaller than the wavelength of visible light, revealed outstanding optical properties in surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). In this work, we further modify the nanoporous gold films by growing a high density of gold nano-tips on the surface. Extremely focused electromagnetic fields can be produced at the apex of the nano-tips, resulting in so-called hot spots. With this NPM-based and affordable substrate, single molecule-detection is achievable with ultrahigh enhancement in SERS.

  14. Antenna-Enhanced Photocurrent Microscopy on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes at 30 nm Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Rauhut, Nina; Engel, Michael; Steiner, Mathias; Krupke, Ralph; Avouris, Phaedon; Hartschuh, Achim

    2013-01-01

    We present the first photocurrent measurements along single carbon nanotube (CNT) devices with 30 nm resolution. Our technique is based on tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy, exploiting the plasmonically enhanced absorption controlled by an optical nanoantenna. This allows for imaging of the zero-bias photocurrent caused by charge separation in local built-in electric fields at the contacts and close to charged particles that cannot be resolved using confocal microscopy. Simultaneously recorded Raman scattering images reveal the structural properties and the defect densities of the CNTs. Antenna-enhanced scanning photocurrent microscopy extends the available set of scanning-probe techniques by combining high-resolution photovoltaic and optical probing and could become a valuable tool for the characterization of nanoelectronic devices. PMID:22632038

  15. DNA Origami Nanoantennas with over 5000-fold Fluorescence Enhancement and Single-Molecule Detection at 25 μM.

    PubMed

    Puchkova, Anastasiya; Vietz, Carolin; Pibiri, Enrico; Wünsch, Bettina; Sanz Paz, María; Acuna, Guillermo P; Tinnefeld, Philip

    2015-12-01

    Optical nanoantennas are known to focus freely propagating light and reversely to mediate the emission of a light source located at the nanoantenna hotspot. These effects were previously exploited for fluorescence enhancement and single-molecule detection at elevated concentrations. We present a new generation of self-assembled DNA origami based optical nanoantennas with improved robustness, reduced interparticle distance, and optimized quantum-yield improvement to achieve more than 5000-fold fluorescence enhancement and single-molecule detection at 25 μM background fluorophore concentration. Besides outperforming lithographic optical antennas, DNA origami nanoantennas are additionally capable of incorporating single emitters or biomolecular assays at the antenna hotspot. PMID:26523768

  16. Corona Enhancement and Mosaic Architecture for Prognosis and Selection Between of Liver Resection Versus Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization in Single Hepatocellular Carcinomas >5 cm Without Extrahepatic Metastases: An Imaging-Based Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; Fu, Sirui; Liu, Zaiyi; Li, Yong; Hu, Baoshan; Chen, Shuting; Liang, Changhong; Lu, Ligong

    2016-01-01

    Corona enhancement and mosaic architecture are 2 radiologic features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, neither their prognostic values nor their impacts on the selection of liver resection (LR) versus transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) as treatment modalities have been established.We retrospectively analyzed 275 patients with a single HCC lesion >5 cm without extrahepatic metastasis treated with LR or TACE. In LR patients, the overall survival (OS) and time to progression (TTP) were compared between corona enhancement negative (corona-) versus positive (corona+) and mosaic architecture negative (mosaic-) versus positive (mosaic+) patients. Furthermore, by the combination of corona and mosaic, LR patients were divided into negative for both corona and mosaic patterns (LR-/-), positive for only 1 feature (LR+/-), and positive for both (LR+/+); their OS and TTP were compared to those of the TACE group. Cox regression was performed to identify independent factors for OS.In the survival plots for LR, corona- had better OS and TTP than corona+, and mosaic- had better OS than mosaic+. There was no significant difference in TTP between the subgroups. On Cox regression analysis, corona enhancement, but not mosaic architecture, was a significant factor for OS, whereas neither were a significant factor for TTP. In TACE patients, neither corona nor mosaic patterns had significant correlations with OS or TTP. In the whole population, LR-/ and LR+/- subgroups had similar OS, which was better than the LR+/+ and TACE groups. Moreover, LR-/- and LR+/- patients had better TTP than TACE patients, but there were no differences between the LR-/- versus LR+/-, LR-/ versus LR+/+, LR+/- versus LR+/+, and LR+/+ versus TACE groups. On Cox regression analysis, the presence of corona/mosaic patterns was an independent prognostic factor for OS.Our results showed that, for patients with a single HCC >5 cm without extrahepatic metastasis, corona and mosaic patterns are

  17. All-Dielectric Silicon Nanogap Antennas To Enhance the Fluorescence of Single Molecules.

    PubMed

    Regmi, Raju; Berthelot, Johann; Winkler, Pamina M; Mivelle, Mathieu; Proust, Julien; Bedu, Frédéric; Ozerov, Igor; Begou, Thomas; Lumeau, Julien; Rigneault, Hervé; García-Parajó, María F; Bidault, Sébastien; Wenger, Jérôme; Bonod, Nicolas

    2016-08-10

    Plasmonic antennas have a profound impact on nanophotonics as they provide efficient means to manipulate light and enhance light-matter interactions at the nanoscale. However, the large absorption losses found in metals can severely limit the plasmonic applications in the visible spectral range. Here, we demonstrate the effectiveness of an alternative approach using all-dielectric nanoantennas based on silicon dimers to enhance the fluorescence detection of single molecules. The silicon antenna design is optimized to confine the near-field intensity in the 20 nm nanogap and reach a 270-fold fluorescence enhancement in a nanoscale volume of λ(3)/1800 with dielectric materials only. Our conclusions are assessed by combining polarization resolved optical spectroscopy of individual antennas, scanning electron microscopy, numerical simulations, fluorescence lifetime measurements, fluorescence burst analysis, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. This work demonstrates that all-silicon nanoantennas are a valid alternative to plasmonic devices for enhanced single molecule fluorescence sensing, with the additional key advantages of reduced nonradiative quenching, negligible heat generation, cost-efficiency, and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatibility. PMID:27399057

  18. Maxwell's demon based on a single qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekola, J. P.; Golubev, D. S.; Averin, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    We propose and analyze Maxwell's demon based on a single qubit with avoided level crossing. Its operation cycle consists of adiabatic drive to the point of minimum energy separation, measurement of the qubit state, and conditional feedback. We show that the heat extracted from the bath at temperature T can ideally approach the Landauer limit of kBT ln2 per cycle even in the quantum regime. Practical demon efficiency is limited by the interplay of Landau-Zener transitions and coupling to the bath. We suggest that an experimental demonstration of the demon is fully feasible using one of the standard superconducting qubits.

  19. Detection of single microparticles in airflows by edge-filter enhanced self-mixing interferometry.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Victor; Lönnqvist, Jan; Toivonen, Juha

    2016-04-18

    A laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) sensor using the edge-filter enhanced self-mixing interferometry (ESMI) is presented based on speed measurements of single microparticles. The ESMI detection utilizes an acetylene edge-filter that maps the frequency modulation of a semiconductor laser into an intensity modulation as the laser wavelength is tuned to the steep edge of the absorption profile. In this work, the ESMI signal was analyzed for aerosol particles of different sizes from 1 μm to 10 μm at a distance of 2.5 m. At this operation range, the signal from single particles of all sizes was successfully acquired enabling particle velocity measurements through the Doppler shifted frequency along the beam axis. For the particular case of 10 μm particles, single aerosol particles were still detected at an unprecedented range of 10 m. A theoretical treatment describing the relation between Mie scattering theory and the self-mixing phenomenon on single-particle detection is presented supporting the experimental results. The results show that the edge-filter enhanced self-mixing technique opens new possibilities for self-mixing detection where longer ranges, lower backscattering laser powers and higher velocities are involved. For example, it can be used as a robust and inexpensive anemometer for LDV applications for airflows with low-number density of microparticles. PMID:27137321

  20. Plasmonic nanopore-based platforms for single-molecule Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Liang; Wang, Yixin; Liu, Chen; Hu, Dora Juan Juan; Shum, Perry Ping; Su, Lei

    2016-08-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel plasmonic nanopore platform based on a bowtie-nanopore structure, for single-molecule sensing. In this nano-structure, nano-bowties are integrated with solid-state nanopores to provide localized surface plasmon resonances for signal enhancement. We design and optimize the nano-structure by tuning both the bowtie gap and the bowtie angle, and investigate their influences on field enhancement, thereby achieving single-molecule sensitivity. In addition, we study the field enhancement by introducing an engineered photonic nano-cavity. This further strengthens the electric enhancement. An overall Raman enhancement factor of 2×108 is achieved in our simulation. This is believed to be sufficient for single-molecule sensing. The proposed bowtie-nanopore structure can be multiplexed on a single substrate for simultaneous multi-channel detection, paving the way for demanding applications such as DNA sequencing.

  1. Enhanced single-cell printing by acoustophoretic cell focusing

    PubMed Central

    Leibacher, I.; Schoendube, J.; Dual, J.; Zengerle, R.; Koltay, P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a strong trend towards analysis of single-cells. To access and handle single-cells, many new tools are needed and have partly been developed. Here, we present an improved version of a single-cell printer which is able to deliver individual single cells and beads encapsulated in free-flying picoliter droplets at a single-bead efficiency of 96% and with a throughput of more than 10 beads per minute. By integration of acoustophoretic focusing, the cells could be focused in x and y direction. This way, the cells were lined-up in front of a 40 μm nozzle, where they were analyzed individually by an optical system prior to printing. In agreement with acoustic simulations, the focusing of 10 μm beads and Raji cells has been achieved with an efficiency of 99% (beads) and 86% (Raji cells) to a 40 μm wide center region in the 1 mm wide microfluidic channel. This enabled improved optical analysis and reduced bead losses. The loss of beads that ended up in the waste (because printing them as single beads arrangements could not be ensured) was reduced from 52% ± 6% to 28% ± 1%. The piezoelectric transducer employed for cell focusing could be positioned on an outer part of the device, which proves the acoustophoretic focusing to be versatile and adaptable. PMID:25945135

  2. Plasmon Coupling Enhanced Raman Scattering Nanobeacon for Single-Step, Ultrasensitive Detection of Cholera Toxin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chong-Hua; Liu, Ling-Wei; Liang, Ping; Tang, Li-Juan; Yu, Ru-Qin; Jiang, Jian-Hui

    2016-08-01

    We report the development of a novel plasmon coupling enhanced Raman scattering (PCERS) method, PCERS nanobeacon, for ultrasensitive, single-step, homogeneous detection of cholera toxin (CT). This method relies on our design of the plasmonic nanoparticles, which have a bilayer phospholipid coating with embedded Raman indicators and CT-binding ligands of monosialoganglioside (GM1). This design allows a facile synthesis of the plasmonic nanoparticle via two-step self-assembly without any specific modification or chemical immobilization. The realization of tethering GM1 on the surface imparts the plasmonic nanoparticles with high affinity, excellent specificity, and multivalence for interaction with CT. The unique lipid-based bilayer coated structure also affords excellent biocompatibility and stability for the plasmonic nanoparticles. The plasmonic nanoparticles are able to show substantial enhancement of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals in a single-step interaction with CT, because of their assembly into aggregates in response to the CT-sandwiched interactions. The results reveal that the developed nanobeacon provides a simple but ultrasensitive sensor for rapid detection of CT with a large signal-to-background ratio and excellent reproducibility in a wide dynamic range, implying its potential for point-of-care applications in preventive and diagnostic monitoring of cholera. PMID:27348262

  3. Selective uptake of single-walled carbon nanotubes by circulating monocytes for enhanced tumour delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Bryan Ronain; Ghosn, Eliver Eid Bou; Rallapalli, Harikrishna; Prescher, Jennifer A.; Larson, Timothy; Herzenberg, Leonore A.; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

    2014-06-01

    In cancer imaging, nanoparticle biodistribution is typically visualized in living subjects using `bulk' imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging, computerized tomography and whole-body fluorescence. Accordingly, nanoparticle influx is observed only macroscopically, and the mechanisms by which they target cancer remain elusive. Nanoparticles are assumed to accumulate via several targeting mechanisms, particularly extravasation (leakage into tumour). Here, we show that, in addition to conventional nanoparticle-uptake mechanisms, single-walled carbon nanotubes are almost exclusively taken up by a single immune cell subset, Ly-6Chi monocytes (almost 100% uptake in Ly-6Chi monocytes, below 3% in all other circulating cells), and delivered to the tumour in mice. We also demonstrate that a targeting ligand (RGD) conjugated to nanotubes significantly enhances the number of single-walled carbon nanotube-loaded monocytes reaching the tumour (P < 0.001, day 7 post-injection). The remarkable selectivity of this tumour-targeting mechanism demonstrates an advanced immune-based delivery strategy for enhancing specific tumour delivery with substantial penetration.

  4. Enhanced thermal conductivity and isotope effect in single-layer hexagonal boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, L.; Broido, D. A.

    2011-10-01

    The thermal conductivity, κ, of single layers of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), as well as that of bulk h-BN have been calculated utilizing an exact numerical solution of the phonon Boltzmann transport equation. The stronger phonon-phonon scattering in h-BN is revealed as the cause for its lower κ compared with graphite. A reduction in such scattering in the single layer arising mainly from a symmetry-based selection rule leads to a substantial increase in κ, with calculated room temperature values of more than 600 Wm-1K-1. Isotopic enrichment further increases κ, with the calculated enhancement exhibiting a peak with temperature, whose magnitude shows a dramatic sensitivity to crystallite size.

  5. Image enhancement based on gamma map processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Chen-Yu; Wang, Sheng-Jyh; Chen, Yi-An

    2010-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel image enhancement technique based on Gamma Map Processing (GMP). In this approach, a base gamma map is directly generated according to the intensity image. After that, a sequence of gamma map processing is performed to generate a channel-wise gamma map. Mapping through the estimated gamma, image details, colorfulness, and sharpness of the original image are automatically improved. Besides, the dynamic range of the images can be virtually expanded.

  6. Single gold nanoparticles to enhance the detection of single fluorescent molecules at micromolar concentration using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punj, Deep; Rigneault, Hervé; Wenger, Jérôme

    2014-05-01

    Single nanoparticles made of noble metals are strongly appealing to develop practical applications to detect fluorescent molecules in solution. Here, we detail the use of a single gold nanoparticle of 100 nm diameter to enhance the detection of single Alex Fluor 647 fluorescent molecules at high concentrations of several micromolar. We discuss the implementation of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and provide a new method to reliably extract the enhanced fluorescence signal stemming from the nanoparticle near-field from the background generated in the confocal volume. The applicability of our method is checked by reporting the invariance of the single molecule results as function of the molecular concentration, and the experimental data is found in good agreement with numerical simulations.

  7. Single conducting polymer nanowire based conductometric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangar, Mangesh Ashok

    The detection of toxic chemicals, gases or biological agents at very low concentrations with high sensitivity and selectivity has been subject of immense interest. Sensors employing electrical signal readout as transduction mechanism offer easy, label-free detection of target analyte in real-time. Traditional thin film sensors inherently suffered through loss of sensitivity due to current shunting across the charge depleted/added region upon analyte binding to the sensor surface, due to their large cross sectional area. This limitation was overcome by use of nanostructure such as nanowire/tube as transducer where current shunting during sensing was almost eliminated. Due to their benign chemical/electrochemical fabrication route along with excellent electrical properties and biocompatibility, conducting polymers offer cost-effective alternative over other nanostructures. Biggest obstacle in using these nanostructures is lack of easy, scalable and cost-effective way of assembling these nanostructures on prefabricated micropatterns for device fabrication. In this dissertation, three different approaches have been taken to fabricate individual or array of single conducting polymer (and metal) nanowire based devices and using polymer by itself or after functionalization with appropriate recognition molecule they have been applied for gas and biochemical detection. In the first approach electrochemical fabrication of multisegmented nanowires with middle functional Ppy segment along with ferromagnetic nickel (Ni) and end gold segments for better electrical contact was studied. This multi-layered nanowires were used along with ferromagnetic contact electrode for controlled magnetic assembly of nanowires into devices and were used for ammonia gas sensing. The second approach uses conducting polymer, polypyrrole (Ppy) nanowires using simple electrophoretic alignment and maskless electrodeposition to anchor nanowire which were further functionalized with antibodies against

  8. Photoacoustic imaging enhanced by indocyanine green-conjugated single-wall carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Zanganeh, Saeid; Li, Hai; Kumavor, Patrick D.; Alqasemi, Umar; Aguirre, Andres; Mohammad, Innus; Stanford, Courtney; Smith, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. A photoacoustic contrast agent that is based on bis-carboxylic acid derivative of indocyanine green (ICG) covalently conjugated to single-wall carbon nanotubes (ICG/SWCNT) is presented. Covalently attaching ICG to the functionalized SWCNT provides a more robust system that delivers much more ICG to the tumor site. The detection sensitivity of the new contrast agent in a mouse tumor model is demonstrated in vivo by our custom-built photoacoustic imaging system. The summation of the photoacoustic tomography (PAT) beam envelope, referred to as the “PAT summation,” is used to demonstrate the postinjection light absorption of tumor areas in ICG- and ICG/SWCNT-injected mice. It is shown that ICG is able to provide 33% enhancement at approximately 20 min peak response time with reference to the preinjection PAT level, while ICG/SWCNT provides 128% enhancement at 80 min and even higher enhancement of 196% at the end point of experiments (120 min on average). Additionally, the ICG/SWCNT enhancement was mainly observed at the tumor periphery, which was confirmed by fluorescence images of the tumor samples. This feature is highly valuable in guiding surgeons to assess tumor boundaries and dimensions in vivo and to achieve clean tumor margins to improve surgical resection of tumors. PMID:24002193

  9. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and quantum chemical studies on glycine single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parameswari, A.; Premkumar, S.; Premkumar, R.; Milton Franklin Benial, A.

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption characteristics of glycine (Gly) on silver surface were investigated based on density functional theory calculations and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technique. The single crystals of Gly were grown by slow evaporation method and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were prepared by solution combustion method using Gly as fuel. The Ag NPs were characterized by XRD, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy techniques. The calculated structural parameters of Gly molecule were compared with the experimental observed single crystal XRD data. The structural parameters of Gly after adsorption on silver surface show the slight deviation, which indicates the interaction between the Gly and Ag3 cluster. Raman and SERS spectra for Gly single crystal were studied experimentally. Raman frequencies were calculated for Gly and Gly adsorbed on a silver surface. Raman and SERS frequencies were assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation and compared with the experimental values. Frontier molecular orbital analysis was carried out for Gly and Gly adsorbed on a silver surface. The band gap value was significantly reduced for Gly after adsorption on the silver surface. The reduction in band gap indicates the delocalization of electrons, which leads to the higher bioactivity of the title molecule. SERS spectral analysis reveals that the Gly adsorbed as a stand-on orientation on the silver surface. Hence, the present investigation has been developed as a model system to understand the interaction of Ag NPs with amino acids.

  10. Reproducing kernel hilbert space based single infrared image super resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liangliang; Deng, Liangjian; Shen, Wei; Xi, Ning; Zhou, Zhanxin; Song, Bo; Yang, Yongliang; Cheng, Yu; Dong, Lixin

    2016-07-01

    The spatial resolution of Infrared (IR) images is limited by lens optical diffraction, sensor array pitch size and pixel dimension. In this work, a robust model is proposed to reconstruct high resolution infrared image via a single low resolution sampling, where the image features are discussed and classified as reflective, cooled emissive and uncooled emissive based on infrared irradiation source. A spline based reproducing kernel hilbert space and approximative heaviside function are deployed to model smooth part and edge component of image respectively. By adjusting the parameters of heaviside function, the proposed model can enhance distinct part of images. The experimental results show that the model is applicable on both reflective and emissive low resolution infrared images to improve thermal contrast. The overall outcome produces a high resolution IR image, which makes IR camera better measurement accuracy and observes more details at long distance.

  11. Enhanced oil recovery projects data base

    SciTech Connect

    Pautz, J.F.; Sellers, C.A.; Nautiyal, C.; Allison, E.

    1992-04-01

    A comprehensive enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project data base is maintained and updated at the Bartlesville Project Office of the Department of Energy. This data base provides an information resource that is used to analyze the advancement and application of EOR technology. The data base has extensive information on 1,388 EOR projects in 569 different oil fields from 1949 until the present, and over 90% of that information is contained in tables and graphs of this report. The projects are presented by EOR process, and an index by location is provided.

  12. Localized surface plasmon resonance enhanced ultraviolet emission and F-P lasing from single ZnO microflower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi; Li, Jitao; Xu, Chunxiang; Fan, Xuemei; Wang, Baoping

    2014-10-01

    In this work, monodispersed ZnO microflowers are fabricated by a vapor phase transport method, and Au nanoparticles (NPs) are directly decorated on the surface of the ZnO microflowers. The micro-photoluminescence of a single ZnO microflower demonstrates that the near band-edge emission is tremendously enhanced while the defect-related emission is completely suppressed after Au decoration. The average enhancement factor reaches up to 65 fold. The enhancement mechanism is assumed to be the electron transfer from excited Au NPs to the ZnO microflower induced by the localized surface plasmon resonance based on the time-resolved photoluminescence. The enhanced F-P lasing from a single ZnO sample is further realized.

  13. Localized surface plasmon resonance enhanced ultraviolet emission and F-P lasing from single ZnO microflower

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yi; Li, Jitao; Xu, Chunxiang Fan, Xuemei; Wang, Baoping

    2014-10-06

    In this work, monodispersed ZnO microflowers are fabricated by a vapor phase transport method, and Au nanoparticles (NPs) are directly decorated on the surface of the ZnO microflowers. The micro-photoluminescence of a single ZnO microflower demonstrates that the near band-edge emission is tremendously enhanced while the defect-related emission is completely suppressed after Au decoration. The average enhancement factor reaches up to 65 fold. The enhancement mechanism is assumed to be the electron transfer from excited Au NPs to the ZnO microflower induced by the localized surface plasmon resonance based on the time-resolved photoluminescence. The enhanced F-P lasing from a single ZnO sample is further realized.

  14. Exploiting motion-based redundancy to enhance microgrid polarimeter imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratliff, Bradley M.; Tyo, J. Scott; Black, Wiley T.; LaCasse, Charles F.

    2009-08-01

    Microgrid polarimeters are a type of division of focal plane (DoFP) imaging polarimeter that contains a mosaic of pixel-wise micropolarizing elements superimposed upon an FPA sensor. Such a device measures a slightly different polarized state at each pixel. These measurements are combined to estimate the Stokes vector at each pixel in the image. DoFP devices have the advantage that they can obtain Stokes vector image estimates for an entire scene from a single frame capture. However, they suffer from the disadvantage that the neighboring measurements that are used to estimate the Stokes vector images are acquired at differing instantaneous fields of view (IFOV). This IFOV issue leads to false polarization signatures that significantly degrade the Stokes vector images. Interpolation and other image processing strategies can be employed to reduce IFOV artifacts; however these techniques have a limit to the amount of enhancement they can provide on a single microgrid image. Here we investigate algorithms that use multiple microgrid images that contain frame-to-frame global motion to further enhance the Stokes vector image estimates. Motion-based imagery provides additional redundancy that can be exploited to recover information that is "missing" from a single microgrid frame capture. We have found that IFOV and aliasing artifacts can be defeated entirely when these types of algorithms are applied to the data prior to Stokes vector estimation. We demonstrate results on real LWIR microgrid data using a particular resolution enhancement technique from the literature.

  15. A single bout of resistance exercise can enhance episodic memory performance

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Lisa; Hasni, Anita; Shinohara, Minoru; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    Acute aerobic exercise can be beneficial to episodic memory. This benefit may occur because exercise produces a similar physiological response as physical stressors. When administered during consolidation, acute stress, both physical and psychological, consistently enhances episodic memory, particularly memory for emotional materials. Here we investigated whether a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can produce episodic memory benefits 48 hours later. We used a one-leg knee extension/flexion task for the resistance exercise. To assess the physiological response to the exercise, we measured salivary alpha amylase (a biomarker of central norepinephrine), heart rate, and blood pressure. To test emotional episodic memory, we used a remember-know recognition memory paradigm with equal numbers of positive, negative, and neutral IAPS images as stimuli. The group that performed the exercise, the active group, had higher overall recognition accuracy than the group that did not exercise, the passive group. We found a robust effect of valence across groups, with better performance on emotional items as compared to neutral items and no difference between positive and negative items. This effect changed based on the physiological response to the exercise. Within the active group, participants with a high physiological response to the exercise were impaired for neutral items as compared to participants with a low physiological response to the exercise. Our results demonstrate that a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can enhance episodic memory and that the effect of valence on memory depends on the physiological response to the exercise. PMID:25262058

  16. Speech Enhancement based on Compressive Sensing Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulong, Amart; Gunawan, Teddy S.; Khalifa, Othman O.; Chebil, Jalel

    2013-12-01

    There are various methods, in performance of speech enhancement, have been proposed over the years. The accurate method for the speech enhancement design mainly focuses on quality and intelligibility. The method proposed with high performance level. A novel speech enhancement by using compressive sensing (CS) is a new paradigm of acquiring signals, fundamentally different from uniform rate digitization followed by compression, often used for transmission or storage. Using CS can reduce the number of degrees of freedom of a sparse/compressible signal by permitting only certain configurations of the large and zero/small coefficients, and structured sparsity models. Therefore, CS is significantly provides a way of reconstructing a compressed version of the speech in the original signal by taking only a small amount of linear and non-adaptive measurement. The performance of overall algorithms will be evaluated based on the speech quality by optimise using informal listening test and Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ). Experimental results show that the CS algorithm perform very well in a wide range of speech test and being significantly given good performance for speech enhancement method with better noise suppression ability over conventional approaches without obvious degradation of speech quality.

  17. Dark States in Single DNA Bases and DNA Base Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Bern; Hare, Patrick M.; Middleton, Chris T.

    2009-06-01

    DNA is vulnerable to photochemical modification by UV light. The excited electronic states that initiate DNA damage have been difficult to characterize due to their ultrashort lifetimes, and most excitations in single DNA bases decay to the electronic ground state in hundreds of femtoseconds. Although many workers have now located conical intersections between various electronic states of the nucleobases, there is still confusion over the precise dynamics that lead to deactivation. This is especially true for the pyrimidine bases where the initial Franck-Condon population bifurcates with some molecules decaying to the ground state and others relaxing to a relatively long-lived ^1nπ* state. Results from UV/UV and UV/mid-IR transient absorption experiments will be presented that illustrate these dual decay pathways. Evidence suggests that the ^1nπ* state mediates intersystem crossing to the triplet state. Finally, current understanding of how these single-base decay pathways are modified by interactions in DNA polymers will be discussed.

  18. Enhanced Raman Microprobe Imaging of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadjiev, V. G.; Arepalli, S.; Nikolaev, P.; Jandl, S.; Yowell, L.

    2003-01-01

    We explore Raman microprobe capabilities to visualize single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Although this technique is limited to a micron scale, we demonstrate that images of individual SWCNTs, bundles or their agglomerates can be generated by mapping Raman active elementary excitations. We measured the Raman response from carbon vibrations in SWCNTs excited by confocal scanning of a focused laser beam. Carbon vibrations reveal key characteristics of SWCNTs as nanotube diameter distribution (radial breathing modes, RBM, 100-300 cm(exp -1)), presence of defects and functional groups (D-mode, 1300-1350 cm(exp -1)), strain and oxidation states of SWCNTs, as well as metallic or semiconducting character of the tubes encoded in the lineshape of the G-modes at 1520-1600 cm(exp - 1). In addition, SWCNTs are highly anisotropic scatterers. The Raman response from a SWCNT is maximal for incident light polarization parallel to the tube axis and vanishing for perpendicular directions. We show that the SWCNT bundle shape or direction can be determined, with some limitations, from a set of Raman images taken at two orthogonal directions of the incident light polarization.

  19. Enhancing atlas based segmentation with multiclass linear classifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Sdika, Michaël

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To present a method to enrich atlases for atlas based segmentation. Such enriched atlases can then be used as a single atlas or within a multiatlas framework. Methods: In this paper, machine learning techniques have been used to enhance the atlas based segmentation approach. The enhanced atlas defined in this work is a pair composed of a gray level image alongside an image of multiclass classifiers with one classifier per voxel. Each classifier embeds local information from the whole training dataset that allows for the correction of some systematic errors in the segmentation and accounts for the possible local registration errors. The authors also propose to use these images of classifiers within a multiatlas framework: results produced by a set of such local classifier atlases can be combined using a label fusion method. Results: Experiments have been made on the in vivo images of the IBSR dataset and a comparison has been made with several state-of-the-art methods such as FreeSurfer and the multiatlas nonlocal patch based method of Coupé or Rousseau. These experiments show that their method is competitive with state-of-the-art methods while having a low computational cost. Further enhancement has also been obtained with a multiatlas version of their method. It is also shown that, in this case, nonlocal fusion is unnecessary. The multiatlas fusion can therefore be done efficiently. Conclusions: The single atlas version has similar quality as state-of-the-arts multiatlas methods but with the computational cost of a naive single atlas segmentation. The multiatlas version offers a improvement in quality and can be done efficiently without a nonlocal strategy.

  20. Enhancement of textural differences based on morphological component analysis.

    PubMed

    Chi, Jianning; Eramian, Mark

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a new texture enhancement method which uses an image decomposition that allows different visual characteristics of textures to be represented by separate components in contrast with previous methods which either enhance texture indirectly or represent all texture information using a single image component. Our method is intended to be used as a preprocessing step prior to the use of texture-based image segmentation algorithms. Our method uses a modification of morphological component analysis (MCA) which allows texture to be separated into multiple morphological components each representing a different visual characteristic of texture. We select four such texture characteristics and propose new dictionaries to extract these components using MCA. We then propose procedures for modifying each texture component and recombining them to produce a texture-enhanced image. We applied our method as a preprocessing step prior to a number of texture-based segmentation methods and compared the accuracy of the results, finding that our method produced results superior to comparator methods for all segmentation algorithms tested. We also demonstrate by example the main mechanism by which our method produces superior results, namely that it causes the clusters of local texture features of each distinct image texture to mutually diverge within the multidimensional feature space to a vastly superior degree versus the comparator enhancement methods. PMID:25935032

  1. Fluorescence thermometry enhanced by the quantum coherence of single spins in diamond

    PubMed Central

    Toyli, David M.; de las Casas, Charles F.; Christle, David J.; Dobrovitski, Viatcheslav V.; Awschalom, David D.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate fluorescence thermometry techniques with sensitivities approaching 10 mK⋅Hz−1/2 based on the spin-dependent photoluminescence of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. These techniques use dynamical decoupling protocols to convert thermally induced shifts in the NV center's spin resonance frequencies into large changes in its fluorescence. By mitigating interactions with nearby nuclear spins and facilitating selective thermal measurements, these protocols enhance the spin coherence times accessible for thermometry by 45-fold, corresponding to a 7-fold improvement in the NV center’s temperature sensitivity. Moreover, we demonstrate these techniques can be applied over a broad temperature range and in both finite and near-zero magnetic field environments. This versatility suggests that the quantum coherence of single spins could be practically leveraged for sensitive thermometry in a wide variety of biological and microscale systems. PMID:23650364

  2. Single mode waveguide platform for spontaneous and surface-enhanced on-chip Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Ashim; Peyskens, Frédéric; Clemmen, Stéphane; Raza, Ali; Wuytens, Pieter; Zhao, Haolan; Le Thomas, Nicolas; Baets, Roel

    2016-08-01

    We review an on-chip approach for spontaneous Raman spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based on evanescent excitation of the analyte as well as evanescent collection of the Raman signal using complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible single mode waveguides. The signal is either directly collected from the analyte molecules or via plasmonic nanoantennas integrated on top of the waveguides. Flexibility in the design of the geometry of the waveguide, and/or the geometry of the antennas, enables optimization of the collection efficiency. Furthermore, the sensor can be integrated with additional functionality (sources, detectors, spectrometers) on the same chip. In this paper, the basic theoretical concepts are introduced to identify the key design parameters, and some proof-of-concept experimental results are reviewed. PMID:27499842

  3. A proposal and a theoretical analysis of an enhanced surface plasmon coupled emission structure for single molecule detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Shiekh Zia; Tanvir, Mukhlasur Rahman; Talukder, Muhammad Anisuzzaman

    2016-05-01

    We propose a structure that can be used for enhanced single molecule detection using surface plasmon coupled emission (SPCE). In the proposed structure, instead of a single metal layer on the glass prism of a typical SPCE structure for fluorescence microscopy, a metal-dielectric-metal structure is used. We theoretically show that the proposed structure significantly decreases the excitation volume of the fluorescently labeled sample, and simultaneously increases the peak SPCE intensity and SPCE power. Therefore, the signal-to-noise ratio and sensitivity of an SPCE based fluorescence microscopy system can be significantly increased using the proposed structure, which will be helpful for enhanced single molecule detection, especially, in a less pure biological sample.

  4. Tailoring Plasmonic Enhanced Upconversion in Single NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ya-Lan; Mohammadi Estakhri, Nasim; Johnson, Amber; Li, Hai-Yang; Xu, Li-Xiang; Zhang, Zhenyu; Alù, Andrea; Wang, Qu-Quan; Shih, Chih-Kang (Ken)

    2015-01-01

    By using silver nanoplatelets with a widely tunable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), and their corresponding local field enhancement, here we show large manipulation of plasmonic enhanced upconversion in NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ nanocrystals at the single particle level. In particular, we show that when the plasmonic resonance of silver nanolplatelets is tuned to 656 nm, matching the emission wavelength, an upconversion enhancement factor ~5 is obtained. However, when the plasmonic resonance is tuned to 980 nm, matching the nanocrystal absorption wavelength, we achieve an enhancement factor of ~22 folds. The precise geometric arrangement between fluorescent nanoparticles and silver nanoplatelets allows us to make, for the first time, a comparative analysis between experimental results and numerical simulations, yielding a quantitative agreement at the single particle level. Such a comparison lays the foundations for a rational design of hybrid metal-fluorescent nanocrystals to harness the upconversion enhancement for biosensing and light harvesting applications. PMID:25976870

  5. Tailoring Plasmonic Enhanced Upconversion in Single NaYF4:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Lan; Mohammadi Estakhri, Nasim; Johnson, Amber; Li, Hai-Yang; Xu, Li-Xiang; Zhang, Zhenyu; Alù, Andrea; Wang, Qu-Quan; Shih, Chih-Kang Ken

    2015-01-01

    By using silver nanoplatelets with a widely tunable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), and their corresponding local field enhancement, here we show large manipulation of plasmonic enhanced upconversion in NaYF4:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) nanocrystals at the single particle level. In particular, we show that when the plasmonic resonance of silver nanolplatelets is tuned to 656 nm, matching the emission wavelength, an upconversion enhancement factor ~5 is obtained. However, when the plasmonic resonance is tuned to 980 nm, matching the nanocrystal absorption wavelength, we achieve an enhancement factor of ~22 folds. The precise geometric arrangement between fluorescent nanoparticles and silver nanoplatelets allows us to make, for the first time, a comparative analysis between experimental results and numerical simulations, yielding a quantitative agreement at the single particle level. Such a comparison lays the foundations for a rational design of hybrid metal-fluorescent nanocrystals to harness the upconversion enhancement for biosensing and light harvesting applications. PMID:25976870

  6. Graphene-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of thymine adsorbed on single-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesenko, Olena; Dovbeshko, Galyna; Dementjev, Andrej; Karpicz, Renata; Kaplas, Tommi; Svirko, Yuri

    2015-04-01

    Graphene-enhanced Raman scattering (GERS) spectra and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) of thymine molecules adsorbed on a single-layer graphene were studied. The enhancement factor was shown to depend on the molecular groups of thymine. In the GERS spectra of thymine, the main bands are shifted with respect to those for molecules adsorbed on a glass surface, indicating charge transfer for thymine on graphene. The probable mechanism of the GERS enhancement is discussed. CARS spectra are in accord with the GERS results, which indicates similar benefit from the chemical enhancement.

  7. Nanofluidic channel based biosensor using surface enhanced raman spectroscopy (SERS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, I.-Hsien; Beier, Hope T.; Wang, Maio; Jing, Nan; Kameoka, Jun; Coté, Gerard L.

    2007-02-01

    The Raman scattering signature of molecules has been demonstrated to be greatly enhanced, on the order of 10 6-10 12 times, on roughened metal surfaces and clustered structures such as aggregated colloidal gold. Here we describe a method that improves reproducibility and sensitivity of the substrate for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) by using a nanofluidic trapping device. This nanofluidic device has a bottle neck shape composed of a microchannel leading into a nano channel that causes size-dependent trapping of nanoparticles. The analyte and Au nanoparticles, 60 nm in diameter, in aqueous solution was pumped into the channel. The nanoparticles which were larger than the narrow channel are trapped at the edge of the channel to render an enhancement of the Raman signal. We have demonstrated that the Raman scattering signal enhancement on a nanochannel-based colloidal gold cluster is able to detect 10 pM of adenine, the test analyte, without chemical modification. The efficiency and robustness of the device suggests potential for single molecule detection and multicomponent detection for biological applications and/or biotoxins.

  8. Study of single walled carbon nanotube functionalization by means of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceponkus, Justinas; Velicka, Martynas; Pucetaite, Milda; Sablinskas, Valdas

    2015-09-01

    Raman spectroscopy is known to provide information about the quality of the single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). The information is based on the intensity ratio of D and G spectral modes and the frequency of RBM modes. However due to resonance nature of Raman spectrum of the nanotubes this method is not suitable to detect functionalization of the nanotubes. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is known to enhance the Raman bands up to fourteen orders of magnitude. Preferable adsorption sites for small silver nanoparticles are expected to be the functional groups of SWCNT; therefore SERS technique allows detecting small amounts of functional groups despite strong resonance Raman from backbone of SWCNT. In this study functionalized nanotubes were dispersed in silver colloid and dried on the standard silver plate for Raman measurements. Spectra of SWCNT without colloid in the spectral range between 50 and 1800 cm-1 exhibit only four main spectral features: G, D, and RBM modes between 200 and 400 cm-1. Spectra of SWCNT with the colloid exhibit several additional spectral bands which do not belong to the colloid. These bands attributed to vibrations of C-O, C-C and O-H from the functional groups and the carbon atom of the SWCNT attached to the corresponding group. The bands associated with the vibrations involving O atom is an indication that silver nanoparticles interact with the functional group attached to SWCNT.

  9. Classification of single particle optical scattering patterns by the spectrum enhancement algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Giovanni F.

    2005-11-01

    Airborne material particles in the 5μm size range have been collected, resuspended and analyzed by the TAOS (two-dimensional angular optical scattering) technique. The corresponding patterns of light intensity scattered by single particles have been automatically classified by an algorithm based on "spectrum enhancement", multivariate statistics and supervised optimization. The enhanced spectrum has resulted from some non-linear operations on fractional spatial derivatives of the pattern. It has yielded morphological descriptors of the pattern. A multiobjective optimization algorithm has included principal components analysis and has maximized pairwise discrimination between classes. The classifier has been trained by TAOS patterns from 10μm polystyrene spheres (P) and background aerosol particles (B). Then it has been applied to recognize patterns from airborne debris (A) sampled on a car racing track. Training with at least 10 patterns per class has discriminated P and B from A at confidence levels >=90%. Training by samples of smaller sizes (e.g., 5P and 12B patterns) has obviously yielded lower confidence levels (65% in B-A discrimination).

  10. Resolving the electromagnetic mechanism of surface-enhanced light scattering at single hot spots

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-González, P.; Albella, P.; Schnell, M.; Chen, J.; Huth, F.; García-Etxarri, A.; Casanova, F.; Golmar, F.; Arzubiaga, L.; Hueso, L.E.; Aizpurua, J.; Hillenbrand, R.

    2012-01-01

    Light scattering at nanoparticles and molecules can be dramatically enhanced in the 'hot spots' of optical antennas, where the incident light is highly concentrated. Although this effect is widely applied in surface-enhanced optical sensing, spectroscopy and microscopy, the underlying electromagnetic mechanism of the signal enhancement is challenging to trace experimentally. Here we study elastically scattered light from an individual object located in the well-defined hot spot of single antennas, as a new approach to resolve the role of the antenna in the scattering process. We provide experimental evidence that the intensity elastically scattered off the object scales with the fourth power of the local field enhancement provided by the antenna, and that the underlying electromagnetic mechanism is identical to the one commonly accepted in surface-enhanced Raman scattering. We also measure the phase shift of the scattered light, which provides a novel and unambiguous fingerprint of surface-enhanced light scattering. PMID:22353715

  11. Enhanced photoabsorption in front-tapered single-nanowire solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yaohui; Li, Xiaofeng; Wu, Shaolong; Li, Ke; Yang, Zhenhai; Shang, Aixue

    2014-10-01

    Vertically aligned single-nanowire is verified to be a unique building block to realize the high-efficiency solar cell beyond Schockley-Queisser limit. We proposed a front-tapered vertically aligned single-nanowire solar cell (V-SNSC) and investigated numerically the possibility of this configuration to improve the photoabsorption efficiency compared to the conventional designs, by using 2.5D full-wave finite-element method. The influences of the feature sizes of aspect ratio, bottom radius, and nanowire length on the light-trapping properties were explored; the detailed field distribution and carrier generation rate were revealed as well based on the theory of dielectric resonant antenna, in order to elucidate the underlying physical mechanism. Results showed that, compared with the cylindrical counterparts, the absorption capability of V-SNSCs could be greatly enhanced by using a front-tapered configuration with less material utilized, and that such a positive effect can be further strengthened by increasing the nanowire length. The proposed configuration provides a promising approach to engineer the photoabsorption in the photovoltaic and other optoelectronic devices. PMID:25360977

  12. Enhanced thermal conductivity and isotope effect in single-layer hexagonal boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broido, David; Lindsay, Lucas

    2012-02-01

    We have calculated the lattice thermal conductivity, k, of both naturally occurring and isotopically enriched single layers of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) as well as bulk h-BN using an exact numerical solution of the Boltzmann transport equation for phonons [1]. Good agreement is obtained with measured bulk h-BN data [2], and the stronger phonon-phonon scattering identified in these systems explains why their k values are significantly lower than those in graphene and graphite. A reduction in such scattering in the single layer arising mainly from a symmetry-based selection rule leads to a substantial increase in k, with calculated room temperature values of more than 600 W/m-K. Additional enhancement is obtained from isotopic enrichment, which exhibits a strong peak as a function of temperature, with magnitude growing rapidly with crystallite size. [1] L. Lindsay and D. A. Broido, Phys. Rev. B 84, 155421 (2011). [2] E. K. Sichel, R. E. Miller, M. S. Abrahams, and C. J. Buiocchi, Phys. Rev. B 13, 4607 (1976).

  13. Single Amino Acid Substitution in the Pullulanase of Klebsiella variicola for Enhancing Thermostability and Catalytic Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Mu, Guo Cui; Nie, Yao; Mu, Xiao Qing; Xu, Yan; Xiao, Rong

    2015-07-01

    Based on conserved sites and homology modeling analysis, the residue Phe581 in the Klebsiella variicola SHN-1 pullulanase was selected as the potential thermostability-related site and its role on thermostability and activity was investigated by site-saturated mutagenesis. Compared with the wild-type pullulanase, the optimum temperature of the mutants including F581L, F581Q, F581R, F581T, F581V, and F581Y was increased from 53 to 56 °C, and correspondingly the half lives of these mutants at 55 °C were increased by 4.20, 3.70, 1.90, 7.16, 3.01, and 1.75 min, respectively. By modeling the structure of the pullulanase, formation of more hydrogen bonds by single-site substitution was supposed to be responsible for the improvement of thermostability. Of these mutants, furthermore, F581L and F581V exhibited higher values of V max and k cat/K m, compared with the wild-type enzyme. Therefore, the residue Phe581 was identified as an important site relevant to the activity and thermostability of the pullulanase of K. variicola, and by mutation at this single site, the mutated enzymes with enhanced thermostability and catalytic efficiency were achieved consequently. PMID:26018345

  14. Glucocorticoids enhance extinction-based psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    de Quervain, Dominique J.-F.; Bentz, Dorothée; Michael, Tanja; Bolt, Olivia C.; Wiederhold, Brenda K.; Margraf, Jürgen; Wilhelm, Frank H.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral exposure therapy of anxiety disorders is believed to rely on fear extinction. Because preclinical studies have shown that glucocorticoids can promote extinction processes, we aimed at investigating whether the administration of these hormones might be useful in enhancing exposure therapy. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 40 patients with specific phobia for heights were treated with three sessions of exposure therapy using virtual reality exposure to heights. Cortisol (20 mg) or placebo was administered orally 1 h before each of the treatment sessions. Subjects returned for a posttreatment assessment 3–5 d after the last treatment session and for a follow-up assessment after 1 mo. Adding cortisol to exposure therapy resulted in a significantly greater reduction in fear of heights as measured with the acrophobia questionnaire (AQ) both at posttreatment and at follow-up, compared with placebo. Furthermore, subjects receiving cortisol showed a significantly greater reduction in acute anxiety during virtual exposure to a phobic situation at posttreatment and a significantly smaller exposure-induced increase in skin conductance level at follow-up. The present findings indicate that the administration of cortisol can enhance extinction-based psychotherapy. PMID:21444799

  15. Microprocessor-based single particle calibration of scintillation counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumdar, G. K. D.; Pathak, K. M.

    1985-01-01

    A microprocessor-base set-up is fabricated and tested for the single particle calibration of the plastic scintillator. The single particle response of the scintillator is digitized by an A/D converter, and a 8085 A based microprocessor stores the pulse heights. The digitized information is printed. Facilities for CRT display and cassette storing and recalling are also made available.

  16. Room-temperature single-photon sources based on nanocrystal fluorescence in photonic/plasmonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukishova, S. G.; Winkler, J. M.; Bissell, L. J.; Mihaylova, D.; Liapis, Andreas C.; Shi, Z.; Goldberg, D.; Menon, V. M.; Boyd, R. W.; Chen, G.; Prasad, P.

    2014-10-01

    Results are presented here towards robust room-temperature SPSs based on fluorescence in nanocrystals: colloidal quantum dots, color-center diamonds and doped with trivalent rare-earth ions (TR3+). We used cholesteric chiral photonic bandgap and Bragg-reflector microcavities for single emitter fluorescence enhancement. We also developed plasmonic bowtie nanoantennas and 2D-Si-photonic bandgap microcavities. The paper also provides short outlines of other technologies for room-temperature single-photon sources.

  17. Reactive ion etching-assisted surface-enhanced Raman scattering measurements on the single nanoparticle level

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Si-Yi; Jiang, Xiang-Xu; Wei, Xin-Pan; Lee, Shuit-Tong E-mail: yaohe@suda.edu.cn; He, Yao E-mail: yaohe@suda.edu.cn; Xu, Ting-Ting

    2014-06-16

    Single-nanoparticle surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurement is of essential importance for both fundamental research and practical applications. In this work, we develop a class of single-particle SERS approaches, i.e., reactive ion etching (RIE)-assisted SERS measurements correlated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) strategy (RIE/SERS/SEM), enabling precise and high-resolution identification of single gold nanoparticle (AuNP) in facile and reliable manners. By using AuNP-coated silicon wafer and quartz glass slide as models, we further employ the developed RIE/SERS/SEM method for interrogating the relationship between SERS substrates and enhancement factor (EF) on the single particle level. Together with theoretical calculation using an established finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) method, we demonstrate silicon wafer as superior SERS substrates, facilitating improvement of EF values.

  18. Direct Measurement of Single-Molecule DNA Hybridization Dynamics with Single-Base Resolution.

    PubMed

    He, Gen; Li, Jie; Ci, Haina; Qi, Chuanmin; Guo, Xuefeng

    2016-07-25

    Herein, we report label-free detection of single-molecule DNA hybridization dynamics with single-base resolution. By using an electronic circuit based on point-decorated silicon nanowires as electrical probes, we directly record the folding/unfolding process of individual hairpin DNAs with sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio and bandwidth. These measurements reveal two-level current oscillations with strong temperature dependence, enabling us to determine the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of hairpin DNA hybridization. More importantly, successive, stepwise increases and decreases in device conductance at low temperature on a microsecond timescale are successfully observed, indicating a base-by-base unfolding/folding process. The process demonstrates a kinetic zipper model for DNA hybridization/dehybridization at the single base-pair level. This measurement capability promises a label-free single-molecule approach to probe biomolecular interactions with fast dynamics. PMID:27272178

  19. Enhancement of single motor unit inhibitory responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Annie; Attarian, Shahram

    2008-08-01

    In healthy human subjects, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied to the motor cortex induces concurrent inhibitory and excitatory effects on motoneurone activity. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disease affecting both cortical and spinal motor neurons, paired-pulse studies based on electromyographic (EMG) recording have revealed a decrease in TMS-induced inhibition. This suggested that inhibition loss may promote excito-toxicity in this disease. Against this hypothesis, an abnormally high incidence of inhibitory responses to TMS has been observed in the peristimulus time histograms (PSTHs) in ALS single motor unit studies. The disappearance of cortico-motoneuronal excitatory inputs might, however, have facilitated the detection of single motor unit inhibitory responses in the PSTHs. This question was addressed here using a new approach, where the strength of the excitatory and inhibitory effects of TMS on motoneurone activity was assessed from the duration of inter-spike intervals (ISIs). This analysis was conducted on single motor unit (MU), tested on healthy subjects and patients with ALS or Kennedy's disease (KD), a motor neuron disease which unlike ALS, spares the cortico-spinal pathway. MUs tested on KD patients behaved like those of healthy subjects unlike those tested on ALS patients. The present data reveal that in ALS, the TMS-induced inhibitory effects are truly enhanced during voluntary contractions and not reduced, as observed in paired-pulse TMS studies under resting conditions. The possible contribution of inhibitory loss to the physiopathology of ALS therefore needs to be reconsidered. The present data do not support the idea that inhibition loss may underlie excito-toxicity in ALS. PMID:18496679

  20. Single-point mutation-mediated local amphipathic adjustment dramatically enhances antibacterial activity of a fungal defensin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiajia; Gao, Bin; Zhu, Shunyi

    2016-07-01

    The emergence and rapid spread of multiresistant bacteria has lead to an urgent need for novel antimicrobials. Based on single-point substitutions, we generated a series of mutants of micasin, a dermatophytic defensin, with enhanced activities against multiple clinical isolates of Staphylococcus species, including 4 antibiotic-resistant strains. We first mapped the functional surface of micasin by alanine-scanning mutational analysis of its highly exposed residues, through which we found that substitution of site 8 (acidic Glu) dramatically enhanced bacterial killing of this peptide. Structural analysis indicates that this single point mutation could result in a functional local amphipathic architecture. Four different types of side chains (hydrophobic, cationic polar, neutral polar, and acidic polar) were introduced at site 8 to clarify the role of this local architecture in micasin function. The results show that all mutants displayed increased antibacterial activity with the exception of the acidic replacement. These mutants with enhanced activity exhibited low hemolysis and cytotoxicity and showed high serum stability, indicating their therapeutic potential. Our work represents the first example of structural fine-tuning to largely improve the antibacterial potency of a dermatophytic defensin.-Wu, J., Gao, B., Zhu, S. Single-point mutation-mediated local amphipathic adjustment dramatically enhances antibacterial activity of a fungal defensin. PMID:27084888

  1. Chemical Cytometry: Fluorescence-Based Single-Cell Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Daniella; Dickerson, Jane A.; Whitmore, Colin D.; Turner, Emily H.; Palcic, Monica M.; Hindsgaul, Ole; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2008-07-01

    Cytometry deals with the analysis of the composition of single cells. Flow and image cytometry employ antibody-based stains to characterize a handful of components in single cells. Chemical cytometry, in contrast, employs a suite of powerful analytical tools to characterize a large number of components. Tools have been developed to characterize nucleic acids, proteins, and metabolites in single cells. Whereas nucleic acid analysis employs powerful polymerase chain reaction-based amplification techniques, protein and metabolite analysis tends to employ capillary electrophoresis separation and ultrasensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection. It is now possible to detect yoctomole amounts of many analytes in single cells.

  2. Strongly enhanced Raman scattering of graphene by a single gold nanorod

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yingbo; Shen, Hongming; Cheng, Yuqing; Lu, Guowei Gong, Qihuang

    2015-08-03

    Individual gold nanorods (AuNRs) and monolayer graphene hybrid system is investigated experimentally. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal of the graphene is observed due to a single AuNR with enhancement factor up to ∼1000-fold. The SERS intensity is strongly polarization dependent and the enhancement effect varies with the detuning between the excitation laser and the AuNR resonance. The SERS effect is highest when the resonant wavelength of the AuNRs matches well with the excitation light. By correlating the scattering and photoluminescence, it is demonstrated that the conventional background in SERS ascribes to the photon emission of metallic nanostructures.

  3. Electromagnetic enhancement by a single nano-groove in metallic substrate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Haitao; Mu, Guoguang

    2010-07-01

    We propose systematic investigations of the electromagnetic enhancement by a single nano-groove in gold substrate. The impacts of the groove parameters and of the illumination conditions on the enhanced intensity are explored using a fully vectorial numerical method. The obtained data can be well predicted and explained by a simple Fabry-Perot model. By virtue of the semi-analytical model, we identify two main factors that enable giant electric-field enhancement in very narrow grooves: the Fabry-Perot resonance and the large wave impedance of the fundamental mode in the groove. PMID:20596141

  4. Enhancement of spin polarization in transport through protein-like single-helical molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hai-Na; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Ya-Jing; Yi, Guang-Yu; Gong, Wei-Jiang

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the spin-polarized electron transport through the single-helical molecules connected with two normal metallic leads. On the basis of an effective model Hamiltonian, influences of the structural parameters on the conductance and the spin polarization are calculated by using the Landauer-Büttiker formula. The optimal structural parameters for the maximal spin polarization are analyzed. Our results show that the dephasing term is an important factor to enhance the spin polarization, in addition to the intrinsic parameters of the single-helical molecule. This work can be helpful in optimizing the spin polarization in the protein-like single-helical molecules.

  5. Feasibility of Single Molecule DNA Sequencing using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Talley, C E; Reboredo, F; Chan, J; Lane, S M

    2006-02-03

    We have used a combined theoretical and experimental approach in order to assess the feasibility of using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for DNA sequencing at the single molecule level. We have developed a numerical tool capable of calculating the E-field and resulting SERS enhancement factors for metallic structures of arbitrary size and shape. Measurements of the additional SERS enhancement by combining SERS with coherent antistokes Raman scattering (CARS) show that only modest increases in the signal are achievable due to thermal damage at higher laser powers. Finally, measurements of the SERS enhancement from nanoparticles coated with an insulating layer show that the SERS enhancement is decreased by as much as two orders of magnitude when the molecule is not in contact with the metal surface.

  6. Fluorescence enhancement on silver nanoplates at the single- and sub-nanoparticle level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yangbin; He, Ting; Wang, Wenhui; Zhan, Yulu; Hu, Xin; Yuan, Binfang; Zhou, Xiaochun

    2015-11-01

    The fluorescence intensity of a fluorescent molecule can be strongly enhanced when the molecule is near a metal nanoparticle. Hence, fluorescence enhancement has a lot of applications in the fields of biology and medical science. It is necessary to understand the mechanism for such an attractive effect, if we intend to develop better materials to improve the enhancement. In this paper, we directly image the diverse patterns of fluorescence enhancement on single Ag nanoplates by super-resolution microscopy. The research reveals that the edges or tips of the Ag nanoplate usually show a much higher ability of fluorescence enhancement than the mid part. The spatial distribution of fluorescence enhancement strongly depends on the size of the Ag nanoplate as well as the angle between the Ag nanoplate and the incident light. The experimental results above are essentially consistent with the simulated electric field by the theory of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), but some irregularities still exist. We also find that fluorescence enhancement on small Ag nanoplates is mainly due to in-plane dipole plasmon resonance, while the enhancement on large Ag nanoplates is mainly due to in-plane quadrupole plasmon resonance. Furthermore, in-plane quadrupole resonance of large plates has a higher ability to enhance the fluorescence signal than the in-plane dipole plasmon resonance. This research provides many valuable insights into the fluorescence enhancement at the single- and sub-nanoparticle level, and will be very helpful in developing better relevant materials.The fluorescence intensity of a fluorescent molecule can be strongly enhanced when the molecule is near a metal nanoparticle. Hence, fluorescence enhancement has a lot of applications in the fields of biology and medical science. It is necessary to understand the mechanism for such an attractive effect, if we intend to develop better materials to improve the enhancement. In this paper, we directly image the

  7. Fluorescence signals of core-shell quantum dots enhanced by single crystalline gold caps on silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, S. H.; Chou, J. W.; Becker, M.; Sivakov, V.; Ehrhold, K.; Berger, A.; Chou, W. C.; Chuu, D. S.; Gösele, U.

    2009-04-01

    We use nanoscale (20-300 nm in diameter) single crystalline gold (Au)-caps on silicon nanowires (NWs) grown by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism to enhance the fluorescence photoluminescence (PL) signals of highly dilute core/shell CdSeTe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) in aqueous solution (10-5 M). For NWs without Au-caps, as they appear, for example, after Au etching in aqua regia or buffered KI/I2-solution, essentially no fluorescence signal of the same diluted QDs could be observed. Fluorescence PL signals were measured using excitation with a laser wavelength of 633 nm. The signal enhancement by single crystalline, nanoscale Au-caps is discussed and interpreted based on finite element modeling (FEM).

  8. Refractive index sensing characteristic of single-mode-multimode-single-mode fiber structure based on self-imaging effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xuekun; Wang, Haotian; Wang, Shaofei; Pu, Shengli; Zeng, Xianglong

    2015-10-01

    We research the refractive index (RI) sensing characteristic based on the bandpass spectrum caused by the self-imaging effect in the single-mode-multimode-single-mode (SMS) fiber structure theoretically and experimentally. A new selectable parameter, i.e., no-core fiber (NCF) length, is investigated for improving the sensitivity of the sensor. The results show that the sensor's sensitivity will be enhanced by shortening the NCF length when the self-imaging number remains constant. Experimentally, a maximum sensitivity of 1923 nm/RIU (RI unit) has been achieved when the RI ranges from 1.334 to 1.434. This work demonstrates a method to improve the sensitivity of SMS-fiber-structure-based RI sensors featuring a low cost, compact size, low insert loss, and high sensitivity optical fiber RI sensor.

  9. Single crystalline tantalum oxychloride microcubes: controllable synthesis, formation mechanism and enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production activity.

    PubMed

    Tu, Hao; Xu, Leilei; Mou, Fangzhi; Guan, Jianguo

    2015-08-11

    Single crystalline microcubes of a new tantalum compound, tantalum oxychloride (TaO2.18Cl0.64), have been fabricated hydrothermally in a concentrated aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid and acetic acid. They contain a superstructure and exhibit remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activities for hydrogen production due to the improved light harvest and facilitated charge transport. PMID:26143863

  10. Evaluation of a Single-Session Brief Motivational Enhancement Intervention for Partner Abusive Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Cory A.; Eckhardt, Christopher I.

    2013-01-01

    The current study evaluated the efficacy of a single-session brief motivational enhancement (BME) interview to increase treatment compliance and reduce recidivism rates in a sample of 82 recently adjudicated male perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). Batterer intervention program attendance and completion as well as re-arrest records…

  11. Enhancement of single-walled nanotubes luminescence intensity upon dithiothreitol doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurnosov, N. V.; Linnik, A. S.; Leontiev, V. S.; Karachevtsev, V. A.

    2014-09-01

    In the present work the influence of reducing agent dithiothreitol doping on photoluminescence spectra of nanotubes with adsorbed biopolymers (single-stranded DNA and polyC) in aqueous suspensions and films was studied. It is revealed that greater intensity enhancement at 10-3 mol/L dithiothreitol concentration is observed for (7,5) and (6,5) nanotubes in suspension with single-stranded DNA (by more than 150% of initial intensity) comparing to polyC suspension (less than 60%) while for (6,4) and (9,1) nanotubes enhancement is less than 50% for both suspensions. Photoluminescence intensity increasing for nanotube film with DNA is less than 50% without noticeable dependence on nanotube chirality. It is assumed, that different influence of biopolymers on nanotube luminescence intensity enhancement is due to their different coverage of nanotube surface.

  12. A microcontroller-based failsafe for single photon counting modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Matthew P.; Selvin, Paul R.

    2003-02-01

    Avalanche photodiode-based single photon counting modules (SPCMs) can be damaged by exposure to excessive light levels. A flexible and inexpensive failsafe is presented which has been shown to protect SPCMs from light levels far exceeding the damage threshold.

  13. Gabor filter based fingerprint image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin-Xiang

    2013-03-01

    Fingerprint recognition technology has become the most reliable biometric technology due to its uniqueness and invariance, which has been most convenient and most reliable technique for personal authentication. The development of Automated Fingerprint Identification System is an urgent need for modern information security. Meanwhile, fingerprint preprocessing algorithm of fingerprint recognition technology has played an important part in Automatic Fingerprint Identification System. This article introduces the general steps in the fingerprint recognition technology, namely the image input, preprocessing, feature recognition, and fingerprint image enhancement. As the key to fingerprint identification technology, fingerprint image enhancement affects the accuracy of the system. It focuses on the characteristics of the fingerprint image, Gabor filters algorithm for fingerprint image enhancement, the theoretical basis of Gabor filters, and demonstration of the filter. The enhancement algorithm for fingerprint image is in the windows XP platform with matlab.65 as a development tool for the demonstration. The result shows that the Gabor filter is effective in fingerprint image enhancement technology.

  14. Goethite colloid enhanced Pu transport through a single saturated fracture in granite.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianfeng; Dang, Haijun; Xie, Jinchuan; Li, Mei; Zhou, Guoqing; Zhang, Jihong; Zhang, Haitao; Yi, Xiaowei

    2014-08-01

    α-FeOOH, a stable iron oxide in nature, can strongly absorb the low-solubility plutonium (Pu) in aquifers. However, whether Pu transports though a single saturated fracture can be enhanced in the presence of α-FeOOH colloids remains unknown. Experimental studies were carried out to evaluate Pu mobilization at different water flow velocity, as affected by goethite colloids with various concentrations. Goethite nanorods were used to prepare (α-FeOOH)-associated Pu suspensions with α-FeOOH concentration of (0-150) mgL(-1). The work experimentally evidenced that α-FeOOH colloid does enhance transport of Pu through fractured granites. The fraction of mobile (239)Pu (RPu, m=41.5%) associated with the α-FeOOH of an extremely low colloid concentration (0.2mgL(-1)) is much larger than that in absence of α-FeOOH (RPu, m=6.98%). However, plutonium mobility began to decrease when α-FeOOH concentration was increased to 1.0mgL(-1). On the other hand, the fraction of mobile Pu increased gradually with the water flow velocity. Based on the experimental data, the mechanisms underlying the (α-FeOOH)-associated plutonium transport are comprehensively discussed in view of its dynamic deposition onto the granite surfaces, which is decided mainly by the relative interaction between the colloid particle and the immobile surface. This interaction is a balance of electrostatic force (may be repulsive or attractive), the van der Walls force, and the shear stress of flow. PMID:25016587

  15. Single charge detection in capacitively coupled integrated single electron transistors based on single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xin; Ishibashi, Koji

    2012-09-01

    Single charge detection is demonstrated in the capacitively coupled integrated single electron transistors (SETs) in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) quantum dots. Two SETs are fabricated based on two different SWCNTs aligned in parallel, by taking advantage of the aligned growth of SWCNTs and subsequent transfer-printed techniques. In order to make both two SETs be capacitively coupled, a metal finger is fabricated on the top of them. The charge sensing is proved by the response of a detector current in one SWCNT-SET when the number of electrons in the other SWCNT-SET is changed by sweeping the corresponding gate voltages. In this integrated device, shifts of Coulomb oscillation peaks due to the single electron event are also observed.

  16. Enhanced permeation of single-file water molecules across a noncylindrical nanochannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, X. W.; Huang, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    We utilize molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of noncylindrical shapes of a nanochannel (which are inspired from the shape of real biological water nanochannels) on the permeation of single-file water molecules across the nanochannel. Compared with the cylindrical shape that has been tremendously adopted in the literature, the noncylindrical shapes play a crucial role in enhancing water permeation. Remarkably, the maximal enhancement ratio reaches a value of 6.28 (enhancement behavior). Meanwhile, the enhancement becomes saturated when the volume of the noncylindrical shape continues to increase (saturation behavior). The analysis of average diffusivity of water molecules helps to reveal the mechanism underlying the two behaviors whereas Poiseuille's law fails to explain them. These results pave a way for designing high-flow nanochannels and provide insight into water permeation across biological water nanochannels.

  17. Purity-enhanced bulk synthesis of thin single-wall carbon nanotubes using iron-copper catalysts.

    PubMed

    Lim, H E; Miyata, Y; Nakayama, T; Chen, S; Kitaura, R; Shinohara, H

    2011-09-30

    We report high purity and high yield synthesis of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) of narrow diameter from iron-copper bimetal catalysts. The SWCNTs with diameter of 0.8-1.2 nm are synthesized using the zeolite-supported alcohol chemical vapour deposition method. Single metal and bimetal catalysts are systematically investigated to achieve both the enhancement of SWCNT yield and the suppression of the undesired formation of graphitic impurities. The relative yield and purity of SWCNTs are quantified using optical absorption spectroscopy with an ultracentrifuge-based purification technique. For the single metal catalyst, iron shows the highest catalytic activity compared with the other metals such as cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, copper, and platinum. It has been found that the addition of copper to iron results in the suppression of carbonaceous impurity formation without decreasing the SWCNT yield. The purity-enhanced SWCNT shows fairly low sheet resistance due to the improvement of inter-nanotube contacts. This scalable design of SWCNT synthesis with enhanced purity is therefore a promising tool for shaping future high performance devices. PMID:21891846

  18. Purity-enhanced bulk synthesis of thin single-wall carbon nanotubes using iron-copper catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H. E.; Miyata, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Chen, S.; Kitaura, R.; Shinohara, H.

    2011-09-01

    We report high purity and high yield synthesis of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) of narrow diameter from iron-copper bimetal catalysts. The SWCNTs with diameter of 0.8-1.2 nm are synthesized using the zeolite-supported alcohol chemical vapour deposition method. Single metal and bimetal catalysts are systematically investigated to achieve both the enhancement of SWCNT yield and the suppression of the undesired formation of graphitic impurities. The relative yield and purity of SWCNTs are quantified using optical absorption spectroscopy with an ultracentrifuge-based purification technique. For the single metal catalyst, iron shows the highest catalytic activity compared with the other metals such as cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, copper, and platinum. It has been found that the addition of copper to iron results in the suppression of carbonaceous impurity formation without decreasing the SWCNT yield. The purity-enhanced SWCNT shows fairly low sheet resistance due to the improvement of inter-nanotube contacts. This scalable design of SWCNT synthesis with enhanced purity is therefore a promising tool for shaping future high performance devices.

  19. Effects of Chemical Enhancers on Human Epidermal Membrane: Structure-Enhancement Relationship based on Maximum Enhancement (Emax)

    PubMed Central

    IBRAHIM, SARAH A.; LI, S. KEVIN

    2008-01-01

    Chemical penetration enhancers are widely used in transdermal pharmaceuticals as well as cosmetic products. Selection of suitable enhancers in topical formulations requires an understanding of the mechanism of action of these enhancers. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the enhancement effects of a number of commonly known enhancers and cosmetic ingredients on permeation across human epidermal membrane (HEM). The potencies of these chemical enhancers—maximum enhancement, Emax—were compared at their highest thermodynamic activity in equilibrium with HEM (i.e., solubility equilibrium). This was achieved by the treatment of HEM with the enhancer or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) saturated with the enhancer. Passive transport experiments were then conducted with a model permeant corticosterone to determine the effects of these enhancers on the lipoidal pathway of HEM. The results suggest that Emax of an enhancer is related to its octanol/water partition coefficient and its solubility in the HEM lipid domain. A relationship between enhancer Emax and its solubility in silicone elastomer was also observed, suggesting the use of silicone solubility to predict enhancer potency. Based on the Emax results, some common topical ingredients were found to be more potent enhancers than a number of well-known chemical enhancers. PMID:18623209

  20. Enhancing the Scientific Credibility of Single-Case Intervention Research: Randomization to the Rescue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Levin, Joel R.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, single-case designs have increasingly been used to establish an empirical basis for evidence-based interventions and techniques in a variety of disciplines, including psychology and education. Although traditional single-case designs have typically not met the criteria for a randomized controlled trial relative to conventional…

  1. Single-molecule spectroscopic study of enhanced intrinsic phycoerythrin fluorescence on silver nanostructured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ray, Krishanu; Chowdhury, Mustafa H; Lakowicz, Joseph R

    2008-09-15

    In this paper, we report on steady-state and time-resolved single-molecule fluorescence measurements performed on a phycobiliprotein, R-phycoerythrin (RPE), assembled on silver nanostructures. Single-molecule measurements clearly show that RPE molecules display a 10-fold increase in fluorescence intensity, with a 7-fold decrease in lifetime when they are assembled on silver nanostructured surfaces, as compared to control glass slides. The emission spectrum of individual RPE molecules also displays a significant fluorescence enhancement on silver nanostructures as compared to glass. From intensity and lifetime histograms, it is clear that the intensities as well as lifetimes of individual RPE molecules on silver nanostructures are more heterogeneously distributed than that on glass. This single-molecule study provides further insight on the heterogeneity in the fluorescence intensity and lifetimes of the RPE molecules on both glass and SiFs surfaces, which is otherwise not possible to observe using ensemble measurements. Finite-difference time-domain calculations have been performed to study the enhanced near-fields induced around silver nanoparticles by a radiating excited-state fluorophore, and the effect of such enhanced fields on the fluorescence enhancement observed is discussed. PMID:18690697

  2. Enhancement of multiphoton emission from single CdSe quantum dots coupled to gold films.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Sharonda J; McClanahan, Mason R; Jones, Marcus; Moyer, Patrick J

    2013-04-10

    Single molecule time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) localized near a rough gold thin film demonstrates significant enhancement of multiphoton emission while at the same time showing a decrease in single photon emission. A rigorous analysis of time-resolved photon correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence lifetime data on single quantum dots at room temperature reveals an increase in radiative recombination rate of multiexcitons that is much higher than expected and, perhaps more significantly, is not correlated with concomitant increases in single exciton recombination rates. We believe that these results confirm a stronger coupling of multiexcitons to plasmon modes via a coupling to plasmon multipole modes. PMID:23510412

  3. Variable-Temperature Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Single-Molecule Fluctuations and Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoung-Duck; Muller, Eric A; Kravtsov, Vasily; Sass, Paul M; Dreyer, Jens; Atkin, Joanna M; Raschke, Markus B

    2016-01-13

    Structure, dynamics, and coupling involving single-molecules determine function in catalytic, electronic or biological systems. While vibrational spectroscopy provides insight into molecular structure, rapid fluctuations blur the molecular trajectory even in single-molecule spectroscopy, analogous to spatial averaging in measuring large ensembles. To gain insight into intramolecular coupling, substrate coupling, and dynamic processes, we use tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) at variable and cryogenic temperatures, to slow and control the motion of a single molecule. We resolve intrinsic line widths of individual normal modes, allowing detailed and quantitative investigation of the vibrational modes. From temperature dependent line narrowing and splitting, we quantify ultrafast vibrational dephasing, intramolecular coupling, and conformational heterogeneity. Through statistical correlation analysis of fluctuations of individual modes, we observe rotational motion and spectral fluctuations of the molecule. This work demonstrates single-molecule vibrational spectroscopy beyond chemical identification, opening the possibility for a complete picture of molecular motion ranging from femtoseconds to minutes. PMID:26679007

  4. Observation of Single Pt Nanoparticle Collisions: Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity on a Pd Ultramicroelectrode.

    PubMed

    Shin, Changhwan; Park, Tae Eun; Park, Changki; Kwon, Seong Jung

    2016-06-01

    Single Pt nanoparticle (NP) collisions on an electrode surface were detected by using an electrocatalytic amplification method with a Pd ultramicroelectrode (UME). Pd is not a preferred material for UMEs for the detection of single Pt NP collisions, because Pd shows similar electrocatalytic activity compared with Pt for hydrazine oxidation, thus resulting in a high background current level. However, a Pt NP colliding on the Pd UME shows greatly enhanced activity compared with a Pt NP on an inert UME, such as a Au UME, which is usually used for the detection of single Pt NP collisions. The use of an electroactive UME material instead of an inert one facilitated the study of single-NP activity on the various solid supports, which is important in many NP applications. PMID:26955784

  5. Elucidating the localized plasmonic enhancement effects from a single Ag nanowire in organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinfeng; Wu, Bo; Zhang, Qing; Yip, Jing Ngei; Yu, Guannan; Xiong, Qihua; Mathews, Nripan; Sum, Tze Chien

    2014-10-28

    The origins of performance enhancement in hybrid plasmonic organic photovoltaic devices are often embroiled in a complex interaction of light scattering, localized surface plasmon resonances, exciton-plasmon energy transfer and even nonplasmonic effects. To clearly deconvolve the plasmonic contributions from a single nanostructure, we herein investigate the influence of a single silver nanowire (NW) on the charge carriers in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells using spatially resolved optical spectroscopy, and correlate to electrical device characterization. Polarization-dependent photocurrent enhancements with a maximum of ∼ 36% over the reference are observed when the transverse mode of the plasmonic excitations in the Ag NW is activated. The ensuing higher absorbance and light scattering induced by the electronic motion perpendicular to the NW long axis lead to increased exciton and polaron densities instead of direct surface plasmon-exciton energy transfer. Finite-difference time-domain simulations also validate these findings. Importantly, our study at the single nanostructure level explores the fundamental limits of plasmonic enhancement achievable in organic solar cells with a single plasmonic nanostructure. PMID:25198060

  6. Label-free mapping of single bacterial cells using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Panxue; Pang, Shintaro; Chen, Juhong; McLandsborough, Lynne; Nugen, Sam R; Fan, Mingtao; He, Lili

    2016-02-01

    Here we presented a simple, rapid and label-free surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based mapping method for the detection and discrimination of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli on silver dendrites. The sample preparation was first optimized to maximize sensitivity. The mapping method was then used to scan through the bacterial cells adsorbed on the surface of silver dendrites. The intrinsic and distinct SERS signals of bacterial cells were used as the basis for label-free detection and discrimination. The results show the developed method is able to detect single bacterial cells adsorbed on the silver dendrites with a limit of detection as low as 10(4) CFU mL(-1), which is two orders of magnitude lower than the traditional SERS method under the same experimental condition. The time needed for collecting a 225 points map was approximately 24 minutes. Moreover, the developed SERS mapping method can realize simultaneous detection and identification of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica BAA1045 and Escherichia coli BL21 from a mixture sample using principle component analysis. Our results demonstrate the great potential of the label-free SERS mapping method to detect, identify and quantify bacteria and bacterial mixtures simultaneously. PMID:26750611

  7. Super-resolved enhancing and edge deghosting (SEED) for spatiotemporally encoded single-shot MRI.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Li, Jing; Zhang, Miao; Cai, Shuhui; Zhang, Ting; Cai, Congbo; Chen, Zhong

    2015-07-01

    Spatiotemporally encoded (SPEN) single-shot MRI is an ultrafast MRI technique proposed recently, which utilizes quadratic rather than linear phase profile to extract the spatial information. Compared to the echo planar imaging (EPI), this technique has great advantages in resisting field inhomogeneity and chemical shift effects. Super-resolved (SR) reconstruction is adopted to compensate the inherent low resolution of SPEN images. Due to insufficient sampling rate, the SR image is challenged by aliasing artifacts and edge ghosts. The existing SR algorithms always compromise in spatial resolution to suppress these undesirable artifacts. In this paper, we proposed a novel SR algorithm termed super-resolved enhancing and edge deghosting (SEED). Different from artifacts suppression methods, our algorithm aims at exploiting the relationship between aliasing artifacts and real signal. Based on this relationship, the aliasing artifacts can be eliminated without spatial resolution loss. According to the trait of edge ghosts, finite differences and high-pass filter are employed to extract the prior knowledge of edge ghosts. By combining the prior knowledge with compressed sensing, our algorithm can efficiently reduce the edge ghosts. The robustness of SEED is demonstrated by experiments under various situations. The results indicate that the SEED can provide better spatial resolution compared to state-of-the-art SR reconstruction algorithms in SPEN MRI. Theoretical analysis and experimental results also show that the SR images reconstructed by SEED have better spatial resolution than the images obtained with conventional k-space encoding methods under similar experimental condition. PMID:25910683

  8. Single-Photon Avalanche Diode with Enhanced NIR-Sensitivity for Automotive LIDAR Systems.

    PubMed

    Takai, Isamu; Matsubara, Hiroyuki; Soga, Mineki; Ohta, Mitsuhiko; Ogawa, Masaru; Yamashita, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    A single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) with enhanced near-infrared (NIR) sensitivity has been developed, based on 0.18 μm CMOS technology, for use in future automotive light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems. The newly proposed SPAD operating in Geiger mode achieves a high NIR photon detection efficiency (PDE) without compromising the fill factor (FF) and a low breakdown voltage of approximately 20.5 V. These properties are obtained by employing two custom layers that are designed to provide a full-depletion layer with a high electric field profile. Experimental evaluation of the proposed SPAD reveals an FF of 33.1% and a PDE of 19.4% at 870 nm, which is the laser wavelength of our LIDAR system. The dark count rate (DCR) measurements shows that DCR levels of the proposed SPAD have a small effect on the ranging performance, even if the worst DCR (12.7 kcps) SPAD among the test samples is used. Furthermore, with an eye toward vehicle installations, the DCR is measured over a wide temperature range of 25-132 °C. The ranging experiment demonstrates that target distances are successfully measured in the distance range of 50-180 cm. PMID:27043569

  9. Single-Photon Avalanche Diode with Enhanced NIR-Sensitivity for Automotive LIDAR Systems

    PubMed Central

    Takai, Isamu; Matsubara, Hiroyuki; Soga, Mineki; Ohta, Mitsuhiko; Ogawa, Masaru; Yamashita, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    A single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) with enhanced near-infrared (NIR) sensitivity has been developed, based on 0.18 μm CMOS technology, for use in future automotive light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems. The newly proposed SPAD operating in Geiger mode achieves a high NIR photon detection efficiency (PDE) without compromising the fill factor (FF) and a low breakdown voltage of approximately 20.5 V. These properties are obtained by employing two custom layers that are designed to provide a full-depletion layer with a high electric field profile. Experimental evaluation of the proposed SPAD reveals an FF of 33.1% and a PDE of 19.4% at 870 nm, which is the laser wavelength of our LIDAR system. The dark count rate (DCR) measurements shows that DCR levels of the proposed SPAD have a small effect on the ranging performance, even if the worst DCR (12.7 kcps) SPAD among the test samples is used. Furthermore, with an eye toward vehicle installations, the DCR is measured over a wide temperature range of 25–132 °C. The ranging experiment demonstrates that target distances are successfully measured in the distance range of 50–180 cm. PMID:27043569

  10. Expressly fabricated molar tube bases: enhanced adhesion.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Tarun; Phull, Tarun Singh; Rana, Tarun; Kumar, Varun

    2014-06-01

    Clinicians, Orthodontists and their patients' parents often expect the best results in the shortest time span possible. Orthodontic bonding of molar tubes has been an acceptable risk in a modern era of refined biomaterials and instrumentation. Although many orthodontists still prefer banding to bonding, it is the failure rate of the tubes on molars which accounts to an impedance in molar bonding. One of the reasons for molar attachment failures is attributed to improper adaptation of the buccal tube base with or without increased thickness of composite. Merits of banding the second molars especially when these are the terminal teeth for anchorage have been overemphasized in the literature. The present article presents a simple and relatively less time consuming technique of preparing molar tubes to be bonded on tooth surfaces which may be quite difficult to isolate especially for bonding, for example, mandibular second molars. The increased surface area of the composite scaffold helps not only in enhanced bond strength but also serves to reduce the incidence of plaque accumulation given the dexterity of invitro preparation. The removal of the occlusal part of the molar tube scaffold helps in prevention of open / raised bite tendencies. The present innovation, therefore, is not merely serendipity but a structured technique to overcome a common dilemma for the clinical orthodontist. The present dictum of banding being superior to molar tube bonding may prove to be futile with trendsetting molar attachments. It is also an established fact that bonding proves to be a lesser expensive modality when compared to banding procedures. PMID:25121070

  11. Plasmon-enhanced upconversion luminescence in single nanophosphor-nanorod heterodimers formed through template-assisted self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Greybush, Nicholas J; Saboktakin, Marjan; Ye, Xingchen; Della Giovampaola, Cristian; Oh, Soong Ju; Berry, Nathaniel E; Engheta, Nader; Murray, Christopher B; Kagan, Cherie R

    2014-09-23

    We demonstrate plasmonic enhancement of upconversion luminescence in individual nanocrystal heterodimers formed by template-assisted self-assembly. Lithographically defined, shape-selective templates were used to deterministically coassemble single Au nanorods in proximity to single hexagonal (β-phase) NaYF4:Yb(3+),Er(3+) upconversion nanophosphors. By tailoring the dimensions of the rods to spectrally tune their longitudinal surface plasmon resonance to match the 977 nm excitation wavelength of the phosphors and by spatially localizing the phosphors in the intense near-fields surrounding the rod tips, several-fold luminescence enhancements were achieved. The enhancement effects exhibited a strong dependence on the excitation light's polarization relative to the rod axis. In addition, greater enhancement was observed at lower excitation power densities due to the nonlinear behavior of the upconversion process. The template-based coassembly scheme utilized here for plasmonic coupling offers a versatile platform for improving our understanding of optical interactions among individual chemically prepared nanocrystal components. PMID:25182662

  12. Mobility enhancement and temperature dependence in top-gated single-layer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Zhun-Yong; Fischetti, Massimo V.

    2013-10-01

    The deposition of a high-κ oxide overlayer is known to significantly enhance the room-temperature electron mobility in single-layer MoS2 (SLM) but not in single-layer graphene. We give a quantitative account of how this mobility enhancement is due to the nondegeneracy of the two-dimensional electron gas system in SLM at accessible temperatures. Using our charged impurity scattering model [Ong and Fischetti, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.86.121409 86, 121409 (2012)] and temperature-dependent polarizability, we calculate the charged impurity-limited mobility (μimp) in SLM with and without a high-κ (HfO2) top-gate oxide at different electron densities and temperatures. We find that the mobility enhancement is larger at low electron densities and high temperatures because of finite-temperature screening, thus explaining the enhancement of the mobility observed at room temperature. μimp is shown to decrease significantly with increasing temperature, suggesting that the strong temperature dependence of measured mobilities should not be interpreted as being solely due to inelastic scattering with phonons. We also reproduce the recently seen experimental trend in which the temperature scaling exponent (γ) of μimp∝T-γ is smaller in top-gated SLM than in bare SLM. Finally, we show that ˜37% mobility enhancement can be achieved by reducing the HfO2 thickness from 20 to 2 nm.

  13. OVERVIEW OF ENHANCED HANFORD SINGLE-SHELL TANK (SST) INTEGRITY PROJECT - 12128

    SciTech Connect

    VENETZ TJ; BOOMER KD; WASHENFELDER DJ; JOHNSON JB

    2012-01-25

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank (SST) Integrity Project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration, Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The change package identified two phases of work for SST integrity. The initial phase has been focused on efforts to envelope the integrity of the tanks. The initial phase was divided into two primary areas of investigation: structural integrity and leak integrity. If necessary based on the outcome from the initial work, a second phase would be focused on further definition of the integrity of the concrete and liners. Combined these two phases are designed to support the formal integrity assessment of the Hanford SSTs in 2018 by Independent Qualified Registered Engineer. The work to further define the DOE's understanding of the structural integrity SSTs involves preparing a modern Analysis of Record using a finite element analysis program. Structural analyses of the SSTs have been conducted since 1957, but these analyses used analog calculation, less rigorous models, or focused on individual structures. As such, an integrated understanding of all of the SSTs has not been developed to modern expectations. In support of this effort, other milestones will address the visual inspection of the tank concrete and the collection of concrete core samples from the tanks for analysis of

  14. Single-shot and single-sensor high/super-resolution microwave imaging based on metasurface

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Libo; Li, Lianlin; Li, Yunbo; Zhang, Hao Chi; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Real-time high-resolution (including super-resolution) imaging with low-cost hardware is a long sought-after goal in various imaging applications. Here, we propose broadband single-shot and single-sensor high-/super-resolution imaging by using a spatio-temporal dispersive metasurface and an imaging reconstruction algorithm. The metasurface with spatio-temporal dispersive property ensures the feasibility of the single-shot and single-sensor imager for super- and high-resolution imaging, since it can convert efficiently the detailed spatial information of the probed object into one-dimensional time- or frequency-dependent signal acquired by a single sensor fixed in the far-field region. The imaging quality can be improved by applying a feature-enhanced reconstruction algorithm in post-processing, and the desired imaging resolution is related to the distance between the object and metasurface. When the object is placed in the vicinity of the metasurface, the super-resolution imaging can be realized. The proposed imaging methodology provides a unique means to perform real-time data acquisition, high-/super-resolution images without employing expensive hardware (e.g. mechanical scanner, antenna array, etc.). We expect that this methodology could make potential breakthroughs in the areas of microwave, terahertz, optical, and even ultrasound imaging. PMID:27246668

  15. Single-shot and single-sensor high/super-resolution microwave imaging based on metasurface.

    PubMed

    Wang, Libo; Li, Lianlin; Li, Yunbo; Zhang, Hao Chi; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Real-time high-resolution (including super-resolution) imaging with low-cost hardware is a long sought-after goal in various imaging applications. Here, we propose broadband single-shot and single-sensor high-/super-resolution imaging by using a spatio-temporal dispersive metasurface and an imaging reconstruction algorithm. The metasurface with spatio-temporal dispersive property ensures the feasibility of the single-shot and single-sensor imager for super- and high-resolution imaging, since it can convert efficiently the detailed spatial information of the probed object into one-dimensional time- or frequency-dependent signal acquired by a single sensor fixed in the far-field region. The imaging quality can be improved by applying a feature-enhanced reconstruction algorithm in post-processing, and the desired imaging resolution is related to the distance between the object and metasurface. When the object is placed in the vicinity of the metasurface, the super-resolution imaging can be realized. The proposed imaging methodology provides a unique means to perform real-time data acquisition, high-/super-resolution images without employing expensive hardware (e.g. mechanical scanner, antenna array, etc.). We expect that this methodology could make potential breakthroughs in the areas of microwave, terahertz, optical, and even ultrasound imaging. PMID:27246668

  16. Single-shot and single-sensor high/super-resolution microwave imaging based on metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Libo; Li, Lianlin; Li, Yunbo; Zhang, Hao Chi; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-06-01

    Real-time high-resolution (including super-resolution) imaging with low-cost hardware is a long sought-after goal in various imaging applications. Here, we propose broadband single-shot and single-sensor high-/super-resolution imaging by using a spatio-temporal dispersive metasurface and an imaging reconstruction algorithm. The metasurface with spatio-temporal dispersive property ensures the feasibility of the single-shot and single-sensor imager for super- and high-resolution imaging, since it can convert efficiently the detailed spatial information of the probed object into one-dimensional time- or frequency-dependent signal acquired by a single sensor fixed in the far-field region. The imaging quality can be improved by applying a feature-enhanced reconstruction algorithm in post-processing, and the desired imaging resolution is related to the distance between the object and metasurface. When the object is placed in the vicinity of the metasurface, the super-resolution imaging can be realized. The proposed imaging methodology provides a unique means to perform real-time data acquisition, high-/super-resolution images without employing expensive hardware (e.g. mechanical scanner, antenna array, etc.). We expect that this methodology could make potential breakthroughs in the areas of microwave, terahertz, optical, and even ultrasound imaging.

  17. Strong antenna-enhanced fluorescence of a single light-harvesting complex shows photon antibunching

    PubMed Central

    Wientjes, Emilie; Renger, Jan; Curto, Alberto G.; Cogdell, Richard; van Hulst, Niek F.

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the highly efficient energy transfer in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes is a subject of intense research. Unfortunately, the low fluorescence efficiency and limited photostability hampers the study of individual light-harvesting complexes at ambient conditions. Here we demonstrate an over 500-fold fluorescence enhancement of light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2) at the single-molecule level by coupling to a gold nanoantenna. The resonant antenna produces an excitation enhancement of circa 100 times and a fluorescence lifetime shortening to ~\

  18. Single-scan coherent detection with enhanced time resolution for arbitrarily polarized terahertz wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Zhihui; Zhang, Dongwen; Meng, Chao; Sun, Lin; Zhou, Zhaoyan; Zhao, Zengxiu; Yuan, Jianmin

    2012-12-01

    We present an enhanced scheme of polarization-sensitive THz-ABCD which can provide about twice broader bandwidth than the conventional method. In our experiment using a 26 fs laser pulse, compared with 0.3~40 THz in the conventional scheme, bandwidth coverage from 0.3 to 80 THz has been achieved in the resolution-enhanced scheme. It also should have to be noted the terahertz source may also restrict the detection bandwidth. Employing the polarizationsensitive technology, the polarization in time domain, as well as the field amplitude, can be achieved with just one single scan.

  19. Non-Debye enhancements in the Mie scattering of light from a single water droplet.

    PubMed

    Lock, J A; Woodruff, J R

    1989-02-01

    The glare spots usually seen on a single water droplet which has been illuminated by a plane wave are produced by geometrical rays which correspond to the different terms of the Debye series expansion of the Mie scattered field. Recently other glare spot enhancements have been predicted which correspond to scattering resonances coupling to the orbiting rays associated with high-order geometrical rainbows. We observed the non-Debye enhancement of the eleventh-order rainbow glare spot at an observation angle of 90 degrees on a 3.5-mm water droplet illuminated by polarized He-Ne laser light. PMID:20548514

  20. Nanoimplantation and Purcell enhancement of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in photonic crystal cavities in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Riedrich-Möller, Janine; Becher, Christoph; Pezzagna, Sébastien; Meijer, Jan; Pauly, Christoph; Mücklich, Frank; Markham, Matthew; Edmonds, Andrew M.

    2015-06-01

    We present the controlled creation of single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers via ion implantation at the center of a photonic crystal cavity which is fabricated in an ultrapure, single crystal diamond membrane. High-resolution placement of NV centers is achieved using collimation of a 5 keV-nitrogen ion beam through a pierced tip of an atomic force microscope. We demonstrate coupling of the implanted NV centers' broad band fluorescence to a cavity mode and observe Purcell enhancement of the spontaneous emission. The results are in good agreement with a master equation model for the cavity coupling.

  1. Introducing an enhanced recovery after surgery program in colorectal surgery: A single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Bona, Stefano; Molteni, Mattia; Rosati, Riccardo; Elmore, Ugo; Bagnoli, Pietro; Monzani, Roberta; Caravaca, Monica; Montorsi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study the implementation of an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) program at a large University Hospital from “pilot study” to “standard of care”. METHODS: The study was designed as a prospective single centre cohort study. A prospective evaluation of compliance to a protocol based on full application of all ERAS principles, through the progressive steps of its implementation, was performed. Results achieved in the initial pilot study conducted by a dedicated team (n = 47) were compared to those achieved in the shared protocol phase (n = 143) three years later. Outcomes were length of postoperative hospital stay, readmission rate, compliance to the protocol and morbidity. Primary endpoint was the description of the results and the identification of critical issues of large scale implementation of an ERAS program in colorectal surgery emerged in the experience of a single center. Secondary endpoint was the identification of interventions that have been proven to be effective for facilitating the transition from traditional care pathways to a multimodal management protocol according to ERAS principles in colorectal surgery at a single center. RESULTS: During the initial pilot study (March 2009 to December 2010; 47 patients) conducted by a dedicated multidisciplinary team, compliance to the items of ERAS protocol was 93%, with a median length of hospital stay (LOS) of 3 d. Early anastomotic fistulas were observed in 2 cases (4.2%), which required reoperation (Clavien-Dindo grade IIIb). None of the patients had been discharged before the onset of the complication, which could therefore receive prompt treatment. There were also four (8.5%) minor complications (Clavien-Dindo grade II). Thirty days readmission rate was 4%. Perioperative mortality was nil. After implementation of the protocol throughout the Hospital in unselected patients (May 2012 to December 2012; 147 patients) compliance was 74%, with a median LOS of 6 d. Early anastomotic fistulas

  2. Enhancement of data rates by single and double cavity holographic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Bo E.; Takashima, Yuzuru

    2015-08-01

    To satisfy the growing need for faster archival data storage and retrieval, we proposed an improvement to the read and write data transfer rates of Holographic Data Storage Systems (HDSS). Conventionally, reading and writing of data utilize only a fraction of the available light. Our techniques apply a resonator cavity to the readout and recording of holograms so that more of the available light is used. Functionally, more power is used than what is provided without violating energy conservation. Thus, data rates and/or capacities can be increased due to enhanced power. These improvements are also inversely related to the diffraction efficiency of a hologram, which makes these cavity enhanced techniques well suited to HDSS where large numbers of multiplexed holograms require low diffraction efficiencies. Previously, we presented the theory of cavity enhanced HDSS, the experimental effect of enhancement on readout, and the lack of effects on Bragg Selectivity. We have now formalized the enhancement in writing power and experimentally evaluated the improvement in writing speed over conventional means for writing a single plane wave hologram in Fe:LiNbO3 with a 532 nm wavelength, CW, single mode, DPSS, Nd:YAG, laser with a cavity on one of the writing arms. The diffraction efficiency was read during the recording by using a 632.8 nm wavelength HeNe Laser. We found that the enhancement of recording power for this configuration asymptotically approaches a factor of two, while the use of cavities in both writing arms provides a power enhancement which is limited only by the losses in the cavities.

  3. Rapid, green synthesis and surface-enhanced Raman scattering effect of single-crystal silver nanocubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Aiqin; Jin, Xia; Gu, Xiaolong; Wei, Xiaoqing; Yang, Guojing

    2012-08-01

    Single-crystal silver (Ag) nanocubes have been synthesized by a rapid and green method at room temperature by adding sodium hydroxide solution to the mixed solutions of silver nitrate, glucose and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the phase composition and morphology. The results showed that the as-prepared particles were single-crystal Ag nanocubes with edge lengths of around 77 nm and a growing direction along {1 0 0} facets. As substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) experiment on crystal violet (CV), the SERS enhancement factor of the as-prepared Ag nanocubes were measured to be 5.5 × 104, indicating potential applications in chemical and biological analysis.

  4. Enhancing traditional behavioral parent training for single mothers of children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T; Wymbs, Frances A; Pelham, William E; Swanger-Gagne, Michelle S; Girio, Erin; Pirvics, Lauma; Herbst, Laura; Guzzo, Jamie; Phillips, Carlie; O'Connor, Briannon

    2009-03-01

    Behavioral parent training is an efficacious treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, single-mother households are at high risk for poor outcomes during and following behavioral parent training. This study randomly assigned cohorts of 120 single mothers of children (ages 5-12 years) with ADHD to a waitlist control group, a traditional behavioral parent training program, or an enhanced behavioral parent training program -- the Strategies to Enhance Positive Parenting (STEPP) program. Intent-to-treat analysis demonstrated benefits of participating in behavioral parent training, in general, and the STEPP program more specifically at immediate posttreatment on child and parental functioning. Moreover, the STEPP program resulted in increased engagement to treatment. However, results indicated that behavioral parent training does not normalize behavior for most children and treatment gains are not maintained. PMID:19283599

  5. Double tube heat exchanger with novel enhancement: part II—single phase convective heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiruselvam, R.; Chin, W. M.; Raghavan, Vijay R.

    2012-08-01

    The study is conducted to evaluate the heat transfer characteristics of two new and versatile enhancement configurations in a double tube heat exchanger annulus. The novelty is that they are usable in single phase forced convection, evaporation and condensation. Heat transfer coefficients are determined by the Wilson Plot technique in laminar and turbulent flow and correlations are proposed for Nusselt numbers. Comparisons are then made between heat transfer and flow friction.

  6. Contrast Enhancement Algorithm Based on Gap Adjustment for Histogram Equalization

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chung-Cheng; Ting, Chih-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Image enhancement methods have been widely used to improve the visual effects of images. Owing to its simplicity and effectiveness histogram equalization (HE) is one of the methods used for enhancing image contrast. However, HE may result in over-enhancement and feature loss problems that lead to unnatural look and loss of details in the processed images. Researchers have proposed various HE-based methods to solve the over-enhancement problem; however, they have largely ignored the feature loss problem. Therefore, a contrast enhancement algorithm based on gap adjustment for histogram equalization (CegaHE) is proposed. It refers to a visual contrast enhancement algorithm based on histogram equalization (VCEA), which generates visually pleasing enhanced images, and improves the enhancement effects of VCEA. CegaHE adjusts the gaps between two gray values based on the adjustment equation, which takes the properties of human visual perception into consideration, to solve the over-enhancement problem. Besides, it also alleviates the feature loss problem and further enhances the textures in the dark regions of the images to improve the quality of the processed images for human visual perception. Experimental results demonstrate that CegaHE is a reliable method for contrast enhancement and that it significantly outperforms VCEA and other methods. PMID:27338412

  7. Contrast Enhancement Algorithm Based on Gap Adjustment for Histogram Equalization.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chung-Cheng; Ting, Chih-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Image enhancement methods have been widely used to improve the visual effects of images. Owing to its simplicity and effectiveness histogram equalization (HE) is one of the methods used for enhancing image contrast. However, HE may result in over-enhancement and feature loss problems that lead to unnatural look and loss of details in the processed images. Researchers have proposed various HE-based methods to solve the over-enhancement problem; however, they have largely ignored the feature loss problem. Therefore, a contrast enhancement algorithm based on gap adjustment for histogram equalization (CegaHE) is proposed. It refers to a visual contrast enhancement algorithm based on histogram equalization (VCEA), which generates visually pleasing enhanced images, and improves the enhancement effects of VCEA. CegaHE adjusts the gaps between two gray values based on the adjustment equation, which takes the properties of human visual perception into consideration, to solve the over-enhancement problem. Besides, it also alleviates the feature loss problem and further enhances the textures in the dark regions of the images to improve the quality of the processed images for human visual perception. Experimental results demonstrate that CegaHE is a reliable method for contrast enhancement and that it significantly outperforms VCEA and other methods. PMID:27338412

  8. On the low-temperature growth mechanism of single walled carbon nanotubes in plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariat, M.; Shokri, B.; Neyts, E. C.

    2013-12-01

    Despite significant progress in single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) production by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), the growth mechanism in this method is not clearly understood. We employ reactive molecular dynamics simulations to investigate how plasma-based deposition allows growth at low temperature. We first investigate the SWCNT growth mechanism at low and high temperatures under conditions similar to thermal CVD and PECVD. We then show how ion bombardment during the nucleation stage increases the carbon solubility in the catalyst at low temperature. Finally, we demonstrate how moderate energy ions sputter amorphous carbon allowing for SWCNT growth at 500 K.

  9. Genome-wide mapping of promoter-anchored interactions with close to single-enhancer resolution.

    PubMed

    Sahlén, Pelin; Abdullayev, Ilgar; Ramsköld, Daniel; Matskova, Liudmila; Rilakovic, Nemanja; Lötstedt, Britta; Albert, Thomas J; Lundeberg, Joakim; Sandberg, Rickard

    2015-01-01

    Although the locations of promoters and enhancers have been identified in several cell types, we still have limited information on their connectivity. We developed HiCap, which combines a 4-cutter restriction enzyme Hi-C with sequence capture of promoter regions. Applying the method to mouse embryonic stem cells, we identified promoter-anchored interactions involving 15,905 promoters and 71,984 distal regions. The distal regions were enriched for enhancer marks and transcription, and had a mean fragment size of only 699 bp--close to single-enhancer resolution. High-resolution maps of promoter-anchored interactions with HiCap will be important for detailed characterizations of chromatin interaction landscapes. PMID:26313521

  10. Fluorescence enhancement of radix angelica dahurica by binding to single silver sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Ru; Shi, Qiang; Li, Shu-Hong; Wang, Wen-Jun

    2015-05-01

    We present a theoretical study of the influence of a single silver sphere on the fluorescence of radix angelica dahurica, which is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine. The enhancement factors of the excitation and the relaxation processes are deduced. The excitation can be enhanced more than 100 times at 315 nm. The enhancement factor of the emission can reach up to 9 at a center wavelength of 400 nm. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61405085 and 61275147), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Liaocheng University, China, the Key Project of Science and Technology of Shandong Province of China (Grant No. 2010GGX10127), and the Shandong Province Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. ZR2013EML006 and ZR2012AL11).

  11. Enhancement of monoclonal antibody binding to melanoma with single dose radiation or hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Stickney, D.R.; Gridley, D.S.; Kirk, G.A.; Slater, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    We undertook this study to determine whether radiation (10 Gray, single dose) or water bath hyperthermia (41 degrees C, 45 min) could enhance binding of /sup 111/In-labeled anti-p97a monoclonal antibody (MAb) to human melanoma tumors transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice. Sixty animals were given injections of 1-2 X 10(7) Brown C5513 melanoma cells. At 1-2 weeks postinjection, two-thirds of the mice were treated (one-third served as controls). Within 3 hours after treatment, each animal was given iv 2 muCi /sup 111/In-anti-p97a MAb. At 24 and 48 hours thereafter, whole-body scans were done with the use of a MaxiCamera 300 A/M unit, and the ratio of activity at the tumor and liver was determined. Some animals were kept for 7 days posttreatment, whereas others were taken after the 48-hour scan for determination of biodistribution of the radiolabeled complex. Enhancement of MAb binding was demonstrated by either modality, although enhancement was more consistent with radiation. The therapeutic efficacy of MAb may be enhanced with increased binding of radioactive MAb complexes through single dose radiation or hyperthermia.

  12. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of single 1,4-Benzenedithiol molecular junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, S.; Murai, D.; Fujii, Sh.; Kiguchi, M.

    2016-03-01

    Here, we present simultaneous electronic and optical measurements of a single 1,4-benzenedithiol (BDT) molecular junctions to investigate the electronic and structural details in the molecular junction and to understand the charge transport property at the single molecular scale. The electronic property was investigated by DC conductance measurement while structural property was characterized using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurement. The single BDT junctions sandwiched between Au nanogap-electrodes were prepared by the mechanically controllable break junction method at ambient conditions. The simultaneous conductance and SERS measurements demonstrate that ring deformation mode coupled to C-S stretching mode, ring breathing mode, and C=C stretching mode are detectable for the single BDT molecular junctions with electronic conductance of 0.01G0 (G0 = 2e2/h). The single molecule origin is supported by the characteristic variability of SERS within samples. Time evolution of the conductance and SERS signals indicated that the molecular conductance and the vibrational energy of the ring breathing mode exhibits anti-correlated relationship. This relationship can be mediated by time evolution of structural change in the single molecular junction and corresponding change in strength of metal-molecular coupling. The larger metal-molecular coupling causes higher electronic conductance of the molecular junction while charge transfer effect leads to weakening of molecular bonds and thus a resulting decrease in the vibration energy of the ring breathing mode.

  13. Enhancement of beam pulse controllability for a single-pulse formation system of a cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Kurashima, Satoshi; Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Susumu; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro

    2015-07-01

    The single-pulse formation technique using a beam chopping system consisting of two types of high-voltage beam kickers was improved to enhance the quality and intensity of the single-pulse beam with a pulse interval over 1 μs at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency cyclotron facility. A contamination rate of neighboring beam bunches in the single-pulse beam was reduced to less than 0.1%. Long-term purification of the single pulse beam was guaranteed by the well-controlled magnetic field stabilization system for the cyclotron magnet. Reduction of the multi-turn extraction number for suppressing the neighboring beam bunch contamination was achieved by restriction of a beam phase width and precise optimization of a particle acceleration phase. In addition, the single-pulse beam intensity was increased by a factor of two or more by a combination of two types of beam bunchers using sinusoidal and saw-tooth voltage waveforms. Provision of the high quality intense single-pulse beam contributed to improve the accuracy of experiments for investigation of scintillation light time-profile and for neutron energy measurement by a time-of-flight method. PMID:26233376

  14. Enhancement of beam pulse controllability for a single-pulse formation system of a cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Kurashima, Satoshi Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Susumu; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro

    2015-07-15

    The single-pulse formation technique using a beam chopping system consisting of two types of high-voltage beam kickers was improved to enhance the quality and intensity of the single-pulse beam with a pulse interval over 1 μs at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency cyclotron facility. A contamination rate of neighboring beam bunches in the single-pulse beam was reduced to less than 0.1%. Long-term purification of the single pulse beam was guaranteed by the well-controlled magnetic field stabilization system for the cyclotron magnet. Reduction of the multi-turn extraction number for suppressing the neighboring beam bunch contamination was achieved by restriction of a beam phase width and precise optimization of a particle acceleration phase. In addition, the single-pulse beam intensity was increased by a factor of two or more by a combination of two types of beam bunchers using sinusoidal and saw-tooth voltage waveforms. Provision of the high quality intense single-pulse beam contributed to improve the accuracy of experiments for investigation of scintillation light time-profile and for neutron energy measurement by a time-of-flight method.

  15. Enhanced Student Learning with Problem Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, James

    2008-01-01

    Science educators define a learning environment in which the problem drives the learning as problem based learning (PBL). Problem based learning can be a learning methodology/process or a curriculum based on its application by the teacher. This paper discusses the basic premise of Problem base learning and successful applications of such learning.…

  16. Wavelet-Based Speech Enhancement Using Time-Adapted Noise Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Sheau-Fang; Tung, Ying-Kai

    Spectral subtraction is commonly used for speech enhancement in a single channel system because of the simplicity of its implementation. However, this algorithm introduces perceptually musical noise while suppressing the background noise. We propose a wavelet-based approach in this paper for suppressing the background noise for speech enhancement in a single channel system. The wavelet packet transform, which emulates the human auditory system, is used to decompose the noisy signal into critical bands. Wavelet thresholding is then temporally adjusted with the noise power by time-adapted noise estimation. The proposed algorithm can efficiently suppress the noise while reducing speech distortion. Experimental results, including several objective measurements, show that the proposed wavelet-based algorithm outperforms spectral subtraction and other wavelet-based denoising approaches for speech enhancement for nonstationary noise environments.

  17. Enhancement of critical current density and mechanism of vortex pinning in H+-irradiated FeSe single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yue; Pyon, Sunseng; Tamegai, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Ryo; Watashige, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Shigeru; Matsuda, Yuji; Shibauchi, Takasada; Kitamura, Hisashi

    2015-11-01

    We report a comprehensive study of the effect of H+ irradiation on the critical current density Jc and vortex pinning in an FeSe single crystal. The value of Jc for FeSe is enhanced by more than a factor of 2 after 3-MeV H+ irradiation, which is explained by the introduction of point pinning centers. Vortex creep rates are found to be strongly suppressed after irradiation. Detailed analyses of the pinning energy based on collective-creep-theory and an extended Maley’s method show that the H+ irradiation enhances the value of Jc before the flux creep and also reduces the size of the flux bundle, which suppresses the field dependence of Jc owing to vortex motion.

  18. Plasmonically enhanced hot electron based photovoltaic device.

    PubMed

    Atar, Fatih B; Battal, Enes; Aygun, Levent E; Daglar, Bihter; Bayindir, Mehmet; Okyay, Ali K

    2013-03-25

    Hot electron photovoltaics is emerging as a candidate for low cost and ultra thin solar cells. Plasmonic means can be utilized to significantly boost device efficiency. We separately form the tunneling metal-insulator-metal (MIM) junction for electron collection and the plasmon exciting MIM structure on top of each other, which provides high flexibility in plasmonic design and tunneling MIM design separately. We demonstrate close to one order of magnitude enhancement in the short circuit current at the resonance wavelengths. PMID:23546103

  19. Growth kinetics of low temperature single-wall and few walled carbon nanotubes grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohier, A.; Minea, T. M.; Djouadi, M. A.; Jiménez, J.; Granier, A.

    2007-03-01

    Single-wall, double walled or few walled nanotubes (FWNT) are grown by electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (ECR-PECVD) at temperature as low as 600 °C. Most of these structures are isolated and self-oriented perpendicular to the substrate. The growth mechanism observed for single-wall and few walled (less than seven walls) nanotubes is the “base-growth” mode. Their grow kinetics is investigated regarding two parameters namely the growth time and the synthesis temperature. It is shown that nucleation and growth rate is correlated with the number of walls into FWNT. It also provides an evidence of a critical temperature for FWNT synthesis.

  20. Enhanced genetic analysis of single human bioparticles recovered by simplified micromanipulation from forensic 'touch DNA' evidence.

    PubMed

    Farash, Katherine; Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack

    2015-01-01

    DNA profiles can be obtained from 'touch DNA' evidence, which comprises microscopic traces of human biological material. Current methods for the recovery of trace DNA employ cotton swabs or adhesive tape to sample an area of interest. However, such a 'blind-swabbing' approach will co-sample cellular material from the different individuals, even if the individuals' cells are located in geographically distinct locations on the item. Thus, some of the DNA mixtures encountered in touch DNA samples are artificially created by the swabbing itself. In some instances, a victim's DNA may be found in significant excess thus masking any potential perpetrator's DNA. In order to circumvent the challenges with standard recovery and analysis methods, we have developed a lower cost, 'smart analysis' method that results in enhanced genetic analysis of touch DNA evidence. We describe an optimized and efficient micromanipulation recovery strategy for the collection of bio-particles present in touch DNA samples, as well as an enhanced amplification strategy involving a one-step 5 µl microvolume lysis/STR amplification to permit the recovery of STR profiles from the bio-particle donor(s). The use of individual or few (i.e., "clumps") bioparticles results in the ability to obtain single source profiles. These procedures represent alternative enhanced techniques for the isolation and analysis of single bioparticles from forensic touch DNA evidence. While not necessary in every forensic investigation, the method could be highly beneficial for the recovery of a single source perpetrator DNA profile in cases involving physical assault (e.g., strangulation) that may not be possible using standard analysis techniques. Additionally, the strategies developed here offer an opportunity to obtain genetic information at the single cell level from a variety of other non-forensic trace biological material. PMID:25867046

  1. Heat transfer enhancement due to a longitudinal vortex produced by a single winglet in a pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Oyakawa, Kenyu; Senaha, Izuru; Ishikawa, Shuji; Hokama, Mashashige

    1999-07-01

    Longitudinal vortices were artificially generated by a single winglet vortex generator in a pipe. The purpose of this study is to analyze the motion of longitudinal vortices and their effects on heat transfer enhancement. The flow pattern was visualized by means of both fluorescein and rhodamine B as traces in a water flow. The main vortex was moved spirally along the circumference and the behavior of the other vortices was observed. Streamwise and circumferential heat transfer coefficients on the wall, wall static pressure, and velocity distribution in an overall cross section were also measured for the air flow in a range of Reynolds numbers from 18,800 to 62,400. The distributions of the streamwise heat transfer coefficient had a periodic pattern, and the peaks in the distribution were circumferentially moved due to the spiral motion of the main vortex. Lastly, the relationships between the iso-velocity distribution, wall static pressure, and heat transfer characteristics was shown. In the process of forming the vortex behind the winglet vortex generator, behaviors of both the main vortex and the corner vortex were observed as streak lines. The vortex being raised along the end of the winglet, and the vortex ring being rolled up to the main vortex were newly observed. Both patterns of the streamwise velocity on a cross-section and the static pressure on the wall show good correspondences to phenomena of the main vortex spirally flowing downstream. The increased ratio of the heat transfer is similar to that of the friction factor based on the shear stress on the wall surface of the pipe. The quantitative analogy between the heat transfer and the shear stress is confirmed except for some regions, where the effects of the down-wash or blow-away of the secondary flows is caused due to the main vortex.

  2. Framework for single input single output nanonetwork-based realistic molecular communication.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Atty, Saied M; Gharsseldien, Zakaria M; Lizos, Konstantinos A

    2015-12-01

    Mobile ad hoc molecular nanonetwork (MAMNET) is a new paradigm for the realisation of future nanonetworks. In MAMNET, transmission of nanoscale information from nanomachine to infostation is based on collision and adhesion. In this study, the authors develop a realistic framework for encompassing the electronic structure of the neurotransmitter in the process of transmitting nanoscale information at a single input single output nanonetwork. Nanonetwork performance is evaluated in terms of average packet delay, throughput and incurred traffic rate. Numerical results demonstrate the influence of the neurotransmitter's electronic structure over the performance of nanonetworks. PMID:26647808

  3. [Single-acupoint electroacupuncture based on traditional acupuncture becomes true].

    PubMed

    Liu, Tang-Yi; Yang, Hua-Yuan; Gao, Ming; Xu, Gang; Tang, Wen-Chao

    2010-10-01

    [ In current clinical acupuncture practice, many exiting problems including changes in the treated region, simultaneous covering two meridians of the two stimulating electrodes (acupuncture needles), inability to realize the reinforcing-reducing functions of the traditional acupuncture, etc. during application of electroacupuncture (EA) could be found, which may affect the therapeutic results or lead to failure in playing EA's functions. For this reason, the authors of the present paper put forward a concept of "single acupoint EA". Base on the design of "double electrodes of two acupuncture needles" of the conventional EA therapeutic apparatus, a "single acupoint EA therapy" was put forward and a single acupoint EA electronic apparatus (stimulating needle electrode) was manufactured. It not only realizes single acupoint stimulation, but also corresponds to the features of traditional EA therapy, avoiding some problems in currently-used EA therapy. It may be helpful to raising clinical therapeutic effect. PMID:21235069

  4. Fiber optic SERS-based plasmonics nanobiosensing in single living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaffidi, Jonathan P.; Gregas, Molly K.; Seewaldt, Victoria; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2009-05-01

    We describe the development of small molecule-sensitive plasmonics-active fiber-optic nanoprobes suitable for intracellular bioanalysis in single living human cells using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection. The practical utility of SERS-based fiber-optic nanoprobes is illustrated by measurements of intracellular pH in HMEC- 15/hTERT immortalized "normal" human mammary epithelial cells and PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. The results indicate that fiber-optic nanoprobe insertion and interrogation provide a sensitive and selective means to monitor biologically-relevant small molecules at the single cell level.

  5. Gradient-based enhancement of tubular structures in medical images.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Rodrigo; Smedby, Örjan

    2015-12-01

    Vesselness filters aim at enhancing tubular structures in medical images. The most popular vesselness filters are based on eigenanalyses of the Hessian matrix computed at different scales. However, Hessian-based methods have well-known limitations, most of them related to the use of second order derivatives. In this paper, we propose an alternative strategy in which ring-like patterns are sought in the local orientation distribution of the gradient. The method takes advantage of symmetry properties of ring-like patterns in the spherical harmonics domain. For bright vessels, gradients not pointing towards the center are filtered out from every local neighborhood in a first step. The opposite criterion is used for dark vessels. Afterwards, structuredness, evenness and uniformness measurements are computed from the power spectrum in spherical harmonics of both the original and the half-zeroed orientation distribution of the gradient. Finally, the features are combined into a single vesselness measurement. Alternatively, a structure tensor that is suitable for vesselness can be estimated before the analysis in spherical harmonics. The two proposed methods are called Ring Pattern Detector (RPD) and Filtered Structure Tensor (FST) respectively. Experimental results with computed tomography angiography data show that the proposed filters perform better compared to the state-of-the-art. PMID:26277023

  6. Vertically-Aligned Single-Crystal Nanocone Arrays: Controlled Fabrication and Enhanced Field Emission.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jing Lai; Lei, Dang Yuan; Chen, Fei; Lau, Shu Ping; Milne, William I; Toimil-Molares, M E; Trautmann, Christina; Liu, Jie

    2016-01-13

    Metal nanostructures with conical shape, vertical alignment, large ratio of cone height and curvature radius at the apex, controlled cone angle, and single-crystal structure are ideal candidates for enhancing field electron-emission efficiency with additional merits, such as good mechanical and thermal stability. However, fabrication of such nanostructures possessing all these features is challenging. Here, we report on the controlled fabrication of large scale, vertically aligned, and mechanically self-supported single-crystal Cu nanocones with controlled cone angle and enhanced field emission. The Cu nanocones were fabricated by ion-track templates in combination with electrochemical deposition. Their cone angle is controlled in the range from 0.3° to 6.2° by asymmetrically selective etching of the ion tracks and the minimum tip curvature diameter reaches down to 6 nm. The field emission measurements show that the turn-on electric field of the Cu nanocone field emitters can be as low as 1.9 V/μm at current density of 10 μA/cm(2) (a record low value for Cu nanostructures, to the best of our knowledge). The maximum field enhancement factor we measured was as large as 6068, indicating that the Cu nanocones are promising candidates for field emission applications. PMID:26666466

  7. Engineered Hematite Mesoporous Single Crystals Drive Drastic Enhancement in Solar Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong Wu; Yang, Shuang; Fang, Wen Qi; Liu, Porun; Zhao, Huijun; Yang, Hua Gui

    2016-01-13

    Mesoporous single crystals (MSCs) rendering highly accessible surface area and long-range electron conductivity are extremely significant in many fields, including catalyst, solar fuel, and electrical energy storage technologies. Hematite semiconductor, whose performance has been crucially limited by its pristine poor charge separation efficiency in solar water splitting, should benefit from this strategy. Despite successful synthesis of many metal oxide MSCs, the fabrication of hematite MSCs remains to be a great challenge due to its quite slow hydrolysis rate in water. Herein, for the first time, we have developed a synthetic strategy to prepare hematite MSCs and systematically investigated their growth mechanism. The electrode fabricated with these crystals is able to achieve a photocurrent density of 0.61 mA/cm(2) at 1.23 V vs RHE under AM 1.5G simulated sunlight, which is 20 times higher than that of electrodes made of solid single crystals. The enhancement is ascribed to the superior light absorption and enhanced charges separation. Our results demonstrate the advantage of incorporation of nanopores into the large-sized hematite single crystals and provide a valuable insight for the development of high performance photoelectrodes in PEC application. PMID:26654272

  8. Quantum private query based on single-photon interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Sheng-Wei; Sun, Ying; Lin, Song

    2016-08-01

    Quantum private query (QPQ) has become a research hotspot recently. Specially, the quantum key distribution (QKD)-based QPQ attracts lots of attention because of its practicality. Various such kind of QPQ protocols have been proposed based on different technologies of quantum communications. Single-photon interference is one of such technologies, on which the famous QKD protocol GV95 is just based. In this paper, we propose two QPQ protocols based on single-photon interference. The first one is simpler and easier to realize, and the second one is loss tolerant and flexible, and more practical than the first one. Furthermore, we analyze both the user privacy and the database privacy in the proposed protocols.

  9. Quantum private query based on single-photon interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Sheng-Wei; Sun, Ying; Lin, Song

    2016-05-01

    Quantum private query (QPQ) has become a research hotspot recently. Specially, the quantum key distribution (QKD)-based QPQ attracts lots of attention because of its practicality. Various such kind of QPQ protocols have been proposed based on different technologies of quantum communications. Single-photon interference is one of such technologies, on which the famous QKD protocol GV95 is just based. In this paper, we propose two QPQ protocols based on single-photon interference. The first one is simpler and easier to realize, and the second one is loss tolerant and flexible, and more practical than the first one. Furthermore, we analyze both the user privacy and the database privacy in the proposed protocols.

  10. A MEMS-Based Approach to Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jing; Palla, Mirkó; Ronca, Stefano; Warpner, Ronald; Ju, Jingyue; Lin, Qiao

    2014-01-01

    Genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) allows diagnosis of human genetic disorders associated with single base mutations. Conventional SNP genotyping methods are capable of providing either accurate or high-throughput detection, but are still labor-, time-, and resource-intensive. Microfluidics has been applied to SNP detection to provide fast, low-cost, and automated alternatives, although these applications are still limited by either accuracy or throughput issues. To address this challenge, we present a MEMS-based SNP genotyping approach that uses solid-phase-based reactions in a single microchamber on a temperature control chip. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), allele specific single base extension (SBE), and desalting on microbeads are performed in the microchamber, which is coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to analyze the SBE product. Experimental results from genotyping of the SNP on exon 1 of the HBB gene, which causes sickle cell anemia, demonstrate the potential of the device for rapid, accurate, multiplexed and high-throughput detection of SNPs. PMID:24729659

  11. Single-Subject Experimental Design for Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byiers, Breanne J.; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. Method: The authors…

  12. Fast Purcell-enhanced single photon source in 1,550-nm telecom band from a resonant quantum dot-cavity coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birowosuto, Muhammad Danang; Sumikura, Hisashi; Matsuo, Shinji; Taniyama, Hideaki; van Veldhoven, Peter J.; Nötzel, Richard; Notomi, Masaya

    2012-03-01

    High-bit-rate nanocavity-based single photon sources in the 1,550-nm telecom band are challenges facing the development of fibre-based long-haul quantum communication networks. Here we report a very fast single photon source in the 1,550-nm telecom band, which is achieved by a large Purcell enhancement that results from the coupling of a single InAs quantum dot and an InP photonic crystal nanocavity. At a resonance, the spontaneous emission rate was enhanced by a factor of 5 resulting a record fast emission lifetime of 0.2 ns at 1,550 nm. We also demonstrate that this emission exhibits an enhanced anti-bunching dip. This is the first realization of nanocavity-enhanced single photon emitters in the 1,550-nm telecom band. This coupled quantum dot cavity system in the telecom band thus provides a bright high-bit-rate non-classical single photon source that offers appealing novel opportunities for the development of a long-haul quantum telecommunication system via optical fibres.

  13. The evolution of gadolinium based contrast agents: from single-modality to multi-modality.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Ruiqing; Peng, Hui; Li, Penghui; Xu, Zushun; Whittaker, Andrew K

    2016-05-19

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents are extensively used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents due to their outstanding signal enhancement and ease of chemical modification. However, it is increasingly recognized that information obtained from single modal molecular imaging cannot satisfy the higher requirements on the efficiency and accuracy for clinical diagnosis and medical research, due to its limitation and default rooted in single molecular imaging technique itself. To compensate for the deficiencies of single function magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, the combination of multi-modality imaging has turned to be the research hotpot in recent years. This review presents an overview on the recent developments of the functionalization of gadolinium-based contrast agents, and their application in biomedicine applications. PMID:27159645

  14. The evolution of gadolinium based contrast agents: from single-modality to multi-modality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Ruiqing; Peng, Hui; Li, Penghui; Xu, Zushun; Whittaker, Andrew K.

    2016-05-01

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents are extensively used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents due to their outstanding signal enhancement and ease of chemical modification. However, it is increasingly recognized that information obtained from single modal molecular imaging cannot satisfy the higher requirements on the efficiency and accuracy for clinical diagnosis and medical research, due to its limitation and default rooted in single molecular imaging technique itself. To compensate for the deficiencies of single function magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, the combination of multi-modality imaging has turned to be the research hotpot in recent years. This review presents an overview on the recent developments of the functionalization of gadolinium-based contrast agents, and their application in biomedicine applications.

  15. Metamaterial-based single pixel imaging system (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Willie; Watts, Claire M.; Nadell, Christian; Montoya, John A.; Krishna, Sanjay

    2015-09-01

    Single pixel cameras are useful imaging devices where it is difficult or infeasible to fashion focal plan arrays. For example in the Far Infrared (FIR) it is difficult to perform imaging by conventional detector arrays, owing to the cost and size of such an array. The typical single pixel camera uses a spatial light modulator (SLM) - placed in the conjugate image plane - and is used to sample various portions of the image. The spatially modulated light emerging from the SLM is then sent to a single detector where the light is condensed with suitable optics for detection. Conventional SLMs are either based on liquid crystals or digital mirror devices. As such these devices are limited in modulation speeds of order 30 kHz. Further there is little control over the type of light that is modulated. We present metamaterial based spatial light modulators which provide the ability to digitally encode images - with various measurement matrix coefficients - thus permitting high speed and fidelity imaging capability. In particular we use the Hadamard matrix and related S-matrix to encode images for single pixel imaging. Metamaterials thus permit imaging in regimes of the electromagnetic spectrum where conventional SLMs are not available. Additionally, metamaterials offer several salient features that are not available with commercial SLMs. For example, metamaterials may be used to enable hyperspectral, polarimetric, and phase sensitive imaging. We present the theory and experimental results of single pixel imaging with digital metamaterials in the far infrared and highlight the future of this exciting field.

  16. Communication: Multiple atomistic force fields in a single enhanced sampling simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang Viet, Man; Derreumaux, Philippe; Nguyen, Phuong H.

    2015-07-01

    The main concerns of biomolecular dynamics simulations are the convergence of the conformational sampling and the dependence of the results on the force fields. While the first issue can be addressed by employing enhanced sampling techniques such as simulated tempering or replica exchange molecular dynamics, repeating these simulations with different force fields is very time consuming. Here, we propose an automatic method that includes different force fields into a single advanced sampling simulation. Conformational sampling using three all-atom force fields is enhanced by simulated tempering and by formulating the weight parameters of the simulated tempering method in terms of the energy fluctuations, the system is able to perform random walk in both temperature and force field spaces. The method is first demonstrated on a 1D system and then validated by the folding of the 10-residue chignolin peptide in explicit water.

  17. Depth enhancement in spectral domain optical coherence tomography using bidirectional imaging modality with a single spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, Naresh Kumar; Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Shirazi, Muhammad Faizan; Park, Kibeom; Jeon, Mansik; Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun

    2016-07-01

    A method for depth enhancement is presented using a bidirectional imaging modality for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Two precisely aligned sample arms along with two reference arms were utilized in the optical configuration to scan the samples. Using exemplary images of the optical resolution target, Scotch tape, a silicon sheet with two needles, and a leaf, we demonstrated how the developed bidirectional SD-OCT imaging method increases the ability to characterize depth-enhanced images. The results of the developed system were validated by comparing the images with the standard OCT configuration (single-sample arm setup). Given the advantages of higher resolution and the ability to visualize deep morphological structures, this method can be utilized to increase the depth dependent fall-off in samples with limited thickness. Thus, the proposed bidirectional imaging modality is apt for cross-sectional imaging of entire samples, which has the potential capability to improve the diagnostic ability.

  18. Communication: Multiple atomistic force fields in a single enhanced sampling simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang Viet, Man; Derreumaux, Philippe; Nguyen, Phuong H.

    2015-07-14

    The main concerns of biomolecular dynamics simulations are the convergence of the conformational sampling and the dependence of the results on the force fields. While the first issue can be addressed by employing enhanced sampling techniques such as simulated tempering or replica exchange molecular dynamics, repeating these simulations with different force fields is very time consuming. Here, we propose an automatic method that includes different force fields into a single advanced sampling simulation. Conformational sampling using three all-atom force fields is enhanced by simulated tempering and by formulating the weight parameters of the simulated tempering method in terms of the energy fluctuations, the system is able to perform random walk in both temperature and force field spaces. The method is first demonstrated on a 1D system and then validated by the folding of the 10-residue chignolin peptide in explicit water.

  19. Sensitive Detection of a Modified Base in Single-Stranded DNA by a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Tang; Liu, Lei; Wu, Hai-Chen; Luo, Mengbo; Li, Jingyuan

    2015-09-15

    In this work, we use molecular dynamics simulations to study the responses of the configuration of single-strand DNA (ssDNA) within a carbon nanotube (CNT) and the concomitant ion flow to a single modified base, i.e., benzoimidazole (Bzim)-modified 5-hydroxymethyl cytosine (5hmC). Our simulation results show the Bzim-modified 5hmC can considerably increase the ion flow through a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), despite its larger size, which is consistent with prior experimental results. This phenomenon is attributed to enhanced adsorption of DNA to the interior wall of the CNT driven by the Bzim-modified 5hmC, leading to a reduced steric effect on ion transport through the CNT. As revealed in this work, the distribution of ssDNA can be affected by limited change in the interactions with the CNT surface. Such behavior of ssDNA within small-sized CNTs can be exploited to further improve the sensitivity of nanopore detection. PMID:26259044

  20. Single-tube on-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huadan; Dong, Lei; Sampaolo, Angelo; Wu, Hongpeng; Patimisco, Pietro; Yin, Xukun; Ma, Weiguang; Zhang, Lei; Yin, Wangbao; Spagnolo, Vincenzo; Jia, Suotang; Tittel, Frank K

    2016-03-01

    Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) with a single-tube acoustic microresonator (AmR) inserted between the prongs of a custom quartz tuning fork (QTF) was developed, investigated, and optimized experimentally. Due to the high acoustic coupling efficiency between the AmR and the QTF, the single-tube on-beam QEPAS spectrophone configuration improves the detection sensitivity by 2 orders of magnitude compared to a bare QTF. This approach significantly reduces the spectrophone size with respect to the traditional on-beam spectrophone configuration, thereby facilitating the laser beam alignment. A 1σ normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient of 1.21×10(-8) cm(-1)·W/√Hz was obtained for dry CO2 detection at normal atmospheric pressure. PMID:26974095

  1. Progress of the Enhanced Hanford Single Shell Tank (SST) Integrity Project

    SciTech Connect

    Venetz, Theodore J.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Boomer, Kayle D.; Johnson, Jeremy M.; Castleberry, Jim L.

    2015-01-07

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS), the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project (SSTIP) in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration. In late 2010, seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement.

  2. Surface enhanced Raman scattering analyses of individual silver nanoaggregates on living single yeast cell wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujith, Athiyanathil; Itoh, Tamitake; Abe, Hiroko; Anas, Abdul Aziz; Yoshida, Kenichi; Biju, Vasudevanpillai; Ishikawa, Mitsuru

    2008-03-01

    We labeled the living yeast cell surface (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain W303-1A) by silver nanoparticles which can form nanoaggregates and found to show surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity. Blinking of SERS and its polarization dependence reveal that SERS signals are from amplified electromagnetic field at nanometric Ag nanoparticles gaps with single or a few molecules sensitivity. We tentatively assigned SERS spectra from a yeast cell wall to mannoproteins. Nanoaggregate-by-nanoaggregate variations and temporal fluctuations of SERS spectra are discussed in terms of inhomogeneous mannoprotein distribution on a cell wall and possible ways of Ag nanoaggregate adsorption, respectively.

  3. Enhancement of Rydberg-mediated single-photon nonlinearities by electrically tuned Förster resonances

    PubMed Central

    Gorniaczyk, H.; Tresp, C.; Bienias, P.; Paris-Mandoki, A.; Li, W.; Mirgorodskiy, I.; Büchler, H. P.; Lesanovsky, I.; Hofferberth, S.

    2016-01-01

    Mapping the strong interaction between Rydberg atoms onto single photons via electromagnetically induced transparency enables manipulation of light at the single-photon level and few-photon devices such as all-optical switches and transistors operated by individual photons. Here we demonstrate experimentally that Stark-tuned Förster resonances can substantially increase this effective interaction between individual photons. This technique boosts the gain of a single-photon transistor to over 100, enhances the non-destructive detection of single Rydberg atoms to a fidelity beyond 0.8, and enables high-precision spectroscopy on Rydberg pair states. On top, we achieve a gain larger than 2 with gate photon read-out after the transistor operation. Theory models for Rydberg polariton propagation on Förster resonance and for the projection of the stored spin-wave yield excellent agreement to our data and successfully identify the main decoherence mechanism of the Rydberg transistor, paving the way towards photonic quantum gates. PMID:27515278

  4. Enhancement of Rydberg-mediated single-photon nonlinearities by electrically tuned Förster resonances.

    PubMed

    Gorniaczyk, H; Tresp, C; Bienias, P; Paris-Mandoki, A; Li, W; Mirgorodskiy, I; Büchler, H P; Lesanovsky, I; Hofferberth, S

    2016-01-01

    Mapping the strong interaction between Rydberg atoms onto single photons via electromagnetically induced transparency enables manipulation of light at the single-photon level and few-photon devices such as all-optical switches and transistors operated by individual photons. Here we demonstrate experimentally that Stark-tuned Förster resonances can substantially increase this effective interaction between individual photons. This technique boosts the gain of a single-photon transistor to over 100, enhances the non-destructive detection of single Rydberg atoms to a fidelity beyond 0.8, and enables high-precision spectroscopy on Rydberg pair states. On top, we achieve a gain larger than 2 with gate photon read-out after the transistor operation. Theory models for Rydberg polariton propagation on Förster resonance and for the projection of the stored spin-wave yield excellent agreement to our data and successfully identify the main decoherence mechanism of the Rydberg transistor, paving the way towards photonic quantum gates. PMID:27515278

  5. Enhancing Cultural Adaptation through Friendship Training: A Single-Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yi-Ching; Baker, Stanley B.

    1993-01-01

    Four-year-old girl from mainland China experienced culture shock when attending American university day-care center. Counseling intern from Taiwan designed friendship training program based on assumptions concerning adaptation, acculturation, and peer relationships. Evaluated as intensive single-case study, findings indicated the program may be…

  6. Physical modeling of interference enhanced imaging and characterization of single nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Avci, Oguzhan; Adato, Ronen; Ozkumur, Ayca Yalcin; Ünlü, M Selim

    2016-03-21

    Interferometric imaging schemes have gained significant interest due to their superior sensitivity over imaging techniques that are solely based on scattered signal. In this study, we outline the theoretical foundations of imaging and characterization of single nanoparticles in an interferometric microscopy scheme, examine key parameters that influence the signal, and benchmark the model against experimental findings. PMID:27136804

  7. An enhanced 8086-based CAMAC crate controller

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J.W.; Bayer, J.B.; Chan, L.; Ciarlette, D.; Haberichter, W.N.; Stanek, R.W.

    1987-02-01

    An enhanced CAMAC crate controller (ECC) has been developed for data handling for Fermilab experiment E-704. The module also is currently used in an experiment to make a precise measurement of the weak vector coupling constant. The ECC incorporates hardware to do block transfers (DMA) of CAMAC modules within the crate at several times effective CAMAC rates, or it may e programmed to do individual CAMAC transfers. If desired, data may be rippled out an ECL port to fast ECL devices, or may be written in RAM for processing within the controller itself. The EEC is implemented with the CAMAC Request/Grant protocol for use with an A-2 crate controller, allowing the ECC to be used either as an auxiliary controller or crate controller. Trigger logic in the controller allows the device to respond to any of three triggers by initiating a DMA, or dedicated crates may be daisy-chained, one crate providing a trigger to the next at the conclusion of each DMA. The device is built as much as possible in High Performance CMOS logic using surface mount techniques, on two 8-layer printed circuit cards.

  8. Analytical assays based on detecting conformational changes of single molecules.

    PubMed

    Zocchi, Giovanni

    2006-03-13

    One common strategy for the detection of biomolecules is labeling either the target itself or an antibody that binds to it. Herein, a different approach, based on detecting the conformational change of a probe molecule induced by binding of the target is discussed. That is, what is being detected is not the presence of the target or the probe, but the conformational change of the probe. Recently, a single-molecule sensor has been developed that exploits this mechanism to detect hybridization of a single DNA oligomer to a DNA probe, as well as specific binding of a single protein to a DNA probe. Biomolecular recognition often involves large conformational changes of the molecules involved, and therefore this strategy may be applicable to other assays. PMID:16514690

  9. Techniques for Enhancing Web-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Kathy; Mehringer, Susan

    The Virtual Workshop is a World Wide Web-based set of modules on high performance computing developed at the Cornell Theory Center (CTC) (New York). This approach reaches a large audience, leverages staff effort, and poses challenges for developing interesting presentation techniques. This paper describes the following techniques with their…

  10. Enhancing Trust in SOA Based Collaborative Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boursas, Latifa; Bourimi, Mohamed; Hommel, Wolfgang; Kesdogan, Dogan

    Considering trust and privacy requirements for online and collaborative distance learning environments, this paper discusses potential extensions of SOA based applications to simultaneously support authentication and authorization services, and offering mutual trust to both learners and service providers. This study shows that the security mechanisms integrated in the SOA platform can be effectively extended and correlated with a trust model.

  11. Photonic RF vector signal generation with enhanced spectral efficiency using precoded double single-sideband modulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanquan; Chien, Hung-Chang; Guo, HaiChao; Yu, Jianjun; Chang, Gee-Kung; Chi, Nan

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a novel photonic vector signal at frequency (RF) bands generation scheme based on the beating of double single sidebands (SSBs) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The double SSBs carry separate constant- or multi-amplitude quadrature-amplitude-modulation vector signals are generated from a single I/Q modulator. By adopting phase and amplitude precoding, different constellations can be generated, such as 3-ary phase-shift keying (PSK), 4-PSK, 7-PSK, 8-PSK, and so on. In this work, 10-Gbaud 7-PSK vector signal generation at 20 GHz enabled by two precoded 4-PSK SSB signals via a single I/Q modulator is theoretically and experimentally investigated. Compared to a single-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator or conventional I/Q modulator-based photonic vector signal generation scheme, the spectrum efficiency can be doubled. Differential coding is also implemented at the transmitter side for accurate demodulation of 7-PSK into two 4-PSK signals. The bit-error ratio for 10-Gbaud 7-PSK vector signals can be under hard-decision forward-error-correction threshold of 3.8×10-3 after 10 km standard single-mode fiber transmission. PMID:27244413

  12. Transmission enhancement based on strong interference in metal-semiconductor layered film for energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Du, Kaikai; Mao, Kening; Fang, Xu; Zhao, Ding; Ye, Hui; Qiu, Min

    2016-07-01

    A fundamental strategy to enhance optical transmission through a continuous metallic film based on strong interference dominated by interface phase shift is developed. In a metallic film coated with a thin semiconductor film, both transmission and absorption are simultaneously enhanced as a result of dramatically reduced reflection. For a 50-nm-thick Ag film, experimental transmission enhancement factors of 4.5 and 9.5 are realized by exploiting Ag/Si non-symmetric and Si/Ag/Si symmetric geometries, respectively. These planar layered films for transmission enhancement feature ultrathin thickness, broadband and wide-angle operation, and reduced resistance. Considering one of their potential applications as transparent metal electrodes in solar cells, a calculated 182% enhancement in the total transmission efficiency relative to a single metallic film is expected. This strategy relies on no patterned nanostructures and thereby may power up a wide spectrum of energy-harvesting applications such as thin-film photovoltaics and surface photocatalysis.

  13. Novel methods to enhance single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) senstivity and efficiency: Application to mutation detection in cystic fibrosis (CF)

    SciTech Connect

    Hagstrom, D.J.; Snow, K.; Yuan, Z.; Thibodeau, S.N.

    1994-09-01

    For single gene defects in which there are a variety of mutations with significant frequencies, it is a challenge to find an efficient and sensitive method for mutation detection. For example, although 70% to 75% of CF chromosomes in a North American Caucasian population have the mutation {delta}F508, more than 400 mutations (mostly single base pair substitutions) are represented on the remaining chromosomes. SSCP analysis is a relatively straightforward procedure and therefore suitable for routine use in a clinical laboratory. However, previous reports have demonstrated suboptimal sensitivity rates in screening for mutations. We have developed a novel set of conditions which greatly enhances sensitivity and efficiency of SSCP. Our protocol incorporates multiplex PCR, stepping of wattages during electrophoresis and increased salt concentration at the anode relative to the gel. To screen for mutations in the CFTR gene, three multiplex PCR reactions are performed using identical thermocycler parameters. Sizes of PCR products range from 441 bp to 196 bp: size differences of > 30 bp are necessary to ensure separation during electrophoresis. All PCR products are separated by electrophoresis at room temperature on a single gel containing 8% (37.5:1) polyacrylamide, 5% glycerol and 1x TBE. Using an anode buffer with increased salt (2x TBE) sharpens smaller sized bands, and stepping watts from 5W to 20W during electrophoresis enhances sensitivity. Positive controls were used to demonstrate that mutations could be detected. Other mutations or polymorphisms were verified by cycle sequencing of PCR products or by alternative PCR-based assays for the more common mutations. Thus, using 3 PCR reactions per patient and one gel condition, we are able to achieve a CF mutation detection rate of approximately 90% in a North American Caucasian population.

  14. Design-Based Research and Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Feng; Hannafin, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    During the past decade, design-based research has demonstrated its potential as a methodology suitable to both research and design of technology-enhanced learning environments (TELEs). In this paper, we define and identify characteristics of design-based research, describe the importance of design-based research for the development of TELEs,…

  15. Syndrome-based discrimination of single nucleotide polymorphism.

    PubMed

    May, E E; Dolan, P; Crozier, P; Brozik, S

    2006-01-01

    The ability to discriminate nucleic acid sequences is necessary for a wide variety of applications: high throughput screening, distinguishing genetically modified organisms (GMOs), molecular computing, differentiating biological markers, fingerprinting a specific sensor response for complex systems, etc. Hybridization-based target recognition and discrimination is central to the operation of nucleic acid sensor systems. Therefore developing a quantitative correlation between mishybridization events and sensor out put is critical to the accurate interpretation of results. In this work, using experimental data produced by introducing single mutations (single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) in the probe sequence of computational catalytic molecular beacons (deoxyribozyme gates) [1], we investigate coding theory algorithms for uniquely categorizing SNPs based on the calculation of syndromes. PMID:17947098

  16. Fluctuating single sp2 carbon clusters at single hotspots of silver nanoparticle dimers investigated by surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Tamitake; Yamamoto, Yuko S.; Biju, Vasudevanpillai; Tamaru, Hiroharu; Wakida, Shin-ichi

    2015-12-01

    We evaluate spectral changes in surface enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) of near-single dye molecules in hotspots of single Ag nanoparticle (NP) dimers. During the laser excitation, surface enhance florescence (SEF) of dye disappeared and the number of SERRS lines decreased until finally ca. two lines remained around 1600 and 1350 cm-1, those are evidence of G and D lines of single sp2 carbon clusters. Analysis of the G and D line intensity ratios reveals the temporal fluctuation in the crystallite size of the clusters within several angstroms; whereas, broadening and splitting in the lines enable us for identifying directly the dynamics of various defects in the clusters. This analysis reveals that the detailed fluctuations of single sp2 carbon clusters, which would be impossible to gain with other microscopic methods.

  17. Enhancing model based forecasting of geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Alla G.

    Modern society is increasingly dependent on the smooth operation of large scale technology supporting Earth based activities such as communication, electricity distribution, and navigation. This technology is potentially threatened by global geomagnetic storms, which are caused by the impact of plasma ejected from the Sun upon the protective magnetic field that surrounds the Earth. Forecasting the timing and magnitude of these geomagnetic storms is part of the emerging discipline of space weather. The most severe geomagnetic storms are caused by magnetic clouds, whose properties and characteristics are important variables in space weather forecasting systems. The methodology presented here is the development of a new statistical approach to characterize the physical properties (variables) of the magnetic clouds and to examine the extent to which theoretical models can be used in describing both of these physical properties, as well as their evolution in space and time. Since space weather forecasting is a complex system, a systems engineering approach is used to perform analysis, validation, and verification of the magnetic cloud models (subsystem of the forecasting system) using a model-based methodology. This research demonstrates that in order to validate magnetic cloud models, it is important to categorize the data by physical parameters such as velocity and distance travelled. This understanding will improve the modeling accuracy of magnetic clouds in space weather forecasting systems and hence increase forecasting accuracy of geomagnetic storms and their impact on earth systems.

  18. Demonstration of a Single-Crystal Reflector-Filter for Enhancing Slow Neutron Beams

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Muhrer, Guenter; Schönfeldt, Troels; Iverson, Erik B.; Mocko, Michal; Baxter, David V.; Hügle, Thomas; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Klinkby, Esben

    2016-06-14

    The cold polycrystalline beryllium reflector-filter concept has been used to enhance the cold neutron emission of cryogenic hydrogen moderators, while suppressing the intermediate wavelength and fast neutron emission at the same time. While suppressing the fast neutron emission is often desired, the suppression of intermediate wavelength neutrons is often unwelcome. It has been hypothesized that replacing the polycrystalline reflector-filter concept with a single-crystal reflector-filter concept would overcome the suppression of intermediate wavelength neutrons and thereby extend the usability of the reflector-filter concept to shorter but still important wavelengths. In this paper we present the first experimental data on a single-crystalmore » reflector-filter and compare experimental results with hypothesized performance. We find that a single-crystal reflector-filter retains the long-wavelength benefit of the polycrystalline reflector-filter, without suffering the same loss of important intermediate wavelength neutrons. Ultimately, this finding extends the applicability of the reflector-filter concept to intermediate wavelengths, and furthermore indicates that the reflector-filter benefits arise from its interaction with fast (background) neutrons, not with intermediate wavelength neutrons of potential interest in many types of neutron scattering.« less

  19. Demonstration of a single-crystal reflector-filter for enhancing slow neutron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhrer, G.; Schönfeldt, T.; Iverson, E. B.; Mocko, M.; Baxter, D. V.; Hügle, Th.; Gallmeier, F. X.; Klinkby, E. B.

    2016-09-01

    The cold polycrystalline beryllium reflector-filter concept has been used to enhance the cold neutron emission of cryogenic hydrogen moderators, while suppressing the intermediate wavelength and fast neutron emission at the same time. While suppressing the fast neutron emission is often desired, the suppression of intermediate wavelength neutrons is often unwelcome. It has been hypothesized that replacing the polycrystalline reflector-filter concept with a single-crystal reflector-filter concept would overcome the suppression of intermediate wavelength neutrons and thereby extend the usability of the reflector-filter concept to shorter but still important wavelengths. In this paper we present the first experimental data on a single-crystal reflector-filter at a reflected neutron source and compare experimental results with hypothesized performance. We find that a single-crystal reflector-filter retains the long-wavelength benefit of the polycrystalline reflector-filter, without suffering the same loss of important intermediate wavelength neutrons. This finding extends the applicability of the reflector-filter concept to intermediate wavelengths, and furthermore indicates that the reflector-filter benefits arise from its interaction with fast (background) neutrons, not with intermediate wavelength neutrons of potential interest in many types of neutron scattering.

  20. Plasmofluidic single-molecule surface-enhanced Raman scattering from dynamic assembly of plasmonic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Partha Pratim; Chikkaraddy, Rohit; Tripathi, Ravi P. N.; Dasgupta, Arindam; Kumar, G. V. Pavan

    2014-07-01

    Single-molecule surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SM-SERS) is one of the vital applications of plasmonic nanoparticles. The SM-SERS sensitivity critically depends on plasmonic hot-spots created at the vicinity of such nanoparticles. In conventional fluid-phase SM-SERS experiments, plasmonic hot-spots are facilitated by chemical aggregation of nanoparticles. Such aggregation is usually irreversible, and hence, nanoparticles cannot be re-dispersed in the fluid for further use. Here, we show how to combine SM-SERS with plasmon polariton-assisted, reversible assembly of plasmonic nanoparticles at an unstructured metal-fluid interface. One of the unique features of our method is that we use a single evanescent-wave optical excitation for nanoparticle assembly, manipulation and SM-SERS measurements. Furthermore, by utilizing dual excitation of plasmons at metal-fluid interface, we create interacting assemblies of metal nanoparticles, which may be further harnessed in dynamic lithography of dispersed nanostructures. Our work will have implications in realizing optically addressable, plasmofluidic, single-molecule detection platforms.

  1. Plasmofluidic single-molecule surface-enhanced Raman scattering from dynamic assembly of plasmonic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Patra, Partha Pratim; Chikkaraddy, Rohit; Tripathi, Ravi P N; Dasgupta, Arindam; Kumar, G V Pavan

    2014-01-01

    Single-molecule surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SM-SERS) is one of the vital applications of plasmonic nanoparticles. The SM-SERS sensitivity critically depends on plasmonic hot-spots created at the vicinity of such nanoparticles. In conventional fluid-phase SM-SERS experiments, plasmonic hot-spots are facilitated by chemical aggregation of nanoparticles. Such aggregation is usually irreversible, and hence, nanoparticles cannot be re-dispersed in the fluid for further use. Here, we show how to combine SM-SERS with plasmon polariton-assisted, reversible assembly of plasmonic nanoparticles at an unstructured metal-fluid interface. One of the unique features of our method is that we use a single evanescent-wave optical excitation for nanoparticle assembly, manipulation and SM-SERS measurements. Furthermore, by utilizing dual excitation of plasmons at metal-fluid interface, we create interacting assemblies of metal nanoparticles, which may be further harnessed in dynamic lithography of dispersed nanostructures. Our work will have implications in realizing optically addressable, plasmofluidic, single-molecule detection platforms. PMID:25000476

  2. Demonstration of a Single-Crystal Reflector-Filter for Enhancing Slow Neutron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Muhrer, Guenter; Schönfeldt, Troels; Iverson, Erik B; Mocko, Michal; Baxter, David V; Hügle, Thomas; Gallmeier, Franz X; Klinkby, Esben

    2016-01-01

    The cold polycrystalline beryllium reflector-filter concept has been used to enhance the cold neutron emission of cryogenic hydrogen moderators, while suppressing the intermediate wavelength and fast neutron emission at the same time. While suppressing the fast neutron emission is often desired, the suppression of intermediate wavelength neutrons is often unwelcome. It has been hypothesized that replacing the polycrystalline reflector-filter concept with a single-crystal reflector-filter concept would overcome the suppression of intermediate wavelength neutrons and thereby extend the usability of the reflector-filter concept to shorter but still important wavelengths. In this paper we present the first experimental data on a single-crystal reflector-filter and compare experimental results with hypothesized performance. We find that a single-crystal reflector-filter retains the long-wavelength benefit of the polycrystalline reflector-filter, without suffering the same loss of important intermediate wavelength neutrons. This finding extends the applicability of the reflector-filter concept to intermediate wavelengths, and furthermore indicates that the reflector-filter benefits arise from its interaction with fast (background) neutrons, not with intermediate wavelength neutrons of potential interest in many types of neutron scattering.

  3. Wafer-scale metasurface for total power absorption, local field enhancement and single molecule Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongxing; Zhu, Wenqi; Best, Michael D.; Camden, Jon P.; Crozier, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to detect molecules at low concentrations is highly desired for applications that range from basic science to healthcare. Considerable interest also exists for ultrathin materials with high optical absorption, e.g. for microbolometers and thermal emitters. Metal nanostructures present opportunities to achieve both purposes. Metal nanoparticles can generate gigantic field enhancements, sufficient for the Raman spectroscopy of single molecules. Thin layers containing metal nanostructures (“metasurfaces”) can achieve near-total power absorption at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Thus far, however, both aims (i.e. single molecule Raman and total power absorption) have only been achieved using metal nanostructures produced by techniques (high resolution lithography or colloidal synthesis) that are complex and/or difficult to implement over large areas. Here, we demonstrate a metasurface that achieves the near-perfect absorption of visible-wavelength light and enables the Raman spectroscopy of single molecules. Our metasurface is fabricated using thin film depositions, and is of unprecedented (wafer-scale) extent. PMID:24091825

  4. Enhancing and initiating phage-based therapies

    PubMed Central

    Serwer, Philip; Wright, Elena T; Chang, Juan T; Liu, Xiangan

    2014-01-01

    Drug development has typically been a primary foundation of strategy for systematic, long-range management of pathogenic cells. However, drug development is limited in speed and flexibility when response is needed to changes in pathogenic cells, especially changes that produce drug-resistance. The high replication speed and high diversity of phages are potentially useful for increasing both response speed and response flexibility when changes occur in either drug resistance or other aspects of pathogenic cells. We present strategy, with some empirical details, for (1) using modern molecular biology and biophysics to access these advantages during the phage therapy of bacterial infections, and (2) initiating use of phage capsid-based drug delivery vehicles (DDVs) with procedures that potentially overcome both drug resistance and other present limitations in the use of DDVs for the therapy of neoplasms. The discussion of phage therapy includes (a) historical considerations, (b) changes that appear to be needed in clinical tests if use of phage therapy is to be expanded, (c) recent work on novel phages and its potential use for expanding the capabilities of phage therapy and (d) an outline for a strategy that encompasses both theory and practice for expanding the applications of phage therapy. The discussion of DDVs starts by reviewing current work on DDVs, including work on both liposomal and viral DDVs. The discussion concludes with some details of the potential use of permeability constrained phage capsids as DDVs. PMID:26713220

  5. Anisotropy of nickel-base superalloy single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackay, R. A.; Dreshfield, R. L.; Maier, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of orientation on the tensile and stress rupture behavior of 52 Mar-M247 single crystals was studied. Tensile tests were performed at temperatures between 23 and 1093 C; stress rupture behavior was examined between 760 and 1038 C. The mechanical behavior of the single crystals was rationalized on the basis of the Schmid factor contours for the operative slip systems and the lattice rotations which the crystals underwent during deformation. The tensile properties correlated well with the appropriate Schmid factor contours. The stress rupture lives at lower testing temperatures were greatly influenced by the lattice rotations required to produce cross slip. A unified analysis was attained for the stress rupture life data generated for the Mar-M247 single crystals at 760 and 774 C under a stress of 724 MPa and the data reported for Mar-M200 single crystals tested at 760 C under a stress of 689 MPa. Based on this analysis, the stereographic triangle was divided into several regions which were rank ordered according to stress rupture life for this temperature regime.

  6. Anisotropy of nickel-base superalloy single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackay, R. A.; Maier, R. D.; Dreshfield, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of crystal orientation on the mechanical properties of single crystals of the nickel-based superalloy Mar-M247 are investigated. Tensile tests at temperatures from 23 to 1093 C and stress rupture tests at temperatures from 760 to 1038 C were performed for 52 single crystals at various orientations. During tensile testing between 23 and 760 C, single crystals with high Schmid factors were found to be favorably oriented for slip and to exhibit lower strength and higher ductility than those with low Schmid factors. Crystals which required large rotations to become oriented for cross slip were observed to have the shortest stress rupture lives at 760 C, while those which required little or no rotation had the longest lives. In addition, stereographic triangles obtained for Mar-M247 and Mar-M200 single crystals reveal that crystals with orientations near the -111 had the highest lives, those near the 001 had high lives, and those near the 011 had low lives.

  7. Gal4-based enhancer-trapping in the malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    O'Brochta, David A; Pilitt, Kristina L; Harrell, Robert A; Aluvihare, Channa; Alford, Robert T

    2012-11-01

    Transposon-based forward and reverse genetic technologies will contribute greatly to ongoing efforts to study mosquito functional genomics. A piggyBac transposon-based enhancer-trap system was developed that functions efficiently in the human malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi. The system consists of six transgenic lines of Anopheles stephensi, each with a single piggyBac-Gal4 element in a unique genomic location; six lines with a single piggyBac-UAStdTomato element; and two lines, each with a single Minos element containing the piggyBac-transposase gene under the regulatory control of the hsp70 promoter from Drosophila melanogaster. Enhancer detection depended upon the efficient remobilization of piggyBac-Gal4 transposons, which contain the yeast transcription factor gene Gal4 under the regulatory control of a basal promoter. Gal4 expression was detected through the expression of the fluorescent protein gene tdTomato under the regulatory control of a promoter with Gal4-binding UAS elements. From five genetic screens for larval- and adult-specific enhancers, 314 progeny were recovered from 24,250 total progeny (1.3%) with unique patterns of tdTomato expression arising from the influence of an enhancer. The frequency of piggyBac remobilization and enhancer detection was 2.5- to 3-fold higher in female germ lines compared with male germ lines. A small collection of enhancer-trap lines are described in which Gal4 expression occurred in adult female salivary glands, midgut, and fat body, either singly or in combination. These three tissues play critical roles during the infection of Anopheles stephensi by malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites. This system and the lines generated using it will be valuable resources to ongoing mosquito functional genomics efforts. PMID:23173082

  8. Single frequency MOPA based on Nd:YAG single crystal fiber and rods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaojun; Men, Shaojie; Liu, Yang; Cong, Zhenhua; Yang, Houwen; Cheng, Wenyong; Rao, Han; Lu, Jianren; Zhang, Xingyu

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate a single frequency 1064 nm master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system operating in macro-micro pulse scheme. The repetition rate for the macro pulses was 300 Hz with pulse duration of 300 μs. Micro pulses operated at 25 kHz. The master laser was a single-longitudinal-mode electro-optically Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with an output power of 250 mW and pulse duration of 33 ns. Three stages of power amplifiers based on Nd:YAG single crystal fiber and rods were designed. The final output power reached 31.3 W with pulse duration of 30 ns and linewidth of less than 130 MHz. Micro pulse energy of 13.9 mJ was obtained with a peak power of up to 464 kW. The beam quality factors (M2) were measured to be 1.56 and 1.76 in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. PMID:27192235

  9. High-performance diamond-based single-photon sources for quantum communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chun-Hsu; Greentree, Andrew D.; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.

    2009-11-01

    Quantum communication places stringent requirements on single-photon sources. Here we report a theoretical study of the cavity Purcell enhancement of two diamond point defects, the nickel-nitrogen (NE8) and silicon-vacancy (SiV) centers, for high-performance, near on-demand single-photon generation. By coupling the centers strongly to high-finesse optical photonic-band-gap cavities with modest quality factor Q=O(104) and small mode volume V=O(λ3) , these system can deliver picosecond single-photon pulses at their zero-phonon lines with probabilities of 0.954 (NE8) and 0.812 (SiV) under a realistic optical excitation scheme. The undesirable blinking effect due to transitions via metastable states can also be suppressed with O(10-4) blinking probability. We analyze the application of these enhanced centers, including the previously studied cavity-enhanced nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center, to long-distance Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol quantum key distribution (QKD) in fiber-based, open-air terrestrial and satellite-ground setups. In this comparative study, we show that they can deliver performance comparable with decoy state implementation with weak coherent sources, and are most suitable for open-air communication.

  10. Single Wall Carbon Nanotube-Based Structural Health Sensing Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, A. Neal; Ingram, JoAnne L.; Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Smits, Jan M.; Williams, Phillip A.

    2004-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-based materials represent the future aerospace vehicle construction material of choice based primarily on predicted strength-to-weight advantages and inherent multifunctionality. The multifunctionality of SWCNTs arises from the ability of the nanotubes to be either metallic or semi-conducting based on their chirality. Furthermore, simply changing the environment around a SWCNT can change its conducting behavior. This phenomenon is being exploited to create sensors capable of measuring several parameters related to vehicle structural health (i.e. strain, pressure, temperature, etc.) The structural health monitor is constructed using conventional electron-beam lithographic and photolithographic techniques to place specific electrode patterns on a surface. SWCNTs are then deposited between the electrodes using a dielectrophoretic alignment technique. Prototypes have been constructed on both silicon and polyimide substrates, demonstrating that surface-mountable and multifunctional devices based on SWCNTs can be realized.

  11. Comparison of light out-coupling enhancements in single-layer blue-phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes using small-molecule or polymer hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yung-Ting; Liu, Shun-Wei; Yuan, Chih-Hsien; Lee, Chih-Chien; Ho, Yu-Hsuan; Wei, Pei-Kuen; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Lee, Yi-Ting; Wu, Min-Fei; Chen, Chin-Ti E-mail: chihiwu@cc.ee.ntu.edu.tw; Wu, Chih-I E-mail: chihiwu@cc.ee.ntu.edu.tw

    2013-11-07

    Single-layer blue phosphorescence organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with either small-molecule or polymer hosts are fabricated using solution process and the performances of devices with different hosts are investigated. The small-molecule device exhibits luminous efficiency of 14.7 cd/A and maximum power efficiency of 8.39 lm/W, which is the highest among blue phosphorescence OLEDs with single-layer solution process and small molecular hosts. Using the same solution process for all devices, comparison of light out-coupling enhancement, with brightness enhancement film (BEF), between small-molecule and polymer based OLEDs is realized. Due to different dipole orientation and anisotropic refractive index, polymer-based OLEDs would trap less light than small molecule-based OLEDs internally, about 37% better based simulation results. In spite of better electrical and spectroscopic characteristics, including ambipolar characteristics, higher carrier mobility, higher photoluminescence quantum yield, and larger triplet state energy, the overall light out-coupling efficiency of small molecule-based devices is worse than that of polymer-based devices without BEF. However, with BEF for light out-coupling enhancement, the improved ratio in luminous flux and luminous efficiency for small molecule based device is 1.64 and 1.57, respectively, which are significantly better than those of PVK (poly-9-vinylcarbazole) devices. In addition to the theoretical optical simulation, the experimental data also confirm the origins of differential light-outcoupling enhancement. The maximum luminous efficiency and power efficiency are enhanced from 14.7 cd/A and 8.39 lm/W to 23 cd/A and 13.2 lm/W, respectively, with laminated BEF, which are both the highest so far for single-layer solution-process blue phosphorescence OLEDs with small molecule hosts.

  12. Single protein sensing with asymmetric plasmonic hexamer via Fano resonance enhanced two-photon luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hai-Dong; Chen, Xing-Yu; Xu, Yi; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.

    2015-12-01

    Fano resonances in plasmonic systems have been proved to facilitate various sensing applications in the nanoscale. In this work, we propose an experimental scheme to realize a single protein sensing by utilizing its two-photon luminescence enhanced by a plasmonic Fano resonance system. The asymmetric gold hexamer supporting polarization-dependent Fano resonances and plasmonic modes without in-plane rotational symmetry is used as a referenced spatial coordinate for bio-sensing. We demonstrate via the full-vectorial three-dimensional simulation that the moving direction and the spatial location of a protein can be detected via its two-photon luminescence, which benefits from the resonant near-field interaction with the electromagnetic hot-spots. The sensitivity to changes in position of our method is substantially better compared with the conventional linear sensing approach. Our strategy would facilitate the sensing, tracking and imaging of a single biomolecule in deep sub-wavelength scale and with a small optical extinction cross-section.Fano resonances in plasmonic systems have been proved to facilitate various sensing applications in the nanoscale. In this work, we propose an experimental scheme to realize a single protein sensing by utilizing its two-photon luminescence enhanced by a plasmonic Fano resonance system. The asymmetric gold hexamer supporting polarization-dependent Fano resonances and plasmonic modes without in-plane rotational symmetry is used as a referenced spatial coordinate for bio-sensing. We demonstrate via the full-vectorial three-dimensional simulation that the moving direction and the spatial location of a protein can be detected via its two-photon luminescence, which benefits from the resonant near-field interaction with the electromagnetic hot-spots. The sensitivity to changes in position of our method is substantially better compared with the conventional linear sensing approach. Our strategy would facilitate the sensing, tracking and

  13. Single Sagnac's Interferometers Instrumentation, based in the Best Detection Limit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma-Vargas, Salvador; Ramírez-Ibarra, Angélica; Sandoval-Romero, G. Eduardo

    2008-04-01

    An interferometric system of volume optics and fiber optic were constructed and proved, showing the instrumentation technique made for these devices, supported in the new technologies of optical detection, amplification, analogical and digital filtrate and single data acquisition. Based on the Sagnac's effect of volume optics and fiber optic, the interferometer of Sagnac has many applications, nevertheless the methods of construction, design and instrumentation for the sensors manufacture of based on both designs are not very well-known, is for that reason that in this work approaches some of the methodologies for the design and construction of these devices, obtaining higher sensitivity and better contribution in its respective interferometric paths, for the sensing of different physical parameters in which they are applied. We used the single design for each interferometer, proposing the best detection limit for each one. The data acquisition was made with the proposal to obtain quick results, using the audio card of a PC, obtaining a real time measurements and digital processing of the signal in a single way.

  14. Understanding the kinetic mechanism of RNA single base pair formation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaojun; Yu, Tao; Chen, Shi-Jie

    2016-01-01

    RNA functions are intrinsically tied to folding kinetics. The most elementary step in RNA folding is the closing and opening of a base pair. Understanding this elementary rate process is the basis for RNA folding kinetics studies. Previous studies mostly focused on the unfolding of base pairs. Here, based on a hybrid approach, we investigate the folding process at level of single base pairing/stacking. The study, which integrates molecular dynamics simulation, kinetic Monte Carlo simulation, and master equation methods, uncovers two alternative dominant pathways: Starting from the unfolded state, the nucleotide backbone first folds to the native conformation, followed by subsequent adjustment of the base conformation. During the base conformational rearrangement, the backbone either retains the native conformation or switches to nonnative conformations in order to lower the kinetic barrier for base rearrangement. The method enables quantification of kinetic partitioning among the different pathways. Moreover, the simulation reveals several intriguing ion binding/dissociation signatures for the conformational changes. Our approach may be useful for developing a base pair opening/closing rate model. PMID:26699466

  15. Near-infrared surface-enhanced-Raman-scattering (SERS) mediated detection of single optically trapped bacterial spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Troy A.; Pellegrino, Paul M.; Gillespie, James B.

    2003-08-01

    A novel methodology has been developed for the investigation of bacterial spores. Specifically, this method has been used to probe the spore coat composition of two different Bacillus stearothermophilus variants. This technique may be useful in many applications; most notably, development of novel detection schemes toward potentially harmful bacteria. This method would also be useful as an ancillary environmental monitoring system where sterility is of importance (i.e., food preparation areas as well as invasive and minimally invasive medical applications). This unique detection scheme is based on the near-infrared (NIR) Surface-Enhanced-Raman-Scattering (SERS) from single, optically trapped, bacterial spores. The SERS spectra of bacterial spores in aqueous media have been measured using SERS substrates based on ~60-nm diameter gold colloids bound to 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane derivatized glass. The light from a 787-nm laser diode was used to trap/manipulate as well as simultaneously excite the SERS of an individual bacterial spore. The collected SERS spectra were examined for uniqueness and the applicability of this technique for the strain discrimination of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores. Comparison of normal Raman and SERS spectra reveal not only an enhancement of the normal Raman spectral features but also the appearance of spectral features absent in the normal Raman spectrum.

  16. Near-infrared Surface-Enhanced-Raman-Scattering (SERS) mediated discrimination of single optically trapped bacterial spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Troy A.; Pellegrino, Paul M.; Gillespie, James B.

    2004-03-01

    A novel methodology has been developed for the investigation of bacterial spores. Specifically, this method has been used to probe the spore coat composition of two different Bacillus stearothermophilus variants. This technique may be useful in many applications; most notably, development of novel detection schemes toward potentially harmful bacteria. This method would also be useful as an ancillary environmental monitoring system where sterility is of importance (i.e., food preparation areas as well as invasive and minimally invasive medical applications). This unique detection scheme is based on the near-infrared (NIR) Surface-Enhanced-Raman- Scattering (SERS) from single, optically trapped, bacterial spores. The SERS spectra of bacterial spores in aqueous media have been measured using SERS substrates based on ~60-nm diameter gold colloids bound to 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane derivatized glass. The light from a 787-nm laser diode was used to trap/manipulate as well as simultaneously excite the SERS of an individual bacterial spore. The collected SERS spectra were examined for uniqueness and the applicability of this technique for the strain discrimination of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores. Comparison of normal Raman and SERS spectra reveal not only an enhancement of the normal Raman spectral features but also the appearance of spectral features absent in the normal Raman spectrum.

  17. A new GMTI detector based on spaceborne single channel SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Sun, Jinping; Bai, Xia; Yu, Zhenming

    2007-11-01

    This paper examines moving targets detection using single channel Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) in spaceborne platform. Building on previous work moving targets can be retrieved from multi-look images via magnitude subtraction or phase interferometry. A more effective method is proposed which mainly consists of signal subspace processing- based data equilibrium and change detection in multi-look covariance matrix. Also different baseline is checked and weak targets may be found. Test results show that precise calibration of multi-look images are essential and short baseline is preferred when the interesting targets are weak. Therefore, the proposed method leads to improved detection performance and provides ways of GMTI in single channel SAR.

  18. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy at single-molecule scale and its implications in biology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuling; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2013-02-01

    Single-molecule (SM) spectroscopy has been an exciting area of research offering significant promise and hope in the field of sensor development to detect targets at ultra-low levels down to SM resolution. To the experts and developers in the field of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), this has often been a challenge and a significant opportunity for exploration. Needless to say, the opportunities and excitement of this multidisciplinary area impacts span the fields of physics, chemistry and engineering, along with a significant thrust in applications constituting areas in medicine, biology, environment and agriculture among others. In this review, we will attempt to provide a quick snapshot of the basics of SM-SERS, nanostructures and devices that can enable SM Raman measurement. We will conclude with a discussion on SERS implications in biomedical sciences. PMID:23267180

  19. Hybrid Graphene and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Enhanced Phase-Change Heat Transfer.

    PubMed

    Seo, Han; Yun, Hyung Duk; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Bang, In Cheol

    2016-02-10

    Nucleate boiling is an effective heat transfer method in power generation systems and cooling devices. In this letter, hybrid graphene/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), graphene, and SWCNT films deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces were fabricated to investigate the enhancement of nucleate boiling phenomena described by the critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient. The graphene films were grown on Cu foils and transferred to ITO surfaces. Furthermore, SWCNTs were deposited on the graphene layer to fabricate hybrid graphene/SWCNT films. We determined that the hybrid graphene/SWCNT film deposited on an ITO surface is the most effective heat transfer surface in pool boiling because of the interconnected network of carbon structures. PMID:26731547

  20. Fast reversible single-step method for enhanced band contrast of polyacrylamide gels for automated detection.

    PubMed

    Ling, Wei-Li; Lua, Wai-Heng; Gan, Samuel Ken-En

    2015-05-01

    Staining SDS-PAGE is commonly used in protein analysis for many downstream characterization processes. Although staining and destaining protocols can be adjusted, they can be laborious, and faint bands often become false negatives. Similarly, these faint bands hinder automated software band detections that are necessary for quantitative analyses. To overcome these problems, we describe a single-step rapid and reversible method to increase (up to 500%) band contrast in stained gels. Through the use of alcohols, we improved band detection and facilitated gel storage by drying the gels into compact white sheets. This method is suitable for all stained SDS-PAGE gels, including gradient gels and is shown to improve automated band detection by enhanced band contrast. PMID:25782090

  1. Fast reversible single-step method for enhanced band contrast of polyacrylamide gels for automated detection

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Wei-Li; Lua, Wai-Heng; Gan, Samuel Ken-En

    2015-01-01

    Staining SDS-PAGE is commonly used in protein analysis for many downstream characterization processes. Although staining and destaining protocols can be adjusted, they can be laborious, and faint bands often become false negatives. Similarly, these faint bands hinder automated software band detections that are necessary for quantitative analyses. To overcome these problems, we describe a single-step rapid and reversible method to increase (up to 500%) band contrast in stained gels. Through the use of alcohols, we improved band detection and facilitated gel storage by drying the gels into compact white sheets. This method is suitable for all stained SDS-PAGE gels, including gradient gels and is shown to improve automated band detection by enhanced band contrast. PMID:25782090

  2. Graphene Enhances Li Storage Capacity of Porous Single-crystalline Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Han, W.

    2010-12-01

    We demonstrated that graphene significantly enhances the reversible capacity of porous silicon nanowires used as the anode in Li-ion batteries. We prepared our experimental nanomaterials, viz., graphene and porous single-crystalline silicon nanowires, respectively, using a liquid-phase graphite exfoliation method and an electroless HF/AgNO{sub 3} etching process. The Si porous nanowire/graphene electrode realized a charge capacity of 2470 mAh g{sup -1} that is much higher than the 1256 mAh g{sup -1} of porous Si nanowire/C-black electrode and 6.6 times the theoretical capacity of commercial graphite. This relatively high capacity could originate from the favorable charge-transportation characteristics of the combination of graphene with the porous Si 1D nanostructure.

  3. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy at single-molecule scale and its implications in biology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuling; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Single-molecule (SM) spectroscopy has been an exciting area of research offering significant promise and hope in the field of sensor development to detect targets at ultra-low levels down to SM resolution. To the experts and developers in the field of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), this has often been a challenge and a significant opportunity for exploration. Needless to say, the opportunities and excitement of this multidisciplinary area impacts span the fields of physics, chemistry and engineering, along with a significant thrust in applications constituting areas in medicine, biology, environment and agriculture among others. In this review, we will attempt to provide a quick snapshot of the basics of SM-SERS, nanostructures and devices that can enable SM Raman measurement. We will conclude with a discussion on SERS implications in biomedical sciences. PMID:23267180

  4. On the critical role of Rayleigh scattering in single-molecule surface-enhanced Raman scattering via a plasmonic nanogap.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bao-Qin; Zhang, Chao; Li, Jiafang; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Xia, Younan

    2016-08-25

    Electromagnetic and chemical enhancement mechanisms are commonly used to account for single-molecule surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SM-SERS). Due to many practical limitations, however, the overall enhancement factor summed up from these two mechanisms is typically 5-6 orders of magnitude below the level of 10(14)-10(15) required for SM-SERS. Here, we demonstrate that the multiple elastic Rayleigh scattering of a molecule could play a critical role in further enhancing the Raman signal, when the molecule is trapped in a 2 nm gap between two Ag nanoparticles, pushing the overall enhancement factor close to the level needed for SM-SERS. As a universal physical process for all molecules interacting with light, we believe that Rayleigh scattering plays a pivotal and as yet unrecognized role in SERS, in particular, for enabling single-molecule sensitivity. PMID:27526632

  5. ZnO nanoflowers with single crystal structure towards enhanced gas sensing and photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sha; Chen, Hsueh-Shih; Matras-Postolek, Katarzyna; Yang, Ping

    2015-11-11

    In this paper, ZnO nanoflowers (NFs) were fabricated by thermal decomposition in an organic solvent and their application in gas sensors and photocatalysis was investigated. These single crystal ZnO NFs, which were observed for the first time, with an average size of ∼60 nm and were grown along the {100} facet. It was suggested that oleylamine used in the synthesis inhibited the growth and agglomeration of ZnO through the coordination of the oleylamine N atoms. The NFs exhibited excellent selectivity to acetone with a concentration of 25 ppm at 300 °C because they had a high specific surface area that provided more active sites and the surface adsorbed oxygen species for interaction with acetone. In addition, the ZnO NFs showed enhanced gas sensing response which was also ascribed to abundant oxygen vacancies at the junctions between petals of the NFs. Furthermore, ZnO-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites were fabricated by loading the ZnO NFs on the surface of the stratiform RGO sheet. In the photodegradation of rhodamine B tests, the composite revealed an enhanced photocatalytic performance compared with ZnO NFs under UV light irradiation. PMID:26507913

  6. Enhanced Hydrogen Production Integrated with CO2 Separation in a Single-Stage Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mahesh Iyer; Himanshu Gupta; Danny Wong; Liang-Shih Fan

    2005-09-30

    Hydrogen production from coal gasification can be enhanced by driving the equilibrium limited Water Gas Shift reaction forward by incessantly removing the CO{sub 2} by-product via the carbonation of calcium oxide. This project aims at using the OSU patented high-reactivity mesoporous precipitated calcium carbonate sorbent for removing the CO{sub 2} product. Preliminary experiments demonstrate the show the superior performance of the PCC sorbent over other naturally occurring calcium sorbents. Gas composition analyses show the formation of 100% pure hydrogen. Novel calcination techniques could lead to smaller reactor footprint and single-stage reactors that can achieve maximum theoretical H{sub 2} production for multicyclic applications. Sub-atmospheric calcination studies reveal the effect of vacuum level, diluent gas flow rate, thermal properties of the diluent gas and the sorbent loading on the calcination kinetics which play an important role on the sorbent morphology. Steam, which can be easily separated from CO{sub 2}, is envisioned to be a potential diluent gas due to its enhanced thermal properties. Steam calcination studies at 700-850 C reveal improved sorbent morphology over regular nitrogen calcination. A mixture of 80% steam and 20% CO{sub 2} at ambient pressure was used to calcine the spent sorbent at 820 C thus lowering the calcination temperature. Regeneration of calcium sulfide to calcium carbonate was achieved by carbonating the calcium sulfide slurry by bubbling CO{sub 2} gas at room temperature.

  7. Single particle optical investigation of gold shell enhanced upconverted fluorescence emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Kory; Lim, Shuang Fang; Hallen, Hans

    2014-03-01

    Upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) excited in the near IR offer novel advantages as fluorescent contrast agents, allowing for background free bio-imaging. However, their fluorescence brightness is hampered by low quantum efficiency due to the low absorption cross section of Ytterbium and Erbium ions in the near IR. We enhance the efficiency of these particles by investigating the plasmonic coupling of 30nm diameter core NaYF4: Yb, Er upconverting particles (UCNPs) with a gold shell coating. An enhancement of green emission by a factor of five and a three times overall increase in emission intensity has been achieved for single particle spectra. UV-Vis absorption has confirmed the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the gold shell to the near IR and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images demonstrates successful growth of a gold shell around the upconversion particle. Time-resolved spectroscopy shows that gold shell coupling changes the lifetime of the energy levels of the Erbium ion that are relevant to the emission process.

  8. Analysis of Convective Heat Transfer Enhancement by Nanofluids: Single-Phase and Two-Phase Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakaç, S.; Pramuanjaroenkij, A.

    2016-06-01

    Nanofluids have been investigated regarding their advantages and potentialities for the purpose of increasing convective heat transfer rates inside thermal systems where they are used as working fluids. Researchers in thermophysics have investigated these fluids experimentally and numerically. This review provides extensive theoretical information concerning nanofluids in the single-phase and two-phase treatments. Important published works on nanofluid properties and correlations are summarized and reviewed in detail. Heat transfer enhancement by nanofluids is a challenging problem due to the difficulties inherent in the model of the physical mechanism of interaction between the paricles. Here the interaction between the phases is modeled by several two-phase models, and the results are given in graphical and tabular forms. Despite the advantages of the mixture model, such as imlementation of physical properties and less computational power requirements, some studies showed that the results of the single-phase and two-phase models are very similar. The main difference consists in the effect of the drift velocities of the phases relative to each other.

  9. Dramatically Enhanced Flux Pinning Properties of Cation Composition Controlled Bi(Pb)2212 Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Satoshi; Shimoyama, Jun-Ichi; Makise, Takanori; Horii, Shigeru; Kishio, Kohji

    2006-06-01

    Single crystals of Bi2212 and Bi(Pb)2212 having various cation compositions were grown by the floating zone method and evaluated their Jc characteristics after control of oxygen content by post-annealing. Jc characteristics of Bi2212 and Bi(Pb)2212 were found to be improved by control of cation compositions towards stoichiometric, Bi:Sr:Ca:Cu = 2:2:1:2. This means that nonstoichiometric cation composition in these systems suppresses inherent superconductivity possibly due to considerably disordered crystal lattice, resulting in poor Jc characteristics. Dramatically enhanced Jc were achieved for cation stoichiometric and small amount of Y or Lu-doped Bi(Pb)2212 single crystals. The highest Jc at 20 K observed were ~0.85 MAcm-2 in self-field and ~0.1 MAcm-2 under 5 T with H // c. The dilute Y and Ludoping is considered to introduce locally lattice-distorted regions acting as effective pinning sites up to high fields.

  10. Analysis of Convective Heat Transfer Enhancement by Nanofluids: Single-Phase and Two-Phase Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakaç, S.; Pramuanjaroenkij, A.

    2016-05-01

    Nanofluids have been investigated regarding their advantages and potentialities for the purpose of increasing convective heat transfer rates inside thermal systems where they are used as working fluids. Researchers in thermophysics have investigated these fluids experimentally and numerically. This review provides extensive theoretical information concerning nanofluids in the single-phase and two-phase treatments. Important published works on nanofluid properties and correlations are summarized and reviewed in detail. Heat transfer enhancement by nanofluids is a challenging problem due to the difficulties inherent in the model of the physical mechanism of interaction between the paricles. Here the interaction between the phases is modeled by several two-phase models, and the results are given in graphical and tabular forms. Despite the advantages of the mixture model, such as imlementation of physical properties and less computational power requirements, some studies showed that the results of the single-phase and two-phase models are very similar. The main difference consists in the effect of the drift velocities of the phases relative to each other.

  11. Development of a new signal processing algorithm based on independent component analysis for single channel ECG data.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Lee, K J; Yoo, S K

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed a new signal processing algorithm based on independent component analysis (ICA) for single channel ECG data. For the application ICA to single channel data, mixed (multi-channel) signals are constructed by adding some delay to original data. By ICA, signal enhancement is acquired. For validation of usefulness of this signal, QRS complex detection was accompanied. In QRS detection process, Hilbert transform and wavelet transform were used and good QRS detection efficacy was obtained. Furthermore, a signal, which could not be filtered properly using existing algorithm, also had better signal enhancement. In future, we need to study on the algorithm optimization and simplification. PMID:17271650

  12. STEP: spatiotemporal enhancement pattern for MR-based breast tumor diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuanjie; Englander, Sarah; Baloch, Sajjad; Zacharaki, Evangelia I; Fan, Yong; Schnall, Mitchell D; Shen, Dinggang

    2009-07-01

    The authors propose a spatiotemporal enhancement pattern (STEP) for comprehensive characterization of breast tumors in contrast-enhanced MR images. By viewing serial contrast-enhanced MR images as a single spatiotemporal image, they formulate the STEP as a combination of (1) dynamic enhancement and architectural features of a tumor, and (2) the spatial variations of pixelwise temporal enhancements. Although the latter has been widely used by radiologists for diagnostic purposes, it has rarely been employed for computer-aided diagnosis. This article presents two major contributions. First, the STEP features are introduced to capture temporal enhancement and its spatial variations. This is essentially carried out through the Fourier transformation and pharmacokinetic modeling of various temporal enhancement features, followed by the calculation of moment invariants and Gabor texture features. Second, for effectively extracting the STEP features from tumors, we develop a graph-cut based segmentation algorithm that aims at refining coarse manual segmentations of tumors. The STEP features are assessed through their diagnostic performance for differentiating between benign and malignant tumors using a linear classifier (along with a simple ranking-based feature selection) in a leave-one-out cross-validation setting. The experimental results for the proposed features exhibit superior performance, when compared to the existing approaches, with the area under the ROC curve approaching 0.97. PMID:19673218

  13. Contrast enhancement via texture region based histogram equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kuldeep; Vishwakarma, Dinesh K.; Singh Walia, Gurjit; Kapoor, Rajiv

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents two novel contrast enhancement approaches using texture regions-based histogram equalization (HE). In HE-based contrast enhancement methods, the enhanced image often contains undesirable artefacts because an excessive number of pixels in the non-textured areas heavily bias the histogram. The novel idea presented in this paper is to suppress the impact of pixels in non-textured areas and to exploit texture features for the computation of histogram in the process of HE. The first algorithm named as Dominant Orientation-based Texture Histogram Equalization (DOTHE), constructs the histogram of the image using only those image patches having dominant orientation. DOTHE categories image patches into smooth, dominant or non-dominant orientation patches by using the image variance and singular value decomposition algorithm and utilizes only dominant orientation patches in the process of HE. The second method termed as Edge-based Texture Histogram Equalization, calculates significant edges in the image and constructs the histogram using the grey levels present in the neighbourhood of edges. The cumulative density function of the histogram formed from texture features is mapped on the entire dynamic range of the input image to produce the contrast-enhanced image. Subjective as well as objective performance assessment of proposed methods is conducted and compared with other existing HE methods. The performance assessment in terms of visual quality, contrast improvement index, entropy and measure of enhancement reveals that the proposed methods outperform the existing HE methods.

  14. A single chip microcontroller based portable multichannel analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shahid

    1987-06-01

    The development of a portable multichannel analyzer for gamma spectroscopy applications is described. The developed unit is based on the Intel 8751 single chip microcontroller and has CRT and liquid crystal displays, preamplifying and amplifying sections, high voltage supply, built-in printer and runs on rechargeable batteries. The design uses standard off the shelf components, minimizes chip count by using all the microcontroller's resources and implementing most functions in software, and this results in a low cost system with good performance. Hardware and software design along with their integration are discussed.

  15. Single optical tweezers based on elliptical core fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Li; Chen, Yunhao; Liu, Zhihai; Zhang, Yaxun; Zhao, Enming; Yang, Jun; Yuan, Libo

    2016-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate a new single optical tweezers based on an elliptical core fiber, which can realize the trapped yeast cell rotation with a precise and simple control. Due to the elliptical shape of the fiber core, the LP11 mode beam can propagate stably. When we rotate the fiber tip, the LP11 mode beam will also rotate along with the fiber tip, which helps to realize the trapped micro-particle rotation. By using this method, we can easily realize the rotation of the trapped yeast cells, the rotating angle of the yeast cell is same as the elliptical core fiber tip.

  16. Gas Sensors Based on Single-Arm Waveguide Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, Sergey; Curley, Michael; Diggs, Darnell; Adamovsky, Grigory

    1998-01-01

    Various optical technologies can be implemented in chemical sensing. Sensitive, rugged, and compact systems will be more likely built using interferometric waveguide sensors. Currently existing sensors comprise dual-arm systems with external reference arm, dual-arm devices with internal reference arm such as integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and single-arm systems which employ the interference between different waveguide modes. These latter ones are the most compact and rugged but still sensitive enough to monitor volatile pollutants such as NH3 coming out of industrial refrigerators and fertilizer plants and stocks, NO, NO2, SO2, emitted by industrial burning processes. Single-arm devices in planar waveguide configuration most frequently use two orthogonally polarized modes TE (sub i) and TM (sub i) of the same order i. Sensing effect is based on the difference in propagation conditions for the modes caused by the environment. However, dual-mode single-order interferometers still have relatively low sensitivity with respect to the environment related changes in the waveguide core because of small difference between propagation constants of TE (sub i) and TM (sub i) modes of the same order. Substantial sensitivity improvement without significant complication can be achieved for planar waveguide interferometers using modes of different orders with much greater difference between propagation constants.

  17. Single-dislocation-based deformation mechanisms in nanolayered composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Amit

    2004-03-01

    Nanolayered metallic composites, composed of alternating layers of soft metals, are shown to possess several GPa level strengths, often within a factor of two to three of the theoretical strength limit, when the bilayer periods are on the order of a few nanometers. Experiments on model systems such as Cu-Ni and Cu-Nb indicate that, in the micron to sub-micron range, the strengths of these materials increase with microstructural refinement according to the Hall-Petch model. However, as the layer thickness is reduced to the nm-scale, the number of dislocations in a pile-up approaches unity and the pile-up based Hall-Petch model ceases to apply. In the few to a few tens of nanometers range, the increase in yield strength of nanolaminates with decreasing layer thickness is interpreted in terms of the confined layer slip of single dislocations. As layer thickness is decreased to a couple nanometers, strength reaches a peak with weak or no dependence on layer thickness. We show that the peak strength is determined by the stress needed to transmit single dislocations across the interface. Atomistic modeling is used to estimate the single dislocation interface crossing stress for coherent (Cu-Ni), incoherent (Cu-Nb) and nanoscale twinned (austenitic stainless steel 330) interfaces, and compared with experimental data. This work is supported by the U. S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  18. Variational contrast enhancement guided by global and local contrast measurements for single-image defogging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Li; Bi, Du-Yan; He, Lin-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The visibility of images captured in foggy conditions is impaired severely by a decrease in the contrasts of objects and veiling with a characteristic gray hue, which may limit the performance of visual applications out of doors. Contrast enhancement together with color restoration is a challenging mission for conventional fog-removal methods, as the degrading effect of fog is largely dependent on scene depth information. Nowadays, people change their minds by establishing a variational framework for contrast enhancement based on a physically based analytical model, unexpectedly resulting in color distortion, dark-patch distortion, or fuzzy features of local regions. Unlike previous work, our method treats an atmospheric veil as a scattering disturbance and formulates a foggy image as an energy functional minimization to estimate direct attenuation, originating from the work of image denoising. In addition to a global contrast measurement based on a total variation norm, an additional local measurement is designed in that optimal problem for the purpose of digging out more local details as well as suppressing dark-patch distortion. Moreover, we estimate the airlight precisely by maximization with a geometric constraint and a natural image prior in order to protect the faithfulness of the scene color. With the estimated direct attenuation and airlight, the fog-free image can be restored. Finally, our method is tested on several benchmark and realistic images evaluated by two assessment approaches. The experimental results imply that our proposed method works well compared with the state-of-the-art defogging methods.

  19. Raman scattering enhanced by plasmonic clusters and its application to single-molecule imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuike, Tomokazu; Nobusada, Katsuyuki

    2015-12-31

    The optical response of the linear Au{sub 8} cluster is investigated by the linear response theory based on the density functional theory. It is revealed that the observed many peaks in the visible region originate from the interaction of the ideal plasmonic excitation along the molecular axis with the background d-electron excitations, i.e., the Landau damping. In spite of the existence of the damping, the Raman scattering is shown to be enhanced remarkably by the incident light resonant to the visible excitations. The novel imaging experiment with the atomic resolution is proposed by utilizing a plasmonic cluster as the probing tip.

  20. Direct Quantification of DNA Base Composition by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Morla-Folch, Judit; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon A; Guerrini, Luca

    2016-08-01

    Design of ultrasensitive DNA sensors based on the unique physical properties of plasmonic nanostructures has become one of the most exciting areas in nanomedicine. However, despite the vast number of proposed applications, the determination of the base composition in nucleic acids, a fundamental parameter in genomic analyses and taxonomic classification, is still restricted to time-consuming and poorly sensitive conventional methods. Herein, we demonstrate the possibility of determining the base composition in single- and double-stranded DNA by using a simple, low-cost, high-throughput, and label-free surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) method in combination with cationic nanoparticles. PMID:27441814

  1. Phototransistor based on single In2Se3 nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qin-Liang; Liu, Chang-Hai; Nie, Yu-Ting; Chen, Wen-Hua; Gao, Xu; Sun, Xu-Hui; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2014-11-01

    Micrometer-sized single-crystalline In2Se3 nanosheets are synthesized by epitaxial growth from In2Se3 nanowires. The In2Se3 nanosheets possess anisotropic structural configuration with intralayer covalent bonding and interlayer van der Waals bonding. Phototransistors based on the In2Se3 nanosheets are realized, and the devices show high photoresponsivity and high photo On/Off ratio up to two orders. The photo-gating effect can be modulated by the gate bias, indicating potential utility of the In2Se3 nanosheets in a variety of optoelectronic applications.Micrometer-sized single-crystalline In2Se3 nanosheets are synthesized by epitaxial growth from In2Se3 nanowires. The In2Se3 nanosheets possess anisotropic structural configuration with intralayer covalent bonding and interlayer van der Waals bonding. Phototransistors based on the In2Se3 nanosheets are realized, and the devices show high photoresponsivity and high photo On/Off ratio up to two orders. The photo-gating effect can be modulated by the gate bias, indicating potential utility of the In2Se3 nanosheets in a variety of optoelectronic applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images of typical In2Se3 nanosheets, TEM-EDX spectrum of single In2Se3 nanosheets, STEM image and elemental mapping of an In2Se3 nanosheet, Scherrer sizes of In2Se3 nanosheets derived from the XRD pattern, statistics of In2Se3 nanosheet thickness, and photoresponse of an In2Se3 nanosheet phototransistor. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04404e

  2. Collision-Based Computing Using Single-Electron Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Shunsuke; Oya, Takahide

    2012-06-01

    A single-electron (SE) device based on “collision-based computing (CBC)” is proposed for information processing. CBC is an analog computing in which input signals behave like billiard balls, and the goals of moving balls are regarded as output positions. The proposed SE device consists of arrayed SE oscillators with coupling capacitor between each pair. An SE oscillator is a threshold decision device which can be used as a reaction-diffusion (RD) model, a kind of the analog computation model. The RD model can express the various behaviors of an excited wave, e.g., “moving at a constant velocity” and “disappearing due to collision”. These behaviors are also important for CBC. We designed basic SE-CBC circuits and a full adder as an application, and evaluated their operation by Monte-Carlo computer simulation. The results indicate that this circuit is useful for configuring various types of logical circuits.

  3. Single-molecular diodes based on opioid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, M R S; Corrêa, S M; Gester, R M; Del Nero, J; Neto, A M J C

    2015-12-01

    We propose an efficient single-molecule rectifier based on a derivative of opioid. Electron transport properties are investigated within the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism combined with density functional theory. The analysis of the current-voltage characteristics indicates obvious diode-like behavior. While heroin presents rectification coefficient R>1, indicating preferential electronic current from electron-donating to electron-withdrawing, 3 and 6-acetylmorphine and morphine exhibit contrary behavior, R<1. Our calculations indicate that the simple inclusion of acetyl groups modulate a range of devices, which varies from simple rectifying to resonant-tunneling diodes. In particular, the rectification rations for heroin diodes show microampere electron current with a maximum of rectification (R=9.1) at very low bias voltage of ∼0.6 V and (R=14.3)∼1.8 V with resistance varying between 0.4 and 1.5 M Ω. Once most of the current single-molecule diodes usually rectifies in nanoampere, are not stable over 1.0 V and present electrical resistance around 10 M. Molecular devices based on opioid derivatives are promising in molecular electronics. PMID:26613894

  4. Single-channel stereoscopic ophthalmology microscope based on TRD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radfar, Edalat; Park, Jihoon; Lee, Sangyeob; Ha, Myungjin; Yu, Sungkon; Jang, Seulki; Jung, Byungjo

    2016-03-01

    A stereoscopic imaging modality was developed for the application of ophthalmology surgical microscopes. A previous study has already introduced a single-channel stereoscopic video imaging modality based on a transparent rotating deflector (SSVIM-TRD), in which two different view angles, image disparity, are generated by imaging through a transparent rotating deflector (TRD) mounted on a stepping motor and is placed in a lens system. In this case, the image disparity is a function of the refractive index and the rotation angle of TRD. Real-time single-channel stereoscopic ophthalmology microscope (SSOM) based on the TRD is improved by real-time controlling and programming, imaging speed, and illumination method. Image quality assessments were performed to investigate images quality and stability during the TRD operation. Results presented little significant difference in image quality in terms of stability of structural similarity (SSIM). A subjective analysis was performed with 15 blinded observers to evaluate the depth perception improvement and presented significant improvement in the depth perception capability. Along with all evaluation results, preliminary results of rabbit eye imaging presented that the SSOM could be utilized as an ophthalmic operating microscopes to overcome some of the limitations of conventional ones.

  5. Performance enhancement of a silicon MEMS piezoresistive single axis accelerometer with electroplated gold on a proof mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, A. Ravi; Lahiri, S. K.; Das, S.

    2009-02-01

    Performance enhancement of a silicon MEMS piezoresistive single axis accelerometer with electroplated gold on a proof mass is presented in this paper. The fabricated accelerometer device consists of a heavy proof mass supported by four thin flexures. Boron-diffused piezoresistors located near the fixed ends of the flexures are used for sensing the developed stress and hence acceleration. Performance enhancement is achieved by electroplating a gold mass of 20 µm thickness on top of the proof mass. A commercially available sulfite-based solution TSG-250™ was used for the electroplating process. Aluminum metal lines were used to form a Wheatstone bridge for signal pick-up. To avoid galvanic corrosion between two dissimilar metals having contact in an electrolyte, a shadow mask technique was used to selectively deposit a Cr/Au seed layer on an insulator atop the proof mass for subsequent electrodeposition. Bulk micromachining was performed using a 5% dual-doped TMAH solution. Fabricated devices with different electroplated gold areas were tested up to ±13 g acceleration. For electroplated gold dimensions of 2500 µm × 2500 µm × 20 µm on a proof mass, sensitivity along the Z-axis is increased by 21.8% as compared to the structure without gold. Off-axis sensitivities along the X- and Y-axes are reduced by 7.6% and 6.9%, respectively.

  6. Performance Enhancement Using Selective Reinforcement for Metallic Single- and Multi-Pin Loaded Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.; Seshadri, Banavara R.

    2005-01-01

    An analysis based investigation of aluminum with metal matrix composite selectively reinforced single- and multi-hole specimens was performed and their results compared with results from geometrically comparable non-reinforced specimens. All reinforced specimens exhibited a significant increase in performance. Performance increase of up to 170 percent was achieved. Specimen failure modes were consistent with results from reinforced polymeric matrix composite specimens. Localized reinforcement application (circular) proved as effective as a broader area (strip) reinforcement. Also, selective reinforcement is an excellent method of increasing the performance of multi-hole specimens.

  7. Temperature and Enhanced Adduct Mobility on the Growth of MMTWNMP Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Raghavan, C. M.; Saravanan, L.; Jayavel, R.; Baskar, K.

    2011-07-01

    A novel organometallic nonlinear optical crystal material; diaquatetrakis (thiocyanato) manganese (II) mercury (II)-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, MnHg(SCN)4(H2O)2.2(C3H6CONCH3), (abbreviated as MMTWNMP) of very good transparency was grown by low temperature solution growth method. The improvement on the quality of the single crystal was analyzed and explained based on the temperature effect and the mobility of adduct N-Methyl Pyrrolidone molecules. A mechanism for the basic mass transport is proposed and reasoned.

  8. Enhancing ionic conductivity of bulk single-crystal yttria-stabilized zirconia by tailoring dopant distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.; Prinz, F. B.; Cai, W.

    2011-02-11

    We present an ab initio–based kinetic Monte Carlo model for ionic conductivity in single-crystal yttria-stabilized zirconia. Ionic interactions are taken into account by combining density functional theory calculations and the cluster expansion method and are found to be essential in reproducing the effective activation energy observed in experiments. The model predicts that the effective energy barrier can be reduced by 0.15–0.25 eV by arranging the dopant ions into a superlattice.

  9. Correlation dynamics and enhanced signals for the identification of serial biomolecules and DNA bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Towfiq; Haraldsen, Jason T.; Rehr, John J.; Di Ventra, Massimiliano; Schuller, Ivan; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2014-03-01

    Nanopore-based sequencing has demonstrated a significant potential for the development of fast, accurate, and cost-efficient fingerprinting techniques for next generation molecular detection and sequencing. We propose a specific multilayered graphene-based nanopore device architecture for the recognition of single biomolecules. Molecular detection and analysis can be accomplished through the detection of transverse currents as the molecule or DNA base translocates through the nanopore. To increase the overall signal-to-noise ratio and the accuracy, we implement a new ‘multi-point cross-correlation’ technique for identification of DNA bases or other molecules on the single molecular level. We demonstrate that the cross-correlations between each nanopore will greatly enhance the transverse current signal for each molecule. We implement first-principles transport calculations for DNA bases surveyed across a multilayered graphene nanopore system to illustrate the advantages of the proposed geometry. A time-series analysis of the cross-correlation functions illustrates the potential of this method for enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio. This work constitutes a significant step forward in facilitating fingerprinting of single biomolecules using solid state technology.

  10. Multiplex CRISPR/Cas9-based genome engineering from a single lentiviral vector.

    PubMed

    Kabadi, Ami M; Ousterout, David G; Hilton, Isaac B; Gersbach, Charles A

    2014-10-29

    Engineered DNA-binding proteins that manipulate the human genome and transcriptome have enabled rapid advances in biomedical research. In particular, the RNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9 system has recently been engineered to create site-specific double-strand breaks for genome editing or to direct targeted transcriptional regulation. A unique capability of the CRISPR/Cas9 system is multiplex genome engineering by delivering a single Cas9 enzyme and two or more single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) targeted to distinct genomic sites. This approach can be used to simultaneously create multiple DNA breaks or to target multiple transcriptional activators to a single promoter for synergistic enhancement of gene induction. To address the need for uniform and sustained delivery of multiplex CRISPR/Cas9-based genome engineering tools, we developed a single lentiviral system to express a Cas9 variant, a reporter gene and up to four sgRNAs from independent RNA polymerase III promoters that are incorporated into the vector by a convenient Golden Gate cloning method. Each sgRNA is efficiently expressed and can mediate multiplex gene editing and sustained transcriptional activation in immortalized and primary human cells. This delivery system will be significant to enabling the potential of CRISPR/Cas9-based multiplex genome engineering in diverse cell types. PMID:25122746